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Aim: To compare the psychometric properties between the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire-version 20 (GHQ-20) in detecting psychological distress in COPD patients referred to pulmonary rehabilitation, and to examine the factor structure of GHQ-20. Methods: The study comprised 161 consecutive patients with mild to very severe COPD. For comparison of mean scores between the HADS and GHQ-20, one sample t-test was used. Potential differences in the detection of possible and normal cases were analysed using Pearson Chi square test. We report Pearson's correlations within and between the questionnaires, and internal consistency was assessed through Chronbach's alpha. The factor structure of the GHQ-20 was examined through principal axis factoring (PAF) with oblique rotation and eigenvalue >1. Results: There were no differences in mean scores of psychological distress between HADS and GHQ-20 (12.03 vs. 24.73, p = 0.000), as well as no differences in the prevalence of possible cases of psychological distress (34.6 vs. 36.9, p = 0.000) and normal cases (65.4 vs. 63.1, p = 0.000). The observed difference between HADS and GHQ-20 regarding internal consistency was marginal, with Chronbach's alpha coefficients of 0.91 and 0.94, respectively. The PAF analysis resulted in a three-factor solution for GHQ-20, notably with only two items loading on the third factor, giving an internal consistency <0.70. A two-factor solution, comprising anxiety/depression and coping, may therefore be more appropriate. Conclusions: This study demonstrates no significant differences between the HADS and GHQ-20 in their ability to detect possible cases of psychological distress in a rehabilitation setting for COPD patients. Although the HADS and GHQ-20 are measuring different concepts of psychological distress, both questionnaires can be recommended as screening tools for detection of psychological distress in COPD inpatients. The GHQ-20 appears to be two-dimensional, comprising anxiety/depression as one dimension, and coping as the other dimension. PMID:23713548
Adult community norms were derived from 261 adults who completed the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory and 267 adults who completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Percentile scores are provided for all measures, and their usefulness in assessing therapy outcomes is discussed. (SLD)
Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…
Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.
SUMMARY The HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) has been used extensively in cancer patients to identify psychological distress. Reports of the factor structure and screening performance of the instrument vary. Rasch models allow an assessment of the structure of a questionnaire by identifying item fit. Removal of misfitting items may improve both the dimensionality and efficacy of screening questionnaires.
A. B. Smith; E. P. Wright; R. Rush; D. P. Stark; G. Velikova; P. J. Selby
Background Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac AnxietyQuestionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. Objective This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. Methods To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named "Fear and Hypervigilance" (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and "Avoidance", (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, "Cardiac with panic" patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). Conclusions These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings.
Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araujo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.
Background: We have recently developed the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ), a brief scale to measure cognitive and executive dysfunction in mood and anxiety disorders, and we here report on its reliability and validity. Methods: The internal consistency of the CPFQ was assessed by computing Cronbach’s coefficient ? based upon the average intercorrelation of the 7
Maurizio Fava; Dan V. Iosifescu; Paola Pedrelli; Lee Baer
It has been repeatedly demonstrated that persons who experience a high degree of test anxiety also experience decrements in performance in evaluative situations. A study was conducted to develop a test anxietyquestionnaire for student nurses in order to identify test anxiety. A 40-item, self-report questionaire was developed by two panels of…
Objective: To administer and validate the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) via the Internet to a sample of persons with tinnitus. Method: The HADS was converted into a Web page and administered via the Internet to a sample of 157 persons with tinnitus who were recruited for participation in a treatment trial. Also included were the Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire
Gerhard Andersson; Viktor Kaldo-Sandström; Lars Ström; Tryggve Strömgren
The aims of this study are to ascertain the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in an outpatient population with osteoarthritis (OA), examine the interrelationships between severity of OA, pain, disability, and depression, and evaluate the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as a screening tool for this population. Patients with lower limb OA were evaluated with the Short Form McGill Pain and Present Pain Index Questionnaires, and a visual analogue scale, WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index-section C, and the HADS. Participants underwent a structured clinical interview by a liaison psychiatrist (AB). X-rays of affected joints were rated for disease severity. Fifty-four patients (42 females; mean age 63.3) were investigated. The prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and/or depression was 40.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 27.6-55.0%). HADS was a good predictor of anxiety and depression with a sensitivity and specificity of 88% (95%CI, 64% to 99%) and 81% (95%CI, 65% to 92%), respectively. Pain correlated with HADS anxiety and depression scores (e.g. Rank correlation coefficients (Kendall's tau-b) between total HADS scores and Pain VAS scores 0.29; p=0.003). Disability was greater in patients with depression and/or anxiety (e.g. total HADS score; Kendall's rank correlation coefficient tau-b=0.26, p=0.007) OA severity as determined by radiological score was not a good predictor for anxiety nor depression and only weakly associated with disability. Anxiety and depression are very common in OA patients. HADS anxiety was a better predictor of diagnosed anxiety than HADS depression was of diagnosed depression. HADS is a valid and reliable screening instrument for detecting mood disorder, but not a diagnostic tool or a substitute for asking about symptoms of depression. The interrelationship between mental health, pain and disability is strong. We should therefore adopt a multidisciplinary approach to the management of OA. PMID:20721594
Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289) and control group (n=244) were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6?weeks postnatal (only matched pairs), intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048). Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09) and at six weeks (mean=1.09) were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11) and at six weeks (mean =1.07) with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their knowledge and potentially lower the risk of postnatal anxiety. Trial registration (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000667213)
The psychometric properties of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) were evaluated in 1,550 outpatients with DSM-IV anxiety and mood disorders and 360 nonclinical participants. Counter to prior findings, exploratory factor analyses produced a 3-factor solution (Emotion Control, Threat Control, Stress Control) based on 15 of the ACQ's original…
Brown, Timothy A.; White, Kamila S.; Forsyth, John P.; Barlow, David H.
Objectives: The HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used screening instrument. The purpose of this study was to\\u000a evaluate reliability and validity of the Hungarian translation. Methods: The English version of the HADS was translated using the ‘forward–backward’ procedure. The questionnaire was used in a large\\u000a scale study of 715 Hungarian cancer patients along with other screening
Katalin Muszbek; Anna Szekely; Éva Mária Balogh; Mária Molnár; Magdolna Rohánszky; Ágnes Ruzsa; Katalin Varga; Melinda Szöllosi; Piroska Vadász
The present study examined the usefulness of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) as a means of screening for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Using receiver operating characteristic analyses, the accuracy of the PSWQ in screening for GAD was examined in both clinical and analogue diagnosed GAD samples. Given high comorbidity between GAD and other emotional disorders, we also investigated the
Evelyn Behar; Oscar Alcaine; Andrea R. Zuellig; T. D. Borkovec
Despite favorable psychometric properties, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) (GAD-Q-IV) does not have a known factor structure, which calls into question use of its original weighted scoring system (usually referred to as the dimensional score). Analyses…
Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Holaway, Robert M.; Heimberg, Richard G.
Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cut-off points are suitable to rule out or to rule in (which) anxiety disorders? Methods We analyzed 5 primary care datasets with standardized psychiatric diagnoses and 4DSQ scores. Unidimensionality was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We examined mean scores and anxiety score distributions per disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points. Results Total n was 969. CFA supported unidimensionality. The anxiety scale performed slightly better in detecting patients with panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and specific phobia. ROC-analysis suggested that ?4 was the optimal cut-off point to rule out and ?10 the cut-off point to rule in anxiety disorders. Conclusions The 4DSQ anxiety scale measures a common trait of pathological anxiety that is characteristic of anxiety disorders, in particular panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD and PTSD. The anxiety score detects the latter anxiety disorders to a slightly greater extent than GAD and specific phobia, without being able to distinguish between the different anxiety disorder types. The cut-off points ?4 and ?10 can be used to separate distressed patients in three groups with a relatively low, moderate and high probability of having one or more anxiety disorders.
We report on the use of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) to identify individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Fifty individuals with primary or secondary GAD and 114 individuals with social anxiety disorder (without GAD) completed the PSWQ. In receiver operating characteristic analyses, a score of 65 simultaneously optimized sensitivity and specificity in discriminating individuals with GAD from individuals
David M. Fresco; Douglas S. Mennin; Richard G. Heimberg; Cynthia L. Turk
Objective: To examine the reliability and validity of the 66-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R), a questionnaire for measuring a broad range of DSM-defined anxiety disorder symptoms, in a sample of clinically referred youths. Method: The SCARED-R was administered to children/adolescents and their parents…
Muris, Peter; Dreessen, Laura; Bogels, Susan; Weckx, Miryam; van Melick, Marion
Dyspnea-related anxiety may lead to reduced quality of life and functional disability through fearful avoidance of dyspnea-evoking activity. We describe the validation of a generic - diagnosis-independent - instrument assessing dyspnea-related anxiety. A total of 187 patients with respiratory diseases completed the Breathlessness Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ), a 17-item questionnaire adapted from the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), a measure of how harmful pain patients think painful movement is and to what extent they think activity should be avoided. Measures of negative and positive affectivity (PANAS), anxiety and depression (HADS), functional status (PFSDQ), and health-related quality of life (CRDQ) were also completed. Principal component analysis and item-total correlations suggested a reliable (reduced) 11-item BBQ (Cronbach's alpha = .85) with two factors converging with the TSK factors: a 'somatic focus' factor assessing the harmfulness of dyspnea and the underlying pathology and an 'activity avoidance' factor assessing beliefs that activity should be avoided. Correlational analyses support the construct validity of the BBQ: higher scores on the BBQ are associated with reduced health-related quality of life and functional status. Associations between 'somatic focus' and negative affectivity and anxiety and between 'activity avoidance' and positive affectivity and depression further supported the validity of the BBQ and its subscales. The BBQ is a valid, short, and useful instrument to assess respiratory patients' beliefs about the harmfulness of their disease and physical activities. Further research is needed to document to what extent BBQ scores are related to daily life activities and symptoms. PMID:21172990
De Peuter, Steven; Janssens, Thomas; Van Diest, Ilse; Stans, Linda; Troosters, Thierry; Decramer, Marc; Van den Bergh, Omer; Vlaeyen, Johan W S
Objectives: To assess the nature and number of unexpected withdrawal by senior house officers (SHOs) after acceptance of a hospital post at interview, and to investigate the reasons and possible solutions. Design: Postal questionnaire based study. Subjects: Medical staffing departments, accident and emergency (A&E) consultants, and withdrawing SHOs in England. Main outcome measures: Unexpected withdrawals by hospital specialty, three year trend in A&E departments, notice and reasons given, and action taken. Results: 39% of medical staffing departments reported unexpected withdrawals in a broad spectrum of specialties for February 1998. In the specialty of A&E medicine this occurred in 34% of departments. Overall 72% of A&E departments had experienced this problem over a three year period, and the trend is increasing. The majority of A&E consultants (70%) took no action, and there was a lack of consensus among all respondents on the appropriate course of action to prevent this escalating problem. Conclusions: Unexpected SHO withdrawal is a substantial issue in hospital medicine and has been increasing in A&E medicine. Measures to prevent this national problem are urgently needed.
ObjectiveTo develop and validate a questionnaire to determine satisfaction with the hospital emergency department.DesignCross-sectional study to validate a telephone questionnaire designed in Spanish by a panel of experts.SettingThe emergency department of Hospital Gregorio Marañón, a tertiary level hospital of the Spanish national health system.ParticipantsA sample of 651 emergency department patients completed the questionnaire.Main Outcome MeasuresThe psychometric properties of the questionnaire
Susana Granado de la Orden; Ana Chacón García; Lorena Flavia Rodríguez Gijón; Cristina Rodríguez Rieiro; Concepción Sanchidrian de Blas; Paz Rodríguez Pérez
With the purpose of completely approaching the patient in the hospital, this research had the goal to identify the generating factors of the of anxiety patient and how they express their uneasiness towards the illness and the hospitalization the data were collected from april/may/96 with adults in a school-hospital and was based on a guide for observation of the anxieting situations and in an interview guide. We found out that the patients' major concerns were: Knowing if their illness has aure, how long they will be there, their and the support of the family. They get sadder at night and in the afternoon, when the staff is reduced, there is more silence and they feel lonely. Only a small percentage of them have the consistent information about the disease and treatment, however, the hospital is mainly identified as a good place for the possibility of cure, good assistance and food. Witnessing the suffering and the dying risk of the neighbour, be discharged, exams and treatment procedures suspended on cancelled, bling communicated of the necessity of bling operated on that the disease doesn't have a cure, were the anxieting factors that were remanked not only in the immediate sections, but also in the late ones of the anxieting situations, prevail passive attitudes such as sadness, crying, depression and negativism. We concluded that the psychic and emotional conditions of the patients in the hospital have to be taken on consideration on hospitals emphasizing a comsiete approach, with special care of the speed of the actions and the consistence of the information given to the patient about their health and treatment. PMID:9775949
The Middlesex HospitalQuestionnaire is a short clinical diagnostic self rating scale for psychoneurotic patients constructed by Crown and Crisp (1966). Aim of the present study was to prepare Gujarati Version of the M.H.Q. and to establish the reliability and validity of the same.Gujarati version of the M.H.Q. was given to 204 normal population consisting of university students, school teachers, factory workers, house wives and middle aged men from different walks of the life to test the validity. The test was also administered to 30 neurotic patients. This Gujarati version was found to be reliable. There was highly significant difference between normal population and neurotic patients on total score and on all the six subtests, thus establishing the validity of the Gujarati version. It also related well with the clinical diagnosis in most of the cases. PMID:22064775
SUMMARY The Middlesex HospitalQuestionnaire is a short clinical diagnostic self rating scale for psychoneurotic patients constructed by Crown and Crisp (1966). Aim of the present study was to prepare Gujarati Version of the M.H.Q. and to establish the reliability and validity of the same. Gujarati version of the M.H.Q. was given to 204 normal population consisting of university students, school teachers, factory workers, house wives and middle aged men from different walks of the life to test the validity. The test was also administered to 30 neurotic patients. This Gujarati version was found to be reliable. There was highly significant difference between normal population and neurotic patients on total score and on all the six subtests, thus establishing the validity of the Gujarati version. It also related well with the clinical diagnosis in most of the cases.
The aims of this study are to ascertain the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in an outpatient population with\\u000a osteoarthritis (OA), examine the interrelationships between severity of OA, pain, disability, and depression, and evaluate\\u000a the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as a screening tool for this population. Patients with lower limb OA were\\u000a evaluated with the Short Form
John Axford; Alexander Butt; Christine Heron; John Hammond; John Morgan; Azita Alavi; Jim Bolton; Martin Bland
Background The study of the frequency of anxiety and depression in patients suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and their correlation with the severity and management of the disease, the somatometric parameters, subjective dyspnea and the pulmonary function tests. Patients and methods Twenty-five consecutive patients with diagnosed COPD who visited the outpatient pulmonology clinic of General Hospital of Serres during 07-09/2012 were studied. The patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gases analysis, 6 minute walking test (6MWD) and filled validated questionnaires for the detection of anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - STAI-Gr X-2), depression (Beck Depression Inventory - BDI-II), subjective dyspnea (MRC) and level of COPD control (COPD Assessment Test - CAT). The correlation analysis was performed using Spearman’s correlation test and the SPSS v15 software. Results The Body Mass Index (BMI) correlated negatively with BDI (r=–0.4, P<0.05). Dyspnea (MRC score) positively correlated with the presence of depression (r=0.61, P=0.001) and anxiety (r=0.6, P=0.001), with CAT score (r=0.8, P<0.001) and negatively with 6MWD (r=–0.55, P<0.007). CAT presented a positive correlation with BDI (r=0.71, P<0.001), STAI (r=0.73, P<0.001) and negative with 6MWD (r=–0.44, P=0.036). Arterial PO2 had a negative correlation with BDI (r=–0.57, P=0.003) and STAI (r=-0.41, P=0.039), whilst BDI had a positive correlation with STAI (r=0.55, P<0.001) and negative with 6MWD (r=–0.43, P=0.039). Finally, STAI score correlated negatively with 6MWD (r=–0.43, P=0.039). Conclusions Patients with a lower BMI had higher rates of depression, possibly due to the increased percentage of patients presenting an emphysematic phenotype (as derived by the data analysis from the study population). Both the subjective dyspnea feeling and the poor COPD control showed correlation with high rates of anxiety and depression, as well as with smaller walking distances in the 6 minute tests. Hypoxemia alone significantly correlated with depression and anxiety, whereas these two correlated with each other and with lower exercise capacity.
Mindfulness-based interventions have been used in the treatment of social anxiety with initial success. Mindfulness is defined as an awareness and acceptance of the present moment. Acceptance when used as a coping strategy is related to reduced distress during anxiety-provoking tasks and increased willingness to experience unpleasant events. The purpose of this research was to examine acceptance, willingness and distress
Objective: the hospitalanxiety and depression scale (HADS) attempts to measure anxiety and depression without confounding by somatic symptoms of physical disorder, and is widely used for this purpose. This paper addresses three questions about the validity of the HADS concerning its independence of physical symptoms, the extent to which its items robustly measure the identified constructs with varying clinical
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119?SSc patients were assessed by HospitalAnxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ?8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening), global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT). Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (P = 0.001). HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (P < 0.05). By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (P < 0.001), RSES (P < 0.001), and MHISS total score (P = 0.016), together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (P = 0.006), COPE-NIV SA (P = 0.003), COPE-NIV SS (P = 0.008), FACIT-F (P = 0.022), and MHISS mouth opening (P = 0.029), explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms.
Objectives To determine the prevalence of bullying and experience of bullying behaviours among postgraduate hospital dentists.Design Questionnaire survey.Setting The study was conducted among a sample of dentally qualified trainees within the UK's Hospital Dental Service.Subjects and methods Two hundred and twenty-seven postgraduate hospital dentists were sent an anonymous questionnaire by the dental deans of participating deaneries.Main outcome measures Prevalence of
L. Quine; K. Jack; D. H. Felix; J. Waumsley; L. Steadman
Background The HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used self-report measure to assess emotional distress in clinical populations. As highlighted in recent review studies, the latent structure of the HADS is still an issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial structure of the HADS in a large community sample in Italy, and to test the invariance of the best fitting model across age and gender groups. Methods Data analyses were carried out on a sample of 1.599 participants proportionally stratified according to the Italian census population pyramid. Participants aged 18 to 85 years (females?=?51.8%), living in eight different regions of Italy, voluntarily participated in the study. The survey questionnaire contained the HADS, Health Status questions, and sociodemographic variables. Results Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a bifactor model, with a general psychological distress factor and two orthogonal group factors with anxiety and depression, was the best fitting one compared to six alternative factor structures reported in the literature, with overall good fit indices [Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI)?=?.97; Comparative Fit Index (CFI)?=?.98; Root Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)?=?.04]. Multi-group analyses supported total invariance of the HADS measurement model for males and females, and for younger (i.e., 18–44 years old) and older (i.e., 45–85 years old) participants. Our descriptive analyses showed that females reported significant higher anxiety and general distress mean scores than males. Moreover, older participants reported significant higher HADS, anxiety and depression scores than younger participants. Conclusions The results of the present study confirmed that the HADS has good psychometric properties in an Italian community sample, and that the HADS scores, especially the general psychological distress one, can be reliably used for assessing age and gender differences. In keeping with the most recent factorial studies, our analysis supported the superior fit of a bifactor model. However, the high factor loadings on the general factor also recommend caution in the use of the two subscales as independent measures.
Background The impact of psychological factors is often taken into account in the evaluation of quality of life. However, the effect of optimism and trait anxiety remains controversial and they are rarely studied simultaneously. We aimed to study the effect of this factor on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients after a hospitalization in relation with their chronic disease. Methods Using cross-sectional data from the SATISQOL cohort, we conducted a multicentric study, including patients hospitalized for an intervention in connection with their chronic disease. Six months after hospitalization, patients completed a generic HRQOL questionnaire (SF-36), and the STAI and LOT-R questionnaires to evaluate optimism and trait anxiety. We studied the effect of each trait on HRQOL separately, and simultaneously, taking account of their interaction in 3 models, using an ANOVA. Results In this study, 1529 patients were included in three participating hospitals and there existed wide diversity in the chronic diseases in our population. The HRQOL score increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 15,8 and 44,5 when the level of anxiety decreased (p?0.0001) for the model 1, assessing the effect of anxiety on HRQOL and increased for all dimensions of SF36 between 3.1 and 12.7 with increasing level of optimism (0.0001) in the model 2 assessing the effect of optimism on HRQOL. In the model 3, assessing the effect of both anxiety and optimism on HRQOL, and their interaction, the HRQOL score for all dimensions of the SF36 increased when the level of anxiety decreased (p?0.0001). It increased with increasing level of optimism (p?0.006) in the model for all dimensions of SF36 except the Role Physical dimension. In this model, interaction between anxiety and optimism was significant for the Social Functioning dimension (p?=?0.0021). Conclusions Optimism and trait anxiety appeared to be significantly correlated with HRQOL. Furthermore, an interaction existed between the trait anxiety and optimism for some dimensions of SF36. Contrary to optimism, it seems essential to evaluate trait anxiety in future studies about HRQOL, since it could represent a confounding factor.
ObjectiveThere is an increasing interest in trying to identify patients with chronic physical illness who would benefit from interventions to decrease psychological distress. The HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is one measure that can be effectively used to identify patients struggling with anxiety and\\/or depression in addition to comorbid medical illness such as cardiac disease.The aim of this study
Kara Zivin Bambauer; Steven E. Locke; Onesky Aupont; Mariquita G. Mullan; Thomas J. McLaughlin
There is considerable evidence that individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing dialysis experience increased levels of anxiety and depression (Martin & Thompson 1999). A screening tool that can be readily used by nurses to screen ESRD patients for anxiety and depression would be a useful contribution to the nurse therapeutic clinical skills battery. The HospitalAnxiety and Depression scale
... be afraid to leave home. These people have anxiety disorders. Types include Panic disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Phobias Generalized anxiety disorder Treatment can involve medicines, therapy or both. NIH: ...
Background Interpretation of the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), commonly used to assess anxiety and depression in COPD patients, is unclear. Since its minimal important difference has never been established, our aim was to determine it using several approaches. Methods 88 COPD patients with FEV1 ? 50% predicted completed the HADS and other patient-important outcome measures before and after an inpatient respiratory rehabilitation. For the anchor-based approach we determined the correlation between the HADS and the anchors that have an established minimal important difference (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire [CRQ] and Feeling Thermometer). If correlations were ? 0.5 we performed linear regression analyses to predict the minimal important difference from the anchors. As distribution-based approach we used the Effect Size approach. Results Based on CRQ emotional function and mastery domain as well as on total scores, the minimal important difference was 1.41 (95% CI 1.18–1.63) and 1.57 (1.37–1.76) for the HADS anxiety score and 1.68 (1.48–1.87) and 1.60 (1.38–1.82) for the HADS total score. Correlations of the HADS depression score and CRQ domain and Feeling Thermometer scores were < 0.5. Based on the Effect Size approach the MID of the HADS anxiety and depression score was 1.32 and 1.40, respectively. Conclusion The minimal important difference of the HADS is around 1.5 in COPD patients corresponding to a change from baseline of around 20%. It can be used for the planning and interpretation of trials.
Objectives To describe the plans of English NHS hospitals to implement ePrescribing systems. Design and setting Questionnaire-based survey of attendees of the National ePrescribing Forum. Participants A piloted questionnaire was distributed to all NHS and non-NHS hospital-based attendees. The questionnaire enquired about any completed or planned implementation of ePrescribing systems, the specific systems of interest, and functionality they offered. Main outcome measures Estimate of the number of NHS Trusts planning to implement ePrescribing systems. Results Ninety-one of the 166 questionnaires distributed to NHS hospital-based staff were completed and returned. Of those, six were incomplete, resulting in a total usable response rate of 51% (n = 85). Eighty-two percent (n = 46) of the 56 Trusts represented at the Forum were either ‘thinking of implementing’ or ‘currently implementing’ an ePrescribing system, such as Ascribe (13%, n = 7) and JAC (20%, n = 11). Forty percent (n = 22) of respondents specified other systems, including those procured by NHS Connecting for Health e.g. RiO, Lorenzo and Cerner. Knowledge support, decision support and computerized links to other elements of patients’ individual care records were the functionalities of greatest interest. Conclusion There is considerable reported interest and activity in implementing ePrescribing systems in hospitals across England. Whether such developments have the desired impact on improving the safety of prescribing is however, yet to be determined.
Crowe, Sarah; Cresswell, Kathrin; Avery, Anthony J; Slee, Ann; Coleman, Jamie J; Sheikh, Aziz
Background. Review of the literature reveals a need to develop a questionnaire that measures patient perceptions of factors impacting continuity of care following discharge from hospital. Such a measure has the potential to guide quality improvement initiatives related to continuity of care. Objective. Our objective was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a measure that would meet this
HEATHER HADJISTAVROPOULOS; HENRY BIEM; DONALD SHARPE; MICHELLE BOURGAULT; JENNIFER JANZEN
BACKGROUND: To determine the psychometric properties of the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patients with breast cancer and determine the suitability of the instrument for use with this clinical group. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used. The study used a pooled data set from three breast cancer clinical groups. The dependent variables were HADS anxiety and depression sub-scale
Jacqui Rodgers; Colin R Martin; Rachel C Morse; Kate Kendell; Mark Verrill
The HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…
Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.
The current study examined the psychometrics of three traditional [i.e., the trait anxiety version of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), and the Fear Survey Schedule for Children – Revised (FSSC-R)] and three new childhood anxiety scales [the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders
Peter Muris; Harald Merckelbach; Thomas Ollendick; Neville King; Nicole Bogie
Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain.
The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive as well as brief screening questionnaire by combining the well-known instruments CAGE and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) in detecting patients with alcohol dependence or abuse in general hospitals and general practices. The number of items was reduced by means of logistic regression and item analysis based on data of 1,167 consecutive admissions of a general hospital who completed both questionnaires. Further data were derived from a sample of 774 patients from 10 randomly selected general practices. A solution with nine items was validated in a second sample of 436 hospital inpatients. In all three samples, cases screening positive were interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry to provide ICD-10 and DSM-III-R or DSM-IV diagnosis. In addition, 103 subjects with negative screening results were interviewed in the second general hospital sample. On grounds of the data of all three samples, a solution of seven items was chosen. This instrument comprises two CAGE and five MAST questions (Leubeck Alcohol Dependence and Abuse Screening Test; LAST) and was significantly higher in sensitivity than CAGE and SMAST. Data were robust in all three samples. It is concluded that the LAST is an optimized instrument for use in general hospital and general practice. PMID:9267540
Goal Although the importance of the palliative care team (PCT) to university hospitals is widely accepted, the issues of palliative\\u000a care at the national level have not been clarified. We conducted a nationwide survey of the current status of PCTs in all\\u000a (123) Japanese university hospitals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods In 2003, 2004 and 2005, the authors conducted a self-reporting cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires
Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could\\u000a be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ.\\u000a Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation
Background Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. Methods The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted Safety Attitude Questionnaire in Chinese (SAQ-C). Hospitals and their healthcare workers participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The psychometric properties of the five SAQ-C dimensions were examined, including teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, perception of management, and working conditions. Additional safety measures were asked to assess healthcare workers' attitudes toward their collaboration with nurses, physicians, and pharmacists, respectively, and perceptions of hospitals' encouragement of safety reporting, safety training, and delivery delays due to communication breakdowns in clinical areas. The associations between the respondents' attitudes to each SAQ-C dimension and safety measures were analyzed by generalized estimating equations, adjusting for the clustering effects at hospital levels. Results A total of 45,242 valid questionnaires were returned from 200 hospitals with a mean response rate of 69.4%. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.792 for teamwork climate, 0.816 for safety climate, 0.912 for job satisfaction, 0.874 for perception of management, and 0.785 for working conditions. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a good model fit for each dimension and the entire construct. The percentage of hospital healthcare workers holding positive attitude was 48.9% for teamwork climate, 45.2% for perception of management, 42.1% for job satisfaction, 37.2% for safety climate, and 31.8% for working conditions. There were wide variations in the range of SAQ-C scores in each dimension among hospitals. Compared to those without positive attitudes, healthcare workers with positive attitudes to each SAQ dimension were more likely to perceive good collaboration with coworkers, and their hospitals were more likely to encourage safety reporting and to prioritize safety training programs (Wald chi-square test, p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions Analytical results verified the psychometric properties of the SAQ-C at Taiwanese hospitals. The safety culture at most hospitals has not fully developed and there is considerable room for improvement.
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…
Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah
Background: In 2001, the Department of Health produced the Improving Working Lives (IWL) for Doctors document. This is the first national survey which asks hospital doctors what changes are needed to improve their working lives. Methods: An online questionnaire was run over a period of six weeks and was open to all doctors of all grades. Doctors were asked to choose their top five factors from a list of 35 diverse choices or to provide alternatives in free text. Demographic data were also collected. Results: 1603 hospital doctors working in the UK completed the online questionnaire. Improved secretarial or managerial support was the first IWL choice for consultants, with different aspects of clinical and non-clinical support representing their top four choices. Junior hospital doctors and staff and associate specialist grades (staff grades, associate specialists, and clinical assistants) identified improved support for education and training as their first choice, while among the female specialist registrars, it was improved support for childcare. Greater opportunities to develop new skills was an important issue for doctors in the surgical specialties and improved access to mentoring was important for all junior doctors, staff and associate specialist grades, and doctors from black and ethnic minority groups. Conclusions: Hospital doctors in the UK need more support to improve their working lives. The principle needs are better secretarial and managerial support for consultants; education, training, and mentoring for junior doctors and staff and associate specialist grades; and improved opportunities to develop new skills for those in surgical specialties. Support with childcare is an important issue for female specialist registrars. The Department of Health, NHS trusts, deaneries, and Royal Colleges need to endorse policies that promote a training and working environment that will improve working lives for all hospital doctors, ensuring that appropriate and continuing support is available from the time doctors enter the new foundation programmes and proposed run-through grades, to their time spent as consultants in today's NHS.
Dornhorst, A; Cripps, J; Goodyear, H; Marshall, J; Waters, E; Boddy, S; on, b
This paper examines the clinical utility of the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the context of evaluating the Fibromyalgia Outpatient Education Program at Southlake Regional Health Centre (Newmarket, Canada). A pre-test/post-test design was implemented for data analysis. A total of 232 patients' data were obtained through retrospective patient chart review. Complete pre-post data were available for 70 patients and qualitative analysis was done for 12 patients. Main outcome measures included HADS and Arthritis Self-Efficacy (ASE) scores. At the end of the education program, subgroups of patients (high attendance, high exercise habit, low medication) experienced significant improvement on HADS-depression and ASE scores. Linear regression analysis found that HADS pre-program scores explain far more variance in HADS post-test scores than ASE pre-program scores explain in ASE post-program scores; more variance in ASE post-program scores was explained by other variables. In contrast to the quantitative analysis of the Anxiety subscale of HADS, patients in the focus group indicated that their anxiety level decreased through attending the education program. These findings suggest that HADS is an appropriate tool for evaluating fibromyalgia and related patient education programs. Moreover, patient education programs have positive effects on enhancing patients' psychological well-being and self-confidence in controlling fibromyalgia-related symptoms. PMID:23995734
Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings.
Context: An intensive care unit (ICU) admission of a patient causes considerable stress among relatives. Whether this impact differs among populations with differing sociocultural factors is unknown. Aims: The aim was to compare the psychological impact of an ICU admission on relatives of patients in an American and Indian public hospital. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out in ICUs of two tertiary care hospitals, one each in major metropolitan cities in the USA and India. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 relatives visiting patients were verbally administered a questionnaire between 48 hours and 72 hours of ICU admission that included the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) for post-traumatic stress response. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using the Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests. Results: Relatives in the Indian ICU had more anxiety symptoms (median HADS-A score 11 [inter-quartile range 9-13] vs. 4 [1.5-6] in the American cohort; P<0.0001), more depression symptoms (BDI-II score 14 [8.5-19] vs. 6 [1.5-10.5], P<0.0001) but a comparable post-traumatic stress response (IES-R score>30). 55% of all relatives had an incongruous perception regarding “change in the patient's condition” compared to the objective change in severity of illness. “Change in worry” was incongruous compared to the perception of improvement of the patient's condition in 78% of relatives. Conclusions: Relatives of patients in the Indian ICU had greater anxiety and depression symptoms compared to those in the American cohort, and had significant differences in factors that may be associated with this psychological impact. Both groups showed substantial discordance between the perceived and objective change in severity of illness.
