to increase my confidence on the second test. T F 15. After taking a test, I always feel I have done better To score questionnaire: Total the number of points. 12 or more points indicate a tendency to have testTest Anxiety Questionnaire Think you might have test anxiety? Take this test anxiety questionnaire
Westfall, Peter H.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in cancer patients seen at the Norwegian Radium Hospital, using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the EORTC QLQ-C33 and an ad hoc designed questionnaire. In addition, information about the patients' malignant disease and treatment was obtained. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among 716
N. Aass; S. D. Fosså; A. A. Dahl; T. J. Aloe
Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
BACKGROUND: Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy). The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe) depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not
Berend Terluin; Evelien PM Brouwers; Harm WJ van Marwijk; Peter FM Verhaak; Henriėtte E van der Horst
Background Hospitalization and surgery are critical negative life events that lead to the experience of considerable anxiety in patients. Patients may perceive the day of surgery as the biggest and the most threatening day in their lives. There is paucity of information on predictors of anxiety in the current study area. The main objective of this study is to assess predictors of preoperative anxiety among patients scheduled for surgery in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative data collection technique in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital from February 13 to April 13, 2012 on 239 patients scheduled for surgery. The data were collected by five trained diploma nurses using structured interviewer administered questionnaires that were prepared based on state trait anxiety inventory measurement scale. The quantitative data were entered into SPSS for windows version 16. 0 and descriptive, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 239 patients were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 93.0%. Their mean age was 42.7?±?1.8 years (range 16 to 85 years). Nearly over half 53.6% were females, while 48.1% illiterate, 72.4% Oromo and 56.5% were Muslim followers. Significant preoperative anxiety was seen in 70.3% patients. The most common factors that lead to anxiety were fear of death 38.1% and fear of unknown origin 24.3% and the most common strategy mentioned by patient in reducing anxiety were talking to other patient 79.8% and religious belief. Conclusions In the present study, two third 70.3% of preoperative patients had anxiety. Factors which were positively correlated with anxiety were trait anxiety, single and divorced, time of operation and income. Factors which were shown to reduce anxiety were preoperative anxiety related information provision and afternoon operation. Health professionals working in the hospital should provide anxiety related information for patients. PMID:25189274
Background Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. Objective This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. Methods To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named "Fear and Hypervigilance" (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and "Avoidance", (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, "Cardiac with panic" patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). Conclusions These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings. PMID:24145391
Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araśjo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.
Objectives The UK's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme uses the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001, J. Gen. Intern. Med., 16, 606) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7; Spitzer et al., 2006, Arch. Intern. Med., 166, 1092) to assess patients' symptoms of depression and anxiety respectively. Data are typically collected via telephone or face-to-face; however, no study has statistically investigated whether the questionnaires' items operate equivalently across these modes of data collection. This study aimed to address this omission. Methods & Results Questionnaire data from patients registered with an IAPT service in London (N = 23,672) were examined. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that unidimensional factor structures adequately matched observed face-to-face and telephone data for the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Invariance analyses revealed that while the PHQ-9 had equivalent factor loadings and latent means across data collection methods, the GAD-7 had equivalent factor loadings but unequal latent means. In support of the scales' convergent validity, positive associations between scores on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 emerged. Conclusions With the exception of the GAD-7's latent means, the questionnaires' factor loadings and latent means were equivalent. This suggests that clinicians may meaningfully compare PHQ-9 data collected face-to-face and by telephone; however, such comparisons with the GAD-7 should be done with caution. Practitioner points The PHQ-9 and GAD-7's factor loadings were equivalent across data collection methods. Only the PHQ-9's latent means were equivalent across data collection methods. Clinicians may be confident collecting PHQ-9 data by telephone and face-to-face and, then, comparing such data. Caution is recommended when determining clinical effectiveness using telephone and face-to-face GAD-7 data. More psychometric research is warranted. PMID:24117915
Ryan, Travis A; Bailey, Alastair; Fearon, Pasco; King, John
Measures of test emotions other than test anxiety are lacking. In a series of six studies, we developed a multi-scale questionnaire assessing test-related joy, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, and hopelessness (Test Emotions Questionnaire, TEQ). Consisting of subscales measuring affective, cognitive, physiological, and motivational emotion components, the scales can be used to identify both trait and state test emotions,
Reinhard Pekrun; Thomas Goetz; Raymond P. Perry; Klaudia Kramer; Michaela Hochstadt; Stefan Molfenter
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used in several languages to assess anxiety and depression in general hospital patients with good results. METHODS: The HADS was administered to 521 participants (275 controls and 246 inpatients and outpatients of the Internal Medicine and Surgical Departments in 'Attikon' General Hospital in Athens). The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and
Ioannis Michopoulos; Athanasios Douzenis; Christina Kalkavoura; Christos Christodoulou; Panayiota Michalopoulou; Georgia Kalemi; Katerina Fineti; Paulos Patapis; Konstantinos Protopapas; Lefteris Lykouras
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression in this population. The HADS was sent to 205 patients with PD, together with three quality-of-life (QoL) instruments, i.e. the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39), the EQ-5D, and a visual analogue scale (VAS). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores were also compared with Hoehn-Yahr (H&Y) scores. Eighty-six percent of the patients returned the questionnaires. The quality of the data was good. Cronbach alpha for the HADS was 0.88. Test-retest reliability over 2 weeks was 0.84 for the sum score of the HADS (intraclass correlation coefficient) and ranged from 0.42-0.76 for individual items (weighted kappa). Factor analysis revealed two factors, accounting for 51.9% of the variance. One factor represented anxiety, the other depression. Correlations with PDQ-39, EQ-5D, VAS, and H&Y were 0.72, -0.59, -0.59, and 0.32, respectively (p values < 0.001). Depression scores accounted for 52% of the variance in QoL, whereas disease severity explained 24%. Using the cut-off values proposed by the developers indicated that possible and probable anxiety were present in 29.4% and 19.8% of the patients, respectively. Percentages for possible and probable depression were 21.5 and 16.9. The psychometric performance of the HADS in patients with PD is satisfactory. In addition, almost 50% of the patients displayed symptoms of anxiety, whereas nearly 40% showed signs of depression. PMID:12469006
Marinus, Johan; Leentjens, Albert F G; Visser, Martine; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van Hilten, Jacobus J
Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cut-off points are suitable to rule out or to rule in (which) anxiety disorders? Methods We analyzed 5 primary care datasets with standardized psychiatric diagnoses and 4DSQ scores. Unidimensionality was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We examined mean scores and anxiety score distributions per disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points. Results Total n was 969. CFA supported unidimensionality. The anxiety scale performed slightly better in detecting patients with panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and specific phobia. ROC-analysis suggested that ?4 was the optimal cut-off point to rule out and ?10 the cut-off point to rule in anxiety disorders. Conclusions The 4DSQ anxiety scale measures a common trait of pathological anxiety that is characteristic of anxiety disorders, in particular panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD and PTSD. The anxiety score detects the latter anxiety disorders to a slightly greater extent than GAD and specific phobia, without being able to distinguish between the different anxiety disorder types. The cut-off points ?4 and ?10 can be used to separate distressed patients in three groups with a relatively low, moderate and high probability of having one or more anxiety disorders. PMID:24761829
Objective The tripartite model categorizes symptoms of depression and anxiety into three groups: 1) non-specific general distress that is shared between depression and anxiety, 2) depression-specific symptoms that include low positive affect and loss of interest, and 3) anxiety-specific symptoms that include somatic arousal. The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure these three factors of depression and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the MASQ (K-MASQ) in adolescents. Methods Community-dwelling adolescents (n=933) were randomly assigned to two groups. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted in each group to identify the factor structure of the K-MASQ. The reliability and validity of the K-MASQ were also evaluated. Results Our results support the three-factor structure of the K-MASQ in adolescents. However, we found that the specific items of each factor differed from those of the original MASQ. That is, the depression-specific factor was only related to low positive affect and not loss of interest, and the anxiety-specific factor included more items related to general somatic symptoms of anxiety. The reliability and validity of the K-MASQ were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion The K-MASQ supports the tripartite model of depression and anxiety and has satisfactory reliability and validity among Korean adolescents. The K-MASQ can be used to distinguish unique symptoms of depression and anxiety in Korean adolescents.
Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…
Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae
Background Electronic applications are increasingly being used in hospitals for numerous purposes. Objective Our aim was to assess differences in the characteristics of patients who choose paper versus electronic questionnaires and to evaluate the data quality of both approaches. Methods Between October 2012 and June 2013, 136 patients participated in a study on diagnosis-induced stress and anxiety. Patients were asked to fill out questionnaires at six different moments during the diagnostic phase. They were given the opportunity to fill out the questionnaires on paper or electronically (a combination of tablet and Web-based questionnaires). Demographic characteristics and completeness of returned data were compared between groups. Results Nearly two-thirds of patients (88/136, 64.7%) chose to fill out the questionnaires on paper, and just over a third (48/136, 35.3%) preferred the electronic option. Patients choosing electronic questionnaires were significantly younger (mean 47.3 years vs mean 53.5 in the paper group, P=.01) and higher educated (P=.004). There was significantly more missing information (ie, at least one question not answered) in the paper group during the diagnostic day compared to the electronic group (using a tablet) (28/88 vs 1/48, P<.001). However, in the week after the diagnostic day, missing information was significantly higher in the electronic group (Web-based questionnaires) compared to the paper group (41/48 vs 38/88, P<.001). Conclusions Younger patients and patients with a higher level of education have a preference towards filling out questionnaires electronically. In the hospital, a tablet is an excellent medium for patients to fill out questionnaires with very little missing information. However, for filling out questionnaires at home, paper questionnaires resulted in a better response than Web-based questionnaires. PMID:25364951
Wessels, Hester; van Diest, Paul J; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Haaring, Cees; van der Pol, Carmen C; Witkamp, Arjen J; van den Bosch, Maurice A; Verkooijen, Helena M
The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous studies have established the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV revealing excellent diagnostic specificity and sensitivity as well as good test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity (Newman et al., 2002). Recent analyses with other measures of anxiety symptoms have revealed differences across racial or national groups. Given that the GAD-Q-IV was tested primarily on Caucasian (78%) participants, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV across four racial groups: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian. A student sample of 585 undergraduate psychology students completed the GAD-Q-IV as well as other measures of anxiety symptoms. A clinical replication sample was obtained from 188 clinical participants who completed the GAD-Q-IV as part of a larger psychotherapy study. Results indicated excellent and very similar factor structures in the student sample, and similar psychometric properties across both samples across the racial groups. Implications for the use of the GAD-Q-IV across racial groups are discussed. PMID:20830629
Robinson, Christina M.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Norton, Peter J.
This study examined the anxiety responses of 5- to 11-year-old children (N = 52) during and after hospitalization. Change in anxiety over time was examined as was the relationship between children's anxiety and age, gender, length of hospitalization, previous admission, and parental anxiety.^ Data were collected from the children and their parents at admission, discharge, and 7 to 14 days
Mary E Tiedeman
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the outsourcing situation in Taiwanese hospitals and compares the differences in hospital ownership and in accreditation levels. METHODS: This research combined two kinds of methods: a questionnaire survey and the in-depth interview to two CEOs of the sample hospitals. One hospital is not-for-profit, while the other is a public hospital and
Chih-Tung Hsiao; Jar-Yuan Pai; Hero Chiu
We conducted this study to determine anxiety disorder comorbidity and divalproex sodium use among 26 patients with psychotic disorders after their referral to a partial hospital. Each subject was diagnosed by structured interview, and 4 Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) items associated with agitation were assessed: anxiety, hostility, excitement, and tension. Subjects' medical records were then examined to determine discharge
Mark H. Townsend; Michael S. Wilson
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119?SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ?8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening), global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT). Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (P = 0.001). HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (P < 0.05). By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (P < 0.001), RSES (P < 0.001), and MHISS total score (P = 0.016), together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (P = 0.006), COPE-NIV SA (P = 0.003), COPE-NIV SS (P = 0.008), FACIT-F (P = 0.022), and MHISS mouth opening (P = 0.029), explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms. PMID:23984376
Del Rosso, Angela; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Baccini, Marco; Lupi, Ilaria; Matucci Cerinic, Marco; Maddali Bongi, Susanna
Background The impact of psychological factors is often taken into account in the evaluation of quality of life. However, the effect of optimism and trait anxiety remains controversial and they are rarely studied simultaneously. We aimed to study the effect of this factor on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients after a hospitalization in relation with their chronic disease. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the SATISQOL cohort, we conducted a multicentric study, including patients hospitalized for an intervention in connection with their chronic disease. Six months after hospitalization, patients completed a generic HRQOL questionnaire (SF-36), and the STAI and LOT-R questionnaires to evaluate optimism and trait anxiety. We studied the effect of each trait on HRQOL separately, and simultaneously, taking account of their interaction in 3 models, using an ANOVA. Results In this study, 1529 patients were included in three participating hospitals and there existed wide diversity in the chronic diseases in our population. The HRQOL score increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 15,8 and 44,5 when the level of anxiety decreased (p?0.0001) for the model 1, assessing the effect of anxiety on HRQOL and increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 3.1 and 12.7 with increasing level of optimism (0.0001) in the model 2 assessing the effect of optimism on HRQOL. In the model 3, assessing the effect of both anxiety and optimism on HRQOL, and their interaction, the HRQOL score for all dimensions of the SF36 increased when the level of anxiety decreased (p?0.0001). It increased with increasing level of optimism (p?0.006) in the model for all dimensions of SF36 except the Role Physical dimension. In this model, interaction between anxiety and optimism was significant for the Social Functioning dimension (p?=?0.0021). Conclusions Optimism and trait anxiety appeared to be significantly correlated with HRQOL. Furthermore, an interaction existed between the trait anxiety and optimism for some dimensions of SF36. Contrary to optimism, it seems essential to evaluate trait anxiety in future studies about HRQOL, since it could represent a confounding factor. PMID:23914779
Rationale: Depression and anxiety are significant comorbid and potentially modifiable conditions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their effects on exacerbations are not clear. Objectives: To investigate the independent effect of depression and anxiety on the risk of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations. Methods:Amulticenterprospectivecohortstudyin491patientswith stable COPD in China. Multivariate Poisson and linear regression analyseswereused,respectively,toestimateadjustedincidencerate ratios (IRRs) and adjusted effects on
Wanning Xu; Jean-Paul Collet; Stanley Shapiro; Yingxiang Lin; Ting Yang; Robert W. Platt; Chen Wang; Jean Bourbeau
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), applied among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), using Rasch analysis. Methods: A cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted and the data of 102 people with SCI were analyzed. Rasch analyses were performed to assess dimensionality, overall and individual item fit,
Rachel Müller; Alarcos Cieza; Szilvia Geyh
The study aims to develop and assess metric proprieties of the Portuguese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A sequential sample includes 1322 participants diagnosed with cancer, stroke, epilepsy, coronary heart disease, diabetes, myotonic dystrophy, obstructive sleep apnoea, depression and a non-disease group, which completed the HADS. The first step includes translation, retroversion, inspection for lexical equivalence and
J. Pais-Ribeiro; I. Silva; T. Ferreira; A. Martins; R. Meneses; M. Baltar
Background: There is an increasing trend in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Iran. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of anxiety, depression, diabetes and coronary artery disease among patients undergoing angiography in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted between September 2011 and August 2012 among 200 patients undergoing coronary angiography for symptoms of coronary disease at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The control group consisted of 697 healthy adults recruited from the individuals who attended the clinic for routine medical checkups or pre-employment examinations. The Beck anxiety and depression inventory scores and fasting blood glucose results were assessed in all the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of patients was 57.52 ± 9.33 years old and for the control group it was 55.35 ± 8.45 years; there was no significant difference between the subjects (P = 0.647) regarding age. There was also no significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and control groups (P = 0.205). There was however a significant difference in anxiety and depression scores between the patients and healthy controls (P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety score and depression score in both groups when data were analyzed by Pearson test. (P < 0.001, r = 0.604 and r = 0.521). Moreover, there was a significant positive linear correlation between the depression/anxiety scores and fasting blood glucose concentrations in the patients group (r = 0.3, P < 0.001) and a weak negative correlation in the healthy controls (r = -0.096, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Depression and anxiety are potentially important factors among patients with angiographically-defined CAD. There appear to be significant associations between glucose tolerance and anxiety and depression in these patients. PMID:25593715
Tajfard, Mohammad; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Mouhebati, Mohsen; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Ferns, Gordon A; Latiff, Latiffah A; Taghipour, Ali; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Abdul-Aziz, Ahmad Fazli
Background The aim of this study was to assess the outsourcing situation in Taiwanese hospitals and compares the differences in hospital ownership and in accreditation levels. Methods This research combined two kinds of methods: a questionnaire survey and the in-depth interview to two CEOs of the sample hospitals. One hospital is not-for-profit, while the other is a public hospital and the research samples are from the hospital data from Taiwan's 2005 to 2007 Department of Health qualifying lists of hospital accreditation. The returned questionnaires were analyzed with STATISTICA® 7.1 version software. Results The results for non-medical items showed medical waste and common trash both have the highest rate (94.6 percent) of being outsourced. The gift store (75 percent) and linen (73 percent) follow close behind, while the lowest rate of outsourcing is in utility maintenance (13.5 percent). For medical items, the highest rate of outsourcing is in the ambulance units (51.4 percent), while the hemodialysis center follows close behind with a rate of 50 percent. For departments of nutrition, pharmacy, and nursing however, the outsourcing rate is lower than 3 percent. This shows that Taiwan's hospitals are still conservative in their willingness to outsource for medical items. The results of the satisfaction paired t-test show that the non-medical items have a higher score than the medical items. The factor analysis showed the three significant factors in of non medical items' outsourcing are "performance", "finance", and "human resource". For medical items, the two factors are "operation" and satisfaction". To further exam the factor validity and reliability of the satisfaction model, a confirmative factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using structure equation modeling (SEM) method and found the model fitting well. Conclusion Hospitals, especially for public hospitals, can get benefits from outsourcing to revive the full-time-equivalent and human resource limitation. PMID:19435526
Hsiao, Chih-Tung; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chiu, Hero
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different Oral Mucosal diseases in Anxiety and Depression patients. Material and Methods: A hospital based observational Study was conducted in the department of Psychiatry and department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patients who were diagnosed with Anxiety or Depression by the psychiatrists using Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scale were subjected to complete oral examination to check for oral diseases like Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS), and Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Equal number of control group subjects were also included. Results: In this study statistically significant increase in the oral diseases in patients with anxiety and depression than the control group was recorded. Oral diseases were significantly higher in anxiety patients (20.86%) than in depression (9.04%) and control group patients (5.17%). In anxiety patients, the prevalence of RAS was 12%, OLP was 5.7%, and BMS was 2.87%. In depression patients, the prevalence of RAS was 4.02%, OLP was 2.01% and BMS was 3.01%. In control group the prevalence was 2.2%, 1.33% and 1.62% in RAS, OLP and BMS respectively. RAS and OLP were significantly higher in the younger age group (18-49) and BMS was seen between the age group of 50-77 years in both study and control groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed a positive association between psychological alterations and changes in the oral mucosa, particularly conditions like OLP, RAS and BMS. Thus psychogenic factors like anxiety and depression may act as a risk factor that could influence the initiation and development of oral mucosal diseases. Hence psychological management should be taken into consideration when treating patients with these oral diseases. Key words:Lichen planus, anxiety, depression, burning mouth syndrome, recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Shenai, Prashanth; Chatra, Laxmikanth; Ronad, Yusuf-Ahammed A.; Bilahari, Naduvakattu; Pramod, Redder C.; Kumar, Sreeja P.
Recognition of depression and anxiety and their association with quality of life, hospitalization and mortality in primary care patients with heart failure – study protocol of a longitudinal observation study
Background International disease management guidelines recommend the regular assessment of depression and anxiety in heart failure patients. Currently there is little data on the effect of screening for depression and anxiety on the quality of life and the prognosis of heart failure (HF). We will investigate the association between the recognition of current depression/anxiety by the general practitioner (GP) and the quality of life and the patients’ prognosis. Methods/Design In this multicenter, prospective, observational study 3,950 patients with HF are recruited by general practices in Germany. The patients fill out questionnaires at baseline and 12-month follow-up. At baseline the GPs are interviewed regarding the somatic and psychological comorbidities of their patients. During the follow-up assessment, data on hospitalization and mortality are provided by the general practice. Based on baseline data, the patients are allocated into three observation groups: HF patients with depression and/or anxiety recognized by their GP (P+/+), those with depression and/or anxiety not recognized (P+/?) and patients without depression and/or anxiety (P?/?). We will perform multivariate regression models to investigate the influence of the recognition of depression and/or anxiety on quality of life at 12 month follow-up, as well as its influences on the prognosis (hospital admission, mortality). Discussion We will display the frequency of GP-acknowledged depression and anxiety and the frequency of installed therapeutic strategies. We will also describe the frequency of depression and anxiety missed by the GP and the resulting treatment gap. Effects of correctly acknowledged and missed depression/anxiety on outcome, also in comparison to the outcome of subjects without depression/anxiety will be addressed. In case results suggest a treatment gap of depression/anxiety in patients with HF, the results of this study will provide methodological advice for the efficient planning of further interventional research. PMID:24279590
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…
Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.
The recent emphasis on cognitive factors in the treatment of emotional problems has stimulated the development of cognitive assessment techniques. This paper presents the development and initial validation of an instrument to assess self-statements about social interactions. The 30-item questionnaire contains 15 positive (facilitative) and 15 negative (inhibitory) self-statements that were derived from subjects who listed thoughts while imagining difficult
Carol R. Glass; Thomas V. Merluzzi; Joan L. Biever; Kathryn H. Larsen
Floating describes the act of staff moving from one unit to another based on the needs of the patients in a hospital. Many staff who float to different units express negative feelings, including anxiety and lack in self-efficacy. However, floating is both an economical and efficient method to use staff across the hospital, especially with current…
Riley McKee, Megan
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…
Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah
This paper examines the clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the context of evaluating the Fibromyalgia Outpatient Education Program at Southlake Regional Health Centre (Newmarket, Canada). A pre-test/post-test design was implemented for data analysis. A total of 232 patients' data were obtained through retrospective patient chart review. Complete pre-post data were available for 70 patients and qualitative analysis was done for 12 patients. Main outcome measures included HADS and Arthritis Self-Efficacy (ASE) scores. At the end of the education program, subgroups of patients (high attendance, high exercise habit, low medication) experienced significant improvement on HADS-depression and ASE scores. Linear regression analysis found that HADS pre-program scores explain far more variance in HADS post-test scores than ASE pre-program scores explain in ASE post-program scores; more variance in ASE post-program scores was explained by other variables. In contrast to the quantitative analysis of the Anxiety subscale of HADS, patients in the focus group indicated that their anxiety level decreased through attending the education program. These findings suggest that HADS is an appropriate tool for evaluating fibromyalgia and related patient education programs. Moreover, patient education programs have positive effects on enhancing patients' psychological well-being and self-confidence in controlling fibromyalgia-related symptoms. PMID:23995734
Nam, Seungree; Tin, Diane; Bain, Lorna; Thorne, J Carter; Ginsburg, Liane
Background Many instruments exist to assess mental disorders and anxiety, such as the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Nothing has been evaluated on the HADS factor structure for use with orthopedic trauma patients. The aim of this study was to validate the underlying structure of the HADS. Specifically, we sought to understand which of the factor structures found in the literature is appropriate for the orthopedic trauma patient population. Methods This study included 348 patients with an average age of 49.8 years (SD: 18.4; range: 18 - 95). Confirmatory data analysis was performed to analyze the latent structure of the HADS. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare all the models, with the lowest AIC being the best fitting model. Results We found that both the anxiety and the depression factors were highly correlated (with Pearson correlations greater than 0.700). After removing one item from each subscale, we found that a two-factor model was the best fitting one (AIC: 8,298.901); all other models had an AIC over 10,000. Conclusion Our results support a satisfactory two-factor structure for the HADS in the orthopedic trauma patients. Further studies are needed to test for higher factor structures in larger samples and in a different population.
Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Tang, Philip; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Christine
Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is commonly used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in motor neurone disease (MND). The measure has never been specifically validated for use within this population, despite questions raised about the scale's validity. This study seeks to analyse the construct validity of the HADS in MND by fitting its data to the Rasch model. Methods The scale was administered to 298 patients with MND. Scale assessment included model fit, differential item functioning (DIF), unidimensionality, local dependency and category threshold analysis. Results Rasch analyses were carried out on the HADS total score as well as depression and anxiety subscales (HADS-T, D and A respectively). After removing one item from both of the seven item scales, it was possible to produce modified HADS-A and HADS-D scales which fit the Rasch model. An 11-item higher-order HADS-T total scale was found to fit the Rasch model following the removal of one further item. Conclusion Our results suggest that a modified HADS-A and HADS-D are unidimensional, free of DIF and have good fit to the Rasch model in this population. As such they are suitable for use in MND clinics or research. The use of the modified HADS-T as a higher-order measure of psychological distress was supported by our data. Revised cut-off points are given for the modified HADS-A and HADS-D subscales. PMID:21955749
The prevalence and correlates of the positive Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire among psychiatric outpatients: a cross-sectional survey of 176 men in a general hospital in Taiwan
Introduction The Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire is widely used to screen for late-onset hypogonadism. The positive response to the ADAM questionnaire (positive ADAM) has been associated with depression and poorer quality of life in a number of studies. It is unclear whether there is any value of the ADAM questionnaire in psychiatric populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the utility of the ADAM questionnaire in a convenient sample of male psychiatric outpatients. Methods One hundred and seventy-six men (mean age: 54.3 years; standard deviation: 10.7 years; range: 40–80 years) completed the ADAM questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale. Anxiety was defined as a HADS anxiety subscore ?8; depression as a HADS depression subscore ?8; and moderate/severe impairment of health-related quality of life (HQoL) as AMS ?37. ADAM, anxiety, and depression was used to model the moderate/severe impairment of HQoL. Results One hundred and sixty-four (93%) men had positive ADAM. Positive ADAM was associated with a lower body mass index (P<0.05) and moderate/severe impairment of HQoL (P<0.001), but was not associated with anxiety or depression (P>0.05). Positive ADAM was associated with five symptoms of the AMS scale: “decline of one’s feeling of general well-being”, “depressive mood”, and three sexual symptoms. In regression analysis, positive ADAM was associated with increased risk of moderate/severe impairment of HQoL (unadjusted odds ratio 20.1, 95% confidence interval 3.77–372, P<0.01), which remained significant with covariates of anxiety and depression (adjusted odds ratio 15.6, 95% confidence interval 2.52–309, P<0.05). Conclusion The ADAM questionnaire can be used to screen the sexual symptoms but not depression/anxiety in male psychiatric outpatients. Positive ADAM may indicate moderate/severe impairment of HQoL. PMID:25653527
Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chu, Chun-Lin; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen
Purpose Measuring and developing a safe culture in health care is a focus point in creating highly reliable organizations being successful in avoiding patient safety incidents where these could normally be expected. Questionnaires can be used to capture a snapshot of an employee’s perceptions of patient safety culture. A commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The purpose of this study was to adapt the SAQ for use in Danish hospitals, assess its construct validity and reliability, and present benchmark data. Materials and methods The SAQ was translated and adapted for the Danish setting (SAQ-DK). The SAQ-DK was distributed to 1,263 staff members from 31 in- and outpatient units (clinical areas) across five somatic and one psychiatric hospitals through meeting administration, hand delivery, and mailing. Construct validity and reliability were tested in a cross-sectional study. Goodness-of-fit indices from confirmatory factor analysis were reported along with inter-item correlations, Cronbach’s alpha (?), and item and subscale scores. Results Participation was 73.2% (N=925) of invited health care workers. Goodness-of-fit indices from the confirmatory factor analysis showed: c2=1496.76, P<0.001, CFI 0.901, RMSEA (90% CI) 0.053 (0.050–0056), Probability RMSEA (p close)=0.057. Inter-scale correlations between the factors showed moderate-to-high correlations. The scale stress recognition had significant negative correlations with each of the other scales. Questionnaire reliability was high, (?=0.89), and scale reliability ranged from ?=0.70 to ?=0.86 for the six scales. Proportions of participants with a positive attitude to each of the six SAQ scales did not differ between the somatic and psychiatric health care staff. Substantial variability at the unit level in all six scale mean scores was found within the somatic and the psychiatric samples. Conclusion SAQ-DK showed good construct validity and internal consistency reliability. SAQ-DK is potentially a useful tool for evaluating perceptions of patient safety culture in Danish hospitals. PMID:25674015
Kristensen, Solvejg; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan; Christensen, Karl Bang
Background: There is increasing recognition of depression in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). There is a need to develop well-standardised self-report measures for both clinical and research purposes. This paper presents some psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) adapted for use with people with ID.…
Dagnan, D.; Jahoda, A.; McDowell, K.; Masson, J.; Banks, P.; Hare, D.
More than 200 published studies from most medical settings worldwide have reported experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) which was specifically developed by Zigmond and Snaith for use with physically ill patients. Although introduced in 1983, there is still no comprehensive documentation of its psychometric properties. The present review summarizes available data on reliability and validity and
Background Parts of New Public Management-reforms of the public sector depend on introduction of market-like mechanisms to manage the sector, like free choice of hospital. However, patients may delegate the choice of hospital to agents like general practitioners (GPs). We have investigated which factors Danish GPs reported as decisive for their choice of hospital on behalf of patients, and their utilisation of formal and informal data sources when they chose a hospital on behalf of patients. Methods Retrospective questionnaire study of all of the 474 GPs practising in three counties which constituted a single uptake area. Patients were free to choose a hospital in another county in the country. The GPs were asked about responsibility for choice of the latest three patients referred by the GP to hospital; which of 16 factors influenced the choice of hospital; which of 15 sources of information about clinical quality at various hospitals/departments were considered relevant, and how often were six sources of information about waiting time utilised. Results Fifty-one percent (240 GPs) filled in and returned the questionnaire. One hundred and eighty-three GPs (76%) reported that they perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of the latest referred patient. Short distance to hospital was the most common reason for choice of hospital. The most frequently used source of information about quality at hospital departments was anecdotal reports from patients referred previously, and the most important source of information about waiting time was the hospitals’ letters of confirmation of referrals. Conclusions In an area with free choice of public hospital most GPs perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of patients. Short distance to hospital was the factor which most often decided the GPs’ choice of hospital on behalf of patients. GPs attached little weight to official information on quality and service (waiting time) at hospitals or departments, focusing instead on informal sources like feedback from patients and colleagues and their experience with cooperation with the department or hospital. PMID:22630354
Background The patient handover is important for the safe transition from the pre-hospital setting to secondary care. The loss of critical information about the pre-hospital phase may impact upon the clinical course of the patient. Methods University Hospital Emergency Care registrars answered a questionnaire about how they perceive clinical documentation from the ambulance services. We also reviewed patient records retrospectively, to investigate to what extent eight selected parameters were transferred correctly to hospital records by clinicians. Only parameters outside the normal range were selected. Results The registrars preferred a verbal handover with hand-written pre-hospital reports as the combined source of clinical information. Scanned report forms were infrequently used. Information from other doctors was perceived as more important than the information from ambulance crews. Less than half of the selected parameters in pre-hospital notes were transferred to hospital records, even for parameters regarded as important by the registrars. Abnormal vital signs were not transferred as often as mechanism of injury, medication administered and immobilisation of trauma patients. Conclusions Data on pre-hospital abnormal vital signs are frequently not transferred to the hospital admission notes. This information loss may lead to suboptimal care. PMID:23453123
This study investigated the association between anxiety experienced by the mother, a request for analgesia, and the level of pain at maternity hospital admission in early labour. Anxiety levels were measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and pain was assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale. Anxiety and Visual Analogue Scale scores were compared using a linear regression model and indicated a statistically significant association between the anxiety state and degree of pain (p < 0.016; Y = 0.895 x score + 32.656). There was no significant association between anxiety and a request for epidural analgesia. During labour, an evaluation of anxiety should be associated with an assessment of the perceived degree of pain. PMID:24155186
Floris, Lucia; Irion, Olivier
This study examined the extent to which sixth grade peer status could predict anxiety and/or depression in 5,242 women and 5,004 men who were born in 1953 and whose hospital records were followed up from 1973-2003. The data used was the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study. While no association could be established for men, results indicated that women…
Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva
Gray [In H. J. Eysenck, A model for personality (pp. 246–276). New York: Springer; 1981; The neuropsychology of anxiety: an enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1982] has described two motivational systems, the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioural Activation System (BAS), that control aversive and appetitive behaviour, respectively. Research on Gray's model
Rafael Torrubia; César Įvila; Javier Moltó; Xavier Caseras
An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation
Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167
Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule
This study examined the relationships among the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, dissociation with self-disclosure among 72 male military veterans with PTSD who were attending an eight-week group therapy treatment program. At intake to the program, participants were administered a baseline demographics questionnaire, the Clinicians Administered PTSD Scale, a dissociation measure, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
Alana Bowen; Mike Shelley; Edward Helmes; Martha Landman
This study examined the extent to which sixth grade peer status could predict anxiety and/or depression in 5,242 women and 5,004 men who were born in 1953 and whose hospital records were followed up from 1973-2003. The data used was the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study. While no association could be established for men, results indicated that women who held low peer status positions in childhood were at a considerably higher risk of anxiety and/or depression later in life compared to women in average status positions. Women who held popular positions during childhood did not differ significantly from their average counterparts. These findings persisted after adjusting for family- and child-related problem-load, perceived security at school, family constellation, socioeconomic status as well as the child's cognitive ability, ninth grade school marks and continuance to upper secondary school. PMID:20886279
Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva
Fluoxetine (20 mg) was compared to dothiepin (150 mg) in a multicentre, prospective, double blind, randomised clinical trial involving 125 patients with major depression treated for an initial phase of 6 weeks and then followed up for a further 6 months. There was no difference in the efficacy of the two drugs based on the results of established rating scales (MADRS, HAM-D, BPRS). The impact of both drugs on sleep measured using the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire showed no significant differences between treatments, however drowsiness and disturbed sleep were reported more frequently as side effects with dothiepin. Symptoms of anxiety responded equally well to both treatments. The short term and long term tolerability of dothiepin was inferior to that of fluoxetine. The place of dothiepin in treatment should be reassessed in the light of its anticholinergic adverse event profile, particularly in the elderly. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:12404623
Stephenson, D. A.; Harris, B.; Davies, R. H.; Mullin, J. M.; Richardson, E.; Boardman, H.; Meanley, D.; Banerjee, A.