Objectives(1) To assess the overall performance of the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as a screening instrument to identify cases of major depressive disorder (MDD) in mixed cancer outpatients. (2) To determine the sensitivity and specificity of various HADS cut-off scores. (3) To recommend an optimal HADS cut-off score for use in this population.
Jane Walker; Kirstine Postma; Gillian S. McHugh; Robert Rush; Brian Coyle; Vanessa Strong; Michael Sharpe
The aim of this study was to assess the responsiveness to change of the quality of life evaluated by the EuroQol Five Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D) and HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) after biological treatment in a population of rheumatoid arthritis patients. A cohort of patients with RA (n?=?29) treated with tocilizumab (TCZ) were analyzed in the study. The inclusion criteria were patients aged between 18 and 65 years, fulfilling American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria for RA. All patients had inadequate response to methotrexate and with no prior biologic exposure. They were evaluated clinically including Disease Activity Score 28 (DAS28), and the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) to measure the quality of life, and HAD assessed the anxiety and depression status at the initiation of treatment with anti-IL 6 receptor antibody agent and after 6 months. Sensitivity to change was quantified by the effect size (ES) before and after the treatment with TCZ. Among 29 patients with RA included in the study, 25 were females and 4 males. The mean age was 42 years?±?13.4 (SD). Three patients were excluded from the study before 24 weeks because of serious side effects, and five have missing data. The study population exhibited significant decreases in all measures of disease activity at 24 weeks. Physical activity expressed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score increased through the observation period (for all p?0.001). Sensitivity to change was high for the VAS and EQ-5D (ES 1.58 and 1.36, respectively) but only moderate for the HAD anxiety component (ES?=?0.70) and small for the HAD depression component (ES?=?0.4). The EQ-5D and VAS were more responsive than HADS to evaluate the quality of life on patient with RA treated with TCZ. PMID:24752345
Background: Prospective studies have demonstrated that anxiety is associated with an increased risk of mortality and sudden cardiac\\u000a death. There is therefore a need to understand what factors contribute to anxiety in patients with coronary heart disease\\u000a (CHD).Purpose: This study examined whether social support and religiosity are individually or jointly associated with lower anxiety in\\u000a cardiac patients.Methods: Anxiety, perceived social
Joel W. Hughes; Alisha Tomlinson; James A. Blumenthal; Jonathan Davidson; Michael H. Sketch; Lana L. Watkins
Background Parts of New Public Management-reforms of the public sector depend on introduction of market-like mechanisms to manage the sector, like free choice of hospital. However, patients may delegate the choice of hospital to agents like general practitioners (GPs). We have investigated which factors Danish GPs reported as decisive for their choice of hospital on behalf of patients, and their utilisation of formal and informal data sources when they chose a hospital on behalf of patients. Methods Retrospective questionnaire study of all of the 474 GPs practising in three counties which constituted a single uptake area. Patients were free to choose a hospital in another county in the country. The GPs were asked about responsibility for choice of the latest three patients referred by the GP to hospital; which of 16 factors influenced the choice of hospital; which of 15 sources of information about clinical quality at various hospitals/departments were considered relevant, and how often were six sources of information about waiting time utilised. Results Fifty-one percent (240 GPs) filled in and returned the questionnaire. One hundred and eighty-three GPs (76%) reported that they perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of the latest referred patient. Short distance to hospital was the most common reason for choice of hospital. The most frequently used source of information about quality at hospital departments was anecdotal reports from patients referred previously, and the most important source of information about waiting time was the hospitals’ letters of confirmation of referrals. Conclusions In an area with free choice of public hospital most GPs perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of patients. Short distance to hospital was the factor which most often decided the GPs’ choice of hospital on behalf of patients. GPs attached little weight to official information on quality and service (waiting time) at hospitals or departments, focusing instead on informal sources like feedback from patients and colleagues and their experience with cooperation with the department or hospital.
Antepartum anxiety and/or depression is a major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of antepartum anxiety and/or depression among pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care hospital among pregnant women. A total of 165 pregnant women were interviewed by a clinical psychologist using HADS for assessing anxiety and/or depression and also collected information regarding sociodemographic, obstetric, family relationships, and home environment. Out of the total of 165 pregnant women about 70 percent of them were either anxious and/or depressed. The increasing age of women (P-value = 0.073), not having any live birth (P-value = 0.036), adverse pregnancy outcome in past including death of a child, stillbirth or abortion (P-value = 0.013), participant's role in household decision making (P-value = 0.013), and domestic violence (verbal or physical abuse towards mother or children by any family member) (P-value = 0.123). Our study highlights that anxiety and/or depression is quite common among pregnant women. Therefore, there is a need to incorporate screening for anxiety and depression in the existing antenatal programs and development of strategies to provide practical support to those identified.
Ali, Niloufer S.; Azam, Iqbal S.; Ali, Badar S.; Tabbusum, Ghurnata; Moin, Sana S.
This study examined the extent to which sixth grade peer status could predict anxiety and\\/or depression in 5,242 women and\\u000a 5,004 men who were born in 1953 and whose hospital records were followed up from 1973–2003. The data used was the Stockholm\\u000a Birth Cohort Study. While no association could be established for men, results indicated that women who held low
Background The patient handover is important for the safe transition from the pre-hospital setting to secondary care. The loss of critical information about the pre-hospital phase may impact upon the clinical course of the patient. Methods University Hospital Emergency Care registrars answered a questionnaire about how they perceive clinical documentation from the ambulance services. We also reviewed patient records retrospectively, to investigate to what extent eight selected parameters were transferred correctly to hospital records by clinicians. Only parameters outside the normal range were selected. Results The registrars preferred a verbal handover with hand-written pre-hospital reports as the combined source of clinical information. Scanned report forms were infrequently used. Information from other doctors was perceived as more important than the information from ambulance crews. Less than half of the selected parameters in pre-hospital notes were transferred to hospital records, even for parameters regarded as important by the registrars. Abnormal vital signs were not transferred as often as mechanism of injury, medication administered and immobilisation of trauma patients. Conclusions Data on pre-hospital abnormal vital signs are frequently not transferred to the hospital admission notes. This information loss may lead to suboptimal care.
BACKGROUND: Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. METHODS: The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted Safety
This paper presents update fundamentals of the legislation and the current status of the supervision of hospitals by the public health service of Nordrhein-Westfalen. Based on this, a hospital check list is proposed by the department for the supervision of hospitals with the District Officer at Arnsberg. PMID:8061459
The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), tested on 67 husbands of the women who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The eligible husbands were retrieved from the Clinical Oncology Clinic at three hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data was collected at three weeks
To date, researchers have lacked a validated instrument to measure stroke caregivers' satisfaction with hospital care. We adjusted a validated patient version of satisfaction with hospital care for stroke caregivers and tested the 11-item caregivers' satisfaction with hospital care (C-SASC hospital scale) on caregivers of stroke patients admitted to nine stroke service facilities in the Netherlands. Stroke patients were identified through the stroke service facilities; caregivers were identified through the patients. We collected admission demographic data from the caregivers and gave them the C-SASC hospital scale. We tested the instrument by means of structural equation modeling and examined its validity and reliability. After the elimination of three items, the confirmatory factor analyses revealed good indices of fit with the resulting eight-item C-SASC hospital scale. Cronbach's ? was high (0.85) and correlations with general satisfaction items with hospital care ranged from 0.594 to 0.594 (convergent validity). No significant relations were found with health and quality of life (divergent validity). Such results indicate strong construct validity. We conclude that the C-SASC hospital scale is a promising instrument for measuring stroke caregivers' satisfaction with hospital stroke care. PMID:21181184
Cramm, Jane M; Strating, Mathilde M H; Nieboer, Anna P
Objective The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the Armando Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire into Arabic and validate its use in the general population. Methods The translation was conducted based on the principles of the most widely used model in questionnaire translation, namely Brisling’s back-translation model. A written authorization allowing translation into Arabic was obtained from the original author. The Arabic version of the questionnaire was distributed to 480 participants to evaluate construct validity. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17.0 for Windows was used for the statistical analysis. Results The response rate of this study was 96%; most of the respondents (52.5%) were female. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach’s ?, which showed that this questionnaire provides a high reliability coefficient (reaching 0.9299) and a high degree of consistency and thus can be relied upon in future patient satisfaction research.
Fibromyalgia is a complex problem in which symptoms of anxiety and depression feature prominently. Low levels of vitamin D\\u000a have been frequently reported in fibromyalgia, but no relationship was demonstrated with anxiety and depression. Seventy-five\\u000a Caucasian patients who fulfilled the ACR criteria for fibromyalgia had serum vitamin D levels measured and completed the Fibromyalgia\\u000a Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and HospitalAnxiety
D. J. Armstrong; G. K. Meenagh; I. Bickle; A. S. H. Lee; E.-S. Curran; M. B. Finch
Objectives To first, validate in English hospitals the internal structure of the ‘Patient Evaluation of Emotional Care during Hospitalisation’ (PEECH) survey tool which was developed in Australia and, second, to examine how it may deepen the understanding of patient experience through comparison with results from the Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire (PPE-15). Design A 48-item survey questionnaire comprising both PEECH and PPE-15 was fielded. We performed exploratory factor analysis and then confirmatory factor analysis using a number of established fit indices. The external validity of the PEECH factor scores was compared across four participating services and at the patient level, factor scores were correlated with the PPE-15. Setting Four hospital services (an Emergency Admissions Unit; a maternity service; a Medicine for the Elderly department and a Haemato-oncology service) that contrasted in terms of the reported patient experience performance. Participants Selection of these acute service settings was based on achieving variation of the following factors: teaching hospital/district general hospital, urban/rural locality and high-performing/low-performing organisations (using results of annual national staff and patient surveys). A total of 423 surveys were completed by patients (26% response rate). Results A different internal structure to the PEECH instrument emerged in English hospitals. However, both the existing and new factor models were similar in terms of fit. The correlations between the new PEECH factors and the PPE-15 were all in the expected direction, but two of the new factors (personal interactions and feeling valued) were more strongly associated with the PPE-15 than the remaining two factors (feeling informed and treated as an individual). Conclusions PEECH can help to build an understanding of complex interpersonal aspects of quality of care, alongside the more transactional and functional aspects typically captured by PPE-15. Further testing of the combined instrument should be undertaken in a wider range of healthcare settings.
Aims and objectives This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China. Background The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China. Methods Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05. Results Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses’ work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses. Conclusion Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China. Relevance to clinical practice The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China.
Liu, Ke; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Li-Feng; Aiken, Linda H
One hundred and six adolescent offenders completed the High Risk Situations Questionnaire for Young Offenders (HRSQ-YO), an instrument designed to assess the self-reported importance of various antecedents to a past, highly salient offense. Principal components analysis of responses to the 66 HRSQ-YO items resulted in three factors which were rotated to a varimax criterion and labelled Delinquency, Negative Affectivity, and
Background: To examine the prevalence of high-risk subjects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and its predictive factors in patients undergoing elective surgery by using the Berlin Questionnaire. Materials and Methods: 300 surgical ASA physical status I, II, III, and IV patients were surveyed. Patients were screened with the Berlin questionnaire for obstructive sleep apnea. Data of sex, age, BMI and HTN also evaluated. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was meaningful. Results: The Berlin questionnaire identified 25.3% (76/300) of patients as being at high risk of sleep apnea (95% confidence interval, 20%-28%). This group consisted of 195 (65%) males and 105 (35%) females. The prevalence of high-risk subjects in men were more significantly than women (P = 0.001). High-risk subjects also were increasing with age (P = 0.000) and increasing with obesity (P = 0.000) and arterial hypertension (P = 0.000). Conclusions: Predictors of high risk for OSA-related symptoms were female sex, age more than 50 years, and body mass index.
BACKGROUND This study aimed to compare the anxiety of cardiac patients candidate for angiography with normal population in Isfahan province. METHODS The study population included 109 people, 53 cardiac patients referring to Chamran Cardiology Hospital in Isfahan for angiography and 56 people without cardiac disease. Data were collected by Cattle anxiety scale. In addition, demographic data of the sample population were collected at the same time using another questionnaire. RESULTS Independent t-test showed a significant difference between the anxiety of cardiac patients candidate for angiography and non-cardiac people (P < 0.001). Moreover, the differences between the amount of obvious anxiety and hidden anxiety in the two groups were significant (P < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSION The results showed that cardiac disease and diagnosis instruments, especially angiography, cause anxiety in patients. Therefore, evaluating this anxiety and applying proper techniques to reduce this anxiety is necessary.
Describes the development of a multi-item scale for assessing in-patient perceptions of service quality in an NHS or NHS Trust hospital. Presents evidence of the high reliability of the scale and its factor structure. Five intangible factors emerge: empathy, relationship of mutual respect, dignity, understanding of illness and religious needs, along with two tangible factors: food and physical environment. Results
BACKGROUND: Smooth working relationships between nurses and doctors are necessary for efficient health care delivery. However, previous studies have shown that this is often absent with negative impact on the quality of health care delivery. In 2002, we studied factors that affect nurse-doctor working relationships in University Teaching Hospitals (UTH) in Southern Nigeria in order to characterize it and identify
Background This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety among prostate cancer patients, and to ascertain the association between stress status, socio-demographic, medical and surgical illness, current urinary problem and cancer status with general health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among these patients. Methods: A hospital based, cross sectional study was conducted at Surgical Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) using universal sampling. Result: A total of 193 patients were recruited. The prevalence of anxiety was 25.4% (95%CI: 19.2 – 31.6). The anxiety ratings were mild anxiety (10.4%), moderate anxiety (13.6%) and severe anxiety (1.6%). The total quality of life among stress group was 59.2 ± 14.7 and among non-stress group was 73.9 ± 12.7. There was a significant negative weak correlation between anxiety score and total quality of life (rs=?0.534, P<0.001). In multivariable analysis, there was a significant difference in the total quality of life (QOL) among anxiety status [adj. mean diff. = ?9.1 (95%CI: ?15.2, ?4.7)]. The adjusted mean difference was associated by age category of the patients (P<0.001); living partner (P<0.001); intermittency (P=0.035) and problem of hematuria during micturition (P=0.005). Conclusion: The prevalence of anxiety among prostate cancer was moderately high. Treating the urination problem as well as encouraging living with spouse/family may improve the quality of life among anxiety condition of these patients.
ISA, Mohamad Rodi; MOY, Foong Ming; ABDUL RAZACK, Azad Hassan; MD ZAINUDDIN, Zulkifli; ZAINAL, Nur Zuraida
Describes the development of a multi-item scale for assessing in-patient perceptions of service quality in an NHS or NHS Trust hospital. Presents evidence of the high reliability of the scale and its factor structure. Five intangible factors emerge: empathy, relationship of mutual respect, dignity, understanding of illness and religious needs, along with two tangible factors: food and physical environment. Results in a trial hospital indicate that patients' perceptions meet or exceed expectations in respect of four of the seven factors and 22 of the 49 individual variables. Of concern, however, while possibly not generalizable, must be the unfulfilled expectations in respect of the factors "relationship of mutual respect" and "understanding of illness" and the individual variables relating to the various communications between doctors and patients. Not unexpectedly, dissatisfaction is also expressed with the physical environment. Argues that the situation can only be remedied, usually, by a large injection of cash--an unlikely scenario. PMID:10143994
Trait anxiety is a relatively stable disposition reflecting an individual's tendency to experience anxious symptomatology, typically measured using questionnaires such as the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). While trait anxiety commonly is considered a unitary construct, recent questionnaire research suggests that two different dimensions of anxiety vulnerability account for independent variance in trait anxiety scores. These dimensions are anxiety reactivity (AR), reflecting the intensity of anxiety reactions to stressors, and anxiety perseveration (AP), reflecting the persistence of anxiety symptoms. This study investigated whether in vivo measures of these two facets independently contribute to anxiety vulnerability. Seventy-two participants were exposed to a novel stress task designed to yield measures of AR and AP. Regression analysis determined that these in vivo measures were unrelated to each other, and each accounted for independent variance in trait anxiety scores. The implications of these findings for the assessment and understanding of anxiety vulnerability are discussed. PMID:24219239
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties. PMID:23197315
Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R; Kendal, Sarah
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties.
A group of children (N=60) about to undergo elective surgery for hernias, tonsillectomies, or urinary-genital tract difficulties were shown on hospital admission either a relevant peer modeling film of a child being hospitalized and receiving surgery or an unrelated control film. (Author)
This paper reports data on the professional self-image of 9638 nurses employed in 22 Belgian general hospitals with the goal of identifying problems affecting recruitment and retention. Nurses reported having a positive self-image. Most were proud to be a nurse and considered themselves competent health professionals having great responsibility. Although they reported that an ideal practice requires effective teamwork, supportive management, societal recognition, and sufficient time to perform their duties, they also felt that these essential conditions were absent in daily practice. PMID:15972211
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
Objectives. To investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) using an Internet administered version of the instrument. Design. Between subjects. Method. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and internal consistency analysis of the HADS was used to determine the psychometric characteristics of the instrument in individuals with
Depression is difficult to diagnose in the terminally ill patient. As a result, it frequently is not treated. This has can have an adverse effect on quality of life and make the palliation of physical symptoms more difficult. In an effort to improve the detection of depression, many palliative care teams are using the HospitalAnxiety and Depression (HAD) scale
BackgroundThe Distress Thermometer (DT) and HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are commonly used within oncology settings. However there is a paucity of research comparing these measures to gold standard structured clinical interviews assessing for clinical disorders. The aim of this study is to establish the sensitivity, specificity and optimal cut-off scores on these measures when compared to a clinical
Deepa Patel; Louise Sharpe; Belinda Thewes; Melanie L. Bell; Stephen Clarke
Conclusions As hospital epidemiologists confront the challenges from within their institutions and outside of that arena, they are understandably\\u000a wary. They smile ruefully at the words attributed to then Surgeon General William Stewart in 1967: \\
On administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in English, Gujarati and Marathi, to 500 non-acutely ill adult patients selected randomly from a General Hospital Out-patient Department, it was found that 57% scored high (12 and above), indicating the possibility of psychiatric morbidity in this group. On subjecting 50 of these patients to blind psychiatric evaluation a misclassification rate of 30% was observed with respect to the G. H. Q. 96% of the psychiatrically ill scored high on GHQ, 37% of those scoring high on G. H. Q. were psychiatrically normal. If this misclassification rate is lowered by suitable modifications such as reducing items pertaining to Group A of the G. H. Q., then this test will be very useful as a simple tool to detect psychiatric morbidity. PMID:21927123
Bagadia, V N; Ayyar, K S; Lakdawala, P D; Susainathan, U; Pradhan, P V
Background ePrescribing systems have significant potential to improve the safety and efficiency of healthcare, but they need to be carefully selected and implemented to maximise benefits. Implementations in English hospitals are in the early stages and there is a lack of standards guiding the procurement, functional specifications, and expected benefits. We sought to provide an updated overview of the current picture in relation to implementation of ePrescribing systems, explore existing strategies, and identify early lessons learned. Methods A descriptive questionnaire-based study, which included closed and free text questions and involved both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data generated. Results We obtained responses from 85 of 108 NHS staff (78.7% response rate). At least 6% (n?=?10) of the 168 English NHS Trusts have already implemented ePrescribing systems, 2% (n?=?4) have no plans of implementing, and 34% (n?=?55) are planning to implement with intended rapid implementation timelines driven by high expectations surrounding improved safety and efficiency of care. The majority are unclear as to which system to choose, but integration with existing systems and sophisticated decision support functionality are important decisive factors. Participants highlighted the need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as the need for top-level management support to adequately resource the project. Although some early benefits were reported by hospitals that had already implemented, the hoped for benefits relating to improved efficiency and cost-savings remain elusive due to a lack of system maturity. Conclusions Whilst few have begun implementation, there is considerable interest in ePrescribing systems with ambitious timelines amongst those hospitals that are planning implementations. In order to ensure maximum chances of realising benefits, there is a need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as increased financial resources to fund local activities.
Cresswell, Kathrin; Coleman, Jamie; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz
Three hundred and forty adults (including sports players, recreational exercisers, mediators and sedentary controls) completed three inventories purporting to measure cognitive and somatic aspects of anxiety. These were the Cognitive-Somatic AnxietyQuestionnaire (CSAQ) devised by Schwartz, Davidson & Goleman (Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 321-328, 1978), the Worry-Emotionality Scale (WES, Morris, Davis & Hutchens, Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 541-555, 1981) and the Lehrer-Woolfolk (1982) Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ). Factor analysis of the CSAQ and WES identified distinct cognitive and somatic anxiety factors in both inventories. Higher somatic than cognitive ratings were recorded on the CSAQ and WES, while the pattern was reversed on the LWASQ. The CSAQ can tentatively be recommended as a useful measure of these two anxiety components. We were unable to confirm an observation made previously in the literature that practice of meditation is associated with reduced cognitive anxiety, or that exercise is linked with lower somatic anxiety. PMID:2405835
Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Objective. To examine the sensitivity of 2 single-item questions compared with 2 longer questionnaires for screening depression and anxiety among patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Summary of Background Data. Psychosocial factors are frequently identified as risk factors for developing CLBP and as predictors for treatment, and questionnaires are often used to screen for this. Shorter instruments may be easier to use in clinical practice settings. Methods. A total of 564 patients with 2 to 10 months of at least 50% sickness absence due to nonspecific low back pain were assessed for depression and anxiety with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Single-item questions for depression and anxiety from the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory and 2 longer questionnaires, the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale and Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25, were compared with MINI results, considered the “gold standard” in this study. Sensitivity and specificity of single-item and longer questionnaires and receiver operating characteristic curves were compared. Results. According to MINI, the prevalence of anxiety disorders was 12% whereas that of depressive disorders was 4%. The screening questions showed 95% sensitivity and 56% specificity for depressive disorders and 68% sensitivity and 85% specificity for anxiety disorders. The longer questionnaire, HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale, showed 91% sensitivity and 85% specificity for depressive disorders and 58% sensitivity and 83% specificity for anxiety disorders. Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25 showed 86% sensitivity and 74% specificity for depressive disorders and 67% sensitivity and 87% specificity for anxiety disorders. For 3 of the anxiety disorders and 2 of the depressive disorders, a perfect sensitivity was found between the screening questions and MINI. Conclusions. A single-item screening question was sensitive for depression but less sensitive for anxiety. The screening questions further performed equal to 2 widely used questionnaires. Validation of these results in other populations and compared with other short-item screeners is needed. Level of Evidence: 3
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate predictors of non-adherence among psychiatric patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan, for follow-up with consultant psychiatrist.\\u000aMETHODS: A convenient sampleof psychiatric patients from Aga Khan University Hospital was enrolled between April and May, 2005. An interviewer assisted, standardized questionnaire was used for data collection. Patients with cognitive deficit or psychosis and those presenting for
This study aimed to provide an objective view of the relationship between the giving of information, anxiety and hospital admission. Previous research has suggested that patients are already anxious on admission to hospital and that any information given at this time may be forgotten easily or misunderstood. Forty patients listed for simple elective surgery participated in this study. Using an experimental design, subjects in the experimental group were interviewed and information given to them in their own home before admission and again on their first day in hospital. A state-trait anxietyquestionnaire was used to compare both groups. The resultant difference in the anxiety level shown between both groups on admission was found to be significant. PMID:9205339
Background: Regarding the close and continuous interaction of infertility staff with hopeless infertile couples and in the contrary the atmosphere of happiness especially in obstetric wards make a sense that considering anxiety and depression it would be a difference between these two wards. Objective: The objective of this study is the comparison of the rate of depression and anxiety between the two wards of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-correlation study based on cross-sectional method. 199 individuals who were the staff of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology wards in four provinces enrolled in this study through stratified sampling. Data collection was done by demographic questionnaire, Spiel Berger and Beck depression inventory tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA test. Results: The result showed the rate of anxiety in obstetrics and gynecology staff of Isfahan center (54.69±13.58) and depression rate had increased level in infertility staff of Shiraz center (14.94±10.87). Overall, there was significant correlation between anxiety, depression and work place (p=0.047, 0.008 respectively). According to ANOVA test, the mean value of anxiety level was higher in the staff of four obstetrics and gynecology centers and one infertility center Conclusion: As long as we know that infertile couples have little chance for success rate and obstetrics and gynecology wards patients have little risk of failure in treatment, it could be mentioned that the anxiety and depression in the staff are not correlated with the client illness. PMID:24799878
Background: Regarding the close and continuous interaction of infertility staff with hopeless infertile couples and in the contrary the atmosphere of happiness especially in obstetric wards make a sense that considering anxiety and depression it would be a difference between these two wards. Objective: The objective of this study is the comparison of the rate of depression and anxiety between the two wards of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-correlation study based on cross-sectional method. 199 individuals who were the staff of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology wards in four provinces enrolled in this study through stratified sampling. Data collection was done by demographic questionnaire, Spiel Berger and Beck depression inventory tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA test. Results: The result showed the rate of anxiety in obstetrics and gynecology staff of Isfahan center (54.69±13.58) and depression rate had increased level in infertility staff of Shiraz center (14.94±10.87). Overall, there was significant correlation between anxiety, depression and work place (p=0.047, 0.008 respectively). According to ANOVA test, the mean value of anxiety level was higher in the staff of four obstetrics and gynecology centers and one infertility center Conclusion: As long as we know that infertile couples have little chance for success rate and obstetrics and gynecology wards patients have little risk of failure in treatment, it could be mentioned that the anxiety and depression in the staff are not correlated with the client illness.
In an investigation of predictors of Y2K anxiety, 127 adults completed a questionnaire that assessed computer anxiety as well as several personality traits. It was hypothesized that Y2K anxiety would be associated with higher levels of trait anxiety, desire for control, intolerance of ambiguity, and computer anxiety. Religiosity, computer use, age, and gender were included as exploratory variables. Multiple regression
Susan B Goldstein; Erin A Dudley; Christina M Erickson; Noella L Richer
This meta-analysis reviewed existing data on the impact of work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care professionals. Work-related critical incidents may induce post-traumatic stress symptoms or even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression and may negatively affect health care practitioners' behaviors toward patients. Nurses and doctors often cope by working part time or switching jobs. Hospital administrators and health care practitioners themselves may underestimate the effects of work-related critical incidents. Relevant online databases were searched for original research published from inception to 2009 and manual searches of the Journal of Traumatic Stress, reference lists, and the European Traumatic Stress Research Database were conducted. Two researchers independently decided on inclusion and study quality. Effect sizes were estimated using standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Consistency was evaluated, using the I(2)-statistic. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Eleven studies, which included 3866 participants, evaluated the relationship between work-related critical incidents and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Six of these studies, which included 1695 participants, also reported on the relationship between work-related critical incidents and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Heterogeneity among studies was high and could not be accounted for by study quality, character of the incident, or timing of data collection. Pooled effect sizes for the impact of work-related critical incidents on post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression were small to medium. Remarkably, the effect was more pronounced in the longer than in the shorter term. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that work-related critical incidents are positively related to post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression in hospital-based health care professionals. Health care workers and their supervisors should be aware of the harmful effects of critical incidents and take preventive measures. PMID:21696873
de Boer, Jacoba; Lok, Anja; Van't Verlaat, Ellen; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Bakker, Arnold B; Smit, Bert J
Objectives Patient experience questionnaires have been criticised owing to the lack of supporting psychometric evidence. The objective of this study was to describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the Cancer Patient Experiences Questionnaire (CPEQ) in Norway. Design Questionnaire development was based on a literature review of existing questionnaires, patient interviews, expert-group consultations, pretesting of questionnaire items and a national survey. Psychometric evaluation included exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and tests of internal consistency reliability and test–retest reliability. Setting Data were collected using a postal survey of cancer patients attending 54 hospitals in all 4 health regions. The subjects were 14?227 adult cancer patients who had attended an outpatient clinic or who had been discharged from an inpatient ward. Patients with all types of cancer were included. Data quality, internal consistency reliability and construct validity were assessed. Results Of the 13?846 patients who received the CPEQ, 7212 (52%) responded. Exploratory factor analysis identified six scales of outpatient experiences relating to nurse contact, doctor contact, information, organisation, patient safety and contact with next of kin, and seven scales of inpatient experiences, with the addition of hospital standard to the aforementioned scales. All but two of the scales met the criterion of 0.70 for Cronbach's ? testing, and test–retest correlations ranged from 0.57 to 0.85. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the interpretation of six and seven scales for outpatients and inpatients, respectively. Statistically significant associations based on explicit hypotheses provided evidence for the construct validity of the scales. One additional scale measuring the hospital level was identified (?=0.85). Conclusions The CPEQ is a self-report instrument that includes the most important aspects of patient experiences with cancer care at hospitals. The instrument was tested following a national survey in Norway; good evidence is provided herein for the internal consistency reliability, test–retest reliability and construct validity.