Background The aim of our study was to identify patient- and care-related factors that are associated with patients’ satisfaction with psychiatric hospital care, using a specific, self-administered questionnaire based exclusively on the patient’s point of view: the Satisfaction with Psychiatry Care Questionnaire-22 (SATISPSY-22). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the psychiatric departments of two French public university teaching hospitals. The data collected included sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, care characteristics, and the SATISPSY-22. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine the variables potentially associated with satisfaction levels. Results Two hundred seventy patients were enrolled in our study. Only one moderate association was found between satisfaction and sociodemographic characteristics: the personal experience dimension with age (?=0.15). Clinical improvement was moderately associated with higher global satisfaction (?=?0.15), higher satisfaction with quality of care (?=?0.19), and higher satisfaction with food (?=?0.18). Stronger associations with satisfaction were found for care characteristics, particularly the therapeutic alliance with all of the satisfaction dimensions (?, 0.20–0.43) except food, and for seclusion with global satisfaction (?=?0.33) and personal experience (?=?0.32). Patients with previous hospitalization also had a higher level of satisfaction with quality of care compared with patients who were admitted for the first time (?=?0.15). Conclusion This study has identified a number of potential determinants of satisfaction. The therapeutic relationship and seclusion were the most important features associated with a patient’s satisfaction. These factors might be amenable through intervention, which, in turn, might be expected to improve satisfaction, patients’ management, and health outcomes in psychiatric hospitals. PMID:25368515
Zendjidjian, Xavier Y; Auquier, Pascal; Lanēon, Christophe; Loundou, Anderson; Parola, Nathalie; Faugčre, Melanie; Boyer, Laurent
Aims and objectives This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China. Background The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China. Methods Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05. Results Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses’ work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses. Conclusion Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China. Relevance to clinical practice The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China. PMID:22380003
Liu, Ke; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Li-Feng; Aiken, Linda H
A total of 379 Singapore Chinese patients with NPC were interviewed by use of a questionnaire covering the following items: occupation, level of education, language medium of education, personal and family history of nasal illnesses, types of medicines used, use of Chinese medicines for the nose and throat, use of soya sauce, Chinese tea, cooling drinks and alcohol, cigarette smoking (number and duration), cooking fuels and use of incense (frequency and duration) and of anti-mosquito coils. The same questionnaire was given to two groups of controls: 595 patients with diseases of the ear, nose and throat other than NPC and 1 044 patients with diseases other than cancer or otorhinolaryngeal disease. NPC patients differed significantly from both groups of controls in that they showed stronger associations with personal history of nasal illnesses, family history of nasal illnesses, use of Chinese medicines for the nose and throat and exposure to smoke from anti-mosquito coils. PMID:730190
Shanmugaratnam, K; Tye, C Y; Goh, E H; Chia, K B
IntroductionAnimal-assisted therapies involve interaction between patients and an animal with the aim of improving mental wellbeing and diminishing anxiety and agitation in patients. To date, few pilot studies focusing on animal-assisted therapeutic effects have met minimal standards of research design and have included standardized outcome variables or physiological measures, depicting the need for scientific research on animal-assisted therapy.
Andreas O. M. Hoffmann; Ah Hyung Lee; Florian Wertenauer; Roland Ricken; Joanna J. Jansen; Juergen Gallinat; Undine E. Lang
Under the assumption of affect defense (alexithymia), 20 anorexia nervosa patients being treated in the University Hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf were examined with respect to their affects of anxiety and aggressivity by employing speech samples (three times a week) – according to Gottschalk-Gleser – and questionnaires (ANIS) during hospitalization and compared to 10 control patients from somatic clinics (orthopedics, surgery, gynecology).
Klaus Engel; Iris Meier
Background ePrescribing systems have significant potential to improve the safety and efficiency of healthcare, but they need to be carefully selected and implemented to maximise benefits. Implementations in English hospitals are in the early stages and there is a lack of standards guiding the procurement, functional specifications, and expected benefits. We sought to provide an updated overview of the current picture in relation to implementation of ePrescribing systems, explore existing strategies, and identify early lessons learned. Methods A descriptive questionnaire-based study, which included closed and free text questions and involved both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data generated. Results We obtained responses from 85 of 108 NHS staff (78.7% response rate). At least 6% (n?=?10) of the 168 English NHS Trusts have already implemented ePrescribing systems, 2% (n?=?4) have no plans of implementing, and 34% (n?=?55) are planning to implement with intended rapid implementation timelines driven by high expectations surrounding improved safety and efficiency of care. The majority are unclear as to which system to choose, but integration with existing systems and sophisticated decision support functionality are important decisive factors. Participants highlighted the need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as the need for top-level management support to adequately resource the project. Although some early benefits were reported by hospitals that had already implemented, the hoped for benefits relating to improved efficiency and cost-savings remain elusive due to a lack of system maturity. Conclusions Whilst few have begun implementation, there is considerable interest in ePrescribing systems with ambitious timelines amongst those hospitals that are planning implementations. In order to ensure maximum chances of realising benefits, there is a need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as increased financial resources to fund local activities. PMID:23335961
Cresswell, Kathrin; Coleman, Jamie; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz
We report our experience with the use of monthly physician questionnaires, in conjunction with traditional in-house monitoring, for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) in inpatients after hospital discharge and in ambulatory surgical patients (i.e., those not requiring perioperative hospitalization) over a 7-year period (July 1988 to June 1995) involving 156,977 surgical procedures. The mean annual response rate was 73%
Farrin A. Manian; Lynn Meyer
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of depression and anxiety on mortality and quality-of-life in patients hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: Questionnaire measures of depression and anxiety were completed during hospitalization by 288 MI patients. The main outcomes were mortality and quality-of-life, assessed by the Dartmouth COOP charts, at 4 months. Results:
Douglas Carroll; Christopher Ring; D. Gareth Beevers; Gregory Y. H Lip
The association between tobacco dependence and various forms of anxiety and depressive disorders is well established. The presence of these disorders constitutes a key cause of failure in subjects seeking to stop smoking. In addition to the clinically manifest forms of such anomalies, systematic screening for minor forms of these disorders was performed at the Centre for Tobacco Studies of Créteil, France; as well as the standard questionnaire concerning personal and familial history and current psychological well-being, subjects were asked to complete two self-questionnaires, the HAD (Hospital Anxiety Depression score) and the BDI (Beck Depression Inventory, abridged version) together with the MINI (structured mini-interview). In a series of 400 heavy smokers, sub-syndromes of such anxiety and depressive disorders were noted in 34% of subjects, and a combination of anxiety and depressive disorders was seen in 2/3 of these subjects, mainly general anxiety and social phobia, which were frequently preceded by depressive episodes. In these forms of tobacco dependence with anxiety and depressive disorder, relapse was very common in spite of nicotine substitution therapy (NST), usually as a result of a depressive episode that tended to subside very rapidly on resumption of cigarette smoking. Psychotropic therapy involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) coupled with NST resulted in lasting success accompanied by an often unexpected and spectacular improvement in psychological status. These findings confirm the role of mood disorders in tobacco addiction in keeping with other types of addiction. PMID:12232547
Lagrue, G; Dupont, P; Fakhfakh, R
Factor analysis of a version of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) and the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) given to (n=173) introductory statistics students found 6 factors: general evaluation anxiety, everyday numerical anxiety, passive observation anxiety, performance anxiety, mathematics test anxiety, and problem-solving anxiety. (39…
Bessant, Kenneth C.
The objectives of this study were to describe anxiety and depression levels among acoustic neuroma patients; examine differences in anxiety and depression across the acoustic neuroma management options of microsurgery, radiation and observation; and to investigate management, medical and demographic factors that might predict anxiety and depression in this patient group. A cross-sectional questionnaire was completed by 205 adults diagnosed with, or treated for, a unilateral acoustic neuroma within five years of questionnaire distribution. Median age of participants was 57.0 years, and 120 (58.5%) were female. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Clinically significant anxiety was reported by 29.8% of participants and 10.2% were depressed. Mean anxiety and depression scores did not differ from general population norms. No significant differences in anxiety and depression were found across management options. Time since management, number of symptoms and comorbid medical conditions predicted anxiety, while depression was predicted by number of symptoms. This appears to be the first study among acoustic neuroma patients in which anxiety and depression were compared across management options. Treating physicians should be aware that as the number of acoustic neuroma symptoms increases, so may the likelihood of clinically significant anxiety and depression. PMID:22051029
Brooker, J E; Fletcher, J M; Dally, M J; Briggs, R J S; Cousins, V C; Malham, G M; Smee, R I; Kennedy, R J; Burney, S
BackgroundWe examined the performance the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and its short form (BDI-FS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression (HADS-D) and anxiety (HADS-A) subscales in detecting depression in a group of patients with hepatitis C.
Jeannette Golden; Ronįn M. Conroy; Anne Marie O'Dwyer
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the WHO (five) Well Being Index (WBI-5), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and physicians’ recognition of depressive disorders, and to recommend specific cut-off points for clinical decision making. Methods: A total of 501 outpatients completed each of the three depression screening
Bernd Löwe; Robert L. Spitzer; Kerstin Gräfe; Kurt Kroenke; Andrea Quenter; Stephan Zipfel; Christine Buchholz; Steffen Witte; Wolfgang Herzog
Anxiety disorders and physical comorbidity: increased prevalence but reduced relevance of specific risk factors for hospital-based mortality during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions.
Anxiety disorders (AD) are associated with an increase in physical comorbidities, but the effects of these diseases on hospital-based mortality are unclear. Consequently, we investigated whether the burden of physical comorbidity and its relevance on hospital-based mortality differed between individuals with and without AD during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions. During 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2012, 11,481 AD individuals were admitted to seven General Manchester Hospitals. All comorbidities with a prevalence ?1 % were compared with those of 114,810 randomly selected and group-matched hospital controls of the same age and gender, regardless of priority of diagnoses or specialized treatments. Comorbidities that increased the risk of hospital-based mortality (but not mortality outside of the hospital) were identified using multivariate logistic regression analyses. AD individuals compared to controls had a substantial excess comorbidity, but a reduced hospital-based mortality rate. Twenty-two physical comorbidities were increased in AD individuals compared with controls, which included cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The most frequent physical comorbidities in AD individuals were hypertension, asthma, cataract, and ischaemic heart disease. Risk factors for hospital-based mortality in AD individuals were lung cancer, alcoholic liver disease, respiratory failure, heart failure, pneumonia, bronchitis, non-specific dementia, breast cancer, COPD, gallbladder calculus, atrial fibrillation, and angina. The impact of atrial fibrillation, angina, and gallbladder calculus on hospital-based mortality was higher in AD individuals than in controls. In contrast, other mortality risk factors had an equal or lower impact on hospital-based mortality in sample comparisons. Therefore AD individuals have a higher burden of physical comorbidity that is associated with a reduced risk of general hospital-based mortality. Atrial fibrillation, angina, and gallbladder calculus are major risk factors for general hospital-based mortality in AD individuals. PMID:25472881
Schoepf, Dieter; Heun, Reinhard
Psychological morbidity is common in chronic respiratory diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and risk factors for comorbid depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are addressed. Consecutive COPD patients (GOLD stage I–IV, 40–75 years old) were enrolled in a multicentre, cross-sectional cohort study. Diagnosis of depression was ascertained through clinical records. Lung function, HADS score, 6-minute walking test (6-MWT), MRC dyspnoea score, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were evaluated. Two hundred fifty-nine COPD patients (mean age 62.5 years; 32% female; mean FEV1 48% predicted) were included. Patients diagnosed with depression (29/259; 11.2%) had significantly higher HADS-D and HADS-Total scores than nondepressed patients (median (quartiles) HADS-D 6 [4; 9] versus 4 [2; 7], median HADS-Total 14 [10; 20] versus 8 [5; 14]). Receiver-operating characteristic plots showed moderate accuracy for HADS-D, AUC 0.662 (95%CI 0.601–0.719), and HADS-Total, AUC 0.681 (95%CI 0.620–0.737), with optimal cut-off scores of >5 and >9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.1% and 62.6% for HADS-D compared to 75.9% and 55.2% for HADS-Total. Age, comorbidities, sex, and lower airflow limitation predicted depression. The HADS exhibits low diagnostic accuracy for depression in COPD patients. Younger men with comorbidities are at increased risk for depression. PMID:25548667
Nowak, Christoph; Sievi, Noriane A.; Clarenbach, Christian F.; Schwarz, Esther Irene; Schlatzer, Christian; Brack, Thomas; Brutsche, Martin; Frey, Martin; Irani, Sarosh; Leuppi, Jörg D.; Rüdiger, Jochen; Thurnheer, Robert; Kohler, Malcolm
Phenotypic heterogeneity of depression has been cited as one of the causes of the limited success to detect genetic variants in genome-wide studies. The 7-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) was developed to detect depression in individuals with physical health problems. An initial psychometric analysis showed that a short version ("HADS-4") is less heterogeneous and hence more reliable than the full scale, and correlates equally strong with a DSM-oriented depression scale. We compared the HADS-D and the HADS-4 to assess the benefits of using less heterogeneous phenotype measures in genetic analyses. We compared HADS-D and HADS-4 in three separate analyses: (1) twin- and family-based heritability estimation, (2) SNP-based heritability estimation using the software GCTA, and (3) a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The twin study resulted in heritability estimates between 18% and 25%, with additive genetic variance being the largest component. There was also evidence for assortative mating and a dominance component of genetic variance, with HADS-4 having slightly lower estimates of assortment. Importantly, when estimating heritability from SNPs, the HADS-D did not show a significant genetic variance component, while for the HADS-4, a statistically significant amount of heritability was estimated. Moreover, the HADS-4 had substantially more SNPs with small P-values in the GWAS analysis than did the HADS-D. Our results underline the benefits of using more homogeneous phenotypes in psychiatric genetic analyses. Homogeneity can be increased by focusing on core symptoms of disorders, thus reducing the noise in aggregate phenotypes caused by substantially different symptom profiles. PMID:25832296
Laurin, Charles A; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Lubke, Gitta H
To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…
Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.
Background: Dental anxiety is a major barrier for dental care utilization. Hence, identifying anxious individuals and their appropriate management becomes crucial in clinical practice. Aim: The study aims to assess dental anxiety, factors influencing dental anxiety, and anxiety towards tooth extraction procedure among patients attending a dental hospital in India. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 1,148 consecutive patients aged 18-70 years. The assessment tools consisted of a consent form, history form, a questionnaire form containing the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) which was used to assess the level of dental anxiety, and an additional question on anxiety towards dental extraction procedure. Results: Among the study group, 63.7% were men and 36.3% were women. Based on the MDAS score, 45.2% of the participants were identified to be less anxious, 51.8% were moderately or extremely anxious, and 3% were suffering from dental phobia. Mean MDAS total score was 10.4 (standard deviation (SD) = 3.91). Female participants and younger subjects were more anxious (P < 0.001). Subjects who were anxious had postponed their dental visit (P < 0.001). Participants who had negative dental experience were more anxious (P < 0.05). Notably, 82.6% reported anxiety towards extraction procedure. Significant association was seen between anxiety towards extraction procedure and the respondents gender (P < 0.05), age (P < 0.001), education level (P < 0.05), employment status (P < 0.001), income (P < 0.001), self-perceived oral health status (P < 0.05), and their history of visit to dentist (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Significant percentage of population was suffering from dental anxiety in this study population. A plethora of factors like age, gender, education level, occupation, financial stability, and previous bad dental experience influences dental anxiety to various levels. Extraction followed by drilling of tooth and receiving local anesthetic injection provoked more anxiety. PMID:25709973
Appukuttan, Devapriya; Subramanian, Sangeetha; Tadepalli, Anupama; Damodaran, Lokesh Kumar
We report our experience with the use of monthly physician questionnaires, in conjunction with traditional in-house monitoring, for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) in inpatients after hospital discharge and in ambulatory surgical patients (i.e., those not requiring perioperative hospitalization) over a 7-year period (July 1988 to June 1995) involving 156,977 surgical procedures. The mean annual response rate was 73% and did not change significantly from year to year (range, 71% to 75%), but the proportion of surgical procedures covered by returned surveys increased during the study period from 75% to 81% in inpatients and from 78% to 86% in ambulatory surgical patients (p < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Of 1051 SSIs identified, 231 (22%) were identified solely by the survey: 16% of SSIs in inpatients after discharge and 66% of SSIs in ambulatory surgical patients. Of 787 cases meeting the criteria for SSI on the basis of in-house surveillance and listed on returned questionnaires, 366 (47%) were not marked as SSIs by the responding surgeons. We conclude that since its implementation in 1988, monthly physician surveys at our medical center continue to contribute significantly to identification of otherwise undetected SSIs. However, monthly questionnaires should only complement, not replace, traditional in-house surveillance. PMID:9343622
Manian, F A; Meyer, L
This systematic review assesses the validity of epidemiological questionnaires used to measure psychosocial and organizational work factors (POWFs) in nurses. Of the 632 articles published between 1980 and July 2008 identified in this review, 108 provide some data concerning analysis of the intrinsic characteristics of such instruments (content validity or conceptual basis, reliability, validation of internal construction) and their external validity with respect to health aspects (concurrent validity and predictive validity). Psychometric properties of generalist questionnaires validated among blue collar or white collar workers were also assessed in the nurse population. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), because of its longevity and reputation, was the generalist questionnaire most used among this population. Although its structure often raises questions in the nurse population, its dimensions (mainly the control one) have been shown to be predictive of some health outcomes measured with "objective" indicators concerning absenteeism, injuries, and musculoskeletal disorders. Effort Reward Imbalance (ERI), which has a structure more stable among the nurse population, has shown concurrent validity in terms of intent to leave the nursing profession. No questionnaire specifically designed for nurses can claim to satisfy all of the recommendations in terms of internal validity. Nevertheless, the Practice Environment Scale-Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) seems to be one of the most promising instruments because of its appropriateness (content validity), its structure, which has a rather good fit (construct validity), its ability to discriminate magnet hospitals like other NWI derivates (discriminant validity), and it has also been associated in cross-sectional studies with health outcomes, especially nurses' self-assessed mental health but also with patients' health outcomes objectively assessed (concurrent validity). However, elements for predictive validity are still lacking with NWI derivates. The Discussion provides recommendations for measuring POWFs, encompassing the use of external validated measurements. PMID:19886473
Bonneterre, Vincent; Liaudy, Sylvette; Chatellier, Gilles; Lang, Thierry; de Gaudemaris, Régis
Is information about task-related risk factors for spinal injury provided by workers, reliable enough to be used by clinicians in determining recommendations for return to work? To answer that question, a study was conducted on a non-random stratified sample of 96 hospital employees to compare their perception with that of a trained independent observer, on the following: static posture, muscular
MICHEL ROSSIGNOL; JOAN BAETZ
The literature has stipulated that stress causes somatic symptoms; however, the pathway has not been empirically examined. This study examines the relationship between stress, anxiety, depression, and somatic symptoms by investigating the mediating roles of anxiety and depression in the relationship between stress and somatic symptoms in the general Chinese population. Data were collected from 202 Chinese participants in a household survey conducted between August and September 2013 in Hong Kong. The measurements included a Patient Health Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Sociodemographics. By using structural equation modeling, anxiety was a significant mediator of the effect of stress on somatic symptoms (Z = 4.328, p < .001, 95% CI = .061, .152), even after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. The findings imply that clinical presentation of somatic symptoms will be helpful for general practitioners in primary care in diagnosing anxiety. PMID:25155635
Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals about pharmacovigilance in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH), Perambalur (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. The second primary objective was to assess the causation of underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as it needs to be well-assessed in India. The secondary objective was to compare the findings of this study with the results of the published studies from India on evaluation of the KAP of pharmacovigilance among healthcare professional. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) working in the DSMCH, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. Results: One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 101 responded. 62.4% healthcare workers gave correct response regarding the definition of pharmacovigilance. 75.2% of healthcare workers were aware regarding the existence of a National Pharmacovigilance Program of India. 69.3% healthcare professional agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation for them. Among the participants, 64.4% have experienced ADRs in patients, but only 22.8% have ever reported ADR to pharmacovigilance center. Unfortunately only 53.5% healthcare workers have been trained for reporting adverse reactions. But, 97% healthcare professionals agreed that reporting of ADR is necessary and 92.1% were of the view that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professional. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance is gradually improving among healthcare professionals, but unfortunately the actual practice of ADR reporting is still deficient among them. PMID:25657902
Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa P.; Shivaranjani, R.; Vidyarthi, Surendra Kumar
Objectives: The objective was to assess the views of clinicians in teaching hospitals of Kolkata regarding the use of antibiotics in their own hospitals, focusing on perceived misuse, reasons behind such misuse and feasible remedial measures. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 clinicians from core clinical disciplines was approached in six teaching hospitals of Kolkata through purposive sampling. A structured, validated questionnaire adopted from published studies and modified to suit the responding population was completed by consenting respondents through face-to-face interaction with a single interviewer. Respondents were free to leave out questions they did not wish to answer. Results: Among 130 participating clinicians (65% of approached), all felt that antibiotic misuse occurs in various hospital settings; 72 (55.4% of the respondents) felt it was a frequent occurrence and needed major rectification. Cough and cold (78.5%), fever (65.4%), and diarrhea (62.3%) were perceived to be the commonest conditions of antibiotic misuse. About half (50.76%) felt that oral preparations were more misused compared to injectable or topical ones. Among oral antibiotics, co-amoxiclav (66.9%) and cefpodoxime (63.07%) whereas among parenteral ones, ceftriaxone and other third generation cephalosporins (74.6%) followed by piperacillin-tazobactam (61.5%) were selected as the most misused ones. Deficient training in rational use of medicines (70.7%) and absence of institutional antibiotic policy (67.7%) were listed as the two most important predisposing factors. Training of medical students and interns in rational antibiotic use (78.5%), implementation of antibiotic policy (76.9%), improvement in microbiology support (70.7%), and regular surveillance on this issue (64.6%) were cited as the principal remedial measures. Conclusions: Clinicians acknowledge that the misuse of antibiotics is an important problem in their hospitals. A system of clinical audit of antibiotic usage, improved microbiology support and implementation of antibiotic policy can help to promote rational use of antimicrobial agents.
Chatterjee, Dattatreyo; Sen, Sukanta; Begum, Sabnam Ara; Adhikari, Anjan; Hazra, Avijit; Das, Anup Kumar
OBJECTIVE: To study the time course and prediction of responses to reassurance after gastroscopy showing no serious illness. DESIGN: Selection of consecutive patients were assessed before gastroscopy, immediately after reassurance, and at follow up at 24 hours, 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year. Responses of subgroups of patients identified as high, medium, and low health anxiety by the health anxiety questionnaire were analysed. SETTING: Endoscopy clinic in a general hospital. INTERVENTION: Oral reassurance that there was "nothing seriously wrong." SUBJECTS: One consultant physician and 60 patients aged 18-74 referred for gastroscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Physician's and patients' ratings of the extent of the reassurance and patients' ratings of their anxiety about their health and of their illness belief. RESULTS: There was good agreement between the patients and the physician about whether reassurance had been given. Health anxiety and illness belief decreased markedly after reassurance. Patients with high health anxiety showed a significant resurgence in their worry and illness belief at 24 hours and 1 week, and these levels were maintained at 1 months and 1 year later. Patients with medium levels of health anxiety showed a reduction in worry and illness belief after reassurance, and this was generally maintained during follow up. Patients with low health anxiety maintained low levels of health worry and illness belief throughout the study. Partial correlation analyses showed that the levels of worry and illness belief after reassurance were predicted by the health anxiety questionnaire. This measure also had predictive value beyond that of a measure of general anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Medical reassurance results in a reduction of worry about health and of illness belief, but this may be very short term. Measurable individual differences in health anxiety can be used to predict the response to reassurance. PMID:9302953
Lucock, M. P.; Morley, S.; White, C.; Peake, M. D.
Background Sleep disturbance (SD) has complex associations with depression, both preceding and following the onset and recurrence of depression. We hypothesized that students with depressive symptoms with SD would demonstrate a greater burden of comorbid psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment compared to students with depressive symptoms without SD. Methods During a mental health screening, 287 undergraduate students endorsed symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] ? 13) and filled out the following self-report measures: demographic questionnaire, BDI, Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire—intensity and frequency (ASQ), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLESQ), and the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ). SD was measured using the BDI sleep item #16 dichotomized (score 0: no SD; or score > 0: some SD). Results Students with depressive symptoms and SD (n = 220), compared to those without SD (n = 67), endorsed significantly more intense and frequent anxiety and poorer cognitive and physical functioning. Students with depressive symptoms with and without SD did not significantly differ in depressive severity, hopelessness, or quality of life. Conclusions College students with depressive symptoms with SD may experience a greater burden of comorbid anxiety symptoms and hyperarousal, and may have impairments in functioning, compared to students with depressive symptoms without SD. These findings require replication. Depression and Anxiety 00:1–8, 2013. PMID:23681944
Nyer, Maren; Farabaugh, Amy; Fehling, Kiki; Soskin, David; Holt, Daphne; Papakostas, George I.; Pedrelli, Paola; Fava, Maurizio; Pisoni, Angela; Vitolo, Ottavio; Mischoulon, David
Background: Fatigue is a frequent and persistent problem among Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. We investigated the prevalence of clinically relevant fatigue in HL survivors and the relation between fatigue and anxiety and depression. Methods: Fatigue was measured through the generic European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS). Anxiety and depression were measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Questionnaires were mailed to 267 HL survivors. Results were compared with a Dutch age-matched normative population. Results: Response rate was 68% (median age 46 years, mean time since diagnosis 4.6 years). Prevalence of fatigue was significantly higher among HL survivors than in the norm population (FAS 41% vs 23%, QLQ-C30 43% vs 28%), as were fatigue levels. There was a significant association between fatigue, anxiety and depression. Of the HL survivors with high symptom levels of depression, 97% also reported fatigue. In multivariate analysis, depression was strongly associated with high levels of fatigue and, to a lesser extent, anxiety and comorbidity. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of fatigue are significantly higher in HL survivors than in the general population and differences are clinically relevant. Depression and anxiety were strongly associated with high levels of fatigue. Reducing fatigue levels by treatment of depression and anxiety should be further explored. PMID:24434433
Daniėls, L A; Oerlemans, S; Krol, A D G; Creutzberg, C L; van de Poll-Franse, L V
Background As a part of nationwide healthcare reforms, the Chinese government launched web-based appointment systems (WAS) to provide a solution to problems around outpatient appointments and services. These have been in place in all Chinese public tertiary hospitals since 2009. Methods Questionnaires were collected from both patients and doctors in one large tertiary public hospital in Shanghai, China.Data were analyzed to measure their satisfaction and views about the WAS. Results The 1000 outpatients randomly selected for the survey were least satisfied about the waiting time to see a doctor. Even though the WAS provided a much more convenient booking method, only 17% of patients used it. Of the 197 doctors surveyed, over 90% thought it was necessary to provide alternative forms of appointment booking systems for outpatients. However, about 80% of those doctors who were not associated professors would like to provide an ‘on-the-spot’ appointment option, which would lead to longer waits for patients. Conclusions Patients were least satisfied about the waiting times. To effectively reduce appointment-waiting times is therefore an urgent issue. Despite the benefits of using the WAS, most patients still registered via the usual method of queuing, suggesting that hospitals and health service providers should promote and encourage the use of the WAS. Furthermore, Chinese health providers need to help doctors to take others’ opinions or feedback into consideration when treating patients to minimize the gap between patients’ and doctors’ opinions. These findings may provide useful information for both practitioners and regulators, and improve recognition of this efficient and useful booking system, which may have far-reaching and positive implications for China’s ongoing reforms. PMID:24912568
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness. PMID:25071275
Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) is a common symptom across depression and anxiety disorders and preliminary evidence suggests that decreases in rumination and worry are related to improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms. However, despite its prevalence, relatively little is known about transdiagnostic RNT and its temporal associations with symptom improvement during treatment. The current study was designed to examine the influence of RNT on subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms during treatment. Participants (n = 131; 52% female; 93% White; M = 34.76 years) were patients presenting for treatment in a brief, cognitive behavior therapy based, partial hospitalization program. Participants completed multiple assessments of depression (Center for the Epidemiological Studies of Depression-10 scale), anxiety (the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale), and repetitive negative thinking (Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire) over the course of treatment. Results indicated statistically significant between and within person effects of RNT on depression and anxiety, even after controlling for the effect of time, previous symptom levels, referral source, and treatment length. RNT explained 22% of the unexplained variability in depression scores and 15% of the unexplained variability in anxiety scores beyond that explained by the control variables. RNT may be an important transdiagnostic treatment target for anxiety and depression. PMID:25812825
Kertz, Sarah J; Koran, Jennifer; Stevens, Kimberly T; Björgvinsson, Thröstur
BACKGROUND Primary hyperhidrosis (PH) can lead to mood changes due to the inconveniences it causes. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine the existence of anxiety and depression in patients with severe primary hyperhidrosis who sought treatment at a medical office. METHODS The questionnaire "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale" was used for 197 individuals, in addition to the chi square test and Fisher exact test, p <0.05. RESULTS There was an increased prevalence of anxiety (49.6%) but not of depression (11.2%) among patients with PH, with no link to gender, age or amount of affected areas. Palmar and plantar primary hyperhidrosis were the most frequent but when associated with the presence of anxiety, the most frequent were the axillary (p = 0.02) and craniofacial (p = 0.02) forms. There was an association between patients with depression and anxiety (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS the involvement of Primary hyperhidrosis was responsible for a higher prevalence of anxiety than that described among the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. Depression had a low prevalence rate, while mild and moderate forms were the most common and frequently associated with anxiety. The degree of anxiety was higher in mild and moderate types than in the severe form. PMID:24770497
Braganēa, Gleide Maria Gatto; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Pinto, Aloisio Ferreira; Marques, Lucas Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; Reis, Francisco Prado
The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise
Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein
This study examined the impact of state anxiety, trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity on physiological and self-report measures of sexual arousal and sexual function in a non-clinical sample of women. Physiological sexual responses to an erotic stimulus were assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, and subjective reactions were measured using questionnaires. Results suggested a curvilinear relationship between state anxiety and physiological sexual
Andrea Bradford; Cindy M. Meston
Sexual functioning is composed of both physiological and psychological factors among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the role of depression and anxiety has not yet been studied extensively. This study aimed to investigate the relation of depressive and anxiety symptoms to sexual functioning among hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis patients. A sample of 144 patients was recruited from three general hospitals in the broader area of Athens, consisting of 84 patients undergoing in-center HD and 60 patients in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Measurements were conducted with the following instruments: the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI 1/STAI 2), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The results indicated that satisfaction about sexual life had negative association with all the subscales of GHQ-28 questionnaire (somatic symptoms, anxiety/insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression). Sexual functioning was also related negatively to depression as well as state and trait anxieties. Findings provide evidence that the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms relates significantly to the negative evaluation of sexual functioning in patients with CKD. PMID:22099520
Theofilou, Paraskevi A
Questionnaire-based survey on structural quality of hospitals and nursing homes for the elderly, their staffing with infection control personal, and implementation of infection control measures in Germany
From January to May 2012, 1,860 hospitals throughout Germany received a questionnaire encompassing 77 items. Additionally, 300 outpatient care services and 310 nursing homes for elderly in Berlin also received a 10-item questionnaire asking on their implemented infection control practices. All questionnaires were anonymous. A total of 229 completed questionnaires from hospitals, 14 questionnaires from outpatient care services, and 16 questionnaires from nursing homes were eligible for further analysis. The lack of Infection Control physicians was identified as the largest issue. In hospitals sized 400–999 beds a gap of 71%, and in hospitals sized ?1,000 beds a gap of 17% was reported. Depending on the number of hospital beds, 13–29% of hospitals sized ?100 beds reported not havening one infection control nurse. Since based on the number of beds in larger institutions or in facilities caring for high-risk patients several infection control nurses may be required, the deficiency in infection control nurses may even be higher, particularly in secondary and tertiary care facilities. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that the legal requirements for surveillance and reporting of notifiable infectious diseases have not yet been implemented in 11% of the facilities. The implementation of antibiotic strategies did show significant gaps. However, deficiencies in the implemented measures for the prevention of surgical site infections were less frequent. Yet 12% of the participants did not have a dedicated infection control concept for their surgical services. Eight percent of hospitals were not prepared for an outbreak management and 10% did not have established regulations for wearing surgical scrubs. Deficiencies in waste disposal and the control of air-conditioning systems were also noted. Based on the results of this survey, conclusions on the optimal resource allocation for further improvement of patient safety may be drawn. While all participating nursing homes had some sort of infection control consultation, this only applied to 12 out of 16 outpatient nursing services. However, all 16 nursing services worked on the basis of an implemented infection control plan. Though legally binding hygiene recommendations have not yet been implemented for nursing homes, the necessity of infection control to assure patient safety has obviously been recognised throughout these services. PMID:23967397
Kramer, A.; Assadian, O.; Helfrich, J.; Krüger, C.; Pfenning, I.; Ryll, S.; Perner, A.; Loczenski, B.
We investigated the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its association with anxiety and depression among 1,493 Portuguese college students (age 17-69 years) at Piaget Institute. The assessment instruments were the Fonseca Anamnestic Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. TMD was present in 633 (42.4%) students, and anxiety or depression was present in 456 (30.5%) students. Regarding the association of TMD with anxiety and depression, 280 of the 633 students (61.4%) with TMD symptoms also had signs of anxiety or depression (P < 0.001). As compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.53-2.46; P < 0.001) for TMD. As compared with students without signs of anxiety or depression, students with such signs had an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.42-3.84; P < 0.001) for TMD. College students from various fields of study and regions of Portugal had a high prevalence of TMD, which was significantly associated with anxiety and depression. PMID:24930749
Minghelli, Beatriz; Morgado, Marcos; Caro, Tatiana
Objective The Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 assesses metacognitive beliefs and processes which are central to the metacognitive model of emotional disorder. As recent studies have begun to explore the utility of this model for understanding emotional distress after cancer diagnosis, it is important also to assess the validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 for use in cancer populations. Methods 229 patients with primary breast or prostate cancer completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale pre-treatment and again 12 months later. The structure and validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 were assessed using factor analyses and structural equation modelling. Results Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided evidence supporting the validity of the previously published 5-factor structure of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30. Specifically, both pre-treatment and 12 months later, this solution provided the best fit to the data and all items loaded on their expected factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that two dimensions of metacognition (positive and negative beliefs about worry) were significantly associated with anxiety and depression as predicted, providing further evidence of validity. Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 is a valid measure for use in cancer populations. PMID:25215527
Cook, Sharon A.; Salmon, Peter; Dunn, Graham; Fisher, Peter
Background Given the immense burden of HIV/AIDS on health systems in sub-Saharan Africa and the intricate link between HIV/AIDS and mental health problems, health care providers need a valid and reliable instrument to assess mental health rapidly. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) may constitute such an instrument. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the factor structure of the HADS in a population of South African HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART); and (2) identify and control the disturbing influence of systematic wording effects in vulnerable respondent groups. Methodology/Principal Findings The translated scale was administered to 716 HIV/AIDS patients enrolled in the public sector ART program in South Africa. A combined confirmatory factor analysis and correlated-traits-correlated-methods framework was used to determine the preferred factor structure of the HADS, while controlling for the disturbing influence of systematic wording effects. When assessing the structure without a negative wording factor, all three factor structures displayed an acceptable fit to the data. The three-factor solution best fitted the data. Addition of a method factor significantly improved the fit of all three factor solutions. Using ?2 difference testing, Razavi's one-factor solution displayed a superior fit compared to the other two factor solutions. Conclusions The study outcomes support the use of the HADS as a valid and reliable means to screen for mental health problems in HIV/AIDS patients enrolled in a public-sector ART program in a resource-limited context. The results demonstrate the importance of evaluating and correcting for wording effects when examining the factor structure of the screening instrument in vulnerable patient groups. In light of the inter-relationships between HIV/AIDS and mental health problems and the scarcity of adequate screening tools, additional studies on this topic are required. PMID:22536338
Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik le Roux; Ponnet, Koen; Baron Van Loon, Francis
We report that infertile women in Japan as well as in the Western world have high levels of emotional distress, anxiety, and depression. The reasons for anxiety and depression in infertile women are easy to presume but remain unclear. We conducted the present study to assess the relationship between the anxiety and depression of infertile Japanese women and their thought processes and emotional well-being with regard to their infertility. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 101 infertile Japanese women who visited the infertility clinic at Tokai University. Inventories included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and our original infertility questionnaire, which is composed of 22 questions to assess attitudes and emotional status in facing the stigma of infertility. After factor analysis, comparison between the HADS and the infertility questionnaire was made with simultaneous multiple regression analyses. Anxiety and depression in childless Japanese women were significantly associated with lack of husband's support and feeling stress. Our findings should prove useful in designing and implementing psychological support programs for infertile Japanese women. Psychological interventions to relieve or diminish these conditions might have significant therapeutic benefits for women attending infertility clinics in Japan. PMID:15474640
Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Hosaka, Takashi; Izumi, Shun-ichiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Kondo, Akane; Makino, Tsunehisa
Introduction: Admission of a family member to hospital would cause stress on other family members also. One of the most stressful treatment interventions imposing high level of anxiety to the families of patients is when the patients are undergoing a surgery, especially a cardiac surgery. So, we decided to investigate whether recommended Azkar could reduce stress, anxiety, and depression in families of the patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study conducted on 120 immediate relatives of patients undergoing a cardiac surgery. Families of patients undergoing open heart surgery were randomly divided into two groups of study and control. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS 21) questionnaires were completed by both groups. Then, some explanations about how to use recommended prayers were given to the study group, and an hour later, the questionnaires were completed again. The data were analyzed by SPSS. P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Stress, anxiety, and depression showed a significant difference in the study group before and after intervention. Similarly, there was a significant difference in the mean scores of anxiety, stress, and depression in the study and control groups after intervention. Conclusions: Findings of the present study showed that recommended religious prayers can significantly reduce anxiety, depression, and stress of families of the patients undergoing open heart surgery. PMID:24949060
Mehdipour-Rabori, Roghayeh; Nematollahi, Monirosadat
This study examined the impact of state anxiety, trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity on physiological and self-report measures of sexual arousal and sexual function in a non-clinical sample of women. Physiological sexual responses to an erotic stimulus were assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, and subjective reactions were measured using questionnaires. Results suggested a curvilinear relationship between state anxiety and physiological sexual arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA). Trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity were correlated with self-reported sexual arousal outside the laboratory. The findings may be interpreted in light of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) influences on sexual arousal and potential cognitive interference mechanisms associated with anxiety. PMID:16199003
Bradford, Andrea; Meston, Cindy M.
Objective Children with leukemia and their families face a long period of medical treatment and uncertainty about the future. These families may suffer from short- and long-term emotional problems. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supportive psychotherapy on the anxiety of mothers whose children suffer from leukemia. Materials & Methods The current research were performed on mothers who had a child with leukemia hospitalized in Mofid Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran. They were randomly selected. The research method was a quasi-experimental study with pretest/posttest design. The pretest Kettles’ anxiety questionnaire was given to all the mothers and after seven sessions of supportive psychotherapy, the posttest was performed and the grades were compared. Results Ten mothers finished all seven therapeutic sessions. There was a statistically significant difference between the pretest and posttest mean scores, confirming the mothers’ reduced anxiety level. Conclusion Finding effective and newer approaches to improve the well-being of parents with a sick child is an important challenge of today’s medical researches. Based on our findings, it is possible to reduce the anxiety in mothers of children with leukemia through supportive psychiatric therapies. Keywords: Leukemia; Mothers; Anxiety; Psychology; Child PMID:24665328
NAZARI, Shiva; MORADI, Nahid; SADEGHI KOUPAEI, Mohammad Taghi
Background Cancer diagnosis among children can cause high stress and anxiety in parents, and they may lose their life expectancy. The present study investigated the effectiveness of Logo therapy on anxiety and depression among mothers of children with cancer. Materials and Methods This study was conducted by a semi-pilot method using pre-test and post-test with a control experimental group. Therapy sessions were held during 9 sessions of Logo therapy training for 90 minutes. The participants of this study were selected among 30 mothers of children with cancer and using sampling method in Yazd hospitals. The participants divided randomly into two groups: experimental and control. Participants in both experimental and control group completed questionnaires on Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory before and after training. Results The results showed that the index of depression and anxiety in control and experimental groups are 32.3, 6.63, 7.4 and 6.75, respectively. So, the level among the experimental group has been decreased after intervention of Logotherapy training and a significant difference occurred in the pre-post test stages. The results showed that Logo Therapy has a significant effect in reducing anxiety and depression among mothers of children with cancer (p<0.05). Conclusion Regarding the efficiency of this approach to reduce anxiety and depression among mothers, this treatment is recommended to be practiced beside other cancer therapies, so they can practice the treatment process with a better mood and mentality. PMID:25002923
Delavari, H; Nasirian, M; Baezegar bafrooei, K
As little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Asians with anxiety disorders, we assessed HRQoL in Singaporeans with anxiety disorders and identified factors influencing their HRQoL. Outpatients with anxiety disorders (n = 119) attending a hospital psychiatric clinic completed the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). SF-36 score reduction from population norms (quantified as the number of standard deviations below the mean) in these subjects was compared with existing data on Singaporeans with various medical conditions and Americans with panic disorder (PD). Factors influencing HRQoL were examined using stepwise multiple linear regression models. SF-36 score reduction in these subjects (0.3-1.4 SD) was greater than that in Singaporeans with systemic lupus erythematosus or thyroid cancer survivors for seven scales but similar to that in Americans with PD (0.5-1.7 SD). BAI and GHQ-12 scores, presence of PD/generalized anxiety disorder, presence of chronic medical conditions, being married or increasing age accounted for 19-61% of the variance in six selected SF-36 scales. In conclusion, it can be said that Singaporeans with anxiety disorders experience clinically important reductions in HRQoL; both clinical and socio-demographic factors influence HRQoL in such subjects. PMID:15085928
Luo, Nan; Fones, Calvin Soon-Leng; Thumboo, Julian; Li, Shu-Chuen
Background/aims Charcot foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes. Little research is available on the mental health impact of Charcot foot. Aim of the study is to assess mental health in diabetes patients with Charcot foot and to investigate the moderating effects of socio-demographic factors. The severity of the problem will be statistically evaluated with the help of a reference data set. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire data using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and demographic background were collected from 50 patients with diabetes and Charcot complications (males 62%; mean age 62.2?±?8.5 years). Statistical comparisons with a large data set of general diabetes patients acting as a point of reference were carried out. Results Anxiety and depression levels were high, (anxiety and depression scores 6.4 ± 4 and 6.3 ± 3.6 respectively). Females reported more severe anxiety and depression. Ethnic minorities and patients out of work reported more severe anxiety. Comparisons with published HADS data indicate that diabetes patients with Charcot foot experience more serious levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusions The high levels of mental health problems which were found in this study in diabetes patients with Charcot foot require recognition by researchers and clinicians. The findings imply the need to screen for mental health problems in diabetes patients with Charcot foot. PMID:24650435
Little attention has been paid to the demotivating potential of new technologies in foreign language research. Thus, this study aims to investigate Internet anxiety among foreign language learners and to determine the relationships between Internet anxiety and certain variables. A background questionnaire, an Internet information test, and an…
The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) was given to two groups of undergraduates. The first group also completed a questionnaire on their background in mathematics; the second, the Suinn Test Anxiety Behavior Scale (STABS). In both studies Humanities majors scored higher in mathematical anxiety than did Social Science majors who in turn had higher MARS scores than did Physical Science
Lorelei R. Brush
Correlation of anxiety and motivation was studied by means of questionnaire. The results show that inner interest motivation and effort intensity are significantly and negatively correlated with anxiety while achievement motivation. Learning context motivation is significantly and positively correlated with anxiety. Pedagogic implications are given according to the findings of study, like developing students' interest in English language and its
Zheng Bin; Ji Lixia
Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety
Faisal Azaizaa; Pnina Rona; Meyrav Shohamb; Ibrahim Giginia
Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…
The articles in this journal issue examine the characteristics of student writing apprehension, and teaching methods to alleviate it. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Writing Anxiety: Reasons and Reduction Techniques" (Helen R. Heaton and Pauline M. Pray); (2) "Writing Anxiety and the Gifted Student Writer" (De…
Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.
... that caused the anxiety. Back Continue Causes Experts don't know exactly what causes anxiety disorders. Several things seem to play a role, including genetics, brain biochemistry, an overactive fight-flight response, stressful life circumstances, and learned behavior. A child with a ...
Background Studies on anxiety in patients having intra-alveolar extraction as well as the effect of patient's sociodemographic characteristics influencing level of associated anxiety are few in our environment. The aim of this study was to statistically analyze the sociodemographic determinants of dental anxiety in patients scheduled for intra-alveolar extraction. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 93 consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital for intra-alveolar extraction in the months of November and December 2013. An interview-based questionnaire, Corah Dental Anxiety Scale Revised (DAS-R), was administered to evaluate levels of dental anxiety. Sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects were recorded. Descriptive statistics and regression models were done with the independent variables (sociodemographic factors) and the dependent variable being the DAS-R. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results The internal consistency of the scale used as determined by Cronbach alpha was 0.76. Mean DAS score was 8.12±2.58. Dental anxiety and age of subjects showed significant inverse relationship. Females had a higher mean DAS score (8.76) than the males (7.37) (P=0.006). Residence (urban/rural) was not statistically significant. Singles reported the highest DAS score (9.41) (P=0.006). The educational level attained was significantly related to dental anxiety (P=0.005). Those with secondary school education had the highest DAS score (9.26). Class V social status had the highest mean anxiety score (P=0.012). Stepwise linear regression showed that the best predictors for dental anxiety were sex (P=0.008) and marital status (P=0.026). Conclusion This present study demonstrates that sex and marital status are the predictive factors for dental anxiety in the overall management of patients indicated for intra-alveolar extraction. PMID:25249306
Egbor, Peter E.; Akpata, Osagie
This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…
to insufficient exam preparation. Exam anxiety can result in: Physical Indicators - Perspiration, sweaty palms, feeling too hot or cold - Headaches, upset stomach, nausea - Rapid heart beat, shallow/irregular breathing;3 Some things that can increase exam anxiety are: Insufficient Exam Preparation - Cramming the night
This review considers recent research assessing psychophysiological reactivity to fear imagery in anxiety disorder patients. As in animal subjects, fear cues prompt in humans a state of defensive motivation in which autonomic and somatic survival reflexes are markedly enhanced. Thus, a startle stimulus presented in a fear context yields a stronger (potentiated) reflex, providing a quantitative measure of fearful arousal. This fear potentiation is further exaggerated in specific or social phobia individuals when viewing pictures or imagining the phobic object. Paradoxically, fear imagery studies with more severe anxiety disorder patients—panic disorder with agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, or anxious patients with comorbid depression—show a blunted, less robust fear potentiated response. Furthermore, this reflex blunting appears to systematically be more pronounced over the anxiety disorder spectrum, coincident with lengthier chronicity, worsening clinician-based judgments of severity and prognosis, and increased questionnaire-based indices of negative affectivity, suggesting that normal defensive reactivity may be compromised by an experience of long-term stress. PMID:19096959
Lang, Peter J.; McTeague, Lisa M.
This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type scale to measure self-efficacy and anxiety in writing.
Background Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish\\u000a version of the Type D Scale (DS14) and the impact of Type D on anxiety and depression in cardiac patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Cardiac patients (n?=?707) completed the DS14, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A subgroup\\u000a (n?=?318) also
Helle Spindler; Charlotte Kruse; Ann-Dorthe Zwisler; Susanne S. Pedersen
1 General Hospital Psychiatry 29 (2007) 285-293 Title: Use of the PRIME-MD Patient Health 5, France 2 Service Universitaire de Psychiatrie Adulte, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 39 av, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London SE5 8AF, UK
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĆ© de
Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Hospital Anxiety (A) and Depression (D)
Gokcen Gonen; Semra Ulusoy Kaymak; Eylem Sahin Cankurtaran; Ersin Hatice Karslioglu; Elvan Ozalp; Haldun Soygur
Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (DAS), the Hospital Anxiety (A) and Depression
Gokcen Gonen; Semra Ulusoy Kaymak; Eylem Sahin Cankurtaran; Ersin Hatice Karslioglu; Elvan Ozalp; Haldun Soygur
Background: Beliefs and emotions could effect on functional status, quality of life, and mortality amongst patients who are suffering coronary heart disease (CHD). Current study examined the role of anxiety: trait/ state, self-efficacy, health beliefs, and functional status among patient with history of CHD. Method: In this correlational study, 105 hospitalized and outpatients patients suffering CHD in Tehran Heart Center Hospital participated by using convenience sampling method in 2012. Cardiac self-efficacy, Seattle Angina, and research-designed health beliefs questionnaires were used to gather data. Results: The functional status in CHD patients showed significant relationships with gender, job, and type of medical insurance of the participants (All ps<0.05). In addition , perceived vulnerability to face again cardiac attack in the future, perceived severity of next cardiac attack, anxiety, state anxiety and trait anxiety (All ps<0.05) had significant and negative relationships with functional status. Conversely, the cardiac self-efficacy had a positive and significant relationship (P<0.001) with functional status. Conclusion: Psychological factors have important role in functional status and quality of life of patients who suffering CHD. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize on supportive and complementary programs to promote Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs. PMID:24688971
Allahverdipour, Hamid; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad; Heshmati, Rasoul; Hashemiparast, Mina
Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of an Arabic version of the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and to correlate it with other demographic data. Methods: The original English version of the MDAS was translated into Arabic, and then translated back into English by experienced bilingual professionals. Four hundred and seventy-four patients referred to dental clinics for treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from November 2012 to June 2013 participated in the study. The assessment tool included questions regarding demographic characteristics, frequency of dental visits, the Arabic version of the MDAS, and the patient's rating of their current level of anxiety using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results: The Arabic version of the MDAS had excellent internal consistency and reliability (Alpha coefficients >0.90). The scale was unidimensional, and the percentage of patients with dental anxiety was 48.3% (using a cutoff total score of >15) and with dental phobia was 2.5% (using a cutoff total score of >16). Younger patients, females, and infrequent visitors to the dentist were more anxious than those who were older, male, and frequent visitors. Visual analogue scale scores correlated significantly with individual items on the MDAS questionnaire and total anxiety score, supporting the criterion validity. Conclusion: The Arabic version of the MDAS presented adequate internal consistency reliability, allowing its safe use to assess levels of dental anxiety in Arabic-speaking populations. PMID:25399217
Bahammam, Maha A.; Hassan, Mona H.
The purpose of this study was to develop "Employment Anxiety Scale" to understand the structure of anxiety accompanying employment seeking. First, 30 items of anxiety related to employment seeking were collected with an open-ended questionnaire, for which 65 female students answered. In the main study, 465 female undergraduates filled out a questionnaire of the thirty items, a stress scale, and a self-report depression scale. Factor analysis found three factors for the anxiety items: employment seeking activity, vocational aptitude, and workplace. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the mental-health scales and the anxiety. The dependent variables were the stress and depression scores, and the predictors the subscale scores of Employment Anxiety Scale. Results showed that anxiety accompanying employment-seeking activity was highly predictive of the mental-health scores. PMID:10756590
The content and psychometric properties of the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ) are described. An earlier version of the CLQ was developed to test the hypothesis that claustrophobia is comprised of two distinct but related fears--the fear of suffocation and the fear of restriction [J. Anxiety Disord. 7 (1993) 281.]. The scale was used to assess patients undergoing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure [J. Behav. Med. 21 (1998) 255.] and in participants with panic disorder [J. Abnorm. Psychol. 105 (1996) 146; Taylor, S., Rachman, S., & Radomsky, A. S. (1996). The prediction of panic: a comparison of suffocation false alarm and cognitive theories. Unpublished data.]. On the basis of these studies, we decided to revise and shorten the CLQ, collect normative data, and provide information on the scale's predictive and discriminant validity as well as its internal consistency and test-retest reliability. This was done through a set of four interconnected studies that included psychometric analyses of undergraduate and community adult questionnaire responses and behavioural testing. Results indicate that the CLQ has good predictive and discriminant validity as well as good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The CLQ appears to be a reliable and sensitive measure of claustrophobia and its component fears. We encourage the use of the CLQ in a variety of clinical and research applications. The scale is provided in this paper for public use. PMID:11474815
Radomsky, A S; Rachman, S; Thordarson, D S; McIsaac, H K; Teachman, B A
Background To investigate whether anxiety and depression levels are associated with Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) induction in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods The design was cross-sectional. Clinical activity was assessed by the Rachmilewitz Index (CAI). Three psychometric questionnaires were used: Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS), Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Colon biopsies were obtained from each affected anatomical site. Severity of inflammation was assessed by eosin/hematoxylin. Constitutive (HSP70c) and inducible (HSP70i) HSP70 expression were immunohistochemically studied. Results 29 UC patients were enrolled (69% men). Mean age was 46.5 years (SD: 19.5). Inflammation severity was moderate in 17 patients, severe in 6, and mild in 6. The mean number of years since diagnosis was 7.9 (SD: 6.5). The mean CAI was 6.4 (SD: 3.1). In active UC, there was downregulation of HSP70c in inflamed epithelium, without significant HSP70 induction. In 22/29 cases of active cryptitis, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) clearly expressed HSP70i, with weak, focal positivity in the other 7 cases. Except for the hospital anxiety scale, scores in all psychometric tools were higher in patients with strong HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN. Logistic regression showed a strong positive relationship between HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN cells and scores in the trait anxiety, ZDRS, and hospital depression scales, (Odds ratios 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5; P?=?0.018, 0.023, and 0.038; Wald test, 5.6, 5.2, and 4.3 respectively) and a weaker but significant positive correlation with the CAI (Odds ratio 1.654; P?=?0.049; Wald test 3.858). Conclusion HSP70 is induced in PMN cells of UC patients and its induction correlates with depression and anxiety levels. PMID:24742079
... can be mild or extreme. The fight-flight response happens instantly when a person senses a threat. It takes a few seconds ... they have. Different anxiety disorders are named to reflect their specific ... a person worries excessively about many things. Someone with generalized ...
Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is often presented with major depression (MD). GAD-MD can be a chronic and disabling condition, and patients suffering from this disorder often respond poorly to psychopharmacological treatment and experience side effects with medication. Therefore, there is a high demand for effective nonpharmacological therapy for GAD-MD patients. The current study explores the use of a radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) device in the treatment of GAD-MD. Methods: Participants were 24 patients diagnosed with GAD-MD being treated at a public psychiatric center. All patients were dissatisfied with their current pharmacological treatment. Patients were evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) rating scale and the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90R) before and after REAC brain stimulation treatment cycles. Results: After REAC brain stimulation treatment, all patients experienced a significant reduction in anxiety and depression. These results were confirmed by physician examination, HAM-D scores, and SCL-90R total scores. Conclusion: These results indicate a role for REAC brain stimulation in the management of psychiatric conditions, specifically, GAD-MD comorbidity. REAC treatments are synergistic to drug therapy and appear to be helpful in reducing the side effects of medication. Future studies should evaluate the long-term effects of REAC treatment. PMID:21857785
Olivieri, Elisabetta Bourget; Vecchiato, Caterina; Ignaccolo, Nunziatina; Mannu, Piero; Castagna, Alessandro; Aravagli, Lucia; Fontani, Vania; Rinaldi, Salvatore
... anxiety, previous perinatal depression or anxiety, or thyroid imbalance. In addition to generalized anxiety, there are some ... anxiety, previous perinatal depression or anxiety, or thyroid imbalance. In addition to generalized anxiety, there are some ...
Although clinical observations suggest that health-related anxiety is present, to some extent, in a number of anxiety disorders, this relationship has not been examined empirically. The present study therefore utilized the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) to elucidate the structure of such symptoms among patients with anxiety disorders and to…
Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.
Background: Natural delivery is distressing and the mother's severe pain and anxiety in this condition can have negative impacts on the fetus, mother, and the delivery process. Yet, pain and anxiety can be reduced by supporting the mother by a doula. Thus, the present study aims to compare the effects of doula supportive care and acupressure at the BL32 point on the mother's anxiety level and delivery outcome. Materials and Methods: The present clinical trial was conducted on 150 pregnant women who had referred to the Shoushtari Hospital, Shiraz, Iran for delivery in 2012. The subjects were randomly divided into two intervention groups (supportive care and acupressure) and a control group (hospital routine care). The mothers’ anxiety score was assessed before and after the intervention, using the Spielberger questionnaire. The delivery outcomes were evaluated, as well. Subsequently, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (Ver. 16) and analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square test, correlation coefficient, and logistic regression analysis. Results: After the intervention, the highest and lowest mean scores of the state and trait anxieties were compared with the control and the supportive care groups, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). A significant relationship was found between the labor length and mother's anxiety score after the intervention in the supportive care (P < 0.001) and the control group (P = 0.006). However, this relationship was not significant in the acupressure group (P = 0.425). Also, a significant difference was observed among the three groups regarding the mothers’ anxiety level (P = 0.009). Conclusions: The study results showed that doula supportive care and acupressure at the BL32 point reduced the mother's anxiety as well as the labor length. Therefore, non-pharmacological methods are recommended to be used during labor for improving birth outcomes and creating a positive birth experience.
Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Masoudi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Vaziri, Farideh
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive…
Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder. The…
Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.
Examined relationship betwen death anxiety and cognitive/emotional responses to the threat of nuclear war in 345 college students. Results from Templer Death Anxiety Scale and questionnaire about nuclear war found death anxiety positively related to nuclear anxiety, and negligibly associated with perceptions of political efficacy and support for…
Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others
We use a simple method for evaluating antioxidative status, by measuring the redox potential of urine, and correlate the findings with measures of anxiety and depression. We include 63 individuals (28 males and 35 females aged between 20 and 65 years). The validated anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and the validated BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) questionnaire were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Antioxidative status was determined by measuring the redox potential of urine collected in standard conditions. Correlation of the antioxidant capacity of urines evaluated using the ferric ion/specific dye method or through redox potential using the platinum electrode demonstrated the suitability of this last procedure. We found that normal anxiety state values corresponded to low urine redox potentials, whereas higher anxiety states were associated with high urinary redox potential. We also found that individuals with normal BDI values had significantly lower urine redox potentials than individuals with higher BDI values. PMID:24876911
Grases, G.; Colom, M. A.; Fernandez, R. A.; Costa-Bauzį, A.; Grases, F.
Background: Dental fear, anxiety and phobia have consistently been reported as widespread problems that persist despite the technological advances that have made dentistry less painful and less uncomfortable. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety (DA) and its relation to age and sex among Coastal Andhra (Visakhapatnam) population. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled study was designed among 340 individuals at GITAM Dental College and Hospital, Visakhapatnam. The sample for the study consisted of 180 female and 160 male subjects between 15 and 65 years of age; all were supplied with two questionnaires (Corah DA scale [CDAS] and Clarke and Rustvold dental concerns assessment scale describing anxiety provoking stimuli. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied (significance level P < 0.05). The correlations between the two questionnaires were calculated using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Two questionnaires were collected from all 340 individuals and the Indian translation of both instruments was found to be internally reliable with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.093. Overall prevalence of DA was high (77.4%) but severe (22.6%) anxiety (phobia) was low. Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant relation between age and DA. The mean CDAS scores were high in 25-35 (11.08) and low in 55-65 (9.45) year age groups. Mann-Whitney U test showed significant relation between sex and DA. Mean CDAS score levels were significantly higher in females (10.88) than in males (9.96) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Patients anxious about dental procedures are often more difficult to treat. If Dentists become aware about the level of DA among their patients, they can anticipate patient's behavior and can be prepared to take behavioral/pharmacological measures to reduce anxiety levels. PMID:25097425
Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Lalithamma, Thota; Varma, Dandu Maruti; Sudhakar, Korukonda Naga Venkata; Srinivas, Baratam; Krishnamraju, Penumetsa Venkata; Shaik, Ahammad Basha
Background: One of the most important complications for women during hajj trip is menstruation and most commonly spotting, which is the second important problem. This complication would cause some problems in performing religious rites as the main purpose of the trip and on the other hand, it would lead to psychologic complications for women. Controlling psychologic complications of women during and after hajj is necessary. Objectives: The purpose to this study was to investigate predictors of anxiety and depression among the women with vaginal bleeding who were referred to Iranian clinic in Mecca and Medina in hajj 2011. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 women with vaginal bleeding who were referred to gynecology clinic were enrolled. The Samples were selected by easy way method from all referrals on Tuesdays during hajj (October and November 2011). To evaluate the anxiety and depression signs, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire was employed. The analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 through parametric methods. Results: Predictors of anxiety were observed in 22 women (20%). Moreover, 34 women (30.9%) were diagnosed from normal to abnormal, 3 (2.72%) had depression signs, and 22 (20%) showed symptoms of borderline symptoms of depression. Conclusions: Considering the high frequency of anxiety disorder among women with vaginal bleeding in hajj, gynecological consultation seems essential for women during Hajj.
Riaz, Seyed Ali; Ahmadi, Maryam; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa
AIMTo investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms and disorders in children, and their relation to social adversities in a cultural sample not previously researched.METHODS237 children aged 9 to 13 years living in the Gaza Strip were selected randomly from 112 schools. Children completed the revised manifest anxiety scale (a questionnaire with yes\\/no answers for 28 anxiety items and
A A M Thabet; P Vostanis
The aim of this study is to examine the association between symptoms of depression and anxiety and hypertension status. Participants (n=455, 238 women) were drawn from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study. In 2002-2004, they attended a clinic assessment during which socio-demographics, anthropometrics, resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and health behaviours were measured. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. In 2008-2009, participants completed a questionnaire, which asked whether they ever had a physician diagnosing them as suffering from hypertension. In separate regression models that initially adjusted for age and then additionally for sex, socio-economic status, smoking, sports participation, alcohol consumption, resting SBP, antidepressive and anxiolytic medication, whether or not participants were exposed to the Dutch famine in utero, BMI and waist:hip ratio, both depression and anxiety were positively associated with hypertension status. Those who met the criterion for possible clinical depression and anxiety were also more likely to be hypertensive, and these associations remained statistically significant in the fully adjusted regression model. In conclusion, symptoms of depression and anxiety were associated with a diagnosis of hypertension assessed 5 years later, although the mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be determined. PMID:22592133
Ginty, A T; Carroll, D; Roseboom, T J; Phillips, A C; de Rooij, S R
Objective To investigate symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART), and to study the relationship of demographic data, pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Design Descriptive, a part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’. Setting All university clinics in Sweden performing gamete donation. Population A consecutive sample of 214 lesbian couples requesting assisted reproduction, 165 of whom participated. Methods Participants individually completed three study-specific questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): time point 1 (T1), at commencement of ART; time point 2 (T2), approximately 2 months after treatment; and time point 3 (T3), 2–5 years after first treatment. Main outcome measures Anxiety and depression (HADS), pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans. Results The vast majority of lesbian women undergoing assisted reproduction reported no symptoms of anxiety and depression at the three assessment points. A higher percentage of the treated women, compared with the partners, reported symptoms of anxiety at T2 (14% versus 5%, P = 0.011) and T3 (10% versus 4%, P = 0.018), as well as symptoms of depression at T2 (4% versus 0%, P = 0.03) and T3 (3% versus 0%, P = 0.035). The overall pregnancy outcome was high; almost three-quarters of lesbian couples gave birth 2–5 years after sperm donation treatments. Open-ended comments illustrated joy and satisfaction about family building. Conclusion Lesbian women in Sweden reported good psychological health before and after treatment with donated sperm. PMID:23489411
Borneskog, C; Sydsjö, G; Lampic, C; Bladh, M; Svanberg, AS
We aimed to investigate anxiety, depression and sexual satisfaction levels of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) and compare the scores with healthy men's. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) and European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 were used. Forty-one TCSs and thirty-eight healthy men were participated in this study. The total HADs scores of TCSs (12.21 ± 8.19) were less than the healthy group (14.44 ± 6.53; p > 0.05). The high depression scores rate was 29.2 and 55.2, and high anxiety scores rate was 24.4 and 28.9 for TCSs and healthy group, respectively. When we evaluated GRISS subscores and anxiety levels, we found significantly increase only in avoidance subscores in the TCSs (p = 0.04). When we evaluated GRISS subscores and depression levels, GRISS subscores of the TCSs who had high depression scores were also high. However, statistical significance was found in satisfaction (p = 0.009), touch (p = 0.04), avoidance (p = 0.01) and erectile dysfunction (p = 0.04) subscores in the TCSs. In the TCSs whose anxiety scores were high, emotional functioning (p = 0.009) and global QoL (p = 0.01) subscores of GRISS was found significantly low. In the TCSs whose depression scores were high, physical (p = 0.01), cognitive (p = 0.04), emotional (p = 0.03), social functioning (p = 0.02) and global QoL (p < 0.001) subscores of GRISS were found significantly low. Anxiety, depression and sexual satisfaction levels of TCSs were found to be similar with the control population. PMID:24913808
Alacacioglu, Ahmet; Ulger, Eda; Varol, Umut; Yavuzsen, Tugba; Akyol, Murat; Yildiz, Yasar; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Bayoglu, Vedat; Dirican, Ahmet; Demir, Lutfiye; Salman, Tarik; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Alacacioglu, Inci; Can, Huseyin; Tarhan, Mustafa Oktay
The primary purpose of this study is to examine relationships among social cognition, social anxiety, and social skills with friends and strangers in children. Ninety-two children (age 10-14 years) in Iceland completed questionnaires on social anxiety, social skills, assertiveness, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy in social situations with…
Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kr.; Ollendick, Thomas H.
Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…
Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim
While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…
Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.
Psychologists can gain insight into human behavior by examining what people feel about, know about, and do with, computers. Two extreme reactions to computers are computer phobia, or anxiety, and computer addiction, or "hacking". A four-part questionnaire was developed to measure computer anxiety. The first part is a projective technique which…
Introduction Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. Methodology This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson’s chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Results Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Conclusion Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors. PMID:25629925
Waqas, Ahmed; Raza, Nahal; Lodhi, Haneen Wajid; Muhammad, Zerwah; Jamal, Mehak; Rehman, Abdul
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relations between child anxiety disorder with different family characte ristics. METHODS Family characteristics were measured by family environment scale. 144 mothers of child with anxiety disorder and 100 mothers of health children were invited to fill out questionnaires. RESULTS There were obviously different family characteristics between health children and those with anxiety disorder except phobic anxiety disorder. The scores of cohesion, independence, achievement orientation and active recreational orientation in children with anxiety disorder were significantly lower than those in health children P<0.01). In 4 groups of children with anxiety disorder cohesion showed correlation with intellectual- cultural orientation r=0.9219, 0.8348, 0.8935, 0.9550 respectively, P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The importance of family characteristics must be emphasized for children with anxiety disorder. PMID:12601890
Wang, Ji-Yue; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Jun-Fu; He, Hui-Xia; Hong, You-Ping
The study described here aimed to examine the relations between test anxiety, competence beliefs and achievement goals, and in particular if the relations between competence beliefs and test anxiety were moderated by achievement goals. Pupils in their first year of secondary schooling completed self-report questionnaires for test anxiety, competence beliefs and achievement goals. Results indicated that pupils with low competence
David William Putwain; Rachel Anne Daniels
This article reviews new developments in rating scales for anxiety\\/anxiety disorders. Several new rating instruments have\\u000a been developed. These instruments could be useful in various areas, such as research of anxiety disorders or in assessment\\u000a of anxiety in patients with various somatic diseases (dyspnea, pain, chronic illnesses such as diabetes or cancer). Some of\\u000a the existing instruments have been modified,
Richard Balon; UPC Jefferson
Objective: The authors examined relationships among social physique anxiety, obligation to exercise, and exercise choices. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 337; 200 women, 137 men) volunteered to complete 3 questionnaires: the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ), and Physical Activity…
Chu, Hui-Wen; Bushman, Barbara A.; Woodard, Rebecca J.