Medical education in Japan has undergone significant reforms. Patient perspective and outcome have been highly valued in curricular reforms. Therefore, we evaluated an undergraduate curriculum particularly on communication skills by comparing outpatient satisfaction before and after the reforms implemented at Saga Medical School. Cross-sectional study was conducted at the General Medicine Clinic of Saga University Hospital in 1999 and 2009. A total of 729 newcomer patients evaluated 159 students; namely, 287 patients evaluated sixth-year medical students (n = 82) in 1999, and in 2009, 442 patients evaluated fifth-year medical students (n = 77). Students interviewed newcomer patients prior to a faculty's clinical examination. After a student-patient encounter, the patient was asked to fill in six-item Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) developed by the American Board of Internal Medicine. Mixed model two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with covariant of students' gender was conducted. Effect sizes were calculated to evaluate the amplitude of influence. The average score in 2009 was significantly higher than that in 1999 (3.63 ± 0.62 versus 3.36 ± 0.66; p < 0.001). Since the "encouraging and answering questions" and "clear explanations" were lower than those of the other items (3.24 ± 0.98 and 3.46 ± 0.85), these two items showed the most significant improvements (Phi coefficient = 0.31 and 0.24, p < 0.001). Thus, students' performance has improved since 1999, which may represent the success of curricular reforms at Saga Medical School. We propose that "encouraging and answering questions" and "clear explanations" should be emphasized in interview training. PMID:22075966
BACKGROUND: There have been no previous studies conducted in Pakistan comparing the concordance of any well established Western anxiety\\/depression screening instrument with an indigenous scale, in a community based setting. METHODS: Participants (n = 1040) in the present study were recruited from the six villages of our interest from the district Gujarat of Pakistan, using a convenient sampling technique. Interview
Aims: Alcohol-related disease represents a major burden on hospitals. However, it is unclear whether hospitals have developed the necessary expertise and guidelines to deal with this burden. The aim of this survey was to determine what measures general hospital NHS Trusts in England had in place to deal with alcohol-related problems, including the employment of dedicated alcohol specialist nurses. Methods:
Abstract Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has shown to cause high costs to society. Earlier research indicates that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) also causes high costs, but only limited data is available in varying settings. Aims: To analyse the secondary care costs of GAD compared with those of MDD. Methods: Retrospective database analysis from Finnish Hospital Discharge Registers (FHDR). All GAD and MDD patients diagnosed between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2007 in FHDR were recorded and individual-level secondary care costs during a 48-month follow-up period were measured. Results: The total mean cost of GAD with history of MDD or some other anxiety disorder was significantly higher than that of MDD with history of GAD or some other anxiety disorder during the 48-month follow-up period. The costs of pure GAD were comparable with those of pure MDD, but after adjusting for age and sex, the costs of pure MDD were higher than those of pure GAD. Conclusions: The economic burden of individual GAD patients is comparable with that of MDD patients in secondary care. PMID:23931684
Kujanpää, Tero; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Jokelainen, Jari; Linna, Miika; Timonen, Markku
Background: Stress is a part of the nursing profession and it is reflected in higher rates of depression and anxiety disorders. aim : This study aimed to determine the prevalence of major depression episodes (MDE), Dysthymia and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as well as their associated factors, in a representative sample of nurses in Sousse Farhat Hached teaching hospital, using the Tunisian version of CIDI. methods: It's a descriptive study, carried out among a representative sample of the nursing staff of Sousse Farhat Hached teaching hospital (N=228). The data obtained was the result of an interview using the CIDI sections related to MDD, dysthymia and GAD. Sociodemographic, medical and professional data were also collected. results: The MDE prevalence was estimated at 7.5% and was associated with the female gender, the remoteness of the workplace, the number of persons on the participant's charge, the personal antecedents of mental and organic pathologies, the job satisfaction related to internal relationships and security as well as with the wish to change position. The prevalence of Dysthymia was 5.7% and was associated with family antecedents of mental pathologies. The prevalence of TAG (4.4%) was associated with remoteness of the workplace, personal antecedents of mental pathologies and with satisfaction related to material conditions. Conclusion: The important issues of human and financial consequences of stress at work require the use of large-scale measures that should be incorporated into a strategy covering all factors and involving both health authorities and administrative occupational medicine. PMID:24879165
El Kissi, Y; Maarouf Bouraoui, M; Amamou, B; Bannour, A Souheil; Ben Romdhane, A; Ben Nasr, S; Ali, B Ben Hadj
Objective To assess the factorial structure and construct validity for the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2006 from adults in the Beijing area. The questionnaire consisted of sections to assess for participants' demographic profile and dental attendance patterns, the Chinese MDAS and the anxiety items from the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The analysis was conducted in two stages using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Cross validation was tested with a North West of England comparison sample. Results 783 questionnaires were successfully completed from Beijing, 468 from England. The Chinese MDAS consisted of two factors: anticipatory dental anxiety (ADA) and treatment dental anxiety (TDA). Internal consistency coefficients (tau non-equivalent) were 0.74 and 0.86 respectively. Measurement properties were virtually identical for male and female respondents. Relationships of the Chinese MDAS with gender, age and dental attendance supported predictions. Significant structural parameters between the two sub-scales (negative affectivity and autonomic anxiety) of the HADS anxiety items and the two newly identified factors of the MDAS were confirmed and duplicated in the comparison sample. Conclusion The Chinese version of the MDAS has good psychometric properties and has the ability to assess, briefly, overall dental anxiety and two correlated but distinct aspects.
Administered Death Anxiety Scale, Death Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Scale, and questionnaire assessing demographic and life-situation variables to 94 human immunodeficiency virus-infected gay men. Higher death anxiety and death depression were most highly correlated with state anxiety, trait anxiety,…
Questionnaire data from 2,033 participants in the National Anxiety Disorders Screening Day sample were used to assess the presence of panic and comorbid anxiety problems. These participants were selected from more than 15,000 attendees on the basis of never having received treatment for a psychiatric disorder and meeting screening criteria for panic disorder. With each comorbid anxiety problem (generalized anxiety
Joan Welkowitz; Lawrence A. Welkowitz; Elmer Struening; Fred Hellman; Mary Guardino
Although dental anxiety is a well investigated phenomenon in dental health care, remarkably little is known about anxiety reactions related to treatment carried out by the dental hygienist. In the present study anxiety reactions were measured among 101 patients attending the dental hygienist. General level of anxiety was assessed through the PAQ (Photo AnxietyQuestionnaire; STOUTHARD, DE JONGH & HOOGSTRATEN, 1991), whereas an additional questionnaire was used to obtain information about specific stimuli and situations that might provoke anxiety in the dental hygienist situation. The results indicated that during dental hygienist treatment only 15% of the patients experienced no feelings of anxiety. Another 15% of the patients reported that a visit to the dental hygienist was more distressing than dental treatment. The level of anxiety appeared to be strongly related to a number of stimuli and situations, with actual pain (78%) and expected pain (67%) major anxiety provoking factors. The relation between pain and anxiety was highly significant, with highly anxious patients having more fear for pain than their low anxious counterparts. Also feelings and sounds of instruments, patient's helplessness and perceived lack of control over what happens were identified as important contributors to anxiety for the dental hygienist treatment. The results of this study suggests that treatment by the dental hygienist is a distressing event for many patients. PMID:8485976
Background Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is regarded as core competence to improve healthcare quality. In the current study, we investigated the EBP of six groups of professionals: physicians, nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, technicians, and other allied healthcare personnel. Methods A structured questionnaire survey of regional hospitals throughout Taiwan was conducted by post in 2011. Questionnaires were mailed to all healthcare workers of 11 randomly selected hospitals. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors for implementing EBP. Results In total, 6,160 returned questionnaires, including 645 from physicians, 4,206 from nurses, 430 from pharmacists, 179 from physical therapists, 537 from technicians, and 163 from other allied healthcare professionals, were valid for the analysis. Physicians and pharmacists were more aware of EBP than were the other professional groups (p?0.001). Positive attitudes toward and beliefs in EBP were significantly lower among nurses than in the other groups (p?0.001). Physicians had more sufficient knowledge and skills of EBP than did the other professionals (p?0.001); in addition, they implemented EBP for clinical decision-making more often and perceived fewer personal barriers to EBP (p?0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that EBP implementation was associated with the following characteristics of participants: EBP training, having a faculty position, academic degree, one's profession, and perceptions (beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, skills and barriers). Conclusions This study depicts various levels of EBP implementation among medical, nursing, pharmacological, and allied healthcare personnel. There were significant differences in their implementation of EBP. We observed that certain factors were associated with EBP implementation, including personal backgrounds and perceptions toward EBP. The data suggest that strategies for enhancing EBP implementation should differ for various groups of professionals.
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by HospitalAnxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness.
Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A
Background The prevalence of depression and anxiety and its associated factors in cervical cancer are not well evaluated in China. Meanwhile, with increasing attention given to positive psychological variables in oncology field, there is a need to conduct a study to explore the integrative effects of positive psychological variables on depression/anxiety so as to provide patients a more holistic cancer care. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression/anxiety as well as the integrative effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy on depression/anxiety among Chinese cervical cancer patients. Methods A multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute and the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 224 cervical cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinic variables, HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and General Self-Efficacy Scale during February and August 2013. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 52.2% and 65.6% in cervical cancer patients. The anxiety score was significantly higher in patients at the period of 4–6 months after diagnose and at cancer stage II. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope, optimism and general self-efficacy as a whole accounted for 31.3% variance of depression and 35.6% variance of anxiety. Under standardized estimate (?) sequence, hope, optimism and general self-efficacy significantly associated with depression, respectively; hope and optimism were also significant individual predictors of anxiety. Conclusions The high prevalence of depression and anxiety among cervical cancer patients should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. More importantly, efforts to develop the integrated psychosocial interventions are effective and necessary to alleviate depression/anxiety in cervical cancer patients by synthesizing and integrating the individual protective effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy.
BACKGROUND Primary hyperhidrosis (PH) can lead to mood changes due to the inconveniences it causes. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine the existence of anxiety and depression in patients with severe primary hyperhidrosis who sought treatment at a medical office. METHODS The questionnaire "HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale" was used for 197 individuals, in addition to the chi square test and Fisher exact test, p <0.05. RESULTS There was an increased prevalence of anxiety (49.6%) but not of depression (11.2%) among patients with PH, with no link to gender, age or amount of affected areas. Palmar and plantar primary hyperhidrosis were the most frequent but when associated with the presence of anxiety, the most frequent were the axillary (p = 0.02) and craniofacial (p = 0.02) forms. There was an association between patients with depression and anxiety (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS the involvement of Primary hyperhidrosis was responsible for a higher prevalence of anxiety than that described among the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. Depression had a low prevalence rate, while mild and moderate forms were the most common and frequently associated with anxiety. The degree of anxiety was higher in mild and moderate types than in the severe form.
Braganca, Gleide Maria Gatto; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Pinto, Aloisio Ferreira; Marques, Lucas Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; Reis, Francisco Prado
Absence of an adequate reason for anxiety is a criterion for pathological anxiety. However, the presence of danger or fear-provoking stimuli may even be a risk factor for anxiety and does not exclude that there is additionally pathological anxiety too. The question is, to what degree can heart-related anxiety be explained by the severity of illness or trait anxiety? Two hundred and nine patients (37.8% women) from a cardiology inpatient unit completed the Heart-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Progression-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Job-Anxiety-Scale and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. The severity of cardiac illness was rated by the treating cardiologists using the Multidimensional Severity of Morbidity Rating. Time absent from work due to sickness was assessed as an indicator for illness-related impairment. Heart anxiety was significantly related to progression anxiety and, to a lesser extent, trait anxiety and indicators of subjective symptoms of somatic illness. No association was found with medical ratings for prognosis, multimorbidity, or reduction in life expectancy. Heart-related anxiety is a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Although partially dependent on subjective suffering, it cannot be explained by the severity of medical illness. Treatment of health-related anxieties should focus on how to cope with subjective symptoms of illness. PMID:23473360
Muschalla, Beate; Glatz, Johannes; Linden, Michael
Background As a part of nationwide healthcare reforms, the Chinese government launched web-based appointment systems (WAS) to provide a solution to problems around outpatient appointments and services. These have been in place in all Chinese public tertiary hospitals since 2009. Methods Questionnaires were collected from both patients and doctors in one large tertiary public hospital in Shanghai, China.Data were analyzed to measure their satisfaction and views about the WAS. Results The 1000 outpatients randomly selected for the survey were least satisfied about the waiting time to see a doctor. Even though the WAS provided a much more convenient booking method, only 17% of patients used it. Of the 197 doctors surveyed, over 90% thought it was necessary to provide alternative forms of appointment booking systems for outpatients. However, about 80% of those doctors who were not associated professors would like to provide an ‘on-the-spot’ appointment option, which would lead to longer waits for patients. Conclusions Patients were least satisfied about the waiting times. To effectively reduce appointment-waiting times is therefore an urgent issue. Despite the benefits of using the WAS, most patients still registered via the usual method of queuing, suggesting that hospitals and health service providers should promote and encourage the use of the WAS. Furthermore, Chinese health providers need to help doctors to take others’ opinions or feedback into consideration when treating patients to minimize the gap between patients’ and doctors’ opinions. These findings may provide useful information for both practitioners and regulators, and improve recognition of this efficient and useful booking system, which may have far-reaching and positive implications for China’s ongoing reforms.
We examined 182 patients with epilepsy using the evaluation of anamnesis, clinical and neurological examination, routine EEG and/or video-EEG-monitoring, MRI of the brain. The period of observation was 1-11 years (on average 2 years). Anxiety and depression symptoms were screened with the Hospitalanxiety and depression scale (HADS). Health-related quality of life was examined with the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE-31, version 1). The diagnosis was confirmed in 166 cases and nonepileptic seizures were diagnosed in 16 cases. Subclinical anxiety (8-10 HADS scores) was identified in 23 (12.6%), clinical anxiety (>10 scores) - in 47 (25.8%), subclinical depression (8-10 scores) - in 25 (13.7%) and clinical depression (>10 scores) - in 23 (12.6%) cases. Comorbidity of anxiety and depression was noted in 33 (18.1%) patients. The high level of anxiety was correlated with the young age and short duration of epilepsy. Anxiety (r=0.7; p<0.05) and depression (r=0.63; p<0.05) were significantly correlated with the poor quality of life. PMID:23739454
Sexual functioning is composed of both physiological and psychological factors among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the role of depression and anxiety has not yet been studied extensively. This study aimed to investigate the relation of depressive and anxiety symptoms to sexual functioning among hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis patients. A sample of 144 patients was recruited from three general hospitals in the broader area of Athens, consisting of 84 patients undergoing in-center HD and 60 patients in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Measurements were conducted with the following instruments: the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI 1/STAI 2), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The results indicated that satisfaction about sexual life had negative association with all the subscales of GHQ-28 questionnaire (somatic symptoms, anxiety/insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression). Sexual functioning was also related negatively to depression as well as state and trait anxieties. Findings provide evidence that the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms relates significantly to the negative evaluation of sexual functioning in patients with CKD. PMID:22099520
Questionnaire data were obtained from 5867 participants attending a national anxiety screening program. These participants were selected from more than 15,000 respondents on the basis of never having received treatment for a mental health problem. A screening instrument was designed to assess five anxiety disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder). The present
Lawrence A Welkowitz; Elmer L Struening; John Pittman; Mary Guardino; Joan Welkowitz
A questionnaire on the consciousness of new patients was conducted in Nippon Dental University Hospital. Following our prior report, items regarding dental prevention were asked to 196 subjects in the present case. The results are as follows. 1. 53.1% of the subjects had experienced scaling of the teeth. However only 15.4% of them had regularly scaling. 2. 62.8% of the subjects had been given guidance in brushing and 39.8% of them had used toothbrushes by themselves in the guidance. 3. 99.5% of the subjects brushed their teeth everyday. 58.5% of them brushed twice a day. Regarding the brushing period, "3 minutes" amounded the highest radio, 33.3%. 4. Regarding the major purpose of brushing, "prevention of oral diseases" amounted to 50.5%, followed by "unknown". Namely, 23.0% of the subjects had no definite purpose of brushing. This figure suggests that the awareness on brushing was unexpectedly low. 5. 85.7% of the subjects wanted to have oral sanitation guidance and oral health management. Among them. 59.5% wanted to have "regular examination". To the question "How often can you visit our hospital except treatment?", 48.2% of the subjects answered "twice or more per year", 41.1% "a day for each examination" and 53.6% answered "60 minutes per day". Among those who wanted to have oral sanitation guidance and oral health management, only 32.7% wanted to participate in our oral sanitation class. These results indicate that many patients want to have passive management but for would start action by themselves. Thus it is the most important for dentists to carry out sufficient education and guidance under these situations. PMID:2489301
Kobayashi, T; Ozawa, Y; Sato, M; Masaya, M; Uchikawa, Y; Tosaka, S; Uchikura, Y; Takahashi, K; Shibata, M; Noda, M
Objective: This study compared scores on the Anxious Thoughts & Tendencies (AT&T) questionnaire, a putative measure of a general anxiety-prone cognitive style, among patients with panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD, n=62), panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA, n=29), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, n=43), limited social phobia (LSP, n=34), generalized social phobia (GSP, n=33), and community residents (n=319). Method: Candidates for treatment
E. H Uhlenhuth; Vladan Starcevic; Teddy D Warner; William Matuzas; Teresita McCarty; Brian Roberts; Steven Jenkusky
Background Patients with morbid obesity have an increased risk for anxiety and depression. The "duodenal switch" is perhaps the most effective obesity surgery procedure for inducing weight loss. However, to our knowledge, data on symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch are lacking. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that self-reported physical health is the major predictor of symptoms of depression in patients with morbid obesity. We therefore investigated the symptoms of anxiety and depression before and after the duodenal switch procedure and whether post-operative changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of changes in these symptoms. Methods Data were assessed before surgery (n = 50), and one (n = 47) and two (n = 44) years afterwards. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed by the "HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale", and self-reported physical health was assessed by the "Short-Form 36" questionnaire. Linear mixed effect models were used to investigate changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Correlation and linear multiple regression analyses were used to study whether changes in self-reported physical health were predictive of post-operative changes in the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Results The symptom burden of anxiety and depression were high before surgery but were normalized one and two years afterwards (P < 0.001). The degree of improvement in self-reported physical health was associated with statistically significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.003) and depression (P = 0.004). Conclusions The novelty of this study is the large and sustained reductions in the symptoms of anxiety and depression after the duodenal switch procedure, and that these changes were closely associated with improvements in self-reported physical health.
Background Physicians’ poor mental health not only hinders their professional performance and affects the quality of healthcare provided but also adversely affects patients’ health outcomes. Few studies in China have evaluated the mental health of physicians. The purposes of this study are to quantify Chinese physicians’ anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as evaluate associated risk factors. Methods In our study, 2641 physicians working in public hospitals in Shenzhen in southern China were recruited and interviewed by using a structured questionnaire along with validated scales testing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results An estimated 25.67% of physicians had anxiety symptoms, 28.13% had depressive symptoms, and 19.01% had both anxiety and depressive symptoms. More than 10% of the participants often experienced workplace violence and 63.17% sometimes encountered it. Among our study population, anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with poor self-reported physical health, frequent workplace violence, lengthy working hours (more than 60 hours a week), frequent night shifts (twice or more per week), and lack of regular physical exercise. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that anxiety and depressive symptoms are common among physicians in China, and the doctor-patient relationship issue is particularly stressful. Interventions implemented to minimize workload, improve doctor-patient relationships, and assist physicians in developing healthier lifestyles are essential to combat anxiety and depressive symptoms among physicians, which may improve their professional performance.
Background: Anxiety is the most common psychological response of women to labor. Aromatherapy, i.e. the use of fragrant essential oils to stimulate the olfactory system, can create a state of calmness and help to alleviate anxiety. Objectives: The present study tried to determine the efficacy of aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium oil in reducing anxiety during the first stage of labor. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on two groups of pregnant women, referred to Vali-Asr Hospital (Tuyserkan, Iran) between June and September 2013. The sample size was comprised of 63 subjects in each group. Gauzes impregnated with 4 mL of C. aurantium distillate and normal saline were attached to the collar of subjects in the aromatherapy and control groups, respectively. The gauzes were changed every 30 minutes. The levels of anxiety in both groups were measured at baseline and after the intervention at dilations of 3-4 and 6-8 cm. The participants were followed up until delivery and the first- and fifth-minute Apgar scores were recorded. Data were collected using a demographic and obstetric characteristics questionnaire, an examination and observation checklist, and Spielberger state-trait anxietyquestionnaire. Data analysis was performed with independent-t, Mann-Whitney, and chi-square tests in SPSS-22. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Before the intervention, both groups had same levels of anxiety. However, the levels of anxiety at dilations of 3-4 and 6-8 cm were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group compared with the control group. Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed aromatherapy with C. aurantium blossom oil as a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and effective intervention to reduce anxiety during labor.
Namazi, Masoumeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Seddigheh; Mojab, Faraz; Talebi, Atefe; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Jannesari, Sharareh
Background To broaden the range of outcomes that we can measure for patients undergoing treatment for oncological and other chronic conditions, we aimed to validate a questionnaire measuring self-reported autonomic regulation (aR), i.e. to characterise a subject's autonomic functioning by questions on sleeping and waking, vertigo, morningness-eveningness, thermoregulation, perspiration, bowel movements and digestion. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 440 participants (?: N = 316, ?: N = 124): 95 patients with breast cancer, 49 with colorectal cancer, 60 with diabetes mellitus, 39 with coronary heart disease, 28 with rheumatological conditions, 32 with Hashimoto's disease, 22 with multiple morbidities and 115 healthy people. We administered the questionnaire a second time to 50.2% of the participants. External convergence criteria included the German version of the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), a short questionnaire on morningness-eveningness, the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ) and a short version questionnaire on self-regulation. Results A principal component analysis yielded a three dimensional 18-item inventory of aR. The subscales orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation had internal consistency (Cronbach-?: r? = 0.65 – 0.75) and test-retest reliability (rrt = 0.70 – 85). AR was negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and dysmenorrhoea but positively correlated to HLQ, self-regulation and in part to morningness (except digestive aR) (0.49 – 0.13, all p < 0.05). Conclusion An internal validation of the long-version scale of aR yielded consistent relationships with health versus illness, quality of life and personality. Further studies are required to clarify the issues of external validity, clinical and physiological relevance.
Kroz, M; Feder, G; von Laue, HB; Zerm, R; Reif, M; Girke, M; Matthes, H; Gutenbrunner, C; Heckmann, C
Increased information on dentistry in the mass media in recent years may have caused changes in patients' attitudes toward dental care. To better understand patient' attitudes, we conducted a questionnaire survey of patients on the first visit to our hospital. Of 384 responses, 196 were eligible for statistical analysis. The following findings were obtained. 1. Among the motives for visiting a dental clinic, "Manifestation of pain or symptoms" was given by majority (85.7%) of respondents, followed by "detection of abnormality" (20.4%). The percentage of patients wanting treatment of "any part suggested by the dentist" was highest (35.7%), followed by those expecting "treatment including cleaning" (30.1%). The above results indicate that patients still tend to visit a clinical after subjective symptoms appear and leave the content of treatment to the dentist. However, an increasing number of patients appear to be concerned with their oral condition and visit a clinic before manifestation of symptoms. 2. Among factors in selecting their dentist, "expertise" obtained the highest percentage, 87.2%, followed by "providing prompt treatment" (38.8%) and "trying to avoid pain" (32.1%), in that order. Dissatisfaction with dentists was described as "no explanation of treatment" in 57.1%, "lack of sympathetic attitude" in 38.3% and "easily resorts to tooth extraction" in 35.4%. These results suggest that patients expect good human relations with their dentists, sufficient explanations of treatments and sympathetic consideration, as well as expertise. 3. The majority of patients (85.7%) hoped to receive instructions on oral hygiene and to be increased interest in information above prophylaxis. Meeting their needs will remain a future issue for dentists. PMID:2489300
Ozawa, Y; Kobayashi, T; Sato, M; Masaya, M; Uchikawa, Y; Tosaka, S; Uchikura, Y; Takahashi, K; Shibata, M; Noda, M
Objectives: To assess the performance of four self-report measures of anxiety in an older adult population.Method: Forty older adults with current or previous anxiety symptoms completed four self-report measures of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale and Visual Analogue Scale) and received an independent diagnostic assessment and rating of anxiety severity. After a
Introduction: Admission of a family member to hospital would cause stress on other family members also. One of the most stressful treatment interventions imposing high level of anxiety to the families of patients is when the patients are undergoing a surgery, especially a cardiac surgery. So, we decided to investigate whether recommended Azkar could reduce stress, anxiety, and depression in families of the patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study conducted on 120 immediate relatives of patients undergoing a cardiac surgery. Families of patients undergoing open heart surgery were randomly divided into two groups of study and control. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales (DASS 21) questionnaires were completed by both groups. Then, some explanations about how to use recommended prayers were given to the study group, and an hour later, the questionnaires were completed again. The data were analyzed by SPSS. P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Stress, anxiety, and depression showed a significant difference in the study group before and after intervention. Similarly, there was a significant difference in the mean scores of anxiety, stress, and depression in the study and control groups after intervention. Conclusions: Findings of the present study showed that recommended religious prayers can significantly reduce anxiety, depression, and stress of families of the patients undergoing open heart surgery.
Purpose This study examined anxiety and depression among 108 North Korean adolescent and young adult (age, 12-29 years) defectors who settled in South Korea, and evaluated the relationship between their mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Materials and Methods Subjects completed a questionnaire that included the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Short Form with 36 questions (SF-36; consists of mental and physical health components) for measuring HRQoL, and items related to the period of time since defection and settlement and socio-demographic variables. Results Among the participants, 53.7% scored?8 on the anxiety measure questionnaire, and 22.2% scored?11; 36.1% of the participants scored?8 on the depression measure questionnaire and 14.8% scored?11. Both anxiety and depression subscales were associated with lower scores of total SF-36, physical component and mental component score. Depressive symptom appeared more frequently among the subjects who had lived in South Korea for <1 year than among the subjects who had lived in South Korea for 2 year or longer (odds ratio=3.77, 95% confidence intervals=1.12 to 12.70). Conclusion Among North Korean adolescent and young adult defectors, anxiety and depression were associated with lower HRQoL. Therefore, it is needed to develop strategies to screen for mental health and intervene to reduce anxiety and depression during their early resettlement stage.
The articles in this journal issue examine the characteristics of student writing apprehension, and teaching methods to alleviate it. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Writing Anxiety: Reasons and Reduction Techniques" (Helen R. Heaton and Pauline M. Pray); (2) "Writing Anxiety and the Gifted Student Writer" (De…
Objectives Illness is often associated with anxiety, but few data exist about the prognostic significance of this phenomenon. To address this issue, we assessed whether patient anxiety is associated with subsequent need for intubation in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Design Incident case-cohort study. Setting Acute secondary care in a teaching hospital (France) from 2006 to 2010. Participants 110 adult GBS patients. Either language barrier or cognitive decline that precluded understanding was considered as exclusion criteria. Primary outcome Acute respiratory failure. Interventions At admission, anxiety and clinical factors (including known predictors of respiratory failure: delay between GBS onset and admission, inability to lift head, vital capacity (VC)) were assessed and related to subsequent need for mechanical ventilation (MV). Anxiety was assessed using a Visual Analogical Scale (VAS), the State Anxiety Inventory form Y1 (STAI-Y1) score and a novel-specific questionnaire, evaluating fears potentially triggered by GBS. Patients were asked to choose which they found most stressful from weakness, pain, breathlessness and uncertainty. Results 23 (22%) were subsequently ventilated. Mean STAI-Y1 was 47.2 (range 22–77) and anxiety VAS 5.2 (range 0–10). STAI was above 60/80 in 22 (21%) patients and anxiety VAS above 7/10 in 28 (27%) patients. Fear of remaining paralysed, uncertainty as to how the disease would progress and fear of intubation were the most stressful. Factors significantly associated with anxiety were weakness and bulbar dysfunction. STAI-Y1 was higher and uncertainty more frequent in subsequently ventilated patients, who had shorter onset-admission delay and greater weakness but not a lower VC. Uncertainty was independently associated with subsequent MV. Conclusions Early management of patients with GBS should evaluate anxiety and assess its causes both to adjust psychological support and to anticipate subsequent deterioration.
Mexican-American adults and adolescents in general have been reported to have high levels of anxiety symptomatology. In our study of a tri-ethnic sample of 2528 junior and senior high school students, the Youth Self Report (YSR) version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a sociodemographic questionnaire was used to assess the anxiety symptoms of Hispanic youth. We compared the
Saundra H. Glover; Andres J. Pumariega; Charles E. Holzer; Brian K. Wise; Moises Rodriguez
Anxiety disorder (AD) often is under diagnosed and under treated in older adults, especially when the clinical presentation of anxiety. Symptoms often overlap with medical conditions. Of all the anxiety disorders in later life, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed. AD is often comorbid with depression. AD is associated with excess disability. Anxiety in older adults has traditionally been treated pharmacology, often with benzodiazepine. However, the clinical recommendations for pharmacologic treatment actually have been much broader, including suggestions to consider serotonergic antidepressants. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin nor epinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) generally are safe and procedure fewer side effects compared with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), in older patients. Effective treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, and complementary and alternative therapies. Late life AD is associated with substantial impairments in quality of life. Effective treatment for AD may be one of the most predictors of improvement of QOL. PMID:24261208
Background Cancer diagnosis among children can cause high stress and anxiety in parents, and they may lose their life expectancy. The present study investigated the effectiveness of Logo therapy on anxiety and depression among mothers of children with cancer. Materials and Methods This study was conducted by a semi-pilot method using pre-test and post-test with a control experimental group. Therapy sessions were held during 9 sessions of Logo therapy training for 90 minutes. The participants of this study were selected among 30 mothers of children with cancer and using sampling method in Yazd hospitals. The participants divided randomly into two groups: experimental and control. Participants in both experimental and control group completed questionnaires on Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory before and after training. Results The results showed that the index of depression and anxiety in control and experimental groups are 32.3, 6.63, 7.4 and 6.75, respectively. So, the level among the experimental group has been decreased after intervention of Logotherapy training and a significant difference occurred in the pre-post test stages. The results showed that Logo Therapy has a significant effect in reducing anxiety and depression among mothers of children with cancer (p<0.05). Conclusion Regarding the efficiency of this approach to reduce anxiety and depression among mothers, this treatment is recommended to be practiced beside other cancer therapies, so they can practice the treatment process with a better mood and mentality.
In order to place research on social anxiety in proper perspective, the factors actually measured by social anxiety scales must be examined. Five social anxiety scales and four personality questionnaires were administered to college undergraduates (N=78). Factor analyses of the data revealed two distinct factors. The first factor, to which…
Correlation of anxiety and motivation was studied by means of questionnaire. The results show that inner interest motivation and effort intensity are significantly and negatively correlated with anxiety while achievement motivation. Learning context motivation is significantly and positively correlated with anxiety. Pedagogic implications are given according to the findings of study, like developing students' interest in English language and its
BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) integrate physical, psychological, and social factors when assessing patients, particularly those with chronic diseases. Recently, the emphasis has been on assessment of depression but not of other factors. AIM: To determine functional disability, psychological morbidity, social situation, and use of health and social services in patients with osteoarthritis and examine GP knowledge of these factors. METHOD: Two hundred patients completed a validated postal questionnaire about functional disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ]), mood (HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale [HAD]), employment status, who they lived with, welfare benefits received, and use of health and social services. A similar questionnaire was completed by the patient's GP, including a HAQ. However, a three-point scale was used to assess depression and anxiety. RESULTS: Forty-seven per cent of patients were moderately or severely disabled (HAQ > 1). GPs underestimated functional disability: mean patient HAQ = 1.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92-1.16), mean GP HAQ = 0.74 (95% CI = 0.65-0.83), and there was low correlation between patient and GP scores (kappa = 0.24). There was moderate prevalence of depression and high prevalence of anxiety, which the GP often did not recognise: patient depression = 8.3% (95% CI = 4.1%-12.8%), GP depression = 6.0% (95% CI = 2.4%-9.6%), kappa = 0.11; patient anxiety = 24.4% (95% CI = 17.8%-31.0%), GP anxiety = 11.9% (95% CI = 6.9%-16.9%), kappa = 0.19. Only 46% of severely disabled patients (HAQ > 2) were receiving disability welfare benefits. GPs were often unaware of welfare benefits received or the involvement of other professionals. CONCLUSION: GPs frequently lack knowledge about functional disability, social factors, and anxiety as well as depression in their patients with osteoarthritis.
Background: Medical education & medical profession are among the most challenging and most stressful ones. Anxiety and depression represents an escalating public health problem among medical students. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence & predictors of anxiety and depression among female medical students in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during 2010–2011. A stratified random sample method was used to select 450 medical students. A confidential, anonymous & self administered questionnaire included Standardized HospitalAnxiety & Depression Scale was used. Results: The mean scores for anxiety and depression were 9.32 ± 3.77 & 6.59 ± 3.62, respectively. There is a positive correlation between anxiety & depression scores (r= 0.52, P< 0.001). Prevalence of morbid anxiety and depression were 34.9% and 14.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the first predictor of morbid anxiety was depression (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 3.28; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.85–5.82, P < 0.001). Students complained from condensed academic course, had academic and emotional failures during the 6 months preceded the study were about 2 times more prone to anxiety. Predictors of depression were having anxiety, nationality (being non-Saudi) & having emotional failure. Conclusion: Medical students encountered high rates of anxiety & depression compared to others. Academic problems and major life events were the main predictors. Enhancing faculty preventive & curative mental health services is recommended. Initiation of stress management courses & enhancing academic advising services are required since the start of medical education.
IBRAHIM, Nahla; AL-KHARBOUSH, Dania; EL-KHATIB, Lamis; AL-HABIB, Ahd; ASALI, Dana
This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…
Imagery has been proposed to be an effective strategy for controlling levels of competitive anxiety, but little b known about how imagery functions to achieve this. This study explored the relationship between imagery use. imagery ability. competitive anxiety and performance. Fifty-seven Junior North American Roller Skating Championship competitors completed the revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ-R), the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ),
... trigger a fear or anxiety response. The emotional memories stored in the central part of the amygdala ... of the brain that encodes threatening events into memories. Studies have shown that the hippocampus appears to ...