Introduction: Hospital anxiety and surgery has an unpleasant and disturbing feeling for a child and his/her family. This study aimed to determine the effect of toys and visit in reducing children's anxiety before the surgery and their mothers and satisfaction with the treatment process. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study in posttest design with a control group. 60 children aged 3 to 8 years, who were undergoing ear, nose and throat surgery in Tabriz Amiralmomenin hospital, were chosen, and regarding their age and gender, were recruited into the control or experiment group. For the experiment group, the interventions before surgery were applied. The level of anxiety in children and parents was evaluated by Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD-R) and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The level of parental satisfaction with the treatment process before being discharged from the hospital was evaluated by the process of treatment satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18). Data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13. Results: Mean anxiety scores of the children and mothers in the experimental group were lower than the control group. Mean maternal satisfaction score of the treatment process in the experimental group was higher than the mean scores of the control group. However, in the subscales of general satisfaction, interpersonal behavior, and financial aspects of satisfaction with treatment, no statistical significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: Based on the findings, providing toys for children and informing the parents about medical information has a major effect in reducing children's and other's anxiety and increasing maternal satisfaction with the treatment process. PMID:25276745
Ghabeli, Fatemeh; Moheb, Naeime; Hosseini Nasab, Seyed Davoud
Resources made available by DCEG for use in developing study questionnaires. Includes questionnaires reviewed and approved by DCEG’s Technical Evaluation Committee, as well as non-reviewed questionnaire modules to be used as starting points for development.
This study evaluated the association of level of anxiety in children with and without sleep bruxism (SB). The study was performed with 84 six- to eigth-years-old children, divided into two groups: with bruxism (BG) and without bruxism (CG). Following the criteria purposed by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) to determine SB, the presence of tooth wear has been verified through clinical examinations, and the parents have answered a questionnaire about their children's behavior and habits. Additionally, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was applied to parents of the selected patients. Data analysis revealed a statistical significant difference between the groups (Student's t-test, p = 0.0136). Based on the results, anxiety assessment revealed that children with bruxism have reached higher levels in the STAIC scale than the non-bruxism group. Therefore, it indicates a direct relationship between the presence of anxiety disorder and the onset of bruxism in children. PMID:25627888
De Oliveira, Marcelo Tomįs; Bittencourt, Sandra Teixeira; Marcon, Karina; Destro, Samia; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo
This study explored rumor transmission as a function of the anxiety of the group exposed to that rumor. Four eight-member groups which were designated either as high anxiety or low anxiety on the basis of scores on the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) were presented with a rumor through a sociometrically selected individual. Issues relevant to the groups, with basic
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between anxiety and event-free survival (i.e., composite endpoint of death, emergency department visits, or hospitalizations) for patients with HF, and examine whether behavioral and physiologic mechanisms mediate any association between anxiety and outcomes. METHODS In this longitudinal study, patients with HF completed the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory, and heart rate variability and plasma norepinephrine level were measured. Dietary and medication adherence were measured with a 24-hour urine sodium level and the Medication Event Monitoring System, respectively. Patients were followed at least 1 year for event-free survival. RESULTS A total of 147 patients were enrolled. Patients with high anxiety had a shorter (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.3, P = .03) period of event-free survival than patients with lower anxiety. Anxiety independently predicted medication adherence (P = .008), which in turn predicted event-free survival (HR 2.0, CI 1.2–3.3, P = .008). The effect of anxiety (P = .17) on event-free survival was less significant when the regression model included both anxiety and medication adherence than when the model only included anxiety (P = .03), indicating that medication adherence mediated the relationship between anxiety and event-free survival. CONCLUSION This is the first study to show that medication nonadherence links anxiety and event-free survival for patients with HF. Interventions that reduce anxiety and improve adherence may favorably benefit outcomes. PMID:21453974
De Jong, Marla J.; Chung, Misook L.; Wu, Jia-Rong; Riegel, Barbara; Rayens, Mary Kay; Moser, Debra K.
Objectives To determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in an NHS community trust; to examine the association between bullying and occupational health outcomes; and to investigate the relation between support at work and bullying. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting NHS community trust in the south east of England. Subjects Trust employees. Main outcome measures Measures included a 20 item inventory of bullying behaviours designed for the study, the job induced stress scale, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the overall job satisfaction scale, the support at work scale, and the propensity to leave scale. Results 1100 employees returned questionnaires—a response rate of 70%. 421 (38%) employees reported experiencing one or more types of bullying in the previous year. 460 (42%) had witnessed the bullying of others. When bullying occurred it was most likely to be by a manager. Two thirds of the victims of bullying had tried to take action when the bullying occurred, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. Staff who had been bullied had significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (mean 10.5 (SD 2.7) v 12.2 (2.3), P<0.001) and higher levels of job induced stress (mean 22.5 (SD 6.1) v 16.9 (5.8), P<0.001), depression (8% (33) v 1% (7), P<0.001), anxiety (30% (125) v 9% (60), P<0.001), and intention to leave the job (8.5 (2.9) v 7.0 (2.7), P<0.001). Support at work seemed to protect people from some of the damaging effects of bullying. Conclusions Bullying is a serious problem. Setting up systems for supporting staff and for dealing with interpersonal conflict may have benefits for both employers and staff. Key messages38% of staff in a community NHS trust reported being subjected to bullying behaviours in the workplace in the previous year and 42% had witnessed the bullying of othersStaff who had been bullied had lower levels of job satisfaction and higher levels of job induced stress, depression, anxiety, and intention to leaveSupport at work may be able to protect people from some of the damaging effects of bullyingEmployers should have policies and procedures that comprehensively address the issue of workplace bullying PMID:9915730
Background: To associate oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional questionnaires based survey was conducted among the subjects of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. The survey was carried among 101 subjects aging from 20-40 years. Subjects under investigation were belonging to various occupations. They were assigned a questionnaire. Questionnaire consisted of four parts, first part consists of socio-demographic data along with dental visiting habits, second part has OHqOL-questionnaire, third part has general health (sf-12) and fourth part has hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. Questionnaire was used for assessment of OHqOL. It consists of 16 questions which takes into account both effect and impact of oral health on quality of life. Dental anxiety and depression was measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Each question was provided with four options and numbering ranging from 0-3. For general health consideration sf-12 v2 was being used, which calculates two values PCS and MCS giving result in percentage. Results: A large proportion of respondent perceived oral health as having an enhanced effect on their quality of life in all three aspects that is general health, social and psychological. This is in stark contrast to other studies, where only physical aspects of oral health were more frequently considered to have the greatest overall impact of life quality compared with items relating to social, psychological and general health aspects. Conclusion: Gender variations were not apparent in the study. Both genders were likely to perceive oral health as it is impacting strongly on their quality of life. No significant gender variations are seen. But both have specific oral health needs and are most likely to utilize dental services which may be the key in understanding oral health behavior, including dental attendance patterns. How to cite this article: Shet RG, Jain G, Maroli S, Srivastava KJ, Kasina SP, Shwetha GS. Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):1-8 . PMID:24453438
Shet, RGK; Jain, Gaurvi; Maroli, Sohani; Srivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Kasina, Sitaram Prasad; Shwetha, GS
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…
Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.
Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression, with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress-anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these specific aspects of mindfulness in interventions for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:23768665
Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
The relationship between weather conditions and psychiatric disorders has been a continuous subject of speculation due to contradictory findings. This study attempts to further clarify this relationship by focussing on specific conditions such as panic attacks and non-panic anxiety in relation to specific meteorological variables. All psychiatric emergencies attended at a general hospital in Barcelona (Spain) during 2002 with anxiety as main complaint were classified as panic or non-panic anxiety according to strict independent and retrospective criteria. Both groups were assessed and compared with meteorological data (wind speed and direction, daily rainfall, temperature, humidity and solar radiation). Seasons and weekend days were also included as independent variables. Non-parametric statistics were used throughout since most variables do not follow a normal distribution. Logistic regression models were applied to predict days with and without the clinical condition. Episodes of panic were three times more common with the poniente wind (hot wind), twice less often with rainfall, and one and a half times more common in autumn than in other seasons. These three trends (hot wind, rainfall and autumn) were accumulative for panic episodes in a logistic regression formula. Significant reduction of episodes on weekends was found only for non-panic episodes. Panic attacks, unlike other anxiety episodes, in a psychiatric emergency department in Barcelona seem to show significant meteorotropism. Assessing specific disorders instead of overall emergencies or other variables of a more general quality could shed new light on the relationship between weather conditions and behaviour.
Bulbena, A.; Pailhez, G.; Aceńa, R.; Cunillera, J.; Rius, A.; Garcia-Ribera, C.; Gutiérrez, J.; Rojo, C.
Objective Acute lung injury (ALI) is common in the intensive care unit (ICU), typically requiring life support ventilation. Survivors often experience anxiety after hospital discharge. We evaluated general anxiety symptoms 3 months after ALI for: (1) associations with patient characteristics and ICU variables, and (2) cross-sectional associations with physical function and quality of life (QOL). Methods General anxiety was assessed as part of a prospective cohort study recruiting patients from 13 ICUs at four hospitals in Baltimore, MD using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale — Anxiety Subscale (HAD-A), with associations evaluated using multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results Of 152 patients, 38% had a positive screening test for general anxiety (HAD-A ? 8). Pre-ICU body mass index and psychiatric comorbidity were associated with general anxiety (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 (1.00, 1.13) and 3.59 (1.25, 10.30), respectively). No ICU-related variables were associated with general anxiety. General anxiety was associated with the number of instrumental ADL dependencies (Spearman's rho = 0.22; p = 0.004) and worse overall QOL as measured by EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) (rho = ?0.34; p < 0.001) and utility score (rho = ?0.30; p < 0.001), and by the SF-36 mental health domain (rho = ?0.70; p < 0.001) and Mental Component Summary score (rho = ?0.73; p < 0.001). Conclusion Many patients have substantial general anxiety symptoms 3 months after ALI. General anxiety was associated with patient characteristics and impaired physical function and quality of life. Early identification and treatment of general anxiety may enhance physical and emotional function in patients surviving critical illnesses. PMID:23972420
Stevenson, Jennifer E.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Wozniak, Amy; Shanholtz, Carl; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Needham, Dale M.
This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories. PMID:21987071
Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris
To increase the sustainability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in primary care for late-life anxiety, we incorporated nonexpert counselors, options for telephone meetings, and integration with primary care clinicians. This open trial examines the feasibility, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes of CBT delivered by experienced and nonexperienced counselors for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Clinical outcomes assessed worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Anxiety Scale). After 3 months of treatment, Cohen's d effect sizes for worry and anxiety ranged from 0.48 to 0.78. Patients treated by experienced and nonexperienced counselors had similar reductions in worry and anxiety, although treatment outcomes were more improved on the Beck Anxiety Inventory for experienced therapists. Preliminary results suggest that adapted CBT can effectively reduce worry. The piloted modifications can provide acceptable and feasible evidence-based care. PMID:23588228
Calleo, Jessica S; Bush, Amber L; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy L; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Masozera, Nicholas; Williams, Susan; Horsfield, Matthew; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A
The present study developed a job-hunting anxiety scale and investigated the influence of job-hunting anxiety on coping, number of job-hunting applications, and satisfaction with job-hunting. Questionnaires were completed by 306 college students who had started job-hunting. Explorative factor analysis extracted five factors such as "appeal anxiety", "support anxiety", "activity persistence anxiety", "test anxiety", and "a lack of readiness anxiety". Analysis of covariance structures indicated that (a) job-hunting anxiety was negatively related to problem-focused coping, the number of job-hunting applications, and the satisfaction with job-hunting, and (b) problem-focused coping was positively related to the number of job-hunting applications and the satisfaction with job-hunting. These results suggest that reduction of job-hunting anxiety and the use of problem-focused coping facilitated job-hunting. PMID:20235476
Matsuda, Yuko; Nagasaku, Minoru; Arai, Kunijiro
. Where was the study child born? City ST ___ ___ Country 6. What is the child's sex? Male Female 7. HowAppendix B: Questionnaire B1: Questionnaire #12;Do not write in this space To protect your child/her as the "study child". This page, which includes his/her personal information, will be separated from the rest
Aims: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and related factors of anxiety and depression in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Materials and Methods: A total of 115 DCM patients were consecutively recruited into present study, and general information was recorded. Zung’s self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate the anxiety and depression of these patients. In addition, factors influencing the anxiety and depression were also analyzed in these patients. Results: Of 115 patients, 23.4% were identified as anxiety and 21.7% depression. The mental work, NYHA class, arrhythmia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide, hospitalization days and hospitalization cost were significantly related to the anxiety and depression in patients with DCM. Conclusion: DCM patients have a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. Patients with mental work, poor cardiac function and arrhythmia are susceptible to anxiety and depression. PMID:25664092
Guan, Shu; Fang, Xiang; Hu, Xue
Statistics anxiety is hypothesized to be a closely related but a distinct construct from mathematics anxiety. However, many incorrectly conceive that statistics anxiety is the same construct as mathematics anxiety. Confusing statistics anxiety and mathematics anxiety is common among students as well as researchers. Frequent appearance of…
The clergy occupation is unique in its combination of role strains and higher calling, putting clergy mental health at risk. We surveyed all United Methodist clergy in North Carolina, and 95% (n = 1,726) responded, with 38% responding via phone interview. We compared clergy phone interview depression rates, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), to those of in-person interviews in a representative United States sample that also used the PHQ-9. The clergy depression prevalence was 8.7%, significantly higher than the 5.5% rate of the national sample. We used logistic regression to explain depression, and also anxiety, assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. As hypothesized by effort-reward imbalance theory, several extrinsic demands (job stress, life unpredictability) and intrinsic demands (guilt about not doing enough work, doubting one's call to ministry) significantly predicted depression and anxiety, as did rewards such as ministry satisfaction and lack of financial stress. The high rate of clergy depression signals the need for preventive policies and programs for clergy. The extrinsic and intrinsic demands and rewards suggest specific actions to improve clergy mental health. PMID:23975208
Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Miles, Andrew; Toth, Matthew; Adams, Christopher; Smith, Bruce W; Toole, David
Presented are the following reports: (1) Math Anxiety: Real and Complex; (2) Math Anxiety and Middle School Students; (3) Math Anxiety and College Freshmen; (4) Math Anxiety and Elementary Teachers; and (5) Math Anxiety: Conclusions, Discussions, and Remedies. The studies attempt to answer questions regarding mathematics anxiety: (1) what is it,…
Wright, Donald E.; Miller, Loretta Diane
Research into the prevention of anxiety has increased dramatically in the past few years. Prevention programs have been directed\\u000a at broad, nonspecific anxiety and at more specific anxiety types, such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.\\u000a Prevention of anxiety is still a relatively new field, but there has been a recent surge of literature reporting on different\\u000a prevention programs.
Elizabeth X. Lau; Ronald M. Rapee
Transforming Anxiety into ENERGYTM How to Prevent Panic and Promote Productivity in Turbulent Times By Wendy Mack with contributions from Meredith Kimbell and Myron Radio #12;Transforming Anxiety into Energy, consultants, and researchers who shared their stories and expertise. 1 #12;Transforming Anxiety into Energy
Maryland, Baltimore County, University of
This study examines the motivational pattern in relation to the anxiety of Chinese learners of English. Based on a survey consisting of an anxiety questionnaire and a motivation questionnaire, the findings revealed an unbalanced pattern of two types of motivation clusters that resembled the integrative-instrumental duality, with the level of instrumental motivation significantly higher than that of integrative motivation. Although
Hospitality Management Hospitality Management Norm Faiola, Chair, 315-443-1710 Lyman Hall Faculty PROGRAM The Department of Hospitality Management requires a diversity of skills from many disciplines of the global hospitality industry. Academic Offerings HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR HOSPITALITY
Background Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Methods Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire – Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Results Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), Reciprocal Social Interaction (t(351)=4.73, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), communication (t(344)=3.62, p<.001, d=.43, r=.21) and repetitive, restrictive and stereotyped behaviors subscales (t(353)=3.15, p=.002, d=.37, r=.18). Furthermore, children with Social Anxiety Disorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. Limitations The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Conclusions Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. PMID:25451393
Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy
. Mackey c a Department of Psychology, Columbia University, Schermerhorn Hall, 1190 Amsterdam Avenue, New by the fear of pain questionnaire (FPQ). In separate sessions, participants completed these questionnaires the fear of pain questionnaire (FPQ III, McNeil & Rainwater, 1998) and anxiety sensitivity index (ASI
ABSTRACT - A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states , patients under in- vestigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments. Received December 3,1982;
A. S. Zigmond; R. P. Snaith
Anxiety is of paramount importance for animals, as it allows assessment of the environment while minimizing exposure to potential threats. Furthermore, anxiety disorders are highly prevalent. Consequently, the neural circuitry underlying anxiety has been a topic of great interest. In this mini review, we will discuss current views on anxiety circuits. We will focus on rodent anxiety paradigms, but we will also consider results from human neuroimaging and clinical studies. We briefly review studies demonstrating the central role that the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) play in modulating anxiety and present evidence showing how the bed nucleus uses different output pathways to influence specific features of anxiolysis. Lastly, we propose that several brain regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), act in a coordinated fashion with the amygdala and BNST, forming a distributed network of interconnected structures that control anxiety both in rodents and humans. PMID:24744710
The association between eating problems; and intimacy and relationship styles was examined. Young adult females (n=360) completed the Adult Attachment Style (AAS), questionnaire; questions on satisfaction with intimacy; the Sexual Attitude Scale; items on sexual avoidance; a set of six descriptions for mother, friend, and partner; and measures of depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and eating problems. Women with greater
L. Evans; E. H. Wertheim
This research examines the relationship between behavioural inhibition (BI), family environment (overinvolved and negative\\u000a parenting, parental anxiety and parent-child attachment) and anxiety in a sample of 202 preschool children. Participants were\\u000a aged between 3 years 2 months and 4 years 5 months, 101 were male. A thorough methodology was used that incorporated data\\u000a from multiple observations of behaviour, diagnostic interviews and questionnaire measures. The
Jennifer L. Hudson; Helen F. Dodd; Nataly Bovopoulos
This study provides insight into the prevalence and correlates of anxiety among university students in Bursa, Turkey. A total of 4850 students participated in the study. Students completed Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, as well as a questionnaire designed to determine risk factors of anxiety. About 29.6% and 36.7% of the students in the study reported state and trait anxiety scores of more than 45 points, respectively. Controlling for gender and family socioeconomic status, the following characteristics predict both state and trait anxiety: the status of family relationships, difficulty understanding lectures, difficulty adapting to university life, having to solve problems independently, a vision of self-sufficiency in problem solving, negative life experience, and satisfaction with their department of study. The following factors are predictive of only state anxiety: boarding conditions, having a chronic disease, and exam periods. The risk factors for trait anxiety scores include the following: anxiety about the future, preparation for work life, class of study, private relationships, and attitude of the family toward their child. Families, secondary education institutions, and universities should cooperate to eliminate risk factors for anxiety among university students. PMID:20032042
Ozen, Nurdan Sakin; Ercan, Ilker; Irgil, Emel; Sigirli, Deniz
Background and Purpose Higher levels of anxiety are associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease. However, few studies have investigated whether anxiety is associated with stroke risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between anxiety symptoms and incident stroke in a nationally representative longitudinal study of the US population. Methods Participants (n=6019) in the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were assessed at baseline and followed for 16.29±4.75 years. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident stroke associated with a 1 SD increase in anxiety symptoms. Models were adjusted for standard cardiovascular risk factors and additionally for depression. Results A total of 419 incident stroke cases were identified from hospital/nursing home discharge reports and death certificates. Reporting more anxiety symptoms at baseline was associated with increased risk of incident stroke after adjusting for standard biological and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–1.25). Findings persisted when additionally controlling for depression. Exploratory analyses considering the role of potential confounding versus pathway variables suggested that behavioral factors may be a key pathway linking anxiety to stroke risk. Conclusions Higher anxiety symptom levels were associated prospectively with increased risk for incident stroke independent of other risk factors, including depression. Anxiety is a modifiable experience that is highly prevalent among the general population. Its assessment and treatment may contribute to developing more effective preventive and intervention strategies for improving overall cardiovascular health. PMID:24357656
Lambiase, Maya J.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Thurston, Rebecca C.
The Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Attitudes Toward Statistics questionnaire were administered to 226 university of technology students. The former scale measures anxiety about learning statistics in terms of Worth of Statistics, Interpretation Anxiety, Test and Class Anxiety, Computational Self-concept, Fear of Asking for Help, and Fear of Statistics Teachers. The latter measures attitudes toward use of statistics and statistics course for which a student was registered. These African students were enrolled in Taxation, Marketing, or Accounting. Participants took a required course in statistics intended to improve statistical skills. There were 150 women and 57 men, chosen because they had no previous mathematics learning. Students' ages ranged between 16 and 26 years (M = 20.1, SD = 2.0). There were no statistically significant sex differences on attitudes and anxiety toward statistics, but there were significant differences among areas of study programs. PMID:19708400
There has been a growing trend toward one-day ambulatory surgery. Unfortunately, there has been little research evaluating how patients recover at home after one-day surgery. This study examined the relationship between preoperative anxiety and postoperative recovery in ambulatory surgery patients. Fifty women who were scheduled for a laparascopy completed a series of questionnaires on the day before surgery and on each of three days after surgery. One month after surgery, the patients were telephoned and reported on their recovery. The surgeon rated each patient on their estimated degree of anxiety and length of recovery. The results showed that preoperative anxiety partially predicted the patients' psychological and physiological reaction to surgery. Identification of those patients who show high anxiety and distress may help to prevent postoperative complications. These patients may benefit from patient education and psychological interventions to decrease their fears and anxiety and they may benefit from more intensive observation periods following their surgery. PMID:3166347
Parris, Winston C.V.; Matt, Denise; Jamison, Robert N.; Maxson, Wayne
Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety was related to gender and education for elderly living in the community, but social support and self-esteem were additional correlates for those living in nursing homes. The results of this study indicate that fostering a sense that one has a supportive social and familial network is important in decreasing death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab people. It would also be beneficial to provide information and knowledge that might relieve some of the anxiety they experience. PMID:24479192
Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim
Test Anxiety Tips to Ease Your Test Anxiety Adapted from: Study Guides and Strategies website, Overcoming test anxiety Test taking can be overwhelming and can cause a lot of anxiety. Try these tips to ease your anxiety through the testing process! Before Approach the exam with confidence Be prepared
High trait anxiety has been linked with risk-avoidant decision-making, though little is known regarding the specific facets of anxiety contributing to this negative association. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor for anxiety-related pathology, may be particularly relevant to risk decision-making given that risk-taking behaviors generate heightened somatic arousal and produce many of the sensations feared by individuals with high AS. Two studies were conducted to investigate the relation between AS and risk decision-making. In the first study, 268 undergraduate students completed a series of questionnaires that included measures of AS and gambling behaviors. Significant negative correlations were observed between AS and several gambling-related risk-taking activities, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that AS scores added significant incremental validity in predicting risk-taking over and above demographic variables, negative affect, and trait anxiety. In the second study, 43 participants who had screened for high (n=20) or low (n=23) AS completed the Iowa gambling task, a behavioral measure of risk-taking. Results indicated that, when placed under conditions of risk, individuals with high AS engaged in significantly less risk-taking than their low AS counterparts. The implications of these findings and potential directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24559488
Broman-Fulks, Joshua J; Urbaniak, Anna; Bondy, Carmen L; Toomey, Kelsey J
Postural sensitivity to moving visual environments in patients with anxiety disorders was studied. We hypothesized that patients with anxiety disorders would have greater sway in response to a moving visual environment compared to healthy adults, especially if they have space and motion discomfort (SMD). Twenty one patients with generalized anxiety without panic (NPA), and 38 patients with panic and agoraphobia (PAG) were compared to 22 healthy controls. SMD was evaluated in all subjects via questionnaire. Subjects stood on a force platform that was either fixed or rotating with the subject (i.e. sway referenced) during exposure to a sinusoidally moving visual surround. Center of Pressure (COP) data were computed from force transducers in the platform as a measure of sway. Results showed that patients swayed significantly more in response to the moving visual scene compared to control subjects, with no differences between the NPA and PAG groups. SMD was a predictor of sway response in the patients: patients with high SMD swayed significantly more than both Controls and anxiety patients with low SMD. These results indicate that patients with anxiety disorders, particularly those with SMD, are more visually dependent for balance. This subgroup of patients may be amenable to treatment used for patients with balance disorders (i.e. vestibular rehabilitation) that focuses on sensory re-integration processes that address visual sensitivity. PMID:17045776
Redfern, Mark S.; Furman, Joseph M.; Jacob, Rolf G.
The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…
The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a level 7 nuclear accident. Among those affected by this combined disaster were many pregnant and parturient women. Sixteen months after the earthquake, we conducted a questionnaire survey on anxiety among 259 women who gave birth around the time of the earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture, one of the affected areas. Participants reported 12 categories of anxiety, including anxiety over radioactivity. This study aimed to determine anxiety over radioactivity among this specific population and to record measures for future study. Anxiety over radiation was classified into seven subcategories: food safety, outdoor safety, effects on the fetuses of pregnant women, effects on children, radiation exposure, economic problems, and distrust of information disclosed. This study confirmed that concrete types of anxiety over radiation were keenly felt by mothers who had experienced the disaster who were currently raising children. The findings suggest the need to provide accurate information to these mothers, who are otherwise inundated with miscellaneous confusing information. PMID:25363115
Yoshii, Hatsumi; Saito, Hidemitsu; Kikuchi, Saya; Ueno, Takashi; Sato, Kineko
\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of the descriptive epidemiology of anxiety disorders based on recently completed surveys\\u000a of the general population. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders is shown to be quite high, but with considerable variation\\u000a from the most prevalent (specific phobias) to the least prevalent (agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder) disorders.\\u000a Age-of-onset (AOO) of anxiety disorders
Ronald C. Kessler; Ayelet Meron Ruscio; Katherine Shear; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
There is considerable evidence that genetic determinants play a major role in the etiology of anxiety. Investigations into\\u000a susceptibility genes for anxiety are well underway, particularly for panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder and\\u000a more broadly defined anxiety-related traits, such as neuroticism and harm avoidance. This review will discuss some of the\\u000a core issues related to diagnosis and molecular genetic methodology,
Paul D. Arnold; Gwyneth Zai; Margaret A. Richter
Anxiety disorders are common within primary care (PC) settings and are associated with patient functional impairment, distress,\\u000a and high utilization of medical care services. Data from PC settings indicate that detection of anxiety disorders is low.\\u000a Furthermore, adequate psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders in accordance with empirically validated\\u000a guidelines remains low in PC. When patients do receive treatment
Kristen Hope Demertzis; Michelle G. Craske
Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment. PMID:25083300
Polat, Ulku; Arpac?, Afey; Demir, Sat?; Erdal, Sevgi; Yalcin, ?uayib
Aim This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction, body dysmorphic disorder, social anxiety\\u000a and depressive symptoms in first-year medical students in China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A self-report survey design was employed, using the Body Shape Questionnaire, Swansea Muscularity Attitudes Questionnaire,\\u000a Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire, Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Body Dysmorphic Disorder\\u000a Questionnaire. A total of 487 first-year
Yanhui Liao; Natalie P. Knoesen; Yunlong Deng; Jinsong Tang; David J. Castle; Riteesh Bookun; Wei Hao; Xiaogang Chen; Tieqiao Liu
to separate a general distress continuum from more specific sub-domains of depression and anxiety in an adolescent community sample (n = 1159, age 14). The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used. Results A...
Brodbeck, Jeannette; Abbott, Rosemary A; Goodyer, Ian M; Croudace, Tim J
This study investigates the relationships between mathematics anxiety, attitudes toward mathematics and mathematical thinking among university students. A 60-item questionnaire included mathematical thinking rating scale, mathematics anxiety rating scale and mathematics attitudes rating scale completed by 203 university students from the Faculty of Science, Engineering, Food Science, and Human Ecology in one of the public university in Malaysia. The correlation
Maryam Kargar; Rohani Ahmad Tarmizi; Sahar Bayat
The purpose of this study was to assess how attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance), self-esteem, and three subscales of test anxiety--cognitive obstruction, social derogation and tenseness are related in two age groups: adolescents and college students. Participants (N?=?327) completed relevant questionnaires. Results showed that college…
Dan, Orrie; Bar Ilan, Omrit; Kurman, Jenny
This study examined the relation between gender role orientation and fear and anxiety in a sample of nonclinic-referred children (N = 209) ages 10 to 13 years. Children and their parents completed questionnaires assessing children's gender role orientation, toy and activity preferences, and fear and anxiety. Results generally indicated that…
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Knoops, Miranda
A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)
Henton, Comradge L.
This questionnaire-based study of Japanese massage practitioners with visual impairment (n = 155, 126 males, 29 females, mean age = 41 years) found that measures of self-repression, helplessness and "daily hassles" were positively correlated to measures of trait anxiety. Also, trait anxiety was negatively associated with measures of self-esteem…
Donoyama, Nozomi; Munakata, Tsunetsugu
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether combining the two dimensions of anxiety (i.e., intensity and direction) by using a multiplicative model would strengthen the prediction of burnout. Collegiate athletes (N = 157) completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire as well as a trait version of the Competitive State Anxiety…
Cremades, J. Gualberto; Wated, Guillermo; Wiggins, Matthew S.
Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…
Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan
This study investigated the relationship between success in English as a foreign language and the degree of computer anxiety, frequency of computer use, and computer ownership among Iranian high-school students. Eight hundred and nineteen highschool students were selected from eight cities across the country. They completed Computer Anxiety Rating Scale and a personal information questionnaire. School achievement in English was
Mehrak Rahimi; Samaneh Yadollahi
A dyadic model of economic strain was applied to the study of anxiety and depression as mediating mechanisms in the economic strain-psychological aggression relation. Data came from self-report questionnaires completed by 143 Argentinean clinical couples. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that anxiety and depression increased for…
Falconier, Mariana K.
This study examined the relationship between "theory of mind" and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships--Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not…
Hunefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti
Relationships between bereavement following the death of a grandparent and adolescent death anxiety levels were examined using Hogan's Inventory of Bereavement and the revised Death Anxiety Scale within private schools. Of the 226 adolescent respondents (aged 11–18) who completed questionnaires, 124 had experienced the death of a grandparent. The regression model indicated that grief due to bereavement was found to
CARLA ENS; JOHN B. BOND JR
The present study examined differences in college students' preferences for processes of change across four kinds of problems: academic, relationship, depression, and anxiety. Two hundred eighteen undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete either an academic problems, relationship problems, depression, or anxiety Processes of Change Questionnaire along with the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services Scale. Results revealed significant differences for
Aaron W. Joyce; Michael J. Ross; Jillon S. Vander Wal; Chammie C. Austin
The study was designed to find out students' anxiety towards the learning of chemistry, identify the factors that cause the anxiety, examine the disposition of sex towards the learning of chemistry and suggest ways to increase their taste towards the learning of the subject. Data for the study was obtained by administering a questionnaire to 300…
Jegede, S. A.
We present prevalence and treatment utilization rates for child anxiety disorders in a university-affiliated primary care clinic. Families were recruited from a pediatric patient list and 714 families participated in an initial study wherein they completed child anxiety questionnaires. According to parent and child self-report questionnaires (n=714), 22% and 20% of children, respectively, were above a suggested clinical cutoff on a brief anxiety screen; 19% and 14% of children exceeded clinical cutoffs on a separate social anxiety questionnaire. All families were invited to participate in a second study that included the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Version and questions about treatment utilization; telephone interviews with 190 parents showed 1-year prevalence rates of DSM-IV child disorders to be 10.0% (se=2.2%) for specific phobia, 6.8% (se=1.8%) for social phobia, 3.2% (se=1.3%) for generalized anxiety disorder, 0.5% (se=.7%) for selective mutism, 1.6% (se=.9%) for major depressive disorder, 1.1% (se=.7%) for dysthymia, and 12.6% (se=2.4%) for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Among children with a current anxiety disorder, 31% had received counseling or medication treatment during their lifetime, compared to 40% of children with depression and 79% with ADHD. Adolescent age and being Caucasian were predictors of psychotherapy use; having an ADHD diagnosis was a predictor of both psychotherapy and medication use. The high prevalence of impairing anxiety disorders, in concert with the very low extent of treatment utilization, suggests a need for methods to identify and disseminate empirically validated treatments for these disorders in the primary care setting. PMID:15643639
Chavira, Denise A; Stein, Murray B; Bailey, Kelly; Stein, Martin T
Objective to assess the effects of a workplace physical activity (WPA) program on levels of anxiety, depression, burnout, occupational stress and self-perception of health and work-related quality of life of a nursing team in a palliative care unit. Methods the WPA was conducted five days per week, lasting ten minutes, during three consecutive months. Twenty-one nursing professionals were evaluated before and after the intervention, with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Maslch Burnout Inventory, and the Job Stress Scale. The changes in self-perceived health and work-related quality of life were measured using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results the WPA did not yield significant results on the levels of anxiety, depression, burnout or occupational stress. However, after the intervention, participants reported improved perceptions of bodily pain and feeling of fatigue at work. Conclusion the WPA did not lead to beneficial effects on occupational stress and psychological variables, but it was well accepted by the nursing professionals, who reported improvement in perceptions of health and work-related quality of life.
Freitas, Anderson Rodrigues; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro
The researcher used a four-group quasi-experimental posttest design to examine the effect of intraoperative progress reports on 200 family members' anxiety. Group one (ie, control group) received standard perioperative care, which did not include intraoperative progress reports. Group two received in-person progress reports from perioperative nurses. Group three received an “attention” protocol (ie, checklist explaining hospital routines, waiting room procedures).
Jane S. Leske
Background: Accumulating studies have demonstrated that the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), a modern youth anxiety questionnaire with scales explicitly designed to map onto specific DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders, has good psychometric properties for children and adolescents from various countries. However, no study has…
Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
PTSD QUESTIONNAIRE Participant's Name _____________________________________ Instructions a bit Extremely 1. Repeated, disturbing memories, thoughts, or images of a stressful military experience from the past? 2. Repeated disturbing dreams of a stressful military experience from the past? 3
New Mexico, University of
Whether developing questions for questionnaires or interviews or focus groups, there are certain guidelines that help to ensure that respondents provide information that is useful and can later be analyzed. This resource offers advice on developing questions for interviews or focus groups. It contains basics conducting the interviews, providing directions to respondents as well as guidelines for composing the content and wording of the questionnaire. This resource is aimed for use in workshops/conferences and is intended for novice evaluators.
This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…
Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo
This study examined the effect of optimistic and pessimistic cognitive styles on performance and precompetition anxiety. Collegiate athletes (female=39; male=35) completed the Defensive Pessimism Questionnaire and were grouped as optimists, defensive pessimists or real pessimists. Defensive pessimism is a strategy through which individuals set low expectations so as to protect themselves from potential failure, but has no adverse effect on
Gregory S Wilson; John S Raglin; Mary E Pritchard
Issues in the cognitive assessment of extreme social anxiety in adults were explored, with a major focus on the relationship between and utility of structured questionnaire and protocol analysis methods. The assessment of underlying cognitive factors associated with concerns over evaluation by others was also of interest, as were the affective and behavioral correlates of cognitive variables. Reports of negative
Carol R. Glass; Michael Furlong
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of attentional focus on social anxiety in a group of high and low blushing-anxious subjects. One hundred and fourteen psychology undergraduate students were screened using the Fear of Blushing subscale of the Blushing Questionnaire [Bögels, S. M., & Reith, W. (1999). Validity of two questionnaires to assess social fears: The Dutch social phobia and anxiety questionnaire and the blushing, trembling and sweating questionnaire. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21, 51-66]. Those with the most extreme scores in the top and bottom 20% of the distribution were selected to form a high (n=22) and a low (n=22) blushing-anxious group. Subjects were randomly allocated to either a self-focused attention (SFA) condition or a task-focused attention (TFA) condition. They were asked to engage in a 5 min conversation with the first author, and were instructed to either self-focus (SFA condition) or task-focus (TFA condition). Levels of social anxiety and self-awareness were measured using visual analogue scales. Results suggest that the there was a significant condition by group interaction, with high blushing individuals showing considerably higher levels of social anxiety in the SFA condition compared to the TFA condition while low blushing individuals showed no significant difference across the two conditions. PMID:17521604
Zou, Judy B; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rapee, Ronald M
Background: Undetected and unaddressed anxiety negatively affects performance in clinical learning environments. Aim: The aim was to investigate the anxiety provoking situations in clinical dental care delivery among students of preclinical and clinical years and house officers. Subjects and Methods: A 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Zung self-rating anxiety scale were the data collection tools. Results: Of the 84 recruited, 79 completed the study giving 94.0% (79/84) response rate. The median age of the participants was 25 years with 50.6% (40/79) being 20-25 years. Gender distribution revealed that males constituted 60.8% (48/79) of the participants. House officers constituted 29.1% (23/79), clinical students 36.7% (29/79), and preclinical students 34.2 (27/79) of the participants. The top anxiety provoking situations using the modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire were extracting wrong tooth 3.24 (1.06), inability to pass examination 3.32 (1.01), achieving examination requirement 3.19 (1.01), fracturing a tooth 3.08 (0.98) and accidental pulp exposure 2.96 (1.04). Getting diagnosis wrong, help in faint episode, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children were the anxiety provoking situations that showed statistically significant difference in the 3 studied training stages of dentistry. Bonferroni post-hoc analysis significant difference was in the preclinical and clinical students’ pair for getting diagnosis wrong, not developing radiograph properly and coping with children while house officers/clinical students and house officers/preclinical students’ pairs were for help in faint episode. Overall, 2.5% (2/79) had severe, 69.6% (55/79) moderate, 26.6% (21/79) mild clinical anxiety while 1 (1.3%) of the participants expressed no clinical anxiety. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that the clinical anxiety of moderate severity was prevalent among the studied dental healthcare students. The anxiety-provoking situations were also found to be majorly similar in preclinical, clinical and post-graduation clinical stages of dental training stages in Nigeria. PMID:25506478
Obarisiagbon, A; Azodo, CC; Omoaregba, JO; James, BO
Background: Hospitalization causes anxiety for many patients. It increases when patients anticipate their turn for cardiac catheterization. Music therapy reduces the psychophysiologic effects of anxiety and stress through the relaxation response.Aim: To determine the effects of music therapy an anxiety, heart rate and arterial blood pressure in patients waiting for their scheduled cardiac catheterization.Methods: In a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 101
Wallace J. Hamel
Aims To examine whether, and why, farmers and non-farmers differ regarding levels of anxiety and depression. Methods The study encompassed 17 295 workers age 40-49 years, including 917 farmers, from the population-based Hordaland Health Study 1997-99 (HUSK). Levels of anxiety and depression were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D, respectively). Self-reported information on various work-related
B. Sanne; A. Mykletun; B. E. Moen; A. A. Dahl; G. S. Tell
Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results: The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother’s care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions. PMID:24155770
Picardi, Angelo; Caroppo, Emanuele; Fabi, Elisa; Proietti, Serena; Gennaro, Giancarlo Di; Meldolesi, Giulio Nicolņ; Martinotti, Giovanni
Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed. PMID:21228991
Objective: To assess hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on the staffs of nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow from September 2012 to March 2013. A total of eight hospitals were chosen as the study sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the nonteaching hospitals. A pre-structured and pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect necessary information regarding the hospitals and biomedical waste (BMW) management of the hospitals. The general information about the selected hospitals/employees of the hospitals was collected. Results: Mean hospital waste generated in the eight nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow was 0.56 kg/bed/day. About 50.5% of the hospitals did not have BMW department and colored dustbins. In 37.5% of the hospitals, there were no BMW records and segregation at source. Incinerator was used only by hospital A for treatment of BMW. Hospital G and hospital H had no facilities for BMW treatment. Conclusion: There is a need for appropriate training of staffs, strict implementation of rules, and continuous surveillance of the hospitals of Lucknow to improve the BMW management and handling practices. PMID:25657950
Manar, Manish Kumar; Sahu, Krishna Kumar; Singh, Shivendra Kumar
Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding individual differences in chronic interpersonal stress. Attachment anxiety, a type of relationship insecurity characterized by worry about rejection and abandonment, is a chronic interpersonal stressor. Stress impacts cellular immunity, including herpesvirus reactivation. We investigated whether attachment anxiety was related to the expression of a latent herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), when individuals were being tested for breast or colon cancer and approximately 1 year later. Participants (N=183) completed a standard attachment questionnaire and provided blood to assess EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG antibody titers. Individuals with more attachment anxiety had higher EBV VCA IgG antibody titers than those with less attachment anxiety. The strength of the association between attachment anxiety and antibody titers was the same at both assessments. This study is the first to show an association between latent herpesvirus reactivation and attachment anxiety. Because elevated herpesvirus antibody titers reflect poorer cellular immune system control over the latent virus, these data suggest that high attachment anxiety is associated with cellular immune dysregulation. PMID:24945717
Fagundes, Christopher P; Jaremka, Lisa M; Glaser, Ronald; Alfano, Catherine M; Povoski, Stephen P; Lipari, Adele M; Agnese, Doreen M; Yee, Lisa D; Carson, William E; Farrar, William B; Malarkey, William B; Chen, Min; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K
Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Cardiac surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back and shoulder pain, anxiety, and tension. Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, tension, and anxiety, we studied the efficacy and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in
Brent A. Bauer; Susanne M. Cutshall; Laura J. Wentworth; Deborah Engen; Penny K. Messner; Christina M. Wood; Karen M. Brekke; Ryan F. Kelly; Thoralf M. Sundt III
Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…
Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.
to develop postpartum depression  and that the development of the foetus and the child is negatively and coping strategies during late pregnancy and early postpartum. Methods: Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety Depression-Anxiety subscale and Carver's Brief COPE at two time points, namely during
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĆ© de
Background: Studies have shown an association between parental distress and caretaking of children with developmental cognitive delays. There is little data in developing countries, such as Pakistan, concerning the impact of raising children with intellectual disability upon the quality of parent functioning and risk for psychopathology. Objective: To assess the level of psychopathology i.e. anxiety, depression and both anxiety and depression together among parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. The study was approved by the Institutional Research Committee. Participants were 198 parents (99 fathers/99 mothers) of 100 children with the diagnosis of ID. Informed consents were obtained. The parents were assessed for anxiety and depression using DSM IV criteria. Results: Significantly high proportion of mothers (89%) had anxiety, depression, or both anxiety and depression together as compared to fathers (77%) (p-value <0.05). Among mothers, 35% met criteria for anxiety, 40% for depression and 13% for both anxiety and depression. Among fathers 42% had anxiety, 31% depression and 3% both anxiety and depression. There was a significant association between gender of parent and individual psychiatric diagnosis of anxiety, depression and anxiety and depression together (p-value <0.05). A significant association was also found between mother’s anxiety, depression or both and degree of ID of their children (p-value <0.05). Conclusions: 1) Significantly high proportion of parents of children with ID has psychiatric diagnosis of anxiety, depression or both; 2) the psychiatric diagnosis of anxiety, depression and anxiety and depression together is associated with gender of parent; and, 3) the diagnosis of anxiety, depression or both in mothers was associated with severity of ID in their children. PMID:24223048
Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Dogar, Imtiaz Ahmad; Shah, Snehal; Cheema, Mohsin Ali; Asmat, Alia; Akbar, Madeeha; Kousar, Sumira; Haider, Imran Ijaz
Experimental and clinical investigations of the effects of acute and chronic exercise on state anxiety or tension and depression are reviewed. Proposed explanations for the association of exercise with improved mood states are also discussed.
Patricia M. Mihevic
Despite the technological advances in dentistry, anxiety about dental treatment and the fear of pain associated with dentistry remains globally widespread and is considered a major barrier to dental treatment. This can have detrimental consequences to people's oral health and pose a serious epidemiological challenge to oral health care professionals. Dental anxiety is well described in the Western world however there is little literature on the situation in the developing world. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the levels of dental anxiety in Fijians using Corah's DentalAnxiety Scale (DAS). 120 adults, aged 18-45 years were randomly selected from the capital city of Suva until there were 60 Indigenous and 60 IndoFijians, with 30 males and 30 females from each group responding to questions from Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale. The average DAS for all the participants was 8.8. The average DAS for IndoFijians was 9.8 and was significantly higher than for Indigenous Fijians ie 78. IndoFijians only reported less anxiety with increasing age as the Indigenous Fijians generally displayed low levels of anxiety. There was no significant difference in DAS between the genders. A considerable proportion of IndoFijians (28%) were anxious with 13% being highly anxious. Young IndoFijian adults are more likely to possess dental anxiety and should be managed appropriately which may include behavioural and/or pharmacological therapy. This may require referral to dental specialists or involve a multidisciplinary approach to the management of these people. PMID:18181437
Morse, Zac; Takau, Aleva F
Personality traits and most anxiety disorders are strongly related. In this article, we review existing evidence for ways\\u000a in which personality traits may relate to anxiety disorders: 1) as predisposing factors, 2) as consequences, 3) as results\\u000a of common etiologies, and 4) as pathoplastic factors. Based on current information, we conclude the following: 1) Personality\\u000a traits such as high neuroticism,
Mina Brandes; O. Joseph Bienvenu
A questionnaire was administered to 1,929 applicants to Oxford University, including measures of trait anxiety, behavioural response to examinations and to breakdown in relationships. 635 of these applicants were admitted to the university and of these, 383 also responded to a questionnaire administered 4 years later, just before their final…
Mellanby, Jane; Zimdars, Anna
The objective of the study was to examine sex and grade differences among bullies, victims, bully\\/victims, and comparison children on physical, verbal, and indirect aggression and victimization and on depression and anxiety. 546 children (254 boys and 292 girls) in grades five through eight participated in the study. Children completed the Bully\\/Victim Questionnaire (Olweus (1989) Questionnaire for students (Junior and
Wendy M. Craig
Over the last few years, neuroimaging techniques have contributed greatly to the identification of the structural and functional neuroanatomy of anxiety disorders. The amygdala seems to be a crucial structure for fear and anxiety, and has consistently been found to be activated in anxiety-provoking situations. Apart from the amygdala, the insula and anterior cinguiate cortex seem to be critical, and all three have been referred to as the “fear network.” In the present article, we review the main findings from three major lines of research. First, we examine human models of anxiety disorders, including fear conditioning studies and investigations of experimentally induced panic attacks. Then we turn to research in patients with anxiety disorders and take a dose look at post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Finally, we review neuroimaging studies investigating neural correlates of successful treatment of anxiety, focusing on exposure-based therapy and several pharmacological treatment options, as well as combinations of both. PMID:22275850
Holzschneider, Kathrin; Mulert, Christoph
Can the painDETECT Questionnaire score and MRI help predict treatment outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: protocol for the Frederiksberg hospital's Rheumatoid Arthritis, pain assessment and Medical Evaluation (FRAME-cohort) study
Introduction Pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered to be of inflammatory origin. Despite better control of inflammation, some patients still report pain as a significant concern, even when being in clinical remission. This suggests that RA may prompt central sensitisation—one aspect of chronic pain. In contrast, other patients report good treatment response, although imaging shows signs of inflammation, which could indicate a possible enhancement of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. When assessing disease activity in patients with central sensitisation, the commonly used disease activity scores (eg, DAS28-CRP (C reactive protein)) will yield constant high total scores due to high tender joint count and global health assessments, whereas MRI provides an isolated estimate of inflammation. The objective of this study is, in patients with RA initiating anti-inflammatory treatment, to explore the prognostic value of a screening questionnaire for central sensitisation, hand inflammation assessed by conventional MRI, and the interaction between them regarding treatment outcome evaluated by clinical status (DAS28-CRP). For the purpose of further exploratory analyses, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is performed. Method and analysis The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ), originally developed to screen for a neuropathic pain component, is applied to indicate the presence of central sensitisation. Adults diagnosed with RA are included when either (A) initiating disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment, or (B) initiating or switching to biological therapy. We anticipate that 100 patients will be enrolled, tested and reassessed after 4?months of treatment. Data collection includes Clinical data, conventional MRI, DCE-MRI, blood samples and patient-reported outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This study aims at supporting rheumatologists to define strategies to reach optimal treatment outcomes in patients with RA based on chronic pain prognostics. The study has been approved by The Capital region of Denmark's Ethics Committee; identification number H-3-2013-049. The results will be published in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID:25394817
Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Christensen, Anton Wulf; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsųe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Bartels, Else Marie; Locht, Henning; Amris, Kirstine
Objective Considering the high incidence of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) in the population aged 15-30 years and the fact that students are exposed to stressful psychosocial factors, the purposes of this study were: to verify clinical symptoms and jaw functionality in college students with TMD according to the anxiety/depression (A/D) level and to evaluate the correlation between A/D and functionality, maximum mouth opening (MMO) and pain and muscle activity. Material and Methods Nineteen students with TMD diagnosed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders underwent two assessments during an academic semester. The evaluations were based on questionnaires (MFIQ - Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire; HADS - Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), clinical measurements (MMO without pain, MMO and assisted MMO; palpation of joint and masticatory muscles), and electromyography. The HADS scores obtained in the two assessments were used to classify all data as either "high" or "low" A/D. Data normality, differences and correlations were tested with the Shapiro-Wilk test, Student's t-test (or the Wilcoxon test), and Spearman test, respectively. The alpha level was set at 0.05. Results None of the clinical variables were significantly different when comparing low and high A/D data. In low A/D there was a significant correlation between HADS score and: MFIQ (P=0.005, r=0.61), and MMO without pain (P=0.01, r=-0.55). Conclusions Variation in A/D level did not change clinical symptoms or jaw functionality in college students with TMD. Apparently, there is a correlation between TMJ functionality and A/D level, which should be further investigated, taking into account the source of the TMD and including subjects with greater functional limitation. PMID:24626244
CALIXTRE, Letķcia Bojikian; GRÜNINGER, Bruno Leonardo da Silva; CHAVES, Thais Cristina; de OLIVEIRA, Ana Beatriz
This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first. PMID:15677172
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
Kleinke, Chris L.
A case of an adolescent boy with multiple phobias who was treated successfully for his dental phobia is described to illustrate the clinical utility of the Dental Cognitions Questionnaire (DCQ) in aiding effective cognitive-behavior therapy. The client showed drops in dental anxiety that coincided with the use of the DCQ in cognitive restructuring, and there was a close correlation between dental cognitions and degree of dental anxiety over the time-course of therapy and follow up. PMID:12763393
Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen
The purpose of this article was to address the clinically relevant question: In the presence of anxiety and/or depression, do patients who have had heart surgery engage in self-management behaviors following hospital discharge? A systematic review of 16 studies that examined the psychological condition of patients who had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valvular replacement surgery was conducted. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety and depression exist during the first month of home recovery and appear to have an effect on performance of self-management behaviors. As the influence of patients' psychological condition is continued to be examined, it is imperative for health care providers to manage increased rates of anxiety and/or depression following heart surgery. Music and relaxation therapy are presented as evidenced based recommendations for managing anxiety and depression in patients following heart surgery. PMID:22473273
Fredericks, Suzanne; Lapum, Jennifer; Lo, Joyce
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social\\u000a anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses\\u000a of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192 children drawn from a community\\u000a sample of
Heidi Gazelle; Jamie Olson Workman; Wesley Allan
Lung cancer is a stressful condition for both patient and family. The anxiety and pain accompanying cancer and its treatment have a significant negative influence on the patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between anxiety, pain, and perceived family support in a sample of lung cancer patients. The sample consisted of a total of 101 lung cancer outpatients receiving treatment at the oncology department of a general hospital. Anxiety, pain (severity and impact on everyday life), and perceived family support were assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the Family Support Scale, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed correlations between anxiety, pain, and family support as perceived by the patients. The intensity of pain had a positive correlation with both state and trait anxiety and a negative correlation with family support. Anxiety (state and trait) had a significant negative correlation with family support. In conclusion, high prevalence rates of anxiety disorders were observed in lung cancer patients. Females appeared more susceptible to anxiety symptoms with a less sense of family support. A negative correlation was evidenced between family support and anxiety and a positive one between anxiety and pain. PMID:25126424
Lekka, Dimitra; Pachi, Argiro; Zafeiropoulos, Georgios; Evmolpidi, Argiri; Ilias, Ioannis; Karkanias, Athanasios; Moussas, Georgios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.
The purpose of this study is to validate a test anxiety scale for Italian students. The scale is part of a questionnaire administered after the students' annual competence test by the National Institute for the Educational Evaluation of Instruction and Training (INVALSI). The aim of the scale is to explore the anxiety levels of Italian students…
Poliandri, Donatella; Cardone, Michele; Muzzioli, Paola; Romiti, Sara
Two thousand five hundred seventy intact pairs and 724 single responders from Norwegian twins aged 18–25 years completed questionnaires with information about anxiety and depression and perceived cotwin closeness. The aim of the study was the univariate estimation of sex-specific genetic and environmental effects on an index tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. An index of social closeness between cotwins
Kristian Tambs; Jennifer R. Harris; Per Magnus
Multivariate modelling of anxiety and depression data in twins has suggested that the two phenotypes are largely underpinned by one genetic factor, while other studies have indicated a relationship between these disorders and the neuroticism personality trait. As part of a study to identify quantitative trait loci for anxiety and depression, questionnaire responses and interviews of 15 027 Australian twins
Katherine M Kirk; Andrew J Birley; Dixie J Statham; Barbara Haddon; Robert IE Lake; J Gavin Andrews; Nicholas G Martin
Objective: Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Methods: Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18 to 71?years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and symptoms of stress and anxiety. Results: Past and current cannabis users reported higher incidence of lifetime anxiety than participants who had never used cannabis; however, these groups did not differ in state-anxiety, stress, or age of onset of anxiety. State-anxiety and stress were not associated with frequency of cannabis use, but reported use to self-medicate for anxiety was positively associated with all three. Path analyses indicated two different associations between anxiety and cannabis use, pre-existing and high state-anxiety was associated with (i) higher average levels of intoxication and, in turn, acute anxiety responses to cannabis use; (ii) frequency of cannabis use via the mediating effects of stress and self-medication. Conclusion: None of the theories was fully supported by the findings. However, as cannabis users reporting self-medication for anxiety were found to be self-medicating stress symptomology, there was some support for the stress-misattribution hypothesis. With reported self-medication for anxiety being the strongest predictor of frequency of use, it is suggested that researchers, clinicians, and cannabis users pay greater attention to the overlap between stress and anxiety symptomology and the possible misinterpretation of these related but distinct conditions. PMID:25505428
Temple, Elizabeth C.; Driver, Matthew; Brown, Rhonda F.
Examined the dimensionality of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale. Factors were identified and labeled as Mathematics Text Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety. Factor-derived scales were developed and correlated with five specific anxiety scales and an arithmetic test. (Author)
Rounds, James B., Jr.; Hendel, Darwin D.
Background: Coronary artery diseases are the most frequent cause of mortality in industrialized countries as well as Iran. Coronary artery disease affects patient’s quality of life (QoL) and produces some degrees of anxiety and depression. Although self-management programs have shown significant impact on chronic diseases, there is limited evidence in Iran regarding the effectiveness of these interventions, particularly in patients with coronary artery disease. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of angina plan on QoL, anxiety, and depression in post coronary angioplasty patients referred to selected hospitals in Shiraz. Patients and Methods: This parallel randomized, controlled trial was conducted in selected hospitals in Shiraz, Iran. We enrolled 80 post coronary angioplasty eligible patients in the study. After acquisition of the informed consent, eligible patients were randomly divided into two groups: control and experimental. Pretest data were obtained by using a demographic data form and two valid and reliable questionnaires for QoL, anxiety, and depression. Blood pressure, weight, and height (to calculate body mass index) were measured too. Patient’s history of smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and coronary vascular involvement (with grade and severity) were obtained from their medical records. A 12-week angina plan intervention consisted of a 30 to 40 minutes of counseling interview and telephone follow up at the end of 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks were performed for experimental group. Post-test data were obtained three months after the pretest using the same questionnaires as pretest. QoL data were analyzed by analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA). The results (before and after intervention) regarding anxiety and depression were analyzed by independent t-tests or their equivalent nonparametric Mann-Whitney test using SPSS v. 11.5. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in demographic variables between two groups. Baseline mean scores for QoL, anxiety, and depression did not differ between the two groups. There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of changes in perception of QoL before and after the intervention. Adjusted mean ± SD of perception of QoL for the control group was 38.48 ± 13.38 and for the experimental one was 56.30 ± 13.38, with a P value of less than 0.001. The mean difference of anxiety scores (before and after intervention) in experimental and control groups were 1.15 ± 1.99 and.0.07 ± 2.22, respectively with a P value of less than 0.01. The mean difference of depression scores (before and after intervention) in experimental and control groups were 0.4 ± 2.89 and 0.13 ± 2.76, respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our results show that the self-management angina plan was effective in improving perception of QoL and reducing anxiety. Further studies with a larger sample size and a longer follow-up period are recommended to better understand the effectiveness of this plan.
Moattari, Marzieh; Adib, Fakhteh; Kojuri, Javad; Tabatabaee, Seyed Hamid Reza
Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin
This study presents a test of the Anxiety-Expectation Mediation (AEM) model of library anxiety. The AEM model contains variables that are directly or indirectly related to information search performance, as measured by students' scores on their research proposals. This model posits that library anxiety and self-perception serve as factors that…
Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
Background: Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients’ quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data. Results: The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management. PMID:25389481
Najafi, Zahra; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Farrokhian, Alireza; Tagharrobi, Zahra
Objective: The pure essence of plants (essential oils) provides both psychological and physiological benefits when used accurately and safely. Conventionally, Lavender oil is known for relaxing, carminative, and sedative effects. Hence, an attempt was made to know the effect of Lavender essential oil on dental patient anxiety. Methods: The present study included two comparison groups (Lavender and control group), each comprising five dental clinics. In Lavender group, the ambient odor of Lavender essential oil was maintained with the help of a candle warmer in the reception area and in the control group, candle warmer with normal water was used. A total of 597 patients, aged above 18 years were included. A questionnaire comprising demographic information, and a modified dental anxiety scale was given to the patients in waiting room, and data regarding anxiety levels was recorded. Findings: Student's t-test (unpaired) showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores of Lavender group compared with the control group. Analysis of variances test showed reduction in anxiety scores as age increased in Lavender group. Conclusion: Fragrance of Lavender oil at reception area may effectively reduce the patient's state or current anxiety. This practice on routine usage can improve the quality of dental treatments. PMID:25328900
Zabirunnisa, Md.; Gadagi, Jayaprakash S.; Gadde, Praveen; Myla, Nagamalleshwari; Koneru, Jyothirmai; Thatimatla, Chandrasekhar
The current study evaluated the relationships among trait anxiety, subjective response to alcohol, and simulated driving following a simulated alcohol binge. Sixty drinkers with a binge history completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, and subsequently completed a driving simulation. Participants were then administered 0.2 g/kg ethanol at 30 minute intervals (cumulative dose 0.8 g/kg). Following alcohol consumption, the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and visual analog scales of subjective impairment and driving confidence were administered, after which simulated driving was re-assessed. Due to the emphasis on simulated driving after drinking in the current study, subjective response to alcohol (i.e., self-reported sedation, stimulation, impairment, and confidence in driving ability) was assessed once following alcohol consumption, as this is the time when drinkers tend to make decisions regarding legal driving ability. Alcohol increased driving speed, speeding tickets, and collisions. Sedation following alcohol predicted increased subjective impairment and decreased driving confidence. Subjective impairment was not predicted by sensitivity to stimulation or trait anxiety. High trait anxiety predicted low driving confidence after drinking and this relationship was mediated by sedation. Increased speed after alcohol was predicted by sedation, but not by trait anxiety or stimulation. Anxiety, combined with the sedating effects of alcohol, may indicate when consumption should cease. However, once driving is initiated, sensitivity to sedation following alcohol consumption is positively related to simulated driving speed. PMID:24955664
Aston, Elizabeth R.; Shannon, Erin E.; Liguori, Anthony
... TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, ... TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, et al., eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, ...
The objectives of this study were to analyses whether hospital ownership and hospital process orientation have a role on volume flexibility, and to discuss the implications of these relationships. A questionnaire was developed and sent to a random sample of 300 hospital departments in Shanghai. The response rate was 57%. The data were analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis and structural
Y. H. Yang; Q. F. Jiang
Following the development of the Readiness to Change Questionnaire described by Rollnick et al., this article reports on the predictive validity of the questionnaire among a sample of 174 male excessive drinkers identified by screening on wards of general hospitals. Relationships between patients' "stage of change" derived from questionnaires administered prior to discharge from hospital and changes in drinking behaviour at 8 weeks and 6 months follow-up are analysed. Allocated stage of change provided statistically significant relationships with drinking outcome. Multiple regression analysis showed that stage of change remained a significant predictor of changes in alcohol consumption when other possible predictors were taken into account. Two methods for allocating stage of change on the basis of questionnaire responses for use in different circumstances, a "quick" and a "refined" method, are described. PMID:8130706
Heather, N; Rollnick, S; Bell, A
Objective To explore health anxiety in a sample of nursing students to determine the relationships between health anxiety and life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia. Methods Two thousand and eighty-six nursing students in junior college, which were divided into five groups, were evaluated by questionnaires, including the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students, the Chinese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results The mean age, whether the individual was an only child, residence (urban or rural), and were significantly different between the groups. The self-assessment scores were also significantly different between the groups. The Short Health Anxiety Inventory total score and the factor of fearing the likelihood of becoming ill were significantly negatively correlated with the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students total score and its two factors, but were significantly positively correlated with psychoticism, neuroticism, and TAS-20 total scores and its scores of the three TAS-20 factors. The negative consequence scale of Short Health Anxiety Inventory was not significantly correlated with externally oriented thinking, but was significantly negatively correlated with extraversion. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that objective satisfaction, subjective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the three factors of TAS-20 were predictors of health anxiety. Conclusion Health anxiety was correlated with life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia in junior college nursing students. Subjective and objective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the identification and expression of emotions may be predictors of health anxiety in nursing students. PMID:25045266
Zhang, Yuqun; Zhao, Yueqiu; Mao, Shengqin; Li, Guohong; Yuan, Yonggui
There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature identified 31 studies involving 2,121 young people (aged <18 years) with ASD, and where the presence of anxiety disorder was assessed using standardized questionnaires or diagnostic interviews. Across studies, 39.6% of young people with ASD had at least one comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorder, the most frequent being specific phobia (29.8%) followed by OCD (17.4%) and social anxiety disorder (16.6%). Associations were found between the specific anxiety disorders and ASD subtype, age, IQ, and assessment method (questionnaire versus interview). Implications for the identification and treatment of anxiety in young people with ASD are discussed. PMID:21735077
van Steensel, Francisca J A; Bögels, Susan M; Perrin, Sean
Background This is the first study investigating anxiety among women attending a primary care clinic in Malaysia. Aim The objective was to determine the factors associated with anxiety among these women. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive female patients attending the clinic during the data-collection period were invited to participate in the study. Method Participants were given self-administered questionnaires, which included the validated Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7) Malay version to detect anxiety. Results Of the 1023 patients who were invited, 895 agreed to participate (response rate 87.5%). The prevalence of anxiety in this study was 7.8%, based on the GAD-7 (score ?8). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that certain stressful life events and the emotional aspect of domestic violence were significantly associated with anxiety (P<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of anxiety among women in this study is similar to that found in other countries. Factors found to be associated with anxiety, especially issues on domestic violence, need to be addressed and managed appropriately. PMID:21801511
Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Arroll, Bruce; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity
Introduction: Some persons with Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) suffer significant anxiety because of their visual hallucinations, while others do not. The aim of the study presented here was to compare levels of anxiety in persons with low vision with and without CBS. Methods: This retrospective study compared the level of anxiety in 31 persons…
Geueke, Anna; Morley, Michael G.; Morley, Katharine; Lorch, Alice; Jackson, MaryLou; Lambrou, Angeliki; Wenberg, June; Oteng-Amoako, Afua
Presents dialog among David Lester, author of first critical survey of death anxiety measures, developer of scales, and researcher about suicide and fear of death; Donald Templer, Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) creator; and journal editor. Lester and Templer discuss origins, uses, results, limitations, and future of death anxiety scales and research on…
Lester, David; Templer, Donald
This article reviews the familiality, linkage, candidate gene, and genomewide association studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other anxiety disorders (ie, generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and specific phobia). Studies involving children and adolescents are highlighted. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:22800990
Sakolsky, Dara J; McCracken, James T; Nurmi, Erika L
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
Williams, Amanda S.
The study investigated the effects of modern dance on anxiety. State anxiety was assessed before and after a 3-mo. education programme, using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The target group followed a class in modern dance. Control group were (1) a physical education group to control for the effects of exercise, (2) a music group to control for aesthetic sensitivity
Andre Lesté; John Rust
Describes classroom guidance session for overcoming test anxiety. Discusses role of the teacher in setting up session and as class discussion leader. Discusses role of the counselor in the minilecture format; sources of test anxiety; self-assessment of test anxiety; importance of careful test preparation; listening to self-talk; and follow up with…
Wilkinson, Charlotte M.
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
Daniel R. Zalles
Emerging evidence suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) predicts subsequent development of anxiety symptoms and panic attacks as well as clinical syndromes in adult samples. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether AS similarly acts as a vulnerability factor in the pathogenesis of anxiety symptoms among youth in early adolescence (ages 9-13). A large nonclinical community sample of youth (N = 277) was prospectively followed over one year. The Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI: Silverman, Fleisig, Rabian, & Peterson, 1991) served as the primary predictor. After controlling for baseline anxiety symptoms as well as depression, AS significantly predicted the future development of anxiety symptoms. Consistent with the adult literature and expectancy theory, AS appears to act as a risk factor for anxiety symptoms in youth. PMID:20399075
Schmidt, Norman B.; Keough, Meghan E.; Mitchell, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Lejuez, C. W.
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
In order to formulate a parsimonious tool to assess empathy, we used factor analysis on a combination of self-report measures to examine consensus and developed a brief self-report measure of this common factor. The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) represents empathy as a primarily emotional process. In three studies, the TEQ demonstrated strong convergent validity, correlating positively with behavioral measures of social decoding, self-report measures of empathy, and negatively with a measure of Autism symptomatology. Moreover, it exhibited good internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. The TEQ is a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for the assessment of empathy. PMID:19085285
Spreng, R. Nathan; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Mar, Raymond A.; Levine, Brian
The purpose of this paper is to give evidence for the thesis that if teachers using a questionnaire as a data collection instrument have the questionnaire items translated from one language into another, they cannot assume that the translated items are valid simply because they were translated. Even if the original questionnaire items were…
Griffee, Dale T.
Anxiety disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) develop before school age, but little is known about early developmental pathways. Here we test two hypotheses: first, that early signs of anxiety and ADHD at 18 months predict symptoms of anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years; second, that emotional dysregulation at 18 months predicts the outcome of co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years. The study was part of the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The 628 participants were clinically assessed at 3½ years. Questionnaire data collected at 18 months were categorized into early behavioural scales of anxiety, ADHD, and emotional dysregulation. We investigated continuity in features of anxiety and ADHD from 18 months to 3½ years of age through logistic regression analyses. Anxiety symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, CI = 1.15-1.73) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.15-1.54). ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of ADHD (OR = 1.51, CI = 1.30-1.76) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.31, CI = 1.13-1.51). Co-occurring anxiety and ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.13-1.84), ADHD (OR = 1.30, CI = 1.11-1.54), and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.13-1.58). We conclude that there were modest continuities in features of anxiety and ADHD through early preschool years, while emotional dysregulation at age 18 months was associated with symptoms of anxiety, ADHD, and co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years. PMID:24687273
Overgaard, Kristin Romvig; Aase, Heidi; Torgersen, Svenn; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Oerbeck, Beate; Myhre, Anne; Zeiner, Pål
The concept of field dependence/independence is defined by the behavior patterns of individuals. Those who use predominantly internal cues when making judgments on perceptual tasks are considered field independent; those who use predominantly external cues are considered field dependent. To test whether field dependence is related to anxiety,…
Bergum, Judith E.; Bergum, Bruce O.