Background Internalizing psychopathology, anxiety in particular, is assumed to contribute to the development of gender Identity disorder\\u000a (GID). Until now, anxiety has only been reported in studies using parent-report questionnaires; physiological correlates of\\u000a anxiety have not been studied. In this study we assessed anxiety and stress in children with GID by measuring their cortisol,\\u000a heart rate (HR) and skin conductance levels
Madeleine S. C. Wallien; Stephanie H. M. van Goozen; Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis
This study examined the degree to which anxiety symptoms among children cluster into subtypes of anxiety problems consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) classification of anxiety disorders. Two community samples of 698 children 8-12 years of age completed a questionnaire regarding the frequency with which they experienced a wide range of anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor
It has been proposed that high anxiety sensitivity amplifies a number of fears and anxiety reactions. The purpose of this study was to examine whether anxiety sensitivity influences pain-related anxiety and associated cognitive and affective reactions in patients with physically unexplained chronic back pain. Seventy patients with chronic back pain without demonstrable organic pathology completed a battery of questionnaires prior
Clinical symptoms of 32 stutterers--schoolchildren of 14-year average age were evaluated according to the questionnaire containing 45 complaints of tetanic syndrome. We found headache, fatigue, anxiety, paresthesias and hypothermia of limbs in 30 per cent of this group. More than 80 per cent of the patients had positive Chvostek sign and 60 per cent had positive ischemic and hyperventilation tests. PMID:1838877
Purpose There is a high level of over-referral from primary eye care leading to significant numbers of people without ocular pathology (false positives) being referred to secondary eye care. The present study used a psychometric instrument to determine whether there is a psychological burden on patients due to referral to secondary eye care, and used Rasch analysis to convert the data from an ordinal to an interval scale. Design Cross sectional study. Participants and Controls 322 participants and 80 control participants. Methods State (i.e. current) and trait (i.e. propensity to) anxiety were measured in a group of patients referred to a hospital eye department in the UK and in a control group who have had a sight test but were not referred. Response category analysis plus infit and outfit Rasch statistics and person separation indices were used to determine the usefulness of individual items and the response categories. Principal components analysis was used to determine dimensionality. Main Outcome Measure Levels of state and trait anxiety measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results State anxiety scores were significantly higher in the patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls (p<0.04), but similar for trait anxiety (p>0.1). Rasch analysis highlighted that the questionnaire results needed to be split into “anxiety-absent” and “anxiety-present” items for both state and trait anxiety, but both subscales showed the same profile of results between patients and controls. Conclusions State anxiety was shown to be higher in patients referred to secondary eye care than the controls, and at similar levels to people with moderate to high perceived susceptibility to breast cancer. This suggests that referral from primary to secondary eye care can result in a significant psychological burden on some patients.
Davey, Christopher J.; Harley, Clare; Elliott, David B.
Objective. Morbidity and mortality among Roma due to coronary heart disease (CHD) is high, but evidence on potential psychosocial pathways is lacking. This study aimed to assess the differences in the severity of anxiety symptoms and in the sense of coherence (SOC) between Roma and non-Roma CHD patients, crude and adjusted for age, sex, functional status and socio-economic status (SES). Design. We examined 607 CHD patients (mean age 58.0 ± 7.4, 28.7% female) scheduled for coronary angiography, 98 (16.1%) of whom were Roma. Anxiety symptoms were measured using the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale and SOC using the 13-item Orientation to Life Questionnaire. Data were analysed using hierarchical regression. Results. Roma ethnicity was associated with more severe anxiety (B = 1.89; [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.79; 2.98]) adjusted for age, sex, functional status and SES. Roma ethnicity was also associated with lower SOC (B = -4.77; [95% CI = -7.85; -1.68]) adjusted for age, sex and functional status. The latter association lost statistical significance after adjustment for SES. Conclusion. Roma ethnicity is associated with more anxiety symptoms and lower SOC among CHD patients. Our findings indicate that Roma CHD patients have a worse position regarding psychosocial factors that increase mortality and thus require additional attention. PMID:24117176
Silarova, Barbora; Nagyova, Iveta; Van Dijk, Jitse P; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
Background Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common among family members of ICU patients and are culturally dependent. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and associated factors in family members of ICU patients in two Central European countries. Methods We conducted a prospective multicenter study involving 22 ICUs (250 beds) in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of ICU patients. Family member understanding of the patient’s condition was assessed using a structured interview and a questionnaire was used to assess satisfaction with family member/ICU staff communication. Results Twenty two intensive care units (both adult and pediatric) in academic medical centers and community hospitals participated in the study. During a 6 month period, 405 family members of 293 patients were enrolled. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms – 78% and 54%, respectively. Information leaflets distributed to family members did not lower incidences of anxiety/depression. Family members with symptoms of depression reported higher levels of satisfaction according to the modified Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. Extended contact between staff and family members was the only related factor associated with anxiety reduction (p?=?0.001). Conclusion Family members of ICU patients in East European countries suffer from symptoms of anxiety and depression. We identified limited family member/ICU staff communication as an important health care professional-related factor associated with a higher incidence of symptoms of anxiety. This factor is potentially amenable to improvement and may serve as a target for proactive intervention proactive intervention.
Anxiety caused by conscious and unconscious fears of death and dying is the focus of 26 essays by 37 authors. The attitudes among the aged, the attitudes among the general population toward aging, and the attitudes among the chronically or terminally ill ...
AIM: To compare anxiety and depression levels in adult patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) with controls. METHODS: The levels of anxiety, depression and of a probable anxiety or depressive disorder were assessed by the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale in 441 adult patients with CD recruited by the German Celiac Society, in 235 age- and
Winfried Häuser; Karl-Heinz Janke; Bodo Klump; Michael Gregor; Andreas Hinz; Klinikum Saarbrücken
Introduction: To assess anxiety levels in mothers with low-risk pregnancies before and after offering routine serum screening. Methods: A prospective study was carried out at the Kandang Kerbau Women's and Children's Hospital in Singapore from February 2000 to August 2000. We used standard statistical analysis and Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) which consists of 40 items to assess anxiety. Anxiety
This study examined implicit and explicit anxiety in individuals with epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs) and explored whether these constructs were related to experiential avoidance and seizure frequency. Based on recent psychological models of PNESs, it was hypothesized that nonepileptic seizures would be associated with implicit and explicit anxiety and experiential avoidance. Explicit anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; implicit anxiety was measured by an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure; and experiential avoidance was measured with the Multidimensional Experiential Avoidance Questionnaire. Although both groups with epilepsy and PNESs scored similarly on implicit measures of anxiety, significant implicit-explicit anxiety discrepancies were only identified in patients with PNESs (p<.001). In the group with PNESs (but not in the group with epilepsy), explicit anxiety correlated with experiential avoidance (r=.63, p<.01) and frequency of seizures (r=.67, p<.01); implicit anxiety correlated with frequency of seizures only (r=.56, p<.01). Our findings demonstrate the role of implicit anxiety in PNESs and provide additional support for the contribution of explicit anxiety and experiential avoidance to this disorder. PMID:24632427
Dimaro, Lian V; Dawson, David L; Roberts, Nicole A; Brown, Ian; Moghaddam, Nima G; Reuber, Markus
Although clinical observations suggest that health-related anxiety is present, to some extent, in a number of anxiety disorders, this relationship has not been examined empirically. The present study therefore utilized the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) to elucidate the structure of such symptoms among patients with anxiety disorders and to…
Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.
Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substance abuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substance abuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS), and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were used. Results Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (? = 0.57). The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (? = 0.61). Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Conclusions Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substance abuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems.
This study measured parental anxiety before, during, and after elective dental procedures under general anesthesia using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxietyquestionnaire. State anxiety started relatively high before the procedures, peaked immediately after induction using general anesthesia, and dropped during recovery to below the initial score. Parents, whose children were premedicated and fathers in general, had significantly higher anxiety immediately after induction. This study supports interventions to lower anxiety of the parents as well as that of children. PMID:14604149
Background To investigate whether anxiety and depression levels are associated with Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) induction in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods The design was cross-sectional. Clinical activity was assessed by the Rachmilewitz Index (CAI). Three psychometric questionnaires were used: Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS), Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Colon biopsies were obtained from each affected anatomical site. Severity of inflammation was assessed by eosin/hematoxylin. Constitutive (HSP70c) and inducible (HSP70i) HSP70 expression were immunohistochemically studied. Results 29 UC patients were enrolled (69% men). Mean age was 46.5 years (SD: 19.5). Inflammation severity was moderate in 17 patients, severe in 6, and mild in 6. The mean number of years since diagnosis was 7.9 (SD: 6.5). The mean CAI was 6.4 (SD: 3.1). In active UC, there was downregulation of HSP70c in inflamed epithelium, without significant HSP70 induction. In 22/29 cases of active cryptitis, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) clearly expressed HSP70i, with weak, focal positivity in the other 7 cases. Except for the hospitalanxiety scale, scores in all psychometric tools were higher in patients with strong HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN. Logistic regression showed a strong positive relationship between HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN cells and scores in the trait anxiety, ZDRS, and hospital depression scales, (Odds ratios 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5; P?=?0.018, 0.023, and 0.038; Wald test, 5.6, 5.2, and 4.3 respectively) and a weaker but significant positive correlation with the CAI (Odds ratio 1.654; P?=?0.049; Wald test 3.858). Conclusion HSP70 is induced in PMN cells of UC patients and its induction correlates with depression and anxiety levels.
Using a theoretical model of foreign language anxiety, this study of 96 college students of Japanese examines how language anxiety is related to Japanese language learning. Results suggest factors other than test anxiety, e.g., speech anxiety, fear of failing, and negative attitudes toward the class. A questionnaire is included. (Contains 63…
Anxiety is one of the most widely observed and extensively studied psychological concomitants of stuttering. Research conducted prior to the turn of the century produced evidence of heightened anxiety in people who stutter, yet findings were inconsistent and ambiguous. Failure to detect a clear and systematic relationship between anxiety and stuttering was attributed to methodological flaws, including use of small sample sizes and unidimensional measures of anxiety. More recent research, however, has generated far less equivocal findings when using social anxietyquestionnaires and psychiatric diagnostic assessments in larger samples of people who stutter. In particular, a growing body of research has demonstrated an alarmingly high rate of social anxiety disorder among adults who stutter. Social anxiety disorder is a prevalent and chronic anxiety disorder characterised by significant fear of humiliation, embarrassment, and negative evaluation in social or performance-based situations. In light of the debilitating nature of social anxiety disorder, and the impact of stuttering on quality of life and personal functioning, collaboration between speech pathologists and psychologists is required to develop and implement comprehensive assessment and treatment programmes for social anxiety among people who stutter. This comprehensive approach has the potential to improve quality of life and engagement in everyday activities for people who stutter. Determining the prevalence of social anxiety disorder among children and adolescents who stutter is a critical line of future research. Further studies are also required to confirm the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in treating social anxiety disorder in stuttering. Educational Objectives: The reader will be able to: (a) describe the nature and course of social anxiety disorder; (b) outline previous research regarding anxiety and stuttering, including features of social anxiety disorder; (c) summarise research findings regarding the diagnostic assessment of social anxiety disorder among people who stutter; (d) describe approaches for the assessment and treatment of social anxiety in stuttering, including the efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy; and (e) outline clinical implications and future directions associated with heightened social anxiety in stuttering. PMID:24929468
The psychometric properties of a questionnaire developed to assess symptoms of anxiety disorders (SCARED-71) were compared between two groups of children: children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders (ASD-group; "n" = 115), and children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; "n" = 122).…
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Deutschman, Amber A. C. G.; Bögels, Susan M.
We use a simple method for evaluating antioxidative status, by measuring the redox potential of urine, and correlate the findings with measures of anxiety and depression. We include 63 individuals (28 males and 35 females aged between 20 and 65 years). The validated anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and the validated BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) questionnaire were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Antioxidative status was determined by measuring the redox potential of urine collected in standard conditions. Correlation of the antioxidant capacity of urines evaluated using the ferric ion/specific dye method or through redox potential using the platinum electrode demonstrated the suitability of this last procedure. We found that normal anxiety state values corresponded to low urine redox potentials, whereas higher anxiety states were associated with high urinary redox potential. We also found that individuals with normal BDI values had significantly lower urine redox potentials than individuals with higher BDI values.
Grases, G.; Colom, M. A.; Fernandez, R. A.; Costa-Bauza, A.; Grases, F.
Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Isfahan hospitals in 2012. To measure the SA, sleep quality, visual fatigue and thermal comfort, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire and thermal comfort questionnaire were used respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, student test and correlation analysis. Results: Correlation between SA and sleep quality was ?0.664(P < 0001), Pearson correlation between SA and thermal comfort was ?0.276(P = 0.016) and between SA and eye fatigue was 0.57 (P < 0001). Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that improvement of thermal conditions and reduce state anxiety level can be reduce eye fatigue and increase the sleep quality in shift work nurses.
Little is known about the anxiety patients experience before attending for dental treatment. The aim of this study was to determine, in dentally phobic patients, the temporal relationship of pre-operative anxiety levels, and the disruption to daily life caused by this. Twenty-four phobic and 19 comparison (non-phobic) dental patients were recruited. Four validated questionnaires were used to assess anxiety and
N. P. Crofts-Barnes; E. Brough; K. E. Wilson; A. J. Beddis; N. M. Girdler
A questionnaire survey about the public's image of radiation was performed after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. The survey was taken by general citizens (200 and 1640 in Fukushima and 52 outside of Fukushima) and doctors (63 in Fukushima and 1942 outside of Fukushima (53 in Oita, 44 in Sagamihara and 1,845 in Kitakyushu)) in and outside of Fukushima and second year medical students in the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan. The questionnaire surveys were performed during lectures about radiation. The response rates were 86% for the general citizens in Fukushima, 91% for the general citizens outside of Fukushima, 86% for doctors in Fukushima, and 85% and 86% for doctors in Sagamihara and Oita, respectively. The questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Fukushima where the general citizens answered with a response rate of 50%. When the questionnaire surveys were sent to clinics and hospitals in Kitakyushu, doctors answered, with a response rate of 17%. The percentages of anxiety about future radiation effects after the FDNPP accident were the highest among the general citizens (71.6% in Fukushima and 40.4% outside of Fukushima), in the middle among the doctors (30.2% in Fukushima and 26.2% outside of Fukushima) and the lowest among the medical students (12.2%). The doctors in Fukushima and the medical students were anxious about food and soil pollution. The general citizens and the doctors outside of Fukushima were anxious about health problems and food and soil pollution. We concluded that a high level of education about radiation decreased the anxiety about the radiation effects. It is important to spread knowledge about radiation. PMID:22428463
The primary purpose of this study is to examine relationships among social cognition, social anxiety, and social skills with friends and strangers in children. Ninety-two children (age 10-14 years) in Iceland completed questionnaires on social anxiety, social skills, assertiveness, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy in social situations with…
To make a dimensional assessment of personality in individuals with pathological anxiety, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was administered to 32 patients with panic disorder (PD) and 49 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The most striking findings were a substantially increased score on the harm avoidance dimension in both groups of patients, and a lack of significant differences between
Vladan Starcevic; E. H. Uhlenhuth; Stephanie Fallon; Dorothy Pathak
Although mental disorders are frequent among dermato- logical patients, little is known about their recognition by dermatologists. This study aimed to assess dermato- logists' ability to recognize depressive and anxiety disorders. All adult outpatients who visited four dermatologists on predetermined days (n~317) com- pleted the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ- 12) and the section on depressive and anxiety disorders of
Angelo Picardi; Paolo Amerio; Giannandrea Baliva; Claudio Barbieri; Patrizia Teofoli; Simone Bolli; Valentina Salvatori; Eva Mazzotti; Paolo Pasquini; Damiano Abeni
We aimed to investigate anxiety, depression and sexual satisfaction levels of testicular cancer survivors (TCSs) and compare the scores with healthy men's. The HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) and European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Questionnaires Quality of Life-C30 were used. Forty-one TCSs and thirty-eight healthy men were participated in this study. The total HADs scores of TCSs (12.21 ± 8.19) were less than the healthy group (14.44 ± 6.53; p > 0.05). The high depression scores rate was 29.2 and 55.2, and high anxiety scores rate was 24.4 and 28.9 for TCSs and healthy group, respectively. When we evaluated GRISS subscores and anxiety levels, we found significantly increase only in avoidance subscores in the TCSs (p = 0.04). When we evaluated GRISS subscores and depression levels, GRISS subscores of the TCSs who had high depression scores were also high. However, statistical significance was found in satisfaction (p = 0.009), touch (p = 0.04), avoidance (p = 0.01) and erectile dysfunction (p = 0.04) subscores in the TCSs. In the TCSs whose anxiety scores were high, emotional functioning (p = 0.009) and global QoL (p = 0.01) subscores of GRISS was found significantly low. In the TCSs whose depression scores were high, physical (p = 0.01), cognitive (p = 0.04), emotional (p = 0.03), social functioning (p = 0.02) and global QoL (p < 0.001) subscores of GRISS were found significantly low. Anxiety, depression and sexual satisfaction levels of TCSs were found to be similar with the control population. PMID:24913808
BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands, no self-report screening questionnaire for anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) was available yet. Therefore, we have translated the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID) into Dutch and studied its reliability and validity in adults with borderline, mild or moderate ID. METHOD: Test-retest reliability was studied in 66 participants, convergent validity against the Anxiety sub-scale of the Hospital, Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A) in 96, and criterion validity against psychiatric diagnosis in 195 participants. RESULTS: Internal consistency was ??=?0.86 and test-retest reliability ICC?=?0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.93). Correlation with the HADS-A was r?=?0.61 (95% CI: 0.47-0.72); sensitivity was 83.9% (95% CI: 72.2-91.2) and specificity was 51.8% (95% CI: 43.6-59.9) using a cut-off score of 17. Missed diagnoses (false-negatives) were mostly specific phobias. Of the false-positives, 38 of 66 participants (58%) had another psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The Dutch version of the GAS-ID is a reliable screening instrument with satisfactory sensitivity, but moderate specificity for anxiety disorders. Although specificity for anxiety disorders is only moderate, high scores appear to be indicative of other psychiatric problems too, justifying referral for psychiatric assessment of false-positives. PMID:23046166
Hermans, H; Wieland, J; Jelluma, N; Van der Pas, F; Evenhuis, H
A longitudinal study of first-year college students and seniors was conducted in order to investigate the relationships between parental separation anxiety and adolescent identity development. Data was collected from mothers, fathers, and adolescents in the autumn and again in the spring. Mothers and fathers completed the parental separation anxietyquestionnaire with two subscales, Comfort with Secure Base Role, and Anxiety
The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety…
The study described here aimed to examine the relations between test anxiety, competence beliefs and achievement goals, and in particular if the relations between competence beliefs and test anxiety were moderated by achievement goals. Pupils in their first year of secondary schooling completed self-report questionnaires for test anxiety,…
Objective To determine the effects on independence in older people needing rehabilitation in a locality based community hospital compared with care on a ward for elderly people in a district general hospital. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Care in a community hospital and district general hospital in Bradford, England. Participants 220 patients needing rehabilitation after an acute illness that required hospital admission. Interventions Patients were randomly allocated to a locality based community hospital or to remain within a department for the care of elderly people in a district general hospital. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were Nottingham extended activities of daily living scale and general health questionnaire 28 (carer). Secondary outcomes were activities of daily living (Barthel index), Nottingham health profile, hospitalanxiety and depression scale, mortality, destination after discharge, satisfaction with services, carer strain index, and carer's satisfaction with services. Results The median length of stay was 15 days for both the community hospital and the district general hospital groups (interquartile range: community hospital 9-25 days; district general hospital 9-24 days). Independence at six months was greater in the community hospital group (adjusted mean difference 5.30, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 9.96). Results for the secondary outcome measures, including care satisfaction and measures of carer burden, were similar for both groups. Conclusions Care in a locality based community hospital is associated with greater independence for older people than care in wards for elderly people in a district general hospital.
Present project is surveying effectiveness of cooperative learning over mathematics anxiety and help seeking behaviour of first grade of high school girl students. Experimental research method was pretest - posttest type which lasted for 8 meetings. For measurement of variables has been used from mathematics anxietyquestionnaire and help seeking questionnaire (acceptance and avoidance from help seeking). In respect of
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between anxiety and event-free survival (i.e., composite endpoint of death, emergency department visits, or hospitalizations) for patients with HF, and examine whether behavioral and physiologic mechanisms mediate any association between anxiety and outcomes. METHODS In this longitudinal study, patients with HF completed the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory, and heart rate variability and plasma norepinephrine level were measured. Dietary and medication adherence were measured with a 24-hour urine sodium level and the Medication Event Monitoring System, respectively. Patients were followed at least 1 year for event-free survival. RESULTS A total of 147 patients were enrolled. Patients with high anxiety had a shorter (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.3, P = .03) period of event-free survival than patients with lower anxiety. Anxiety independently predicted medication adherence (P = .008), which in turn predicted event-free survival (HR 2.0, CI 1.2–3.3, P = .008). The effect of anxiety (P = .17) on event-free survival was less significant when the regression model included both anxiety and medication adherence than when the model only included anxiety (P = .03), indicating that medication adherence mediated the relationship between anxiety and event-free survival. CONCLUSION This is the first study to show that medication nonadherence links anxiety and event-free survival for patients with HF. Interventions that reduce anxiety and improve adherence may favorably benefit outcomes.
De Jong, Marla J.; Chung, Misook L.; Wu, Jia-Rong; Riegel, Barbara; Rayens, Mary Kay; Moser, Debra K.
Background Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Methods Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Results Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress -anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Conclusions Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these specific aspects of mindfulness in interventions for anxiety and mood disorders.
Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…
A thorough workup of patients who present with depression and anxiety is imperative to treat underlying conditions in order to potentially decrease psychiatric symptoms. This case describes the hospital course of a patient previously diagnosed with depression and anxiety who experienced an exacerbation of symptoms that may have been related to hyperparathyroidism.
CONCERNED WITH THE RELATIONSHIPS OF THE TAYLOR MA SCALE WITH THE SCALES AND INDIVIDUAL ITEMS OF THE BRENTWOOD MOOD SCALE IN A GROUP OF 159 HOSPITALIZED CHRONIC PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS. 3 TYPES OF ANXIETY-SUBJECTIVELY EXPERIENCED FEAR, ANXIETY EXPRESSED IN PHYSICAL TENSION, AND GENERALIZED UNCERTAINTY-WERE FOUND TO BE RELATED TO SCORES ON THE MA, WITH UNCERTAINTY LESS RELATED THAN EITHER SUBJECTIVELY OR
EVELYN CRUMPTON; HARRY M. GRAYSON; PATRICIA KEITH-LEE
The relationship between weather conditions and psychiatric disorders has been a continuous subject of speculation due to contradictory findings. This study attempts to further clarify this relationship by focussing on specific conditions such as panic attacks and non-panic anxiety in relation to specific meteorological variables. All psychiatric emergencies attended at a general hospital in Barcelona (Spain) during 2002 with anxiety as main complaint were classified as panic or non-panic anxiety according to strict independent and retrospective criteria. Both groups were assessed and compared with meteorological data (wind speed and direction, daily rainfall, temperature, humidity and solar radiation). Seasons and weekend days were also included as independent variables. Non-parametric statistics were used throughout since most variables do not follow a normal distribution. Logistic regression models were applied to predict days with and without the clinical condition. Episodes of panic were three times more common with the poniente wind (hot wind), twice less often with rainfall, and one and a half times more common in autumn than in other seasons. These three trends (hot wind, rainfall and autumn) were accumulative for panic episodes in a logistic regression formula. Significant reduction of episodes on weekends was found only for non-panic episodes. Panic attacks, unlike other anxiety episodes, in a psychiatric emergency department in Barcelona seem to show significant meteorotropism. Assessing specific disorders instead of overall emergencies or other variables of a more general quality could shed new light on the relationship between weather conditions and behaviour.
Test anxiety is one of the most confronting issues in modern times with the increase in the number of standardised and high-stakes testing. Research has established that there is a direct link between test anxiety and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to determine the test anxiety scores of the students with intellectual disabilities in South Australia. It also provided insights into the reasons for high-test anxiety in the participants under study. The Spielberger's Test AnxietyQuestionnaire was administered on students with intellectual disabilities in stage 1. Interviews were conducted with participants with intellectual disabilities, parents and teachers in stage 2. Questionnaire findings revealed that the majority of the adolescent females and males and all adult females with intellectual disabilities had high test anxiety scores. However, the majority of adult males with intellectual disabilities obtained moderate test anxiety scores. In the worry and emotionality subscales, it was also found that the majority of adolescents and adults with intellectual disabilities were found to score high. The high test anxiety scores have been justified by the interview responses obtained from the three groups of respondents. A number of factors have been identified to be the major predictors of test anxiety in students with intellectual disabilities. PMID:23539607
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of attentional focus on social anxiety in a group of high and low blushing-anxious subjects. One hundred and fourteen psychology undergraduate students were screened using the Fear of Blushing subscale of the Blushing Questionnaire [Bögels, S. M., & Reith, W. (1999). Validity of two questionnaires to assess social fears:
The purpose of the study was to describe relationships between uncertainty, anxiety, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in parents of children recently diagnosed with cancer. The study was guided by the Uncertainty in Illness Theory. The setting was a children's hospital. Participants were 15 parents of 12 children recently diagnosed with cancer. Anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety
Social anxiety is defined as a “marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations” and includes such symptoms as sweating, palpitations, shaking, and respiratory distress. Social anxiety is fairly common, occurring in as much as 13% of the population, and can be extremely disabling. It can be either specific (confined to 1 or 2 performance situations) or generalized, and can be diagnosed with a scale-based questionnaire. Social anxiety may coexist with other disorders, such as depression and dysthymia. The differential diagnosis for social anxiety includes panic disorder, agoraphobia, atypical depression, and body dysmorphic disorder. Treatment for social anxiety can be quite effective and consists of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy (including such medications as ?-blockers, anxiolytics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants), or a combination. This article details the prevalence, onset, disease impact, and etiology of social anxiety. Specific treatments, including both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, are presented in detail, along with other treatment considerations, such as comorbidity.
Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the HospitalAnxiety (A) and Depression (D) Scale, the Distress Thermometer, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VAS), the Global Assessment of Functioning, and Glock and Stark's Dimensions of Religious Commitment scales, and these assessments were compared between cancer patients with and without death anxiety. Multiple regression analysis was conducted after correlation analysis between death anxiety and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, pain scores, and negative believes about what will happen after death were found to be higher in patients having death anxiety than patients not having death anxiety. Also life expectancy was perceived as shortened in patients with death anxiety. Death anxiety was associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and beliefs about what will happen after death. In conclusion, death anxiety could not be regarded as a natural consequence of having cancer; it is associated with the unresolved psychological and physical distress. PMID:22571248
Seventy dementia patients in hospital and two control groups comprising 50 dementia sufferers in the community and 50 mentally fit elderly people, were investigated to determine which social factors such as life events were associated with the presence of anxiety symptoms. Very high levels of social contact, problems in the patient-carer relationship and high physical dependency were all associated with
Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…
Test anxiety is a variable cognitive, affective, or physiological response, or any combination thereof, occurring during evaluative, self-report examinations. Research suggests that the cognitive, affective, and physiological components of test anxiety are interrelated and that these components in addition to global test anxiety, are negatively…
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a brief psychoeducation group intervention on fear and anxiety in patients undergoing the coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Sixty consecutive patients undergoing CABG for the first time were recruited for a clinical trial and randomized into two groups. The control group received routine care. The study group received a brief psychoeducation group intervention combined with routine care. The psychoeducation session consisted of a discussion of fear and anxiety in a psychotherapeutic atmosphere and relaxation techniques. Fear was scored with the Bypass Grafting Fear Scale (BGFS) and anxiety was scored with the Spielberger State Inventory (STAI) Questionnaire. The BGFS and the STAI were given to the patients the day after hospital admission and a day before the operation to measure fear and anxiety. Fear scores decreased in the psychoeducation group. Of the 29 patients treated with psychoeducation, the mean (SD) fear score decreased from 4.6 (1.7) at baseline to 2.8 (1.2) before the operation (p < .001). In the 31 patients who received routine care, there was a nonsignificant trend from 3.7 (1.9) to 4.1 (2.1) (p > .05). The mean difference in fear score before the operation was significantly lower in the psychoeducation group than the routine care group (mean difference -1.3; 95% CI, -2.1, -.2; p < .05). There were no differences in anxiety scores before the operation between the psychoeducation and routine care groups. In patients undergoing CABG, adding psychoeducation to routine care had a significant positive effect on fear but not on anxiety scores. A larger study of psychoeducation in these patients is warranted to assess the efficacy of this intervention in greater detail. PMID:24083887
Shahmansouri, Nazilla; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Salehi Omran, Abbas; Karimi, Abbas Ali; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Arjmandi, Akram; Nikfam, Sepideh
Background Anxiety disorders are prevalent and associated with poor prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, studies examining screening of anxiety disorders in CAD patients are lacking. In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of anxiety disorders in patients with CAD and diagnostic utility of self-rating scales for screening of anxiety disorders. Methods Five-hundred and twenty-three CAD patients not receiving psychotropic treatments at initiation of rehabilitation program completed self-rating scales (HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale or HADS; Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory or SSAI; and Spielberger Trait-Anxiety Inventory or STAI) and were interviewed for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder and agoraphobia (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview or MINI). Results Thirty-eight (7%) patients were diagnosed with anxiety disorder(s), including GAD (5%), social phobia (2%), agoraphobia (1%) and panic disorder (1%). Areas under the ROC curve of the HADS Anxiety subscale (HADS-A), STAI and SSAI for screening of any anxiety disorder were .81, .80 and .72, respectively. Optimal cut-off values for screening of any anxiety disorders were ?8 for the HADS-A (sensitivity?=?82%; specificity?=?76%; and positive predictive value (PPV)?=?21%); ?45 for the STAI (sensitivity?=?89%; specificity?=?56%; and PPV?=?14%); and ?40 for the SSAI (sensitivity?=?84%; specificity?=?55%; PPV?=?13%). In a subgroup of patients (n?=?340) scoring below the optimal major depressive disorder screening cut-off value of HADS-Depression subscale (score <5), the HADS-A, STAI and SSAI had moderate-high sensitivity (range from 69% to 89%) and low PPVs (?22%) for GAD and any anxiety disorders. Conclusions Anxiety disorders are prevalent in CAD patients but can be reliably identified using self-rating scales. Anxiety self-rating scales had comparable sensitivities but the HADS-A had greater specificity and PPV when compared to the STAI and SSAI for screening of anxiety disorders. However, false positive rates were high, suggesting that patients with positive screening results should undergo psychiatric interview prior to initiating treatment for anxiety disorders and that routine use of anxiety self-rating scales for screening purposes can increase healthcare costs. Anxiety screening has incremental value to depression screening for identifying anxiety disorders.
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…
Objective: To assemble expert clinical experience and judgement in the treatment of anxiety and related disorders in a systematic, quantitative manner. Methods: A panel of internationally recognized Experts in treating anxiety and depression was constituted by multistage peer nomination. 90% completed a questionnaire. This report focuses on case vignettes of 7 anxiety disorders followed by questions about relevant therapeutic options.
E. H. Uhlenhuth; Mitchell B. Balter; Thomas A. Ban; Kenneth Yang
Anxiety is of paramount importance for animals, as it allows assessment of the environment while minimizing exposure to potential threats. Furthermore, anxiety disorders are highly prevalent. Consequently, the neural circuitry underlying anxiety has been a topic of great interest. In this mini review, we will discuss current views on anxiety circuits. We will focus on rodent anxiety paradigms, but we will also consider results from human neuroimaging and clinical studies. We briefly review studies demonstrating the central role that the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST) play in modulating anxiety and present evidence showing how the bed nucleus uses different output pathways to influence specific features of anxiolysis. Lastly, we propose that several brain regions, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), act in a coordinated fashion with the amygdala and BNST, forming a distributed network of interconnected structures that control anxiety both in rodents and humans.