While the computer is commonly viewed as a tool for simplifying and enriching lives, many individuals react to this technology with feelings of anxiety, paranoia, and alienation. These reactions may have potentially serious career and educational consequences. Fear of computers reflects a generalized fear of current technology and is most…
The burden of anxiety in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to those with other inflammatory rheumatological conditions is unclear. We aimed to compare the frequency and level of anxiety between patients with SLE, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and gout and healthy individuals and explore independent predictors for anxiety in SLE patients. Consecutive patients with SLE, RA and gout and healthy individuals who were age and sex matched with the SLE group were evaluated for anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Sociodemographic and disease-related variables were compared between all groups. Predictors for anxiety were studied by regression models, with construction of a prediction model for the presence of anxiety in SLE patients by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Amongst 271 subjects studied, 60 had lupus, 50 had gout, 100 had RA and 61 were healthy controls. The frequency and level of anxiety were significantly higher in SLE patients than patients with gout, RA and healthy controls. SLE per se was independently associated with higher HADS-anxiety score after controlling for potential confounders. Logistic regression model showed that higher damage accrual, higher cumulative glucocorticoid dose, depression and fewer regular medications predicted anxiety in SLE patients, with an accuracy of 90% by the ROC analysis. PMID:21221690
Mak, Anselm; Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Chan, Moon-Fai; Cheak, Alicia Ai-Cia; Ho, Roger Chun-Man
Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in primary health care. In this study we assessed performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for screening of depression and anxiety disorders in a population of primary care patients. A total of 503 primary care patients consecutively admitted to the primary care medical center in Kaunas, Lithuania, completed the study. We found that the HADS subscale of depression (HADS-D) at a cutoff score of 6 or more showed the best performance screening for a major depressive episode diagnosed by means of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), with a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 69%, positive predictive value of 80%, negative predictive value of 92%, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.75. Performance of the HADS-D against MINI diagnosis of dysthymia was weak. The HADS subscale of anxiety (HADS-A) at a cutoff score of 9 or more showed the best performance screening for MINI diagnosis of overall anxiety disorders, with a sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 53%, negative predictive value of 90%, and area under the ROC curve of 0.76. These results suggest that in primary care patients HADS is an adequate screening instrument for the MINI diagnoses of major depressive episode, but not for dysthymia at a cutoff score of 6, and for anxiety disorders at a cutoff score of 9. PMID:17117433
Bunevicius, Adomas; Peceliuniene, Jurate; Mickuviene, Narseta; Valius, Leonas; Bunevicius, Robertas
Applied Research Program (ARP) staff use a variety of methods to develop and test questionnaires, including established Questionnaire Design Principles, empirical methods such as Cognitive Testing and psychometric methods such as Item Response Theory Modeling.
ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the US and Canada.
This study reported on the validation of the psychometric properties, the factorability, validity, and sensitivity of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in 3 clinical and nonclinical samples. A mixed sample of 997 participants-community (n = 663), psychiatric (depressed [n = 92] and anxious [n = 122]), and neurologically impaired (n = 120)-completed self-report questionnaires assessing executive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, stress, general self-efficacy, and satisfaction with life. Before analyses the data were randomly split into 2 subsets (A and B). Exploratory factor analysis performed on Subset A produced a 3-factor model (Factor 1: Inhibition, Factor 2: Volition, and Factor 3: Social Regulation) in which 15 of the original 20 items provided a revised factor structure that was superior to all other structures. A series of confirmatory factor analyses performed on Subset B confirmed that this revised factor structure was valid and reliable. The revised structure, labeled the DEX-R, was found to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing behavioral symptoms of dysexecutive functioning in mixed community, psychiatric, and neurological samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25602692
Shaw, Simone; Oei, Tian P S; Sawang, Sukanlaya
AIM: To investigate anxiety and depression propensities in patients with toxic liver injury. METHODS: The subjects were divided into three groups: a healthy control group (Group 1, n = 125), an acute non-toxic liver injury group (Group 2, n = 124), and a group with acute toxic liver injury group caused by non-commercial herbal preparations (Group 3, n = 126). These three groups were compared and evaluated through questionnaire surveys and using the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the hypochondriasis scale. RESULTS: The HADS anxiety subscale was 4.9 ± 2.7, 5.0 ± 3.0 and 5.6 ± 3.4, in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The HADS depression subscale in Group 3 showed the most significant score (5.2 ± 3.2, 6.4 ± 3.4 and 7.2 ± 3.4 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2). The BAI and BDI in Group 3 showed the most significant score (7.0 ± 6.3 and 6.9 ± 6.9, 9.5 ± 8.6 and 8.8 ± 7.3, 10.7 ± 7.2 and 11.6 ± 8.5 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (BAI: P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2) (BDI: P < 0.01 vs Group 1 and 2). Group 3 showed a significantly higher hypochondriasis score (8.2 ± 6.0, 11.6 ± 7.5 and 13.1 ± 6.5 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2). CONCLUSION: Psychological factors that present vulnerability to the temptation to use alternative medicines, such as herbs and plant preparations, are important for understanding toxic liver injury. PMID:24379633
Suh, Jeong Ill; Sakong, Jeong Kyu; Lee, Kwan; Lee, Yong Kook; Park, Jeong Bae; Kim, Dong Joon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Lee, Jae Dong; Ko, Soon Young; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Byung Seok; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Heon Ju; Kim, In Hee; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Ahn, Byung Min
Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n?=?958) hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item). The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10), and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies. PMID:22938170
This paper describes the development of a scale designed to measure the extent to which severe dental anxiety or phobia affects patients' social wellbeing outside of the dental setting. Items initially selected on the basis of clinical experience were administered to two groups: 78 patients seeking help for severe anxiety and 88 patients attending the general clinic of a dental hospital. Items on the scale discriminated between these two groups and also between patients who were reluctant to attend even when experiencing symptoms and those who attend more regularly. Although the scale correlated moderately well with Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale, factor analysis indicated that its items assess the effects of severe anxiety on the two domains of psychological reactions and social inhibition as they occur as indirect effects of dental care. The scale could be included in assessments designed to measure the social and psychological effects of severe dental anxiety. PMID:9007356
Kent, G; Rubin, G; Getz, T; Humphris, G
BACKGROUND: A cross sectional study was designed to survey the relationship between anxiety\\/depression and duration\\/cause of infertility, in Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: After obtaining their consents, 370 female patients with different infertility causes participated in, and data gathered by Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Cattle questionnaires for surveying anxiety and depression due to the duration of infertility.
Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh; Malek Mansour Aghssa; Nasrin Abedinia; Farid Zayeri; Navid Khanafshar; Mamak Shariat; Mina Jafarabadi
This study presents an overview of research devoted to foreign language learning anxiety and then examines in detail the reactions reported by Japanese university students to an anxiety-provoking situations in English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) classes. Questionnaire data was obtained from 243 Japanese learners in conversational English classes at 31 four-year universities in Japan. The following research questions are addressed: (1) What
Melvin Andrade; Kenneth Williams
The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 years, each prospectively tracked their menstrual symptoms for one cycle and completed the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow Behav Ther 27:279-293. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9 , 1996) in their follicular and premenstrual phases. A mixed model analysis revealed perceived control over anxiety-related events was a more prominent predictor of menstrual symptom severity than anxiety sensitivity, regardless of the current cycle phase. This finding provides preliminary evidence that perceived control over anxiety-related events is associated with the perceived intensity of menstrual symptoms. This finding highlights the role of psychological vulnerabilities in menstrual distress. Future research should examine whether psychological interventions that target cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety may help reduce severe menstrual distress. PMID:25269759
Mahon, Jennifer N; Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Zvolensky, Michael J
Background To study maternal anxiety and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women submitted to a Multidisciplinary Program for Childbirth and Motherhood Preparation (MPCM). Methods This is a not randomized controlled trial on 67 nulliparous pregnant women divided into two groups according to participation (MPCM Group; n = 38) or not (Control Group; n = 29) in MPCM. The program consisted of 10 meetings (between the 18th and the 38th gestational week) during which educational, physiotherapeutic and interaction activities were developed. Anxiety was quantified at the beginning and at the end of the gestational period by the Trace-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results Initial maternal anxiety was equivalent between the groups. At the end of the gestational period, it was observed that anxiety levels increased in the Control Group and were maintained in the MPCM Group. A higher occurrence of vaginal deliveries (83.8%) and hospital discharge of three-day-older newborns (81.6%) as a result of MPCM was also significant. Levels of state-anxiety at the end of pregnancy showed a negative correlation with vaginal delivery, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar index at the first minute and positive correlation with the hospital period remaining of the newborns. Conclusion In the study conditions, MPCM was associated with lower levels of maternal anxiety, a larger number of vaginal deliveries and shorter hospitalization time of newborns. It was not related to adverse perinatal outcomes. PMID:21034460
The objective of this study was to determine anxiety and depression and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) in renal transplant (RT) recipients. A total of 105 consecutive patients were assessed cross-sectionally at least 3 months after RT. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was applied to assess anxiety and depression. QOL was assessed through the abbreviated version of World Health Organization QOL scale. Patients’ awareness of illness and treatment was assessed through Structured Interview for Renal Transplantation. Nine (8.57%) patients had syndromal anxiety and 9 (8.57%) had syndromal depression. Both these groups had significantly lower scores in almost all domains of QOL compared with their non-anxious and non-depressed counterparts. There were a higher number of hospitalizations and episodes of complication or rejection in post-RT patients with anxiety as compared to those without (P = 0.001). Syndromal depression and anxiety are associated with poor QOL and syndromal anxiety is associated with significantly higher number of hospitalizations, rejections and complications in post-RT patients. PMID:25249717
Jana, A. K.; Sircar, D.; Waikhom, R.; Praharaj, S. K.; Pandey, R.; RayChaudhury, A.; Dasgupta, S.
Mathews and Mackintosh [(2000). Induced emotional interpretation bias and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 602-615] developed a clever training procedure that enables the investigation of a causal relationship between interpretive bias and anxiety. The present study examined the validity of this paradigm by testing (1) the effects of interpretation training on two other tasks (homograph EAST and open-ended questionnaire) that are less closely related to the interpretation training itself as in previous studies and (2) the robustness of the training effects on state and trait anxiety. Results indicated that while the two original dependent measures (i.e., a reaction time and recognition measure) showed that the training procedure was successful in changing interpretations, the two additional measures (i.e., EAST and questionnaire) did not. This might reflect a measurement artefact, but other explanations for the findings are also possible. Moreover, evidence was found for effects of biased interpretations on anxiety. This demonstrates the viability of the present paradigm, which has implications for clinical practice. PMID:17141735
Salemink, Elske; van den Hout, Marcel; Kindt, Merel
The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic.…
Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.
This study explores the effect of slow-stroke back massages on anxiety and shoulder pain in hospitalized elderly patients with stroke. An experimental quantitative design was conducted, comparing the scores for self-reported pain, anxiety, blood pressure, heart rate and pain of two groups of patients before and immediately after, and three days after the intervention. The intervention consisted of ten minutes
Esther Mok; Chin Pang Woo
1 ANXIETY ASSESSMENT Instructions: To discover the role anxiety plays in your life, complete the following anxiety self assessment quiz. Check the box next to the question to indicate a "Yes" answer that anxiety interferes with your daily life? Fear being out of control? #12;2 ANXIETY ASSESSMENT Find yourself
The present study examined the effect of reported parental styles on 35 undergraduates' anxiety and the Type A behavior pattern. The modified version of Kelly and Goodwin's Parental Control-style Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the student version of the Jenkins Activity Survey were administered. Analysis showed that the subjects who had autocratic parents exhibited more Type A behavior pattern as well as having higher scores on the anxiety scales than those who had either permissive or democratic parents. PMID:3211688
Essau, C A; Coates, M B
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cold application on pain and anxiety during chest tube removal (CTR) in patients who had undergone cardiac surgery. A single-blinded randomized design was used in this study. Ninety patients aged 18-74 years, hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU), who had a chest tube for a duration of at least 24 hours were used for this convenience sample. The application of cold, placebo, or control therapies was randomized into three different groups. Sixty minutes before CTR was scheduled, an ICU nurse administered 10mg/kg paracetamol intravenously to all study subjects. Cold and warm packs covered with gauze dressing were applied to the area surrounding the chest tubes for 20 minutes. Pain intensity, pain quality and situational anxiety for CTR were measured. Variance analysis and the latent growth model were used in the analysis of the data. Patients in the cold group had significantly lower pain intensity than the placebo group. The perception of pain intensity measured by visual analog scores of patients in the cold group showed the least variation. There was no statistically significant difference in McGill Melzack Pain Questionnaire scores or in change of anxiety level between the three groups. The application of cold prolonged the length of time until analgesics were needed after CTR. Results showed that cold application reduced patients' intensity of pain due to CTR but did not affect anxiety levels or the type of pain. Cold application is recommended as a pain-relieving technique during CTR. PMID:20728068
Demir, Yurdanur; Khorshid, Leyla
? Abstract Background The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) has been used extensively in community and primary care research as an alternative to longer, time-consuming and more expensive assessments of the common mental disorders of depression and anxiety. The sensitivity and specificity of the GHQ compared with longer more detailed assessments is between 70 and 80 %. Though satisfactory, this raises
Truda Bell; Margaret Watson; Deborah Sharp; Ita Lyons; Glyn Lewis
Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…
Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.
Background It is unclear to which extent the rate of disclosure of the diagnosis "HIV" to the social environment and the nature of experienced responses are correlated with the current mental health status of HIV-infected patients living in Germany. Materials and Methods Eighty consecutive patients of two German HIV outpatient clinics were enrolled. Patients performed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in its German version. Disclosure behaviour and the experienced responses after disclosing as perceived by the participants were assessed using a questionnaire. In addition, patients were asked to state whether they felt guilty for the infection on a 1-4 point Likert scale. Results Pathological results on the anxiety scale were reached by 40% of male and 73% of female patients, and on the depression scale by 30% of male and 47% of female patients, thus significantly exceeding recently assessed values in the German general population, except for depression in males. None of the HADS scale results was interrelated either with the rate of disclosure or the experienced responses. 36% of patients reported to feel guilty for the infection, which was positively correlated with results from the HADS. Limitation: The time since the single disclosure events was not assessed, and the subgroup of women was comparably small. Conclusions Despite substantial improvement in treatment, HIV-infected patients in Germany still suffer from an elevated level of anxiety and, in part, depression. However, mental health status was neither related with disclosure behaviour nor with experienced responses. We hypothesize that internal beliefs may play a more important role. PMID:25024869
Brokamp, Felix; Thomaidis, Thomas; Schmidt, Reinhold E.; Wiltink, Jörg; Galle, Peter R.
Many women experience anxiety during pregnancy with potential negative effects on maternal, birth, and child outcomes. Because of potential risks of fetal exposure to psychotropic medications, efficacious non-pharmacologic approaches are urgently needed. However, no published studies of psychotherapeutic treatments for anxiety in pregnancy exist. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may substantially reduce anxiety and co-morbid symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. Coping with Anxiety through Living Mindfully (CALM) Pregnancy is an adaptation of MBCT designed to address anxiety in pregnant women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of the CALM Pregnancy intervention in pregnant women anxiety. Twenty-four pregnant women with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or prominent symptoms of generalized anxiety participated in an open treatment trial of the CALM Pregnancy group intervention. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined by structured clinical interview, and self-report measures of anxiety, worry, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were completed at baseline and post-intervention. Qualitative feedback was elicited via questionnaire. Twenty-three participants completed the intervention with high attendance and good compliance with home practice. Completers showed statistically and clinically significant improvements in anxiety, worry, and depression, and significant increases in self-compassion and mindfulness. Of the 17 participants who met GAD criteria at baseline, only one continued to meet criteria post-intervention. Participants regarded their experience in the intervention to be overwhelmingly positive. MBCT in the form of the CALM Pregnancy intervention holds potential to provide effective, non-pharmacological treatment for pregnant women with anxiety. These promising findings warrant further testing of the intervention with a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24449191
Goodman, Janice H; Guarino, Anthony; Chenausky, Kerry; Klein, Lauri; Prager, Joanna; Petersen, Rebecca; Forget, Avery; Freeman, Marlene
Introduction Dental anxiety is an important challenge for many patients and clinicians. It is thus of importance to know more about dental students’ own experiences with dental anxiety and their understanding of dental anxiety. The aim was to investigate differences in dental anxiety levels between dental students, psychology students, and biology students at a Norwegian university. Materials and methods A total of 510 students of dentistry, psychology, and biology at the University of Tromsų received a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, demographic questions, and questions relating to their last visit to the dentist/dental hygienist; 169 students gave complete responses. Nonparametric tests were used to investigate differences between the student groups. Results The respondents were 78% female and 22% male; their mean age was 24 years. The dental students showed a significantly lower degree of dental anxiety than the psychology (P<0.001) and biology students (P<0.001). A significant decrease in dental anxiety levels was found between novice and experienced dentistry students (P<0.001). Discussion The dental students had less dental anxiety compared to psychology students and biology students. Experienced dental students also had less dental anxiety than novice dental students. This could indicate that the dentistry program structure at the university may influence dental anxiety levels. Conclusion Dental anxiety seemed to be less frequent in dentistry students compared to students of biology or clinical psychology. The practice-oriented dentistry education at the university might contribute to the differences in anxiety levels between new and experienced dentistry students. PMID:25285013
Storjord, Helene Persen; Teodorsen, Mari Mjųnes; Bergdahl, Jan; Wynn, Rolf; Johnsen, Jan-Are Kolset
Despite advances in dentistry, anxiety about dental treatment and the fear of pain remains widespread among patients and is a significant barrier to dental treatment. This study would therefore provide information so as to minimize levels of anxiety and aid in planning stress-free treatment. The cross-sectional study utilizing a self-reported questionnaire based on Modified Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) framed in Hindi (local language) was performed on 1032 patients (aged 14-68 years). Around 1004 questionnaires were returned (response rate--97.3%). Overall, prevalence of dental anxiety was high (50.2%), but severe anxiety (phobia) was low (4.38%). The prevalence of anxiety was seen mostly in the 20-30-year age group (37.3%). Anxiety was also seen to be significantly higher in females (mean - 11.79) than in males [mean - 9.47] (p < 0.0000). Patients anxious about dental procedures are often more difficult to treat. Anxious patients should be identified and managed appropriately by behavioural/pharmacological measures. PMID:23155968
Marya, C M; Grover, S; Jnaneshwar, A; Pruthi, N
Anxiety symptoms and disorders are associated with a range of general medical disorders. This association may be a physiologic\\u000a consequence of the general medical disorder, a psychologic reaction to the experience of having a medical illness, a side\\u000a effect of treatment, or a chance occurrence. This article briefly reviews the associations of panic disorder with seizure\\u000a disorder, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, mitral
Jacqueline E. Muller; Liezl Koen; Dan J. Stein
This study presents an empirical evidence of benefit of narrative video clips in embedded virtual reality websites of hotels for relieving travel anxiety. Even though it was proven that virtual reality functions do provide some relief in travel anxiety, a stronger virtual reality website can be built when narrative video clips that show video clips with narration about important aspects of the hotel. We posit that these important aspects are 1. Escape route and 2. Surrounding neighborhood information, which are derived from the existing research on anxiety disorder as well as travel anxiety. Thus we created a video clip that showed and narrated about the escape route from the hotel room, another video clip that showed and narrated about surrounding neighborhood. We then conducted experiments with this enhanced virtual reality website of a hotel by having human subjects play with the website and fill out a questionnaire. The result confirms our hypothesis that there is a statistically significant relationship between the degree of travel anxiety and psychological relief caused by the use of embedded virtual reality functions with narrative video clips of a hotel website (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 26). PMID:24156685
Ahn, J C; Lee, O
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559
Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels. PMID:23763559
Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton
This review aims to examine the volume and quality of the evidence base which supports the use of acupuncture in the treatment of anxiety disorders. A literature review was conducted using Pubmed, Google scholar, AMED, BMJ, Embase, Psychinfo, Cochrane library, Ingenta connect, and Cinahl databases. Keywords were "anxiety,"anxious,"panic,"stress,"phobia," and "acupuncture" limited to year 2000 onwards and English language where available. The quality of research examining the use of acupuncture in the treatment of anxiety disorders is extremely variable. There is enormous variety regarding points used, number of points used in a session, duration of sessions, frequency of treatment and duration of treatment programme. While the generally poor methodological quality, combined with the wide range of outcome measures used, number and variety of points, frequency of sessions, and duration of treatment makes firm conclusions difficult. Against this, the volume of literature, consistency of statistically significant results, wide range of conditions treated and use of animal test subjects suggests very real, positive outcomes using a treatment method preferred by a population of individuals who tend to be resistant to conventional medicine. PMID:22070429
The use of computers in hospital clinical nursing and implications for the education of nurses were studied with a sample of 130 hospitals. Of concern was how computers were used, which hospital personnel used computers in health care, costs to educate staff nurses, and who teaches nurses about computers. Questionnaires completed by hospital data…
St. Thomas, Sister
The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently, there has been evidence that anxiety is inversely proportional to the
Amy S. Thompson; Junkyu Lee
Although most conceptualizations of social anxiety emphasise that socially anxious individuals are overtly shy, and utilise avoidant behavioural strategies (e.g., risk-aversion, passivity, and submissiveness), there is tentative support for the existence of an approach-motivated subtype, characterised by risk taking and a greater propensity for substance misuse. It is likely that this subtype may help explain the reported co-occurrence of substance misuse and social anxiety. The current study sought to test via latent class analysis whether an approach-motivated social anxiety subtype could be identified within a community sample. A self-report questionnaire was completed by 351 participants (age: 18-74 years). Two distinct social anxiety subgroups were identified: one characterised by prototypical SAD symptomatology (i.e., behavioural inhibition and risk-avoidance), the second by elevated levels of rash impulsiveness, reward sensitivity, risk-taking and co-occurring substance use problems. The current findings provides support for the existence of a distinct approach-motivated social anxiety subtype and indicates that impulsivity may be critical to understanding the comorbid substance use symptomatology of these individuals. PMID:25261335
Nicholls, Julia; Staiger, Petra Karin; Williams, James Stephen; Richardson, Ben; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas
Investigated the relation of mathematics anxiety to situationally assessed test anxiety, mathematics performance, physiological arousal, and mathematics avoidance behavior in 23 male and 40 female undergraduates. Ss completed the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale, the Mathematics Anxiety Scale, the Anxiety Toward Mathematics Scale, and the Test Anxiety Inventory prior to completing 3 mathematics tasks. During the tasks, heart rate, skin conductance
K. Harriss Dew; John P. Galassi; Merna D. Galassi
Anxiety, depression and suicidal thoughts are highly prevalent comorbidities of end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD). There are no studies in Lebanon on the prevalence of these symptoms in Lebanese end-stage-renal-disease patients. Moreover, the association between ESRD on one hand, and anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation on the other has never been established in Lebanon. Groups of patients at a high-risk of development of these symptoms are not determined. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score and M.I.N.I (module C) were used to measure the prevalence of anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation in 51 patients from the dialysis center of Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital in Lebanon. In our sample, 45% of included patients suffered from symptoms of anxiety and 50% presented symptoms of depression.The prevalence of suicidal ideation as detected by the M.I.N.I. is at 37%. No patients presented with a high risk of suicide. There was a statistically significant correlation between the existence of organic comorbidities and the presence of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. As for anxiety, the association was marginally significant. The results obtained by our study are consistent with those found in studies performed in other societies. The profile of depression- and suicidal ideation-prone patients has been determined. It consists of patients with at least one medical comorbidity to the ESRD. This, in turn, should lead to increased awareness and better treatment of these psychiatric ailments, considering their impact on morbidity and mortality in ESRD. PMID:24337520
Macaron, Gabrielle; Fahed, Mario; Matar, Dany; Bou-Khalil, Rami; Kazour, Francois; Nehme-Chlela, Dania; Richa, Sami
Patient-centered treatment outcomes such as health-related quality of life are recommended in clinical care and research studies. Health-related quality of life questionnaires need to be validated in the language of the target population. The reliability and validity of the Italian version of the MacNew Questionnaire was determined in patients with angina, myocardial infarction, or ischemic heart failure. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected on 298 patients [angina, n = 88; MI, n = 106; heart failure, n = 104; mean age, 64.8 (±10.6) years] at three centers in Italy. MacNew mean scores were higher (p < 0.001) in patients with myocardial infarction than in patients with either angina or heart failure with no floor and minimal ceiling effects. The three-factor structure of the original MacNew form was largely confirmed explaining 54.6 % of the total variance. The Italian MacNew version demonstrates high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's ? ? 0.86), confirms the convergent validity hypotheses with strong correlations on six of eight comparisons (r ? 0.86), partially confirms discriminative validity with the SF-36 health transition item, and fully confirms discriminative validity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The Italian version of the MacNew Questionnaire demonstrates satisfactory psychometric properties, and is reliable and valid in Italian-speaking patients with angina, MI, or heart failure. Responsiveness could not be tested due to the cross-sectional design of the parent study, and needs to be investigated in an intervention study. PMID:25666514
Fattirolli, Francesco; Marchionni, Niccolņ; Höfer, Stefan; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Angelino, Elisabetta; Fioretti, Paolo; Miani, Daniela; Oldridge, Neil
In order to assess prevalence of depression and anxiety among epileptic patients and to compare it to a control population, a matched case-control survey was performed in 196 persons above 18 Year old (98 epileptics and 98 controls matched according to sex, age 10 and social environment) in Republic of Benin (West Africa), using Goldberg's Depression and Anxiety scale. Two main investigators helped by 5 sociology students were trained on a questionnaire by a psychiatrist skilled with public health matters. People taking part in the survey are epileptic patients who already used health services. Inclusions took place within 17 communes of four departments (Mono, Zou, Ouémé, Atlantique) located in Southern part of Benin. The questionnaire used an Identity sheet and the Goldberg Depression Scale. Results are shown as mean standard deviations, for quantitative values, and percents for qualitative ones. Comparisons of proportions in qualitative variables are carried out using c2 test or Fisher's exact test. Comparisons of means rates between subject's groups are carried out with a Student t test or variance analysis. The correlations between two quantitative variables were assessed by linear correlation coefficient. Significance threshold chosen for the whole set of statistics analysis is 0.05. The majority of interviewed epileptic patients is young (average 32.6 11.5 Years old). A male predominance exists (sex ratio 1.28). 93% of interviewed persons live within their family, are married or cohabit (controls: 98.2%; cases: 87.9%); 57.4% are married (controls: 70%; cases: 44%). The most represented professional categories are craftsmen and shopkeepers (29.2%) as well as farmers (19.5%). Most of recruited patients live in an urban setting (55.4%) and 63.6% of interviewed persons had been living in the area of survey for over 10 Years. The most represented religion within the sample is Christian religion (67.7%), Animists (23.3%) and Muslims (5.8%). 97% of epileptic patients reported they had one fit during the two Years before the survey; roughly one half (48%) had 2 to 5 fits and 41.5% of them had more than 10 fits; only 14% say they have had an EEG. Presence of an Anti Epileptic Drug (77.5%) reduces anxiety and depression. Considering a severity threshold of 5 for anxiety and 2 for depression (8), proportions of epileptic patients displaying a severe anxiety (79.8%) or a severe depression (89.6%) are significantly higher (p<0.0001) than in control subjects (12.3% and 46.9%). Comparison of average scores confirms the difference (p<0.0001) between cases (5.8 2.0 and 2.3 1.9) and controls (4.7 2.4 and 2.0 2.1) regarding anxiety and depression. Neither the sex, nor age, nor life environment (urban/rural), nor frequency of fits hold significant influence over an-xiety and depression. However, results in this survey include higher average rates of anxiety and depression for women (6.3 1.8) than men (5.5 1.8), though such statement is only nearly significant (p=0.06). Results of the survey confirm the other works on this topic about characteristics of depression for epileptic patients, though results here are higher than usual. Anxiety and depression are common troubles found in epileptic patient, both often occurring at the same time. Two distinct theories about this fact are opposed, first explain the connection of anxiety and depression with epilepsy because of the social and cultural burden upon an epileptic patient in those countries, the second theory is about depression and epilepsy sharing some neuroaminergical dysfunctions; these facts were not considered in this survey. When taking into account the thresholds of seriousness on Goldberg's scale, proportion of controls displaying a probably deeper depression is high (46.9%) compared to usual hospital prevalence rates (4 to 25%) found in Western Africa where survey in general population are scarce. It could either be a bias in the selection or the confirmation that family and relatives of an epileptic patient are enduring a great psychic pain too; finally, this high r
Nubukpo, P; Houinato, D; Preux, P-M; Avodé, G; Clément, J-P
The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-induced oxidative stress. Studies using knockout or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes have shown a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress. Related factors of oxidative stress that could influence anxious behavior are revised, including impaired function of different mitochondrial proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. It has been suggested that a therapy specifically focus in reducing reactive species production may have a beneficial effect in reducing anxiety. However, the neurobiological pathways underlying the effect of oxidative stress on anxiety symptoms are not fully comprehended. The challenge now is to identify the oxidative stress mechanisms likely to be involved in the induction of anxiety symptoms. Understanding these pathways could help to clarify the neurobiology of the anxiety disorder and provide tools for new discovery in therapies and preventive strategies. PMID:24669212
R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz
This study examined child anxiety sensitivity and family environment as mediators of the relationship between (1) parent psychopathology\\u000a and anxiety sensitivity and (2) child anxiety in a community sample of 157 youths aged 7–18 years. Parents completed measures\\u000a of anxiety sensitivity, psychopathology, and family environment. Youths completed measures of anxiety sensitivity and anxiety.\\u000a One structural equation model was tested with child
Kelly L. Drake; Christopher A. Kearney
The effect of psychological resilience as a buffer against anxiety was investigated in a sample of 39 boys with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via individual online questionnaire responses to standardised inventories for assessing anxiety and psychological resilience. Ability to handle problems, make good decisions, think before…
Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.
Background: In the Netherlands, no self-report screening questionnaire for anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) was available yet. Therefore, we have translated the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID) into Dutch and studied its reliability and validity in adults with borderline, mild or…
Hermans, H.; Wieland, J.; Jelluma, N.; Van der Pas, F.; Evenhuis, H.
Hypothesizes that self-consciousness and perceived peer acceptance correlates with social anxiety. Focuses on 508 French fourth- to ninth-grade students who completed questionnaires that assessed their perceptions of social anxiety with peers, self-consciousness, and perceived peer acceptance. Discusses the results. (CMK)
Mallet, Pascal; Rodriguez-Tome, Gladis
... Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Print Email Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients ACHE Newsletter Sign ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, ...
Although the number of computers in the school system is increasing, many schools are not using computers to their capacity. One reason for this may be computer anxiety on the part of the teacher. A review of the computer anxiety literature reveals little information on the subject, and findings from previous studies suggest that basic controlled…
Bellando, Jayne; Winer, Jane L.
To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.
With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Trujillo, Anna C.
Differences in the relative use of global and local information (seeing the forest versus the trees) may explain why people with social anxiety often do not benefit from corrective feedback, even though they pay close attention to details in social situations. In the current study, participants high (n = 43) or low (n = 47) in social anxiety symptoms gave a series of brief speeches, and then self-rated their speaking performance on items reflecting global and local performance indicators (self assessment) and also received standardized performance feedback from an experimenter. Participants then completed a questionnaire asking how they thought the experimenter would rate their performance based on the feedback provided (experimenter assessment). Participants completed the self and experimenter assessments again after three days, in addition to a measure of post-event processing (repetitive negative thinking) about their speech performance. Results showed that, as hypothesized, the high social anxiety group rated their performance more negatively than the low social anxiety group did. Moreover, the high social anxiety group’s ratings of global aspects of their performance became relatively more negative over time, compared to their ratings of local aspects and the low social anxiety group’s ratings. As expected, post-event processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and worsening global performance evaluations. These findings point to a pattern of progressively more negative global evaluations over time for persons high in social anxiety. PMID:22035989
Cody, Meghan W.; Teachman, Bethany A.
To determine whether physicians with harm avoidance (HA) personality traits were more prone to developing increased anxiety and depression during the medical internship. A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns was carried out using repeated measures of symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI and BDI) before, at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months during the internship, and 2 weeks after the internship was completed. Baseline personality was assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire with 3 dimensions: novelty-seeking, HA, and reward dependence (RD). Levels of both depression and anxiety increased (6.4 and 3.4 on scores for BDI and BAI, respectively) during the internship and returned to baseline 2 weeks after it ended. HA scores were significantly correlated with depression and anxiety (0.3 scores on both the BDI and the BAI) and the scores for RD were significantly correlated with anxiety but not with depression. The interaction of HA and point in internship showed no significant differences. Internship plays a major role in the increase in depression and anxiety. A HA personality was also associated with the development of both depression and anxiety. PMID:25590843
Chen, Ching-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Li, Peng; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Lin, Yu-Hsuan
Objective: This study was performed to survey the relationship between coaches’ and athletes’ competitive anxiety, and their performance. Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study performed using a demographic questionnaire, an athletic performance checklist, and sport competition anxiety test designed by Martens consisting of 15 questions. The study population consisted of 540 players and 60 coaches from 60 futsal teams (5 main players, 4 reserves, and 1 coach for each team). All of the players and the coaches were surveyed in a census method and no sampling was done. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results: The results showed a positive significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and sport competition anxiety level in the athletes (p = 0.019, r = 0.56). It also showed that there was a negative significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and performance level of the athletes (p = 0.012, r = -0.80). A negative significant relationship was also demonstrated between the athletes’ competitive anxiety level, and their athletic experiences (p < 0.001, r = -0.45) and age (p = 0.001, r = -0.37). Conclusions: Coaches and officials should consider sport competition anxiety among athletes before and during competitions. Formal and planned competitions, training sessions, and preparation practices can be a major factor assisting to decrease athletes' anxiety. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644512
Mottaghi, Mahmoodreza; Atarodi, Alireza; Rohani, Zahra
Anxiety and depression are common and important comorbidities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The pathophysiology of these psychological comorbidities in COPD is complex and possibly explained by common risk factors, response to symptomatology and biochemical alterations. The presence of anxiety and/or depression in COPD patients is associated with increased mortality, exacerbation rates, length of hospital stay, and decreased quality of life and functional status. There is currently no consensus on the most appropriate approach to screening for anxiety and depression in COPD. Treatment options include psychological [relaxation, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), self-management] and pharmacological interventions. Although there is some evidence to support these treatments in COPD, the data are limited and mainly comprised by small studies. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves anxiety and depression, and conversely these conditions impact rehabilitation completion rates. Additional high quality studies are urgently required to optimise screening and effective treatment of anxiety and depression in patients with COPD, to enhance complex chronic disease management for these patients. PMID:25478202
Gray, Curt R.; Walsh, James R.; Yang, Ian A.; Rolls, Tricia A.; Ward, Donna L.
Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex. PMID:23722398
Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the association of anxiety and depression symptoms with health related quality of\\u000a life (HRQoL) and sleep quality in patients with beta-thalassemia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods In a cross-sectional study between 2006 and 2007, 292 thalassemic patients were assessed for symptoms of anxiety and depression\\u000a (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale; HADS), HRQoL (Short Form-36, SF-36) and quality of
Bashir Hajibeigi; Azita Azarkeyvan; Seyed Moayed Alavian; Maryam Moghani Lankarani; Shervin Assari
The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cytokine levels correlate with depression and anxiety in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Twenty patients hospitalized for surgical resection of CRC were included in the study group and twenty healthy volunteers comprised the control group. Depression and anxiety were analyzed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-?, and TGF-? were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. We found that more than half of CRC patients presented clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression, and 65% of them manifested a combination of severe anxiety and depression. CRC patients had increased serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? but lower IL-10 concentrations. Correlation analysis between HADS score and cytokine levels revealed a positive association of anxiety and/or depression with IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? and a negative correlation with IL-10. These results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression in CRC patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these psychological disorders will allow the design of therapeutic interventions that lead to an improved quality of life and overall survival of CRC patients. PMID:25309921
Soares de Lima, Taķs Aparecida; Ribeiro Azevedo, Lucas; Feres, Omar; Ribeiro da Rocha, José Joaquim
Results of a survey of medication safety technology in community hospitals are presented. A written questionnaire was mailed to pharmacy directors at 88 hospitals located in 21 states. Items in the questionnaire addressed current and planned use of technology intended to improve medication safety. Fifty-six usable responses were received for a response rate of 63.6%. Medication safety was considered one
Glen T. Schumock; Vinit P. Nair; Jamie M. Finley; Richard K. Lewis
JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE ANSWER SHEET DO NOT WRITE IN THIS SPACE N.C. Date Received Reclass New Starting Date in Class Yes No NA (NA if Temporary Job) Notice # Effective Date If Reclassified IS TO BE USED WITH THE JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE (BA 802) ONLY FOR POSITIONS COVERED BY CIVIL SERVICE
Amin, S. Massoud
An adaptive on-line questionnaire, named EDUFORM 1 , is based on Bayesian statistical techniques that both optimize the number of propositions presented to each respondent and create an individual learner profile. Adaptive graphical user interface is generated partially (propositions of the questionnaire, collaborative actions and links to resources) and computational part totally with Bayesian computational techniques. The preliminary results show
Petri Nokelainen; Markku Niemivirta; Jaakko Kurhila; Miikka Miettinen; Henry Tirri
In order to better understand and counsel Chinese students in the United States, the trait anxiety and test anxiety of 67 Chinese graduate students in education attending two universities in Taiwan were measured. Normative assessments for the total group showed that the sample fell within the normal range of U.S. students as defined in Test…
MacDougall, Mary Ann; Corcoran, Miriam D.
In order to test the assumption that mathematically talented students show little mathematics anxiety, students participating in an early entrance to college program for talented students were asked to complete the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale. Results indicated that these talented students were less math anxious than most unselected college students. However, they were more math anxious than a group of
Ann E. Lupkowski; Randall E. Schumacker
This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics anxiety causes
Brian F. Sherman; David P. Wither
Investigated 4 considerations about mathematics anxiety (MA): (a) the degree of MA experienced by men and women, (b) the internal consistency and test–retest reliabilities of 3 MA measures, (c) the relationship of MA instruments to each other, and (d) the relationship of MA to test anxiety and its worry and emotionality components. 769 college students' MA was measured by the
Kathleen H. Dew; John P. Galassi
Science anxiety has been shown to seriously impede student learning. This chapter will describe research done on science anxiety and will explain specific actions that college science teachers can take to build the confidence of their students. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Preface, Endorsement of the Society for College Science Teachers, and Introduction.
Jeffry V. Mallow
for dealing with presentation stress: Present Regularly--one of the most effective ways to reduce presentation, these first presentations can become potent learning experiences. General stress causing presentation anxiety--this type of anxiety is not directly connected with public speaking. In this case stress from other parts
Northern British Columbia, University of
To assist the clinician or researcher in scale selection, four symposium papers discussed instruments available to measure test anxiety (TA), with special attention given to the newly-developed Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Following an integrative summary delivered by the chairperson (DeVito), the first paper (Conetta and Tryon) reviewed the two…
DeVito, Anthony J.; And Others
The relationship between anxiety and interpretive bias has been studied extensively, but the causal direction of this relationship remains largely unexplored. Do negative interpretations cause anxiety or is anxiety the cause of negative interpretations? Or are the two mutually reinforcing? The present study addressed this issue by experimentally inducing either a negative or a positive interpretive bias using Mathews and Mackintosh' [(2002). Induced emotional interpretation bias and anxiety. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 604-615] training paradigm and then examining its impact on state anxiety and anxiety vulnerability. In addition, it was investigated as to whether the interpretive bias was trained implicitly. Results indicated that style of interpreting could be manipulated. That is, when confronted with ambiguous information after the training, participants (n=118) interpreted this information congruent with their (positive or negative) training condition. Data on the issue of implicitness showed that participants tended to be explicitly aware of the valence of their training stimuli. Effects of trained interpretive bias on anxiety were only marginal and absent on anxiety vulnerability. It appears that interpretive bias can be trained reliably, but its effects on mood and vulnerability require further explanation. PMID:16859638
Salemink, Elske; van den Hout, Marcel; Kindt, Merel
Cognitive hypnotherapy, also known as cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy (CBH), is applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders. Specific techniques are described and illustrated. The research on CBH is discussed. CBH seems to be at least as effective as behavior therapy (BT) and cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) treatments that employ imagery and relaxation techniques for anxiety disorders. However, more research is needed because
William L. Golden
Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…
Sparks, Sarah D.
The purpose of this study is to move beyond the more traditional focus on individual characteristics as they relate to anxiety in the use of a foreign language. In order to do this, cultural characteristics, perceptions of the cause of successful learning, and foreign (English) language use anxiety were included as the major variables. Three…
The Zuckerman Affect Adjective Check List (AACL) is used to measure trait anxiety and situation-specific trait anxiety relating to peer interaction, vocational aspiration, and the learning of English, mathematics, science and social studies. The subjects were 262 grade 10 students attending an Australian metropolitan high school. Additional…
Docking, Russell A.; Thornton, Jennifer A.
The behavioral manifestations of social anxiety may have implications for social outcomes. Unfortunately, little is known about how anxiety shapes social interaction. The present study examined social interactions in dyads consisting of either 2 nonsocially anxious (NSA) individuals or 1 socially anxious (SA) and 1 NSA individual. Behavior, self-reported affect, and perceptions were examined. In comparison with the interactions of
Erin A. Heerey; Ann M. Kring
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192 children drawn from a community sample of 688 children attending public elementary schools. Half of these children were selected because they were identified as anxious solitary by peers and the other half were demographically-matched controls. 192 children provided self reports of social anxiety disorder symptoms on a questionnaire, and 76 of these children and their parent participated in clinical interviews. Results indicate that children identified by their peers as anxious solitary in the fall of 4th grade, compared to control children, were significantly more likely to receive diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and selective mutism based on parent clinical interviews. Additionally, there was a tendency for these children to be diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and post traumatic stress disorder based on parent clinical interviews. Furthermore, children who had been identified as anxious solitary at any time in the 3rd or 4th grades were more likely than control children to report symptoms of social anxiety disorder that fell in the clinical range and to receive diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and dysthymia (both trends) and major depression (a significant effect) according to parental clinical interview. PMID:19707867
Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley
In order to test the assumption that mathematically talented students show little mathematics anxiety, students participating in an early entrance to college program for talented students were asked to complete the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale. Results indicated that these talented students were less math anxious than most unselected college students. However, they were more math anxious than a group of college students majoring in physics. Females in the study showed a tendency to be more math anxious than males (d=-.32), although this finding was not significant. No relationship between level of mathematics anxiety and grades or math anxiety and Scholastic Aptitude Test - Mathematics scores was found for the group of subjects. However, when those relationships were examined for males alone, higher verbal scores and higher grades were associated with lower levels of mathematics anxiety. These relationships were not evident for females. PMID:24263612
Lupkowski, A E; Schumacker, R E
BACKGROUND: The aspects of consultation that are important for psychiatric patients have always remained a less acknowledged area. The aim of this study was to identify these aspects. METHODS: A Cross-sectional, questionnaire based study was carried out in a psychiatry outpatient clinic of two tertiary care hospitals in a developing country. The patients were asked to fill out the questionnaire
Roomasa Channa; MN Siddiqi
This study aimed to use a population-based sample to assess the psychological validity of the Seattle system for diagnosing dentally anxious individuals. This system consists of four diagnostic types in which such individuals are categorized according to the main source of their fear regarding dental treatment. Subjects were 1420 randomly selected adults aged 18 years and over who took part in a two-stage mail survey. The questionnaires contained measures of dental anxiety and standardized measures of general anxiety and fearfulness. Allocation to the Seattle categories was based on responses to four diagnostic items. Overall, 16.4% of the sample were dentally anxious. Their distribution across the four Seattle types was as follows: type I (simple conditioned phobia)--49.6%; type II (fear of catastrophe)--7.8%; type III (generalized anxiety)--19.4% and type IV (distrust of dentists)--9.9%. The remaining 13.3% could not be categorized. Judging by their scores on measures of dental anxiety, these subjects were borderline cases. Scores on the measures of anxiety and fearfulness indicated that the diagnostic system was valid and identified sub-groups of the dentally anxious population which were internally consistent. However, all subjects indicated extreme fear of dental treatment and were broadly similar in terms of their cognitive and behavioral responses to dental care. Of particular interest was the distribution of diagnoses according to age. Younger subjects were more likely to be categorized as type I, while older subjects were more likely to be categorized as type III. Overall, the results indicate that dental anxiety is a complex fear with a number of components. PMID:9922555
Locker, D; Liddell, A; Shapiro, D
Halitosis is described as offensive breath caused by various factors such as periodontal diseases, bacterial coating of tongue, systemic disorders and different types of foods. Pseudohalitosis is a situation that patients complain of oral malodor even though they do not have offensive odour. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationships between social anxiety estimations and both pseudohalitosis and genuine halitosis cases. Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and questionnaire regarding halitosis were applied to 100 participants. Halitosis was determined using organoleptic method, gas chromatography and portable sulphur monitor. anova test and 2-tailed Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient were used to determine the differences and relations between groups. With reference to LSAS, 62% of participants had anxiety. Among these patients, 98% had genuine halitosis (P < 0·05). The mean measurements of VSC values were 248·65 ppm in halimeter, 298·02 ppm of H2 S, 95·33 ppm of CH3 SH and 47·00 ppm of (CH3 )2 S in gas chromatography. Halitosis was present in 90% of participants, and it was absent in 10% by organoleptic assessment. There was a significant correlation between organoleptic and halimeter measurements. Moreover, statistically significant relationship was detected between anxiety and halitosis. Genuine halitosis patients exhibit social anxiety, so it can be said that there is a causal relationship between halitosis and anxiety. Comparison of the results of objective measurements (sulphur monitor, gas chromatography, organoleptic method) was statistically significant; therefore, it can be said that these methods can be used in diagnosis of halitosis with high accuracy. PMID:25040179
Kursun, S; Acar, B; Atakan, C; Oztas, B; Paksoy, C S
The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Hamilton's Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23439854
Sharma, Mahendra P.; Mao, Angelina; Sudhir, Paulomi M.
Yoga and meditation can alleviate stress, anxiety, mood disturbance, and musculoskeletal problems, and can enhance cognitive and physical performance. Professional musicians experience high levels of stress, performance anxiety, and debilitating performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The goal of this controlled study was to evaluate the benefits of yoga and meditation for musicians. Young adult professional musicians who volunteered to participate in a 2-month program of yoga and meditation were randomized to a yoga lifestyle intervention group (n = 15) or to a group practicing yoga and meditation only (n = 15). Additional musicians were recruited to a no-practice control group (n = 15). Both yoga groups attended three Kripalu Yoga or meditation classes each week. The yoga lifestyle group also experienced weekly group practice and discussion sessions as part of their more immersive treatment. All participants completed baseline and end-program self-report questionnaires that evaluated music performance anxiety, mood, PRMDs, perceived stress, and sleep quality; many participants later completed a 1-year followup assessment using the same questionnaires. Both yoga groups showed a trend towards less music performance anxiety and significantly less general anxiety/tension, depression, and anger at end-program relative to controls, but showed no changes in PRMDs, stress, or sleep. Similar results in the two yoga groups, despite psychosocial differences in their interventions, suggest that the yoga and meditation techniques themselves may have mediated the improvements. Our results suggest that yoga and meditation techniques can reduce performance anxiety and mood disturbance in young professional musicians. PMID:19657730
Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Shorter, Stephanie M; Cope, Stephen; Wyshak, Grace; Sklar, Elyse
Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization. PMID:24167436
Barakovi?, Devla; Avdibegovi?, Esmina; Sinanovi?, Osman
The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Hamilton's Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23439854
Sharma, Mahendra P; Mao, Angelina; Sudhir, Paulomi M
Background The current study tested whether perceived social support serves as a mediator of anxiety and depressive symptom change following evidence-based anxiety treatment in the primary care setting. Gender, age, and race were tested as moderators. Methods Data were obtained from 1004 adult patients (age M=43, SD=13; 71% female; 56% White, 20% Hispanic, 12% Black) who participated in a randomized effectiveness trial (CALM Study) comparing evidence-based intervention (cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or psychopharmacology) to usual care in the primary care setting. Patients were assessed with a battery of questionnaires at baseline, as well as at 6-, 12-, and 18-months following baseline. Measures utilized in the mediation analyses included the Abbreviated Medical Outcomes (MOS) Social Support Survey, the Brief Symptom Index (BSI) – Somatic and Anxiety subscales, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results There was a mediating effect over time of perceived social support on symptom change following treatment, with stronger effects for 18-month depression than anxiety. None of the mediating pathways were moderated by gender, age, or race. Conclusions Perceived social support may be central to anxiety and depressive symptom changes over time with evidence-based intervention in the primary care setting. These findings possibly have important implications for development of anxiety interventions. PMID:24338947
Dour, Halina J.; Wiley, Joshua F.; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Rose, Raphael D.; Craske, Michelle G.
Emotional dysregulation is a process which consists in mitigating, intensifying, or maintaining a given emotion and is the trigger for some psychological disorders. Research has shown that an anxiety control plays an important role in emotional expression and regulation and, in addition, for anorexia nervosa (AN) and, more in general, in drive for thinness. Scientific literature suggests that in AN there is a core of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control as independent or third variables in a mediational regression model related to drive for thinness. One hundred fifty-four clinical individuals with anorexia participated in the study and all completed a set of self-report questionnaires: eating disorders inventory version 3 (EDI-3), DERS, and the anxiety control questionnaire. The data confirmed a mediational model in which the relation between emotional dysregulation and drive for thinness is mediated by anxiety control. The current study partially supports a clinical model in which emotional dysregulation is a distal factor in eating disorders while the mediator variable anxiety control is a proximal factor in the psychopathological process underlying it. PMID:24795659
Fiore, Francesca; Ruggiero, Giovanni M.; Sassaroli, Sandra
It has always been believed that fear and anxiety of dental treatment was a simple continuum of experience that occurs in mild, moderate, or severe form. Past and present studies that attempt to both trace etiology and measure it reflect this view. The numerous studies that are concerned with methods of management are based on this accepted philosophy regarding the etiology of dental fear and anxiety. To a large extent, this may be true. However, there are some notable exceptions, and it is these cases that present the greatest management problem. Omitting the symptoms of fear and anxiety related to physical illness, drug withdrawal, or major mental illness, they present anxiety as a unidimensional learned problem usually conditioned by externally negative forces or experiences. They postulate that the fear and anxiety seen is due to a variety of factors. The interpretation of the definitions of fear, anxiety, and phobias by many in the profession that are presented in this issue also reflect the view that fear, anxiety, and phobias are learned or conditioned responses. This single-minded view has determined much of our understanding and subsequent management of this problem in dentistry. PMID:3053273
Weiner, A A; Sheehan, D V
This study attempts to examine hospitality crisis management practices within the context of the Israeli hospitality industry. The study develops a questionnaire that evaluates the importance and usage of four categories of practices: marketing, hotel maintenance, human resources, and governmental assistance. The findings illustrate which practices managers consider important and which practices managers actually use during an industry crisis. The
Aviad A. Israeli; Arie Reichel
In this study, the authors compared 90 pairs of mothers and fathers with respect to aspects of negative emotionality experienced in the early parenting role. Mothers and fathers of 90 healthy 3-month-old infants completed questionnaires pertaining to parenting stress and separation anxiety. Mothers reported significantly higher levels of negative…
Scher, Anat; Sharabany, Ruth
The present study examined the role of childhood trauma, major depressive disorder (MDD), and anxiety disorder (AD) in overgeneral autobiographical memory. Ninety-three outpatients and 24 healthy controls completed a childhood trauma questionnaire and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). Results showed that MDD diagnosis rather than trauma history predicted AMT-performance. Memory specificity was not related to AD diagnosis, recovered MDD, or
Ineke Wessel; Masja Meeren; Frenk Peeters; Arnoud Arntz; Harald Merckelbach
Ninety-two athletes and 93 nonathletes completed the Illinois Competition Questionnaire measuring trait anxiety in competitive sports situations and the Rotter I-E scale measuring locus of control. No differences between groups were found on either test, and scores on the tests did not correlate for either group. (Author/SJL)
McKelvie, Stuart J.; Huband, Debbie E.
College-age students were given a four-part questionnaire consisting of: (1) Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, (2) the Belief in Afterlife Scale-Form A, (3) Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, and (4) Lester's Fear of Death Scale. In general, the findings suggest that the relationship between death and afterlife beliefs is weak.…
Berman, Alan L.; Hays, James E.
Introduction: Due to a considerable lack in empirical efforts and appropriate instruments, and theoretically rooted in a cognitive-motivational perspective on academic personality development, the present study analyzes a questionnaire for measuring EFL learners' self-perceptions of oral narrative competencies and perceived anxiety concerning oral…
The Negative Self-Portrayal Scale (NSPS) is a new questionnaire designed to assess the extent to which individuals are concerned that specific self-attributes they view as being deficient will be exposed to scrutiny and evaluation by critical others in social situations. These concerns have been proposed to drive symptoms of social anxiety and account for individual differences in social fears and
David A. Moscovitch; Vanessa Huyder
The purpose of the study was to examine whether poor working conditions influenced drivers' psychological health, and to identify drivers' personality characteristics. The subjects were 208 bus drivers working in the European sector in Istanbul. Their personality characteristics, psychological symptoms and anxiety levels were investigated using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Symptom Check List (SCL90-R) and Spielberger's State and
H. Issever; L. Onen; H. H. Sabuncu; O. Altunkaynak
Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…
Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika
Sports psychology plays a vital role in contributing to the performance of an athlete. This research examined the levels of goal orientation, attention styles and anxiety towards the performance of the Junior Golfers in Malaysia. Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaires (TEOSQ) was administered to measure goal orientation aspects, Task and Ego. Modified Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Styles
Rohaty Majzub; Tajul Ariffin Muhammad
This study examined the effects of differentiated curriculum and instruction on the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) to university freshmen in their English reading classes in Taiwan. This quasi-experimental study investigated whether using differentiated curriculum and instruction impacted motivation, anxiety, and interest toward learning English. A pre- and post- questionnaire comparison group design was used to determine
Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a common parasomnia characterized by an inability to move or speak and often accompanied by hallucinations of a sensed presence nearby. Recent research has linked ISP, and sensed presence more particularly, with social anxiety and other psychopathologies. The present study used a large sample of respondents to an internet questionnaire (N=193) to test whether these
Elizaveta Solomonova; Tore Nielsen; Philippe Stenstrom; Valérie Simard; Elena Frantova; Don Donderi
The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…
Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.
The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretically-based model in which insecure attachment is related to career indecision through the mediation of negative emotions. Two hundred college students completed questionnaires measuring anxious and avoidant dimensions of insecure attachment, negative emotions (trait and career-choice anxiety,…
Braunstein-Bercovitz, Hedva; Benjamin, Benny A.; Asor, Shiri; Lev, Maya
The objective of this study was to examine the subgroup of patients with chronic pruritus with dysesthetic subqualities for the presence of psychiatric comorbidities and to evaluate whether anxiety and depression make a difference in perception of somatosensory stimuli in quantitative sensory testing (QST). Forty-nine patients underwent routine diagnostics, a standardised QST testing battery, a psychosomatic evaluation for psychic comorbidities and filled out 2 questionnaires: the Patient Health Questionnaire for the assessment of depressive mood and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Twenty-seven (55.1%) of the sample had at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. QST parameters were not correlated to anxiety and depression levels. We conclude that psychosomatic evaluation should become part of routine diagnostics of these patients in order to detect and treat psychiatric comorbidity. However, research on somatosensory aspects in these patients seems not to be affected by the levels of anxiety and depression. PMID:25111503
Schneider, Gudrun; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Marziniak, Martin; Stumpf, Astrid; Ständer, Sonja
JM Armfield introduced the questionnaire "Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear" with the intention of giving research into this complex area a broader theoretical base. A German translation of the IDAF-4C+ was given to 287 dental patients in Germany, of which 188 were recruited from a Dental Fears Clinic. Together with the IDAF-4C+ the patients also filled out the Dental Anxiety Scale, the Dental Fear Survey and Beck's Anxiety Inventory. The good reliability of the IDAF core dental anxiety and fear module, that was found in the original Australian research, was found to be even better in the translated version. The factorial validity of the fear- and phobia module could be confirmed, the stimulus module only partly. With the translation of the IDAF-4C+ there is for the first time a questionnaire available in the German language that not only measures the extent of the dental fears but also diagnoses the anxiety-causing stimuli and intends to differentiate between dental fear and phobia. PMID:23821478
Tönnies, Sven; Mehrstedt, Mats; Fritzsche, Anja
Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.
Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry
It is well documented that the psychiatric disorders are common in Asthma patients in China while the studies on the relationship between asthma control and psychological disorder are comparatively rare. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study on asthmatic outpatients in one Chinese tertiary center to investigate the correlation among asthma, anxiety and depression. Demographic data, anxiety and depression scores, the level of asthma control were collected in 261 patients. All patients were evaluated with Asthma Control Test (ACT), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating depression scale (SDS) questionnaires. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between asthma control and psychological disorder. The result showed that 31 asthma patients had anxiety symptom while thirty-five asthma patients had depression. One hundred and ninety-two asthma patients were well controlled and 69 patients were not. The study found a negative correlation between ACT and SAS(r?=??0.231, p<0.001) as well as ACT and SDS(r?=??0.23, p<0.001) and depression (OR: 12.295, 95%CI: [5.374–28.128], p<0.001) were both independently associated with poor asthma control. We concluded that Asthma control is greatly affected by psychological disorder in Chinese patients. PMID:25054657
Li, Lei; Liu, Li; Li, Guoqin; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yuyan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Hong; Li, Guangxi; Li, Hui
Anxiety can be broadly described as a psychological state in which normally innocuous environmental stimuli trigger negative emotional expectations. Human anxiety disorders are multidimensional and may be organic or acquired, situational or pervasive. The broad ranging nature of the anxiety phenotype speaks to the need for models that identify its various components and root causes to develop effective clinical treatments. The cross-species comparative approach to modeling anxiety disorders in animals aims to understand mechanisms that both contribute to and modulate anxiety. Nonhuman primate models provide an important bridge from nonprimate model systems because of the complexity of nonhuman primates’ biobehavioral capacities and their commonalities with human emotion. The broad goal of this review is to provide an overview of various procedures available to study anxiety in the nonhuman primate, with a focus on the behavioral aspects of anxiety. Commonly used methods covered in this review include assessing animals in their home environment or in response to an ethologically relevant threat, associative conditioning and startle response tests, and cognitive bias tests. We also discuss how these procedures can help veterinarians and researchers care for captive nonhuman primates. PMID:25225310
Coleman, Kristine; Pierre, Peter J.
Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men and women, aged 55-60 years, from a population-based cohort, who filled out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We performed
Susanne R. de Rooij; Aart H. Schene; David I. Phillips; Tessa J. Roseboom
We tested the effects on problem-solving, anxiety and depression of 12-week group-based self-management cancer rehabilitation, combining comprehensive physical training (PT) and cognitive-behavioural problem-solving training (CBT), compared with PT. We expected that PT?+?CBT would outperform PT in improvements in problem-solving (Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R)), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), and that more anxious and\\/or depressed participants would
Irene Korstjens; Ilse Mesters; Anne M. May; Ellen van Weert; Johanna H. C. van den Hout; Wynand Ros; Josette E. H. M. Hoekstra-Weebers; Cees P. van der Schans; Bart van den Borne
IN BRIEF To keep memories from becoming jumbled, the brain must encode the distinct features of events and situations in a way that allows them to be distinguished from one another—a process called pattern separation. Pattern separation enables us to distinguish dangerous situations from similar ones that pose no risk. People with defects in this ability may be prone to anxiety disorders. The process occurs in one of the two regions of the brain that generate neurons throughout life. These fledgling cells seem to be critical to pattern separation. Interventions that specifically boost the ranks of rookie neurons could provide new ways to regulate mood and possibly treat conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24974712
Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Hen, René
It is recognised that peripheral intravenous (IV) cannulation is an increasingly performed procedure within the hospital setting. This invasive, yet necessary, procedure often causes patients considerable anxiety and distress, especially those patients who have to endure multiple and possibly painful and difficult cannulations. Nurses can play a valuable role in minimising the associated physical discomfort and complications that patients may experience as a result of having a peripheral cannula inserted through maintaining their knowledge and skills in relation to patient preparation, assessment and the care and management of the cannula. However, nurses also play an equally valuable role in recognising the potential psychological complications that are associated with peripheral IV cannulation. Demonstrating a knowledge and understanding of the effective methods that are used to manage and minimise these complications can ensure patients' confidence is maintained and their experience of cannulation is positive. PMID:25345479
Introduction: Studies showed that lack of interest in the field of study in the 1st year of residency could create stress and then causing psychological problems like anxiety. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of relationship between interest to the specialized field of study and the level of medical residents’ anxiety in 2010. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population of this study was the medical residents (1st-4th year) from the Universities of Medical Sciences of Isfahan, Gilan, Sanandaj and Kashan (370 residents). They were selected by stratified sampling method proportional to size and were included in this study. Data was collected by using the researcher-made questionnaire of demographic characteristics, the questionnaire about the field of study selection and Zung anxiety self-assessment standard questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by using the SPSS statistical software version 16, descriptive and analytical tests (t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson). The significance level was considered as P ? 0.05. Results: The results showed that more than 92% of the surveyed residents did not have anxiety and were in the normal group. There was a significant correlation between the specialized field of interest and anxiety scores of the residents (P < 0.05). In particular, the following cases had a direct effect on interest rates and anxiety in residents: the amount of time for visiting and patient care, job stress, time for personal affairs, the ability to predict the agenda and job security. Conclusions: The relationship between various factors and anxiety level was corroborated that the residents’ interest and success in studying was the result of their choices and management plans to eliminate barriers for the selection of the field and the favorite city by the officials and planners. PMID:25013826
Khorvash, Fariborz; Vesal, Sahar; Yamani, Nikoo; Hadadgar, Arash; Mehrbod, Nooshin
Objective: This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels among university students enrolled at Jordan University of Science and Technology. In addition, the present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety and the impact of gender on the perceived dental anxiety and the correlation between field of study and dental anxiety level. Material and Methods: The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. Six hundred subjects were recruited into the study from Jordanian undergraduate students from the faculties of Medicine, Engineering, and Dentistry. Results: Five hundred and thirty five complete questionnaires were returned, which accounts for a response rate of 89.2%. The totals of the mean anxiety scores were the following: Medical students, 13.58%; Engineering students, 13.27% and dental students, 11.22%. About 32% of the study population has scored 15 or more. Dental students had the lowest percentage of those who scored 15 or more. Surprisingly, the medical students were responsible for the highest percentage of those who scored 15 or above. Although women demonstrated statistically higher total dental anxiety scores than men (p= 0.03), the difference between both genders was small and could be clinically insignificant. The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. Conclusion: Lack of adequate dental health education may result in a high level of dental anxiety among non-dental university students in Jordan. Further studies are required to identify the correlates of dental anxiety among university students. PMID:19466251
Al-Omari, Wael Mousa; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud Khalid
The current shift in the DSM towards the inclusion of a dimensional component allows clinicians and researchers to demonstrate not only the presence or absence of psychopathology in an individual, but also the degree to which the disorder and its symptoms are manifested. This study evaluated the psychometric properties and utility of a set of brief dimensional scales that assess DSM-based core features of anxiety disorders, for children and their parents. The dimensional scales and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-71), a questionnaire to assess symptoms of all anxiety disorders, were administered to a community sample of children (n?=?382), aged 8-13 years, and their mothers (n?=?285) and fathers (n?=?255). The dimensional scales assess six anxiety disorders: specific phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Children rated their own anxiety and parents their child's anxiety. The dimensional scales demonstrated high internal consistency (??>?0.78, except for father reported child panic disorder, for reason of lack of variation), and moderate to high levels of convergent validity (rs ?=?0.29-0.73). Children who exceeded the SCARED cutoffs scored higher on the dimensional scales than those who did not, providing preliminary support for the clinical sensitivity of the scales. Given their strong psychometric properties and utility for both child and parent report, addition of the dimensional scales to the DSM-5 might be an effective way to incorporate dimensional measurement into the categorical DSM-5 assessment of anxiety disorders in children. PMID:24943058
Möller, Eline L; Majdand˛i?, Mirjana; Craske, Michelle G; Bögels, Susan M
Perceptions by medical students of patients' affective states were investigated, and the effect of the students' own emotions on such perceptions. One hundred and one fourth-year medical students rated the levels of anxiety and depression of three women patients presented on videotape, rated their own levels of anxiety and depression and completed a questionnaire on aspects of the rating process. Students had widely different and often inappropriate perceptions of patients' levels of anxiety and depression. Students who consistently overrated anxiety or depression in patients, compared to those who consistently underrated, were themselves significantly more anxious or depressed. These data suggest a need in medical education for systematic teaching of empathic skills and for recognition of potential bias in clinical decision-making arising from the clinician's own emotional state. PMID:3357441
Hornblow, A R; Kidson, M A; Ironside, W
In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) in a sample of 60 female eating disorder patients (M(age) = 27.82, SD = 9.76). The SAAS was developed to assess anxiety about being negatively evaluated for one's appearance. All patients completed the SAAS, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Physical Health Questionnaire-9 Depression and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Psychopathology. The SAAS demonstrated a one-factor structure and a high internal consistency. The SAAS was significantly positive in relation to body mass index, drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction. Concerning personality dimensions, the SAAS was positively related to emotional problems (e.g. depression, anxiety) and interpersonal problems (e.g. suspiciousness, submissiveness). Findings suggest that the SAAS is a psychometrically sound instrument to assess anxiety about being negatively evaluated about one's appearance in a sample of eating disorder patients. PMID:21805536
Claes, Laurence; Hart, Trevor A; Smits, Dirk; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Mueller, Astrid; Mitchell, James E
Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. PMID:24930576
Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane
Discussion of relationships between computer anxiety and achievement focuses on a study of students enrolled in a required computer course in an urban university. Topics discussed include the Computer Anxiety Scale; Computer Aptitude, Literacy and Interest Profile; Math Anxiety Rating Scale; and the correlation between high anxiety and low…
Bracey, Gerald W.
Examines teacher mathematics anxiety as it relates to changes in student mathematics anxiety and achievement, teaching practices, and teacher characteristics. The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale was used for 31 teachers. Teacher mathematics anxiety correlated positively with whole-class instruction time and negatively with the number of students'…
Bush, William S.
The measurement of mathematics anxiety has become increasingly important for identification of math-anxious individuals and evaluation of treatment programs for mathematics anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to examine the dimensionality of one such measure of mathematics anxiety, the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS). The responses to 94 MARS items were obtained for 350 female participants in a
James B. Rounds; Darwin D. Hendel
Results indicate that the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale and the Math Anxiety Scale measure similar components of mathematics-anxiety domain. Mathematics-anxiety scales and Fennema-Sherman scales of Confidence and Effectance Motivation measure similar affective domains and are approximately equal predictors of arithmetic performance. (Author)
Rounds, James B., Jr.; Hendel, Darwin D.
Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…
Williams, Amanda S.
In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…
The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service…
Interoceptive sensitivity, particularly regarding heartbeat, has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of anxiety and anxiety disorders. This review provides an overview of methods which are frequently used to assess heartbeat perception in clinical studies and summarizes presently available results referring to interoceptive sensitivity with respect to heartbeat in anxiety-related traits (anxiety sensitivity, state\\/trait anxiety), panic
Katharina Domschke; Stephan Stevens; Bettina Pfleiderer; Alexander L. Gerlach
The relationship between anxiety and depression was examined in a sample of 106 children and adolescents referred to an outpatient anxiety disorder clinic for children. Twenty-eight percent of patients with DSM-III diagnoses of anxiety disorders displayed a concurrent major depression. Children with anxiety disorders plus major depression were found (1) to be older, (2) to demonstrate more severe anxiety symptomatology,
Cyd C. Strauss; Cynthia G. Last; Michel Hersen; Alan E. Kazdin
Although anxiety is a familiar part of all our lives, pathologic anxiety states that lead to occupational and social dysfunction require medical treatment. Currently, the anxiety disorders are divided into nonphobic and phobic disorders. However, recent studies suggest that the disorders should be divided into three symptom groups: (1) generalized anxiety, (2) episodes with severe panic anxiety (panic attacks) plus generalized anxiety or even phobic avoidance, and (3) phobic anxiety and avoidance (alone, without panic attacks). This grouping is highly predictive of response to antianxiety medications. The generalized anxiety group responds well to psychosocial/psychotherapy treatments and to the antianxiety BZs. Many people with nonpanic, nonphobic (situational or generalized) anxiety only require simple psychotherapy or other nonpharmacologic methods to manage their anxiety. However, if the anxious patient is becoming dysfunctional or symptomatology is severe or persistent enough to warrant the use of medication, BZs are certainly the drugs of choice. Despite persistent public or media opinion that they are over-utilized or over-prescribed, most objective data suggest this is not the case. Most individuals for whom they are prescribed need them, use them in proper doses, and discontinue them when the indication passes. Most of the reported abuse occurs in the approximately 8 to 12 per cent who abuse other drugs, most notably alcohol. As anxiety is usually transient, BZs should be prescribed for limited periods (1 to 4 weeks) and then discontinued. This practice allows the physician to properly monitor the amount utilized and to evaluate need for continued BZs. The principal differences among the available BZs are their elimination half-lives, with some greater than 24 hours and others in the 8 to 12 hour range. Side effects are mostly mild (sedation, clumsiness) and drug-drug interactions are uncommon. Until recently, most patients suffering from disorders with panic attacks with or without phobias were either untreated or treated with long, but largely unsuccessful, treatments. Blockade of panic attacks with TCAs, MAOIs and alprazolam has dramatically improved our ability to treat these disorders, with 60 to 95 per cent of patients reporting marked alleviation of symptoms. Adequate amounts of medication and length of treatment period are the keys to successful treatment. This is a period of much productive interest and research in the anxiety disorders. Continued rapid progress in the understanding of the biologic substrates of these conditions and the development of new treatments promise much in this area of medicine in the near future. PMID:6151647
Ballenger, J C
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
The present study examined the associations between neuroticism and attentional control and the occurrence of symptoms of\\u000a psychopathology in children. A large sample of non-clinical children aged 9 to 17 years (N = 409) completed questionnaires measuring neuroticism, attentional control, and symptoms of anxiety and aggression. Results\\u000a demonstrated that neuroticism was positively associated with symptoms of anxiety and aggression, whereas attentional control
Cor Meesters; Peter Muris; Bernadette van Rooijen
We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety
Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani
The core feature of separation anxiety is excessive distress when faced with actual or perceived separation from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment. So far little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of separation anxiety. Therefore, we investigated functional (amygdala responsiveness and functional connectivity during threat-related emotion processing) and structural (grey matter volume) imaging markers associated with separation anxiety as measured with the Relationship Scale Questionnaire in a large sample of healthy adults from the Münster Neuroimaging Cohort (N = 320). We used a robust emotional face-matching task and acquired high-resolution structural images for morphometric analyses using voxel-based morphometry. The main results were positive associations of separation anxiety scores with amygdala reactivity to emotional faces as well as increased amygdala grey matter volumes. A functional connectivity analysis revealed positive associations between separation anxiety and functional coupling of the amygdala with areas involved in visual processes and attention, including several occipital and somatosensory areas. Taken together, the results suggest a higher emotional involvement in subjects with separation anxiety while watching negative facial expressions, and potentially secondary neuro-structural adaptive processes. These results could help to understand and treat (adult) separation anxiety. PMID:24752071
Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Opel, Nils; Kaufmann, Carolin; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Donges, Uta-Susan; Suslow, Thomas; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo
Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population. PMID:24874121
Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C
The relationship between dental anxiety and blood/body injury (BI) fears was examined in a sample of 1420 adults. Based on their responses to two mail questionnaires, they were classified into one of four groups: Group 1--neither dentally anxious nor BI fearful; Group 2--BI fearful only; Group 3--dentally anxious only; Group 4--both dentally anxious and BI fearful. Overall, only 16% of dentally anxious subjects were BI fearful while 31.6% of those with high levels of BI fears were dentally anxious. While subjects in Group 2 were more fearful of dentistry than those in Group 1, they were substantially less so than subjects in Groups 3 and 4. Moreover, even BI stimuli in the dental setting evoked lower levels of anxiety for subjects in Group 2 compared to Group 3 and 4. However, rates of fainting or near fainting experiences in the dental situation were similar for all three groups. Group 3 and 4 were similar in terms of fear evoking stimuli and patterns of anxiety response. Subjects in Group 4 had more agoraphobic symptoms and social interaction fears and had higher scores on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index and Speilberger Trait Anxiety Index. This suggests that Group 4 is comprised of individuals who are more likely to be multiphobic and exhibit generalized anxiety states. Although BI fears are a significant component of dental anxiety, their overall contribution is relatively small. PMID:9193122
Locker, D; Shapiro, D; Liddell, A
High altitude exposure results in many physical and psychological discomforts, with anxiety and sleep disturbances being the most common ones. This cross-sectional study was performed to explore the relationship between anxiety, somatic symptoms, and sleep status at high altitude. A sample of 426 young males between 18 and 24 years old ascended from low-level land to 3600 m, where they acclimated for 40 days, before ascending to 4400 m. Questionnaires including the Louise Lake Score (LLS, for diagnosis of acute mountain sickness [AMS]), the Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) were administered immediately before departure from 3600 m (40th day) and the day after arrival at 4400 m (20 days after the first data collection). Physiological parameters were also measured. We observed that 49 of 426 and 51 of 329 people were diagnosed with anxiety according to SAS at 3600 and 4400 m, respectively. Physical symptoms were more severe in subjects with anxiety, and the severity of anxiety was significantly positively correlated to the severity of insomnia and increased heart rate (HR). Overall, these data indicate that after 40 days acclimatization in 3600 m, anxious persons have more severe somatic symptoms. When ascending to higher altitudes, these individuals are more likely to develop AMS, show more severe symptoms, and are prone to insomnia and more serious daytime sleepiness. Insomnia and elevated HR are indicators of anxiety severity. PMID:23403037
Dong, Jun-qing; Zhang, Ji-hang; Qin, Jun; Li, Qian-ning; Huang, Wen; Gao, Xu-bin; Yu, Jie; Chen, Guo-zhu; Tang, Xu-gang; Huang, Lan
The stress of dental treatment often elicits negative emotions in children, expressed as dental fear or anxiety. Highly anxious children obstruct treatment and avoid therapy, further amplifying oral health problems. The aim of this study was to examine the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system responses to dental treatment and their possible interactions and associations with psychometric indices of anxiety, caries, previous dental experience, anesthesia, age and gender in school children. Upon informed consent, saliva was obtained from 97 children (59% males, mean age?±??SD: 89.73?±?15 months) in the Clinic of pediatric dentistry before treatment, immediately post-treatment and at the recall visit to determine cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels. Dental and general anxiety was assessed through specific questionnaires completed by the children. Compared to pre-treatment, cortisol levels were increased following treatment, while sAA levels were higher at the recall. Pre- and post-treatment cortisol and sAA responses were positively correlated. Dental and general anxiety questionnaire scores were also significantly correlated with each other. The integrated autonomic and neuroendocrine responses prior to treatment were correlated with state anxiety and those following treatment with dental anxiety. However, univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis associated post-treatment cortisol, but not sAA, levels with dental anxiety. No associations of cortisol or sAA responses with caries, age, gender, previous dental experience or anesthesia were detected. These data provide some evidence that both sAA and cortisol levels are altered in children in anticipation or during dental treatment, but only cortisol levels are associated to dental anxiety. PMID:24766350
Yfanti, Konstantina; Kitraki, Efthymia; Emmanouil, Dimitris; Pandis, Nikolaos; Papagiannoulis, Lisa
Objective Dental anxiety is a barrier to attendance. Dental non-attenders may seek emergency care and may prefer to receive anxiety management measures for treatment required. Little is known about the preferences of these dental non-attenders for different anxiety management techniques. Understanding such preferences may inform management pathways, improve experiences, alleviate anxieties and encourage a more regular attendance pattern. As such, the aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of the dental anxiety of patients attending a dental access centre for emergency dental treatment and to ascertain preferences for different anxiety management techniques.Design Cross-sectional study involving self-completed questionnaires and clinical observation.Setting NHS Dental Access Centre, York, UK.Subjects and methods Two hundred participants not registered with a general dental practitioner, aged 18 years or over, experiencing pain and self-referred were recruited on a consecutive sampling basis. Participants completed a questionnaire eliciting demographic and dental history details, dental anxiety and preferences for dental anxiety management options.Main outcome measures Correlation of the modified dental anxiety scale with preference for different dental anxiety management techniques.Results No significant predictive factors were found that explained preferring local anaesthetic to sedation, or general anaesthesia for restorations or extractions. Those highly anxious were less likely to consider tell-show-do techniques (p = 0.001) or watching explanatory videos (p = 0.004) to be helpful for overcoming their anxieties than the low or moderate anxiety groups.Conclusions People attending access centres may represent a group who are unwilling to explore non-pharmacological methods to overcome their anxieties. This supports the need for sedation to provide treatment. Future work may include exploring in more depth the thoughts and opinions of this group of patients to improve understanding of their complex dental attitudes. From this, more effective strategies may be developed to encourage regular dental attendance. PMID:25858739
Harding, A; Vernazza, C R; Wilson, K; Harding, J; Girdler, N M
The aim of this study was to translate and validate the Arabic version of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR_A). Translation of the FIQR followed a worldwide-recognized approach to ensure the accuracy and equivalency of the translation from the English version of the FIQR. Following the translation of the FIQR, 92 women with fibromyalgia completed the FIQR_A, the Arabic Research ANd Development Short Form Health Survey (RAND SF-36), and the Arabic Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). The FIQR_A significantly correlated with RAND SF-36 domains and HADS. The correlations ranged from fair to moderate. For selected outcomes, Bland-Altman plots were consistent with Spearman's correlations. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients were all significant and ranged from moderate to excellent. Internal consistency was found to be excellent. These observations suggest that the FIQR_A is a valid and reliable tool for both clinical practice and research purposes with Arabic speakers globally. PMID:23900578
Abu-Dahab, Sana; AbuRuz, Salah M; Mustafa, Khader; Sarhan, Yusef
Despite psychometric rationale to include multiple informants, psychological assessment typically involves data collected from the patient (target) only, particularly with regard to depressive and anxious symptomatology. This study addressed this gap in the literature by assessing convergence between targets and their close friends (informants) in an ethnically diverse sample of young adults. One hundred and thirty-nine friendship dyads completed a packet of questionnaires including different versions administered to the targets and informants, with targets completing the standard questionnaire battery focused on their own symptoms and informants completing questionnaires on their view of the target participants’ symptoms, rather than their own characteristics. Measures were included to assess a wide range of symptomatology, including behavioral, cognitive, and physiological symptoms of anxiety and depression. The target-informant correlations were largely significant and of small-to-medium magnitude. In addition, target-informant agreement was higher in more visible symptoms (e.g., behavioral) than in less visible symptoms (e.g., physiological) of anxiety and depression. Interestingly, level of closeness in the relationship did not influence the magnitude of correlations. Implications for future research and integration into clinical assessment practices are discussed. PMID:25089072
GROS, DANIEL F.; MILANAK, MELISSA e.; HERSHENBERG, RACHEL
This study explored gender and specialty differences in death anxiety, locus of control, and purpose in life of physicians, and if these variables might influence the clinical behavior of physicians regarding death notification. The subjects were 155 attending and house staff physicians who responded to mailed questionnaires. The female physicians scored higher in death anxiety than the male physicians. The psychiatrists scored higher in death anxiety than surgeons. There was a trend for the internists to have scores indicating a more external locus of control. Purpose in life was inversely correlated with death anxiety and external locus of control. Death anxiety was related to the physicians' preferred mode of conveying the news of an unexpected patient death to the next of kin. PMID:8701011
Millions of people across the United States live with a variety of anxiety disorders and for twenty-five years, the Anxiety Disorders Association of American (ADAA) has worked to promote the prevention, treatment and cure of these disorders. From the siteā??s homepage visitors can learn about some of the most common anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, social phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The siteā??s homepage also offers visitors the opportunity to sign up to receive their e-newsletter. As might be expected, there is a rather useful section titled ā??Getting Helpā?¯. Here visitors can learn about how they find a therapist for themselves (or a loved one). There are a myriad of resources within this particular area that will be of great use, including a section where visitors can learn about how to pick a therapist and a place for first-person narratives about living with a variety of anxiety disorders.
), occupational status (Brenoelman, 1959), levels of' adjustment (Borgatta F= Glass, 1961), and sex (Zax, et al. , 1964), only anxiety is manipulated as an experimental variable. This in f'act reduces the majority of these studies to the status...-Zimmermann Temperament Survey and found only two of forty possible relationships to be signif- icantt ~ A correlational study was done in which the inter- acti. on between an individual ' s anxiety level and sex uas noted (Crandal, l, 1965). Results indicated...
Rhone, Teresa Ann
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective intervention for anxiety disorders. However, a significant number of people do not respond or only show partial response even after an adequate course of the treatment. Recent research has shown that the efficacy of the intervention can be improved by the use of cognitive enhancers that augment the core learning processes of cognitive-behavior therapy. This manuscript provides a review of the current state of cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:21134394
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy A.; Otto, Michael W.
This paper is a distillation of the major result from the 1998 Ph.D. thesis of the late David Wither. It details a longitudinal\\u000a study over five years of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics achievement. It starts from the already\\u000a well documented negative correlation between the two, and seeks to establish one of the three hypotheses—that mathematics\\u000a anxiety causes
Brian F. Sherman
\\u000a What role does parenting play in the development, maintenance, and amelioration of child anxiety? In this chapter, we address\\u000a this question by reviewing the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and direction of the relationship between parenting\\u000a and child anxiety. Numerous theoretical models outline the role that various parenting practices may play in the development,\\u000a maintenance, and amelioration of
Bryce D. McLeod; Jeffrey J. Wood; Shelley B. Avny
The link between anxiety and presence in a virtual environment (VE) is still a subject of an unresolved debate, with little empirical research to support theoretical claims. Thus, the current study analyzed presence, self-reported anxiety, and a physiological parameter (heart rate [HR]) in a sample of 30 high anxious and 35 low anxious participants. Both groups delivered a 5 minute speech in a virtual lecture hall. Results indicate no mediating influences of presence on group differences in self-reported state anxiety during the speech, but point toward negative correlations between state anxiety and the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) scales "sense of being there" and "realism." Furthermore, HR was found to be unrelated to self-reported presence. Only the IPQ scale "spatial presence" showed a marginally significant influence on group differences in state anxiety. The present results support the assumption that presence and anxiety are logically distinct, meaning that presence does not directly influence the intensity of an emotion felt in a VE. Rather, it constitutes a precondition for an emotion to be at all elicited by a VE. Also, HR has proven to be no adequate substitute measure for presence, since it only assesses anxiety not presence. It may, however, mediate the interplay between trait anxiety and state anxiety. Possible implications of the current findings are discussed alongside the problem of using presence questionnaires that seem to be prone to subjective bias (i.e., participants confusing presence and emotion). PMID:24605993
Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Hetterle, Thomas; Beutl, Leon; Hlavacs, Helmut; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse
QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES FROM 5,369 (77 PERCENT) OF THE 6,993 HOSPITALS CONTACTED PROVIDED INFORMATION NEEDED FOR PLANNING EDUCATIONAL AND RECRUITMENT PROGRAMS. PERSONNEL IN ALL CATEGORIES EMPLOYED BY THE RESPONDING HOSPITALS TOTALED 1,750,545. PROJECTED ESTIMATES FOR ALL HOSPITALS, SHOWED 1,332,052 PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL WORKERS EMPLOYED AND…
American Hospital Association, Chicago, IL.
This study compares and relates affective bodily perception (ABP), anxiety, depression, and the utilisation of some defense mechanisms in 25 neurotic women (16 depressives, 9 hysterical) and 25 normal women. ABP is evaluated according to satisfaction and anxiety (Body cathexis scale), distorsions (Body distortion questionnaire) and body conscience (Body prominence). Anxiety is measured with Cattell questionnaire, depression through Zung and Hamilton scales, and defense mechanisms by the Firo Form Cope of Schutz. Neurotics have a ABP more negative and are more depressed and anxious than normals; they use more regression while controls tend to use introjection. In comparison with depressives, hysterical women have higher scores in body distortion, mostly in the feeling of boundary loss; they express more masked anxiety and react more often through projection. Among neurotics, those who have a very disturbed ABP are more anxious, more depressed, and more prone to denial, projection, and regression in comparison with the others. In both samples, anxiety and depression have a negative correlation with body satisfaction and a positive one with body distortions and somatic anxiety. In the control group, body satisfaction is inversely related with feeling of dirt. Somatic anxiety is also inversely related to unusual feelings of body and skin obstruction. The intensity of body consciousness is related to using isolation and distortions are negatively related to using denial. In neurotics, denial is in opposition with the intensity of body awareness and is linked to somatic anxiety. The intensity of body awareness is also correlated to various forms of anxiety. Distortions are positively related to regression. The comparison of both samples shows a degradation of ABP in neurotics. The study of correlations clarifies several relations between deficient ABP anxiety, depression and the use of some defense mechanisms. PMID:1020680
Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The present study aimed to account for limitations of previous studies and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) using Actiheart heart rate monitors and software (Version 4) during rest and in response to a social and a non-social stressor in 60 anxious (30 socially anxious and 30 ‘other’ anxious), and 30 nonanxious sex-and age-matched 7–12 year olds. In addition, the effect of state anxiety during the tasks was explored. Results No group differences at rest or in response to stress were found. Importantly, however, with increases in state anxiety, all children, regardless of their anxiety diagnoses showed less autonomic responding (i.e., less change in HR and RSA from baseline in response to task) and took longer to recover once the stressor had passed. Limitations This study focused primarily on parasympathetic arousal and lacked measures of sympathetic arousal. Conclusion The findings suggest that childhood anxiety disorders may not be characterized by inflexible autonomic responding, and that previous findings to the contrary may have been the result of differences in subjective anxiety between anxious and nonanxious groups during the tasks, rather than a function of chronic autonomic dysregulation. PMID:25590763
Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Cathy; Cooper, Peter J.; Allen, John J.B.
Many patients in the Surgical Holding Area become stressed and anxious. In a hospital setting music reduces patients' anxiety. This study determined that music can reduce the anxiety and stress of patients in the Surgical Holding Area. In this study, one group of subjects listed to music while a second group did not. Subjects who listened to music while in the Surgical Holding Area had significantly less stress and anxiety than did those who did not listen to music. Both groups spent similar lengths of time in the Surgical Holding Area. The results strongly suggest that if music were available to all patients in the Surgical Holding Area, most would select this option, and they would experience less anxiety. PMID:7707258
Winter, M J; Paskin, S; Baker, T
Anxiety in patients awaiting surgery and diagnostic procedures in an ambulatory department can affect the patient's physiological and psychological well-being and outcome. We conducted a quasi-experimental study at a midwestern US community hospital to determine the effects of hand massage on patient anxiety in the ambulatory surgery setting. We also investigated whether adding the hand massage procedure affected the timing and flow of procedures. The results indicated that hand massage reduces anxiety for patients awaiting ambulatory surgery and outpatient procedures. Participants who received hand massage experienced lower anxiety levels than those who received customary nursing care. In addition, the performance of hand massage did not affect the flow or timing of procedures. Hand massage is an easy procedure for nurses to learn and administer, and it is within the scope of perioperative nursing practice. PMID:23722035
Brand, Leanne R; Munroe, Donna J; Gavin, Julie
© K. Stromswold, 2003 Perinatal Factors Questionnaire (Singleton Version) 1 PERINATAL FACTORS & DEVELOPMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (Singleton Version) Person completing questionnaire: Today's date: Mailing Address E completing this questionnaire, please contact Ellyn Sheffield by phone (732-445-5231) or email (sheffield
, Ernest Catena, Sima Arman, Mel Slater Department of Computer Science University College London Gower different presence question- naires can distinguish between real and virtual experiences. One group of 10 subjects were given two different presence questionnaires in randomised order: the Witmer and Singer
Background Influenza is among the most common infectious diseases. The main protection against influenza is vaccination. A self-administered questionnaire was developed and validated for use in clinical trials to assess subjects' perception and acceptance of influenza vaccination and its subsequent injection site reactions (ISR). Methods The VAPI questionnaire was developed based on interviews with vaccinees. The initial version was administered to subjects in international clinical trials comparing intradermal with intramuscular influenza vaccination. Item reduction and scale construction were carried out using principal component and multitrait analyses (n = 549). Psychometric validation of the final version was conducted per country (n = 5,543) and included construct and clinical validity and internal consistency reliability. All subjects gave their written informed consent before being interviewed or included in the clinical studies. Results The final questionnaire comprised 4 dimensions ("bother from ISR"; "arm movement"; "sleep"; "acceptability") grouping 16 items, and 5 individual items (anxiety before vaccination; bother from pain during vaccination; satisfaction with injection system; willingness to be vaccinated next year; anxiety about vaccination next year). Construct validity was confirmed for all scales in most of the countries. Internal consistency reliability was good for all versions (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.68 to 0.94), as was clinical validity: scores were positively correlated with the severity of ISR and pain. Conclusion The VAPI questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool, assessing the acceptance of vaccine injection and reactions following vaccination. Trial registration NCT00258934, NCT00383526, NCT00383539. PMID:19261173
Chevat, Catherine; Viala-Danten, Muriel; Dias-Barbosa, Carla; Nguyen, Van Hung
ABSTRACT Background: The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) is a recently developed scale aiming to evaluate symptoms of anxiety in later life. This 20-item scale uses dichotomous answers highlighting non-somatic anxiety complaints of elderly people. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version GAI (GAI-BR) in a sample from community and outpatient psychogeriatric clinic. Methods: A mixed convenience sample of 72 subjects was recruited for answering the research protocol. The interview procedures were structured with questionnaires about sociodemographic data, clinical health status, anxiety, and depression previously validated instruments, Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and GAI-BR. Twenty-two percent of the sample were interviewed twice for test-retest reliability. For internal consistency analyses, the Cronbach's ? test was applied. The Spearman correlation test was applied to evaluate the test-retest GAI-BR reliability. A ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve study was made to estimate the GAI-BR area under curve, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity for the Generalized Anxiety Disorder diagnosis. Results: The GAI-BR version showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.91) and strong and significant test-retest reliability (? = 0.85, p < 0.001). It also showed moderate and significant correlation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (? = 0.68, p < 0.001) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (? = 0.61, p < 0.001) showing evidence of concurrent validation. The cut-off point of 13 estimated by ROC curve analyses showed sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 84.6% to detect Generalized Anxiety Disorder (DSM-IV). Conclusion: GAI-BR has demonstrated very good psychometric properties and can be a reliable instrument to measure anxiety in Brazilian elderly people. PMID:24946782
Massena, Patrķcia Nitschke; de Araśjo, Narahyana Bom; Pachana, Nancy; Laks, Jerson; de Pįdua, Analuiza Camozzato
Background: Concerning the prevalence of test anxiety among nursing students and presence of stress in nursing education years, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation method on test anxiety among nursing students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in three stages on 49 male and female nursing students divided into two groups (study and control). In the pre-test stage, demographic data and Sarason anxiety questionnaires were filled by 94 students (of terms 3 and 4). Then, in the intervention stage, the students having test anxiety were assigned to two groups (study and control), and the progressive muscle relaxation method was performed in the experiment group in four sessions. Then, the students did this method two times a day until final exams, immediately following which they filled the self-reported checklists. On the first day of the final exams, test anxiety questionnaire was filled by the two groups again. The collected data were analyzed by the statistical tests, i.e. ?2, paired t-test, independent sample t-test, Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS 18. Results: Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety after intervention between the two groups of study and control (P = 0.00), but this difference was not significant before intervention (P = 0.76). Also, in the study group, there was a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety before and after intervention (P = 0.00), but this difference was not significant in the control group (P = 0.09). Mann–Whitney test showed no significant difference in categorization of test anxiety scores before intervention in the study and control groups (P = 0.60), but the difference was significant after intervention (P = 0.00). Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference in categorization of test anxiety scores in the study group before and after intervention (P = 0.00), but the difference was not significant in the control group (P = 0.083). Conclusions: Generally, the results showed that performing progressive muscle relaxation method was effective in reducing test anxiety among nursing students. It is suggested to conduct educational programs concerning this method in the faculties of nursing to decrease the test anxiety of nursing students. PMID:25558258
Zargarzadeh, Maryam; Shirazi, Maryam
One year after neuritis vestibularis, 29% from a sample of 75 patients still complained of vertigo. The objective of this investigation was to study why patients suffer from persisting vertigo. The alternative hypotheses were that the vertigo experienced could be explained either by a persisting vestibular dysfunction or by psychopathological changes. To elucidate this question, patients were examined with dynamic posturography, the symptom check list (SCL 90 R), the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), the agoraphobic cognitions questionnaire (ALQ) and the body sensations questionnaire (BSQ). After one year, only two patients had overall pathological results in the posturography. Following the assumption that sub-clinical dysfunction of the organs of balance can also lead to an altered body perception in combination with anxiety, the pathological results of posturographic sub-tests were related to experiences of vertigo. Here also there were no significant associations. However, vertigo correlated highly significantly with body-related anxiety and anxiety-related apprehension. In conclusion, chronic vertigo after an acute vestibular disorder could be regarded as a somatopsychic process. Persisting experience of vertigo is not explained by sub-clinical organic changes. Anxiety seems to be the crucial factor in persisting vertigo. PMID:15992562
Godemann, F; Siefert, K; Hantschke-Brüggemann, M; Neu, P; Seidl, R; Ströhle, A
Objective: To directly compare estimates of potential depressive disorders and clinically significant depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Older Adult Health and Mood Questionnaire (OAHMQ) among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). Research Design: 727 participants from a hospital in the Southeastern United States were administered the PHQ-9 and OAHMQ during a follow-up survey. We compared the
James S. Krause; Lee L. Saunders; Karla S. Reed; Jennifer Coker; Yusheng Zhai; Emily Johnson
Background: University entrance is accompanied by major changes in social relationship, rules, and expectations that lead to psychological disorders in susceptible students. The goal of this research is to study the anxiety rate in Iranian medical residents in 2010-2011. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. It contains 370 medical residents from the 1st year to the 4th year of medical universities in Isfahan, Gilan, Zahedan, Sanandaj, and Kashan. The stratified sampling method proportionate to volume of participants is used in this study. The information is collected based on researchers’ questioners and Zung self-rating anxiety scale and analyzed with the use of spss software version 16, addition to descriptive and analytic tests (Pearson, one-way analysis of variance, t-test). Meaningful level is regarded as P ? 0.05. Results: The study showed that more than 92% of residents participated in the study did not demonstrate anxiety. Among 370 subjects 5.5% presented with mild symptoms of anxiety and no one had symptom of severe anxiety. A meaningful statistical relationship was observed between anxiety and sex, major of study and the city of study (P < 0.05). The results showed a positive meaningful relationship between the number of visits and the score of anxiety. On average the number of night floats were two in 1 week and the number of patient visit was 19 in the past 24 h. A meaningful statistical relationship between anxiety score and number of patient visits was observed. Conclusions: The anxiety rate in medical students in this study compared to the findings of previous studies reveled very low anxiety in medical residents. The low rate of anxiety could be attributed to the sense of job security and the hope for a better future among residents. The high percentage of anxiolytics abuse and absence of anxiety producing factors among residents in addition to inaccurate response to the questionnaire may all contribute to the low rate of anxiety in this study. PMID:23776745
Khorvash, Fariborz; Askari, Gholamreza; Vesal, Sahar; Mehrbod, Noshin; Ghasemi, Hamid; Fatehizade, Maryam; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Iraj, Bijan; Ebneshahidi, Alireza
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of music therapy in decreasing anxiety in ventilator-dependent patients. Design: A crossover repeated measures design with random assignment was used. Setting: The intensive care unit of a university hospital in Hong Kong was used as the setting for this study. Patients: Twenty patients who were ventilator-dependent were recruited for
H. L. C. Wong; Violeta Lopez-Nahas; A. Molassiotis
Surgery patients (N=24) were randomly assigned either to a stress inoculation intervention or to a standard hospital instructions control. The results demonstrated the utility of stress inoculation training in providing surgical patients with a self-regulation technique to reduce their experiences of anxiety and pain and to improve their…
Wells, Judith K.; And Others
Investigated a stress management training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and…
Charlesworth, Edward A.; Dempsey, George
Two types of information, separately and in combination, were evaluated for their effects on the process and outcomes of maternal and child coping with unplanned childhood hospitalization. One hundred eight mothers of hospitalized children, 2 to 5 years old, were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Child behavioral information and parental role information had positive effects on maternal state anxiety as well as on parental support and participation in their children's care during hospitalization. Ten to 14 days following hospitalization, positive main effects were shown for child behavioral and parental role information on mothers' state anxiety levels and for child behavioral information on children's negative behaviors. PMID:8295841
Melnyk, B M
A recent paradigm shift in systems neuroscience is the division of the human brain into functional networks. Functional networks are collections of brain regions with strongly correlated activity both at rest and during cognitive tasks, and each network is believed to implement a different aspect of cognition. Here, we propose that anxiety disorders and high trait anxiety are associated with a particular pattern of functional network dysfunction: increased functioning of the cingulo-opercular and ventral attention networks as well as decreased functioning of the fronto-parietal and default mode networks. This functional network model can be used to differentiate the pathology of anxiety disorders from other psychiatric illnesses such as major depression and provides targets for novel treatment strategies. PMID:22658924
Sylvester, C.M.; Corbetta, M.; Raichle, M.E.; Rodebaugh, T.; Schlaggar, B.L.; Sheline, Y.I.; Zorumski, C.F.; Lenze, E.J.
As induction of pediatric anesthesia can elicit anxiety in children and parents alike, this study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of clown intervention in decreasing maternal anxiety and stress in the preoperative phase. Before anesthesia induction, 25 children were randomly assigned to clown intervention and 25 to a control group with a routine procedure. In the waiting room and after separation from the child, maternal anxiety and stress were measured. The results showed that after separation, only in the clown group, maternal state anxiety significantly decreased and the tendency to somatization did not increase. Moreover, after clown intervention, older children's mothers significantly reduced the level of perceived stress. As clown intervention can positively influence maternal anxiety and stress in the preoperative period, its promotion in clinical-hospital environments is recommended. PMID:23456215
Agostini, Francesca; Monti, Fiorella; Neri, Erica; Dellabartola, Sara; de Pascalis, Leonardo; Bozicevic, Laura
Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk. PMID:24687168
Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C
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We consider a general design that allows information for different patterns, or sets, of data items to be collected from different sample units, which we call a Split Questionnaire Design (SQD). While SQDs have been historically used to accommodate constraints on respondent burden, this paper shows they can also be an efficient design option. The efficiency of a design can
James O. Chipperfield; David G. Steel
Exit Interview Questionnaire Employee's Name: Department/Unit: Position Title: Date Hired Good Poor Very Poor Comments: #12;Job satisfaction Very High High Average Low Very Low Comments: Overall satisfaction with Memorial as an employer Very High High Average Low Very Low Comments: Overall
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 13 Do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness or recreational (leisure) activities that causes a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, volleyball) for at least 10 minutes continuously?
The Physician Survey of Practices on Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control -- Adult Questionnaire is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) A1 In a USUAL WEEK, do you cycle in or around your new neighbourhood or new local area to get to or from somewhere (such as cycling to a shop or to public transport) or for recreation, health or fitness (including cycling with your dog)?
:_________________ If it is determined that surgery is appropriate for you, this questionnaire will help us provide the best treatment for some activities after surgery. Please fill this form out completely and turn in to your technician. Please do not hesitate to contact us with any questions. 1. After surgery, would you be interested
Background Animal studies have suggested that the hippocampus may play an important role in anxiety as part of the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), which mediates reactivity to threat and punishment and can predict an individual’s response to anxiety-relevant cues in a given environment. The aim of the present structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was to examine the relationship between individual differences in BIS and hippocampal structure, since this has not received sufficient attention in non-clinical populations. Thirty healthy right-handed participants with no history of alcohol or drug abuse, neurological or psychiatric disorders, or traumatic brain injury were recruited (16 male, 14 female, age 18 to 32 years). T1-weighted structural MRI scans were used to derive estimates of total intracranial volume, and hippocampal and amygdala gray matter volume using FreeSurfer. To relate brain structure to Gray’s BIS, participants completed the Sensitivity to Punishment questionnaire. They also completed questionnaires assessing other measures potentially associated with hippocampal volume (Beck Depression Inventory, Negative Life Experience Survey), and two other measures of anxiety (Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory). Results We found that high scores on the Sensitivity to Punishment scale were positively associated with hippocampal volume, and that this phenomenon was lateralized to the right side. In other words, greater levels of behavioural inhibition (BIS) were positively associated with right hippocampal volume. Conclusions Our data suggest that hippocampal volume is related to the cognitive and affective dimensions of anxiety indexed by the Sensitivity to Punishment, and support the idea that morphological differences in the hippocampal formation may be associated with behavioural inhibition contributions to anxiety. PMID:24607258