Background Risk factors of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been widely researched, but most of them cannot be addressed clinically. The aim of this study was to investigate whether COPD knowledge level is a risk factor of anxiety and/or depression in COPD patients in addition to functional capacity and quality of life, and to determine the key topics of COPD knowledge. Methods A total of 364 COPD patients from four centers were recruited into this cross-sectional survey. Subjects’ general medical information, assessments of lung function, dyspnea, quality of life, and exercise capacity, and responses to the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and the Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire (BCKQ) were collected. Partial correlation analysis was performed, and a multivariable model testing risk factors of anxiety and depression as well as a multivariable model of 13 topics of knowledge derived from BCKQ were constructed. Results Subjects with anxiety or depression were more likely to have less COPD knowledge. Partial correlation analysis revealed that HAD score was negatively correlated with BCKQ score (rho?=??0.153, P?=?0.004). BCKQ score was significant in the multivariable model that tested risk factors of anxiety and depression (P?=?0.001, OR?=?0.944). Topics of epidemiology (P?0.001, OR?=?0.653) and infections (P?=?0.006, OR?=?0.721) were significant in the multivariable model evaluating 13 topics. Conclusions The level of patients’ disease knowledge is a significant risk factor of anxiety and depression in COPD patients. Epidemiology and infections are key topics of COPD knowledge to target in the Chinese population. Trial registration ChiCTR-OCS-12002518
Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurogenetic disorder known for its "hypersocial" phenotype and a complex profile of anxieties. The anxieties are poorly understood specifically in relation to the social-emotional and cognitive profiles. To address this gap, we employed a Wechsler intelligence test, the Brief Symptom Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Salk Institute Sociability Questionnaire, to (1) examine how anxiety symptoms distinguish individuals with WS from typically developing (TD) individuals; and (2) assess the associations between three key phenotypic features of WS: intellectual impairment, social-emotional functioning, and anxiety. The results highlighted intensified neurophysiological symptoms and subjective experiences of anxiety in WS. Moreover, whereas higher cognitive ability was positively associated with anxiety in WS, the opposite pattern characterized the TD individuals. This study provides novel insight into how the three core phenotypic features associate/dissociate in WS, specifically in terms of the contribution of cognitive and emotional functioning to anxiety symptoms. PMID:24973548
Anxiety and pain can be understood with a multidimensional framework that accounts for somatic, emotional, cognitive, and\\u000a behavioral aspects of these conditions. Patients who have cancer or treatment-related pain are more likely to be anxious than\\u000a cancer patients without pain. Patients with cancer pain and anxiety cause difficult diagnostic dilemmas because some degree\\u000a of anxiety is a normal response to
There is considerable evidence that genetic determinants play a major role in the etiology of anxiety. Investigations into\\u000a susceptibility genes for anxiety are well underway, particularly for panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder and\\u000a more broadly defined anxiety-related traits, such as neuroticism and harm avoidance. This review will discuss some of the\\u000a core issues related to diagnosis and molecular genetic methodology,
Background The aim of the present study was to explore the prospective relationship between anxiety symptoms and coping strategies during late pregnancy and early postpartum. Methods Participants completed the HospitalAnxiety Depression-Anxiety subscale and Carver’s Brief COPE at two time points, namely during the last trimester of pregnancy (N?=?400) and at two months postpartum (N?=?158). Results Antenatally, 18.8% of pregnant women presented severe anxiety symptoms while 20.2% of women presented severe anxiety symptoms after birth. Carver's proposed coping styles allowed to significantly distinguish between anxious and non anxious women during these two periods. Anxious women used significantly more inappropriate coping and less adaptive coping responses, such as self-blame and denial of reality, which remained associated with anxiety in the perinatal period. Our results also indicated a decrease in adaptive coping in women without anxiety after birth (e.g. acceptance, positive reframing). Conclusion Our findings confirm that antenatal and postnatal anxiety symptoms occur frequently and that inappropriate and/or non functional coping may account for persisting anxiety after childbirth. Limitations: Data were based on self-reports and participating women were predominantly primiparous. A high drop-out rate at two months postpartum must also be acknowledged.
AIM: To investigate anxiety and depression propensities in patients with toxic liver injury. METHODS: The subjects were divided into three groups: a healthy control group (Group 1, n = 125), an acute non-toxic liver injury group (Group 2, n = 124), and a group with acute toxic liver injury group caused by non-commercial herbal preparations (Group 3, n = 126). These three groups were compared and evaluated through questionnaire surveys and using the HospitalAnxiety-Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the hypochondriasis scale. RESULTS: The HADS anxiety subscale was 4.9 ± 2.7, 5.0 ± 3.0 and 5.6 ± 3.4, in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The HADS depression subscale in Group 3 showed the most significant score (5.2 ± 3.2, 6.4 ± 3.4 and 7.2 ± 3.4 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2). The BAI and BDI in Group 3 showed the most significant score (7.0 ± 6.3 and 6.9 ± 6.9, 9.5 ± 8.6 and 8.8 ± 7.3, 10.7 ± 7.2 and 11.6 ± 8.5 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (BAI: P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2) (BDI: P < 0.01 vs Group 1 and 2). Group 3 showed a significantly higher hypochondriasis score (8.2 ± 6.0, 11.6 ± 7.5 and 13.1 ± 6.5 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2). CONCLUSION: Psychological factors that present vulnerability to the temptation to use alternative medicines, such as herbs and plant preparations, are important for understanding toxic liver injury.
Suh, Jeong Ill; Sakong, Jeong Kyu; Lee, Kwan; Lee, Yong Kook; Park, Jeong Bae; Kim, Dong Joon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Lee, Jae Dong; Ko, Soon Young; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Byung Seok; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Heon Ju; Kim, In Hee; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Ahn, Byung Min
Symptoms of anxiety are a central feature of perinatal mental health, yet the anxiety disorders have received considerably less attention than depression in both perinatal research and practice. The present investigation involved a retrospective review of the clinical records of 334 patients seen at a psychiatric day hospital program serving pregnant and postpartum women. We examined the frequency with which the patients in this setting reported symptoms of anxiety, clinical correlates of elevated anxiety, and patterns of diagnosis in the clinical record. The results suggest that anxiety symptoms are very common in this population and that the presence of anxiety is associated with a more severe clinical profile, including higher rates of suicidality and increased use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy and postpartum. Although anxiety symptom levels were markedly elevated in this sample, anxiety disorders were diagnosed at relatively low rates. Implications for clinical practice, including discharge and treatment planning, are discussed. PMID:24469528
We studied peculiarities of the spectral characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) in 14- to 15-year-old teenagers with\\u000a dissimilar levels of different types of anxiety. These levels were estimated using Spielberger–Khanin’s questionnaire and\\u000a Prikhozhan’s scale of personal anxiety; the latter allowed us to estimate different types of anxiety (self-appraisal, interpersonal,\\u000a school, and “magic,” related to a fear of mystic phenomena). In teenagers
E. V. Éismont; ?. ?. Aliyeva; N. V. Lutsyuk; V. B. Pavlenko
Background Panic disorder (PD) is a common anxiety disorder among asthmatic patients with overlapping symptoms (e.g., hyperventilation). However, the longitudinal impact of PD on asthma control remains poorly understood. This study assessed the impact of PD and panic-anxiety on asthma control over a 4.3-year follow-up in 643 adult asthmatic patients. Methods Consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary asthma clinic underwent a sociodemographic, medical history, and psychiatric (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders) interview and completed questionnaires including the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) to assess panic-anxiety. At follow-up, patients completed the Asthma Control (ACQ) and Asthma Quality of Life (AQLQ) questionnaires and reported emergency department visits and hospitalizations during the follow-up. Results Baseline frequency of PD was 10% (n = 65). In fully adjusted models, analyses revealed that PD and ASI scores predicted worse follow-up ACQ total scores (? = 0.292, p = .037; ? = 0.012, p = .003) but not AQLQ total scores. ASI scores also predicted greater nocturnal and waking symptoms, activity limitations, and bronchodilator use on the ACQ (? = 0.012-0.018, p < .05) as well as lower symptom (? = -0.012, p = .006) and emotional distress (? = -0.014, p = .002) subscale scores on the AQLQ. Neither PD nor ASI scores were associated with hospitalizations, although ASI scores (but not PD) were associated with an increased risk of emergency department visits (relative risk = 1.023, 95% confidence interval = 1.001-1.044). Conclusions PD and anxiety sensitivity are prospectively associated with poorer asthma control and may be important targets for treatment. PMID:24470131
Favreau, Helene; Bacon, Simon L; Labrecque, Manon; Lavoie, Kim L
The relation between site of stroke and cognitive deficits, anxiety, depression, and quality of life was done in 40 stroke patients using Blessed Mental Status Test, HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale, Manchester short assessment of quality of life scale. Lesion localization was done by CT scan. In a relatively short period after stroke, specificity for any hemisphere or arterial territory of any side (left or right) was not evident for anxiety, depression, cognitive deficits or level of QOL. Considering the arterial territories involved, MCA infarcts were associated with greater cognitive deficits, anxiety and poor QOL. ACA infarcts had least anxiety. PCA infarcts were associated with better QOL and least cognitive deficits. PMID:21206861
We present prevalence and treatment utilization rates for child anxiety disorders in a university-affiliated primary care clinic. Families were recruited from a pediatric patient list and 714 families participated in an initial study wherein they completed child anxietyquestionnaires. According to parent and child self-report questionnaires (n=714), 22% and 20% of children, respectively, were above a suggested clinical cutoff on a brief anxiety screen; 19% and 14% of children exceeded clinical cutoffs on a separate social anxietyquestionnaire. All families were invited to participate in a second study that included the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Version and questions about treatment utilization; telephone interviews with 190 parents showed 1-year prevalence rates of DSM-IV child disorders to be 10.0% (se=2.2%) for specific phobia, 6.8% (se=1.8%) for social phobia, 3.2% (se=1.3%) for generalized anxiety disorder, 0.5% (se=.7%) for selective mutism, 1.6% (se=.9%) for major depressive disorder, 1.1% (se=.7%) for dysthymia, and 12.6% (se=2.4%) for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Among children with a current anxiety disorder, 31% had received counseling or medication treatment during their lifetime, compared to 40% of children with depression and 79% with ADHD. Adolescent age and being Caucasian were predictors of psychotherapy use; having an ADHD diagnosis was a predictor of both psychotherapy and medication use. The high prevalence of impairing anxiety disorders, in concert with the very low extent of treatment utilization, suggests a need for methods to identify and disseminate empirically validated treatments for these disorders in the primary care setting. PMID:15643639
Chavira, Denise A; Stein, Murray B; Bailey, Kelly; Stein, Martin T
Offers suggestions for preparing an elementary school field trip to a hospital, the tour itself, and follow-up activities. Suggestions are designed to maximize the trip's value for career awareness as well as to reduce anxiety about hospitals. (JOW)
Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment by others, ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in adolescence and ...
Relationships between bereavement following the death of a grandparent and adolescent death anxiety levels were examined using Hogan's Inventory of Bereavement and the revised Death Anxiety Scale within private schools. Of the 226 adolescent respondents (aged 11–18) who completed questionnaires, 124 had experienced the death of a grandparent. The regression model indicated that grief due to bereavement was found to
The study was designed to find out students' anxiety towards the learning of chemistry, identify the factors that cause the anxiety, examine the disposition of sex towards the learning of chemistry and suggest ways to increase their taste towards the learning of the subject. Data for the study was obtained by administering a questionnaire to 300…
A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)
Background: Comorbidity between adult social anxiety disorder and major depression is extensive. Considerably less information about this relationship is available among youth. Methods: A randomly selected (from enrollees in a pediatric primary care clinic) sample of 190 families with children between the ages of 8 and 17 responded by mail to questionnaires assessing social anxiety, depression, and social functioning. Parents
Denise A Chavira; Murray B Stein; Kelly Bailey; Martin T Stein
This study examined the relationship between "theory of mind" and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships--Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not…
Hunefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti
This study examined the relationship of overt and relational victimization to social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviours in a sample of female adolescents. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 561 girls in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades of an…
The report summarizes the results of a study of comparative validities of procedures for identifying the anxious elementary school child by using a questionnaire measure of school anxiety, the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC). The data are based on the responses of 165 sixth graders from two school systems in southwestern New York State, who…
This study examined the relation between gender role orientation and fear and anxiety in a sample of nonclinic-referred children (N = 209) ages 10 to 13 years. Children and their parents completed questionnaires assessing children's gender role orientation, toy and activity preferences, and fear and anxiety. Results generally indicated that…
The computer anxiety of 116 randomly selected secondary technical education teachers from 8 area vocational-technical centers in West Virginia was the focus of a study. The mailed questionnaire consisted of two parts: Oetting's Computer Anxiety Scale (COMPAS) and closed-form questions to obtain general demographic information about the teachers…
The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a 38-item self-report questionnaire which measures symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of SCAS in a large community sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,072), aged 12-17 years, in the…
Essau, Cecilia A.; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Munoz, Luna C.
Research suggested that maternal anxiety disorders might be related to infants' behavioral inhibition. This study investigated whether maternal postpartum anxiety disorder is associated with infant temperament, more precisely, infant distress to novelty, an early predictor of behavioral inhibition. Differences in the latter were analyzed in a German sample by comparing n = 38 healthy mother-infant dyads to n=44 dyads comprised of mothers diagnosed with a DSM-IV anxiety disorders. Infant age ranged from 2.83 to 7.97 months. Infant temperament was measured by means of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Mothers were screened for postpartum anxiety disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders. Severity of anxiety was measured by self-reported questionnaires (Anxiety Cognition Questionnaire, Body Sensations Questionnaire and Mobility Inventory). Infant salivary cortisol reaction when being confronted with a socio-emotional stressor (Face-to-Face-Still-Face paradigm) was assessed to validate infant distress. A Mann-Whitney-U analysis suggested that infants of mothers with an anxiety disorder show more distress to novelty than infants of healthy mothers. Furthermore, data reveal a positive Spearman's ?-correlation between infant distress to novelty and maternal avoidance behavior (Mobility Inventory). A strong correlation between infant cortisol reactivity and reported distress to novelty validated the maternal evaluation of infant temperament in our sample. Results suggest a possible approach to promote infant development by encouraging mothers with anxiety symptoms to encounter feared stimuli. PMID:23746492
Reck, Corinna; Müller, Mitho; Tietz, Alexandra; Möhler, Eva
Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “HospitalAnxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment.
Although the literature on depersonalization (DP) indicates links between DP and anxiety disorders, there has been no systematic investigation of the association of DP with social anxiety. The present study explores a hypothesized connection between DP and social anxiety by using correlative and regression analyses in a sample of 116 psychotherapy inpatients, 54 outpatients with epilepsy, and 31 nonpatients. Corresponding to our hypothesis, we found a connection of medium to large effect size between DP and social fears exceeding the impact of general psychopathologic symptom severity both for the psychotherapy patients and the nonpatients. The association of social anxiety with DP merits further research. A general consideration of DP in clinical and neurobiological trials on anxiety disorders like social phobia is warranted. PMID:16131947
Background. While social anxiety has been reported among essential tremor (ET) patients, very little is known about the relation between self-report measures of social anxiety, tremor severity and disability, and cognition. Methods. Sixty-three individuals diagnosed with ET took part in a comprehensive study examining neurocognition and behavioral functioning. A psychiatric diagnostic interview, three social anxietyquestionnaires, and an idiographic-based behavioral assessment to pinpoint anxiety provoking situations and related distress were completed. Results. Thirty percent of the participants met diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Social anxietyquestionnaires were negligibly related to tremor severity and disability. Idiographic behavioral assessment of subjective distress was moderately related to resting tremor severity and disability and strongly related to social anxietyquestionnaires scores. Only one cognitive variable was related to tremor severity. Conclusions. These findings suggest that (a) self-report measures of social anxiety with ET patients may underestimate distress; (b) emphasis on tremor severity may be misleading; (c) tremor disability may be a more sensitive and functional measure related to cognition and effect; (d) SAD is wide spread and does not appear to be related to dysregulated executive function; and (e) development of an ET-specific measure of social anxiety is called for.
Lundervold, Duane A.; Ament, Patrick A.; Holt, Peter
AIM: To investigate the prevalence and physicians’ detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders in gastrointestinal (GI) outpatients across China. METHODS: A hospital-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the GI outpatient departments of 13 general hospitals. A total of 1995 GI outpatients were recruited and screened with the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The physicians of the GI departments performed routine clinical diagnosis and management without knowing the HADS score results. Subjects with HADS scores ? 8 were subsequently interviewed by psychiatrists using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to make further diagnoses. RESULTS: There were 1059 patients with HADS score ? 8 and 674 (63.64%) of them undertook the MINI interview by psychiatrists. Based on the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the adjusted current prevalence for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and comorbidity of both disorders in the GI outpatients was 14.39%, 9.42% and 4.66%, respectively. Prevalence of depressive disorders with suicidal problems [suicide attempt or suicide-related ideation prior or current; module C (suicide) of MINI score ? 1] was 5.84% in women and 1.64% in men. The GI physicians’ detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders accounted for 4.14%. CONCLUSION: While the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders is high in Chinese GI outpatients, the detection rate of depressive and anxiety disorders by physicians is low.
The present study tested the reliability of a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) based on DSM criteria. Among two samples of undergraduate students, 47–80% of the GAD diagnoses by questionnaire were confirmed by diagnostic interview, with the higher rate being associated with DSM-IV criteria. Categorization of a participant as Non-GAD by questionnaire was found to be 100%
Lizabeth Roemer; Mary Borkovec; Sharon Posa; T. D. Borkovec
A new attendant operated wheelchair has been designed for use in hospitals, for both ward and transit use. Its design is based on findings of a survey into the use of hospital wheelchairs and questionnaires given to 29 nurses, porters and therapists, who operate them. The new chair seeks to solve the major problems with existing models and has been
Depression and anxiety are among the most common comorbid illnesses in people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Patients with ESRD face many challenges which increase the likelihood that they will develop depression or anxiety or worsen these conditions. These include a general feeling of unwellness; specific symptoms caused by ESRD or the patient's treatment; major disruptions in lifestyle; the need to comply with treatment regimens, including dialysis schedules, diet prescription, and water restriction; ancillary treatments and hospitalizations; and the fear of disability, morbidity, and shortened lifespan. Depression has been studied extensively in patients on maintenance dialysis, and much effort has been done to validate the proper screening tools to diagnose depression and to define the treatment options for patients on maintenance dialysis with depression. Anxiety is less well studied in this population of patients. Evidence indicates that anxiety is also common in maintenance dialysis. More attention should be paid to measuring the incidence and prevalence and developing methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches for anxiety in patients with ESRD. In this review, we attempted to underscore those aspects of depression and anxiety that have not been investigated extensively, especially with regard to anxiety. The interaction between racial/ethnic characteristics of patients on maintenance dialysis with depression and anxiety needs to be studied more extensively, in order to assess better approaches to healthcare for these individuals. PMID:20622304
Feroze, Usama; Martin, David; Reina-Patton, Astrid; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kopple, Joel D
Anxiety sensitivity refers to fears of anxiety-related sensations. Most often measured by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), anxiety sensitivity is a dispositional variable especially elevated in people with panic disorder. Regardless of diagnosis, ASI scores often predict panic symptoms in response to biological challenges (e.g., carbon dioxide inhalation) that provoke feared bodily sensations. Prospective longitudinal studies indicate that scores on
Anxiety is the most prevalent psychopathology in young people, with up to 18% suffering from one or more anxiety disorders. Early prevention is important, as many signs of anxiety are often evident in childhood and adolescence. Anxiety disorders have negative consequences for academic, social and individual outcomes, and have been shown to be a precursor to depression, suicide and substance
Background: The literature suggests that dysfunctional parenting and insecure attachment may increase risk of anxiety-related psychopathology. This study aimed at testing the association between anxiety disorders, attachment insecurity and dysfunctional parenting while controlling for factors usually not controlled for in previous studies, such as gender, age, and being ill. Methods: A sample of 32 non-psychotic inpatients with SCID-I diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, either alone or in comorbidity, was compared with two age- and sex-matched control groups consisting of 32 non-clinical participants and 32 in-patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Study measures included the Experience in Close Relationships questionnaire (ECR) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Results: The patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly higher on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and non-clinical participants. These findings were independent of comorbidity for mood disorders. ECR scores did not differ among diagnostic subgroups (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, other anxiety disorders). Patients with anxiety disorders scored significantly lower on PBI mother’s care and borderline significantly lower on PBI father's care than patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Conclusions: Although limitations such as the relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature suggest caution in interpreting these findings, they are consistent with the few previous adult studies performed on this topic and corroborate Bowlby's seminal hypothesis of a link between negative attachment-related experiences, attachment insecurity, and clinical anxiety. Attachment theory provides a useful theoretical framework for integrating research findings from several fields concerning the development of anxiety disorders and for planning therapeutic interventions.
This research investigated the incidence of HIV/AIDS anxiety among students in Botswana. The sample comprised 240 randomly selected students from six schools in three districts in Botswana, with data collected via a questionnaire. Percentages and Chi-square were used to analyze the extent to which the students were anxious about HIV/AIDS and if…
PurposeThe aim of this study was to analyze the possible negative psychological consequences of a false positive screening mammogram (FPSM). We compared anxiety evoked by first (FSM) versus repeat screening mammogram (RSM). Questionnaires were completed prior to the diagnosis and during follow up.
Claudia M. G. Keyzer-Dekker; Jolanda De Vries; Lotje van Esch; Miranda F. Ernst; Grard A. P. Nieuwenhuizen; Jan A. Roukema; Alida F. W. van der Steeg
This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…
Anxiety and depression symptom scores from the SCL-90 questionnaire were observed in a large sample of nuclear families, and the effects of genes or family environment were estimated. Assuming no environmental transmission from parents to offspring, heritability was estimated at 0.43 for both anxiety and depression scores, and common sibling environment or reciprocal sibling influence explained 19% of the variances for both scores. Most of the (genetic or environmental) family effect seemed to be common for the two scores. There was no evidence of common determinants in the family for the symptom scores and alcohol consumption, not even of any substantial relationship within persons between symptoms and consumption. The spouse correlations were 0.25 for anxiety and 0.38 for depression. Similar values for the correlations between anxiety in one person and depression in his/her spouse implies a mate selection based on a single latent variable to which the two observed traits contribute. PMID:1827639
Antenatal anxiety symptoms are not only a health problem for the expectant mother. Research has found that maternal anxiety may also have an impact on the developing baby. Therefore, it is important to estimate the prevalence of maternal anxiety and associated factors. The current study aims to estimate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms during the first trimester of pregnancy and to identify associated risk factors. Secondly, to investigate other factors associated with anxiety during early pregnancy including fear of childbirth and a preference for cesarean section. In a population-based community sample of 1,175 pregnant women, 916 women (78%) were investigated in the first trimester (gestation week 8-12). The HospitalAnxiety Depression Scale (HADS-A) was used to measure anxiety symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A scores?8 during pregnancy) was 15.6% in early pregnancy. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy (OR 2.6, CI 1.7-4.0). Women who reported a language other than Swedish as their native language (OR 4.2, CI 2.7-7.0), reported high school as their highest level of education (OR 1.6, CI 1.1-2.3), were unemployed (OR 3.5, CI 2.1-5.8), used nicotine before pregnancy (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.5), and had a self-reported psychiatric history of either depression (OR 3.8, CI 2.6-5.6) or anxiety (OR 5.2, CI 3.5-7.9) before their current pregnancy were all at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy. Anxiety symptoms during pregnancy increased the rate of fear of birth (OR 3.0, CI 1.9-4.7) and a preference for cesarean section (OR 1.7, CI 1.0-2.8). Caregivers should pay careful attention to history of mental illness to be able to identify women with symptoms of anxiety during early pregnancy. When presenting with symptoms of anxiety, the women might need counseling and or treatment in order to decrease her anxiety. PMID:24442712
\\u000a Anxiety may adversely influence test performance. The inverted-U function of performance vs. arousal is a well-known phenomenon\\u000a in psychology (Hebb, 1958). Performance on other than extremely simple tasks is generally impaired at states of low and high\\u000a arousal and is optimal at midlevels. Test anxiety can impair test performance (Sarason, 1984). Little research has been conducted\\u000a on the influence of
Group cohesion in sport is a widely spread theme today. Research has found cohesion to be influenced by several individual and group components. Among the cognitive variables that relate to cohesion we found competitive anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between task cohesion (ATG-T, and GI-T) and competitive state anxiety (A-state), and also if there would be a relation between cohesion and self-confidence. Participants were 366 football players of both genders male and female, aged between 15 to 23 years old, from Portugal’s championships. Cohesion was measured using the Portuguese version of the Group Environment Questionnaire, and to assess competitive anxiety, we used the Portuguese version of the Competition State Anxiety Inventory 2. Our results show that female athletes report experiencing more cognitive anxiety and less self-confidence than male athletes. Only cognitive anxiety relates in a significantly negative way with the perception of cohesion (GI-T e ATG-T) in the total number of participants and in male athletes. Relatively to the somatic anxiety, it only relates negatively with the perception of the integration of the group in the total number of participants and in the male gender.
Hypervigilance for pain-relevant stimuli has been associated with anxiety, fear of pain and anxiety sensitivity. This attentional bias has been primarily investigated in heterogeneous pain groups or pain-free controls, but has not been examined in pain conditions where anxiety and fear are likely to play a central role. Due to the intimate and interpersonal nature of genital pain experienced during sexual intercourse, Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome (VVS) constitutes an ideal sample in which to investigate the role of cognitive and affective factors in pain perception and maintenance. Seventeen women suffering from VVS and an equal number of age and education matched control women completed an emotional Stroop and memory recall task in addition to a series of questionnaires assessing pain-hypervigilance, state and trait anxiety, fear of pain, and anxiety sensitivity. VVS sufferers reported hypervigilance for coital pain and also exhibited a selective attentional bias towards pain stimuli on the emotional Stroop task as compared with controls. This effect was predicted by state and trait anxiety and fear of pain. According to these data, treament strategies for VVS should target anxiety and fear in addition to sensory systems. PMID:15979023
Payne, Kimberley A; Binik, Yitzchak M; Amsel, Rhonda; Khalifé, Samir
Abstract Virtual reality (VR) has been used by clinicians to manage pain in clinical populations. This study examines the use of VR as a form of distraction for dental patients using both subjective and objective measures to determine how a VR system affects patients' reported anxiety level, pain level, and physiological factors. As predicted, results of self-evaluation questionnaires showed that patients experienced less anxiety and pain after undergoing VR treatment. Physiological data reported similar trends in decreased anxiety. Overall, the favorable subjective and objective responses suggest that VR distraction systems can reduce discomfort and pain for patients with mild to moderate fear and anxiety. PMID:24892198
Wiederhold, Mark D; Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K
Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study. PMID:20557251
Background: Studies have shown an association between parental distress and caretaking of children with developmental cognitive delays. There is little data in developing countries, such as Pakistan, concerning the impact of raising children with intellectual disability upon the quality of parent functioning and risk for psychopathology. Objective: To assess the level of psychopathology i.e. anxiety, depression and both anxiety and depression together among parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. The study was approved by the Institutional Research Committee. Participants were 198 parents (99 fathers/99 mothers) of 100 children with the diagnosis of ID. Informed consents were obtained. The parents were assessed for anxiety and depression using DSM IV criteria. Results: Significantly high proportion of mothers (89%) had anxiety, depression, or both anxiety and depression together as compared to fathers (77%) (p-value <0.05). Among mothers, 35% met criteria for anxiety, 40% for depression and 13% for both anxiety and depression. Among fathers 42% had anxiety, 31% depression and 3% both anxiety and depression. There was a significant association between gender of parent and individual psychiatric diagnosis of anxiety, depression and anxiety and depression together (p-value <0.05). A significant association was also found between mother’s anxiety, depression or both and degree of ID of their children (p-value <0.05). Conclusions: 1) Significantly high proportion of parents of children with ID has psychiatric diagnosis of anxiety, depression or both; 2) the psychiatric diagnosis of anxiety, depression and anxiety and depression together is associated with gender of parent; and, 3) the diagnosis of anxiety, depression or both in mothers was associated with severity of ID in their children.
Whether developing questions for questionnaires or interviews or focus groups, there are certain guidelines that help to ensure that respondents provide information that is useful and can later be analyzed. This resource offers advice on developing questions for interviews or focus groups. It contains basics conducting the interviews, providing directions to respondents as well as guidelines for composing the content and wording of the questionnaire. This resource is aimed for use in workshops/conferences and is intended for novice evaluators.
A comprehensive functional assessment requires thorough and careful inquiry, which is difficult to accomplish in most busy\\u000a clinical practices. This paper examines the reliability and validity of the Functional Status Questionnaire (FSQ), a brief,\\u000a standardized, self-administered questionnaire designed to provide a comprehensive and feasible assessment of physical, psychological,\\u000a social and role function in ambulatory patients. The FSQ can be completed
Alan M. Jette; Allyson R. Davies; Paul D. Cleary; David R. Calkins; Lisa V. Rubenstein; Arlene Fink; Jacqueline Kosecoff; Roy T. Young; Robert H. Brook; Thomas L. Delbanco
OBJECTIVE--To develop a single, short, acceptable, and validated postal questionnaire for assessing patients' experiences of the process and outcome of day surgery. DESIGN--Interviews and review of existing questionnaires; piloting and field testing of draft questionnaires; consistency and validity checks. SETTING--Four hospitals, in Coventry (two), Swindon, and Milton Keynes. PATIENTS--373 patients undergoing day surgery in 1990. MAIN MEASURES--Postoperative symptoms, complications, health
Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…
Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.
Conditioning of the GSR to electric shock in 60 hospitalizedanxiety states, 60 normal controls, and 60 chronic functional schizophrenics yielded the following [results]: With magnitude of response (in log conductance units) during experimental extinction as an indirect measure of strength of conditioning, and anxiety Ss showed significantly stronger conditioning than both the normal and schizophrenic Ss, the difference in
The views of students in their last year of high school on the effects of parental expectations on students' anxiety about education and a career were studied with 214 boys and girls from six single-sex high schools. Participants were asked to reply to two questionnaires, the Educational and Career AnxietyQuestionnaire and the Parent's Self-esteem and Expectancy Questionnaire as well as to respond to a personal informational form. Analysis yielded negative significance for relations between parental self-esteem and expectations and students' anxiety about education and career. Moreover, the study showed that adolescent girls had significantly higher self-esteem than boys. In addition, comparing adolescents' views by their fathers' education showed that fathers with high education were more likely to have children with high parental self-esteem and rational expectations and lower anxiety about education and careers than those whose fathers had only primary education. PMID:16050605
The performance of 79 male undergraduates in 2 heterosexual social situations was rated by questionnaires (including the Social Anxiety and Skill Questionnaire), self-ratings in role plays, self-ratings of videotapes of role plays, ratings by confederates, and ratings of videotaped role plays by judges. These ratings were characterized with respect to mode, method, and situation facets; the consistency of ratings was
Anxiety has a relevant impact on everyday life, including sexual life, and therefore is considered the final common pathway by which social, psychological, and biological stressors negatively affect sexual functioning. The aim of this study is to define the psycho-biological correlates of free-floating anxiety in a large sample of patients complaining of erectile dysfunction (ED)-based sexual problems. We studied a consecutive series of 882 ED patients using SIEDY, a 13-item structured interview, composed of 3 scales that identify and quantify organic, relational, and intrapsychic domains. MHQ-A scoring from Middlesex HospitalQuestionnaire (MHQ) was used as a putative marker of free-floating anxiety symptoms (AS). Metabolic and hormonal parameters, nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) test, and penile Doppler ultrasound (PDU) examination were also performed. MHQ-A score was significantly higher in patients complaining of difficulties in maintaining erection and in those reporting premature ejaculation (6.5 +/- 3.3 vs 5.8 +/- 3.3 and 6.6 +/- 3.3 vs 6.1 +/- 3.3, respectively; both P < .05). Moreover, ASs were significantly correlated to life stressors quantified by SIEDY scale 2 (relational component) and scale 3 (intrapsychic component) scores, as dissatisfaction at work or within the family or couple relationships. Among physical, biochemical, or instrumental parameters tested, only end-diastolic velocity at PDU was significantly (P < .05) related to ASs. In conclusion, in patients with ED-based sexual problems, ASs are correlated to many relational and life stressors. Conversely, organic problems are not necessarily associated with MHQ-A score. PMID:16400083
The effects of anger feelings (rated by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory) and witnessing family violence on anxiety and depression (rated by the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale) were examined in 457 junior high school students. Anxiety and depression scores were correlated with frequencies of witnessing family violence. In a…
Anxiety disorders are prevalent in children with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, adaptability, and feasibility of a manual-based, computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy. Fifteen anxious youth (aged 8–13 years) with epilepsy completed 12 weeks of manualized computer-assisted CBT. Children and parents completed a semi-structured interview at baseline, and questionnaires assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and behavior problems were completed prior to treatment, at treatment midpoint, after treatment completion, and three months post treatment. There were significant reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression reported by the children at completion of the intervention and at the three-month follow-up. Similarly, parents reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and a reduction in behavior problems. No adverse events were reported. This CBT intervention for children with epilepsy and anxiety disorders is safe, effective, and feasible with a promising future.
Blocher, Jacquelyn B.; Fujikawa, Mayu; Sung, Connie; Jackson, Daren C.; Jones, Jana E.
Background Depression and anxiety are two common normal responses to a chronic disease such as glaucoma. This study analysed the measurement properties of the depression screening instrument - Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) using Rasch analysis to determine if it can be used as a measure. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, the PHQ-9 was administered to primary glaucoma adults attending a glaucoma clinic of a tertiary eye care centre, South India. All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation. Patient demographics and sub-type of glaucoma were abstracted from the medical record. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the following properties of the PHQ-9: behaviour of the response categories, measurement precision (assessed using person separation reliability, PSR; minimum recommended value 0.80), unidimensionality (assessed using item fit [0.7–1.3] and principal components analysis of residuals), and targeting. Results 198 patients (mean age ± standard deviation ?=?59.83±12.34 years; 67% male) were included. The native PHQ-9 did not fit the Rasch model. The response categories showed disordered thresholds which became ordered after category reorganization. Measurement precision was below acceptable limits (0.62) and targeting was sub-optimal (?1.27 logits). Four items misfit that were deleted iteratively following which a set of five items fit the Rasch model. However measurement precision failed to improve and targeting worsened further (?1.62 logits). Conclusions The PHQ-9, in its present form, provides suboptimal assessment of depression in patients with glaucoma in India. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new depression instrument for our glaucoma population. A superior strategy would be to use the item bank for depression but this will also need to be validated in glaucoma patients before deciding its utility.
Anxiety disorders are common disorders in childhood, and developmental differences must be considered when diagnosing and\\u000a treating patients in this age group. Recent research has illuminated the course of childhood anxiety disorders, including\\u000a how they can be precursors to continued anxiety and mood problems in adulthood. Recent studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy,\\u000a the first-line psychosocial treatment for childhood anxiety, have focused
Paul Arnold; S. Preeya Banerjee; Rashmi Bhandari; Jennifer Ivey; Michelle Rose; David R. Rosenberg
Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18?year olds (n?=?1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r?=?0.71) and anxiety (r?=?0.71). Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order to prevent negative strain and stress-related ill-health. The gender gap in subjective adolescent health needs to be further explored.
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social\\u000a anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses\\u000a of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192 children drawn from a community\\u000a sample of
A questionnaire measure of emotional control was developed to evaluate the extent to which individuals report controlling anger, anxiety and depressed mood. Scale items were derived from responses to semi-structured clinical interviews with patients who were awaiting breast biopsy. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability data are reported, as well as correlations with the Marlowe-Crowne, the Spielberger State-Trait Personality Inventory, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Bortner Type A Behavior Scale. Although intended for use with breast cancer patients this scale is envisaged to have wider application to other clinical populations. PMID:6620206
Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin
This study presents a test of the Anxiety-Expectation Mediation (AEM) model of library anxiety. The AEM model contains variables that are directly or indirectly related to information search performance, as measured by students' scores on their research proposals. This model posits that library anxiety and self-perception serve as factors that…
Although the syndromes of anxiety have only been recognized this century, the belief that the emotion of fearful apprehension could cause physical illness has a much longer history. James Vere wrote his book entitled "A physical and moral enquiry into the causes of that internal restlessness and disorder in man which has been the complaint of all ages" in 1778. The earliest accounts of phobia, as anxiety associated with specific circumstances have been ascribed to two cases from Hippocrates, whilst one of the earliest accounts in the English language may be that of William Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice describing a supposed phobia for cats. Robert Burton (1621) described various anxiety disorders in classical detail in his 'Anatomy of Melancholy'. PMID:3064064
Anxiety disorders are common and costly psychiatric illnesses. Pharmacological treatment was enhanced with the introduction of benzodiazepines, which proved safer and more effective than older drugs. The risk of dependence, however, has made clinicians reluctant to use these medications. In fact, few patients appear to develop significant difficulties with these drugs, given how widely they are used. Careful planning for discontinuation of therapy is important. In addition, for some individuals, there appears to be a complex and as yet unelucidaied relationship between dependence on drugs or alcohol and anxiety. The newer antidepressants offer efficacy without abuse or dependence liability, but are expensive and have side effects that are intolerable for some patients. Pharmacological therapy for anxiety should be prescribed and managed so as to minimize any existing risk, while aiming to restore the patient to wellness in terms of symptoms and function.
Summary \\u000a Introduction: We investigated the association between religiosity, spirituality, and anxiety in pregnant women, taking into account potential\\u000a confounders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods: From September 2005 through March 2006, pregnant women in three obstetrics practices in the American South were included\\u000a in a cross-sectional study. The anxiety subscale of the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety.
J. R. Mann; R. E. McKeown; J. Bacon; R. Vesselinov; F. Bush
Research on the role of acceptance in adjustment to persisting pain has been facilitated by the development of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). However, the CPAQ has not yet been validated amongst Iranian patients with chronic pain. To examine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the CPAQ (P-CPAQ), 245 Persian-speaking chronic pain patients completed a battery of questionnaires, including: the P-CPAQ, a Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, a slightly modified Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire, the Catastrophizing Scale of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire, the Depression and Anxiety Scales of the Depression Anxiety And Stress Scale-21 and the Pain-Related Interference and Pain Intensity Scales of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. Furthermore, to evaluate the reliability of the P-CPAQ, the measure was completed by 24 chronic pain patients, on two occasions that are 2 weeks apart. The results of the principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution. Furthermore, the reliability and construct validity of the P-CPAQ were confirmed. In general, consistent with studies in other countries, the results of the present study indicate that pain acceptance plays an important role in adjustment to chronic pain regardless of cultural and language differences between countries. PMID:22281840
Mesgarian, Fatemeh; Asghari, Ali; Shaeiri, Mohammad Reza; Broumand, Akram
Explores the phenomenon of math anxiety in a group of elementary school students by observing and conducting a survey to identify where students fit into the continuum of mathematics confidence. Discusses strategies to reduce math anxiety. (ASK)
When old people suffering from chronic diseases are hospitalized, they need some wellness as younger people. Anxiety and depression associated to the hospitalisation and the disease are very lound. The need for any attention, touch and encouragement is sometimes not clearly expressed among the elderly, Aesthetic care may valorise old patients as healthy people. This has not been reported. Our study has evaluated 47 voluntary old women. Mini mental state was considered. They had one aesthetic care during their hospitalisation. The care evaluation's questionnaire proved the wellness feeling however the desire to open themselves to others was not significant. The depression, health state scales could not be influenced by only one such a care. Aesthetic care was generally very well accepted by the institution and health care professionals as a tool for hospital quality of life. PMID:18950085
BACKGROUND: The relationships between working conditions [job demand, job control and social support]; stress, anxiety, and depression; and perceived quality of life factors [physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships and environmental conditions] were assessed using a sample of 698 male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia. METHODS: The validated Malay version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales
Examined self-esteem, depression, and anxiety among 60 adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 143 adult non-COAs. Subjects completed Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Found no significant differences between COAs and…
The impact of previous stillbirth, miscarriage, or preterm delivery on anxiety in pregnant women in various subgroups at high risk for fetal abnormality in comparison with a nonrisk control group of women with healthy uncomplicated pregnancies was studied longitudinally. The level of anxiety in women (n = 674) during early pregnancy was assessed by questionnaire. Data were collected at three points in
As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Philosophy of Glasser Questionnaire was developed. This 15-item scale measuring attitudes toward the philosophy of William Glasser had a coefficient alpha reliability of .77…
To construct a questionnaire, a set tau of permissible questions is drawn up, i.e. questions which can be realized in practice and each of which makes sense in relationship to set E of events or a certain subset of this set. If under the fixed conditions ...
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH Diet History Questionnaire Today's date: MONTH DAY YEAR |___|___| 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 8 01 Jan 02 Feb 03 Mar 04 Apr 05 May 06 Jun 07 Jul 08 Aug 09 Sep 10 Oct 11 Nov 12
This article describes the development of the Gay Identity Questionnaire (GIQ) which was derived from tenets of the Homosexual Identity Formation (HIF) model proposed by Cass in 1979. The GIQ is a brief measure that may be used by clinicians and researchers for identifying gay males in the various stages of homosexual identity formation. The test construction procedures included the
The present study explored the relationship among metacognitions, attentional control, and state anxiety. A convenience sample of 142 undergraduate students completed the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire-30, the Attentional Control Scale, and the State subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory 3 weeks before end-of-year examinations. A cross-sectional design was adopted, and data analysis consisted of correlation and hierarchical regression analyses. Correlation analyses showed that three dimensions of metacognition (negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger, cognitive confidence, and beliefs about the need to control thoughts) were positively correlated with state anxiety. These same metacognitions were also found to be negatively correlated with attention shifting and, with the exception of cognitive confidence, attention focusing. Both attention focusing and attention shifting were found to be negatively correlated with state anxiety. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger and attention focusing independently predicted state anxiety. Overall, these findings support the hypotheses and are consistent with the metacognitive theory of psychological dysfunction in that they show that metacognitions (in the form of negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger) and executive control (in the form of attention-focusing) individually contribute to state anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19735025
Spada, Marcantonio M; Georgiou, George A; Wells, Adrian
The current study evaluated the relationships among trait anxiety, subjective response to alcohol, and simulated driving following a simulated alcohol binge. Sixty drinkers with a binge history completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, and subsequently completed a driving simulation. Participants were then administered 0.2 g/kg ethanol at 30-min intervals (cumulative dose 0.8 g/kg). Following alcohol consumption, the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and visual analog scales of subjective impairment and driving confidence were administered, after which simulated driving was reassessed. Due to the emphasis on simulated driving after drinking in the current study, subjective response to alcohol (i.e., self-reported sedation, stimulation, impairment, and confidence in driving ability) was assessed once following alcohol consumption, as this is the time when drinkers tend to make decisions regarding legal driving ability. Alcohol increased driving speed, speeding tickets, and collisions. Sedation following alcohol predicted increased subjective impairment and decreased driving confidence. Subjective impairment was not predicted by sensitivity to stimulation or trait anxiety. High trait anxiety predicted low driving confidence after drinking and this relationship was mediated by sedation. Increased speed after alcohol was predicted by sedation, but not by trait anxiety or stimulation. Anxiety, combined with the sedating effects of alcohol, may indicate when consumption should cease. However, once driving is initiated, sensitivity to sedation following alcohol consumption is positively related to simulated driving speed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955664
Aston, Elizabeth R; Shannon, Erin E; Liguori, Anthony
Individuals vary in their propensity to engage in aggressive behaviors, and recent research has sought to identify individual differences that contribute to a person's propensity for physical aggression. Previous research has shown that impulsivity and aggression have a consistent relational pattern among many different samples. However, not all impulsive people will engage in aggressive behavior, perhaps because of other factors such as level of physiological arousal from anxiety. Specifically, one factor, namely physiological symptoms of anxiety such as those often associated with panic, may help as a predictor variable to be used in risk assessments or subclassification systems of aggression. Participants included 689 college students who completed self-report questionnaires assessing impulsivity, physical aggression, and anxiety. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. Greater scores on the measure of impulsivity were associated with higher levels of reported physical aggression. The interaction (impulsivity x anxiety) was not statistically significant, suggesting that impulsivity has the same effect on physical aggression regardless of the level of anxiety. There was a main effect for anxiety, which was associated with higher levels of reported physical aggression. Our findings may help inform typologies for identifying predictor variables used in risk assessment and treatment planning. PMID:24934013
Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult.
Objectives. This research was carried out in two stages: the objectives of the first stage were (1) to identify the existing relationships between the level of anxiety, the frequency of automatic negative thoughts, and unconditional self-acceptance and (2) to capture the existing differences regarding these variables between people diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and those with no such medical history. Methods. The sample made up of 50 subjects filled out the following three questionnaires: the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Unconditional Self-Acceptance Questionnaire. Results. Psychological anxiety is positively correlated with automatic negative thoughts, while unconditional self-acceptance is negatively correlated with both psychological anxiety and somatic anxiety as well as with automatic negative thoughts. All studied variables were significantly different in rheumatoid arthritis as compared to the control population. Conclusions. The results showed the presence to a greater extent of anxiety and automatic negative thoughts, along with reduced unconditional self-acceptance among people with rheumatoid arthritis. Intervention on these variables through support and counseling can lead to reducing anxiety and depression, to altering the coping styles, and, implicitly, to improving the patients' quality of life. PMID:25028611
Objectives. This research was carried out in two stages: the objectives of the first stage were (1) to identify the existing relationships between the level of anxiety, the frequency of automatic negative thoughts, and unconditional self-acceptance and (2) to capture the existing differences regarding these variables between people diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and those with no such medical history. Methods. The sample made up of 50 subjects filled out the following three questionnaires: the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Unconditional Self-Acceptance Questionnaire. Results. Psychological anxiety is positively correlated with automatic negative thoughts, while unconditional self-acceptance is negatively correlated with both psychological anxiety and somatic anxiety as well as with automatic negative thoughts. All studied variables were significantly different in rheumatoid arthritis as compared to the control population. Conclusions. The results showed the presence to a greater extent of anxiety and automatic negative thoughts, along with reduced unconditional self-acceptance among people with rheumatoid arthritis. Intervention on these variables through support and counseling can lead to reducing anxiety and depression, to altering the coping styles, and, implicitly, to improving the patients' quality of life.
Background The current study seeks to investigate the mechanisms through which mindfulness is related to mental health in a clinical sample of adults by examining a) whether specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies (rumination, reappraisal, worry, and non-acceptance) mediate associations between mindfulness and depression and anxiety, respectively, and b) whether these emotion regulation strategies operate uniquely or transdiagnostically in relation to depression and anxiety. Methods Participants were 187 adults seeking treatment at a mood and anxiety disorders clinic in Connecticut. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures that included assessments of depression and anxiety (Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire), and emotion regulation (Ruminative Response Scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). Results Simple mediation analyses indicated that rumination and worry significantly mediated associations between mindfulness and anxiety symptoms, while rumination and reappraisal significantly mediated associations between mindfulness and depressive symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that worry significantly mediated associations between mindfulness and anxiety symptoms and rumination and reappraisal significantly mediated associations between mindfulness and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Findings suggest that mindfulness operates through distinct and common mechanisms depending on clinical context.
Desrosiers, Alethea; Vine, Vera; Klemanski, David H.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
This study tested the prediction that anxiety, arising from anticipation of a stressful examination (state anxiety), would be associated with an inflation of subjective risk in judgments of negative events related to oneself. The subjective probability of pleasant and unpleasant events was rated on two occasions, 1 month and 1 day before the examination date. Increases in anticipatory anxiety as
Anxiety and fear are often confounded in discussions of human emotions. However, studies of rodent defensive reactions under naturalistic conditions suggest anxiety is functionally distinct from fear. Unambiguous threats, such as predators, elicit flight from rodents (if an escape-route is available), whereas ambiguous threats (e.g., the odor of a predator) elicit risk assessment behavior, which is associated with anxiety as
Adam M. Perkins; Sophie L. Inchley-Mort; Alan D. Pickering; Philip J. Corr; Adrian P. Burgess
This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…
Undoubtedly test anxiety is a troublesome condition found to be prevalent today among college students. Over the years various attempts have been made to explore how test anxiety influences academic achievement. This paper discusses the extent to which test anxiety affects academic achievement of college students, and the techniques found to be…
The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) has been widely used in research with pregnant women. However, few studies have examined its validity for this group. In this paper the content validity of the STAI, the impact of location and consequences for further participation of higher STAI scores are investigated for 215 pregnant women who completed the STAI at hospital or
M. D. Gunning; F. C. Denison; C. J. Stockley; S. P. Ho; H. K. Sandhu; R. M. Reynolds
We examined two recently developed measures of positive automatic thought, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-P)\\u000a and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire—Revised (ATQ-RP). Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and convergent and discriminant\\u000a validity were addressed. Two hundred one undergraduates completed self-report measures of positive automatic thoughts, negative\\u000a automatic thoughts, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and positive affectivity. The ATQ-P and ATQ-RP both showed
Emerging evidence suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) predicts subsequent development of anxiety symptoms and panic attacks as well as clinical syndromes in adult samples. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether AS similarly acts as a vulnerability factor in the pathogenesis of anxiety symptoms among youth in early adolescence (ages 9-13). A large nonclinical community sample of youth (n=277) was prospectively followed over 1 year. The Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI: Silverman, Fleisig, Rabian, & Peterson, 1991) served as the primary predictor. After controlling for baseline anxiety symptoms as well as depression, AS significantly predicted the future development of anxiety symptoms. Consistent with the adult literature and expectancy theory, AS appears to act as a risk factor for anxiety symptoms in youth. PMID:20399075
Schmidt, Norman B; Keough, Meghan E; Mitchell, Melissa A; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Macpherson, Laura; Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W
Background This is the first study investigating anxiety among women attending a primary care clinic in Malaysia. Aim The objective was to determine the factors associated with anxiety among these women. Design This cross-sectional study was conducted in a government-funded primary care clinic in Malaysia. Consecutive female patients attending the clinic during the data-collection period were invited to participate in the study. Method Participants were given self-administered questionnaires, which included the validated Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire (GAD-7) Malay version to detect anxiety. Results Of the 1023 patients who were invited, 895 agreed to participate (response rate 87.5%). The prevalence of anxiety in this study was 7.8%, based on the GAD-7 (score ?8). Multiple logistic regression analysis found that certain stressful life events and the emotional aspect of domestic violence were significantly associated with anxiety (P<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of anxiety among women in this study is similar to that found in other countries. Factors found to be associated with anxiety, especially issues on domestic violence, need to be addressed and managed appropriately.
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of individuals who are at high risk for state and trait anxiety as well as to investigate the relationship of anxiety levels of urban transportation drivers from Istanbul, Turkey with restless legs syndrome (RLS). The data was gathered between April 2013 and June 2013 by the use of a questionnaire prepared for the purpose of this study, completed anonymously. Restless leg syndrome and anxiety level were evaluated in the group; data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 16. Chi-square, correlation and student-t tests were used. Restless leg syndrome symptoms were determined by a self-assessment questionnaire, including the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria, to determine RLS symptoms and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine anxiety levels of the participants. In the present study, the four RLS criteria were reported in 31.2%. STAI-state and STAI-trait scores were 40.82 ± 9.55 and 42.99 ± 8.54 respectively. The state and trait anxiety mean scores were different among participants with RLS in this study (p < 0.05). It was found a significant difference between tobacco usage and state anxiety (p < 0.05). There were a significant difference between RLS and age, number of cigarettes daily consumed and employment time (p < 0.05). The state and trait anxiety scores were found high among bus drivers with RLS in this study.
Objective To explore health anxiety in a sample of nursing students to determine the relationships between health anxiety and life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia. Methods Two thousand and eighty-six nursing students in junior college, which were divided into five groups, were evaluated by questionnaires, including the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students, the Chinese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results The mean age, whether the individual was an only child, residence (urban or rural), and were significantly different between the groups. The self-assessment scores were also significantly different between the groups. The Short Health Anxiety Inventory total score and the factor of fearing the likelihood of becoming ill were significantly negatively correlated with the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students total score and its two factors, but were significantly positively correlated with psychoticism, neuroticism, and TAS-20 total scores and its scores of the three TAS-20 factors. The negative consequence scale of Short Health Anxiety Inventory was not significantly correlated with externally oriented thinking, but was significantly negatively correlated with extraversion. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that objective satisfaction, subjective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the three factors of TAS-20 were predictors of health anxiety. Conclusion Health anxiety was correlated with life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia in junior college nursing students. Subjective and objective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the identification and expression of emotions may be predictors of health anxiety in nursing students.
Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90) included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45) not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxietyquestionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items), subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items), and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items) at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P<0.001) at Day 10 (66.7 ± 13.0) versus Day 1 (72.5 ± 14.7). Also, positive SUBI scores (F1– F6) improved significantly (P<0.01) at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001) at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.
While the computer is commonly viewed as a tool for simplifying and enriching lives, many individuals react to this technology with feelings of anxiety, paranoia, and alienation. These reactions may have potentially serious career and educational consequences. Fear of computers reflects a generalized fear of current technology and is most…
The present study examined the association of the personality trait neuroticism and test anxiety (encoded as worry and emotionality) as well as social relationships (teacher-student and student-student relationship) as possible mediators for girls and boys. Participants were 8th grade students (N = 512) attending schools in Konya. Using…
Abstract Objective Both self-reported indicators of stress and hormones such as cortisol and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) have been examined in relation to preterm birth. Although these hormones have been interpreted as biomarkers of stress, it is unclear whether psychosocial measures are empirically associated with biomarkers of stress in pregnant women. Methods We analyzed data from 1,587 North Carolina pregnant women enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study during 2000–2004 who provided at least one saliva sample for cortisol measurement or blood samples for CRH at 14–19 and 24–29 weeks' gestation. Cortisol measures were limited to those taken between 8 and 10 a.m. Perceived stress, state-trait anxiety, coping style, life events, social support, and pregnancy-specific anxiety were measured by questionnaires and interviews. Spearman correlations and multiple regressions were used to describe the relationship among the measures of stress. Results No correlations larger than r?=?0.15 were seen between reported psychosocial measures and cortisol or CRH. Women with demographic characteristics associated with poor pregnancy outcomes (unmarried, African-American, young, low pre-pregnancy body mass index) reported higher levels of stress but did not consistently have higher levels of stress hormones. Pre-eclampsia was associated with higher CRH, but not with higher cortisol. Conclusions The relationship between measurements of reported stress and biomarkers is not straightforward in large epidemiological studies of pregnancy. For online Supplementary Material, see www.liebertonline.com.
Savitz, David A.; Dole, Nancy; Herring, Amy H.; Thorp, John M.
Fear and anxiety are primary reasons why individuals avoid visiting the dental practitioner. Dental anxiety appears to vary by type of treatment, with periodontic and endodontic patients reporting higher levels of anxiety than patients receiving restorative or prophylactic treatment. Parents who experience dental anxiety often pass along such feelings to their children. Front office employees are the first line in screening for anxiety-related behaviors while the patient is in the reception area. It is extremely important to recognize dental fear and anxiety before the patient receives oral care because the stresses can lead to exacerbation of medical problems such as angina, seizures, asthma or hyperventilation. Applying behavioral techniques helps to induce the patient's relaxation, reduce anxiety and also reduce the need for analgesics with their potential side effects. PMID:24600761
Sixty male alcoholic inpatients were administered the Locus of Control scale (IE), the Activity Preference Questionnaire (APQ), the Manifest Anxiety scale (MAS), and the Tennessee Self Concept scale (TSCS). Ss defined as having an external locus of control appeared significantly more anxious than internal Ss on the MAS; however, no differences were found between groups on the APQ or TSCS scales. The self-report (MAS) and nonobtrusive (APQ) measures of anxiety were not correlated significantly. A differential pattern of correlations was found between the MAS and APQ and TCSC subscale scores. The obtained correlations support the contention that the MAS may measure more accurately a dimension of neuroticism and/or negative self-concept rather than anxiety. Further research appears necessary to investigate the internal consistency and dimensionality of the MAS. PMID:1194426
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of Chinese Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ-C) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. Methods 162 RA patients were recruited in the evaluation process. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested by internal consistency and item analysis. Convergent validity was assessed by correlations of MDHAQ-C with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospitalanxiety and depression scales (HAD). Discriminant validity was tested in groups of patients with varied disease activities and functional classes. To evaluate the clinical values, correlations were calculated between MDHAQ-C and indices of clinical relevance and disease activity. Agreement with the Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was estimated. Results The Cronbach's alpha was 0.944 in the Function scale (FN) and 0.768 in the scale of psychological status (PS). The item analysis indicated all the items of FN and PS are correlated at an acceptable level. MDHAQ-C correlated with the questionnaires significantly in most scales and scores of scales differed significantly in groups of different disease activity and functional status. MDHAQ-C has moderate to high correlation with most clinical indices and high correlation with a spearman coefficient of 0.701 for DAS 28 and 0.843 for CDAI. The overall agreement of categories was satisfying. Conclusion MDHAQ-C is a reliable, valid instrument for functional measurement and a feasible, informative quantitative index for busy clinical settings in Chinese RA patients.
Objective: To evaluate the current practices of segregation approaches, storage arrangements, collection and disposal systems in the teaching hospitals of Karachi. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in eight teaching hospitals of Karachi, using convenient sam- pling technique. The instrument of research was a self administered questionnaire, with four sections, relating to the general information of the institution, administrative information,
Shahida Rasheed; Saira Iqbal; Lubna A. Baig; Kehkashan Mufti
Background: We wished to examine the impact of the duration and intensity of physical activity on common anxiety and depressive states.\\u000a Method: A nested case-control design was applied to data from the Health and Lifestyle Survey. Anxiety and depressive states were\\u000a measured by caseness on the General Health Questionnaire. Physical activity variables were defined from a detailed activity\\u000a schedule. Results:
Assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms through direct interviewing of young children has been found to be particularly difficult utilizing standard interview methods. Test–retest reliability of selected anxiety and depression items from the revised Dominic (Valla, Bergeron, Bidaut-Russell, St-Georges, & Gaudet, 1997), a cartoon-based questionnaire based on DSM diagnostic criteria, was investigated among two geographically diverse samples (Los Angeles and St.
Debra A. Murphy; Coleen Cantwell; Daniel D. Jordan; Martha B. Lee; Michele R. Cooley-Quille; Benjamin B. Lahey
Anxiety symptoms and disorders are associated with a range of general medical disorders. This association may be a physiologic\\u000a consequence of the general medical disorder, a psychologic reaction to the experience of having a medical illness, a side\\u000a effect of treatment, or a chance occurrence. This article briefly reviews the associations of panic disorder with seizure\\u000a disorder, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, mitral
Children with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are known to have cognitive, social, and behavioral deficits. Fifteen NF1-subjects (5 boys, 10 girls, mean age?=?13.4), and 15 healthy controls matched for age and sex were assessed on the presence of anxiety symptoms, using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), self-report questionnaire. Significant group differences emerged with regard to MASC total (Z?=?-2.058, P?=?0.041) and anxiety disorder index (ADI; Z?=?-2.202, P?=?0.026), but not with regard to single scales. When the severity and visibility of NF1 were considered, correlation between severity and social anxiety, and severity and MASC total was found. This is the first study assessing anxiety symptoms in NF1 children and youths. A precocious psychological survey and intervention in NF1 subjects, may contribute to reduce the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. PMID:22911924
The aim of this study was to assess fear and anxiety in dental patients. Five hundred patients were evaluated using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and the Dental Fear Scale, along with a questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT)/Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surfaces (DMFS) index. Statistic al analysis was performed (P < .05). Sex significantly affected dental anxiety (P < .05), and sex, marital status, having children, and time elapsed since last visit to clinician affected dental fear (P < .05). DMFT/DMFS scores were not related to dental anxiety or fear (P > .05). Female sex alone was a significant predictor of dental anxiety; female sex, adulthood, marriage, having children, and time passed since last visit to a clinician are significant predictors of fear. PMID:24392477
The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic.…
Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.
Test anxiety and mathematics anxiety have been found to relate to mathematics performance in both children and adults. This study investigated mathematics anxiety in elementary teachers and whether those who experience mathematics anxiety also have professional anxiety about teaching mathematics. A researcher-developed instrument called the…
Anxiety is common in people with dementia but little is known about its treatment. Seven cases with moderate\\/severe dementia and significant clinical anxiety are described. Anxiety symptoms were measured using the RAID scale. Anxiety was managed with pharmacological and psychosocial interventions. All patients showed a significant clinical improvement in their anxiety and had a considerable reduction in their RAID scores.
While the everyday decision-making of clinically anxious individuals is clearly influenced by their excessive fear and worry, the relationship between anxiety and decision-making remains relatively unexplored in neuroeconomic studies. In this review, we attempt to explore the role of anxiety in decision-making using a neuroeconomic approach. We first review the neural systems mediating fear and anxiety, which overlap with a network of brain regions implicated in studies of economic decision-making. We then discuss the potential influence of cognitive biases associated with anxiety upon economic choice, focusing on a set of decision-making biases involving choice in the face of potential aversive outcomes. We propose that the neural circuitry supporting fear learning and regulation may mediate the influence of anxiety upon choice, and suggest that techniques for altering fear and anxiety may also change decisions.
The purpose of this article is to offer tips in designing quality questionnaires and on avoiding common errors. Some of the more prevalent problems in questionnaire development are identified and suggestions of ways to avoid them are offered.
ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the US and Canada.
Applied Research Program (ARP) staff use a variety of methods to develop and test questionnaires, including established Questionnaire Design Principles, empirical methods such as Cognitive Testing and psychometric methods such as Item Response Theory Modeling.
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This package contains a copy of the software acquisition process maturity questionnaire. It is intended for those interested in performing and learning about software acquisition process appraisals. This questionnaire is not an appraisal method itself; ra...
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels.
Recent research suggests that social anxiety may be associated with higher rates of alcohol problems in women, yet may be associated with lower levels of drinking in men. The current study investigated putative mechanisms that may underlie potential gender differences in the social anxiety-alcohol relationship. One hundred and eighteen college students (61.0% women) completed an interview assessing drinking behaviors and questionnaires measuring social anxiety, drinking motives, and drinking situations. Although college men and women both reported similar frequencies of drinking in positive situations and to enhance positive emotions, women reported drinking more often in negative situations and to cope with aversive emotions than men. Mediated moderation analyses suggested that women with social anxiety may be at greater risk of encountering adverse consequences because of their likelihood to drink to conform or to cope with the aversive affect they experience in negative situations. Conversely, when men experience high rates of adverse consequences, it may be due to drinking greater quantities of alcohol in positive situations. Highly socially anxious college men may drink less alcohol and experience fewer adverse consequences than their nonanxious or mildly anxious counterparts because they may find themselves in positive situations and drinking to enhance positive feelings less often, potentially due to avoidant behavior. These findings may help to explain why social anxiety serves as a potential risk factor for alcohol-related problems for college women, but a protective factor for college men. PMID:21035618
Norberg, Melissa M; Norton, Alice R; Olivier, Jake; Zvolensky, Michael J
Background and Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between tinnitus and the level of anxiety and depression experienced by subjective tinnitus patients, and to determine the effect of the level of anxiety and depression to the results of tinnitus treatment. Subjects and Methods A total of 104 patients were included in this study. All the patients conducted Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory 1, 2 (STAI 1, 2) to evaluate their psychometric properties. The subjective patterns of tinnitus before and after treatment were assessed through questionnaires. Results Significant correlation between THI scores and BDI, STAI 1, 2 scores were observed in the moderate and severe tinnitus group. The patients were classified into two groups depending on their THI scores, and also classified into two groups according to BDI, STAI 1, 2 results. Analysis of differences after treatment indicated significantly improved VAS scores after treatment in all groups. Conclusions The subjective level of tinnitus is significantly related with depression and anxiety symptoms when inconvenience caused by tinnitus was moderate or over. Assessments on tinnitus after treatment appeared to have improved significantly regardless of the severity of tinnitus, level of depression or anxiety disorder.
Chi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Jae-Jun; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Bo Hae
Background Insecure early attachment experiences have been reported to play an important role in the manifestation in alcoholism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of attachment styles with anxiety, anxiety coping and dysfunctional personality styles, as well as with the prevalence of personality disorders, and adverse life-events in adolescence. Methods 59 inpatient alcohol addicted male (n=43) and female (n=16) patients were characterized by an attachment style scale (Relationships-style-questionnaire-RSQ) and completed a questionnaire battery comprising the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI), the Anxiety-Coping-Inventory (ABI), Temperament-and-character-inventory (TCI), Personality-system-interaction-inventory (PSI), and gave information on sociodemography, alcohol history, and adolescent adverse events. A structured interview (SKID-II) was performed to diagnose personality disorders. Results Only 33% of subjects had a secure attachment style. Insecure attachment was associated with significantly higher trait-anxiety, higher cognitive avoidance to control anxiety, and higher values on most personality style dimensions directed to the pathological pole. Conclusions Despite the limitation due to a small sample size, the results of this study show that the consideration of attachment styles is of significance in the diagnosis and therapy of alcohol addiction. Attachment may characterize different styles to control emotional aspects, anxiety cues and interpersonal relationships in individuals suffering from alcohol addiction.
Cross-cultural ethnographic data on 106 pre-industrial and industrializing societies were used to test seven hypotheses about sex-linked differences in modal levels of socialization anxiety observed among children. Five of these hypotheses were supported, demonstrating that boys displayed significantly higher overall levels of socialization anxiety than girls; girls exhibited significantly lower levels of anxiety related to achievement, independence, and self-reliance training
What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.
The improvement of social support promotes the mental health and improves the health status. The study aimed to examine the influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis and provide the scientific basis to further alleviate anxiety and depression and to monitor their whole quality of life. We investigated 324 inpatients with silicosis between April 2011 and September 2011. The HADS (the HospitalAnxiety-Depression Scale) was the major methodology used to evaluate anxiety and depression, and the MSPSS (the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) to evaluate the social support level. Among patients with silicosis, 99.1% had anxiety symptoms, and 86.1% had depression symptoms. Meanwhile, the social support significantly influenced symptoms of anxiety and depression. The study suggested that patients with silicosis presented more anxiety and depression symptoms, while the social support levels of the patients were relatively low. The influence of social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis implied that improving the level of social support and the effective symptomatic treatment might alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms and improve physical and mental status.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cold application on pain and anxiety during chest tube removal (CTR) in patients who had undergone cardiac surgery. A single-blinded randomized design was used in this study. Ninety patients aged 18-74 years, hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU), who had a chest tube for a duration of at least 24 hours were used for this convenience sample. The application of cold, placebo, or control therapies was randomized into three different groups. Sixty minutes before CTR was scheduled, an ICU nurse administered 10mg/kg paracetamol intravenously to all study subjects. Cold and warm packs covered with gauze dressing were applied to the area surrounding the chest tubes for 20 minutes. Pain intensity, pain quality and situational anxiety for CTR were measured. Variance analysis and the latent growth model were used in the analysis of the data. Patients in the cold group had significantly lower pain intensity than the placebo group. The perception of pain intensity measured by visual analog scores of patients in the cold group showed the least variation. There was no statistically significant difference in McGill Melzack Pain Questionnaire scores or in change of anxiety level between the three groups. The application of cold prolonged the length of time until analgesics were needed after CTR. Results showed that cold application reduced patients' intensity of pain due to CTR but did not affect anxiety levels or the type of pain. Cold application is recommended as a pain-relieving technique during CTR. PMID:20728068
This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…
Background It is unclear to which extent the rate of disclosure of the diagnosis "HIV" to the social environment and the nature of experienced responses are correlated with the current mental health status of HIV-infected patients living in Germany. Materials and Methods Eighty consecutive patients of two German HIV outpatient clinics were enrolled. Patients performed the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in its German version. Disclosure behaviour and the experienced responses after disclosing as perceived by the participants were assessed using a questionnaire. In addition, patients were asked to state whether they felt guilty for the infection on a 1-4 point Likert scale. Results Pathological results on the anxiety scale were reached by 40% of male and 73% of female patients, and on the depression scale by 30% of male and 47% of female patients, thus significantly exceeding recently assessed values in the German general population, except for depression in males. None of the HADS scale results was interrelated either with the rate of disclosure or the experienced responses. 36% of patients reported to feel guilty for the infection, which was positively correlated with results from the HADS. Limitation: The time since the single disclosure events was not assessed, and the subgroup of women was comparably small. Conclusions Despite substantial improvement in treatment, HIV-infected patients in Germany still suffer from an elevated level of anxiety and, in part, depression. However, mental health status was neither related with disclosure behaviour nor with experienced responses. We hypothesize that internal beliefs may play a more important role.
Brokamp, Felix; Thomaidis, Thomas; Schmidt, Reinhold E.; Wiltink, Jorg; Galle, Peter R.
The present study examined negative mood regulation expectancies, anxiety symptom severity, and quality of life in a sample of 167 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 165 healthy controls with no DSM-IV Axis I disorders. Participants completed the Generalized Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation Scale (NMR), the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. SAD symptom severity was assessed using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Individuals with SAD scored significantly lower than controls on the NMR. Among SAD participants, NMR scores were negatively correlated with anxiety symptoms and SAD severity, and positively correlated with quality of life. NMR expectancies positively predicted quality of life even after controlling for demographic variables, comorbid diagnoses, anxiety symptoms, and SAD severity. Individuals with SAD may be less likely to engage in emotion regulating strategies due to negative beliefs regarding their effectiveness, thereby contributing to poorer quality of life.
Sung, Sharon C.; Porter, Eliora; Robinaugh, Donald J.; Marks, Elizabeth H.; Marques, Luana M.; Otto, Michael W.; Pollack, Mark H.; Simon, Naomi M.
This report reviews the development of the Test Anxiety Scale and its theoretical basis. Literature on test anxiety and its relationship to stress is summarized. Normative data on test anxiety is presented. Theoretical, research, and practical implication...
To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V.
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.
Although the number of computers in the school system is increasing, many schools are not using computers to their capacity. One reason for this may be computer anxiety on the part of the teacher. A review of the computer anxiety literature reveals little information on the subject, and findings from previous studies suggest that basic controlled…
A composition researcher collected stories from students with writing anxiety, using qualitative research tools of interview and interpretation. In literary theory it is not unusual to speak of anxiety of influence when referring to the torment of proving one is equal to a revered author. The critic Harold Bloom presented it as his theory of the…
Anxiety, depression and suicidal thoughts are highly prevalent comorbidities of end-stage-renal-disease (ESRD). There are no studies in Lebanon on the prevalence of these symptoms in Lebanese end-stage-renal-disease patients. Moreover, the association between ESRD on one hand, and anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation on the other has never been established in Lebanon. Groups of patients at a high-risk of development of these symptoms are not determined. The HospitalAnxiety and Depression Score and M.I.N.I (module C) were used to measure the prevalence of anxiety, depression and suicidal ideation in 51 patients from the dialysis center of Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital in Lebanon. In our sample, 45% of included patients suffered from symptoms of anxiety and 50% presented symptoms of depression.The prevalence of suicidal ideation as detected by the M.I.N.I. is at 37%. No patients presented with a high risk of suicide. There was a statistically significant correlation between the existence of organic comorbidities and the presence of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation. As for anxiety, the association was marginally significant. The results obtained by our study are consistent with those found in studies performed in other societies. The profile of depression- and suicidal ideation-prone patients has been determined. It consists of patients with at least one medical comorbidity to the ESRD. This, in turn, should lead to increased awareness and better treatment of these psychiatric ailments, considering their impact on morbidity and mortality in ESRD. PMID:24337520
From June 2001, health questionnaires were distributed to people who complained about symptoms of ill health which they ascribed to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The objective of the survey was to gain a better knowledge of the anxieties of complainants, to obtain hints of possible problems and of actions that should be taken to solve the problems. The survey
Martin Röösli; Mirjana Moser; Yvonne Baldinini; Martin Meier; Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer
We examined the validity of Behar and Stringfield's Preschool Behaviour Questionnaire (PBQ) with young, elementary school age children. In Study 1, the PBQ was administered to 157 grade one children. A factor analysis was performed on the 30 items of the PBQ. The three factors that emerged were almost identical to those described by Bchar and Stringfield (hostility\\/aggression, anxiety\\/fearfulness, and
The Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) is a self-report instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceived interpersonal anxiety levels in a wide range of relationships with people of different ages, genders, levels of authority, and levels of intimacy and in several contexts: family, school, friends, opposite…
Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Zhou, Xinyue; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.
This article presents an activity that makes use of a questionnaire similar to a Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) which elicit students' responses about their previous speaking experiences, their own definitions of anxiety and its causes, and their plans for future careers. This activity is aimed at helping students overcome…
Background The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is generally well accepted, but 25-33% of patients experience clinical levels of anxiety, depression, and impaired quality of life (QoL) following implantation. Few trials in ICD patients have investigated whether behavioral intervention may mitigate the development of these adjustment problems. We present the rationale and study design of the WEB-based distress management program for implantable CARdioverter dEfibrillator patients (WEBCARE) trial. Methods WEBCARE is a multi-center, multi-disciplinary, randomized, controlled behavioral intervention trial designed to examine the effectiveness of a web-based approach in terms of reducing levels of anxiety and device concerns and enhancing QoL. Consecutive patients hospitalized for the implantation of an ICD will be approached for study participation while in hospital and randomized to the intervention arm (n = 175) versus usual care (n = 175) at baseline (5-10 days post implantation). Patients will complete assessments of patient-centered outcomes at baseline, 14, 26, and 52 weeks after implantation. Patients randomized to the intervention arm will receive a 12-week web-based behavioral intervention starting 2 weeks after implantation. Primary endpoints include (ii) patient-centered outcomes (i.e., anxiety, depression, ICD acceptance, QoL); (iii) health care utilization; and (iiii) cost-effectiveness. All primary endpoints will be assessed with standardized and validated disease-specific or generic questionnaires. Secondary endpoints include (iii) cortisol awakening response; and (iiii) ventricular arrhythmias. Discussion WEBCARE will show whether a behavioral intervention using a web-based approach is feasible and effective in reducing anxiety and ICD concerns and improving QoL in ICD patients. Trial Registration http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00895700.
Summary Background Although studies have assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), few have been conducted since the advent of new medical treatments (e.g., nebulized antibiotics, ThAIRpy Vest). Study objectives were to: 1) document symptoms of depression and anxiety for adolescents and young adults with CF and compare with normative values, 2) examine the associations among depressive/anxiety symptoms and gender, age, lung function, and body mass index, and 3) determine the relations between adolescent and caregiver symptoms of depression and anxiety. Methods Patients and caregivers completed the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anytime (e.g. beginning or end) during routine CF clinic appointments. Results Participants included 59 adolescents/young adults with CF (Mage = 15.8 years, 54% female, 98% Caucasian, MFEV1 % predicted = 84.6) and caregivers of 40 adolescents. Although symptom scores were in the normative range for patients with CF (MDepression = 2.27 and MAnxiety = 5.59), 3% and 32% exhibited clinically elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly associated with age (r = 0.28, 0.36). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were also positively correlated (r = 0.48). Females endorsed higher anxiety symptoms than males. While adolescent and caregiver anxiety scores were not related, higher caregiver depressive symptoms were associated with older patient age and worse lung function. Conclusions Data from the current study suggest low levels of depressive symptoms and substantial levels of anxiety symptoms in adolescents and young adults with CF. Consistent with prior literature, depressive symptoms appear higher in older patients and are significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. Caregiver symptomology appears to be more affected by an adolescent’s health status, suggesting a need to screen caregivers when health begins to decline.
Modi, Avani C.; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Montag-Leifling, Karen; Acton, James D.
Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex. PMID:23722398
Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n?=?958) hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item). The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10), and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies.
Levels of anxiety were assessed through questionnaires completed by 1781 screen-positive (PSA?3ng\\/mL) men attending the European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer in Gothenburg, Sweden. During the first visit (clinical examination, including biopsies), no anxiety whilst awaiting the PSA test results was reported by 66% and 2% reported high levels of anxiety. A multinomial logistics model for repeated measurements,
Sigrid Carlsson; Gunnar Aus; Catrin Wessman; Jonas Hugosson
Bach-flower remedies are a type of alternative medication used increasingly for over-the-counter self-help purposes. We studied the efficacy of a combination of Bach-flower remedies in subjects with test anxiety in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded parallel group design, with crossing over the placebo group to remedies after the first phase. Anxiety was measured by a standardized, validated test anxietyquestionnaire (the
This study examined the association between cognitive impairment and anxiety disorders following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-six participants recruited from a rehabilitation hospital completed the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition) and cognitive tests at one year post injury. Prevalence of anxiety disorder was 27.3%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the attention/working memory, information processing, and executive functions models were significantly associated with anxiety disorder. The memory model was not significant. Processing speed emerged as the strongest model associated with anxiety disorder. The role of cognitive impairment in the etiology of anxiety disorders after TBI is discussed, and treatment implications are explored. PMID:24303952
Gould, Kate Rachel; Ponsford, Jennie Louise; Spitz, Gershon
Using a sample of adult survivors of physical trauma requiring hospitalization (N = 677), we examined the relationship of aspects of alexithymia and anxiety sensitivity to symptoms of posttraumatic distress (PTD). At the bivariate level, both aspects of alexithymia and anxiety sensitivity were positively associated with acute PTD symptomatology, but anxiety sensitivity was more strongly related to PTD symptoms. At the multivariate level, both anxiety sensitivity and aspects of alexithymia made unique and independent contributions to both total PTD symptoms and the majority of PTD symptom clusters. At the facet level, anxiety sensitivity Physical Concerns and Psychological Concerns, and the alexithymic dimension of Difficulty Identifying Feelings, were uniquely associated with acute PTD symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of potential clinical implications.
Zahradnik, Marc; Stewart, Sherry H.; Marshall, Grant N.; Schell, Terry L.; Jaycox, Lisa H.
Previous research suggests that parental controlling feeding practices are associated with children's overeating and undereating behaviours. However, there is limited research addressing the link between children's mental health symptoms (specifically anxiety and depression) and their reports of eating behaviours, despite knowledge that these psychopathologies often co-exist. The current study aimed to identify the relationships between preadolescents' perceptions of their parents' feeding practices with reports of their own anxiety, depression and eating behaviours. Three hundred and fifty-six children (mean age 8.75?years) completed questionnaires measuring their dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as their perceptions of their parents' use of pressure to eat and restriction of food. Children also completed measures of general anxiety, social anxiety and depression symptomology. Results indicated that preadolescents' eating behaviours were associated with their perceptions of the controlling feeding practices their parents used with them. Preadolescents' dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating behaviours were positively associated with their reports of general and social anxiety, and depression symptomology. In addition, perceptions of parental pressure to eat were positively related to preadolescents' anxiety and depression levels. Child anxiety (general and social) was found to mediate the relationship between perceptions of parental pressure to eat and preadolescents' eating behaviours (dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating). The results suggest that greater anxiety in preadolescents may explain why children who perceive greater pressure to eat by their parents are more likely to exhibit maladaptive eating behaviours. PMID:24816324
The current study investigated the longitudinal relationships among behavioral inhibition (BI), life events, and anxiety in a sample of 102 BI children and 100 behaviorally uninhibited (BUI) children aged 3 to 4 years. Children's parents completed questionnaires on BI, stressful life events, and anxiety symptoms, and were administered a diagnostic interview three times in a 5-year period. In line with our hypotheses, negative life events, particularly negative behavior-dependent life events (i.e., life events that are related to the children's own behaviors), and the impact of negative life events were predictive of increases in subsequent anxiety symptoms, the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder, and increased number of anxiety diagnoses over the 5-year follow-up period. Experiencing more positive, behavior-independent life events decreased the risk of being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Furthermore, differences were found in life events between BI and BUI children. That is, BI children experienced fewer positive and specifically positive behavior-dependent life events, and the impact of these positive life events was also lower in BI children than in BUI children. However, BI did not interact with life events in the prediction of anxiety problems as hypothesized. Therefore, this study seems to indicate that BI and life events act as additive risk factors in the development of anxiety problems. PMID:24382091
Broeren, Suzanne; Newall, Carol; Dodd, Helen F; Locker, Ruth; Hudson, Jennifer L
Objective: This study was performed to survey the relationship between coaches’ and athletes’ competitive anxiety, and their performance. Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study performed using a demographic questionnaire, an athletic performance checklist, and sport competition anxiety test designed by Martens consisting of 15 questions. The study population consisted of 540 players and 60 coaches from 60 futsal teams (5 main players, 4 reserves, and 1 coach for each team). All of the players and the coaches were surveyed in a census method and no sampling was done. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results: The results showed a positive significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and sport competition anxiety level in the athletes (p = 0.019, r = 0.56). It also showed that there was a negative significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and performance level of the athletes (p = 0.012, r = -0.80). A negative significant relationship was also demonstrated between the athletes’ competitive anxiety level, and their athletic experiences (p < 0.001, r = -0.45) and age (p = 0.001, r = -0.37). Conclusions: Coaches and officials should consider sport competition anxiety among athletes before and during competitions. Formal and planned competitions, training sessions, and preparation practices can be a major factor assisting to decrease athletes' anxiety. Declaration of interest: None.
Health-related Internet use has grown rapidly, yet little research has considered how health anxious individuals use the Internet for this purpose. Our aim was to examine the relationships between health anxiety and the extent of, reasons for, and consequences of health-related Internet usage in university students (n = 255). Responses on a purpose-made Internet use questionnaire were correlated with health anxiety scores; multiple regression analyses controlling for depression and anxiety were also conducted. Health anxiety positively correlated with (all ps < .01): frequency of health-related searching (rs = .163), proportion of health-related information sought (rs = .200), time spent online for health purposes (rs = .166), and number of searches for both illness (rs = .453) and wellness (rs = .208) information. Health anxiety further positively correlated with advantages perceived in health-related Internet use (rs = .183), heightened tension (rs = .364) and relief (rs = .174) post-search, and perceived doctor disadvantages (rs = .306), yet a greater likelihood to visit a doctor post-search (rs = .217). Health anxiety also correlated with six measures of possible addiction to using the Internet for health purposes (rs range = .171 to .366, all ps < .01). Some (including several potentially dysfunctional) aspects of health-related Internet use correlate with health anxiety. Research evaluating the possible role of Internet use in the development and maintenance of health anxiety is warranted. PMID:24467278
Recent media reports in the USA of baby-switching at birth have caused anxiety for a number of maternity patients. Although alternative precautionary procedures are being implemented by hospitals to prevent baby-switching, ways to allay the maternity patient's anxiety must also be considered. While maternity patients can be expected to recognize their neonates, it is less clear how well they perform recognition under specified conditions. An American team of researchers noted postpartum mothers' anxiety levels and their natural cues to recognize crying sounds and garment smells of their babies as preventive measures against baby-switching. An experimental study design was used to conduct this research. Participants completed a demographic form and Levin's pregnancy anxiety instrument, followed by three recognition challenges for hearing and smelling cues. Ten per cent of mothers reported anxiety about baby-switching, 65.9% recognized their babies from recorded crying, and 52.3% recognized their babies by smell. Mothers do have the natural ability to recognize the cries or smells of their babies, even when anxious about baby-switching. Educating new mothers, acknowledging their natural ability for baby recognition, and promoting the use of private rooms with same-room (couplet) care can serve as extra safeguards. PMID:12048488
DiPasquale Davis, J; Moran, M K; Horger, E O; Dajani, A N
The purpose of this study is to move beyond the more traditional focus on individual characteristics as they relate to anxiety in the use of a foreign language. In order to do this, cultural characteristics, perceptions of the cause of successful learning, and foreign (English) language use anxiety were included as the major variables. Three…
The Zuckerman Affect Adjective Check List (AACL) is used to measure trait anxiety and situation-specific trait anxiety relating to peer interaction, vocational aspiration, and the learning of English, mathematics, science and social studies. The subjects were 262 grade 10 students attending an Australian metropolitan high school. Additional…
This review provides a detailed analysis of anxiety and depression as they relate to each stage of the cigarette smoking cycle: initiation, maintenance, and cessation with an emphasis on nicotine withdrawal. An analysis of the literature confirms that cigarette smoking is highly comorbid with anxiety disorders and clinical depression, and that this relationship appears to be moderated by factors such
The effects of achievement-oriented and neutral instructions on the humor ratings of both testing and non-testing cartoons were assessed for high- and low test-anxious students. The effects of humor in reducing state anxiety were also evaluated. Fifty-two undergraduate students were selected on the basis of their Test Anxiety Scale scores. Both…
The behavioral manifestations of social anxiety may have implications for social outcomes. Unfortunately, little is known about how anxiety shapes social interaction. The present study examined social interactions in dyads consisting of either 2 nonsocially anxious (NSA) individuals or 1 socially anxious (SA) and 1 NSA individual. Behavior, self-reported affect, and perceptions were examined. In comparison with the interactions of
Prior research concluded that collaborative learning reduces test anxiety. Examination of the evidence used in that research, however, calls into question those conclusions. The present study used an empirical measure of test anxiety and an experimental design to provide an improved estimate of the effect of collaboration in an evaluative context…
Breedlove, William; Burkett, Tracy; Winfield, Idee
To assist the clinician or researcher in scale selection, four symposium papers discussed instruments available to measure test anxiety (TA), with special attention given to the newly-developed Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Following an integrative summary delivered by the chairperson (DeVito), the first paper (Conetta and Tryon) reviewed the two…
Background: In the Netherlands, no self-report screening questionnaire for anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) was available yet. Therefore, we have translated the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID) into Dutch and studied its reliability and validity in adults with borderline, mild or…
Hermans, H.; Wieland, J.; Jelluma, N.; Van der Pas, F.; Evenhuis, H.
The objective of this study was to describe patients' and informal carers' perceptions of care received and services offered following a diagnosis of primary lung cancer. We prepared a prospective, national, mail questionnaire survey of 466 patients with a diagnosis of primary lung cancer and a lay carer of their choice. The setting was 24 randomly chosen hospitals throughout the UK, from a range of urban (n = 11) and rural settings (n = 13). The majority (76%/159) of responders were recipients of care from cancer units. Two hundred and nine patients (45%) with primary lung cancer and 70 (15%) lay carers completed questionnaires. The main results that we found were that key areas of unmet need were most apparent during periods away from acute service sectors, with as few as 40% of patients reporting having received as much help as they needed from community services. The greatest onus of care for patients fell to lay carers, but only 29% of patients identified their lay carers as having needs in relation to their illness. Where patients received all their diagnostic tests in one hospital they were significantly more likely to wait less time between first seeing their general practitioner (GP) and being told their diagnosis (P = 0.0001) than patients who had to attend more than one hospital during their diagnostic work-up period. Fifty per cent of patients reported experiencing some degree of breathlessness even at rest, but only 15% reported having received any advice on living with it. Less than a quarter (23%) of hospital consultants identified anxiety as a key problem for patients with lung cancer, but 66% of patients identified it as such. Hospital staff largely overlook the needs of informal carers, who derive support from a small, mainly community oriented group of professionals, but accessing help is problematic and is dependent on local resources and a need to be proactive. Our conclusions are that developments in service provision for patients with lung cancer and their informal carers need to focus on six key areas: development of strategies to encourage patients to present earlier to their GP; ongoing evaluation of rapid diagnostic clinics; development and evaluation of a lung cancer care coordinator role; evaluation of innovations in delivery of nursing care in the community; development of local guidelines to facilitate equitable access to palliative care and social services; and evaluation of supportive strategies targeted at lay carers. PMID:11407193
Bach-flower remedies are a type of alternative medication used increasingly for over-the-counter self-help purposes. We studied the efficacy of a combination of Bach-flower remedies in subjects with test anxiety in a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded parallel group design, with crossing over the placebo group to remedies after the first phase. Anxiety was measured by a standardized, validated test anxietyquestionnaire (the German version of the Test Anxiety Inventory, TAI-G). Fifty-five of 61 subjects with self-reported test anxiety gave valid data. There was no significant difference between the groups, but a significant decrease of test anxiety in all groups was present. We conclude that Bach-flower remedies are an effective placebo for test anxiety and do not have a specific effect. PMID:11474820
To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and SAD. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847
Hofmann, Stefan G; Anu Asnaani, M A; Hinton, Devon E
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192 children drawn from a community sample of 688 children attending public elementary schools. Half of these children were selected because they were identified as anxious solitary by peers and the other half were demographically-matched controls. 192 children provided self reports of social anxiety disorder symptoms on a questionnaire, and 76 of these children and their parent participated in clinical interviews. Results indicate that children identified by their peers as anxious solitary in the fall of 4th grade, compared to control children, were significantly more likely to receive diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and selective mutism based on parent clinical interviews. Additionally, there was a tendency for these children to be diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and post traumatic stress disorder based on parent clinical interviews. Furthermore, children who had been identified as anxious solitary at any time in the 3rd or 4th grades were more likely than control children to report symptoms of social anxiety disorder that fell in the clinical range and to receive diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and dysthymia (both trends) and major depression (a significant effect) according to parental clinical interview. PMID:19707867
Uses a life-stress questionnaire modified for older respondents to study the impact of life stress in 62 patients hospitalized for neurobehavioral treatment. Results suggest that 17 items may be sufficient to estimate life-change effects. The degree of stress impact must be sought systematically to understand stress. (Author/JAC)
With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Objective To investigate whether maternal anxiety in the third trimester is associated with an increased uterine artery resistance index. Design Cohort based study. Subjects 100 pregnant women, with a mean gestation of 32 weeks. Outcome measures Self rating Spielberger questionnaire for state anxiety and trait anxiety, and uterine blood flow waveform patterns as assessed by colour Doppler ultrasound. Results A significant association was found between uterine artery resistance index and scores for both Spielberger state anxiety and trait anxiety (rs=0.31, P<0.002 and 0.28 P<0.005 respectively). Women with state anxiety scores >40 (n=15) had a higher mean uterine resistance index than those with scores ?40 (mean difference with mean resistance index 24%, 95% confidence interval 12% to 38%; P<0.0001). Similarly, women with trait anxiety scores >40 (n=32) had a higher mean resistance index than those with scores ?40, although to a lesser extent. The presence of notches in the waveform pattern produced by uterine artery blood flow was found in 4/15 (27%) women with high state anxiety scores compared with 4/85 (5%) with low anxiety scores (P<0.02). Conclusions This study shows an association between maternal anxiety in pregnancy and increased uterine artery resistance index. It suggests a mechanism by which the psychological state of the mother may affect fetal development, and may explain epidemiological associations between maternal anxiety and low birth weight. The influence of maternal anxiety may be one mechanism by which the intrauterine environment contributes to later disease in offspring. Key messagesWomen who were anxious during pregnancy had significantly abnormal patterns of blood flow through the uterine arteriesOf the most anxious group, 27% had an increased resistance index of clinical concern, compared with 4% in the less anxious groupThe study did not establish whether the impaired blood flow was predominantly linked with state anxiety or trait anxietyThe findings may help to explain previous studies that have linked stress or anxiety in pregnancy with small for gestational age babies
Teixeira, Jeronima M A; Fisk, Nicholas M; Glover, Vivette
Emotional dysregulation is a process which consists in mitigating, intensifying, or maintaining a given emotion and is the trigger for some psychological disorders. Research has shown that an anxiety control plays an important role in emotional expression and regulation and, in addition, for anorexia nervosa (AN) and, more in general, in drive for thinness. Scientific literature suggests that in AN there is a core of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control as independent or third variables in a mediational regression model related to drive for thinness. One hundred fifty-four clinical individuals with anorexia participated in the study and all completed a set of self-report questionnaires: eating disorders inventory version 3 (EDI-3), DERS, and the anxiety control questionnaire. The data confirmed a mediational model in which the relation between emotional dysregulation and drive for thinness is mediated by anxiety control. The current study partially supports a clinical model in which emotional dysregulation is a distal factor in eating disorders while the mediator variable anxiety control is a proximal factor in the psychopathological process underlying it. PMID:24795659
Fiore, Francesca; Ruggiero, Giovanni M; Sassaroli, Sandra
Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization.
Barakovic, Devla; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Sinanovic, Osman
The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic AnxietyQuestionnaire (CSAQ), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Hamilton's Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research.
Sharma, Mahendra P.; Mao, Angelina; Sudhir, Paulomi M.
Emotional dysregulation is a process which consists in mitigating, intensifying, or maintaining a given emotion and is the trigger for some psychological disorders. Research has shown that an anxiety control plays an important role in emotional expression and regulation and, in addition, for anorexia nervosa (AN) and, more in general, in drive for thinness. Scientific literature suggests that in AN there is a core of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control as independent or third variables in a mediational regression model related to drive for thinness. One hundred fifty-four clinical individuals with anorexia participated in the study and all completed a set of self-report questionnaires: eating disorders inventory version 3 (EDI-3), DERS, and the anxiety control questionnaire. The data confirmed a mediational model in which the relation between emotional dysregulation and drive for thinness is mediated by anxiety control. The current study partially supports a clinical model in which emotional dysregulation is a distal factor in eating disorders while the mediator variable anxiety control is a proximal factor in the psychopathological process underlying it.
Fiore, Francesca; Ruggiero, Giovanni M.; Sassaroli, Sandra
A substantial proportion of noncommunicable disease originates in habitual overconsumption of calories, which can lead to weight gain and obesity and attendant comorbidities. At the other end of the spectrum, the consequences of undernutrition in early life and at different stages of adult life can also have major impact on wellbeing and quality of life. To help address some of these issues, greater understanding is required of interactions with food and contemporary diets throughout the life course and at a number of different levels: physiological, metabolic, psychological, and emotional. Here we review the current literature on the effects of dietary manipulation on anxiety-like behaviour. This evidence, assembled from study of preclinical models of diet challenge from gestation to adult life, supports a role for diet in the important connections between psychology, physiology, and behaviour. Analogous processes in the human population in our current obesogenic environment are likely to contribute to individual and societal challenges in this area.
Introduction: Information concerning the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is controversial. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: determine the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with SDB; explore whether the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms rises with increasing parameters of SDB severity; and investigate the factors potentially associated with anxiety and depression. Materials and Methodology: Data was collected from consecutive adult patients referred to the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases’ Sleep Medicine Unit from October 2008 to October 2009. SDB diagnoses were established using standard polysomnography or simplified respiratory polygraphy. All patients routinely completed the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on their first visit to the Sleep Medicine Unit. Results: 382 patients with SDB were included. Mean age was 50.8±13.6 years, 62% were male. Anxiety symptoms were acknowledged by 71 patients (18.5%), while 29 (7.6%) had depression symptoms, and 116 (30.4%) had symptoms of anxiety plus depression. Patients who reported anxiety and depression symptoms scored higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, 16±7) than those with no symptoms (11±6) (p<0.0001). Patients with symptoms of anxiety plus depression also had higher BMIs (36 ± 8 K/m2) than patients with SDB without anxiety or depression. No other differences were observed, not even with respect to the parameters of the severity of their SDB. Conclusions: Our results support the recommendation that due to their high frequency and potential importance for long-term adherence to CPAP, anxiety and depression symptoms should be included in the routine evaluation of all adults with SDB.
Reyes-Zuniga, Margarita; Castorena-Maldonado, Armando; Carrillo-Alduenda, Jose Luis; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Martinez-Estrada, Araceli; Gomez-Torres, Leonardo; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis
Background and aims Anxiety and depression are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The degree of lung function may not explain anxiety and depression. The aim of our study was to assess the psychological aspects of COPD, to test the BODE index (a composite score of body mass, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise capacity), and to evaluate the association between atypical cytologic findings of sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and the pyschological components of the disease. Methods COPD was classsified according to the GOLD stages based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in 60 stable patients. The BODE index was calculated for grading COPD. The Hospitalanxiety and depression (HAD) scale was used to appraise the anxiety and depression symptoms. Cytologic examination of sputum and BAL samples were performed in each patient. The cytologic findings were classified as normal, mild, moderate or severe atypia. Results The overall prevalance of anxiety and depression symptoms was 41.7% and 46.7% respectively. The prevalance of these symptoms increased with increasing BODE stages and correlated well with the severity of atypical BAL cytology results (p < 0.001). Dyspnea and reduced exercise capacity were the predominant mechanisms leading to anxiety and depression symptoms associated with COPD. Conclusions We conclude that the BODE index is superior to GOLD stratification for explaining anxiety and depression symptoms in COPD. BAL cytologic findings, which reflect the distal parenchymal lung structure, correlated significantly with the presence of the anxiety and depression symptoms.
Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…
The reciprocal relationship between social anxiety and the communication of information about the self is examined. Social anxiety appears to arise from people's concerns about the impressions others are forming of them. Specifically, it is proposed that social anxiety occurs when people are motivated to create a desired impression on audiences but doubt they will do so. High social anxiety,
Evidence is reviewed that indicates that social anxiety is a significant motivation for drinking among college students. Although the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been studied from a variety of perspectives, there has been little integration of data. Drawing from the alcohol and anxiety literature, the relationship between social anxiety and heavy drinking in college students is
Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to further elucidate the relation between pubertal timing and social anxiety, with a
Heidemarie Blumenthal; Ellen W. Leen-Feldner; Kimberly A. Babson; Jessica L. Gahr; Casey D. Trainor; Jamie L. Frala
The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…
In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…
Research into writing anxiety is an off-shoot of research into oral communication anxiety. At first, researchers thought that people with high oral communication anxiety tended to compensate by writing. However, when the Daly-Miller Writing Apprehension Test was used, it was found that the link between oral and written anxiety did not exist. The…
The relationship between anxiety and depression was examined in a sample of 106 children and adolescents referred to an outpatient anxiety disorder clinic for children. Twenty-eight percent of patients with DSM-III diagnoses of anxiety disorders displayed a concurrent major depression. Children with anxiety disorders plus major depression were found (1) to be older, (2) to demonstrate more severe anxiety symptomatology,
Cyd C. Strauss; Cynthia G. Last; Michel Hersen; Alan E. Kazdin
Anxiety is one of the wide varieties of emotional and behaviour disorders, it is a major predictor for low academic performance among students. To this, anxiety should be taken seriously. Students need some form of intervention to reduce anxiety and assist in improving academic performance. Study anxiety intervention is designed to help students handle the problem of anxiety while studying.
Prima Vitasari; Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Othman; Muhammad Ghani Awang
Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety,…
Morissette, Sandra Baker; Tull, Matthew T.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Zimering, Rose T.
The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service…
This article provides a brief review of the current available data concerning present treatment and potential new treatment advances for pediatric anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Disorder-specific treatment methods and innovations, particularly computer-assisted methods of delivery for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) will be reviewed. Additionally, the paper will discuss novel psychopharmacological compounds (e.g., D-cycloserine, riluzole, memantine, and anticonvulsant medications). Available evidence for the efficacy of novel medication strategies in adult studies and implications for their use in pediatrics will be discussed. PMID:24279893
Rapp, Amy; Dodds, Alice; Walkup, John T; Rynn, Moira
Fear of suffocation and fear of restriction are thought to underlie claustrophobia and can be assessed with the Claustrophobia Questionnaire (CLQ; Radomsky et al., 2001). A first study tested the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the CLQ. Students (N=363) completed a Dutch translation of the CLQ and a set of other questionnaires assessing other specific fears, anxiety or depression. Results confirmed the two-factor structure and showed that the Dutch version of the CLQ has good psychometric properties. A second study tested the predictive validity of the Dutch CLQ. Participants (N=23) were exposed each to nine claustrophobic situations with elements of suffocation, restriction or both. The Dutch CLQ was found to be a significant predictor of fear and respiratory reactivity during claustrophobic exposure. It can be concluded that the Dutch version of the CLQ is a reliable and valid instrument to assess claustrophobic fear. PMID:20558033
Focuses on the validation of a writing strategies questionnaire and presents the various stages in the validation process. The questionnaire was validated using a qualitative and quantitative method with two groups of participants from the target population--advanced nonnative speakers of English. (VWL)
This study was designed to assess Q-T interval dispersion as a marker of electrical instability in subjects with anxiety. Recent observations have shown that the presence of anxiety symptoms increases the risk of sudden death. The Kawachi anxietyquestionnaire identified 29 subjects (male/female ratio 13:16) who scored 0, 22 subjects (male/female ratio 14:8) who scored 1, and 37 subjects (male/female ratio 13:24) who scored 2 or more. In all subjects we measured electrocardiographic interlead QT dispersion and autonomic function through spectral analysis of R-R interval and blood pressure variabilities and left ventricular mass. Compared with subjects who scored 0, those reporting 2 or more symptoms showed increased heart rate-corrected QT dispersion (54.9+/-1.7 ms vs. 34.9+/-3.2 ms, P<.001), sympathetic modulation (normal logarithm low-frequency power/high-frequency power 0.59+/-0.1 vs. 0.12+/-0.04, P<.05), and left ventricular mass (120.7+/-3.5 g/m2 vs. 97.9+/-2.8 g/m2, P<.001). Probably because it augments sympathetic activity, anxiety causes left ventricular mass to increase and, like hypertension, increases heart rate-corrected Q-T interval dispersion. The consequent electrical instability could be the substrate responsible for inducing fatal ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:10235129
Piccirillo, G; Viola, E; Bucca, C; Santagada, E; Raganato, P; Tondo, A; Lucchetti, D; Nocco, M; Marigliano, V
It is well documented that the psychiatric disorders are common in Asthma patients in China while the studies on the relationship between asthma control and psychological disorder are comparatively rare. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study on asthmatic outpatients in one Chinese tertiary center to investigate the correlation among asthma, anxiety and depression. Demographic data, anxiety and depression scores, the level of asthma control were collected in 261 patients. All patients were evaluated with Asthma Control Test (ACT), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating depression scale (SDS) questionnaires. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between asthma control and psychological disorder. The result showed that 31 asthma patients had anxiety symptom while thirty-five asthma patients had depression. One hundred and ninety-two asthma patients were well controlled and 69 patients were not. The study found a negative correlation between ACT and SAS(r?=??0.231, p<0.001) as well as ACT and SDS(r?=??0.23, p<0.001) and depression (OR: 12.295, 95%CI: [5.374–28.128], p<0.001) were both independently associated with poor asthma control. We concluded that Asthma control is greatly affected by psychological disorder in Chinese patients.
The challenges of professional life are becoming more and more demanding on people's private life, especially if a given profession requires many sacrifices and has negative consequences for one's physical and psychological health, as is the case of professional mariners. The purpose of this study is to attempt to verify the correlation between the quality of emotional bonds, manifested in marital satisfaction, and the level of stress and anxiety perceived by mariners. The study encompasses 210 mariners working on seagoing ships. The following research tools were employed for the purpose of the study: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Stress Experience Questionnaire (PS) and Well-matched Marriage Questionnaire (KDM). The results indicate that marital satisfaction is correlated with the level of stress and anxiety among mariners, constituting a stress inhibitor. PMID:24408144
Pepli?ska, Aleksandra; Je?ewska, Maria; Leszczy?ska, Irena; Po?omski, Piotr
JM Armfield introduced the questionnaire "Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear" with the intention of giving research into this complex area a broader theoretical base. A German translation of the IDAF-4C+ was given to 287 dental patients in Germany, of which 188 were recruited from a Dental Fears Clinic. Together with the IDAF-4C+ the patients also filled out the Dental Anxiety Scale, the Dental Fear Survey and Beck's Anxiety Inventory. The good reliability of the IDAF core dental anxiety and fear module, that was found in the original Australian research, was found to be even better in the translated version. The factorial validity of the fear- and phobia module could be confirmed, the stimulus module only partly. With the translation of the IDAF-4C+ there is for the first time a questionnaire available in the German language that not only measures the extent of the dental fears but also diagnoses the anxiety-causing stimuli and intends to differentiate between dental fear and phobia. PMID:23821478
This study investigates the role of attachment anxiety and the experience of intense life adversity in the development of compliance. It also seeks to specify which types of negative life events may be especially relevant in encouraging compliant behaviour, and whether gender may moderate this effect. Participants (N=125) completed the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire and the Relationship
A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…
This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1,106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated…
This study examined the effects of differentiated curriculum and instruction on the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) to university freshmen in their English reading classes in Taiwan. This quasi-experimental study investigated whether using differentiated curriculum and instruction impacted motivation, anxiety, and interest toward learning English. A pre- and post- questionnaire comparison group design was used to determine
The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretically-based model in which insecure attachment is related to career indecision through the mediation of negative emotions. Two hundred college students completed questionnaires measuring anxious and avoidant dimensions of insecure attachment, negative emotions (trait and career-choice anxiety,…
Braunstein-Bercovitz, Hedva; Benjamin, Benny A.; Asor, Shiri; Lev, Maya
The 20 item Child Anxiety Scale (CAS) was administered to 343 elementary school children. Unweighted Least Squares extraction with oblique rotation produced 3 correlated primary factors that were interpreted as matching factors C, L and O of the Sixteen Personality Factors questionnaire for adults. Of particular interest was the factor L pattern…
Gillis, John S.; Nadeau, Natalie; Claybourne, Marvin
Administered the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire and the What I Think and Feel test to 159 male prisoners. Participants reported low levels of anxiety and an absence of debilitating personality characteristics, suggesting the absence of a criminal personality that is a separate and distinct type of personality. (JAC)
Introduction: Due to a considerable lack in empirical efforts and appropriate instruments, and theoretically rooted in a cognitive-motivational perspective on academic personality development, the present study analyzes a questionnaire for measuring EFL learners' self-perceptions of oral narrative competencies and perceived anxiety concerning oral…
The aim of this study is to design a Spanish version of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS-2). The questionnaire, originally developed by the Washington University research group in sport psychology to evaluate anxiety in young athletes, was translated and adapted following the APA protocol and its psychometric properties were assessed through internal consistency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and validity evidence. The Spanish version of the Sport Anxiety Scale has revealed good internal consistency indexes in each subscale and its factor structure has faithfully replicated the one obtained in the original measure. Results indicate that the adapted version of the questionnaire is an adequate and valid measure for the assessment of anxiety in young athletes. PMID:21044545
Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. PMID:24930576
Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane
Introduction: Studies showed that lack of interest in the field of study in the 1st year of residency could create stress and then causing psychological problems like anxiety. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of relationship between interest to the specialized field of study and the level of medical residents’ anxiety in 2010. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population of this study was the medical residents (1st-4th year) from the Universities of Medical Sciences of Isfahan, Gilan, Sanandaj and Kashan (370 residents). They were selected by stratified sampling method proportional to size and were included in this study. Data was collected by using the researcher-made questionnaire of demographic characteristics, the questionnaire about the field of study selection and Zung anxiety self-assessment standard questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by using the SPSS statistical software version 16, descriptive and analytical tests (t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson). The significance level was considered as P ? 0.05. Results: The results showed that more than 92% of the surveyed residents did not have anxiety and were in the normal group. There was a significant correlation between the specialized field of interest and anxiety scores of the residents (P < 0.05). In particular, the following cases had a direct effect on interest rates and anxiety in residents: the amount of time for visiting and patient care, job stress, time for personal affairs, the ability to predict the agenda and job security. Conclusions: The relationship between various factors and anxiety level was corroborated that the residents’ interest and success in studying was the result of their choices and management plans to eliminate barriers for the selection of the field and the favorite city by the officials and planners.
Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men and women, aged 55-60 years, from a population-based cohort, who filled out the HospitalAnxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We performed
Susanne R. de Rooij; Aart H. Schene; David I. Phillips; Tessa J. Roseboom
Examined three aspects of childhood anxiety and peer liking: (1) whether or not children can detect anxiety in age-mates, (2) the degree to which peer-reported anxiety, self-reported anxiety, and presence of anxiety disorders are associated with peer liking, and (3) whether or not self-reported anxiety and presence of anxiety disorders are…
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the characteristics of relaxing music for anxiety control. Undergraduate students (N=84) were instructed to imagine themselves in an anxiety producing situation while listening to a selection of 30 music compositions. For each composition, level of relaxation, the factors that either enhanced or detracted from its relaxing potential and the emotional labels attached were assessed. Participants were also asked to state which music components (e.g., tempo, melody) were most conducive to relaxation. Additional information was obtained through the use of a focus group of 6 undergraduate music students. This paper presents details on the characteristics of relaxing-music for anxiety control and emotional labels attached to the relaxing compositions. Furthermore, an importance value has been attached to each of the music components under scrutiny, thus providing an indication of which music components should receive greatest attention when selecting music for anxiety control. PMID:22097099
A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation.
A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation. PMID:22392595
What is Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder) Social phobia is a strong fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed. This ... with social phobia. Share Science News About Social Phobia Bullying Exerts Psychiatric Effects Into Adulthood Brain Imaging ...
Rationale Often overlooked clinically, social anxiety is common in schizophrenia and may represent a barrier to quality of life and social function. Little is known, however, about the possible roots of social anxiety in schizophrenia or their relationship to social anxiety over time. Methods To explore this issue, we examined the relationship between self-esteem, self-stigma, positive and negative symptoms, emotional discomfort and affect recognition with concurrent and prospective assessments of social anxiety using the Multidimensional AnxietyQuestionnaire in a sample of seventy-eight persons meeting criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results Univariate correlations revealed that self-esteem, self-stigma, negative symptoms and emotional discomfort were significantly related to social anxiety assessed concurrently and five months later. Multiple regressions revealed negative symptoms and discrimination experiences in particular were found to predict social anxiety prospectively even when initial levels of social anxiety were controlled for statistically. Conclusions Negative symptoms and self-stigma may be consistently related to social anxiety across time.
Lysaker, Paul H.; Yanos, Philip T.; Outcalt, Jared; Roe, David
Cognitive behavioral therapy is an effective intervention for anxiety disorders. However, a significant number of people do not respond or only show partial response even after an adequate course of the treatment. Recent research has shown that the efficacy of the intervention can be improved by the use of cognitive enhancers that augment the core learning processes of cognitive-behavior therapy. This manuscript provides a review of the current state of cognitive enhancers for the treatment of anxiety disorders.
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Asnaani, Anu; Gutner, Cassidy A.; Otto, Michael W.
Experimental psychopathologists have increasingly relied upon the concepts and methods of cognitive psychology in their attempts to elucidate information-processing biases associated with anxiety disorders. Many of these biases presumably constitute instances of automatic, not strategic, processing. But research has shown that attributes of automaticity (i.e. capacity-free, unconsious, involuntary) do not all apply to selective processing of threat associated with anxiety.
The relationship between anxiety and alcohol use is a topic of great theoretical and practical interest for both scientists interested in the nature and causes of psychopathology and practitioners working with anxious and\\/or alcohol abusing clients. Although it has been clearly established that anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders are highly ‘‘comorbid’’ or co-occurring conditions (e.g., see Kushner, Abrams &
Second-, fourth-, and seventh-grade children evaluated story characters who were either highly or less motivated to impress an audience and had either high or low expectations of being able to accomplish their self-presentational goals. As predicted according to a self-presentation model of social anxiety, both factors were related to judgments of the character's social anxiety, especially for the older children.
Anxiety, unlike fear, which is strongly object-related, accompanies man all his life. This anxious condition appears especially then, when danger is imminent, also in the case of being severely ill. Anxiety and hope, even in people severely ill, do not exclude each other. Human life for many and perhaps for all is a race with time. The anxiety not being able to realize enough in a given time often is the reason for a busy and restless activity. Man often suffers from anxiety of other human beings. As ever an individual may live, it always owes something to others. Accordingly, the doctor or other helpers never are able to behave totally in the way as the patient expects and the patient cannot act as the helper truly would like it. Man experiences anxiety, however, also then, when he recognizes to remain in debts towards himself and, in the view of religion, towards a task given by God. Yet, man suffers anxiety not only because of his confrontation with death but also with life and the responsibilities which he has to take over when growing up in society. The struggle for existence described by Darwin, a result of anxiety, seems to be lost for the patient knowing he or she is severely ill, and he/she is therefore upset against a destiny which threatens to exclude him/her from the community of healthy people and perhaps soon from the living persons. Anxiety always turns also around the existence in the group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8424135
We determined the role of anxiety level on radial artery spasm during transradial coronary angiography. Eighty-one patients who had an indication for coronary angiography were enrolled. Radial artery vasospasm was determined by addressing 5 signs: persistent forearm pain, pain response to catheter manipulation, pain response to sheath withdrawal, difficult catheter manipulation after being "trapped" by the radial artery, and considerable resistance on withdrawal of sheath. Radial spasm defined as at least 2 of the 5 signs. The Hamilton Anxiety scale questionnaire was used to determine the level of anxiety. Vasospasm was observed in 19.1% of the patients. Anxiety score was significantly higher in women (11.1 ± 7.2 vs 17.6 ± 7.3; P < .001). Vasospasm was significantly correlated with female sex (P < .001, r = .43) and anxiety score (P = .007, r = .29). Female sex was associated with higher anxiety scores (P < .001, r = .43). In conclusion, higher anxiety scores and female sex are important risk factors for radial artery vasospasm. PMID:23657175
Cannabis use has been associated with a continuum of psychotic experiences. However, it is unclear whether mood and anxiety symptoms account for increases in attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) among cannabis users. We predicted that depression and anxiety symptoms would mediate the relation between cannabis use and APPS, and between cannabis use and endorsement of eight or more distressing APPS (D-APPS), a potentially more clinically meaningful group. Young adults (n=674) completed the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ); Drug Use Frequency measure; Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Trait Form, Anxiety Subscale; and Social Phobia Scale. Results indicated that symptoms of trait anxiety, but not symptoms of depression or social anxiety, mediated the relationship between cannabis use and APPS, as well as the relationship between cannabis use and D-APPS. Results indicate that symptoms of trait anxiety may play a role in the relation between cannabis use and APPS. Findings underscore the importance of considering clinical characteristics co-occurring with psychotic symptoms, such as affective symptoms, when examining the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms. PMID:24745470
Reeves, Lauren E; Anglin, Deidre M; Heimberg, Richard G; Gibson, Lauren E; Fineberg, Anna M; Maxwell, Seth D; Kerns, Connor M; Ellman, Lauren M
Background Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. Methods All studies (1997–2007), both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation) for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. Results 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68) in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634) in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. Conclusion The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training.
Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico
This study was centered on the identification of the marketing strategies of hospitals and the factors that militate against their effective adoption and implementation. A total of 80 hospitals in Port Harcourt responded to a structured questionnaire administered on them. It was found, among other things, that many hospital organizations apply marketing strategies, and that hospitals that adopt effective marketing
State-anxiety has been defined as a transitory emotional response involving unpleasant feelings of tension and apprehensive thoughts. Trait-anxiety, on the other hand, has been defined as a personality trait referring to individual differences in the likelihood that a person would experience state anxiety in a stressful situation. The aim of the present study was to assess trait and state-anxiety in a population of patients consulting physicians for anxious complaints. Thus, patients who stopped the benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment after three months and those who continued it for six months were compared. Included patients were evaluated at inclusion (D0), after three months (M3) and after six months (M6). The investigator filled the Covi anxiety scale, the Raskin depression scale and a CGI; patients were asked to fill the Spielberger state/trait-anxietyquestionnaire. 1,112 patients have been included, 48% considered their anxiety as chronic, 50% said the evolution was progressive, 87% considered it resulting of a trigger factor, 69% received a benzodiazepine (BZD) treatment. At D0: Covi anxiety score was 5.3 +/- 2.3 points, STAI I (state-anxiety) score was 57.4 +/- 12.2 points and STAI II (trait-anxiety) score was 52.7 +/- 10.2 points. At M3, all scores decreased, and 85% were considered as ameliorated, but differences were significant (p = 0.0001) at M6. When comparing at D0 patients who stopped BZD treatment at M3 and those who continued it, some differences appeared. In fact subjects who stopped the treatment had lower score at the STAI II, presented significantly less flushes (p = 0.01), less tremor (p = 0.04) and less feverishness (p = 0.05). Their score at Covi tended to be lower (p = 0.11). The severity of the disease, evaluated with the CGI, was also lower for the patients who stopped the BZD treatment. The trait-anxiety appeared as a good predictor of the efficacy of the BZD treatment. In fact, the trait-anxiety refers to a tendency to be anxious and higher anxiety necessitates longer treatment. The treatment response was less important in the patients who continued the treatment at M3, indicating the presence of residual anxiety in these patients. PMID:10205733
Background The School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR) was designed to assess anxiety in children at school. The SAS-TR is a proxy rated measure and could assess social anxiety, generalized anxiety and also gives a total anxiety score. This study aimed to translate and validate the SAS-TR in Iran. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire were carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. A sample of students participated in the study. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and test-retest analysis. Validity was assessed using content validity. The factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results In all 200 elementary students aged 6 to 10?years were studied. Considering the recommended cut-off values, overall the prevalence of high anxiety condition in elementary students was found to be 21?%. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Iranian SAS-TR was 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.81. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure for the questionnaire (generalized and social anxiety) that jointly accounted for 55.3?% of variances observed. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure of the questionnaire. Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the Iranian version of SAS-TR has satisfactory reliability, and validity for measuring anxiety in 6 to 10?years old children in Iran. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in future studies.
Objectives To examine the association of anxiety and depression with pulmonary-specific symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and to determine the extent to which disease severity and functional capacity modify this association. Method Patients (N = 162) enrolled in the INSPIRE-II study, an ongoing randomized, clinical trial of COPD patients and their caregivers who received either telephone-based coping skills training or education and symptom monitoring. Patients completed a psychosocial test battery including: Brief Fatigue Inventory, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. Measures of disease severity and functional capacity (i.e., FEV1 and six-minute walk test) were also obtained. Results After covariate adjustment, higher anxiety and depression levels were associated with greater fatigue levels (ps < .001, ?R2 = 0.16 and 0.29, respectively), shortness of breath (ps < .001, ?R2 = 0.12 and 0.10), and frequency of COPD symptoms (ps < .001, ?R2 = 0.11 and 0.13). In addition, functional capacity was a moderator of anxiety and pulmonary-specific COPD symptoms. The association between anxiety and shortness of breath (p = 0.009) and frequency of COPD symptoms (p = 0.02) was greater among patients with lower functional capacity. Conclusions Anxiety and depression were associated with higher levels of fatigue, shortness of breath, and frequency of COPD symptoms. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the presence of anxiety and depression in COPD patients, which appears to correlate with pulmonary-specific COPD symptoms, especially in patients with lower functional capacity. Prospective design studies are needed to elucidate the causal relationships between anxiety and depression and pulmonary-specific symptoms in COPD patients.
Doyle, Todd; Palmer, Scott; Johnson, Julie; Babyak, Michael A.; Smith, Patrick; Mabe, Stephanie; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Martinu, Tereza; Blumenthal, James A.
Anxiety is a source of concern to the clinicians as it is co morbid with other mental disorders, particularly depression and learning disabilities, and it causes low self-esteem. The aim of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety disorder amongst secondary school children in Port Harcourt. A two-staged stratified sampling method was used to select the schools. Structured questionnaire based on Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale for anxiety and depression symptoms was used in evaluating the students. The questionnaires administered to the students were filled with the assistance of the researchers and the classroom teachers. Direct verbal interview was conducted for those noted to have symptoms of any of the various types of anxiety disorders and fears. Out of 885 students, 91 met the criteria for the diagnosis of anxiety/ depression disorder; prevalence was 10.28%, age range was 9-18 years. There were 37 males and 54 females giving a male: female ratio of 0.69:1. Majority 52 (57.14%) of the children lived with their parents, 28 (30.77%) of them lived with family relations and 11 (12.09%) of them were working as house helps to other families. The reasons given for being anxious were poor self image, fear of death, repeated physical and sexual abuses by their care givers and other adults. Learning disability was the major associated co morbid disorder (18.68%). Generalized anxiety was the most common type of anxiety disorder identified (32.97%). Anxiety disorders are debilitating chronic conditions. When it affects school aged children it contributes significantly to poor academic performance.
Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094
Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A
The report is from a USAC series produced by the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories designed to explore IMIS impacts on city administrative organization and behavior. The Key Person Questionnaire, which forms the basis for this report, examines basi...
The Brunel Lifestyle Physical Activity Questionnaire a4 If you add together each session of pre-planned physical activity that you engage in during a normal week, how much time would you estimate that you spend in total?
Health anxiety is a persistent fear of illness or disease that often involves the misinterpretation of bodily symptoms as signs of serious illness. Evidence shows that health anxiety affects a proportion of women following a diagnosis of breast cancer, but there are some limitations to how health anxiety has been measured. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide an estimate of clinically elevated health anxiety in women after a diagnosis of breast cancer using a validated measure appropriate for medical populations and (2) understand patient, disease, and anxiety/vulnerability variables that predict health anxiety in this group. Canadian women (n = 137) diagnosed with breast cancer within the past five years completed an online survey measuring health anxiety, along with patient, disease, and anxiety/vulnerability variables. Clinically significant health anxiety was reported by 23.4% of the sample. The regression model revealed that younger age, more advanced stage of breast cancer, increased cognitive anxiety sensitivity, and greater body vigilance were significant unique predictors of health anxiety. These findings highlight that a proportion of women report substantial health anxiety following breast cancer diagnosis, with a combination of patient, disease, and anxiety/vulnerability variables associated with the experience. Further research is needed to better understand the impact of health anxiety in this population. PMID:24102547
Our objective was to investigate the course of depression and anxiety symptoms in patients treated with continuous flow (CF) left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Depression and anxiety are associated with poor outcomes in patients with heart failure, yet few studies have examined such symptoms in patients with CF-LVADs. Depression and anxiety were measured as part of routine clinical care in patients who received a CF-LVAD at our institution from October 2009 to April 2012. Sixty-six patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and 48 of 66 patients also completed the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7. Nineteen of 66 patients completed measures before implantation. Patients who completed measures before and after implantation demonstrated significant improvements in depression and anxiety scores. All patients showed significant improvements in depression and anxiety scores from implantation to the first time point after implantation. Pairwise mean comparisons between time intervals after implantation were not significant. In conclusion, depression and anxiety scores improve after CF-LVAD implantation and remain stable up to 1 year. The improvement does not depend on baseline psychotropic medication use and may be related to improved physical health. PMID:24931289
Reynard, Alison K; Butler, Robert S; McKee, Michael G; Starling, Randall C; Gorodeski, Eiran Z
The data needs questionnaire is an element in the project design study for the Michigan Resource Inventory Act and is aimed at gathering information on what inventory information is required by land use planners throughout the state. Analysis of questionnaire responses is discussed. Some information on current use categories was tabulated. The respondents selected a broad range of categories at all levels of detail. Those most frequently indicated were urban categories.
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
SUMMMARY Koro is regarded as a psychogenic acute anxiety reaction since last forty years. In spite of quite a few research publications on koro during last twenty years, no report on psychometric assessment of anxiety level in Koro is available to substantiate this diagnostic status. The present study in this context is the first attempt of psychometric measurement of anxiety proneness or trait anxiety level in Koro patients. Trait anxiety measurement of 186 male Koro patients showed the presence ot higher level of trait anxiety in Koro than the normal sujects.
Summary Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the fifth most common chronic disease, and the association between allergic disorders and anxiety is well-documented. To investigate how anxiety and stressors modulate skin prick test (SPT) responses and associated inflammatory responses, 28 men and women with AR were selected by clinical history and skin test responses. The participants were admitted twice to a hospital research unit for 4 hours in a crossover trial. Changes in SPT wheals were assessed before and after a standardized laboratory speech stressor, as well as again the following morning; skin responses assessed twice during a lab session without a stressor and again the following morning served as the contrast condition. Anxiety heightened the magnitude of allergen-induced wheals following the stressor. As anxiety increased, SPT wheal diameters increased after the stressor, compared to a slight decrease following the control task. Anxiety also substantially enhanced the effects of stress on late phase responses: even skin tests performed the day after the stressor reflected the continuing impact of the speech stressor among the more anxious participants. Greater anxiety was associated with more IL-6 production by Con A-stimulated leukocytes following the stressor compared to the control visit. The data suggest that stress and anxiety can enhance and prolong AR symptoms.
Background Although heart transplants have become more common, little is known about the psychological status of patients waiting for a heart transplant. Methods Thirty-eight inpatients waiting for heart transplantation from October 2010 to December 2011 in a large general hospital in Shanghai were assessed by a psychiatrist using the Hamilton Depression Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale at admission and weekly thereafter until the operation took place. Results The patients included 30 males and 8 females with a mean (sd) age of 44.7 (12.9) years who had been seriously limited due to their heart disease (i.e., Stage III heart disease) for a mean of 18.5 (24.0) months. Among them, 7.9% (3/38) were moderately or severely depressed and 47.4 % (18/38) had moderate or severe anxiety symptoms; only one (2.6%) had concurrent moderate to severe anxiety and depression. There was a slight but statistically significant increase in both anxiety and depressive symptoms during the first week of hospitalization. In the stepwise backward logistic regression, the reported level of anxiety was significantly associated with the duration of Stage III heart disease (less anxiety in those with longer Stage III disease), prior treatment in an intensive care unit (associated with less anxiety), age (anxiety increases with age), and prior emergency cardiac treatment (associated with greater anxiety). Multivariate linear regression analysis also found that longer duration of Stage III disease and higher educational status were associated with reporting less depressive symptoms, but a longer total duration of heart disease was associated with reports of more depressive symptoms. Conclusion Unlike reports from other countries, we found that anxiety symptoms are more prevalent and more severe than depressive symptoms among inpatients waiting for heart transplantation in Shanghai. There is an inverse relationship between duration of disabling illness and the preoperative self-reports of anxiety and depressive symptoms: those who had had Stage III disease for over a year reported less severe anxiety and depressive symptoms than those who had had Stage III disease for less than a year.
Ye, Chenyu; Zhuang, Yamin; Zhang, Ying; Lin, Yi; Ji, Jianlin; Chen, Hao
To examine the factor structure of temperament in 5 – 10-year-olds with Williams syndrome (WS), an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the responses of parents of 192 children on the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Four factors were identified. Two corresponded to factors reported for typically developing children: Effortful Control and Extraversion/Surgency and two corresponded to the temperament constructs of withdrawal/inhibition and irritability/frustration and activity, observed in typically-developing infants. Parents of 109 of the 192 participants also completed the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Parent version. Children with an anxiety disorder other than specific phobia differed significantly from children without an anxiety disorder on all factors except Extraversion/Surgency. Children with ADHD differed significantly from children without ADHD on Effortful Control and Extraversion/Surgency.
Leyfer, Ovsanna; John, Angela E.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet; Mervis, Carolyn B.
Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs[Formula: see text]). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression. PMID:24601766
Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas
Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "