Anxiety and depression in cancer patients: relation between the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire
Background: The emotional functioning (EF) dimension of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C33) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) evaluate anxiety and depression. We wanted to compare cancer patients' responses to EF with those to HADS, as well as the impact of anxiety and depression on the quality
Jon Skarstein; Nina Aass; Sophie D Fosså; Eva Skovlund; Alv A Dahl
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects the lives of individuals in a number of ways; it causes an increase in the need for help and support and a decline in self-care agency and quality of life. This research has been conducted in patients with COPD hospitalized in the Pulmonary Department of Erzincan State Hospital in the eastern Turkey to examine the effect of anxiety and depression on self-care agency and quality of life (n = 135). The results showed that 69.6% and 85.6% of the patients were at risk for anxiety and depression, respectively, and that the mean scores of self-care agency and quality of life decreased as the mean scores of anxiety and depression increased. It was also established that the mean score of the quality of life increased as the mean score of self-care agency went up. It could be concluded that the majority of the patients are at risk for anxiety and depression and that presence of anxiety or depression has a negative effect on the self-care agency and the quality of life. The recognition and treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with COPD provide significant improvements in self-care agency and quality of life of patients. PMID:23432884
Yildirim, Arzu; A?ilar, Rabia Hacihasano?lu; Bakar, Nihal; Demir, Nilay
Adult community norms were derived from 261 adults who completed the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory and 267 adults who completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Percentile scores are provided for all measures, and their usefulness in assessing therapy outcomes is discussed. (SLD)
Gillis, Martha M.; And Others
Community norms are reported for the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; A. T. Beck, N. Epstein, G. Brown, & R. A. Steer, 1988), Fear Questionnaire (FQ; I. M. Marks & A. Mathews, 1979), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; T. J. Meyer, M. L. Miller, R. L. Metzger, & T. D. Borkovec, 1990), and Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI; S. M.
Martha M. Gillis; David A. F. Haaga; Gary T. Ford
Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…
Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.
Background Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. Objective This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. Methods To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named "Fear and Hypervigilance" (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and "Avoidance", (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, "Cardiac with panic" patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). Conclusions These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings. PMID:24145391
Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araujo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.
Background Hospitalization and surgery are critical negative life events that lead to the experience of considerable anxiety in patients. Patients may perceive the day of surgery as the biggest and the most threatening day in their lives. There is paucity of information on predictors of anxiety in the current study area. The main objective of this study is to assess predictors of preoperative anxiety among patients scheduled for surgery in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted using quantitative data collection technique in Jimma University Specialized Teaching Hospital from February 13 to April 13, 2012 on 239 patients scheduled for surgery. The data were collected by five trained diploma nurses using structured interviewer administered questionnaires that were prepared based on state trait anxiety inventory measurement scale. The quantitative data were entered into SPSS for windows version 16. 0 and descriptive, simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results A total of 239 patients were enrolled in the study with a response rate of 93.0%. Their mean age was 42.7?±?1.8 years (range 16 to 85 years). Nearly over half 53.6% were females, while 48.1% illiterate, 72.4% Oromo and 56.5% were Muslim followers. Significant preoperative anxiety was seen in 70.3% patients. The most common factors that lead to anxiety were fear of death 38.1% and fear of unknown origin 24.3% and the most common strategy mentioned by patient in reducing anxiety were talking to other patient 79.8% and religious belief. Conclusions In the present study, two third 70.3% of preoperative patients had anxiety. Factors which were positively correlated with anxiety were trait anxiety, single and divorced, time of operation and income. Factors which were shown to reduce anxiety were preoperative anxiety related information provision and afternoon operation. Health professionals working in the hospital should provide anxiety related information for patients. PMID:25189274
The present study reports the results of a questionnaire survey among 212 health care workers at a hospital in Northern Norway. Measures included burnout, trait anxiety, various job demands and supports, and work attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Results provided support for Maslach's conceptualization of the burnout syndrome cross-culturally. Correlations among the three burnout subscales, as well as organizational
Astrid M. Richardsen; Ronald J. Burke; Michael P. Leiter
Objective: To review the literature of the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Method: A review of the 747 identified papers that used HADS was performed to address the following questions: (I) How are the factor structure, discriminant validity and the internal consistency of HADS? (II) How does HADS perform as a case finder for anxiety disorders
Ingvar Bjelland; Alv A Dahl; Tone Tangen Haug; Dag Neckelmann
to other visceral and glandular processes (Kotses, Rapaport & Glaus, 1978; Shapiro & Surwit, 1976), and in extending the application of these learning principles to stress-related disorders such as asthma (Kotses, Glaus, Bricel, Edwards, & Crawford..., the muscular system, and/or the respiratory system. Some of the current stress-related behaviors in the literature are: anxiety related behaviors, asthma, cardiac arrhythmias, headaches, hypertension, muscular rehabilitation, muscular tension, pain, sexual...
Goldston, James Donald
Investigated the development and utility of the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire—Anxiety Scale (NASSQ-A)\\u000a for youth. Participants in the initial anxiety-disordered (AD) sample were 68 children with a principal diagnosis of generalized\\u000a anxiety disorder (GAD) or social phobia (SP), and participants in the non anxiety-disordered (NAD) sample were 37 children\\u000a with no anxiety or mood disorder. Findings were then cross-validated on
Erica D. Sood; Philip C. Kendall
SUMMARY Objective: The study investigate the presence of depressive disorders in patient who are taken in general hospital, to prevent and reduce the risk of developing a psychological pathology (anxious-depressive symptoms). Methods: We used two tests: 1. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) by Goldberg, a self-report questionnaire, consisting of 12 items, used to estimate the probability of detecting non-psychotic mental disorders
A. R. Carone; S. D'Amore; L. Albanese; F. Craig; P. Scagliusi; M. D'Amore
Much has been written about the situations most often feared by persons with social phobia, and several self-report measures are frequently used to assess such feared situations. However, it is not clear whether the situations feared by persons with social phobia form unidimensional or multidimensional factors. If these situations are multidimensional, reliance on a total score of feared situations would not reflect important differences between those dimensions. This research examined the multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a newly developed instrument (the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults [SAQ-A]) in two studies with a total of 539 patients diagnosed with social phobia and 15,753 nonpatients from 20 different countries. The structure (five clear and solid factors) and psychometric properties of the final instrument (the SAQ-A30) support the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and provide a new perspective in the assessment of social phobia. PMID:22440068
Caballo, Vicente E; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G
Objective: To examine the reliability and validity of the 66-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Revised (SCARED-R), a questionnaire for measuring a broad range of DSM-defined anxiety disorder symptoms, in a sample of clinically referred youths. Method: The SCARED-R was administered to children/adolescents and their parents…
Muris, Peter; Dreessen, Laura; Bogels, Susan; Weckx, Miryam; van Melick, Marion
The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous studies have established the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV revealing excellent diagnostic specificity and sensitivity as well as good test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity (Newman et al., 2002). Recent analyses with other measures of anxiety symptoms have revealed differences across racial or national groups. Given that the GAD-Q-IV was tested primarily on Caucasian (78%) participants, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV across four racial groups: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian. A student sample of 585 undergraduate psychology students completed the GAD-Q-IV as well as other measures of anxiety symptoms. A clinical replication sample was obtained from 188 clinical participants who completed the GAD-Q-IV as part of a larger psychotherapy study. Results indicated excellent and very similar factor structures in the student sample, and similar psychometric properties across both samples across the racial groups. Implications for the use of the GAD-Q-IV across racial groups are discussed. PMID:20830629
Robinson, Christina M.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Norton, Peter J.
Methodologic issues pertinent to the study of depression secondary to anxiety are reviewed. Data on the frequency and temporal sequence of comorbid DSM-III-R anxiety and depressive disorders in a sample from the McLean Hospital Depression Research Facility are presented. Patients with major depression secondary to anxiety are compared with major depressed patients without anxiety on a variety of demographic and
Alan F. Schatzberg; Jacqueline A. Samson; Anthony J. Rothschild; Monica M. Luciana; R. F. Bruno; Thomas C. Bond
BACKGROUND: The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. METHODS: Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores
Berend Terluin; Harm WJ van Marwijk; Herman J Adèr; Henrica CW de Vet; Brenda WJH Penninx; Marleen LM Hermens; Christine A van Boeijen; Anton JLM van Balkom; Jac JL van der Klink; Wim AB Stalman
The utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as a screening instrument for anxiety and depression during pregnancy was investigated. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted on the HADS to determine its psychometric properties and utility in 100 women from two culturally diverse populations (UK and Uzbekistan) at 12-weeks and 34-weeks pregnancy. The findings suggest that the
GK Karimova; CR Martin
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a common screening instrument excluding somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety, but previous studies have reported inconsistencies of its factor structure. The construct validity of the Japanese version of the HADS has yet to be reported. To examine the factor structure of the HADS in a Japanese population is needed. METHODS:
Tomomi Matsudaira; Hiromi Igarashi; Hiroyoshi Kikuchi; Rikihachiro Kano; Hiroshi Mitoma; Kiyoshi Ohuchi; Toshinori Kitamura
Leprosy causes not just physical disabilities but mental and psycho social problems which are further more enhanced in women due to their submissive and secondary role in an Indian culture. This is reflected in their reluctance and delay in seeking hospitalization and generates great anxiety while admitted as inpatients. Appropriate nursing care can relieve much anxiety and help in faster healing. This paper presents the findings from such research carried out at a leprosy referral hospitalin north India. Adult female leprosy patients newly admitted for the first time in a leprosy referral hospital were interviewed in depth using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and observed before and after implementing a customized nursing care plan. On admission, out of 40 women admitted more than 80% showed moderate or severe anxiety. After well planned nursing interventions only 2 continued to have severe anxiety, and a majority in all age groups showed significant reductions in anxiety levels, and responded well to leprosy care at the hospital. Well planned nursing care reduces or minimizes anxiety levels of female leprosy patients admitted first time in the hospital, and should become a standard practice in all hospital admissions. PMID:24046911
George, A; Khora, T; Das, P; Rao, P S S
Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…
MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.
Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used self-report measure to assess emotional distress in clinical populations. As highlighted in recent review studies, the latent structure of the HADS is still an issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial structure of the HADS in a large community sample in Italy, and to test the invariance of the best fitting model across age and gender groups. Methods Data analyses were carried out on a sample of 1.599 participants proportionally stratified according to the Italian census population pyramid. Participants aged 18 to 85 years (females?=?51.8%), living in eight different regions of Italy, voluntarily participated in the study. The survey questionnaire contained the HADS, Health Status questions, and sociodemographic variables. Results Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a bifactor model, with a general psychological distress factor and two orthogonal group factors with anxiety and depression, was the best fitting one compared to six alternative factor structures reported in the literature, with overall good fit indices [Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI)?=?.97; Comparative Fit Index (CFI)?=?.98; Root Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)?=?.04]. Multi-group analyses supported total invariance of the HADS measurement model for males and females, and for younger (i.e., 18–44 years old) and older (i.e., 45–85 years old) participants. Our descriptive analyses showed that females reported significant higher anxiety and general distress mean scores than males. Moreover, older participants reported significant higher HADS, anxiety and depression scores than younger participants. Conclusions The results of the present study confirmed that the HADS has good psychometric properties in an Italian community sample, and that the HADS scores, especially the general psychological distress one, can be reliably used for assessing age and gender differences. In keeping with the most recent factorial studies, our analysis supported the superior fit of a bifactor model. However, the high factor loadings on the general factor also recommend caution in the use of the two subscales as independent measures. PMID:24902622
Objective: To compare two self-report questionnaires for identifying possible depression in women with metastatic breast cancer.Method: We conducted structured psychiatric interviews and administered the Beck Depression Inventory Short Form (BDI-SF) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to 227 women with stage IV breast cancer. The accuracy for identifying DSM-IVdefined major and minor depression was examined. Sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV)
Anthony W. Love; Brenda Grabsch; David M. Clarke; Sidney Bloch; David W. Kissane
Objective: To investigate the diagnostic efficiency of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patients with breast cancer.Methods: Women (303) recently diagnosed with stage I or II breast cancer completed the HADS and were psychiatrically assessed. Recommended cut-off scores for Depression (D) and Anxiety (A) Scales identified probable caseness and the accuracy was compared with DSM-IV diagnoses. Cut-off scores
Anthony W Love; David W Kissane; Sidney Bloch; David M Clarke
There is a lack of validated scales for screening for anxiety and depression in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with TBI. A total of 294 individuals with TBI (72.1% male; mean age 37.1years, S.D. 17.5, median post-traumatic amnesia
Michael Schönberger; Jennie Ponsford
Little is known about the performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in screening post-stroke depression (PSD) in Chinese older adult patients. One hundred Chinese geriatric patients with first-ever stroke, consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation facility, were assessed by occupational therapists using the depression subscale of the HADS. Psychiatric diagnoses, which served as the benchmark for judging the
W. K. Tang; G. S. Ungvari; H. F. K. Chiu; K. H. Sze; A. Chan Shiu Yu; T. Lai Fong Leung
Background Bronchiolitis is a distressing respiratory condition and the most common cause of hospitalization during the first year of life. The hospitalization of an infant is a stressful event for parents and deserves careful consideration. The objective of this work was to develop and validate a self-administered instrument that comprehensively assesses the impact on parents of the hospitalization of their infant for bronchiolitis. Methods The Impact of Bronchiolitis Hospitalization Questionnaire (IBHQ©) was developed using a literature review and pre-study interviews with both parents and clinicians. For finalization and psychometric validation, it was included in a multicenter, longitudinal, observational study conducted in France. Parents of infants under the age of 1 year and hospitalized for bronchiolitis were asked to complete the questionnaire at hospital discharge, and 3 months after. Results Seven hundred and seven questionnaires were completed by the parents of the 463 eligible infants. After finalization, based on principal component analyses, the IBHQ included 30 core items allowing the calculation of 7 dimension core scores (Worries and distress; Fear for future; Guilt; Impact on daily organization; Physical impact; Impact on behavior with hospitalized infant; Financial impact), as well as 16 optional items, allowing the calculation of 5 optional dimension scores (Disturbed breastfeeding; Physical reaction of hospitalized infant; Impact on feeding; Impact on behavior with other infants; Siblings’ reaction). Internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the IBHQ were satisfactory. The highest impact was observed for “Worries and distress”, “Fear for future” and “Impact on daily organization” scores. Conclusions The IBHQ is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the multifaceted impact on parents of the hospitalization of their infant for bronchiolitis. PMID:23849687
Recognition of depression and anxiety and their association with quality of life, hospitalization and mortality in primary care patients with heart failure - study protocol of a longitudinal observation study
Background International disease management guidelines recommend the regular assessment of depression and anxiety in heart failure patients. Currently there is little data on the effect of screening for depression and anxiety on the quality of life and the prognosis of heart failure (HF). We will investigate the association between the recognition of current depression/anxiety by the general practitioner (GP) and the quality of life and the patients’ prognosis. Methods/Design In this multicenter, prospective, observational study 3,950 patients with HF are recruited by general practices in Germany. The patients fill out questionnaires at baseline and 12-month follow-up. At baseline the GPs are interviewed regarding the somatic and psychological comorbidities of their patients. During the follow-up assessment, data on hospitalization and mortality are provided by the general practice. Based on baseline data, the patients are allocated into three observation groups: HF patients with depression and/or anxiety recognized by their GP (P+/+), those with depression and/or anxiety not recognized (P+/?) and patients without depression and/or anxiety (P?/?). We will perform multivariate regression models to investigate the influence of the recognition of depression and/or anxiety on quality of life at 12 month follow-up, as well as its influences on the prognosis (hospital admission, mortality). Discussion We will display the frequency of GP-acknowledged depression and anxiety and the frequency of installed therapeutic strategies. We will also describe the frequency of depression and anxiety missed by the GP and the resulting treatment gap. Effects of correctly acknowledged and missed depression/anxiety on outcome, also in comparison to the outcome of subjects without depression/anxiety will be addressed. In case results suggest a treatment gap of depression/anxiety in patients with HF, the results of this study will provide methodological advice for the efficient planning of further interventional research. PMID:24279590
A self-report measure of metacognition for both children and adolescents (ages 7-17) (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children; MCQ-C) was adapted from a previous measure, the MCQ-A (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Adolescents) and was administered to a sample of 78 children and adolescents with clinical anxiety disorders and 20 non-clinical youth. The metacognitive processes included were (1) positive beliefs about worry (positive meta-worry); (2) negative beliefs about worry (negative meta-worry); (3) superstitious, punishment and responsibility beliefs (SPR beliefs) and (4) cognitive monitoring (awareness of one's own thoughts). The MCQ-C demonstrated good internal-consistency reliability, as well as concurrent and criterion validity, and four valid factors. In line with predictions, negative meta-worry was significantly associated with self-reports of internalizing symptoms (excessive worry and depression). Age-based differences on the MCQ-C were found for only one subscale, with adolescents reporting greater awareness of their thoughts than children. Adolescent girls scored higher on the total index of metacognitive processes than adolescent boys. Overall, these results provide preliminary support for the use of the MCQ-C with a broader age range as well as an association between metacognitive processes and anxiety symptomatology in both children and adolescents, with implications for cognitive behavioral interventions with anxious youth. PMID:19362445
Bacow, Terri Landon; Pincus, Donna B; Ehrenreich, Jill T; Brody, Leslie R
Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain. PMID:21682912
BACKGROUND: To determine the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in patients with breast cancer and determine the suitability of the instrument for use with this clinical group. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used. The study used a pooled data set from three breast cancer clinical groups. The dependent variables were HADS anxiety and depression sub-scale
Jacqui Rodgers; Colin R Martin; Rachel C Morse; Kate Kendell; Mark Verrill
The aim of this study was to verify the capacity of the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), a self-report scale, to screen clinical depression in HIV-seropositive patients. Sixty-nine HIV-infected patients participated in this study, of whom 22 met diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder or an adjustment disorder with depressed mood, while the remaining 47
Josée Savard; Benoît Laberge; Janel G. Gauthier; Michel G. Bergeron
The current study examined the psychometrics of three traditional (i.e., the trait anxiety version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC), the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), and the Fear Survey Schedule for Children - Revised (FSSC-R)) and three new childhood anxiety scales (the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders
Peter Muris; Harald Merckelbach; Thomas Ollendick; Neville King; Nicole Bogie
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used screening instrument for depression and anxiety in medically compromised patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the differential item functioning (DIF) of the anxiety subscale of the HADA (HADS-A). A research assistant administered the HADS-A to 166 Chinese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who were consecutively admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. Although the HADS-A was overall uni-dimensional, there were one mute item and two items with borderline misfit. Only one item had a DIF for arterial oxygen saturation. No item had DIF for other indicators of the severity of COPD. In conclusion, this study found that for one item the HADS-A has significant item bias for the severity of disease in patients with COPD. PMID:18350511
Tang, Wai-Kwong; Wong, Eric; Chiu, Helen F K; Lum, C M; Ungvari, Gabor S
This paper examines the clinical utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the context of evaluating the Fibromyalgia Outpatient Education Program at Southlake Regional Health Centre (Newmarket, Canada). A pre-test/post-test design was implemented for data analysis. A total of 232 patients' data were obtained through retrospective patient chart review. Complete pre-post data were available for 70 patients and qualitative analysis was done for 12 patients. Main outcome measures included HADS and Arthritis Self-Efficacy (ASE) scores. At the end of the education program, subgroups of patients (high attendance, high exercise habit, low medication) experienced significant improvement on HADS-depression and ASE scores. Linear regression analysis found that HADS pre-program scores explain far more variance in HADS post-test scores than ASE pre-program scores explain in ASE post-program scores; more variance in ASE post-program scores was explained by other variables. In contrast to the quantitative analysis of the Anxiety subscale of HADS, patients in the focus group indicated that their anxiety level decreased through attending the education program. These findings suggest that HADS is an appropriate tool for evaluating fibromyalgia and related patient education programs. Moreover, patient education programs have positive effects on enhancing patients' psychological well-being and self-confidence in controlling fibromyalgia-related symptoms. PMID:23995734
Nam, Seungree; Tin, Diane; Bain, Lorna; Thorne, J Carter; Ginsburg, Liane
Summary Objective To evaluate how an online toolkit may support ePrescribing deployments in National Health Service hospitals, by assessing the type of knowledge-based resources currently sought by key stakeholders. Design Questionnaire-based survey of attendees at a national ePrescribing symposium. Setting 2013 National ePrescribing Symposium in London, UK. Participants Eighty-four delegates were eligible for inclusion in the survey, of whom 70 completed and returned the questionnaire. Main outcome measures Estimate of the usefulness and type of content to be included in an ePrescribing toolkit. Results Interest in a toolkit designed to support the implementation and use of ePrescribing systems was high (n?=?64; 91.4%). As could be expected given the current dearth of such a resource, few respondents (n?=?2; 2.9%) had access or used an ePrescribing toolkit at the time of the survey. Anticipated users for the toolkit included implementation (n?=?62; 88.6%) and information technology (n?=?61; 87.1%) teams, pharmacists (n?=?61; 87.1%), doctors (n?=?58; 82.9%) and nurses (n?=?56; 80.0%). Summary guidance for every stage of the implementation (n?=?48; 68.6%), planning and monitoring tools (n?=?47; 67.1%) and case studies of hospitals’ experiences (n?=?45; 64.3%) were considered the most useful types of content. Conclusions There is a clear need for reliable and up-to-date knowledge to support ePrescribing system deployments and longer term use. The findings highlight how a toolkit may become a useful instrument for the management of knowledge in the field, not least by allowing the exchange of ideas and shared learning. PMID:25383199
Cresswell, Kathrin; Slee, Ann; Slight, Sarah P; Coleman, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz
More than 200 published studies from most medical settings worldwide have reported experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) which was specifically developed by Zigmond and Snaith for use with physically ill patients. Although introduced in 1983, there is still no comprehensive documentation of its psychometric properties. The present review summarizes available data on reliability and validity and
Background. Research on the dimensional structure and reliability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and its relationship with age is scarce. Moreover, its ecacy in deter- mining the presence of depression in dierent patient groups has been questioned. Methods. Psychometric properties of the HADS were assessed in six dierent groups of Dutch subjects (N fl 6165): (1) a
J. ORMEL; P. P. A. SLOEKERS; G. I. J. M. KEMPEN
Background: Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. Methods: The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted Safety Attitude Questionnaire in Chinese (SAQ-C). Hospitals and their healthcare workers participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The psychometric properties of the five SAQ-C dimensions were examined, including teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, perception of management, and working conditions. Additional safety measures were asked to assess healthcare workers ’ attitudes toward their collaboration with nurses, physicians, and pharmacists, respectively, and perceptions of hospitals ’ encouragement of safety reporting, safety training, and delivery delays due to communication breakdowns in clinical areas. The associations between the respondents’ attitudes to each SAQ-C dimension and safety measures were analyzed by generalized estimating equations, adjusting for the clustering effects at hospital levels. Results: A total of 45,242 valid questionnaires were returned from 200 hospitals with a mean response rate of 69.4%. The Cronbach’s alpha was 0.792 for teamwork climate, 0.816 for safety climate, 0.912 for job satisfaction,
Angela Fan; Hsin-hsin Chen; Han-chuan Yang; Sheng-mou Hou
Background The patient handover is important for the safe transition from the pre-hospital setting to secondary care. The loss of critical information about the pre-hospital phase may impact upon the clinical course of the patient. Methods University Hospital Emergency Care registrars answered a questionnaire about how they perceive clinical documentation from the ambulance services. We also reviewed patient records retrospectively, to investigate to what extent eight selected parameters were transferred correctly to hospital records by clinicians. Only parameters outside the normal range were selected. Results The registrars preferred a verbal handover with hand-written pre-hospital reports as the combined source of clinical information. Scanned report forms were infrequently used. Information from other doctors was perceived as more important than the information from ambulance crews. Less than half of the selected parameters in pre-hospital notes were transferred to hospital records, even for parameters regarded as important by the registrars. Abnormal vital signs were not transferred as often as mechanism of injury, medication administered and immobilisation of trauma patients. Conclusions Data on pre-hospital abnormal vital signs are frequently not transferred to the hospital admission notes. This information loss may lead to suboptimal care. PMID:23453123
This study examined the extent to which sixth grade peer status could predict anxiety and/or depression in 5,242 women and 5,004 men who were born in 1953 and whose hospital records were followed up from 1973-2003. The data used was the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study. While no association could be established for men, results indicated that women…
Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva
The Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale was retested and cut-off points determined in a sample of 217 patients attending a primary health care centre in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.). Subjects were screened using the HAD scale and all patients were then interviewed by a single consultant psychiatrist. The scale scores were assessed against
O. E. F. El-Rufaie; G. H. Absood
BACKGROUND: Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. METHODS: The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted Safety
Wui-Chiang Lee; Hwei-Ying Wung; Hsun-Hsiang Liao; Chien-Ming Lo; Fei-Ling Chang; Pa-Chun Wang; Angela Fan; Hsin-Hsin Chen; Han-Chuan Yang; Sheng-Mou Hou
Background The aim of our study was to identify patient- and care-related factors that are associated with patients’ satisfaction with psychiatric hospital care, using a specific, self-administered questionnaire based exclusively on the patient’s point of view: the Satisfaction with Psychiatry Care Questionnaire-22 (SATISPSY-22). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the psychiatric departments of two French public university teaching hospitals. The data collected included sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, care characteristics, and the SATISPSY-22. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine the variables potentially associated with satisfaction levels. Results Two hundred seventy patients were enrolled in our study. Only one moderate association was found between satisfaction and sociodemographic characteristics: the personal experience dimension with age (?=0.15). Clinical improvement was moderately associated with higher global satisfaction (?=?0.15), higher satisfaction with quality of care (?=?0.19), and higher satisfaction with food (?=?0.18). Stronger associations with satisfaction were found for care characteristics, particularly the therapeutic alliance with all of the satisfaction dimensions (?, 0.20–0.43) except food, and for seclusion with global satisfaction (?=?0.33) and personal experience (?=?0.32). Patients with previous hospitalization also had a higher level of satisfaction with quality of care compared with patients who were admitted for the first time (?=?0.15). Conclusion This study has identified a number of potential determinants of satisfaction. The therapeutic relationship and seclusion were the most important features associated with a patient’s satisfaction. These factors might be amenable through intervention, which, in turn, might be expected to improve satisfaction, patients’ management, and health outcomes in psychiatric hospitals. PMID:25368515
Zendjidjian, Xavier Y; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe; Loundou, Anderson; Parola, Nathalie; Faugère, Melanie; Boyer, Laurent
Aims and objectives This study examines the relationship between hospital work environments and job satisfaction, job-related burnout and intention to leave among nurses in Guangdong province, China. Background The nursing shortage is an urgent global problem and also of concern in China. Studies in Western countries have shown that better work environments are associated with higher nurse satisfaction and lower burnout, thereby improving retention and lowering turnover rates. However, there is little research on the relationship between nurse work environments and nurse outcomes in China. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Survey data were collected from 1104 bedside nurses in 89 medical, surgical and intensive care units in 21 hospitals across the Guangdong province in China. Methods Stratified convenience sampling was used to select hospitals, and systematic sampling was used to select units. All staff nurses working on participating units were surveyed. The China Hospital Nurse Survey, including the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index and Maslach Burnout Inventory, was employed to collect data from nurses. Statistical significance level was set at 0·05. Results Thirty-seven per cent of the nurses experienced high burnout, and 54% were dissatisfied with their jobs. Improving nurses’ work environments from poor to better was associated with a 50% decrease in job dissatisfaction and a 33% decrease in job-related burnout among nurses. Conclusion Burnout and job dissatisfaction are high among hospital nurses in Guangdong province, China. Better work environments for nurses were associated with decreased job dissatisfaction and job-related burnout, which may successfully address the nursing shortage in China. Relevance to clinical practice The findings of this study indicate that improving work environments is essential to deal with the nursing shortage; the findings provide motivation for nurse managers and policy makers to improve work environments of hospital nurses in China. PMID:22380003
Liu, Ke; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Hao, Yuan-Tao; Zhu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Li-Feng; Aiken, Linda H
There are considerable efforts in Kenya to increase awareness of the issues and health risks associated with female genital mutilation (FGM) through educational programmes. The Kenyan government formally outlawed FGM in 2001. This questionnaire-based study aimed to explore attitudes and awareness of FGM in Kenya with particular reference to the law, health complications and educational programmes. A significant decline in the prevalence of FGM was demonstrated and awareness of health complications of FGM shown to be the main factor causing this trend. The need for further efforts to eradicate the practice and the importance of religion and culture in shaping social attitudes was evident. The outlawing of FGM was considered a positive advance but may have the detrimental effect of deterring women from seeking medical assistance for complications relating to FGM. PMID:18097902
Livermore, L; Monteiro, R; Rymer, J
BACKGROUND This study aimed to compare the anxiety of cardiac patients candidate for angiography with normal population in Isfahan province. METHODS The study population included 109 people, 53 cardiac patients referring to Chamran Cardiology Hospital in Isfahan for angiography and 56 people without cardiac disease. Data were collected by Cattle anxiety scale. In addition, demographic data of the sample population were collected at the same time using another questionnaire. RESULTS Independent t-test showed a significant difference between the anxiety of cardiac patients candidate for angiography and non-cardiac people (P < 0.001). Moreover, the differences between the amount of obvious anxiety and hidden anxiety in the two groups were significant (P < 0.001 for both). CONCLUSION The results showed that cardiac disease and diagnosis instruments, especially angiography, cause anxiety in patients. Therefore, evaluating this anxiety and applying proper techniques to reduce this anxiety is necessary. PMID:22577453
Nekouei, Zohreh Khayyam; Manshaee, Gholamreza; Nikneshan, Shekoufeh
A group of children (N=60) about to undergo elective surgery for hernias, tonsillectomies, or urinary-genital tract difficulties were shown on hospital admission either a relevant peer modeling film of a child being hospitalized and receiving surgery or an unrelated control film. (Author)
Melamed, Barbara G.; Siegel, Lawrence J.
This meta-analysis reviewed existing data on the impact of work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care professionals. Work-related critical incidents may induce post-traumatic stress symptoms or even post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression and may negatively affect health care practitioners’ behaviors toward patients. Nurses and doctors often cope by working part time or switching jobs. Hospital administrators and health
Anja Lok; Ellen van’t Verlaat; Hugo J. Duivenvoorden; Arnold B. Bakker; Bert J. Smit
Objectives. To investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) using an Internet administered version of the instrument. Design. Between subjects. Method. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and internal consistency analysis of the HADS was used to determine the psychometric characteristics of the instrument in individuals with
Patricia McCue; Tom Buchanan; Colin R. Martin
The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027324
Nordin, K; Glimelius, B
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties. PMID:23197315
Rogers, Katherine D.
Background ePrescribing systems have significant potential to improve the safety and efficiency of healthcare, but they need to be carefully selected and implemented to maximise benefits. Implementations in English hospitals are in the early stages and there is a lack of standards guiding the procurement, functional specifications, and expected benefits. We sought to provide an updated overview of the current picture in relation to implementation of ePrescribing systems, explore existing strategies, and identify early lessons learned. Methods A descriptive questionnaire-based study, which included closed and free text questions and involved both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data generated. Results We obtained responses from 85 of 108 NHS staff (78.7% response rate). At least 6% (n?=?10) of the 168 English NHS Trusts have already implemented ePrescribing systems, 2% (n?=?4) have no plans of implementing, and 34% (n?=?55) are planning to implement with intended rapid implementation timelines driven by high expectations surrounding improved safety and efficiency of care. The majority are unclear as to which system to choose, but integration with existing systems and sophisticated decision support functionality are important decisive factors. Participants highlighted the need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as the need for top-level management support to adequately resource the project. Although some early benefits were reported by hospitals that had already implemented, the hoped for benefits relating to improved efficiency and cost-savings remain elusive due to a lack of system maturity. Conclusions Whilst few have begun implementation, there is considerable interest in ePrescribing systems with ambitious timelines amongst those hospitals that are planning implementations. In order to ensure maximum chances of realising benefits, there is a need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as increased financial resources to fund local activities. PMID:23335961
Cresswell, Kathrin; Coleman, Jamie; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz
To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that the aging anxiety dimensions of physical appearance concern and fear of losses each positively predicted
Jeremy P. Benton; Andrew N. Christopher; Mark I. Walter
Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Objective. To examine the sensitivity of 2 single-item questions compared with 2 longer questionnaires for screening depression and anxiety among patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Summary of Background Data. Psychosocial factors are frequently identified as risk factors for developing CLBP and as predictors for treatment, and questionnaires are often used to screen for this. Shorter instruments may be easier to use in clinical practice settings. Methods. A total of 564 patients with 2 to 10 months of at least 50% sickness absence due to nonspecific low back pain were assessed for depression and anxiety with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Single-item questions for depression and anxiety from the Subjective Health Complaint Inventory and 2 longer questionnaires, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25, were compared with MINI results, considered the “gold standard” in this study. Sensitivity and specificity of single-item and longer questionnaires and receiver operating characteristic curves were compared. Results. According to MINI, the prevalence of anxiety disorders was 12% whereas that of depressive disorders was 4%. The screening questions showed 95% sensitivity and 56% specificity for depressive disorders and 68% sensitivity and 85% specificity for anxiety disorders. The longer questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, showed 91% sensitivity and 85% specificity for depressive disorders and 58% sensitivity and 83% specificity for anxiety disorders. Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25 showed 86% sensitivity and 74% specificity for depressive disorders and 67% sensitivity and 87% specificity for anxiety disorders. For 3 of the anxiety disorders and 2 of the depressive disorders, a perfect sensitivity was found between the screening questions and MINI. Conclusions. A single-item screening question was sensitive for depression but less sensitive for anxiety. The screening questions further performed equal to 2 widely used questionnaires. Validation of these results in other populations and compared with other short-item screeners is needed. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24480946
Lie, Stein Atle; Eriksen, Hege R.
Three hundred and forty adults (including sports players, recreational exercisers, mediators and sedentary controls) completed three inventories purporting to measure cognitive and somatic aspects of anxiety. These were the Cognitive-Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ) devised by Schwartz, Davidson & Goleman (Psychosomatic Medicine, 40, 321-328, 1978), the Worry-Emotionality Scale (WES, Morris, Davis & Hutchens, Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 541-555, 1981) and the Lehrer-Woolfolk (1982) Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ). Factor analysis of the CSAQ and WES identified distinct cognitive and somatic anxiety factors in both inventories. Higher somatic than cognitive ratings were recorded on the CSAQ and WES, while the pattern was reversed on the LWASQ. The CSAQ can tentatively be recommended as a useful measure of these two anxiety components. We were unable to confirm an observation made previously in the literature that practice of meditation is associated with reduced cognitive anxiety, or that exercise is linked with lower somatic anxiety. PMID:2405835
Steptoe, A; Kearsley, N
The nursing outcomes of hospitalized patients whose plans of care include death anxiety, which is a diagnosis among patients at the end-of-life, are obscure. The authors of the current article applied data mining techniques to nursing plan-of-care data for patients diagnosed with death anxiety, as defined by North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, from four different hospitals to examine nursing care outcomes and associated factors. Results indicate that <50% of patients met the expected outcome of comfortable death. Gerontology unit patients were more likely to meet the expected outcome than patients from other unit types, although results were not statistically significant. Younger patients (i.e., age <65) had a lower chance of meeting the outcome compared with older patients (i.e., age ?65) (?(2)(1) = 9.266, p < 0.004). Longer stays improved the chances of meeting the outcome (?(2)(2) = 6.47, p < 0.04). Results indicate that death anxiety outcomes are suboptimal and suggest the need to better educate clinicians about diagnosing and treating death anxiety among patients who face the end-of-life transition. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2014; 7(5):224-234.]. PMID:25157534
Lodhi, Muhammad Kamran; Cheema, Umer Iftikhar; Stifter, Janet; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M; Yao, Yingwei; Ansari, Rashid; Khokhar, Ashfaq A
BackgroundGiven the immense burden of HIV\\/AIDS on health systems in sub-Saharan Africa and the intricate link between HIV\\/AIDS and mental health problems, health care providers need a valid and reliable instrument to assess mental health rapidly. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) may constitute such an instrument. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the factor structure
Edwin Wouters; Frederik le Roux Booysen; Koen Ponnet; Francis Baron Van Loon
of the Beck Depression Inventory  or the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ)  typicallyBiology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders Huys et al. Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders 2013, 3:12 http
Background: Regarding the close and continuous interaction of infertility staff with hopeless infertile couples and in the contrary the atmosphere of happiness especially in obstetric wards make a sense that considering anxiety and depression it would be a difference between these two wards. Objective: The objective of this study is the comparison of the rate of depression and anxiety between the two wards of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-correlation study based on cross-sectional method. 199 individuals who were the staff of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology wards in four provinces enrolled in this study through stratified sampling. Data collection was done by demographic questionnaire, Spiel Berger and Beck depression inventory tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA test. Results: The result showed the rate of anxiety in obstetrics and gynecology staff of Isfahan center (54.69±13.58) and depression rate had increased level in infertility staff of Shiraz center (14.94±10.87). Overall, there was significant correlation between anxiety, depression and work place (p=0.047, 0.008 respectively). According to ANOVA test, the mean value of anxiety level was higher in the staff of four obstetrics and gynecology centers and one infertility center Conclusion: As long as we know that infertile couples have little chance for success rate and obstetrics and gynecology wards patients have little risk of failure in treatment, it could be mentioned that the anxiety and depression in the staff are not correlated with the client illness. PMID:24799878
Pourmovahed, Zahra; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali; Ghasemi, Mojdeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the WHO (five) Well Being Index (WBI-5), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and physicians’ recognition of depressive disorders, and to recommend specific cut-off points for clinical decision making. Methods: A total of 501 outpatients completed each of the three depression screening
Bernd Löwe; Robert L. Spitzer; Kerstin Gräfe; Kurt Kroenke; Andrea Quenter; Stephan Zipfel; Christine Buchholz; Steffen Witte; Wolfgang Herzog
To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…
Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.
BACKGROUND: There have been no previous studies conducted in Pakistan comparing the concordance of any well established Western anxiety\\/depression screening instrument with an indigenous scale, in a community based setting. METHODS: Participants (n = 1040) in the present study were recruited from the six villages of our interest from the district Gujarat of Pakistan, using a convenient sampling technique. Interview
Hammad Raza Syed; Henrik Daae Zachrisson; Odd Steffen Dalgard; Ingvild Dalen; Nora Ahlberg
The graduate students in our laboratory underwent 4-5 months of training at Maizuru Kyosai Hospital. To evaluate the effectiveness of this long-term practical training course of the off-campus hospital, we conducted a questionnaire survey before and after the course among the students and the pharmacists. The results of the survey suggest that the students gained experience regarding pharmaceutical management and came to understand the importance of pharmaceutical care during the course. They had an opportunity to connect clinical practice with the research activities conducted at the university. With regard to the pharmacists, this course has motivated them to act as mentors during the practical training, and therefore was also of significance to them. However, this long-term practical training at the off-campus hospital necessitated a change in lifestyle and living arrangements for the students, which placed stress on them. They required emotional support from university staff before and during the placement. These results show that in order to maintain close collaboration with the hospital and to ensure the success of long-term practical training at an off-campus hospital, academic and emotional support for the students is necessary. PMID:20190529
Fukumoto, Kyoko; Fujimura, Yasuo; Kusumoto, Masaaki; Tatami, Ryozo; Ueno, Kazuyuki
An array of measures of anxiety and related disorders (viz., Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire; Anxiety Sensitivity Index; Beck Anxiety Inventory; Beck Depression Inventory–II; Body Sensation Questionnaire; Fear Questionnaire; Padua Inventory; Penn State Worry Questionnaire; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Diagnostic Scale; Social Interaction Anxiety Inventory; and Worry Scale) was edited or translated from English into Spanish. Following an extensive edit and
Diane M. Novy; Melinda A. Stanley; Patricia Averill; Patricia Daza
Background Nurses are an indispensable component of the work force in the health care system. However, many of them are known to work in a stressful environment which may affect their mental well-being; the situation could be worse in rapidly transforming societies such as China. The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms and the associated factors in Chinese nurses working in public city hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed for Chinese nurses in public city hospitals of Liaoning Province, northeast China. Seven hospitals in different areas of the province were randomly selected for the study. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale was used to measure anxiety symptoms. Effort-reward imbalance questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire were used to assess the work stressors. Univariate analysis and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety symptoms. Results All registered nurses in the seven city hospitals, totaling 1807 registered nurses were surveyed. Of the returned questionnaires, 1437 were valid (79.5%) for analysis. Utilizing the total raw score???40 as the cut-off point, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in these nurses was 43.4%. Demographic factors (education, chronic disease and life event), lifestyle factors (regular meals and physical exercise), work conditions (hospital grade, job rank, monthly salary, nurse-patient relationships, job satisfaction and intention of leaving), job content (social support and decision latitude), effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were all significantly related to the anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed main factors associated with anxiety symptoms were lower job rank (OR 2.501), overcommitment (OR 2.018), chronic diseases (OR 1.541), worse nurse-patient relationship (OR 1.434), higher social support (OR 0.573), lower hospital grade (OR 0.629), taking regular meals (OR 0.719) and higher level of job satisfaction (OR 0.722). Conclusions A large proportion of Chinese nurses working in public city hospitals had anxiety symptoms, which warrants immediate investigation and intervention from the hospital administrators. Meanwhile, results of the study suggest that proper counseling, promotion of healthy lifestyle behavior and improvements to the social environment in the work place may be helpful toward reducing or preventing the anxiety symptoms. PMID:22978466
Administered Death Anxiety Scale, Death Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Scale, and questionnaire assessing demographic and life-situation variables to 94 human immunodeficiency virus-infected gay men. Higher death anxiety and death depression were most highly correlated with state anxiety, trait anxiety,…
Hintze, Julie; And Others
SUMMARY Using a vernacular adaptation of MAS 50 bronchial asthma patients were compared with 102 normals, 60 hospital general out-patients and 50 neurotics to determine the level of anxiety in asthma. The manifest anxiety scores of the bronchial asthma patients were found to be significantly high showing that their level of anxiety was abnormally higher in comparison with that of the normals and the hospital general out-patients. The bronchial asthmatics and the neurotics did not differ in anxiety. The implications of these findings were discussed. PMID:21927407
Sreedhar, Krishna Prasad
Background Sleep disturbance (SD) has complex associations with depression, both preceding and following the onset and recurrence of depression. We hypothesized that students with depressive symptoms with SD would demonstrate a greater burden of comorbid psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment compared to students with depressive symptoms without SD. Methods During a mental health screening, 287 undergraduate students endorsed symptoms of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI] ? 13) and filled out the following self-report measures: demographic questionnaire, BDI, Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire—intensity and frequency (ASQ), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (QLESQ), and the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire (CPFQ). SD was measured using the BDI sleep item #16 dichotomized (score 0: no SD; or score > 0: some SD). Results Students with depressive symptoms and SD (n = 220), compared to those without SD (n = 67), endorsed significantly more intense and frequent anxiety and poorer cognitive and physical functioning. Students with depressive symptoms with and without SD did not significantly differ in depressive severity, hopelessness, or quality of life. Conclusions College students with depressive symptoms with SD may experience a greater burden of comorbid anxiety symptoms and hyperarousal, and may have impairments in functioning, compared to students with depressive symptoms without SD. These findings require replication. Depression and Anxiety 00:1–8, 2013. PMID:23681944
Nyer, Maren; Farabaugh, Amy; Fehling, Kiki; Soskin, David; Holt, Daphne; Papakostas, George I.; Pedrelli, Paola; Fava, Maurizio; Pisoni, Angela; Vitolo, Ottavio; Mischoulon, David
Background/Aims: There is a high prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders among gastroenterological outpatients. Relatively few studies have been done on the help-seeking behavior among those who suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms with or without psychiatric disorders. We aimed to characterize the help-seeking behavior of gastroenterological outpatients and to evaluate if this behavior is linked to the presence of depression and anxiety. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in gastroenterology clinics in four hospitals in Riyadh between February and September 2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was developed and administered to patients. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) questionnaires were used to diagnose depression and anxiety, respectively. Results: A total of 440 patients completed the study questionnaire. The average age was 36.0 ± 12.8 years and 69% of the patients were males. Complaints included abdominal pain (58%), heartburn (29%), diarrhea or constipation (25%), appetite or weight changes (22%), and nausea or vomiting (16%). Depression was diagnosed in 36%, while anxiety was diagnosed in 28% of the patients. The first intervention was use of medications (68%) and undergoing endoscopy (16%), while few patients initially used herbs or Islamic incantation (7.5%). This first intervention was done primarily (59%) in private sector hospitals rather than government sector hospitals (36%). The rates of depression and anxiety in our patients were higher among those who suffered from multiple complaints for longer durations and with less satisfaction with the offered services. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety are common comorbidities in gastroenterological outpatient population, especially those who have a chronic course of multiple gastrointestinal complaints. PMID:25038209
Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Al-sultan, Omar; Alghamdi, Qusay; Almohaimeed, Ibrahim; Alqannas, Sulaiman
Objective: Preoperative anxiety influences the result of the treatment in patients. To assess preoperative anxiety the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS)  was developed. The APAIS measures anxiety and the need-for-information with 6 items, with good reliability and validity. This article presents the first test of the German version of this screening instrument. Methods: The German version of the APAIS was tested on 68 patients questioned before surgery on the lower extremities in the Orthopaedic Department of a University Hospital. From 68 patients, 47 (69%) were female and the average age was 55 years. Besides the APAIS, several additional questionnaires with similar or divergent content were administered for testing the convergent and discriminant validity of the APAIS (HADS, SCL-9-K, KASA, COSS, STOA). Results: The two scales anxiety and need-for-information could be replicated by a factor analysis and had high reliability (anxiety: Cronbachs Alpha = 0.92; need-for-information: Cronbachs Alpha = 0.86). As expected the scales of the APAIS correlated highly with different standard questionnaires which measure anxiety (KASA, STOA) and low with questionnaires of divergent contents (HADS depression, COSS). The APAIS-scales are independent of sex, age or previous surgeries. Patients with a higher need-for-information show higher anxiety (r=0.59) prior to surgery. Conclusions: During its first trial the German version of the APAIS proved to be a reliable and valid instrument. Furthermore, it is a good screening instrument to assess preoperative anxiety and need-for-information in clinical practice, especially due to its brevity. In further studies the predictive validity has to be examined in large heterogeneous samples. PMID:19742298
Berth, Hendrik; Petrowski, Katja; Balck, Friedrich
Overcoming Exam Anxiety #12;2 Overcoming Exam Anxiety "I've suffered a great many catastrophes preparation?" Can some exam anxiety be helpful? A certain amount of exam anxiety keeps us energized, motivated, alert, and focused. But too much anxiety can interfere with exam performance by blocking our recall
Background The prevalence of depression and anxiety and its associated factors in cervical cancer are not well evaluated in China. Meanwhile, with increasing attention given to positive psychological variables in oncology field, there is a need to conduct a study to explore the integrative effects of positive psychological variables on depression/anxiety so as to provide patients a more holistic cancer care. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression/anxiety as well as the integrative effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy on depression/anxiety among Chinese cervical cancer patients. Methods A multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute and the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 224 cervical cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinic variables, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and General Self-Efficacy Scale during February and August 2013. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 52.2% and 65.6% in cervical cancer patients. The anxiety score was significantly higher in patients at the period of 4–6 months after diagnose and at cancer stage II. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope, optimism and general self-efficacy as a whole accounted for 31.3% variance of depression and 35.6% variance of anxiety. Under standardized estimate (?) sequence, hope, optimism and general self-efficacy significantly associated with depression, respectively; hope and optimism were also significant individual predictors of anxiety. Conclusions The high prevalence of depression and anxiety among cervical cancer patients should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. More importantly, efforts to develop the integrated psychosocial interventions are effective and necessary to alleviate depression/anxiety in cervical cancer patients by synthesizing and integrating the individual protective effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy. PMID:24722558
Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie
Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a skin disease characterized by the sudden appearance of areas of hair loss on the scalp and other hair-bearing areas, but its aesthetic repercussions can lead to profound changes in patient's psychological status and relationships. Aim: The goal was to investigate a possible relationship between AA and alexithymia as well as two other emotional dimensions, anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with AA seen in the Department of Dermatology of Hedi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax were included in this study. Anxiety and depression were evaluated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale questionnaire, alexithymia was assessed by Toronto Alexithymia scale 20, and severity of AA was measured by Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Patient's mean age was 32.92 years. 52% of patients were females. Depression and anxiety were detected respectively in 38% and 62% of patients. There was statistically significant difference between patients and control group in terms of depression (P = 0.047) and anxiety (P = 0.005). Forty-two percent of patients scored positive for alexithymia. No significant difference was found between patient and control groups (P = 0.683) in terms of alexithymia. Anxiety was responsible for 14.7% of variation in alexithymia (P = 0.047). Conclusions: Our study shows a high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in AA patients. Dermatologists should be aware of the psychological impact of AA, especially as current treatments have limited effectiveness. PMID:25071275
Sellami, Rim; Masmoudi, J; Ouali, U; Mnif, L; Amouri, M; Turki, H; Jaoua, A
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety and depression symptoms in outpatient migraineurs in mainland China. In addition, we evaluated whether the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) provided sufficient validity to screen depression and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively at our headache clinic. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Demographic characteristics and clinical features were collected by headache questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms about migraineurs were assessed using HADS. Several questionnaires were simultaneously used to evaluate patients with depressive disorder including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and HADS. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to test the validity of HADS. 176 outpatients with migraine (81.8 % female) were included. Overall, 17.6 and 38.1 % participants had depression and anxiety, respectively. Possible risk factors for depression in migraineurs included headache intensity of first onset of migraine, migraine with presymptom, migraine with family history and migraine disability. The possible risk factors for anxiety included fixed attack time of headache in one day and poor sleeping, and age represented a protective factor for anxiety. The correlation coefficient of HADS-A and HADS-D with HAMA and HAMD was 0.666 and 0.508, respectively (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that depression and anxiety comorbidity in our mainland Chinese migraineurs are also common, and several risk factors were identified that may provide predictive value. These findings can help clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression in order to improve migraine management. PMID:22466285
Yong, Na; Hu, Hua; Fan, Xiaoping; Li, Xuelian; Ran, Li; Qu, Yuan; Wang, Yunfeng; Tan, Ge; Chen, Lixue; Zhou, Jiying
BACKGROUND Primary hyperhidrosis (PH) can lead to mood changes due to the inconveniences it causes. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine the existence of anxiety and depression in patients with severe primary hyperhidrosis who sought treatment at a medical office. METHODS The questionnaire "Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale" was used for 197 individuals, in addition to the chi square test and Fisher exact test, p <0.05. RESULTS There was an increased prevalence of anxiety (49.6%) but not of depression (11.2%) among patients with PH, with no link to gender, age or amount of affected areas. Palmar and plantar primary hyperhidrosis were the most frequent but when associated with the presence of anxiety, the most frequent were the axillary (p = 0.02) and craniofacial (p = 0.02) forms. There was an association between patients with depression and anxiety (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS the involvement of Primary hyperhidrosis was responsible for a higher prevalence of anxiety than that described among the general population and patients with other chronic diseases. Depression had a low prevalence rate, while mild and moderate forms were the most common and frequently associated with anxiety. The degree of anxiety was higher in mild and moderate types than in the severe form. PMID:24770497
Braganca, Gleide Maria Gatto; Lima, Sonia Oliveira; Pinto, Aloisio Ferreira; Marques, Lucas Menezes; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; Reis, Francisco Prado
Absence of an adequate reason for anxiety is a criterion for pathological anxiety. However, the presence of danger or fear-provoking stimuli may even be a risk factor for anxiety and does not exclude that there is additionally pathological anxiety too. The question is, to what degree can heart-related anxiety be explained by the severity of illness or trait anxiety? Two hundred and nine patients (37.8% women) from a cardiology inpatient unit completed the Heart-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Progression-Anxiety-Questionnaire, Job-Anxiety-Scale and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory. The severity of cardiac illness was rated by the treating cardiologists using the Multidimensional Severity of Morbidity Rating. Time absent from work due to sickness was assessed as an indicator for illness-related impairment. Heart anxiety was significantly related to progression anxiety and, to a lesser extent, trait anxiety and indicators of subjective symptoms of somatic illness. No association was found with medical ratings for prognosis, multimorbidity, or reduction in life expectancy. Heart-related anxiety is a symptom of an anxiety disorder. Although partially dependent on subjective suffering, it cannot be explained by the severity of medical illness. Treatment of health-related anxieties should focus on how to cope with subjective symptoms of illness. PMID:23473360
Muschalla, Beate; Glatz, Johannes; Linden, Michael
The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise
Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein
Background: Physical activity (PA) has been found to be an excellent predictor of mortality beyond traditional measures in COPD. We aimed to determine the association between depression and anxiety with accelerometry-based PA in patients with COPD. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 148 stable patients with COPD enrolled in an ongoing, longitudinal, observational study. We measured PA (total daily step count) with a Stepwatch Activity Monitor over 7 days, depression and anxiety with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADSs), dyspnea with the Shortness of Breath Questionnaire, and functional capacity with the 6-min walk test. Results: Increased anxiety was associated with higher levels of PA such that for every one-point increase in the HADS-Anxiety score there was a corresponding increase of 288 step counts per day (? = 288 steps, P < .001), after adjusting for all other variables. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with lower PA (?= ?176 steps, P = .02) only when anxiety was in the model. The interaction term for anxiety and depression approached significance (? = 26, P = .10), suggesting that higher levels of anxiety mitigate the negative effects of depression on PA. Conclusions: The increased PA associated with anxiety in COPD is, to our knowledge, a novel finding. However, it is unclear whether anxious patients with COPD are more restless, and use increased psychomotor activity as a coping mechanism, or whether those with COPD who push themselves to be more physically active experience more anxiety symptoms. Future studies should evaluate for anxiety and PA to better inform how to improve clinical outcomes. Trial Registry: Clinicaltrials.gov; No.: NCT01074515; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23370503
Fan, Vincent S.; Herting, Jerald; Lee, Jungeun; Fu, Musetta; Chen, Zijing; Borson, Soo; Kohen, Ruth; Matute-Bello, Gustavo; Pagalilauan, Genevieve; Adams, Sandra G.
It was shown that terminal patients of physicians with high death anxiety survive longer during their final hospital stay than terminal patients of physicians with low death anxiety. Physicians high in death anxiety seem to be less willing to accept patients' terminality and use heroic measures to keep them alive. (Author)
Schulz, Richard; Aderman, David
Questionnaire-based survey on structural quality of hospitals and nursing homes for the elderly, their staffing with infection control personal, and implementation of infection control measures in Germany
From January to May 2012, 1,860 hospitals throughout Germany received a questionnaire encompassing 77 items. Additionally, 300 outpatient care services and 310 nursing homes for elderly in Berlin also received a 10-item questionnaire asking on their implemented infection control practices. All questionnaires were anonymous. A total of 229 completed questionnaires from hospitals, 14 questionnaires from outpatient care services, and 16 questionnaires from nursing homes were eligible for further analysis. The lack of Infection Control physicians was identified as the largest issue. In hospitals sized 400–999 beds a gap of 71%, and in hospitals sized ?1,000 beds a gap of 17% was reported. Depending on the number of hospital beds, 13–29% of hospitals sized ?100 beds reported not havening one infection control nurse. Since based on the number of beds in larger institutions or in facilities caring for high-risk patients several infection control nurses may be required, the deficiency in infection control nurses may even be higher, particularly in secondary and tertiary care facilities. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that the legal requirements for surveillance and reporting of notifiable infectious diseases have not yet been implemented in 11% of the facilities. The implementation of antibiotic strategies did show significant gaps. However, deficiencies in the implemented measures for the prevention of surgical site infections were less frequent. Yet 12% of the participants did not have a dedicated infection control concept for their surgical services. Eight percent of hospitals were not prepared for an outbreak management and 10% did not have established regulations for wearing surgical scrubs. Deficiencies in waste disposal and the control of air-conditioning systems were also noted. Based on the results of this survey, conclusions on the optimal resource allocation for further improvement of patient safety may be drawn. While all participating nursing homes had some sort of infection control consultation, this only applied to 12 out of 16 outpatient nursing services. However, all 16 nursing services worked on the basis of an implemented infection control plan. Though legally binding hygiene recommendations have not yet been implemented for nursing homes, the necessity of infection control to assure patient safety has obviously been recognised throughout these services. PMID:23967397
Kramer, A.; Assadian, O.; Helfrich, J.; Kruger, C.; Pfenning, I.; Ryll, S.; Perner, A.; Loczenski, B.
... this questionnaire accurately and completely. Patient Name ___________________________________________________ Age _________ Weight _______ Height _________ Date _____________ Allergies _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Current Medications (Prescription and Non-Prescription -- ...
Purpose: To quantify the anxiety provoked by cataract surgery and establish whether the preoperative stage, the day of surgery, or the outcome was associated with unduly high anxiety.Setting: Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of adult patients having cataract surgery under local anesthesia was done. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and a Visual Analog Scale
Paul S Foggitt
Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…
Klein, Rachel G.
Objective The Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 assesses metacognitive beliefs and processes which are central to the metacognitive model of emotional disorder. As recent studies have begun to explore the utility of this model for understanding emotional distress after cancer diagnosis, it is important also to assess the validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 for use in cancer populations. Methods 229 patients with primary breast or prostate cancer completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale pre-treatment and again 12 months later. The structure and validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 were assessed using factor analyses and structural equation modelling. Results Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided evidence supporting the validity of the previously published 5-factor structure of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30. Specifically, both pre-treatment and 12 months later, this solution provided the best fit to the data and all items loaded on their expected factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that two dimensions of metacognition (positive and negative beliefs about worry) were significantly associated with anxiety and depression as predicted, providing further evidence of validity. Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 is a valid measure for use in cancer populations. PMID:25215527
Cook, Sharon A.; Salmon, Peter; Dunn, Graham; Fisher, Peter
This 47-item questionnaire is designed to measure the examinee's satisfaction or dissatisfaction with various situations occurring in desegregated schools. Administration instructions and a breakdown of the questionnaire into categories and items is included. No field testing has been done. (See also TM 000 940 for a description of the study and…
Mullen, David J.
Objectives: To assess the performance of four self-report measures of anxiety in an older adult population.Method: Forty older adults with current or previous anxiety symptoms completed four self-report measures of anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Visual Analogue Scale) and received an independent diagnostic assessment and rating of anxiety severity. After a
R. E. Dennis; S. J. A. Boddington; N. J. Funnell
Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between self-reported symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, nonadherent (NA) behaviors, and reasons for NA to medication regimens. Methods A population based cross-sectional study with questionnaire was performed in the general Swedish population. The participants were 2,802 prescription drug users aged 18–84 years. The questionnaire covered use of prescription drugs, symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), various NA behavior types, intentional and unintentional, and various reasons for NA. Results Symptoms of anxiety and depression, independently and in combination, were associated with unintentional and intentional NA, with a stronger association with intentional NA. Regarding the reasons given for NA, for example anxiety, independently or in combination with depression, was associated with a fear of developing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Depression, independently or in combination with anxiety, on the other hand, was associated with the actual development of ADRs. Conclusion A cross-sectional design such as this does not allow assessment of causality derived from the results. However, the results indicate that patients experiencing symptoms of psychological distress are at increased risk of NA, especially intentional NA, and could therefore benefit from extra attention from the health care professional. Patients with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression should be identified and monitored for the development and/or fear of ADRs, in order to improve adherence to medication regimens. PMID:23983459
Sundbom, Lena Thunander; Bingefors, Kerstin
\\u000a Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 31.2% and a 12-month prevalence\\u000a of 19.1% in the United States (Kessler et al., 2005; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). Individuals with\\u000a an anxiety disorder present with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. Particularly unique to anxiety are the\\u000a symptoms of physical tension
Rose C. Smith; Lisa S. Elwood; Matthew T. Feldner; Bunmi O. Olatunji
The hypothesis was tested that WAIS Digit Span (DS) performance is disrupted by anxiety. 110 college students, who had been tested on Taylor's MA scale and Sarason's Test Anxiety Questionnaire, were tested under an anxiety-inducing or rapport-establishing (control) procedure. After testing on DS, experimental Ss were asked if the instruction variable had disturbed them. With respect to DS: (a) no-significant
Ronald E. Walker; Janet Taylor Spence
Background Cancer diagnosis among children can cause high stress and anxiety in parents, and they may lose their life expectancy. The present study investigated the effectiveness of Logo therapy on anxiety and depression among mothers of children with cancer. Materials and Methods This study was conducted by a semi-pilot method using pre-test and post-test with a control experimental group. Therapy sessions were held during 9 sessions of Logo therapy training for 90 minutes. The participants of this study were selected among 30 mothers of children with cancer and using sampling method in Yazd hospitals. The participants divided randomly into two groups: experimental and control. Participants in both experimental and control group completed questionnaires on Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory before and after training. Results The results showed that the index of depression and anxiety in control and experimental groups are 32.3, 6.63, 7.4 and 6.75, respectively. So, the level among the experimental group has been decreased after intervention of Logotherapy training and a significant difference occurred in the pre-post test stages. The results showed that Logo Therapy has a significant effect in reducing anxiety and depression among mothers of children with cancer (p<0.05). Conclusion Regarding the efficiency of this approach to reduce anxiety and depression among mothers, this treatment is recommended to be practiced beside other cancer therapies, so they can practice the treatment process with a better mood and mentality. PMID:25002923
Delavari, H; Nasirian, M; Baezegar bafrooei, K
Little attention has been paid to the demotivating potential of new technologies in foreign language research. Thus, this study aims to investigate Internet anxiety among foreign language learners and to determine the relationships between Internet anxiety and certain variables. A background questionnaire, an Internet information test, and an…
Context Anxiety in terminal cancer is linked to diminished quality of life, yet overall it is poorly understood with regard to prevalence and relationship to other aspects of psychological distress. Objectives This study examines anxiety in terminally ill cancer patients, including the prevalence of anxiety symptoms, the relationship between anxiety and depression, differences in anxiety between participants receiving inpatient palliative care and those receiving outpatient care, and characteristics that distinguish highly anxious from less anxious patients. Methods Participants were 194 patients with terminal cancer. Approximately half (n = 103) were receiving inpatient care in a palliative care facility and half (n = 91) were receiving outpatient care in a tertiary care cancer center. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, and was administered along with measures of hopelessness, desire for hastened death, and social support. Results Moderately elevated anxiety symptoms were found in 18.6% of participants (n = 36) and 12.4% (n = 24) had clinically significant anxiety symptoms. Level of anxiety did not differ between the two treatment settings. However, participants receiving palliative care reported significantly higher levels of depression and desire for hastened death. A multivariate prediction model indicated that belief in an afterlife, social support, and anxiolytic and antidepressant use were unique, significant predictors of anxiety. Conclusion Severity of anxiety symptoms did not differ between the study sites, suggesting that anxiety may differ from depression and desire for hastened death in the course that it takes over the duration of terminal cancer. PMID:21565460
Kolva, Elissa; Rosenfeld, Barry; Pessin, Hayley; Breitbart, William; Brescia, Robert
Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. METHODS: 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEO), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self Consciousness Scale. RESUTL AND ANALYSIS: The college students' stressors were related to social anxiety and mental health.
Shi Kan; Jiang Nan; Chen Xuefeng; Wang Zhen; Gao Jing; Hu Weipeng
The study reported in this article examines the nature of anxiety that undergraduate students experience in a research methods course and explores some of the factors that influence their anxiety levels. Two questionnaires measuring the attitudes towards research and the anxiety level were administered to 472 students enrolled in a research…
Papanastasiou, Elena C.; Zembylas, Michalinos
Administered two death anxiety measures and personality questionnaire to 161 undergraduates. Results revealed that death anxiety scores were significantly related to neuroticism and to Type A behavior patterns, such that high death anxiety was correlated with greater emotionality and more aggressiveness. Neuroticism, Type A behaviors,…
Frazier, Patricia H.; Foss-Goodman, Deborah
Background Studies on anxiety in patients having intra-alveolar extraction as well as the effect of patient's sociodemographic characteristics influencing level of associated anxiety are few in our environment. The aim of this study was to statistically analyze the sociodemographic determinants of dental anxiety in patients scheduled for intra-alveolar extraction. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 93 consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital for intra-alveolar extraction in the months of November and December 2013. An interview-based questionnaire, Corah Dental Anxiety Scale Revised (DAS-R), was administered to evaluate levels of dental anxiety. Sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects were recorded. Descriptive statistics and regression models were done with the independent variables (sociodemographic factors) and the dependent variable being the DAS-R. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results The internal consistency of the scale used as determined by Cronbach alpha was 0.76. Mean DAS score was 8.12±2.58. Dental anxiety and age of subjects showed significant inverse relationship. Females had a higher mean DAS score (8.76) than the males (7.37) (P=0.006). Residence (urban/rural) was not statistically significant. Singles reported the highest DAS score (9.41) (P=0.006). The educational level attained was significantly related to dental anxiety (P=0.005). Those with secondary school education had the highest DAS score (9.26). Class V social status had the highest mean anxiety score (P=0.012). Stepwise linear regression showed that the best predictors for dental anxiety were sex (P=0.008) and marital status (P=0.026). Conclusion This present study demonstrates that sex and marital status are the predictive factors for dental anxiety in the overall management of patients indicated for intra-alveolar extraction. PMID:25249306
Egbor, Peter E.; Akpata, Osagie
This study investigated the relative associations between parent and child anxiety and parents' cognitions about their children. One hundred and four parents of children aged 3-5 years completed questionnaires regarding their own anxiety level, their child's anxiety level and their cognitions about the child, specifically parents' expectations…
Wheatcroft, Rebecca; Creswell, Cathy
Imagery has been proposed to be an effective strategy for controlling levels of competitive anxiety, but little b known about how imagery functions to achieve this. This study explored the relationship between imagery use. imagery ability. competitive anxiety and performance. Fifty-seven Junior North American Roller Skating Championship competitors completed the revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ-R), the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ),
Eva A. Vadoa; Craig R. Hall; Sandra E. Moritz
Background Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish\\u000a version of the Type D Scale (DS14) and the impact of Type D on anxiety and depression in cardiac patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Cardiac patients (n?=?707) completed the DS14, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A subgroup\\u000a (n?=?318) also
Helle Spindler; Charlotte Kruse; Ann-Dorthe Zwisler; Susanne S. Pedersen
1 General Hospital Psychiatry 29 (2007) 285-293 Title: Use of the PRIME-MD Patient Health 5, France 2 Service Universitaire de Psychiatrie Adulte, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 39 av, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London SE5 8AF, UK
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
This study examined the degree to which anxiety symptoms among children cluster into subtypes of anxiety problems consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) classification of anxiety disorders. Two community samples of 698 children 8-12 years of age completed a questionnaire regarding the frequency with which they experienced a wide range of anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor
Susan H. Spence
The California Psychological Inventory (CPI), the Levanthal Anxiety Scale, the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (DAS), and a questionnaire determining various demographic and situational variables relevant to death anxiety were administered to college students (N=180). Percentage of the variance of death anxiety accounted for by each predictor variable…
Smith, Alexander H., Jr.
Healthcare system $6,400,000,000 Acute Care hospitalization Rate (ACH) -Home Health Outcome Measure -Home deaths and planned hospitalizations Contributing Factors to Re-hospitalization Â·Patient's Anxiety 31% Other Respiratory 14% HeartFailure 11% Wound 8% Respiratory Infection 6% UTI 6% MI 5% Unknown 5% Fall 4
von der Heydt, RÃ¼diger
Objective This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression among Jordanian lower limb amputees with different clinical characteristics and sociodemographic data (gender, marital status, social support, income, type and level of amputation, and occupation). Methods Participants were 56 patients with unilateral lower limb amputation with mean duration (8.4 ± 5.75 years). They were recruited from inpatient and outpatient clinics of Jordan University hospital, Royal Farah Rehabilitation Center, and Al-basheer hospital in Amman, Jordan. Participants responded to a questionnaire that included a battery of questions requesting brief information about sociodemographic variables and characteristics of amputation. The level of depression and anxiety in each participating patient was assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 37% and 20%, respectively. Factors associated with high prevalence of psychological symptoms included female gender, lack of social support, unemployment, traumatic amputation, shorter time since amputation, and amputation below the knee. These findings were confirmed by a significant reduction of anxiety and depression scores in patients who received social support, patients with amputation due to disease, and patients with amputation above the knee. Presence of pain and use of prosthesis had no effect on the prevalence. Conclusions The findings of the present study highlight the high incidence of psychiatric disability and depression in amputees; it also showed the importance of sociodemographic factors in psychological adjustment to amputation. It is suggested that psychiatric evaluation and adequate rehabilitation should form a part of their overall management. PMID:18830394
Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Othman, Yasmin S; Ibrahim, Alaa I
Background To investigate whether anxiety and depression levels are associated with Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) induction in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods The design was cross-sectional. Clinical activity was assessed by the Rachmilewitz Index (CAI). Three psychometric questionnaires were used: Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS), Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Colon biopsies were obtained from each affected anatomical site. Severity of inflammation was assessed by eosin/hematoxylin. Constitutive (HSP70c) and inducible (HSP70i) HSP70 expression were immunohistochemically studied. Results 29 UC patients were enrolled (69% men). Mean age was 46.5 years (SD: 19.5). Inflammation severity was moderate in 17 patients, severe in 6, and mild in 6. The mean number of years since diagnosis was 7.9 (SD: 6.5). The mean CAI was 6.4 (SD: 3.1). In active UC, there was downregulation of HSP70c in inflamed epithelium, without significant HSP70 induction. In 22/29 cases of active cryptitis, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) clearly expressed HSP70i, with weak, focal positivity in the other 7 cases. Except for the hospital anxiety scale, scores in all psychometric tools were higher in patients with strong HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN. Logistic regression showed a strong positive relationship between HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN cells and scores in the trait anxiety, ZDRS, and hospital depression scales, (Odds ratios 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5; P?=?0.018, 0.023, and 0.038; Wald test, 5.6, 5.2, and 4.3 respectively) and a weaker but significant positive correlation with the CAI (Odds ratio 1.654; P?=?0.049; Wald test 3.858). Conclusion HSP70 is induced in PMN cells of UC patients and its induction correlates with depression and anxiety levels. PMID:24742079
This study sought to translate, using a back-translation procedure, and evaluate the psychometric characteristics of Depression in the Medically Ill questionnaire (DMI-18) and its short version (DMI-10) in a Spanish population. Patients with somatic disorders (N = 366) completed the translated DMI-18 and another depression questionnaire. Among these, 167 were also assessed by a mental health professional (gold standard) to test criterion validity. Furthermore, coefficient alpha for both the versions were high (>.90), and convergent validity assessed against the Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was satisfactory (r > .74). Confirmatory factor analysis results supported the one-factor model. When compared with the gold standard, sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 73% for DMI-18 and 87% and 74% for DMI-10, respectively. Thus, both the versions are acceptable measures that can be used by nonpsychiatric professionals to detect affective comorbidities in their patients. PMID:21245050
Orive, Miren; Padierna, Jesús A; Las Hayas, Carlota; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Quintana, Jose M
Objective. The relationships between trait anxiety, or anxiety proneness, and smoking and between trait anxiety and smoking cessation, among an adult population were investigated.Methods. The subjects were 2,669 male Japanese personnel working for a Japanese government agency. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking and smoking cessation status and other habits. Trait anxiety was evaluated with the trait anxiety part
Yousuke Takemura; Masahiko Akanuma; Shogo Kikuchi; Yutaka Inaba
Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is often presented with major depression (MD). GAD-MD can be a chronic and disabling condition, and patients suffering from this disorder often respond poorly to psychopharmacological treatment and experience side effects with medication. Therefore, there is a high demand for effective nonpharmacological therapy for GAD-MD patients. The current study explores the use of a radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) device in the treatment of GAD-MD. Methods: Participants were 24 patients diagnosed with GAD-MD being treated at a public psychiatric center. All patients were dissatisfied with their current pharmacological treatment. Patients were evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) rating scale and the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90R) before and after REAC brain stimulation treatment cycles. Results: After REAC brain stimulation treatment, all patients experienced a significant reduction in anxiety and depression. These results were confirmed by physician examination, HAM-D scores, and SCL-90R total scores. Conclusion: These results indicate a role for REAC brain stimulation in the management of psychiatric conditions, specifically, GAD-MD comorbidity. REAC treatments are synergistic to drug therapy and appear to be helpful in reducing the side effects of medication. Future studies should evaluate the long-term effects of REAC treatment. PMID:21857785
Olivieri, Elisabetta Bourget; Vecchiato, Caterina; Ignaccolo, Nunziatina; Mannu, Piero; Castagna, Alessandro; Aravagli, Lucia; Fontani, Vania; Rinaldi, Salvatore
Test Anxiety What is Test Anxiety? An overwhelming fear or apprehension about tes ng mindset. Nega vity only spurs more doubt and anxiety. Time Management. Get organized for your ex ams way to get rid of some pent up anxiety. All full me students can to the REC Center for free! Have
Although clinical observations suggest that health-related anxiety is present, to some extent, in a number of anxiety disorders, this relationship has not been examined empirically. The present study therefore utilized the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) to elucidate the structure of such symptoms among patients with anxiety disorders and to…
Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.
Musculoskeletal diseases often have concomitant psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Frozen shoulder (FS) is a musculoskeletal disease, and causes pain and stiffness in the shoulder. The relationship between FS and psychological disorders has rarely been investigated. This cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of depression and anxiety in patients with primary FS, and to explore the relationship between psychological disorders and disease status. In this study, anxiety and depression were evaluated in 124 patients (78 women and 46 men) with primary FS, compared with 130 (72 women and 58 men) age-, sex- and education matched healthy controls between March 2009 and June 2012. Simple shoulder test (SST); shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI); the range of motion (ROM); visual analog scales (VAS) for pain and sleep disturbances; hospital anxiety and depression scale for depression (HADS-D) and for anxiety (HADS-A); and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) were used to assess clinical and psychological status. In FS patients, the prevalence of depression and anxiety was 28.2 and 24.2%, respectively. Compared with the healthy controls, higher HADS-D (6.41?±?3.69, 5. 23?±?2.87 p?=?0.006) and HADS-A (6.16?±?3.62, 4.90?±?3.05 p?=?0.003) were detected. The FS patients with depression or anxiety had significantly lower SST and HAQ scores, significantly higher VAS and SPADI scores and significantly higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with the FS patients with normal psychological status. The correlations of SST, SPADI, VAS and sleep disturbances but not ROM with HADS-A and HADS-D were significant (?p?0.05). This finding indicates that anxiety and depression may coexist with FS; patients with psychological disorders have more severe self-reported shoulder pain and functional restriction. PMID:24382210
Ding, Huairong; Tang, Yanming; Xue, Yuan; Yang, Zhong; Li, Zhiyang; He, Dong; Zhao, Ying; Zong, Yaqi
Examined relationship betwen death anxiety and cognitive/emotional responses to the threat of nuclear war in 345 college students. Results from Templer Death Anxiety Scale and questionnaire about nuclear war found death anxiety positively related to nuclear anxiety, and negligibly associated with perceptions of political efficacy and support for…
Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive…
Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.
Objective: We assessed factors contributing to parental anxiety when children are referred to a cardiology clinic for evaluation of a Still's murmur. Methods: Parents of 95 children completed questionnaires designed to assess family and patient characteristics, parents' ratings of their anxiety and the reassurance they received from their pediatrician, and current (state) and general anxiety levels. Results: Parents reported anxiety
Robert L. Geggel; Lisa M. Horowitz; Elizabeth A. Brown; Marytheresa Parsons; Philip S. Wang; David R. Fulton
Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Isfahan hospitals in 2012. To measure the SA, sleep quality, visual fatigue and thermal comfort, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire and thermal comfort questionnaire were used respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, student test and correlation analysis. Results: Correlation between SA and sleep quality was ?0.664(P < 0001), Pearson correlation between SA and thermal comfort was ?0.276(P = 0.016) and between SA and eye fatigue was 0.57 (P < 0001). Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that improvement of thermal conditions and reduce state anxiety level can be reduce eye fatigue and increase the sleep quality in shift work nurses. PMID:25077165
Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar
The frequent comorbidity of anxiety disorders and mood disorders has been documented in previous studies. However, it remains unclear whether specific anxiety traits or disorders are more closely associated with unipolar major depression (MDD) or bipolar disorder (BPD). We sought to examine whether MDD and BPD can be distinguished by their association with specific types of anxiety comorbidity. Individuals with a primary lifetime diagnosis of either bipolar disorder (N=122) or major depressive disorder (N=114) received diagnostic assessments of anxiety disorder comorbidity, and completed questionnaires assessing anxiety sensitivity and neuroticism. The differential association of these anxiety phenotypes with MDD versus BPD was examined with multivariate modeling. Panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) specifically emerged amongst all the anxiety disorders as significantly more common in patients with BPD than MDD. After controlling for current mood state, anxiety sensitivity and neuroticism did not differ by mood disorder type. This study supports prior research suggesting a specific panic disorder-bipolar disorder connection, and suggests GAD may also be differentially associated with BPD. Further research is needed to clarify the etiologic basis of anxiety disorder/BPD comorbidity and to optimize treatment strategies for patients with these co-occurring disorders. PMID:12650739
Simon, Naomi M; Smoller, Jordan W; Fava, Maurizio; Sachs, Gary; Racette, Stephanie R; Perlis, Roy; Sonawalla, Shamsah; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F
Background High levels of stress and deteriorating mental health among medical students are commonly reported. In Bergen, Norway, we explored the impact of personality traits measured early in their curriculum on stress reactions and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms as junior physicians following graduation. Methods Medical students (n?=?201) from two classes participated in a study on personality traits and mental health early in the curriculum. A questionnaire measuring personality traits (Basic Character Inventory (BCI)) was used during their third undergraduate year. BCI assesses four personality traits: neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness and reality weakness. Questionnaires measuring mental health (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Symptom Checklist 25 (SCL-25)), and stress (Perceived Medical School Stress (PMSS)) were used during their third and sixth undergraduate year. During postgraduate internship, Cooper’s Job Stress Questionnaire (CJSQ) was used to measure perceived job stress, while mental health and stress reactions were reassessed using HADS and SCL-25. Results Extroversion had the highest mean value (5.11) among the total group of participants, while reality weakness had the lowest (1.51). Neuroticism and reality weakness were related to high levels of perceived job stress (neuroticism r?=?.19, reality weakness r?=?.17) as well as higher levels of anxiety symptoms (neuroticism r?=?.23, reality weakness r?=?.33) and symptoms of depression (neuroticism r?=?.21, reality weakness r?=?.36) during internship. Neuroticism indirectly predicted stress reactions and levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. These relations were mediated by perceived job stress, while reality weakness predicted these mental health measures directly. Extroversion, on the other hand, protected against symptoms of depression (r?=??.20). Furthermore, females reported higher levels of job stress than males (difference?=?7.52). Conclusions Certain personality traits measured early in the course of medical school relates to mental health status as junior physicians during postgraduate internship training. This relation is mediated by high levels of perceived job stress. PMID:24207064
Animal models for anxiety-related behavior are based on the assumption that anxiety in animals is comparable to anxiety in humans. Being anxious is an adaptive response to an unfamiliar environment, especially when confronted with danger or threat. However, pathological variants of anxiety can strongly impede the daily life of those affected. To unravel neurobiological mechanisms underlying normal anxiety as well
Background The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live a worthwhile life despite it. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is the questionnaire most often used to measure pain acceptance in chronic pain populations. Methods A total of 205 Spanish patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome who attended our pain clinic were asked to complete a battery of psychometric instruments: the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) for pain intensity, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Results Analysis of results showed that the Spanish CPAQ had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.83) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's ?: 0.83). The Spanish CPAQ score significantly correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophising, health status and physical and psychosocial disability. The Scree plot and a Principal Components Factor analysis confirmed the same two-factor construct as the original English CPAQ. Conclusion The Spanish CPAQ is a reliable clinical assessment tool with valid construct validity for the acceptance measurement among a sample of Spanish fibromyalgia patients. This study will make it easier to assess pain acceptance in Spanish populations with fibromyalgia. PMID:20385016
Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or in the hospital, a threatening environment, as a result of other genetic and psychological factors, or as a combination of all these factors. Additionally, exposure to physical pain early in one’s life and or frequent painful medical procedures are correlated with fear and anxiety during subsequent procedures and treatments and may lead to medical nonadherence and other comorbidities. Anxiety disorders can have serious consequences in children/adolescents with chronic and or life limiting medical illnesses. Therefore, proper identification and treatment of anxiety disorders is necessary and may improve not only psychiatric symptoms but also physical symptoms. Behavioral and cognitive methods as well as psychotropic medications are used to treat anxiety disorders in pediatric patients. We will review current treatments for anxiety in children/adolescents with medical illnesses and propose future research directions. PMID:20721908
Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail
Background: Dental fear, anxiety and phobia have consistently been reported as widespread problems that persist despite the technological advances that have made dentistry less painful and less uncomfortable. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety (DA) and its relation to age and sex among Coastal Andhra (Visakhapatnam) population. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled study was designed among 340 individuals at GITAM Dental College and Hospital, Visakhapatnam. The sample for the study consisted of 180 female and 160 male subjects between 15 and 65 years of age; all were supplied with two questionnaires (Corah DA scale [CDAS] and Clarke and Rustvold dental concerns assessment scale describing anxiety provoking stimuli. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied (significance level P < 0.05). The correlations between the two questionnaires were calculated using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Two questionnaires were collected from all 340 individuals and the Indian translation of both instruments was found to be internally reliable with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.093. Overall prevalence of DA was high (77.4%) but severe (22.6%) anxiety (phobia) was low. Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant relation between age and DA. The mean CDAS scores were high in 25-35 (11.08) and low in 55-65 (9.45) year age groups. Mann-Whitney U test showed significant relation between sex and DA. Mean CDAS score levels were significantly higher in females (10.88) than in males (9.96) (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Patients anxious about dental procedures are often more difficult to treat. If Dentists become aware about the level of DA among their patients, they can anticipate patient's behavior and can be prepared to take behavioral/pharmacological measures to reduce anxiety levels. PMID:25097425
Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Lalithamma, Thota; Varma, Dandu Maruti; Sudhakar, Korukonda Naga Venkata; Srinivas, Baratam; Krishnamraju, Penumetsa Venkata; Shaik, Ahammad Basha
Background: Given miscarriage psychological consequences on the women health, the aim of the present study is the survey of effectiveness rate of attributive retraining interventions on women depression and anxiety reducing after miscarriage. Methods: The present study is semi-empiric and it's made using control group, pre- and post-test execution and follow-up. Thirty-two women, who had recent experience of miscarriage, were selected among female referents to obstetricians and clinics in Esfahan city by accessible sampling and then they were placed on two groups, case and control, randomly. Case group participated in 6 weekly sessions for attributive retraining interventions and both groups completed hospital depression and anxiety questionnaire on three steps: Pre-test, post-test, and follow-up. Collected data were analyzed statistically, using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and variance by repeated measuring. Results: Obtained results show that average post-test and follow-up scores of depression and anxiety in case group is less than average post-test scores in control group, significantly (P < 0.0005). Conclusions: The findings of this research, “Attributive Retraining Effectiveness on Women's Depression and Anxiety Reducing after Miscarriage,” were confirmed. PMID:23776731
Sharifi, Marzieh; Hajiheidari, Mahnaz; Khorvash, Fariborz; Mirabdollahi, Mansoureh Alsadat
Objective To investigate symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART), and to study the relationship of demographic data, pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Design Descriptive, a part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’. Setting All university clinics in Sweden performing gamete donation. Population A consecutive sample of 214 lesbian couples requesting assisted reproduction, 165 of whom participated. Methods Participants individually completed three study-specific questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): time point 1 (T1), at commencement of ART; time point 2 (T2), approximately 2 months after treatment; and time point 3 (T3), 2–5 years after first treatment. Main outcome measures Anxiety and depression (HADS), pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans. Results The vast majority of lesbian women undergoing assisted reproduction reported no symptoms of anxiety and depression at the three assessment points. A higher percentage of the treated women, compared with the partners, reported symptoms of anxiety at T2 (14% versus 5%, P = 0.011) and T3 (10% versus 4%, P = 0.018), as well as symptoms of depression at T2 (4% versus 0%, P = 0.03) and T3 (3% versus 0%, P = 0.035). The overall pregnancy outcome was high; almost three-quarters of lesbian couples gave birth 2–5 years after sperm donation treatments. Open-ended comments illustrated joy and satisfaction about family building. Conclusion Lesbian women in Sweden reported good psychological health before and after treatment with donated sperm. PMID:23489411
Borneskog, C; Sydsjö, G; Lampic, C; Bladh, M; Svanberg, AS
Psychologists can gain insight into human behavior by examining what people feel about, know about, and do with, computers. Two extreme reactions to computers are computer phobia, or anxiety, and computer addiction, or "hacking". A four-part questionnaire was developed to measure computer anxiety. The first part is a projective technique which…
Although mental disorders are frequent among dermato- logical patients, little is known about their recognition by dermatologists. This study aimed to assess dermato- logists' ability to recognize depressive and anxiety disorders. All adult outpatients who visited four dermatologists on predetermined days (n~317) com- pleted the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ- 12) and the section on depressive and anxiety disorders of
Angelo Picardi; Paolo Amerio; Giannandrea Baliva; Claudio Barbieri; Patrizia Teofoli; Simone Bolli; Valentina Salvatori; Eva Mazzotti; Paolo Pasquini; Damiano Abeni
TO COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY AMONG INDIVIDUALS WITH SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER Laura C. Bruce, M.A.,1 Richard G between childhood maltreatment--particularly emotional maltreatment--and social anxiety disorder (SAD) has-eight individuals with a primary diagnosis of SAD completed the childhood trauma questionnaire, along with measures
Gross, James J.
Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to…
Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry
Objective Hospitalization of a child can cause severe anxiety and stress in the parents, especially for the mother. This stress consequently affects the treatment course of the child. Hereby, we investigate the impact of different stressors in mothers of hospitalized children. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, 225 mothers of hospitalized children in the pediatric ward of Besat hospital were randomly selected and studied. Data collection tool was a two-part questionnaire gathered by interviewing the mother. The first part included demographic information of the patients. The second part included questions regarding stressors in four different categories; child-related factors, environmental factors, socioeconomic factors and health professional factors. SPSS 16.5 was used for statistical analysis and data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and T test. Results In the child-related factor category, fear of child death (84%); in the socioeconomic factor category, fear of disease in the other siblings (84%); in the environmental factor category, unpleasant odors in the ward (56%); and in the health professional category, not enough explanation about inserting IV lines, (54.2%) constituted the most important factors. There was a meaningful correlation between the stressors and the mothers’ age and occupation, child age, days of hospitalization, types of admission and health insurance coverage, but there was no meaningful correlation between stressors and other factors. Conclusion Professional and in depth training programs should be provided for health care providers and nursing staff regarding dealing with mothers of hospitalized children. PMID:24665279
HASAN TEHRANI, Tayebeh; HAGHIGHI, Mohammad; BAZMAMOUN, Hasan
Studies examining fear of death and anxiety have consistently shown these constructs to be positively related. Although several measures of anxiety have been examined, fear of death has always been treated unidimensionally. The present research was an attempt to examine eight types of fear of death in relation to two types of anxiety. Questionnaire data were collected from 375 male and female undergraduates at a Mid-western university. Anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and fear of death by a factor analytic multidimensional scale. Significant correlations were found between seven of the eight fear of death dimensions and both measures of anxiety. Regression analysis showed fear of premature death and fear of the dead to be the most important death-related fears associated with anxiety. PMID:671378
Hoelter, J W; Hoelter, J A
Anxiety and depression are common among patients with rheumatic diseases. This study aims to explore which factors are associated with self-reported anxiety and depression in a well-defined cohort of spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients. In 2009, 3,711 patients from the SpAScania cohort were sent a postal questionnaire to assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical and mental functioning. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale measured anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D), subscales 0-21, best-worst. HADS ?8 indicates possible cases of anxiety or depression. One-way ANOVA (p?0.05) tested for differences among the SpA subtypes in HADS scores. Linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and disease duration was used to test for associations between HADS and independent variables. In total, 2,167 (58 %) patients (52 % females, mean age 55.4 years) returned the questionnaire. In total, 683 (32 %) cases were classified as "possible anxiety" and 305 (14 %) as "possible depression" cases with mean (SD) HADS-A 5.9 (4.3) and HADS-D 4.4 (3.6). There were no differences among the SpA subtypes in HADS-A and HADS-D. HADS-A and HADS-D were associated with lower education, lower physical activity (HADS-D only), chronic pain problems, more fatigue, lower general health, lower HRQoL, lower level of functioning, higher disease activity, and lower self-efficacy. Associations with anxiety and/or depression appear multifactorial in patients with SpA including both personal and disease-related factors. Since these comorbidities are increased in SpA and treatable, they should be screened for in clinical practice, possibly with instruments like the HADS. PMID:24907034
Meesters, Jorit J L; Petersson, Ingemar F; Bergman, Stefan; Haglund, Emma; Jacobsson, Lennart T H; Bremander, Ann
Background Adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) have often reported difficulties obtaining care during vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in qualitative studies. Methods We measured the experiences of 45 SCD patients who received in-hospital care for VOC using the Picker Patient Experience Questionnaire (PPE-15), and used the one sample binomial test to compare with national norms. Results Most SCD patients reported that they were insufficiently involved in decisions (86%), staff gave conflicting information (64%), it wasn’t easy to find someone to discuss concerns (61%), doctors’ answers to questions were not clear (58%), nurses’ answers to questions were not clear (56%), doctors did not always discuss fears and anxieties (53%), and nurses did not always discuss fears and anxieties (52%). A greater percentage of SCD patients than the U.S. sample in 9 of 12 areas reported problems. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine the consequences of and potential interventions to improve these poor experiences. PMID:21099065
Lattimer, Lakshmi; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Bediako, Shawn M.; Beach, Mary Catherine
The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety…
Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Hart, John
Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…
Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
Background: In a cross-sectional study we investigated associations between self-ratings of anxiety and depression, physical factors and physicians’ assessments of patients’ medical status. Methods: Hospital inpatients (n = 574) consecutively admitted to internal medical wards were evaluated for the presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Physicians were asked for their perception of
Thomas Meyer; Heike Klemme; Christoph Herrmann
Introduction: Hospital anxiety and surgery has an unpleasant and disturbing feeling for a child and his/her family. This study aimed to determine the effect of toys and visit in reducing children's anxiety before the surgery and their mothers and satisfaction with the treatment process. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study in posttest design with a control group. 60 children aged 3 to 8 years, who were undergoing ear, nose and throat surgery in Tabriz Amiralmomenin hospital, were chosen, and regarding their age and gender, were recruited into the control or experiment group. For the experiment group, the interventions before surgery were applied. The level of anxiety in children and parents was evaluated by Observation Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD-R) and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The level of parental satisfaction with the treatment process before being discharged from the hospital was evaluated by the process of treatment satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18). Data were analyzed by SPSS ver.13. Results: Mean anxiety scores of the children and mothers in the experimental group were lower than the control group. Mean maternal satisfaction score of the treatment process in the experimental group was higher than the mean scores of the control group. However, in the subscales of general satisfaction, interpersonal behavior, and financial aspects of satisfaction with treatment, no statistical significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Conclusion: Based on the findings, providing toys for children and informing the parents about medical information has a major effect in reducing children's and other's anxiety and increasing maternal satisfaction with the treatment process. PMID:25276745
Ghabeli, Fatemeh; Moheb, Naeime; Hosseini Nasab, Seyed Davoud
Background: Depression and anxiety had negative effects on the quality of life of cancer patients, thus hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) is a useful instrument for screening these problems. This research was performed to assess the prevalence of their anxiety and depression. Methods: From 2012-2013, one hundred fifty patients with recent diagnosis of different cancers in Babol, Iran were assessed. A presumptive diagnosis of anxiety and depression was based on a four point 14-item HADS. The score of 0-7 means without clinical symptoms of anxiety or depression, 8-10 mild and 11-21 symptomatic anxiety or depression. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: Forty-four (29.3%) patients had mild anxiety, 25 (16.7%) symptomatic anxiety but mild and symptomatic depression were seen in 40 (26.7%) and 32 (21.3%) patients, respectively. There were significant relationships between anxiety, depression and the age group of the patients with higher frequency in older ages. There were significant relationships between anxiety and depression with the type of cancer and type of treatment. Breast and stomach cancer patients had the highest prevalence of anxiety and depression and the higher prevalence was observed in the patients who received chemotherapy as the single treatment. Conclusion: The results show that patients with breast and stomach cancer had the highest prevalence of anxiety and depression among all others cancer patients. PMID:25202445
Nikbakhsh, Novin; Moudi, Sussan; Abbasian, Setareh; Khafri, Soraya
This study extends prior research on the Picture Anxiety Test (PAT; Dubi & Schneider, 2009) in clinical samples, by examining psychometric properties and acceptance in a community sample of 153 4–8-year-old children. Children completed the PAT and the RCMAS, a well-established questionnaire measuring anxiety. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires on anxiety and externalizing behavior. In addition, a panel of psychologists
Kathrin Dubi; Kristen L. Lavallee; Silvia Schneider
Objectives To determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in an NHS community trust; to examine the association between bullying and occupational health outcomes; and to investigate the relation between support at work and bullying. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting NHS community trust in the south east of England. Subjects Trust employees. Main outcome measures Measures included a 20 item inventory of bullying behaviours designed for the study, the job induced stress scale, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, the overall job satisfaction scale, the support at work scale, and the propensity to leave scale. Results 1100 employees returned questionnaires—a response rate of 70%. 421 (38%) employees reported experiencing one or more types of bullying in the previous year. 460 (42%) had witnessed the bullying of others. When bullying occurred it was most likely to be by a manager. Two thirds of the victims of bullying had tried to take action when the bullying occurred, but most were dissatisfied with the outcome. Staff who had been bullied had significantly lower levels of job satisfaction (mean 10.5 (SD 2.7) v 12.2 (2.3), P<0.001) and higher levels of job induced stress (mean 22.5 (SD 6.1) v 16.9 (5.8), P<0.001), depression (8% (33) v 1% (7), P<0.001), anxiety (30% (125) v 9% (60), P<0.001), and intention to leave the job (8.5 (2.9) v 7.0 (2.7), P<0.001). Support at work seemed to protect people from some of the damaging effects of bullying. Conclusions Bullying is a serious problem. Setting up systems for supporting staff and for dealing with interpersonal conflict may have benefits for both employers and staff. Key messages38% of staff in a community NHS trust reported being subjected to bullying behaviours in the workplace in the previous year and 42% had witnessed the bullying of othersStaff who had been bullied had lower levels of job satisfaction and higher levels of job induced stress, depression, anxiety, and intention to leaveSupport at work may be able to protect people from some of the damaging effects of bullyingEmployers should have policies and procedures that comprehensively address the issue of workplace bullying PMID:9915730
Aims To identify the prevalence and major determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2049 people with Types 1 and 2 diabetes, selected from patients experiencing three different models of care in Ireland: (i) traditional mixed care; (ii) hospital\\/general practitioner (GP) shared care; (iii) structured GP care. Anxiety and depression symptoms were
M. M. Collins; P. Corcoran; I. J. Perry
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…
Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.
Previous research has indicated that more than 50% of air travel passengers experience hypoxia above clinical threshold. This condition produces a number of aversive somatic sensations such as difficulty breathing, elevated heart rate, dizziness, etc. Because these symptoms closely resemble the somatic symptoms of anxiety, it is interesting to look into a possible relationship between hypoxia-related symptoms and fear of flying. More specifically, the aim of this study is to clarify the role of anxiety sensitivity as a cognitive vulnerability marker in this relationship. Anxiety sensitivity is the specific tendency to interpret bodily sensations as threatening or harmful. Our hypothesis is that anxiety sensitivity moderates the relationship between hypoxia-related symptoms and fear of flying. When people with high anxiety sensitivity fly and experience somatic symptoms, they will make threatening interpretations causing fear and as a possible consequence avoidance behaviour leading to flight anxiety. About 160 participants were asked to complete the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire, the Flight Anxiety Modality Questionnaire and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Results of a moderator analysis indicated that the relationship between somatic sensations and in-flight anxiety is stronger for people with high anxiety sensitivity than for people with low anxiety sensitivity. So it seems that anxiety sensitivity does indeed function as a moderator between the experience of somatic sensations while flying and in-flight anxiety. Clinical implications are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research. PMID:17985351
Vanden Bogaerde, Anouk; De Raedt, Rudi
PURPOSE Anxiety is thought to affect test performance. Studies have shown that students with low levels of test anxiety achieve higher scores on multiple choice question (MCQ) examinations than those with high anxiety levels. Female students have been shown to have higher test anxiety levels than male students. Standardized patient (SP) examinations are being used in medical schools and for licensing purposes. As SP exams are relatively new, there are few studies measuring anxiety levels for the SP test. The purpose of this study was to measure and compare medicine clerkship student SP versus MCQ examination anxiety levels and to determine if level affected test performance. METHODS The Spielberger test attitude inventory was used to measure anxiety in 150 students rotating through the clerkship. Students completed questionnaires after the MCQ and SP examinations. Mean examination scores and anxiety levels were compared. Based on questionnaire scores, students were divided into 3 groups: low, moderate, and high anxiety. The MCQ and SP examination scores were analyzed to determine if male/female anxiety-level affected test performance. RESULTS There were no meaningful anxiety-level differences between the SP and MCQ examinations. An inverse relationship between anxiety level and test scores was not identified. Female students had higher anxiety levels but sex differences did not influence examination performance. DISCUSSION Medicine clerkship student test performance is not affected by anxiety level. Implications of the findings for incorporating stress management training in medical school curricula and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:16704380
Anxiety disorders is one of the most prevalent diagnostic categories identified in children and adolescents. This chapter\\u000a provides an overview of the epidemiology of childhood anxiety disorders. Several pathways of etiology are presented, specifically\\u000a genetics, parent–child attachment, parental anxiety and parenting style, and life experiences. Six of the common childhood\\u000a anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, generalized
Gail A. Bernstein; Andrea M. Victor
A sample of 402 volunteer male (n = 156) and female (n = 246) Kuwaiti undergraduates responded to the Arabic versions of the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. The latter questionnaire has four subscales: Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Lie. Women obtained a higher mean score on Kuwait University Anxiety Scale and Neuroticism than did men, while men had a higher mean score on Psychoticism than did women. Factor analysis of the intercorrelations between the five variables, separately conducted for men and women, gave rise to two orthogonal factors called Anxiety-and-Neuroticism vs Extraversion, and Psychoticism vs Lie. Stepwise regression revealed that Neuroticism was the main predictor of anxiety. It was concluded that persons with high Neuroticism scores may be more vulnerable to anxiety than those with low scores. PMID:24245084
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M
Background Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Methods Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Results Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress -anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Conclusions Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these specific aspects of mindfulness in interventions for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:23768665
Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Background: To associate oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional questionnaires based survey was conducted among the subjects of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. The survey was carried among 101 subjects aging from 20-40 years. Subjects under investigation were belonging to various occupations. They were assigned a questionnaire. Questionnaire consisted of four parts, first part consists of socio-demographic data along with dental visiting habits, second part has OHqOL-questionnaire, third part has general health (sf-12) and fourth part has hospital anxiety and depression questionnaire. Questionnaire was used for assessment of OHqOL. It consists of 16 questions which takes into account both effect and impact of oral health on quality of life. Dental anxiety and depression was measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Each question was provided with four options and numbering ranging from 0-3. For general health consideration sf-12 v2 was being used, which calculates two values PCS and MCS giving result in percentage. Results: A large proportion of respondent perceived oral health as having an enhanced effect on their quality of life in all three aspects that is general health, social and psychological. This is in stark contrast to other studies, where only physical aspects of oral health were more frequently considered to have the greatest overall impact of life quality compared with items relating to social, psychological and general health aspects. Conclusion: Gender variations were not apparent in the study. Both genders were likely to perceive oral health as it is impacting strongly on their quality of life. No significant gender variations are seen. But both have specific oral health needs and are most likely to utilize dental services which may be the key in understanding oral health behavior, including dental attendance patterns. How to cite this article: Shet RG, Jain G, Maroli S, Srivastava KJ, Kasina SP, Shwetha GS. Association of oral health related quality of life with dental anxiety and depression along with general health among people of Bhopal district, Madhya Pradesh. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):1-8 . PMID:24453438
Shet, RGK; Jain, Gaurvi; Maroli, Sohani; Srivastava, Kirti Jajoo; Kasina, Sitaram Prasad; Shwetha, GS
Background Chronic cough is a common symptom which causes significant levels of morbidity. It is becoming increasingly well characterised by research taking place in specialist cough clinics, where successful treatment rates are high. However, there is a paucity of data regarding the symptom complex of chronic cough in the community. This report details the results of a postal questionnaire survey sent to individuals requesting further information on chronic cough. Methods 856 chronic cough questionnaires were sent out to members of the public who requested an information sheet following a national UK radio broadcast. Information regarding demography, history of cough, previous treatment and physical, psychological and social effects of the cough was elicited. Results 373 completed questionnaires were returned. Mean age was 65.3 years (SD 12.0, range 9–88 years). 73% were female and 2% current smokers. Median duration of cough was 6.5 years. 66% had no other coexisting respiratory diagnosis, whilst 24% reported asthma. Of those who responded, 91% had consulted a general practitioner regarding the cough and of them, 85% had been prescribed some sort of treatment. 61% had seen at least one hospital specialist. Commonly reported associated physical symptoms included breathlessness (55%), wheeze (37%), fatigue (72%) and disturbed sleep (70%). Incontinence occurred in 55% of women. Similarly, the majority reported psychological effects such as anger or frustration (83%), anxiety (69%) and depression (55%). 64% felt that the cough interfered with their social life. Conclusion Chronic cough causes a high level of morbidity in the community, which results in a correspondingly high rate of healthcare utilisation. Demography and symptomatology seems to be similar to that reported from specialist centres, but successful treatment of the cough was uncommon, despite a high number of medical consultations in both primary and secondary care. If understanding of this debilitating but eminently treatable condition is enhanced, management of chronic cough will improve and many patients will be helped. PMID:17381836
Everett, Caroline F; Kastelik, Jack A; Thompson, Rachel H; Morice, Alyn H
The purpose of the present study was to assess patients' anxiety level and information requirement in the preoperative phase. During routine preoperative screening, 320 patients were asked to assess their anxiety and information requirement on a six-item questionnaire, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). Two hundred patients also completed Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-State). Patients were able to complete the questionnaire in less than 2 min. On factor analysis, two factors emerged clearly: anxiety and the need for information. The anxiety scale correlated highly (0.74) with the STAI-State. It emerged that 32% of the patients could be considered as "anxiety cases" and over 80% of patients have a positive attitude toward receiving information. Moreover, results demonstrated that 1) women were more anxious that men; 2) patients with a high information requirement also had a high level of anxiety; 3) patients who had never undergone an operation had a higher information requirement than those who had. The APAIS can provide anesthesiologists with a valid, reliable, and easily applicable instrument for assessing the level of patients' preoperative anxiety and the need for information. PMID:8623940
Moerman, N; van Dam, F S; Muller, M J; Oosting, H
Background Poor adherence is estimated to cause 125 thousand deaths per year and is linked to 10% of all hospital stays in the U.S. Up to one third of elderly hypertensive patients don't have adherence, which is responsible for high proportion of hospitalizations. Hypertension is also related to poor performance in tests that assess cognitive functions. On the other hand, poor cognitive performance is associated with low adherence to treatment. Objective To assess the association between cognitive function, anxiety and psychiatric disorders with adherence to drug treatment in patients with hypertension. Methodology and Principal Findings This a cohort studies with 56 adult patients with uncontrolled hypertension who participated of all meetings of a pharmaceutical intervention in a randomized clinical trial of pharmaceutical care. Cognitive function was measured by the Mini Mental State Examination (Mini-mental). The memory was measured by digit and word spans, tower and church shadow test, short story test and metamemory. Anxiety and psychiatric disorders were evaluated by the State Trace Anxiety Inventory and the Self-Report Questionnaire, respectively. The participants were classified as adherent or non-adherent to the drug treatment, according to the identification of plasma levels of hydrochlorothiazide. All non-adherent patients (n?=?12) and 35 out 44 (79.5%) patients with adherence to treatment had at least one memory test with an altered score (P?=?0.180). Participants with an unsatisfactory score in the Mini-mental had six-fold higher risk of non-adherence to treatment when compared to those with a normal score (RR?=?5.8; CI 95%: 1.6–20.8; P?=?0.007). The scores of anxiety and psychiatric disorders were not associated with adherence to the pharmacological treatment. Conclusion Cognitive deficit impairs adherence to drug therapy and should be screened as part of a program of pharmaceutical care to improve adherence to treatment. PMID:21857969
Jacobs, Ursula; De Castro, Mauro S.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz C.
Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…
Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.
Background Night work has been reported to be associated with various mental disorders and complaints. We investigated relationships between night work and anxiety, depression, insomnia, sleepiness and fatigue among Norwegian nurses. Methods The study design was cross-sectional, based on validated self-assessment questionnaires. A total of 5400 nurses were invited to participate in a health survey through the Norwegian Nurses' Organization, whereof 2059 agreed to participate (response rate 38.1%). Nurses completed a questionnaire containing items on demographic variables (gender, age, years of experience as a nurse, marital status and children living at home), work schedule, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale) and fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire). They were also asked to report number of night shifts in the last 12 months (NNL). First, the parameters were compared between nurses i) never working nights, ii) currently working nights, and iii) previously working nights, using binary logistic regression analyses. Subsequently, a cumulative approach was used investigating associations between NNL with the continuous scores on the same dependent variables in hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results Nurses with current night work were more often categorized with insomnia (OR?=?1.48, 95% CI?=?1.10–1.99) and chronic fatigue (OR?=?1.78, 95% CI?=?1.02–3.11) than nurses with no night work experience. Previous night work experience was also associated with insomnia (OR?=?1.45, 95% CI?=?1.04–2.02). NNL was not associated with any parameters in the regression analyses. Conclusion Nurses with current or previous night work reported more insomnia than nurses without any night work experience, and current night work was also associated with chronic fatigue. Anxiety, depression and sleepiness were not associated with night work, and no cumulative effect of night shifts during the last 12 months was found on any parameters. PMID:23950914
?yane, Nicolas M. F.; Pallesen, Stale; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Bjorvatn, Bj?rn
Objective Acute lung injury (ALI) is common in the intensive care unit (ICU), typically requiring life support ventilation. Survivors often experience anxiety after hospital discharge. We evaluated general anxiety symptoms 3 months after ALI for: (1) associations with patient characteristics and ICU variables, and (2) cross-sectional associations with physical function and quality of life (QOL). Methods General anxiety was assessed as part of a prospective cohort study recruiting patients from 13 ICUs at four hospitals in Baltimore, MD using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale — Anxiety Subscale (HAD-A), with associations evaluated using multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results Of 152 patients, 38% had a positive screening test for general anxiety (HAD-A ? 8). Pre-ICU body mass index and psychiatric comorbidity were associated with general anxiety (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06 (1.00, 1.13) and 3.59 (1.25, 10.30), respectively). No ICU-related variables were associated with general anxiety. General anxiety was associated with the number of instrumental ADL dependencies (Spearman's rho = 0.22; p = 0.004) and worse overall QOL as measured by EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS) (rho = ?0.34; p < 0.001) and utility score (rho = ?0.30; p < 0.001), and by the SF-36 mental health domain (rho = ?0.70; p < 0.001) and Mental Component Summary score (rho = ?0.73; p < 0.001). Conclusion Many patients have substantial general anxiety symptoms 3 months after ALI. General anxiety was associated with patient characteristics and impaired physical function and quality of life. Early identification and treatment of general anxiety may enhance physical and emotional function in patients surviving critical illnesses. PMID:23972420
Stevenson, Jennifer E.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Sricharoenchai, Thiti; Wozniak, Amy; Shanholtz, Carl; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Needham, Dale M.
Social anxiety is defined as a “marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations” and includes such symptoms as sweating, palpitations, shaking, and respiratory distress. Social anxiety is fairly common, occurring in as much as 13% of the population, and can be extremely disabling. It can be either specific (confined to 1 or 2 performance situations) or generalized, and can be diagnosed with a scale-based questionnaire. Social anxiety may coexist with other disorders, such as depression and dysthymia. The differential diagnosis for social anxiety includes panic disorder, agoraphobia, atypical depression, and body dysmorphic disorder. Treatment for social anxiety can be quite effective and consists of psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy (including such medications as ?-blockers, anxiolytics, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants), or a combination. This article details the prevalence, onset, disease impact, and etiology of social anxiety. Specific treatments, including both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, are presented in detail, along with other treatment considerations, such as comorbidity. PMID:15014622
Jefferson, James W.
Appendix B: Questionnaire B1: Questionnaire #12;Do not write in this space To protect your child many children and adults currently live in the child's household? #12;12a. Please enter the number of children within each given age range that currently reside with the study child. Children 0-3 years old 4
Suffering comes in many ways for patients confronting cancer. One of these is an unspecifiable fear about death, which is an existential issue. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between death anxiety and its correlates in cancer patients. Seventy cancer patients were assessed using SCID-I, Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Hospital Anxiety (A) and Depression (D) Scale, the Distress Thermometer, the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (VAS), the Global Assessment of Functioning, and Glock and Stark's Dimensions of Religious Commitment scales, and these assessments were compared between cancer patients with and without death anxiety. Multiple regression analysis was conducted after correlation analysis between death anxiety and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, pain scores, and negative believes about what will happen after death were found to be higher in patients having death anxiety than patients not having death anxiety. Also life expectancy was perceived as shortened in patients with death anxiety. Death anxiety was associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and beliefs about what will happen after death. In conclusion, death anxiety could not be regarded as a natural consequence of having cancer; it is associated with the unresolved psychological and physical distress. PMID:22571248
Gonen, Gokcen; Kaymak, Semra Ulusoy; Cankurtaran, Eylem Sahin; Karslioglu, Ersin Hatice; Ozalp, Elvan; Soygur, Haldun
The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (FSSC-R), Revised-Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), and the Modified State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC-M) are three widely used self-report measures of childhood anxiety. While previous studies have established the reliability of these measures, their validity in discriminating anxious from non-anxious youngsters remains to be established. The present study examines the discriminant validity of
Sean Perrin; Cynthia G. Last
... exercise can begin to stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part of life, but anxiety disorders , which affect 40 million adults, are the most common psychiatric illnesses in the ...
Objective: The present study seeks to extend research on the etiology of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a German-speaking sample by examining differences between children with SAD and healthy comparisons, using a retrospective-reporting paradigm. Method: The sample included 106 children with SAD and 44 healthy children between the ages of 4 and 14 years. Parents completed questionnaires and structured clinical
Kristen Lavallee; Chantal Herren; Judith Blatter-Meunier; Carmen Adornetto; Tina In-Albon; Silvia Schneider
Aim of this paper is to examine the utility and validity of the questionnaire for quality of life EORTC-QLQ-C30 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer). Data were collected within the scope of a study for evaluation of individual psycho-oncological support for inpatients with colorectal cancer undergoing surgery. The study was sponsored by the German Cancer Aid. The design was a prospective randomized controlled trial. After informed consent, patients were randomized in one of two groups: patients in the experimental group received individualized psychotherapeutic support during the hospital stay; those in the control group received a daily program of classical music. All patients were assessed one day before surgical treatment, ten days and three months after surgery. Instruments were questionnaires for quality of life and state anxiety. 106 patients met the inclusion criteria. Results show insufficient discriminative power (high significant bivariate correlations between most EORTC scales, Kendalls tau-b) and insufficient construct validity (high and significant bivariate correlations between most EORTC scales and state anxiety, Kendalls tau-b) of the EORTC scales. The scores of "cognitive functioning" and some symptom scales show an insufficient scatter. The illustration of situational influences and therefore an insufficient illustration of effects of specific interventions are connected with a high sensitivity of the scales and a tendency to extreme sores. The psycho-oncological intervention shows a significant stress reducing effect on the specific EORTC-scale "Emotional Functioning" and on State Anxiety (STAI). The testing of utility and validity of the EORTC-Questionnaire shows that they are insufficient and therefore the benefit for evaluation of specific intervention procedures is restricted. PMID:15011106
Determann, M M; Kollenbaum, V-E; Henne-Bruns, D
Complaints of anxiety, often meetingDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed. (DSM-III), criteria for anxiety disorder, are among the most common problems presenting to health practitioners. In spite of the frequency of anxiety and anxiety disorders, little is known about the basic psychopathology of these conditions that would lead to the development of more efficient and effective treatments
David H. Barlow; Jack D. Maser
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…
Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley
Hospice work has been regarded as particularly stressful due to the complexity inherent in the provision of end-of-life care. Burnout and death anxiety are especially relevant to hospice social workers because they regularly function in a high-stress, high-loss environment. The purpose of this study was threefold: to determine the prevalence of burnout and death anxiety among hospice social workers; to examine associations between burnout and death anxiety; and to explore the factors which may contribute to the development of death anxiety and burnout. Participants completed four items: the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), the Death Anxiety Questionnaire (DAQ), a demographic questionnaire, and a set of open-ended questions. Findings indicate that mean scores on the subscales of the MBI-HSS ranged from the low to moderate range and that a strong positive correlation existed between death anxiety and the depersonalization subscale of the MBI. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: (a) personal interest in hospice social work developed through a variety of ways; (b) although death anxiety decreased from exposure and understanding of the death process, there was increased death anxiety surrounding working with certain patients; and (c) burnout was primarily related to workload or difficult cases. PMID:25148451
Quinn-Lee, Lisa; Olson-McBride, Leah; Unterberger, April
Recent changes to educational policy which have focused attention on the use of high stakes testing as performance and accountability measures have renewed interest in test anxiety both in the UK and the USA. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical examination of the test anxiety construct, and explore the ways in which test anxiety is written
David William Putwain
Transforming Anxiety into ENERGYTM How to Prevent Panic and Promote Productivity in Turbulent Times By Wendy Mack with contributions from Meredith Kimbell and Myron Radio #12;Transforming Anxiety into Energy, consultants, and researchers who shared their stories and expertise. 1 #12;Transforming Anxiety into Energy
Maryland, Baltimore County, University of
Examined relationships between death anxiety and Erikson's concept of ego identity in White male undergraduates (N=63). Found involvement in identity crisis or decision-making period appeared to have increased death anxiety. Recommends further research between death anxiety and ego identity development. (Author/ABL)
Sterling, Christopher M.; Van Horn, K. Roger
Explores the relationship between death anxiety and sociopolitical attitudes and political behavior. Data from a sample of 209 undergraduate students indicate that death anxiety is modestly related to attitudes reflecting a turning away from the social and political world. Death anxiety does not seem related to political behavior. (Author)
Peterson, Steven A.
The present article reports on the development and validation of two self-report instruments designed to assess the symptoms and cognitions associated with panic attacks. The Panic Attack Symptoms Questionnaire (PASQ) as well as the Panic Attack Cognitions Questionnaire (PACQ) successfully differentiated a group of anxiety-disordered individuals with panic attacks from a group of anxiety-disordered individuals without panic attacks. Reliability estimates
George A. Clum; Susan Broyles; Janet Borden; Patti Lou Watkins
Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Methods Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5–17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Results Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression. PMID:15596007
Rice, Frances; van den Bree, Marianne BM; Thapar, Anita
ABSTRACT - A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states , patients under in- vestigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments. Received December 3,1982;
A. S. Zigmond; R. P. Snaith
Test Anxiety Tips to Ease Your Test Anxiety Adapted from: Study Guides and Strategies website, Overcoming test anxiety Test taking can be overwhelming and can cause a lot of anxiety. Try these tips to ease your anxiety through the testing process! Before Approach the exam with confidence Be prepared
Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n=132) and Spain (n=126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native…
Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin
There has been a growing trend toward one-day ambulatory surgery. Unfortunately, there has been little research evaluating how patients recover at home after one-day surgery. This study examined the relationship between preoperative anxiety and postoperative recovery in ambulatory surgery patients. Fifty women who were scheduled for a laparascopy completed a series of questionnaires on the day before surgery and on each of three days after surgery. One month after surgery, the patients were telephoned and reported on their recovery. The surgeon rated each patient on their estimated degree of anxiety and length of recovery. The results showed that preoperative anxiety partially predicted the patients' psychological and physiological reaction to surgery. Identification of those patients who show high anxiety and distress may help to prevent postoperative complications. These patients may benefit from patient education and psychological interventions to decrease their fears and anxiety and they may benefit from more intensive observation periods following their surgery. PMID:3166347
Parris, Winston C.V.; Matt, Denise; Jamison, Robert N.; Maxson, Wayne
Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety was related to gender and education for elderly living in the community, but social support and self-esteem were additional correlates for those living in nursing homes. The results of this study indicate that fostering a sense that one has a supportive social and familial network is important in decreasing death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab people. It would also be beneficial to provide information and knowledge that might relieve some of the anxiety they experience. PMID:24479192
Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim
A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n=27) and non-clinical (n=20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases, associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level, and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. PMID:23434545
Varela, R Enrique; Niditch, Laura A; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W; Creveling, C Christiane
From the findings summarized in this review, it appears that there is little evidence in support of the inverted-U hypothesis. Available research indicates that there is considerable variability in the optimal precompetition anxiety responses among athletes, which does not conform to the inverted-U hypothesis. Many athletes appear to perform best when experiencing high levels of anxiety and interventions that act to produce quiescence may actually worsen the performance of this group. These findings indicate that there is a need to shift the research paradigm away from theories of anxiety and performance based on task characteristics or group effects and, instead, employ theoretical models that account for individual differences. Hanin's [39, 40] ZOF theory appears to be a good candidate for furthering our knowledge in this area. It was developed on the basis of research with athletes and it explicitly incorporates the concept of individual differences in the anxiety-performance relationship. Most important, because an individual's optimal range of anxiety is precisely defined, the validity of ZOF theory can be directly examined through hypothesis testing, whereas it has been argued that the inverted-U hypothesis is effectively shielded against falsification . Although the findings of ZOF theory indicate that a significant percentage of athletes perform best at high levels of anxiety, Hanin's translated writings do not provide an explanation of why this is so. Further research is clearly indicated, but one explanation for this finding may involve how the athlete interprets or conceptualizes anxiety. For example, Mahoney and Avener  found that, although the absolute level of precompetition anxiety was similar between successful and unsuccessful Olympic gymnasts, there were differences in the way the athletes conceptualized the anxiety they were experiencing. The better performers viewed their anxiety as desirable, whereas anxiety was associated with self-doubts and catastrophizing in the unsuccessful gymnasts. Similar differences have been observed in the test anxiety literature where it has been found that poorer test takers perceive their anxiety to be more threatening and debilitating than do better performers . Furthermore, temporal differences in the patterning of anxiety , fear responses, or cardiorespiratory measures  have been found between successful and unsuccessful performers; this may reflect a difference in the ability to regulate anxiety. It may also be the case that performance is not so much affected by the absolute level of precompetition anxiety as the consistency in the anxiety level across competitions. Athletes may also develop coping strategies that exploit consistent changes in attentional focus that result from elevated anxiety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1623887
Raglin, J S
Objectives: To validate the Greek version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in a sample of cancer patients. Design: The scale was administered twice, with a 3-day interval, to 99 eligible patients with cancer. Together with the Greek version of STAI scale, the patients also completed the anxiety subscale from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD). Observations: Factor analysis
Kyriaki Mystakidou; Eleni Tsilika; Efi Parpa; Pavlos Sakkas; Lambros Vlahos
The Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ), an 18-item self-report questionnaire assessing spider phobia, was developed in an attempt to complement the information provided by the Spider Phobia Questionnaire (SPQ). Data obtained from 338 undergraduates revealed that the FSQ was able to discriminate phobics from nonphobics, and indicated decrements in phobic responding from pretest to posttest following cognitive therapy. Test-retest data,
Jeff Szymanski; William O'Donohue
High trait anxiety has been linked with risk-avoidant decision-making, though little is known regarding the specific facets of anxiety contributing to this negative association. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor for anxiety-related pathology, may be particularly relevant to risk decision-making given that risk-taking behaviors generate heightened somatic arousal and produce many of the sensations feared by individuals with high AS. Two studies were conducted to investigate the relation between AS and risk decision-making. In the first study, 268 undergraduate students completed a series of questionnaires that included measures of AS and gambling behaviors. Significant negative correlations were observed between AS and several gambling-related risk-taking activities, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that AS scores added significant incremental validity in predicting risk-taking over and above demographic variables, negative affect, and trait anxiety. In the second study, 43 participants who had screened for high (n = 20) or low (n = 23) AS completed the Iowa gambling task, a behavioral measure of risk-taking. Results indicated that, when placed under conditions of risk, individuals with high AS engaged in significantly less risk-taking than their low AS counterparts. The implications of these findings and potential directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24559488
Broman-Fulks, Joshua J; Urbaniak, Anna; Bondy, Carmen L; Toomey, Kelsey J
Academic Success Centre Presentation Anxiety Anxiety is a natural part of presenting. In small can give the audience a sense of honesty and integrity. However, in large amounts, anxiety can be debilitating. To deal with presentation anxiety, sometimes it is necessary to identify the sources of anxiety
Northern British Columbia, University of
This study investigated whether a brief gratitude induction could reduce death anxiety. 83 Chinese older adults (mean age = 62.7,\\u000a SD = 7.13) were randomly assigned into one of three conditions: gratitude, hassle, and neutral, in which they wrote different\\u000a types of life events before responding to measures of death anxiety and affect. Participants in the gratitude induction reported\\u000a lower death anxiety than the
Rosanna W. L. Lau; Sheung-Tak Cheng
There is considerable evidence that genetic determinants play a major role in the etiology of anxiety. Investigations into\\u000a susceptibility genes for anxiety are well underway, particularly for panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder and\\u000a more broadly defined anxiety-related traits, such as neuroticism and harm avoidance. This review will discuss some of the\\u000a core issues related to diagnosis and molecular genetic methodology,
Paul D. Arnold; Gwyneth Zai; Margaret A. Richter
Background As a consequence of the improved survival due to the availability of several treatment option cost-effectiveness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) issues have gained increasing attention in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate quality of life, level of anxiety and depression before and after a 6-month follow-up period in chemotherapy receiving patients with CRC. Methods The study was conducted in 50 patients with colon or rectal cancer. All patients were informed and educated about their disease and treatment before getting the treatment and were followed for 6 months, during which they received chemotherapy. A “Questionnaire Form” to collect patient demographic characteristics; the “EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale” and “EQ-5D Scale” to evaluate patient’s quality of life; and the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale” to evaluate the level of anxiety and depression status of patients, were used as data collecting tools. Results Quality of life scores in all functional fields were high in the sixth course when compared to the first according to EORTC QLQ-C30 Scale, reaching to statistically significant level in emotional function score compared to the initial ones (P<0.05). Moreover quality of life score measured in the sixth month with EQ-5D was statistically significantly higher than the initial. Conclusions These data, shows that with proper patient management, quality of life score, and the anxiety and depression levels improve during the course of treatment. PMID:25083300
Polat, Ulku; Arpac?, Afey; Demir, Sat?; Erdal, Sevgi; Yalcin, Suayib
Test Anxiety Anxiety during an exam is perfectly normal. But if anxiety severely affects your Test Anxiety. This problem needs to be dealt with in a professional way. If you "blank out" during exams, please seek professional help. How to reduce levels of anxiety: Prepare for your exam
at risk for HIV: MSM, PWID and FSW. These standardized questionnaires are a resource for countries standardized behavioral questionnaires for MSM, PWID and FSW which can be utilized for implementing behavioral. Contents FSW questionnaire ........................................375 MSM questionnaire
This 14-item questionnaire was designed to measure parent opinion regarding the effect of integration on third grade pupils in Henry County Schools. The questionnaire is not standardized, and field testing has been on a small scale. (See also TM 000 940 for a description of the study, and 942, 943 for the desegregation and school integration…
Goolsby, Thomas M., Jr.; Frary, Robert B.
The authors examined 179 veterans with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to de- termine the relative contribution of clinical depression and\\/or anxiety (Beck Depression and Beck Anxiety Inventories) to their quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire and Medical Out- comes Survey Short Form). Multiple-regression procedures found that both depression and anxi- ety were significantly related to negative quality-of-life outcomes (anxiety
JEFFREY A. CULLY; D. P. Graham; M. A. Stanley; C. J. Ferguson; A. Sharafkhaneh; J. Souchek; M. E. Kunik
This study aimed to examine if there was any significant difference in the level of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence of hockey players as the competition progressed from the semi-finals to the finals. The instrument, Competition State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Marten, Vealey & Burton, 1990), was a set of questionnaire consisting of 27 items equally divided into 3 sub-scales of
Mary Magdalene Teh
Investigated the relation between general and specific trait anxiety tests and fear measures in 3 actual situations. Both types of test (e.g., State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-Trait scale, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory, Geer Fear Survey Schedule, and 3 specific fear questionnaires) were administered to 76 undergraduate females early in the semester. Later, each S
Martin Mellstrom; George A. Cicala; Marvin Zuckerman
BACKGROUND: Patients with anxiety and depression often have bowel symptoms. Until now, studies investigating a link between altered bowel habit and psychological illness have focused on patients with disturbed defecation presenting to gastroenterologists. AIMS: To determine whether patients with anxiety and depression have objective evidence of abnormal intestinal transit irrespective of any bowel symptoms. METHODS: 21 psychiatric outpatients fulfilling research criteria for generalised anxiety disorder and/or major depression, and 21 healthy volunteers were studied. Orocaecal transit time (OCTT) was measured by lactulose hydrogen breath test. Whole gut transit time (WGTT) was measured by abdominal radiography after ingestion of radio-opaque markers. RESULTS: Median (range) WGTT was shorter in patients with anxiety (14 (6-29) hours) than in patients with depression (49 (35-71) hours) (p < 0.001), and controls (42 (10-68) hours) (p < 0.001). In patients with anxiety, orocaecal transit time was shorter (60 (10-70) minutes) than in patients with depression (110 (60-180) minutes) (p < 0.01), and shorter than in controls (75 (50-140)) minutes (p < 0.05). The prolongation of transit times in depression compared with controls was not significant. However, WGTT correlated with both the Beck Depression Inventory score (r = 0.59, p < 0.01) and the depression score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (r = 0.66, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These objective measurements of intestinal transit in affective disorders are consistent with clinical impressions that anxiety is associated with increased bowel frequency, and depressed patients tend to be constipated; mood has an effect on intestinal motor function. PMID:8944564
Gorard, D A; Gomborone, J E; Libby, G W; Farthing, M J
Benchmarks for multidimensional recovery after burn injury in young adults: the development, validation, and testing of the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children young adult burn outcome questionnaire.
Although data exist on burn survival, there are little data on long-term burn recovery. Patient-centered health outcomes are useful in monitoring and predicting recovery and evaluating treatments. An outcome questionnaire for young adult burn survivors was developed and tested. This 5-year (2003-2008) prospective, controlled, multicenter study included burned and nonburned adults ages 19 to 30 years. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaires were completed at initial contact, 10 days, and 6 and 12 months. Factor analysis established construct validity. Reliability assessments used Cronbach ? and test-retest. Recovery patterns were investigated using generalized linear models, with generalized estimating equations using mixed models and random effects. Burned (n = 153) and nonburned subjects (n = 112) completed 620 questionnaires (47 items). Time from injury to first questionnaire administration was 157 ± 36 days (mean ± SEM). Factor analysis included 15 factors: Physical Function, Fine Motor Function, Pain, Itch, Social Function Limited by Physical Function, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Sexual Function, Emotion, Family Function, Family Concern, Satisfaction With Symptom Relief, Satisfaction With Role, Work Reintegration, and Religion. Cronbach ? ranged from 0.72 to 0.92, with 11 scales >0.8. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.29 to 0.94, suggesting changes in underlying health status after burns. Recovery curves in five domains, Itch, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Family Concern, and Satisfaction with Symptom Relief, remained below the reference group at 24 months. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for multidimensional functional outcomes assessment. Recovery in some domains was incomplete. PMID:23511284
Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin; Li, Nien-Chen; Hinson, Michelle; Bauk, Helena; Peck, Michael; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G
A questionnaire for assessing feelings of ‘weakness’ (the feeling of resentment, dependency, anxiety and vital exhaustion) as well as aggression and activity was presented to two groups of healthy men (n = 202 and 178, respectively). One group underwent self-evaluation by means of questionnaires and an interview. In the other group self-evaluation and evaluation by the partner were measured using
R. W. Trijsburg; J. A. Bal; W. P. Parsowa; R. A. M. Erdman; H. J. Duivenvoorden
This study investigated the role of metacognition as a mediator of the effect of test anxiety on a surface approach to studying. The following scales were completed by 109 undergraduate social sciences students: Approaches and Study Skills Inventories for Students (ASSIST), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ), and Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Positive…
Spada, Marcantonio M.; Nikcevic, Ana V.; Moneta, Giovanni B.; Ireson, Judy
This questionnaire-based study of Japanese massage practitioners with visual impairment (n = 155, 126 males, 29 females, mean age = 41 years) found that measures of self-repression, helplessness and "daily hassles" were positively correlated to measures of trait anxiety. Also, trait anxiety was negatively associated with measures of self-esteem…
Donoyama, Nozomi; Munakata, Tsunetsugu
The purpose of this study was to assess how attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance), self-esteem, and three subscales of test anxiety--cognitive obstruction, social derogation and tenseness are related in two age groups: adolescents and college students. Participants (N?=?327) completed relevant questionnaires. Results showed that college…
Dan, Orrie; Bar Ilan, Omrit; Kurman, Jenny
This study investigated the ability of primary school teachers to recognise and refer children with anxiety symptoms. Two hundred and ninety-nine primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their recognition and referral responses to five hypothetical vignettes that described boys and girls with varying severity of anxiety…
Headley, Clea J.; Campbell, Marilyn A.
This study examined the relationship of overt and relational victimization to social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviours in a sample of female adolescents. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents, and Asher Loneliness Scale were administered to 561 girls in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades of an…
Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie
Relationships between bereavement following the death of a grandparent and adolescent death anxiety levels were examined using Hogan's Inventory of Bereavement and the revised Death Anxiety Scale within private schools. Of the 226 adolescent respondents (aged 11-18) who completed questionnaires, 124 had experienced the death of a grandparent. The…
Ens, Carla; Bond, John B.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether combining the two dimensions of anxiety (i.e., intensity and direction) by using a multiplicative model would strengthen the prediction of burnout. Collegiate athletes (N = 157) completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire as well as a trait version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2D. Three separate hierarchical regression analyses with four
J. Gualberto Cremades; Guillermo Wated; Matthew S. Wiggins
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether combining the two dimensions of anxiety (i.e., intensity and direction) by using a multiplicative model would strengthen the prediction of burnout. Collegiate athletes (N = 157) completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire as well as a trait version of the Competitive State Anxiety…
Cremades, J. Gualberto; Wated, Guillermo; Wiggins, Matthew S.
A dyadic model of economic strain was applied to the study of anxiety and depression as mediating mechanisms in the economic strain-psychological aggression relation. Data came from self-report questionnaires completed by 143 Argentinean clinical couples. Structural equation modeling analysis indicated that anxiety and depression increased for…
Falconier, Mariana K.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the factorial structure and construct validity for the Chinese version of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2006 from adults in the Beijing area. The questionnaire consisted of sections to assess for participants' demographic profile and dental attendance patterns, the Chinese MDAS and the anxiety items from
Siyang Yuan; Ruth Freeman; Satu Lahti; Ffion Lloyd-Williams; Gerry Humphris
A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)
Henton, Comradge L.
This study aimed to explain prospective teachers' anxiety about teaching in relation to their teaching efficacy beliefs and prior teaching experiences. Participants included 27 preservice teachers. Three instruments were used: Student Teacher Anxiety Scale (STAS), Prior Experiences in Teaching Questionnaire (PETQ), and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy…
Yetkin, I. Elif
This study examined the relation between gender role orientation and fear and anxiety in a sample of nonclinic-referred children (N = 209) ages 10 to 13 years. Children and their parents completed questionnaires assessing children's gender role orientation, toy and activity preferences, and fear and anxiety. Results generally indicated that…
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Knoops, Miranda
Elementary school students (n = 330) and their parents (n = 228) participated in a.3-year longitudinal study of the temporal relation between anxiety and depressive symptoms in children. Every 6 months, children and parents completed depression and anxiety questionnaires for a total of 6 waves. Structural equation modeling revealed that individual differences on all measures were remarkably stable over time.
David A. Cole; Lachlan G. Peeke; Joan M. Martin; Ruth Truglio; A. D. Seroczynski
??Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental health disorders in adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between anxiety symptoms and occupational performance in… (more)
Horkoff, Michelle J.
This is a 20-item, three part questionnaire designed to measure knowledge of decision-making and evaluation on the part of participants in a training program on planning and evaluation. Part of TM 001 078. (DLG)
Radcliffe, Vickey W.; Colgan, Francis E.
Outlines a plan to provide practice in writing questionnaire reports. Teaches students: (1) how to know what report format is appropriate; (2) how to interpret and present statistical data; and (3) what recommendations to make, if any. (RAE)
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale—Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth\\u000a anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia,\\u000a Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The\\u000a RCADS-P is currently the only parent-report questionnaire that concurrently assesses youth symptomatology of individual
Chad Ebesutani; Adam Bernstein; Brad J. Nakamura; Bruce F. Chorpita; John R. Weisz
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off
George Christo; Susan L Jones; Samantha Haylett; Geoffrey M Stephenson; Robert M. H Lefever; Robin Lefever
Background In the course of their work, police staff are at risk of exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) and potentially at risk of acquiring a blood-borne viral infection.Aims To examine levels of anxiety among Scottish police staff following an occupational exposure to BBF.Methods Police staff who reported an incident of exposure to their occupational health (OH) provider were invited to complete a postal questionnaire about their levels of self-reported anxiety after the incident and after contact with medical services (namely, OH and accident and emergency (A&E)).Results Seventy exposed individuals (66% of those invited to take part) completed a questionnaire. Participants' self-reported anxiety after the incident varied widely. Levels of anxiety reduced over time and following contact with medical services. A&E staff were more likely to be the first point of medical contact for the most anxious individuals. Pre-incident training was not associated with post-incident anxiety.Conclusions The findings suggest that contact with medical services helps to alleviate post-exposure anxieties among police staff. PMID:22679212
Dunleavy, K; Taylor, A; Gow, J; Cullen, B; Roy, K
The original version of the Schema Questionnaire was developed by Young to measure early maladaptive schemas. These maladaptive schemas are thought to be important in the development and maintenance of psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression. Factor analytic research with this 205-item version of the Schema Questionnaire has supported the schemas proposed by Young. The Schema Questionnaire—Short Form (SQ-SF)
Ken Welburn; Marjorie Coristine; Paul Dagg; Amanda Pontefract; Shelley Jordan
The Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ) was developed to evaluate burden among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to examine its psychometric properties among caregivers of patients with eating disorders (ED). A prospective study was carried out, recruiting caregivers of patients with an ED attending two outpatient clinics in Bizkaia, Spain. Caregivers provided sociodemographic information and completed the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and the Anorectic Behaviour Observation Scale (ABOS). The same information was requested one year later. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided satisfactory fit indexes. Almost all of the factor loadings were above 0.40. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were mostly superior to 0.70. The correlation coefficients between the IEQ domains and the other questionnaires were lower than the Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Known-groups validity was supported by significant differences in the IEQ mean scores according to certain variables, as contact hours, living with the patient, type of caregiver and gender. The indexes employed for the evaluation of responsiveness were between 0.13 and 0.99. The IEQ has good psychometric properties and can be used to evaluate burden among caregivers of patients with ED. PMID:22884308
González, Nerea; Bilbao, Amaia; Padierna, Angel; Martín, Josune; Orive, Miren; Quintana, José M
Background: Hospitalization causes anxiety for many patients. It increases when patients anticipate their turn for cardiac catheterization. Music therapy reduces the psychophysiologic effects of anxiety and stress through the relaxation response.Aim: To determine the effects of music therapy an anxiety, heart rate and arterial blood pressure in patients waiting for their scheduled cardiac catheterization.Methods: In a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 101
Wallace J. Hamel
Diagnostic and treatment hierarchical reductionisms have led to an oversight of anxiety syndromes in schizophrenia. Nevertheless, recent data have indicated that anxiety can be a significant source of morbidity in this patient group. This paper reviews current knowledge concerning anxiety comorbidity in schizophrenia, its epidemiology, course, and treatment. A computerized search of the literature published from 1966 to July 2012 was conducted on Medline. Comorbid anxiety disorders are present in 38.3% of subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The most common anxiety disorder is social phobia followed by post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. The presence and severity of symptoms of anxiety are associated with more severe clinical features and poorer outcomes. Available literature on the treatment consists primarily of case reports and open trials. Fragments of data support the notion of treating these anxiety states and syndromes as co-occurring clinical conditions with adjunctive medications and psychosocial interventions. However, additional work remains to be done on this issue before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:23932838
Braga, Raphael J; Reynolds, Graham P; Siris, Samuel G
This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…
Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo
Anxiety is the most prevalent psychopathology in young people, with up to 18% suffering from one or more anxiety disorders. Early prevention is important, as many signs of anxiety are often evident in childhood and adolescence. Anxiety disorders have negative consequences for academic, social and individual outcomes, and have been shown to be a precursor to depression, suicide and substance
Jenny Adermann; Marilyn Campbell
Scales of general anxiety (Taylor, Welsh, and Freeman) and of anxiety specific to academic situations (Mandler-Sarason, Achievement Anxiety Test) were administered to college freshmen. Academic achievement included verbal aptitude, the Scholastic Aptitude Test, overall grade-point average, and performance in psychology courses. The 2 tests of specific anxiety were seen to be measuring something different than the more general tests and
R. Alpert; R. N. Haber
The possibility that anxiety interferes with language learning has long interested scholars, language teachers, and language learners themselves. It is intuitive that anxiety would inhibit the learning and/or production of a second language (L2). The important term in the last sentence is "anxiety". The concept of anxiety is itself multi-faceted,…
Horwitz, Elaine K.
This paper attempts to generate a comprehensive description of the nature of mathematics anxiety through a synthesis of: (1) the general and test anxiety literatures applied to mathematics anxiety; (2) the mathematics anxiety literature, and (3) case studies developed through in-depth interviews. The indepth interviews were conducted with seven…
Cemen, Pamala Byrd
Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…
Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.
Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding individual differences in chronic interpersonal stress. Attachment anxiety, a type of relationship insecurity characterized by worry about rejection and abandonment, is a chronic interpersonal stressor. Stress impacts cellular immunity, including herpesvirus reactivation. We investigated whether attachment anxiety was related to the expression of a latent herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), when individuals were being tested for breast or colon cancer and approximately 1year later. Participants (N=183) completed a standard attachment questionnaire and provided blood to assess EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG antibody titers. Individuals with more attachment anxiety had higher EBV VCA IgG antibody titers than those with less attachment anxiety. The strength of the association between attachment anxiety and antibody titers was the same at both assessments. This study is the first to show an association between latent herpesvirus reactivation and attachment anxiety. Because elevated herpesvirus antibody titers reflect poorer cellular immune system control over the latent virus, these data suggest that high attachment anxiety is associated with cellular immune dysregulation. PMID:24945717
Fagundes, Christopher P; Jaremka, Lisa M; Glaser, Ronald; Alfano, Catherine M; Povoski, Stephen P; Lipari, Adele M; Agnese, Doreen M; Yee, Lisa D; Carson, William E; Farrar, William B; Malarkey, William B; Chen, Min; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K
Group cohesion in sport is a widely spread theme today. Research has found cohesion to be influenced by several individual and group components. Among the cognitive variables that relate to cohesion we found competitive anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between task cohesion (ATG-T, and GI-T) and competitive state anxiety (A-state), and also if there would be a relation between cohesion and self-confidence. Participants were 366 football players of both genders male and female, aged between 15 to 23 years old, from Portugal's championships. Cohesion was measured using the Portuguese version of the Group Environment Questionnaire, and to assess competitive anxiety, we used the Portuguese version of the Competition State Anxiety Inventory 2. Our results show that female athletes report experiencing more cognitive anxiety and less self-confidence than male athletes. Only cognitive anxiety relates in a significantly negative way with the perception of cohesion (GI-T e ATG-T) in the total number of participants and in male athletes. Relatively to the somatic anxiety, it only relates negatively with the perception of the integration of the group in the total number of participants and in the male gender. PMID:23487008
Borrego, Carla Chicau; Cid, Luis; Silva, Carlos
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore an organization-wide philosophy of hospitality in a hospital setting. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An exploratory case study method approach matched the research purpose. First, a hospitality centric philosophy (HCP) was defined from the literature review. Next, a triangulation of unstructured visits, structured visits and key informant interviews is used to further explore
Denver Severt; Taryn Aiello; Shannon Elswick; Cheryl Cyr
Background: Patients awaiting surgery typically experience significant physical and psychological stress. Vital signs and serum cortisol level are altered in response to anxiety. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of preoperative education on physiological indices and cortisol level of female patients undergoing elective surgeries. Materials and Methods: In this single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 60 women undergoing gynecological elective surgeries in Kowsar Hospital (Qazvin, Iran) were randomly assigned to either control or intervention group. The patients of the intervention group were assessed based on the nursing process after admission. Subjects with anxiety, inadequate awareness, and fear received necessary training on anxiety reduction techniques. The control group merely received routine care. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, baseline and preoperative vital signs, and serum cortisol level was completed for all subjects. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics (Fisher's exact test, paired and independent t-tests, and Mann–Whitney U test) in SPSS17. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The two groups were homogeneous in terms of age (P = 0.20), marital status (P = 0.50), education (P = 0.10), employment status (P = 0.13), and admission history (P = 0.30). There were no significant differences in baseline vital signs between the intervention and control groups. Before surgery, the mean values of vital signs increased in both the groups. However, the increments were less in the experimental group than in the control group. Serum cortisol levels were also lower in the experimental group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Education based on the nursing process is a non-pharmaceutical and effective method to minimize changes in vital signs and decrease serum cortisol level in patients undergoing gynecological elective surgeries. PMID:24403946
Bahrami, Nasim; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharifnia, Hamid; Shaigan, Hoorieh; Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammad-Rezaei, Zhila
Can the painDETECT Questionnaire score and MRI help predict treatment outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: protocol for the Frederiksberg hospital's Rheumatoid Arthritis, pain assessment and Medical Evaluation (FRAME-cohort) study
Introduction Pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered to be of inflammatory origin. Despite better control of inflammation, some patients still report pain as a significant concern, even when being in clinical remission. This suggests that RA may prompt central sensitisation—one aspect of chronic pain. In contrast, other patients report good treatment response, although imaging shows signs of inflammation, which could indicate a possible enhancement of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. When assessing disease activity in patients with central sensitisation, the commonly used disease activity scores (eg, DAS28-CRP (C reactive protein)) will yield constant high total scores due to high tender joint count and global health assessments, whereas MRI provides an isolated estimate of inflammation. The objective of this study is, in patients with RA initiating anti-inflammatory treatment, to explore the prognostic value of a screening questionnaire for central sensitisation, hand inflammation assessed by conventional MRI, and the interaction between them regarding treatment outcome evaluated by clinical status (DAS28-CRP). For the purpose of further exploratory analyses, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is performed. Method and analysis The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ), originally developed to screen for a neuropathic pain component, is applied to indicate the presence of central sensitisation. Adults diagnosed with RA are included when either (A) initiating disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment, or (B) initiating or switching to biological therapy. We anticipate that 100 patients will be enrolled, tested and reassessed after 4?months of treatment. Data collection includes Clinical data, conventional MRI, DCE-MRI, blood samples and patient-reported outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This study aims at supporting rheumatologists to define strategies to reach optimal treatment outcomes in patients with RA based on chronic pain prognostics. The study has been approved by The Capital region of Denmark's Ethics Committee; identification number H-3-2013-049. The results will be published in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID:25394817
Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Christensen, Anton Wulf; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Bartels, Else Marie; Locht, Henning; Amris, Kirstine
The objective of the study was to examine sex and grade differences among bullies, victims, bully\\/victims, and comparison children on physical, verbal, and indirect aggression and victimization and on depression and anxiety. 546 children (254 boys and 292 girls) in grades five through eight participated in the study. Children completed the Bully\\/Victim Questionnaire (Olweus (1989) Questionnaire for students (Junior and
Wendy M. Craig
A questionnaire was administered to 1,929 applicants to Oxford University, including measures of trait anxiety, behavioural response to examinations and to breakdown in relationships. 635 of these applicants were admitted to the university and of these, 383 also responded to a questionnaire administered 4 years later, just before their final…
Mellanby, Jane; Zimdars, Anna
In summary, the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire was developed as a screening instrument for use by preschool teachers, providing norms for children, ages 3–6. During the 34-month period since its publication in late 1974, the scale has been used to a considerable extent in the screening of young children. Those who have used the scale evaluate it highly. However, the variations
Lenore B. Behar
The purpose of this article was to address the clinically relevant question: In the presence of anxiety and/or depression, do patients who have had heart surgery engage in self-management behaviors following hospital discharge? A systematic review of 16 studies that examined the psychological condition of patients who had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valvular replacement surgery was conducted. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety and depression exist during the first month of home recovery and appear to have an effect on performance of self-management behaviors. As the influence of patients' psychological condition is continued to be examined, it is imperative for health care providers to manage increased rates of anxiety and/or depression following heart surgery. Music and relaxation therapy are presented as evidenced based recommendations for managing anxiety and depression in patients following heart surgery. PMID:22473273
Fredericks, Suzanne; Lapum, Jennifer; Lo, Joyce
Preoperative anxiety is a prevalent concern with deleterious effects in patient recovery and is not routinely assessed in the preoperative screening process. When it is assessed, it may prompt an increase in the use of anesthetic agents, heightened postoperative pain, and prolonged hospitalization. Preoperative women with breast cancer face anxiety as it relates to anesthesia, surgery, and recovery. The preoperative anxiety visual analog scale may identify and quantify anxiety in this population, provide advocacy and support, and improve the preoperative screening process. PMID:25253102
ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents A nxiety disorders are common; about 1 in 4 Americans will have an anxiety ... can make both illnesses more serious. CONSEQUENCES OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety disorders can lead to school problems ...
Multivariate modelling of anxiety and depression data in twins has suggested that the two phenotypes are largely underpinned by one genetic factor, while other studies have indicated a relationship between these disorders and the neuroticism personality trait. As part of a study to identify quantitative trait loci for anxiety and depression, questionnaire responses and interviews of 15 027 Australian twins
Katherine M Kirk; Andrew J Birley; Dixie J Statham; Barbara Haddon; Robert IE Lake; J Gavin Andrews; Nicholas G Martin
Examined self-esteem, depression, and anxiety among 60 adult children of alcoholics (COAs) and 143 adult non-COAs. Subjects completed Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, demographic questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Found no significant differences between COAs and…
Dodd, David T.; Roberts, Richard L.
The purpose of the present study was to examine a predicting model of high school students’ math anxiety based on classroom goal structure, self-regulation and math self-efficacy. For this reason 436 first grade male high school students were selected through multiple cluster sampling. They completed a questionnaire consisting of perceived classroom goal structure (Midgley et al. 2000), Math anxiety (Bai
Masoud Gholamali Lavasani; Elahe Hejazi; Javad Yazdani Varzaneh
Abstract Objective Both self-reported indicators of stress and hormones such as cortisol and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) have been examined in relation to preterm birth. Although these hormones have been interpreted as biomarkers of stress, it is unclear whether psychosocial measures are empirically associated with biomarkers of stress in pregnant women. Methods We analyzed data from 1,587 North Carolina pregnant women enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition study during 2000–2004 who provided at least one saliva sample for cortisol measurement or blood samples for CRH at 14–19 and 24–29 weeks' gestation. Cortisol measures were limited to those taken between 8 and 10 a.m. Perceived stress, state-trait anxiety, coping style, life events, social support, and pregnancy-specific anxiety were measured by questionnaires and interviews. Spearman correlations and multiple regressions were used to describe the relationship among the measures of stress. Results No correlations larger than r?=?0.15 were seen between reported psychosocial measures and cortisol or CRH. Women with demographic characteristics associated with poor pregnancy outcomes (unmarried, African-American, young, low pre-pregnancy body mass index) reported higher levels of stress but did not consistently have higher levels of stress hormones. Pre-eclampsia was associated with higher CRH, but not with higher cortisol. Conclusions The relationship between measurements of reported stress and biomarkers is not straightforward in large epidemiological studies of pregnancy. For online Supplementary Material, see www.liebertonline.com. PMID:19757520
Savitz, David A.; Dole, Nancy; Herring, Amy H.; Thorp, John M.
Anxiety disorders are common disorders in childhood, and developmental differences must be considered when diagnosing and\\u000a treating patients in this age group. Recent research has illuminated the course of childhood anxiety disorders, including\\u000a how they can be precursors to continued anxiety and mood problems in adulthood. Recent studies of cognitive-behavioral therapy,\\u000a the first-line psychosocial treatment for childhood anxiety, have focused
Paul Arnold; S. Preeya Banerjee; Rashmi Bhandari; Jennifer Ivey; Michelle Rose; David R. Rosenberg
Background Anxiety is common among patients presenting with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). In a sample of women with signs and symptoms of ischemia, we examined three anxiety markers as predictors of CAD endpoints including: 1) cardiac symptom indicators; 2) angiographic CAD severity; and 3) healthcare utilization (cardiac hospitalizations & 5-year cardiovascular [CVD] healthcare costs). Methods Participants completed a baseline protocol including coronary angiogram, cardiac symptoms, psychosocial measures and a median 5.9-year follow-up to track hospitalizations. We calculated CVD costs based on cardiac hospitalizations, treatment visits, and CVD medications. Anxiety measures included anxiolytic medication use, Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, and anxiety disorder treatment history. Results The sample numbered 514 women with anxiety measure data and covariates (mean age=57.5[11.1]). One in five (20.4%) women reported using anxiolytic agents. Anxiety correlated with cardiac symptom indicators (anxiolytic use with nighttime angina & nitroglycerine use; STAI scores & anxiety disorder treatment history with nighttime angina, shortness of breath, & angina frequency). Anxiety disorder treatment history (but not STAI scores or anxiolytics) predicted less severe CAD. Anxiolytic use (but not STAI scores or anxiety disorder treatment history) predicted hospitalizations for chest pain and coronary catheterization (HR’s=2.0, 95% CI’s=1.1–4.7). Anxiety measures predicted higher 5-year CVD costs (+9.0–42.7%) irrespective of CAD severity. Conclusions Among women with signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia, anxiety measures predict cardiac endpoints ranging from cardiac symptom severity to healthcare utilization. Based on these findings, anxiety may warrant greater consideration among women with suspected CAD. PMID:23410495
Rutledge, Thomas; Kenkre, Tanya S.; Bittner, Vera; Krantz, David S.; Thompson, Diane V.; Linke, Sarah E.; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Cornell, Carol E.; Vaccarino, Viola; Pepine, Carl J.; Johnson, B. Delia; Merz, C. Noel Bairey
Background: Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients’ quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data. Results: The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management.
Najafi, Zahra; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Farrokhian, Alireza; Tagharrobi, Zahra
This study presents a test of the Anxiety-Expectation Mediation (AEM) model of library anxiety. The AEM model contains variables that are directly or indirectly related to information search performance, as measured by students' scores on their research proposals. This model posits that library anxiety and self-perception serve as factors that…
Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.
Background The current study seeks to investigate the mechanisms through which mindfulness is related to mental health in a clinical sample of adults by examining a) whether specific cognitive emotion regulation strategies (rumination, reappraisal, worry, and non-acceptance) mediate associations between mindfulness and depression and anxiety, respectively, and b) whether these emotion regulation strategies operate uniquely or transdiagnostically in relation to depression and anxiety. Methods Participants were 187 adults seeking treatment at a mood and anxiety disorders clinic in Connecticut. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures that included assessments of depression and anxiety (Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire), and emotion regulation (Ruminative Response Scale, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). Results Simple mediation analyses indicated that rumination and worry significantly mediated associations between mindfulness and anxiety symptoms, while rumination and reappraisal significantly mediated associations between mindfulness and depressive symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that worry significantly mediated associations between mindfulness and anxiety symptoms and rumination and reappraisal significantly mediated associations between mindfulness and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Findings suggest that mindfulness operates through distinct and common mechanisms depending on clinical context. PMID:23592556
Desrosiers, Alethea; Vine, Vera; Klemanski, David H.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Anxiety disorders are common and costly psychiatric illnesses. Pharmacological treatment was enhanced with the introduction of benzodiazepines, which proved safer and more effective than older drugs. The risk of dependence, however, has made clinicians reluctant to use these medications. In fact, few patients appear to develop significant difficulties with these drugs, given how widely they are used. Careful planning for discontinuation of therapy is important. In addition, for some individuals, there appears to be a complex and as yet unelucidaied relationship between dependence on drugs or alcohol and anxiety. The newer antidepressants offer efficacy without abuse or dependence liability, but are expensive and have side effects that are intolerable for some patients. Pharmacological therapy for anxiety should be prescribed and managed so as to minimize any existing risk, while aiming to restore the patient to wellness in terms of symptoms and function. PMID:22033703
von Moltke, Lisa L.; Greenblatt, David J.
Although the syndromes of anxiety have only been recognized this century, the belief that the emotion of fearful apprehension could cause physical illness has a much longer history. James Vere wrote his book entitled "A physical and moral enquiry into the causes of that internal restlessness and disorder in man which has been the complaint of all ages" in 1778. The earliest accounts of phobia, as anxiety associated with specific circumstances have been ascribed to two cases from Hippocrates, whilst one of the earliest accounts in the English language may be that of William Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice describing a supposed phobia for cats. Robert Burton (1621) described various anxiety disorders in classical detail in his 'Anatomy of Melancholy'. PMID:3064064
... Disorder . Learn more about it here. Postpartum and antepartum anxiety are temporary and treatable with professional help. ... Disorder . Learn more about it here. Postpartum and antepartum anxiety are temporary and treatable with professional help. ...
Objective: The pure essence of plants (essential oils) provides both psychological and physiological benefits when used accurately and safely. Conventionally, Lavender oil is known for relaxing, carminative, and sedative effects. Hence, an attempt was made to know the effect of Lavender essential oil on dental patient anxiety. Methods: The present study included two comparison groups (Lavender and control group), each comprising five dental clinics. In Lavender group, the ambient odor of Lavender essential oil was maintained with the help of a candle warmer in the reception area and in the control group, candle warmer with normal water was used. A total of 597 patients, aged above 18 years were included. A questionnaire comprising demographic information, and a modified dental anxiety scale was given to the patients in waiting room, and data regarding anxiety levels was recorded. Findings: Student's t-test (unpaired) showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores of Lavender group compared with the control group. Analysis of variances test showed reduction in anxiety scores as age increased in Lavender group. Conclusion: Fragrance of Lavender oil at reception area may effectively reduce the patient's state or current anxiety. This practice on routine usage can improve the quality of dental treatments. PMID:25328900
Zabirunnisa, Md.; Gadagi, Jayaprakash S.; Gadde, Praveen; Myla, Nagamalleshwari; Koneru, Jyothirmai; Thatimatla, Chandrasekhar
The current study evaluated the relationships among trait anxiety, subjective response to alcohol, and simulated driving following a simulated alcohol binge. Sixty drinkers with a binge history completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, and subsequently completed a driving simulation. Participants were then administered 0.2 g/kg ethanol at 30 minute intervals (cumulative dose 0.8 g/kg). Following alcohol consumption, the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and visual analog scales of subjective impairment and driving confidence were administered, after which simulated driving was re-assessed. Due to the emphasis on simulated driving after drinking in the current study, subjective response to alcohol (i.e., self-reported sedation, stimulation, impairment, and confidence in driving ability) was assessed once following alcohol consumption, as this is the time when drinkers tend to make decisions regarding legal driving ability. Alcohol increased driving speed, speeding tickets, and collisions. Sedation following alcohol predicted increased subjective impairment and decreased driving confidence. Subjective impairment was not predicted by sensitivity to stimulation or trait anxiety. High trait anxiety predicted low driving confidence after drinking and this relationship was mediated by sedation. Increased speed after alcohol was predicted by sedation, but not by trait anxiety or stimulation. Anxiety, combined with the sedating effects of alcohol, may indicate when consumption should cease. However, once driving is initiated, sensitivity to sedation following alcohol consumption is positively related to simulated driving speed. PMID:24955664
Aston, Elizabeth R.; Shannon, Erin E.; Liguori, Anthony
In the population of older adults, anxiety disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Epidemiologic studies have generally\\u000a found that the prevalence of anxiety disorders declines with age. Recognition of anxiety disorders in older adults is, however,\\u000a complicated by several age-related factors including the presence of depression, cognitive impairment, and physical illness.\\u000a A variety of medications have been used to treat anxiety
Jeremy A. Sable; Dilip V. Jeste
There is a growing interest of clinical and epidemiological researches in the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders in our society. Accordingly, validated and culturally adapted instruments are required for appropriate measurement of variables specially the quality of life. The aim of our study was the linguistic validation of the Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Quality of Life questionnaire (IBS-QOL) for Iranian IBS patients with Persian language. Following the standard forward-backward translation method, the IBS-QOL was translated into the Persian language and completed by 141 IBS patients. Patients also completed the IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). One-week retest was performed on 30 randomly selected patients. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. To analyze the discriminant validity, the IBS-QOL scores was correlated to the IBS-SSS and HADS scores. According to the results, reliability analyses were acceptable for all of the IBS-QOL domains (Cronbach's alpha=0.68 to 0.90 and ICCs=0.77 to 0.91). Discriminant validity was supported by the presence of correlations of the IBS-QOL scores with disease severity (r = -0.628), depression (r = -0.692), and anxiety (r = -0.711) scores; P < 0.001. These results indicate that the Persian version of the IBS-QOL is a reliable instrument with sufficient psychometric requirements to assess quality of life in Iranian IBS patients with Persian language. PMID:21874644
Gholamrezaei, Ali; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Nemati, Kianoosh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Tavakkoli, Hamid; Emami, Mohammad Hassan
Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Are you afraid of being judged by others at work or school? If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called socialS national institutes of Health #12;Social Phobia (SocialAnxiety Disorder) What is social phobia? Social
Bandettini, Peter A.
The magnitude of [anxiety] is measured by its effect upon the rate with which [hungry] rats pressed a lever under periodic reinforcement with food. Repeated presentations of a tone terminated by an electric shock produced a state of anxiety in response to the tone When the shock was thus preceded by a period of anxiety it produced a much more
W. K. Estes; B. F. Skinner
Introduction: Some persons with Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) suffer significant anxiety because of their visual hallucinations, while others do not. The aim of the study presented here was to compare levels of anxiety in persons with low vision with and without CBS. Methods: This retrospective study compared the level of anxiety in 31 persons…
Geueke, Anna; Morley, Michael G.; Morley, Katharine; Lorch, Alice; Jackson, MaryLou; Lambrou, Angeliki; Wenberg, June; Oteng-Amoako, Afua
Presents dialog among David Lester, author of first critical survey of death anxiety measures, developer of scales, and researcher about suicide and fear of death; Donald Templer, Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) creator; and journal editor. Lester and Templer discuss origins, uses, results, limitations, and future of death anxiety scales and research on…
Lester, David; Templer, Donald
Examined the influence of sex and age on death anxiety in 165 male and 95 female homosexuals who completed the Death Anxiety Scale. Results showed gay males and females had almost identical DAS scores. No relationship was found between age and death anxiety. (JAC)
Templer, Donald I.; And Others
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
Zalles, Daniel R.; Library, Online E.
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
In order to formulate a parsimonious tool to assess empathy, we used factor analysis on a combination of self-report measures to examine consensus and developed a brief self-report measure of this common factor. The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) represents empathy as a primarily emotional process. In three studies, the TEQ demonstrated strong convergent validity, correlating positively with behavioral measures of social decoding, self-report measures of empathy, and negatively with a measure of Autism symptomatology. Moreover, it exhibited good internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. The TEQ is a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for the assessment of empathy. PMID:19085285
Spreng, R. Nathan; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Mar, Raymond A.; Levine, Brian
Anxiety disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) develop before school age, but little is known about early developmental pathways. Here we test two hypotheses: first, that early signs of anxiety and ADHD at 18 months predict symptoms of anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years; second, that emotional dysregulation at 18 months predicts the outcome of co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years. The study was part of the prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The 628 participants were clinically assessed at 3½ years. Questionnaire data collected at 18 months were categorized into early behavioural scales of anxiety, ADHD, and emotional dysregulation. We investigated continuity in features of anxiety and ADHD from 18 months to 3½ years of age through logistic regression analyses. Anxiety symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, CI = 1.15-1.73) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.15-1.54). ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of ADHD (OR = 1.51, CI = 1.30-1.76) and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.31, CI = 1.13-1.51). Co-occurring anxiety and ADHD symptoms at 3½ years were predicted by early signs of anxiety (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.13-1.84), ADHD (OR = 1.30, CI = 1.11-1.54), and emotional dysregulation (OR = 1.34, CI = 1.13-1.58). We conclude that there were modest continuities in features of anxiety and ADHD through early preschool years, while emotional dysregulation at age 18 months was associated with symptoms of anxiety, ADHD, and co-occurring anxiety and ADHD at age 3½ years. PMID:24687273
Overgaard, Kristin Romvig; Aase, Heidi; Torgersen, Svenn; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Oerbeck, Beate; Myhre, Anne; Zeiner, Pål
The present study examined the association of the personality trait neuroticism and test anxiety (encoded as worry and emotionality) as well as social relationships (teacher-student and student-student relationship) as possible mediators for girls and boys. Participants were 8th grade students (N = 512) attending schools in Konya. Using…
Erben Kecici, Sayime
The pharmacological treatment of anxiety has a long and chequered history, and recent years have seen a rich development in the options available to prescribers. Most of the currently used anxiolytic agents act via monoaminergic (chiefly serotonin) or amino acid (GABA or glutamate) neurotransmitters, and this chapter describes the pharmacology of the major drug groups. Clinical applications are discussed with
J. R. Nash; D. J. Nutt
Affective factors seem to play a crucial role in success or failure in second language acquisition. Negative attitudes can reduce learners' motivation and harm language learning, while positive attitudes can do the reverse. Discovering students' attitudes about language will help both teacher and student in teaching learning process. Anxiety is…
Objective To assess the sensitivity to change of the McMaster Toronto Arthritis Patient Preference Disability Questionnaire (MACTAR) in chronic low back pain (CLBP) and shifts in patients' priorities of disabling activities over time. Methods A prospective longitudinal survey of 100 patients (38 males) with CLBP in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Evaluation at baseline and 6 months by the MACTAR, Quebec Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (QUEBEC), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), and pain and handicap visual analogue scales (VASs). Patients' perceived improvement or worsening of condition was assessed at 6 months. Effect size (ES) and Standardized response mean (SRM) and effect size (ES) were used to evaluate sensitivity to change of the MACTAR. Results The MACTAR SRM and ES values (SRM?=?0.25; ES?=?0.37) were among the highest for the instruments evaluated. For patients considering their condition as improved, the SRM was 0.66 and the ES 1. The 3 disability domains, classified by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), most often cited as priorities at baseline remained the most cited at follow-up: mobility (40.9% of patients); community, social and civic life (22.7%); and domestic life (22.4%). At 6 months, 48 patients shifted their priorities, for a decrease in MACTAR SRM and ES values for patients considering their condition improved and an increase in these values for those considering their condition deteriorated. Conclusions Although the MACTAR has similar sensitivity to change as other outcome measures widely used in CLBP, shifts in patient priorities over time are common and influence scores and sensitivity to change. PMID:21629777
Sanchez, Katherine; Papelard, Agathe; Nguyen, Christelle; Bendeddouche, Imad; Jousse, Marylene; Rannou, Francois; Revel, Michel; Poiraudeau, Serge
Study of 133 children and adolescents hospitalized and operated in child and adolescent reconstructive surgery. We will study the fantasy representations of anxiety as it is expressed by this population, as well as the psychological repercussions of surgical interventions: behavior disorders, depression, anxiety. We will show that pre-adolescents and adolescents represent the most vulnerable patients in regard to the anxiety triggered by the surgical act and that some of them experience, at the time of the operation, episodes of psychic disorganization of psychotic appearance. We will look into the impact of this mutilating surgery and the weight of severe orthopedic handicaps, and have noted that the expression of anxiety isn't always in relation to the seriousness of the handicap and/or that of the intervention. The anxiety is linked to the psychological balance of the child which is largely due to the relationship he has with his parents and the feeling of self-esteem that the child has if he is accepted as he is. The surgeon seems to us like an important element in the dynamic of the way anxiety is dealt with since the patient and his parents establish a truly transferential bond to him that is of great intensity. The number of school problems, relational and behavioral difficulties and depressive reactions noted in this population shows that reconstructive surgery is very disorganizing for the personality and acts as a psychological trauma. PMID:8559849
de Carmoy, R
The purpose of this article is to offer tips in designing quality questionnaires and on avoiding common errors. Some of the more prevalent problems in questionnaire development are identified and suggestions of ways to avoid them are offered.
Applied Research Program (ARP) staff use a variety of methods to develop and test questionnaires, including established Questionnaire Design Principles, empirical methods such as Cognitive Testing and psychometric methods such as Item Response Theory Modeling.
ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the US and Canada.
Precompetition anxiety and self-confidence were investigated in a sample of 132 male and 103 female Shanghai college athletes. The participants were administered the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 of Martens, et al. 30 to 40 min. before competing in important track and field events or basketball games. Analysis by independent t tests showed that there were no sex differences in scores on the Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, or Self-confidence subscales; however, compared to those in team sports (basketball), athletes competing individually (track and field) scored significantly higher on the Somatic Anxiety subscale and significantly lower on the Self-confidence subscale. Comparisons with data from comparable North American samples indicated that Chinese athletes reported lower scores on Cognitive Anxiety and Somatic Anxiety but similar scores on Self-confidence. PMID:10214657
Kirkby, R J; Liu, J
The validity of a questionnaire on medical drug use during pregnancy was tested against information collected 7 years previously (in 1983-1984) at the University Hospital of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The study population consisted of women with high-risk pregnancies. The sensitivity for drug categories varied between 0% and 80%. The sensitivity was highest for drugs used during labor (77%) and was extremely low (0%) for some drug categories. Personal characteristics thought to influence the sensitivity, such as parity of the mother and method of data collection (postal questionnaire or personal interview), showed no statistically significant effect. The newly developed questionnaire needs further improvement. PMID:1951298
de Jong, P C; Huijsmans, A A; Nienhuis, H E; Nijdam, W S; Zielhuis, G A; Eskes, T K
School of Informatics Course Questionnaire The School of Informatics welcomes constructive comments Organisation office on Appleton Tower level 4. If you prefer, you can also complete this questionnaire online: http://www.inf.ed.ac.uk/admin/ITO/questionnaires You can also provide feedback directly to your
AIM: To investigate anxiety and depression propensities in patients with toxic liver injury. METHODS: The subjects were divided into three groups: a healthy control group (Group 1, n = 125), an acute non-toxic liver injury group (Group 2, n = 124), and a group with acute toxic liver injury group caused by non-commercial herbal preparations (Group 3, n = 126). These three groups were compared and evaluated through questionnaire surveys and using the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale (HADS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the hypochondriasis scale. RESULTS: The HADS anxiety subscale was 4.9 ± 2.7, 5.0 ± 3.0 and 5.6 ± 3.4, in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The HADS depression subscale in Group 3 showed the most significant score (5.2 ± 3.2, 6.4 ± 3.4 and 7.2 ± 3.4 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2). The BAI and BDI in Group 3 showed the most significant score (7.0 ± 6.3 and 6.9 ± 6.9, 9.5 ± 8.6 and 8.8 ± 7.3, 10.7 ± 7.2 and 11.6 ± 8.5 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (BAI: P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2) (BDI: P < 0.01 vs Group 1 and 2). Group 3 showed a significantly higher hypochondriasis score (8.2 ± 6.0, 11.6 ± 7.5 and 13.1 ± 6.5 in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) (P < 0.01 vs Group 1, P < 0.05 vs Group 2). CONCLUSION: Psychological factors that present vulnerability to the temptation to use alternative medicines, such as herbs and plant preparations, are important for understanding toxic liver injury. PMID:24379633
Suh, Jeong Ill; Sakong, Jeong Kyu; Lee, Kwan; Lee, Yong Kook; Park, Jeong Bae; Kim, Dong Joon; Seo, Yeon Seok; Lee, Jae Dong; Ko, Soon Young; Lee, Byung Seok; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Byung Seok; Kim, Young Seok; Lee, Heon Ju; Kim, In Hee; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Ahn, Byung Min
What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.
Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n?=?958) hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item). The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10), and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies. PMID:22938170
The objective of this study was to determine anxiety and depression and its relationship with quality of life (QOL) in renal transplant (RT) recipients. A total of 105 consecutive patients were assessed cross-sectionally at least 3 months after RT. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was applied to assess anxiety and depression. QOL was assessed through the abbreviated version of World Health Organization QOL scale. Patients' awareness of illness and treatment was assessed through Structured Interview for Renal Transplantation. Nine (8.57%) patients had syndromal anxiety and 9 (8.57%) had syndromal depression. Both these groups had significantly lower scores in almost all domains of QOL compared with their non-anxious and non-depressed counterparts. There were a higher number of hospitalizations and episodes of complication or rejection in post-RT patients with anxiety as compared to those without (P = 0.001). Syndromal depression and anxiety are associated with poor QOL and syndromal anxiety is associated with significantly higher number of hospitalizations, rejections and complications in post-RT patients. PMID:25249717
Jana, A K; Sircar, D; Waikhom, R; Praharaj, S K; Pandey, R; RayChaudhury, A; Dasgupta, S
The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic.…
Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.
Cognitive conceptualizations of social anxiety emphasize the role of negative self-statements, unrealistic expectations, and irrational beliefs in the development and maintenance of anxiety in social-evaluative situations. Research into these cognitive factors has entailed administration of questionnaires and instructions to subjects to write down their thoughts during a preceding or impending real-life encounter. These methodologies are criticized on several grounds, such
Gerald C. Davison; Vivien Zighelboim
This study tested the veracity of a model of Mathematics Anxiety as the end-point of related self-regulatory and self-efficacy processes. Data were collected in India from 232, eighth grade students on the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire and the Mathematics Anxiety Scale. Demographic information such as student’s gender, age, marks scored in last mathematics exam and occupation of both parents
Sachin Jain; Martin Dowson
BACKGROUND: A cross sectional study was designed to survey the relationship between anxiety\\/depression and duration\\/cause of infertility, in Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: After obtaining their consents, 370 female patients with different infertility causes participated in, and data gathered by Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Cattle questionnaires for surveying anxiety and depression due to the duration of infertility.
Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh; Malek Mansour Aghssa; Nasrin Abedinia; Farid Zayeri; Navid Khanafshar; Mamak Shariat; Mina Jafarabadi
We examined whether certain “risky” drinking motives mediate the previously established relation between elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) and increased drinking behavior in college student drinkers (n=109 women, 73 men). Specifically, we administered the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Revised Drinking Motives Questionnaire, and a quantity-frequency measure of typical drinking levels. Participants were parceled according to high (n=30), moderate (n=29), and low
Sherry H Stewart; Michael J Zvolensky; Georg H Eifert
The aim of this study was to assess fear and anxiety in dental patients. Five hundred patients were evaluated using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and the Dental Fear Scale, along with a questionnaire. Oral health status was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth (DMFT)/Decayed, Missing, and Filled Surfaces (DMFS) index. Statistic al analysis was performed (P < .05). Sex significantly affected dental anxiety (P < .05), and sex, marital status, having children, and time elapsed since last visit to clinician affected dental fear (P < .05). DMFT/DMFS scores were not related to dental anxiety or fear (P > .05). Female sex alone was a significant predictor of dental anxiety; female sex, adulthood, marriage, having children, and time passed since last visit to a clinician are significant predictors of fear. PMID:24392477
Yüzügüllü, Bulem; Gül?ahi, Ayse; Celik, Cigdem; Bulut, Sule
The goal was to examine the predictiveness of achievement goals for self-confidence, cognitive anxiety, and somatic anxiety using a prospective design. 160 high school athletes completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport after daily practice and the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 before an official competition. Using hierarchical regression analyses, mastery-approach goals were found as positive predictors of self-confidence and negative predictors of cognitive and somatic anxiety. In contrast, performance- and mastery-avoidance goals positively predicted cognitive and somatic anxiety. Also, performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted self-confidence. Generally, athletes who pursued task mastery and improvement of competence were less physically and cognitively anxious and more self-confident. However, athletes felt tense, worried, and had lower confidence when they endorsed avoidance forms of achievement goals. PMID:24611239
1 ANXIETY ASSESSMENT Instructions: To discover the role anxiety plays in your life, complete the following anxiety self assessment quiz. Check the box next to the question to indicate a "Yes" answer that anxiety interferes with your daily life? Fear being out of control? #12;2 ANXIETY ASSESSMENT Find yourself
Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…
Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.
The Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) is a self-report instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceived interpersonal anxiety levels in a wide range of relationships with people of different ages, genders, levels of authority, and levels of intimacy and in several contexts: family, school, friends, opposite…
Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Zhou, Xinyue; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.
From June 2001, health questionnaires were distributed to people who complained about symptoms of ill health which they ascribed to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The objective of the survey was to gain a better knowledge of the anxieties of complainants, to obtain hints of possible problems and of actions that should be taken to solve the problems. The survey
Martin Röösli; Mirjana Moser; Yvonne Baldinini; Martin Meier; Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer
Introduction Dental anxiety is an important challenge for many patients and clinicians. It is thus of importance to know more about dental students’ own experiences with dental anxiety and their understanding of dental anxiety. The aim was to investigate differences in dental anxiety levels between dental students, psychology students, and biology students at a Norwegian university. Materials and methods A total of 510 students of dentistry, psychology, and biology at the University of Tromsø received a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, demographic questions, and questions relating to their last visit to the dentist/dental hygienist; 169 students gave complete responses. Nonparametric tests were used to investigate differences between the student groups. Results The respondents were 78% female and 22% male; their mean age was 24 years. The dental students showed a significantly lower degree of dental anxiety than the psychology (P<0.001) and biology students (P<0.001). A significant decrease in dental anxiety levels was found between novice and experienced dentistry students (P<0.001). Discussion The dental students had less dental anxiety compared to psychology students and biology students. Experienced dental students also had less dental anxiety than novice dental students. This could indicate that the dentistry program structure at the university may influence dental anxiety levels. Conclusion Dental anxiety seemed to be less frequent in dentistry students compared to students of biology or clinical psychology. The practice-oriented dentistry education at the university might contribute to the differences in anxiety levels between new and experienced dentistry students. PMID:25285013
Storjord, Helene Persen; Teodorsen, Mari Mj?nes; Bergdahl, Jan; Wynn, Rolf; Johnsen, Jan-Are Kolset
Many women experience anxiety during pregnancy with potential negative effects on maternal, birth, and child outcomes. Because of potential risks of fetal exposure to psychotropic medications, efficacious non-pharmacologic approaches are urgently needed. However, no published studies of psychotherapeutic treatments for anxiety in pregnancy exist. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may substantially reduce anxiety and co-morbid symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. Coping with Anxiety through Living Mindfully (CALM) Pregnancy is an adaptation of MBCT designed to address anxiety in pregnant women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of the CALM Pregnancy intervention in pregnant women anxiety. Twenty-four pregnant women with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or prominent symptoms of generalized anxiety participated in an open treatment trial of the CALM Pregnancy group intervention. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined by structured clinical interview, and self-report measures of anxiety, worry, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were completed at baseline and post-intervention. Qualitative feedback was elicited via questionnaire. Twenty-three participants completed the intervention with high attendance and good compliance with home practice. Completers showed statistically and clinically significant improvements in anxiety, worry, and depression, and significant increases in self-compassion and mindfulness. Of the 17 participants who met GAD criteria at baseline, only one continued to meet criteria post-intervention. Participants regarded their experience in the intervention to be overwhelmingly positive. MBCT in the form of the CALM Pregnancy intervention holds potential to provide effective, non-pharmacological treatment for pregnant women with anxiety. These promising findings warrant further testing of the intervention with a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24449191
Goodman, Janice H; Guarino, Anthony; Chenausky, Kerry; Klein, Lauri; Prager, Joanna; Petersen, Rebecca; Forget, Avery; Freeman, Marlene
Anxiety sensitivity (i.e., fear of arousal-related bodily sensations, including sensations that arise from normal physiological\\u000a processes, due to the personal belief that these sensations will produce harmful consequences) is an important psychological\\u000a construct involved in the etiology and maintenance of different anxiety disorders. The present study evaluated the psychometric\\u000a proprieties and the factor structure of the 18-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3
Maria Rachel Pessanha Gimenes Escocard; Ana Carolina Monnerat Fioravanti-Bastos; J. Landeira-Fernandez
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) in children with a history of repeated hospitalization is distressing for children as well as their parents leading to anxiety and has negative effects on the psychological state of children and their families. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the overall effect of SCD on the behavior of young children age 1½ to 5 years old who had repeated history of hospitalization, compared to a control group of healthy children attended a vaccination clinic. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five children of age 1½ to 5 years who have SCD and repeated history of hospitalization were recruited from pediatric clinic as the study group and matched with same number of healthy children who attended vaccination clinic, as a control group. Both groups were administered the child behavior checklist (CBCL) 1½ to 5 years and diagnostic and statistical (DSM)-oriented scale. Behavior data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Children who have SCD had statistically significant behavioral changes on CBCL compared to the control group: Anxiety/depression (65.2 vs. 55.1; P < 0.001), somatic complaint (66.7 vs. 54.4; P < 0.001) withdrawn (63.4 vs. 53.2; P < 0.001), aggressive behavior (60.4 vs. 56; P=0.04), and internalizing symptoms (64.7 vs. 51.5; P < 0.001), respectively. The DSM scale showed that children with SCD scored significantly higher in pervasive developmental disorder compared to the control group (60.9 vs. 53.9; P < 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Children with SCD who had history of repeated hospitalization are at an increased risk of developing behavioral problems. Psychological counseling, social support, and proper pain management could minimize these behavioral consequences.
Bakri, Mohamed H.; Ismail, Eman A.; Elsedfy, Ghada O; Amr, Mostafa A.; Ibrahim, Ahmed
This study examined the relations between behavioral inhibition, Big Five personality traits, and anxiety disorder symptoms in non-clinical children (n = 147) and clinically anxious children (n = 45) aged 6-13 years. Parents completed the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire-Short Form, the Big Five Questionnaire for Children, and the Screen for…
Vreeke, Leonie J.; Muris, Peter
The improvement of social support promotes the mental health and improves the health status. The study aimed to examine the influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis and provide the scientific basis to further alleviate anxiety and depression and to monitor their whole quality of life. We investigated 324 inpatients with silicosis between April 2011 and September 2011. The HADS (the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale) was the major methodology used to evaluate anxiety and depression, and the MSPSS (the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) to evaluate the social support level. Among patients with silicosis, 99.1% had anxiety symptoms, and 86.1% had depression symptoms. Meanwhile, the social support significantly influenced symptoms of anxiety and depression. The study suggested that patients with silicosis presented more anxiety and depression symptoms, while the social support levels of the patients were relatively low. The influence of social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis implied that improving the level of social support and the effective symptomatic treatment might alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms and improve physical and mental status. PMID:24892079
Han, Bing; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Na; Sun, Jinkai; Li, Chao; Lei, Xibing; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie
The purpose of the study was to examine how anxiety sensitivity (AS) acts as a dispositional factor in the development of panic symptoms, panic attacks, and panic disorder. Between 1986 and 1988, data were collected from 505 undergraduates at an urban university. At Time 1, measures used were the ASI to assess AS, the trait scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) to measure trait anxiety, and self-report questionnaires to measure personal and family history of panic and anxiety symptoms. During the Spring of 1999, 178 of these subjects were re-contacted, and information was gathered on subjects' subsequent development of panic symptoms, panic attacks, panic disorder, and trait anxiety (STAI-T). The ASI was the strongest predictor of the development of panic symptoms and panic attacks. After controlling for trait anxiety, the ASI was not predictive of the development of panic disorder. PMID:12213039
Plehn, Kirsten; Peterson, Rolf A
Abstract Depression commonly overlaps with uremic symptoms, but anxiety is less commonly studied among renal patients. The symptoms of medical illness, along with the psychological and social stresses that often accompany a debilitating chronic disease, are thought to produce deleterious psychological consequences. We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression among Saudi dialysis patients in Makkah. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients in Makkah was conducted in November 2011. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen for anxiety and depression. Participants' demographic data, possible stressors and past psychiatric history were obtained. All participants were Saudi ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis. According to HADS, 57 (21.1%) patients were probable cases of anxiety and 63 (23.3%) were probable cases of depression. Only 32 (11.3%) were diagnosed with depression or anxiety before ESRD onset. Age was a significant predictor of anxiety and depression diagnoses. Major family problems (p?=?0.001) were also a significant predictor of anxiety. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are prevalent among ESRD patients in Makkah, and anxiety can be predicted by family factors. Early detection, management and family support might improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25154858
Turkistani, Ibrahim; Nuqali, Abdulelah; Badawi, Mohammed; Taibah, Omar; Alserihy, Omar; Morad, Muaid; Kalantan, Emad
The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-induced oxidative stress. Studies using knockout or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes have shown a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress. Related factors of oxidative stress that could influence anxious behavior are revised, including impaired function of different mitochondrial proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. It has been suggested that a therapy specifically focus in reducing reactive species production may have a beneficial effect in reducing anxiety. However, the neurobiological pathways underlying the effect of oxidative stress on anxiety symptoms are not fully comprehended. The challenge now is to identify the oxidative stress mechanisms likely to be involved in the induction of anxiety symptoms. Understanding these pathways could help to clarify the neurobiology of the anxiety disorder and provide tools for new discovery in therapies and preventive strategies. PMID:24669212
R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric condition presenting to primary care practitioners. Yet they can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Patients that struggle with anxiety disorders are more likely to seek treatment from primary care providers than mental health specialists. Given the costs in terms of debilitation and associated financial burden, and increased risk of suicide, the identification and successful treatment of anxiety is imperative. By means of clinical acumen and the use of screening tools, the provider can develop expertise in recognition and effective treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25134870
Combs, Heidi; Markman, Jesse
The prevalence and clinical impact of anxiety disorder comorbidity in major depression were studied in 255 depressed adult outpatients consecutively enrolled in our Depression Research Program. Comorbid anxiety disorder diagnoses were present in 50.6% of these patients and included social phobia (27.0%), simple phobia (16.9%), panic disorder (14.5%), generalized anxiety disorder ([GAD] 10.6%), obsessive-compulsive disorder ([OCD] 6.3%), and agoraphobia (5.5%). While both social phobia and generalized anxiety preceded the first episode of major depression in 65% and 63% of cases, respectively, panic disorder (21.6%) and agoraphobia (14.3%) were much less likely to precede the first episode of major depression than to emerge subsequently. Although comorbid groups were not distinguished by depression, anxiety, hostility, or somatic symptom scores at the time of study presentation, patients with comorbid anxiety disorders tended to be younger during the index episode and to have an earlier onset of the major depressive disorder (MDD) than patients with major depression alone. Our results support the distinction between anxiety symptoms secondary to depression and anxiety disorders comorbid with major depression, and provide further evidence for different temporal relationships with major depression among the several comorbid anxiety disorders. PMID:10741886
Fava, M; Rankin, M A; Wright, E C; Alpert, J E; Nierenberg, A A; Pava, J; Rosenbaum, J F
Research indicates that anxiety before surgical intervention in paediatric patients negatively affects on post hospital recovery. Numerous investigations are, therefore, conducted to alleviate anxiety through different psychological techniques at this critical moment that the child is undergoing in surgery. In our case, we have considered one of the resources of the Sant Joan de Déu Hospital: a voluntary team that works in the anteroom of the operating theatre to keep the children company. The aim of our research has been to train these volunteers (who previously did not have any specific training for their task) and to observe the effect on the children's anxiety. The subjects of our study were 140 boys and girls between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Results indicate that training not only produces significative changes on volunteers' behaviour, but also has resulted in the children's presurgical anxiety behaviour. In this way, we recommend that all children be accompanied by a trained volunteer. PMID:12602020
Silvente, C; Moix, J; Sanz, A
This study examined child anxiety sensitivity and family environment as mediators of the relationship between (1) parent psychopathology\\u000a and anxiety sensitivity and (2) child anxiety in a community sample of 157 youths aged 7–18 years. Parents completed measures\\u000a of anxiety sensitivity, psychopathology, and family environment. Youths completed measures of anxiety sensitivity and anxiety.\\u000a One structural equation model was tested with child
Kelly L. Drake; Christopher A. Kearney
In order to assess prevalence of depression and anxiety among epileptic patients and to compare it to a control population, a matched case-control survey was performed in 196 persons above 18 Year old (98 epileptics and 98 controls matched according to sex, age 10 and social environment) in Republic of Benin (West Africa), using Goldberg's Depression and Anxiety scale. Two main investigators helped by 5 sociology students were trained on a questionnaire by a psychiatrist skilled with public health matters. People taking part in the survey are epileptic patients who already used health services. Inclusions took place within 17 communes of four departments (Mono, Zou, Ouémé, Atlantique) located in Southern part of Benin. The questionnaire used an Identity sheet and the Goldberg Depression Scale. Results are shown as mean standard deviations, for quantitative values, and percents for qualitative ones. Comparisons of proportions in qualitative variables are carried out using c2 test or Fisher's exact test. Comparisons of means rates between subject's groups are carried out with a Student t test or variance analysis. The correlations between two quantitative variables were assessed by linear correlation coefficient. Significance threshold chosen for the whole set of statistics analysis is 0.05. The majority of interviewed epileptic patients is young (average 32.6 11.5 Years old). A male predominance exists (sex ratio 1.28). 93% of interviewed persons live within their family, are married or cohabit (controls: 98.2%; cases: 87.9%); 57.4% are married (controls: 70%; cases: 44%). The most represented professional categories are craftsmen and shopkeepers (29.2%) as well as farmers (19.5%). Most of recruited patients live in an urban setting (55.4%) and 63.6% of interviewed persons had been living in the area of survey for over 10 Years. The most represented religion within the sample is Christian religion (67.7%), Animists (23.3%) and Muslims (5.8%). 97% of epileptic patients reported they had one fit during the two Years before the survey; roughly one half (48%) had 2 to 5 fits and 41.5% of them had more than 10 fits; only 14% say they have had an EEG. Presence of an Anti Epileptic Drug (77.5%) reduces anxiety and depression. Considering a severity threshold of 5 for anxiety and 2 for depression (8), proportions of epileptic patients displaying a severe anxiety (79.8%) or a severe depression (89.6%) are significantly higher (p<0.0001) than in control subjects (12.3% and 46.9%). Comparison of average scores confirms the difference (p<0.0001) between cases (5.8 2.0 and 2.3 1.9) and controls (4.7 2.4 and 2.0 2.1) regarding anxiety and depression. Neither the sex, nor age, nor life environment (urban/rural), nor frequency of fits hold significant influence over an-xiety and depression. However, results in this survey include higher average rates of anxiety and depression for women (6.3 1.8) than men (5.5 1.8), though such statement is only nearly significant (p=0.06). Results of the survey confirm the other works on this topic about characteristics of depression for epileptic patients, though results here are higher than usual. Anxiety and depression are common troubles found in epileptic patient, both often occurring at the same time. Two distinct theories about this fact are opposed, first explain the connection of anxiety and depression with epilepsy because of the social and cultural burden upon an epileptic patient in those countries, the second theory is about depression and epilepsy sharing some neuroaminergical dysfunctions; these facts were not considered in this survey. When taking into account the thresholds of seriousness on Goldberg's scale, proportion of controls displaying a probably deeper depression is high (46.9%) compared to usual hospital prevalence rates (4 to 25%) found in Western Africa where survey in general population are scarce. It could either be a bias in the selection or the confirmation that family and relatives of an epileptic patient are enduring a great psychic pain too; finally, this high r
Nubukpo, P; Houinato, D; Preux, P-M; Avodé, G; Clément, J-P
Summary Background Although studies have assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), few have been conducted since the advent of new medical treatments (e.g., nebulized antibiotics, ThAIRpy Vest). Study objectives were to: 1) document symptoms of depression and anxiety for adolescents and young adults with CF and compare with normative values, 2) examine the associations among depressive/anxiety symptoms and gender, age, lung function, and body mass index, and 3) determine the relations between adolescent and caregiver symptoms of depression and anxiety. Methods Patients and caregivers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anytime (e.g. beginning or end) during routine CF clinic appointments. Results Participants included 59 adolescents/young adults with CF (Mage = 15.8 years, 54% female, 98% Caucasian, MFEV1 % predicted = 84.6) and caregivers of 40 adolescents. Although symptom scores were in the normative range for patients with CF (MDepression = 2.27 and MAnxiety = 5.59), 3% and 32% exhibited clinically elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly associated with age (r = 0.28, 0.36). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were also positively correlated (r = 0.48). Females endorsed higher anxiety symptoms than males. While adolescent and caregiver anxiety scores were not related, higher caregiver depressive symptoms were associated with older patient age and worse lung function. Conclusions Data from the current study suggest low levels of depressive symptoms and substantial levels of anxiety symptoms in adolescents and young adults with CF. Consistent with prior literature, depressive symptoms appear higher in older patients and are significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. Caregiver symptomology appears to be more affected by an adolescent’s health status, suggesting a need to screen caregivers when health begins to decline. PMID:21259449
Modi, Avani C.; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Montag-Leifling, Karen; Acton, James D.
1 DISABILITY QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire MUST be completed by the STUDENT. Name: Date: Phone) Other: 7. Check any of the following campus resources you have used: Psychological Services Math Center/Drug Rehabilitation In-patient/Out-patient Psychiatric Care Private Counseling/Psychological Services Optometric
Gallo, Linda C.
The extent to which measures of anxiety and personality characteristics, which had been assessed preoperatively, could predict the length of hospital stay following surgery, above and beyond what could be predicted on the basis of biographical, medical-status and post-operative anxiety variables, was examined in 58 patients with gall-bladder disease. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that gender, previous operations, complications and State Anxiety (A-State) measured on the third day post-operatively, jointly explained a significant proportion of the variance in the length of hospitalization. Neither preoperative anxiety measures nor personality characteristics had any significant incremental value in the prediction. PMID:2046060
Boeke, S; Stronks, D; Verhage, F; Zwaveling, A
Anxiety Anxiety disorders affect about 40 million Americans age 18 years and older (about 18 percent) in a given year. Effective conventional treatments for anxiety disorders are available, and research is uncovering new ...
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With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Trujillo, Anna C.
To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847
Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.
The effect of psychological resilience as a buffer against anxiety was investigated in a sample of 39 boys with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via individual online questionnaire responses to standardised inventories for assessing anxiety and psychological resilience. Ability to handle problems, make good decisions, think before…
Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.
Background: In the Netherlands, no self-report screening questionnaire for anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) was available yet. Therefore, we have translated the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID) into Dutch and studied its reliability and validity in adults with borderline, mild or…
Hermans, H.; Wieland, J.; Jelluma, N.; Van der Pas, F.; Evenhuis, H.
This quantitative study examined the notion of mathematical creativity and its relationship to epistemological beliefs of the nature of mathematics and mathematical anxiety. The participants were assessed in this study using the following instruments: Creative Ability in Mathematics, Mathematics Belief Questionnaire, the General Assessment Criteria, and the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale. The following questions guided this study: What effect does
James M. Fetterly
Rumination and worrying are considered possible mediating variables that may explain the relation between neuroticism and symptoms of depression and anxiety. The current study sought to examine the mediational effects of rumination and worry in the relationships between neuroticism and symptoms of depression and anxiety in a sample of clinically depressed individuals (N=198). All patients completed a battery of questionnaires
Jeffrey Roelofs; Marcus Huibers; Frenk Peeters; Arnoud Arntz; Jim van Os
Background The current study evaluated whether the level of preoperative anxiety assessed by the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) affects cardiovascular response during anesthetic induction. Furthermore, we evaluated the utility of the preoperative anxiety scale as a predictive factor for hemodynamic changes. Methods One hundred twenty patients who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were asked to fill out STAI questionnaires the night before the day of surgery. For 5 minutes after tracheal intubation, changes in vital signs were recorded. The correlation between STAI scores and the percent changes in vital signs during the induction of anesthesia for each subgroup was assessed. In addition, the predictability of the 20% change in vital signs by STAI scores was analyzed using receiver operating characteristics curves. Results The state anxiety scores of patients 45 years of age or older showed a significant correlation with percent changes in mean blood pressure and heart rate, whereas the state anxiety scores in other subgroups showed no significant correlation with changes in vital signs during the induction of anesthesia. Furthermore, the state anxiety scores in patients 45 years of age or older were shown to be useful in predicting a 20% change in vital signs during anesthetic induction. Conclusions The state anxiety scores of patients 45 years of age or above could be a useful tool for predicting changes in vital signs during anesthetic induction. Thus, physician should be mindful of preoperative anxiety. PMID:20508787
Kim, Won-Sung; Byeon, Gyeong-Jo; Song, Bong-Jae
BACKGROUND: Although many studies have investigated the relationship between perfectionism, anxiety, and depression among the adults, little is known about the manifestations of perfectionism among schoolage youths. This study has investigated this relationship in an Iranian sample. METHODS: Using multistage cluster random sampling, 793 Iranian school students in 2007 were studied. Data of demographic characteristics, children's depression inventory, revised children's manifest anxiety scale, and the positive and negative perfectionism scales were obtained using questionnaires. RESULTS: The results indicated that both aspects of perfectionism are associated with depression and anxiety. Negative and positive perfectionism have positive and negative associations, respectively, with depression and anxiety. The interaction of anxiety and depression with perfectionism reveals that depression is in association with lower scores of positive perfectionism, whereas in students with higher scores of negative perfectionism, the anxiety scores are also higher. Moreover, the accompaniment of anxiety with depression is in association with relatively lower levels of negative perfectionism. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that negative perfectionism is a risk factor for both depression and anxiety, while positive perfectionism is a protective factor. However, the interventions which encourage the positive aspects of perfectionism and decrease its negative aspects may be able to diminish psychopathological subsequence. PMID:21448388
Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Saadaty, Alireza; Salehi, Mehrdad; Motamedi, Masoud; Matinpour, Mohammad; Isfahani, Homayoun Naji; Asadollahi, Ghorbanali
Objective: This study was performed to survey the relationship between coaches’ and athletes’ competitive anxiety, and their performance. Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study performed using a demographic questionnaire, an athletic performance checklist, and sport competition anxiety test designed by Martens consisting of 15 questions. The study population consisted of 540 players and 60 coaches from 60 futsal teams (5 main players, 4 reserves, and 1 coach for each team). All of the players and the coaches were surveyed in a census method and no sampling was done. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results: The results showed a positive significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and sport competition anxiety level in the athletes (p = 0.019, r = 0.56). It also showed that there was a negative significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and performance level of the athletes (p = 0.012, r = -0.80). A negative significant relationship was also demonstrated between the athletes’ competitive anxiety level, and their athletic experiences (p < 0.001, r = -0.45) and age (p = 0.001, r = -0.37). Conclusions: Coaches and officials should consider sport competition anxiety among athletes before and during competitions. Formal and planned competitions, training sessions, and preparation practices can be a major factor assisting to decrease athletes' anxiety. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644512
Mottaghi, Mahmoodreza; Atarodi, Alireza; Rohani, Zahra
Previous research suggests that parental controlling feeding practices are associated with children's overeating and undereating behaviours. However, there is limited research addressing the link between children's mental health symptoms (specifically anxiety and depression) and their reports of eating behaviours, despite knowledge that these psychopathologies often co-exist. The current study aimed to identify the relationships between preadolescents' perceptions of their parents' feeding practices with reports of their own anxiety, depression and eating behaviours. Three hundred and fifty-six children (mean age 8.75?years) completed questionnaires measuring their dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as well as their perceptions of their parents' use of pressure to eat and restriction of food. Children also completed measures of general anxiety, social anxiety and depression symptomology. Results indicated that preadolescents' eating behaviours were associated with their perceptions of the controlling feeding practices their parents used with them. Preadolescents' dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating behaviours were positively associated with their reports of general and social anxiety, and depression symptomology. In addition, perceptions of parental pressure to eat were positively related to preadolescents' anxiety and depression levels. Child anxiety (general and social) was found to mediate the relationship between perceptions of parental pressure to eat and preadolescents' eating behaviours (dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating). The results suggest that greater anxiety in preadolescents may explain why children who perceive greater pressure to eat by their parents are more likely to exhibit maladaptive eating behaviours. PMID:24816324
Houldcroft, Laura; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma
Introduction Psychological adjustment following cancer occurrence remains a key issue among the survivors. This study aimed to investigate\\u000a psychological distress in patients with breast cancer following completion of breast cancer treatments and to determine its\\u000a associated factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods This was a prospective study of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. Anxiety and depression were measured using\\u000a the Hospital Anxiety
Mariam Vahdaninia; Sepideh Omidvari; Ali Montazeri
Aims To determine the nature of the association between alcohol consumption and symptoms of anxiety and depression in women. Design Prospective cohort study of women (n = 4,527) who received antenatal care at a major public hospital (Mater Misericordiae Hospital) in South Brisbane between 1981 and 1984 and who have follow-up data on alcohol use, depressive and anxiety symptoms over
Rosa Alati; Debbie A. Lawlor; Jake M. Najman; Gail M. Williams; William Bor; Michael O'Callaghan
, ``women consistently have about twice the rates of each anxiety disorder'' (Leon, Portera, & Weissman of family relationships is fundamental for security, whereas anxiety is a correlate of insecurity
Champagne, Frances A.
Background: Anxiety disorders are common and test stress affects many students. Guided reflection is a new and effective method for reducing stress. Objectives: To assess the effect of guided reflection on test anxiety in second and third-year nursing students of Fatima Nursing and Midwifery College, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Method: This study was designed to assess the effect of guided reflection on test anxiety among nursing students of second and third year of education in Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Data was collected using demographic data questionnaires and the Sarason and Abolghasemi test anxiety scale. Based on the latter questionnaire, of the 147 participants, 100 had test anxiety with scores ranging from 13-63 (mild-severe anxiety), of which 80 students were randomly selected and divided into case and control groups. We used Johns’s 9-stage guided reflection model through Q and A, lecture, and discussion. The case group participated in a 2-day guided reflection workshop for six hours each day. The control group received no intervention. Sarason and Abolghasemi’s test anxiety questionnaire was completed by the students at the beginning of the first session, immediately after and three months after intervention. Results: The test anxiety mean scores were 35.34 ± 9.50 and 35.47 ± 10.66 before the intervention in the control and intervention groups respectively. No significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to socio-demographic characteristics. The Mean ± SD of test anxiety scores increased to 36.48 ± 9.34 three months after the intervention in the control group (P = 0.1). However, in the intervention group, the Mean ± SD test anxiety scores reduced immediately after (16.31 ± 8.61) and three months after (27.72 ± 10.09) the intervention, compared to before the intervention (35.47 ± 10.66) (P < 0.001, paired T-test). Conclusions: Guided reflection is effective in reducing test anxiety in nursing students. This method can be used for reducing test anxiety and increasing learning and academic progress among students.
Sharif, Farkhondeh; Dehbozorgi, Razieh; Mani, Arash; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Tavakoli, Pouran
The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cytokine levels correlate with depression and anxiety in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Twenty patients hospitalized for surgical resection of CRC were included in the study group and twenty healthy volunteers comprised the control group. Depression and anxiety were analyzed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-?, and TGF-? were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. We found that more than half of CRC patients presented clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression, and 65% of them manifested a combination of severe anxiety and depression. CRC patients had increased serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? but lower IL-10 concentrations. Correlation analysis between HADS score and cytokine levels revealed a positive association of anxiety and/or depression with IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? and a negative correlation with IL-10. These results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression in CRC patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these psychological disorders will allow the design of therapeutic interventions that lead to an improved quality of life and overall survival of CRC patients. PMID:25309921
Soares de Lima, Tais Aparecida; Ribeiro Azevedo, Lucas; Feres, Omar; Ribeiro da Rocha, Jose Joaquim
The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cytokine levels correlate with depression and anxiety in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Twenty patients hospitalized for surgical resection of CRC were included in the study group and twenty healthy volunteers comprised the control group. Depression and anxiety were analyzed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-?, and TGF-? were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. We found that more than half of CRC patients presented clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression, and 65% of them manifested a combination of severe anxiety and depression. CRC patients had increased serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? but lower IL-10 concentrations. Correlation analysis between HADS score and cytokine levels revealed a positive association of anxiety and/or depression with IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? and a negative correlation with IL-10. These results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression in CRC patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these psychological disorders will allow the design of therapeutic interventions that lead to an improved quality of life and overall survival of CRC patients. PMID:25309921
Oliveira Miranda, Diego; Soares de Lima, Taís Aparecida; Ribeiro Azevedo, Lucas; Feres, Omar; Ribeiro da Rocha, José Joaquim; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela
This 40-item questionnaire intends to measure parent opinion on the effects of integration on their children and the school system. A recommended letter to parents is included. No field testing has been done. (See also TM 000 940 for a description of the study and 941, 942 for other questionnaires used.) (DLG)
Goolsby, Thomas M., Jr.; And Others
JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE ANSWER SHEET DO NOT WRITE IN THIS SPACE N.C. Date Received Reclass New Starting Date in Class Yes No NA (NA if Temporary Job) Notice # Effective Date If Reclassified IS TO BE USED WITH THE JOB EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE (BA 802) ONLY FOR POSITIONS COVERED BY CIVIL SERVICE
Amin, S. Massoud
Fear-anxiety-avoidance models posit pain-related anxiety and anxiety sensitivity as important contributing variables in the development and maintenance of chronic musculoskeletal pain [Asmundson, G. J. G, Vlaeyen, J. W. S., & Crombez, G. (Eds.). (2004). Understanding and treating fear of pain. New York: Oxford University Press]. Emerging evidence also suggests that pain-related anxiety may be a diathesis for many other emotional disorders [Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2005). Fear of pain is elevated in adults with co-occurring trauma-related stress and social anxiety symptoms. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 34, 248-255; Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2008). Fear of pain. In: M. M. Antony & M. B. Stein (Eds.), Handbook of anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp. 551-561). New York: Oxford University Press] and appears to share several elements in common with other fears (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, illness/injury sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation) as described by Reiss [Reiss, S. (1991). Expectancy model of fear, anxiety, and panic. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 141-153] and Taylor [Taylor, S. (1993). The structure of fundamental fears. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 24, 289-299]. The purpose of the present investigation was to assess self-reported levels of pain-related anxiety [Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-Short Form; PASS-20; McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): preliminary development and validity. Pain Research and Management, 7, 45-50] across several anxiety and depressive disorders and to compare those levels to non-clinical and chronic pain samples. Participants consisted of a clinical sample (n=418; 63% women) with principal diagnoses of a depressive disorder (DD; n=22), panic disorder (PD; n=114), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=136), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=86), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n=46), or specific phobia (n=14). Secondary group comparisons were made with a community sample as well as with published data from a treatment-seeking chronic pain sample [McCracken, L. M., & Dhingra, L. (2002). A short version of the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale (PASS-20): preliminary development and validity. Pain Research and Management, 7, 45-50]. Results suggest that pain-related anxiety is generally comparable across anxiety and depressive disorders; however, pain-related anxiety was typically higher (p<.01) in individuals with anxiety and depressive disorders relative to a community sample, but comparable to or lower than a chronic pain sample. Results imply that pain-related anxiety may indeed be a construct independent of other fundamental fears, warranting subsequent hierarchical investigations and consideration for inclusion in treatments of anxiety disorders. Additional implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19362446
Carleton, R Nicholas; Abrams, Murray P; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Antony, Martin M; McCabe, Randi E
Dental anxiety and subsequent avoidance of dental care and deterioration of oral health pose a significant problem for the dental profession. In an attempt to elucidate preferences of anxious dental patients, we gathered survey data from 121 persons at a small, private liberal arts college in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Half of the respondents experienced dental anxiety,
Lyndsay C. Bare; Lauren Dundes
Science anxiety has been shown to seriously impede student learning. This chapter will describe research done on science anxiety and will explain specific actions that college science teachers can take to build the confidence of their students. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Preface, Endorsement of the Society for College Science Teachers, and Introduction.
Mallow, Jeffry V.
Measures of death anxiety, the Thrustone Interest Inventory, the A-B Scale, and the SAT and ACT aptitude tests, were taken among college students. The implications are discussed in terms of a theoretical five-component biosocial model and its relationship to death anxiety. (Author)
Templer, Donald I.; Salter, Charles A.
Investigated the relationship between death imagery and death anxiety among 179 undergraduate students. Results reveal subjects with low death anxiety scores had more positive death images. Subjects who imagined death to be young had a more positive image of death. Death was seen as male by majority of respondents. (Author/BL)
McDonald, Rita T.; Hilgendorf, William A.
Investigated the utility of situational assessments of trait anxiety in predicting state anxiety reactions. Results indicated that the STAI-A-Trait and the S-R GTA Evaluation measures correlated significantly higher with each other than either did with the S-R GTA Physical Danger measure. Both stresses produced significant increases in state…
Kendall, Philip C.
In order to better understand and counsel Chinese students in the United States, the trait anxiety and test anxiety of 67 Chinese graduate students in education attending two universities in Taiwan were measured. Normative assessments for the total group showed that the sample fell within the normal range of U.S. students as defined in Test…
MacDougall, Mary Ann; Corcoran, Miriam D.
H Hospital Greenspace Lawson Memorial Hospital, Golspie Â Greenspace Case Study Background to hospital greenspace to be carried out in the Highlands. This project is now entering its third phase. Phase of Phase 2. This resulted in the identification of the Lawson Memorial Hospital as the site
Background Parental overprotection has commonly been implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders. Overprotection has been assessed using questionnaire and observational methods interchangeably; however, the extent to which these methods access the same construct has received little attention. Edwards et al. (2008, 2010) developed a promising parent-report measure of overprotection (OP) and reported that, with parents of pre-school children, the measure correlated with observational assessments and predicted changes in child anxiety symptoms. We aimed to validate the use of the OP measure with mothers of children in middle childhood, and examine its association with child and parental anxiety. Methods Mothers of 90 children (60 clinically anxious, 30 non-anxious) aged 7–12 years completed the measure and engaged in a series of mildly stressful tasks with their child. Results The internal reliability of the measure was good and scores correlated significantly with observations of maternal overprotection in a challenging puzzle task. Contrary to expectations, OP was not significantly associated with child anxiety status or symptoms, but was significantly associated with maternal anxiety symptoms. Limitations Participants were predominantly from affluent social groups and of non-minority status. Overprotection is a broad construct, the use of specific sub-dimensions of behavioural constructs may be preferable. Conclusions The findings support the use of the OP measure to assess parental overprotection among 7–12 year-old children; however, they suggest that parental responses may be more closely related to the degree of parental rather than child anxiety. PMID:23916305
Clarke, Kiri; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy
Halitosis is described as offensive breath caused by various factors such as periodontal diseases, bacterial coating of tongue, systemic disorders and different types of foods. Pseudohalitosis is a situation that patients complain of oral malodor even though they do not have offensive odour. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationships between social anxiety estimations and both pseudohalitosis and genuine halitosis cases. Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and questionnaire regarding halitosis were applied to 100 participants. Halitosis was determined using organoleptic method, gas chromatography and portable sulphur monitor. anova test and 2-tailed Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient were used to determine the differences and relations between groups. With reference to LSAS, 62% of participants had anxiety. Among these patients, 98% had genuine halitosis (P < 0·05). The mean measurements of VSC values were 248·65 ppm in halimeter, 298·02 ppm of H2 S, 95·33 ppm of CH3 SH and 47·00 ppm of (CH3 )2 S in gas chromatography. Halitosis was present in 90% of participants, and it was absent in 10% by organoleptic assessment. There was a significant correlation between organoleptic and halimeter measurements. Moreover, statistically significant relationship was detected between anxiety and halitosis. Genuine halitosis patients exhibit social anxiety, so it can be said that there is a causal relationship between halitosis and anxiety. Comparison of the results of objective measurements (sulphur monitor, gas chromatography, organoleptic method) was statistically significant; therefore, it can be said that these methods can be used in diagnosis of halitosis with high accuracy. PMID:25040179
Kursun, S; Acar, B; Atakan, C; Oztas, B; Paksoy, C S
Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization. PMID:24167436
Barakovic, Devla; Avdibegovic, Esmina; Sinanovic, Osman
Yoga and meditation can alleviate stress, anxiety, mood disturbance, and musculoskeletal problems, and can enhance cognitive and physical performance. Professional musicians experience high levels of stress, performance anxiety, and debilitating performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). The goal of this controlled study was to evaluate the benefits of yoga and meditation for musicians. Young adult professional musicians who volunteered to participate in a 2-month program of yoga and meditation were randomized to a yoga lifestyle intervention group (n = 15) or to a group practicing yoga and meditation only (n = 15). Additional musicians were recruited to a no-practice control group (n = 15). Both yoga groups attended three Kripalu Yoga or meditation classes each week. The yoga lifestyle group also experienced weekly group practice and discussion sessions as part of their more immersive treatment. All participants completed baseline and end-program self-report questionnaires that evaluated music performance anxiety, mood, PRMDs, perceived stress, and sleep quality; many participants later completed a 1-year followup assessment using the same questionnaires. Both yoga groups showed a trend towards less music performance anxiety and significantly less general anxiety/tension, depression, and anger at end-program relative to controls, but showed no changes in PRMDs, stress, or sleep. Similar results in the two yoga groups, despite psychosocial differences in their interventions, suggest that the yoga and meditation techniques themselves may have mediated the improvements. Our results suggest that yoga and meditation techniques can reduce performance anxiety and mood disturbance in young professional musicians. PMID:19657730
Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Shorter, Stephanie M; Cope, Stephen; Wyshak, Grace; Sklar, Elyse
Emotional dysregulation is a process which consists in mitigating, intensifying, or maintaining a given emotion and is the trigger for some psychological disorders. Research has shown that an anxiety control plays an important role in emotional expression and regulation and, in addition, for anorexia nervosa (AN) and, more in general, in drive for thinness. Scientific literature suggests that in AN there is a core of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control as independent or third variables in a mediational regression model related to drive for thinness. One hundred fifty-four clinical individuals with anorexia participated in the study and all completed a set of self-report questionnaires: eating disorders inventory version 3 (EDI-3), DERS, and the anxiety control questionnaire. The data confirmed a mediational model in which the relation between emotional dysregulation and drive for thinness is mediated by anxiety control. The current study partially supports a clinical model in which emotional dysregulation is a distal factor in eating disorders while the mediator variable anxiety control is a proximal factor in the psychopathological process underlying it. PMID:24795659
Fiore, Francesca; Ruggiero, Giovanni M.; Sassaroli, Sandra
The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Hamilton's Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23439854
Sharma, Mahendra P.; Mao, Angelina; Sudhir, Paulomi M.
The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic. Parent and child ratings of symptom severity were assessed using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). Diagnostician ratings were obtained from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children and Parents (ADIS: C/P). Discriminant and convergent validity were assessed using confirmatory factor analytic techniques to test a multitrait-multimethod model. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the current classification of these child anxiety disorders. The disorders demonstrated statistical independence from each other (discriminant validity of traits), the model fit better when the anxiety syndromes were specified than when no specific syndromes were specified (convergent validity), and the methods of assessment yielded distinguishable, unique types of information about child anxiety (discriminant validity of methods). Using a multi-informant approach, these findings support the distinctions between childhood anxiety disorders as delineated in the current classification system, suggesting that disagreement between informants in psychometric studies of child anxiety measures is not due to poor construct validity of these anxiety syndromes. PMID:20443053
Langer, David A; Wood, Jeffrey J; Bergman, R Lindsey; Piacentini, John C
Objective To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire. Method Diagnostic interviews were administered via telephone to 102 parents of children identified with selective mutism (SM) and 43 parents of children without SM from varying U.S. geographic regions. Children were between the ages of 3 and 11 inclusive and comprised 58% girls and 42% boys. SM diagnoses were determined using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children - Parent Version (ADIS-C/P); SM severity was assessed using the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ); and behavioral and affective symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to investigate the dimensionality of the SMQ and a modified parallel analysis procedure was used to confirm EFA results. Internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental validity were also examined. Results The EFA yielded a 13-item solution consisting of three factors: a) Social Situations Outside of School, b) School Situations, and c) Home and Family Situations. Internal consistency of SMQ factors and total scale ranged from moderate to high. Convergent and incremental validity were also well supported. Conclusions Measure structure findings are consistent with the 3-factor solution found in a previous psychometric evaluation of the SMQ. Results also suggest that the SMQ provides useful and unique information in the prediction of SM phenomenon beyond other child anxiety measures. PMID:18698268
Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.; Roesch, Scott C.
Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men and women, aged 55-60 years, from a population-based cohort, who filled out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We performed
Susanne R. de Rooij; Aart H. Schene; David I. Phillips; Tessa J. Roseboom
Individuals with social phobia often hold erroneous beliefs about the extent to which others experience symptoms of social anxiety and the ways in which others evaluate people who appear to be anxious. The purpose of this study was to: (a) provide normative data on the frequency with which individuals in a nonclinical sample experience particular symptoms of social anxiety (e.g., sweating, shaking, etc.); (b) to examine how the perception of anxiety in others influences participants' immediate impressions of various personal characteristics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness, etc); and, (c) investigate the relationship between social anxiety and perceptions regarding others who appear to be anxious. Eighty-one undergraduate students completed self-report measures of social anxiety and social desirability, and then rated the degree to which their impressions of various personal characteristics were influenced when another individual was perceived to be anxious. Results suggested that the vast majority of individuals experience symptoms of anxiety in social situations from time to time. In addition, individuals who themselves reported elevated social anxiety were more likely than individuals less socially anxious to judge others who appear anxious to have less strength of character and to be less attractive and more compassionate compared to others who do not appear anxious. Clinical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:11442139
Purdon, C; Antony, M; Monteiro, S; Swinson, R P
Presently available clinical genetic studies point to a considerable heritability of anxiety disorders (30-67%), with multiple vulnerability genes such as 5-HT1A, 5-HTT, MAO-A, COMT, CCK-B, ADORA2A, CRHR1, FKBP5, ACE, RGS2/7 and NPSR1 suggested by molecular genetic association studies. These genes have been shown to partially interact with each other as well as with environmental factors to shape the overall disease risk in a complex genetic model. Additionally, recent studies have pointed out the crucial role of epigenetic signatures such as methylation patterns in modifying environmental influences as well as in driving the functional impact of anxiety disorder risk genes. On a systems level, vulnerability genes of anxiety disorders seem to confer some of the disease risk via intermediate phenotypes like behavioral inhibition, anxiety sensitivity or several neurobiological traits such as increased startle reactivity or dysfunctional corticolimbic activity during emotional processing. Finally, first pharmaco- and psychotherapy-genetic studies provide evidence for certain risk genes to confer interindividual variability in response to a pharmacological or psychotherapeutic intervention in anxiety disorders. Genetic research in anxiety disorders will be discussed regarding its potential to foster innovative and individually tailored therapeutic approaches for patients with anxiety disorders. PMID:25225016
Domschke, Katharina; Maron, Eduard
This study provides a first test of an experimental method, the "space odyssey" paradigm, that was designed to manipulate interpretation bias in children. Seventy non-clinical children aged 8-12 years first completed a standardized anxiety questionnaire. Following this, they completed the space odyssey paradigm to induce either a negative or a…
Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Mayer, Birgit; Hameetman, Marjolein
The central goal of the present study was to examine how a child's emotion regulation ability may moderate the relations between teaching styles and anxiety in childhood. Participants were 33 children (21 males, 12 females; mean age 7.5 years, standard deviation = 0.42), their mothers and teachers. Children completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire – Revised to assess their emotion
James M. LaBilloisa
This study combined a standardized measure of stress with a questionnaire about job stressors, individual job and career variables, and personal variables. Seventy-nine police officers from three different departments in the United States participated in the study. In general, the officers scored low on the Spielberger et al. (1983) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The stressors in police work identified by them
Jerome E. Storch; Robert Panzarella
Comparative research of environmental attitudes has concentrated on adults of Western countries, whereas knowledge of environmental consciousness of East European people is modest. This article compares anxiety that teenagers in Helsinki, Moscow and Tallinn express about environmental hazards and their health effects. The data (Helsinki, N=1396; Moscow, N=618; Tallinn, N=1268) were collected in schools by questionnaires from pupils between 13
Päivi Hokka; Hannele Palosuo; Irina Zhuravleva; Kersti Pärna; Helena Mussalo-Rauhamaa; Nina Lakomova
Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…
Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika
This study investigates the role of attachment anxiety and the experience of intense life adversity in the development of compliance. It also seeks to specify which types of negative life events may be especially relevant in encouraging compliant behaviour, and whether gender may moderate this effect. Participants (N=125) completed the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire and the Relationship
Kim E. Drake; David Sheffield; Deborah Shingler
The 20 item Child Anxiety Scale (CAS) was administered to 343 elementary school children. Unweighted Least Squares extraction with oblique rotation produced 3 correlated primary factors that were interpreted as matching factors C, L and O of the Sixteen Personality Factors questionnaire for adults. Of particular interest was the factor L pattern…
Gillis, John S.; Nadeau, Natalie; Claybourne, Marvin
This study examined the effects of differentiated curriculum and instruction on the teaching of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) to university freshmen in their English reading classes in Taiwan. This quasi-experimental study investigated whether using differentiated curriculum and instruction impacted motivation, anxiety, and interest toward learning English. A pre- and post- questionnaire comparison group design was used to determine
Sports psychology plays a vital role in contributing to the performance of an athlete. This research examined the levels of goal orientation, attention styles and anxiety towards the performance of the Junior Golfers in Malaysia. Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaires (TEOSQ) was administered to measure goal orientation aspects, Task and Ego. Modified Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Styles
Rohaty Majzub; Tajul Ariffin Muhammad
A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…
Blackie, Norman K.
OBJECTIVES. An association of smoking with depression and anxiety has been documented in adult smokers. This study examines this association in a representative group of teenage smokers. METHODS. A two-stage cluster sample of secondary school students in Victoria, Australia, were surveyed by using a computerized questionnaire, which included a 7-day retrospective diary for tobacco use and a structured psychiatric interview. RESULTS. Subjects reporting high levels of depression and anxiety were twice as likely to be smokers after the potential confounders of year level, sex, alcohol use, and parental smoking were controlled for. Regular smokers were almost twice as likely as occasional smokers to report high levels of depression and anxiety. In a stratified analysis, an association between regular smoking and psychiatric morbidity was found in girls of all ages but for boys only in the youngest group. CONCLUSIONS. The cross-sectional association is consistent with the use of smoking by teenage girls as self-medication for depression and anxiety. Therefore, future health promotional campaigns might consider strategies that attend to perceived psychological benefits of smoking. PMID:8633740
Patton, G C; Hibbert, M; Rosier, M J; Carlin, J B; Caust, J; Bowes, G
Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.
Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry
Psychometric validation of the German translation of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire in patients with reflux disease
Background Symptoms of heartburn has an impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL). When a questionnaire is translated into a new language, a linguistic validation is necessary but not sufficient unless the psychometric characteristics have been verified. The aim is to document the psychometric characteristics of the German translation of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire. Methods 142 patients with symptoms of heartburn (Age: M = 47.5, ± 14.6; Males = 44.4%) completed the German translation of GSRS, the QOLRAD, the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. Results The internal consistency reliability of GSRS ranged from 0.53–0.91 and of QOLRAD from 0.90–0.94, respectively. The test-retest reliability of GSRS ranged from 0.49–0.73 and of QOLRAD from 0.70–0.84. The relevant domains of the GSRS and QOLRAD domain scores significantly correlated. GSRS domains of Abdominal Pain and Constipation correlated (negatively) with most of the domains of the SF-36. The relevant QOLRAD domains significantly correlated with all SF-36 domains. Conclusions The psychometric characteristics of the German translation of GSRS and QOLRAD were found to be good, with satisfactory reliability and validity. The reliability of the GSRS Abdominal Pain domain was moderate. PMID:14613560
Kulich, Károly R; Malfertheiner, Peter; Madisch, Ahmed; Labenz, Joachim; Bayerdörffer, Ekkehard; Miehlke, Stephan; Carlsson, Jonas; Wiklund, Ingela K
Background Symptoms of dyspepsia significantly disrupt patients' lives and reliable methods of assessing symptom status are important for patient management. The aim of the current study was to document the psychometric characteristics of the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and the Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia questionnaire (QOLRAD) in Afrikaans, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish and Spanish patients with dyspepsia. Methods 853 patients with symptoms of dyspepsia completed the GSRS, the QOLRAD, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Results The internal consistency reliability of the GSRS was 0.43–0.87 and of the QOLRAD 0.79–0.95. Test-retest reliability of the GSRS was 0.36–0.75 and of the QOLRAD 0.41–0.82. GSRS Abdominal pain domain correlated significantly with all QOLRAD domains in most language versions, and with SF-36 Bodily pain in all versions. QOLRAD domains correlated significantly with the majority of SF-36 domains in most versions. Both questionnaires were able to differentiate between patients whose health status differed according to symptom frequency and severity. Conclusion The psychometric characteristics of the different language versions of the GSRS and QOLRAD were found to be good, with acceptable reliability and validity. The GSRS and QOLRAD were found to be useful for evaluating dyspeptic symptoms and their impact on patients' daily lives in multinational clinical trials. PMID:18237386
Kulich, Károly R; Madisch, Ahmed; Pacini, Franco; Piqué, Jose M; Regula, Jaroslaw; Van Rensburg, Christo J; Újszászy, László; Carlsson, Jonas; Halling, Katarina; Wiklund, Ingela K
The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…
Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…
Evidence is reviewed that indicates that social anxiety is a significant motivation for drinking among college students. Although the link between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been studied from a variety of perspectives, there has been little integration of data. Drawing from the alcohol and anxiety literature, the relationship between social anxiety and heavy drinking in college students is
Randy S Burke; Robert S Stephens
Examined the relationship between anxiety and self-actualization in a sample of college students. Items (N=33) from the Personal Orientation Inventory were found to measure anxiety and scored negatively for self-actualization. Removal of anxiety items and rescoring yielded self-actualization measures related postively to anxiety test scores.…
Dodez, Orin; And Others
Physiological and subjective measures of counselor anxiety were compared to determine if counselors experienced greater anxiety during a counseling interview than during a conversation. Anxiety was assessed by self-report, skin conductance, and heart-rate measures. Conclusions were than counselors experience comparable anxiety during counseling…
Bowman, James T.; Roberts, Gayle T.
Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety,…
Morissette, Sandra Baker; Tull, Matthew T.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Zimering, Rose T.
The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service…
Purpose – The purpose of this research is to explore how tertiary education has met the needs of hospitality management in three-, four- and five-star hotels in Dublin, Ireland and the factors which the hospitality industry highlight as being important when recruiting managers Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was chosen as the most appropriate means of obtaining information from managers. Findings
Pauline Connolly; Geraldine McGing
The current shift in the DSM towards the inclusion of a dimensional component allows clinicians and researchers to demonstrate not only the presence or absence of psychopathology in an individual, but also the degree to which the disorder and its symptoms are manifested. This study evaluated the psychometric properties and utility of a set of brief dimensional scales that assess DSM-based core features of anxiety disorders, for children and their parents. The dimensional scales and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-71), a questionnaire to assess symptoms of all anxiety disorders, were administered to a community sample of children (n?=?382), aged 8-13 years, and their mothers (n?=?285) and fathers (n?=?255). The dimensional scales assess six anxiety disorders: specific phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Children rated their own anxiety and parents their child's anxiety. The dimensional scales demonstrated high internal consistency (??>?0.78, except for father reported child panic disorder, for reason of lack of variation), and moderate to high levels of convergent validity (rs ?=?0.29-0.73). Children who exceeded the SCARED cutoffs scored higher on the dimensional scales than those who did not, providing preliminary support for the clinical sensitivity of the scales. Given their strong psychometric properties and utility for both child and parent report, addition of the dimensional scales to the DSM-5 might be an effective way to incorporate dimensional measurement into the categorical DSM-5 assessment of anxiety disorders in children. Copyright © 2014 American Psychiatric Association. All rights reserved. PMID:24943058
Möller, Eline L; Majdandži?, Mirjana; Craske, Michelle G; Bögels, Susan M
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
The data needs questionnaire is an element in the project design study for the Michigan Resource Inventory Act and is aimed at gathering information on what inventory information is required by land use planners throughout the state. Analysis of questionnaire responses is discussed. Some information on current use categories was tabulated. The respondents selected a broad range of categories at all levels of detail. Those most frequently indicated were urban categories.
The 340B Drug Pricing Program has the potential to reduce outpatient pharmaceutical costs for qualifying hospitals—hut many rural hospital administrators are unaware of their organization’s eligibility. PMID:18637547
Radford, Andrea; Slifkin, Rebecca; Schur, Claudia; Cheung, Karen; Baernholdt, Marianne
Background Post-conflict reconciliation is supposed to have a positive impact on survivors of war and conflict. However, knowledge is limited as validated questionnaires to assess individual readiness to reconcile in the context of human rights violations are still missing. Objectives This study aimed to develop and pilot-test a questionnaire to assess individual readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations. Methods The questionnaire was developed and pilot-tested in a sample of 60 adult Kurdish refugees from Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire, trauma exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, perceived emotional closeness to the Kurdish people as well as the participants’ ability to differentiate between perpetrators and the people in general were assessed in structured interviews, and their associations with readiness to reconcile were analyzed. Results Factor and item analysis resulted in an 18-item questionnaire with three subscales (openness to interactions; absence of feelings of revenge; openness to conflict resolution). Cronbach's ? for the subscales ranged from 0.74 to 0.90, explaining 61% of the total variance. The ability to differentiate between perpetrators and people in general and perceived emotional closeness were the best predictors for readiness to reconcile. The level of trauma exposure was not linked to readiness to reconcile. Although readiness to reconcile was negatively related to PTSD, depression and anxiety, none of these associations reached statistical significance. Conclusions The questionnaire appears to be a reliable measure with good psychometric properties. Further validations in different samples are needed. PMID:22893837
Stammel, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Bottche, Maria; Knaevelsrud, Christine
ANXIETY AND EXTRENE RESPONSE STYLES A Thesis by TERESA ANN RHONE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAN University in partial f ulfillment of the requirement for the degree oT NASTER OF SCIENCE I'1ay 1971 Na jor Sub ject...: Educational Psychology ANXIETY AND EXTREPJE RESPONSE STYLES A Thesis by TERESA ANN RHONE Approved as to style and content by: g, Chairman of Com ttee I'"Iember CM&5 Head of partment I'I Play 'l 971 A lSTRAiCT Anxiety and Extreme Response Styles...
Rhone, Teresa Ann
Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders. PMID:24930576
Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane
Regional CBF (rCBF) was evaluated by the /sup 133/Xe inhalation method in 60 neurologically normal patients (30 men and 30 women) and hemispheric and regional values were correlated with anxiety measurements collected by a self-rating questionnaire before and after the examination. Statistically significant negative correlations between rCBF and anxiety measures were found. rCBF reduction for high anxiety levels is in line with results previously reported by others and could be related to lower performance levels for moderately high anxiety scores as those reported in the present population. This could perhaps be explained by rearrangement of flow from cortical zones to deeper areas of the brain, classically known to be implicated in the control of emotions. However, these results should be interpreted cautiously, since they were obtained in patients and not in normal subjects.
Rodriguez, G.; Cogorno, P.; Gris, A.; Marenco, S.; Mesiti, C.; Nobili, F.; Rosadini, G.
The current study explores the potential buffering effect of church-based social support on the effect of racism on anxiety symptomology in a Black sample. Fifty participants completed a questionnaire packet containing measures of anxious arousal and stress (general anxiety) symptoms, church-based social support, and experience of racist events. Results indicated that church-based social support moderated the relationship between racist experiences and general anxiety symptoms such that at low levels of church-based social support the experiences of racism and stress (general anxiety) symptoms were significantly positively associated. The clinical implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22686149
Graham, Jessica R; Roemer, Lizabeth
A translated, shortened version of the Gray–Wilson Personality Questionnaire was administered, along with an abbreviated adult Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, to 251 Russian schoolchildren aged 14–16 years. Girls were significantly higher than boys on passive avoidance, flight, and N, suggesting higher levels of anxiety\\/emotionality. In accord with British and Japanese results, principal component analysis of individual items largely failed to identify
Helena R Slobodskaya; Margarita V Safronova; Gennadij G Knyazev; Glenn D Wilson
We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety
Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani
Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population. PMID:22364426
Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A
Background Relaxation training is a common treatment for anxiety problems. Lacking is a recent quantitative meta-analysis that enhances understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety reduction outcomes after relaxation treatment. Methods All studies (1997–2007), both RCT, observational and without control group, evaluating the efficacy of relaxation training (Jacobson's progressive relaxation, autogenic training, applied relaxation and meditation) for anxiety problems and disorders were identified by comprehensive electronic searches with Pubmed, Psychinfo and Cochrane Registers, by checking references of relevant studies and of other reviews. Our primary outcome was anxiety measured with psychometric questionnaires. Meta-analysis was undertaken synthesizing the data from all trials, distinguishing within and between effect sizes. Results 27 studies qualified for the inclusion in the meta-analysis. As hypothesized, relaxation training showed a medium-large effect size in the treatment of anxiety. Cohen's d was .57 (95% CI: .52 to .68) in the within analysis and .51 (95% CI: .46 to .634) in the between group analysis. Efficacy was higher for meditation, among volunteers and for longer treatments. Implications and limitations are discussed. Conclusion The results show consistent and significant efficacy of relaxation training in reducing anxiety. This meta-analysis extends the existing literature through facilitation of a better understanding of the variability and clinical significance of anxiety improvement subsequent to relaxation training. PMID:18518981
Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico
Examined three aspects of childhood anxiety and peer liking: (1) whether or not children can detect anxiety in age-mates, (2) the degree to which peer-reported anxiety, self-reported anxiety, and presence of anxiety disorders are associated with peer liking, and (3) whether or not self-reported anxiety and presence of anxiety disorders are…
Verduin, Timothy L.; Kendall, Philip C.
The stress of dental treatment often elicits negative emotions in children, expressed as dental fear or anxiety. Highly anxious children obstruct treatment and avoid therapy, further amplifying oral health problems. The aim of this study was to examine the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system responses to dental treatment and their possible interactions and associations with psychometric indices of anxiety, caries, previous dental experience, anesthesia, age and gender in school children. Upon informed consent, saliva was obtained from 97 children (59% males, mean age?±??SD: 89.73?±?15 months) in the Clinic of pediatric dentistry before treatment, immediately post-treatment and at the recall visit to determine cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels. Dental and general anxiety was assessed through specific questionnaires completed by the children. Compared to pre-treatment, cortisol levels were increased following treatment, while sAA levels were higher at the recall. Pre- and post-treatment cortisol and sAA responses were positively correlated. Dental and general anxiety questionnaire scores were also significantly correlated with each other. The integrated autonomic and neuroendocrine responses prior to treatment were correlated with state anxiety and those following treatment with dental anxiety. However, univariable and multivariable linear regression analysis associated post-treatment cortisol, but not sAA, levels with dental anxiety. No associations of cortisol or sAA responses with caries, age, gender, previous dental experience or anesthesia were detected. These data provide some evidence that both sAA and cortisol levels are altered in children in anticipation or during dental treatment, but only cortisol levels are associated to dental anxiety. PMID:24766350
Yfanti, Konstantina; Kitraki, Efthymia; Emmanouil, Dimitris; Pandis, Nikolaos; Papagiannoulis, Lisa
The relationship between anxiety and alcohol use is a topic of great theoretical and practical interest for both scientists interested in the nature and causes of psychopathology and practitioners working with anxious and\\/or alcohol abusing clients. Although it has been clearly established that anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders are highly ‘‘comorbid’’ or co-occurring conditions (e.g., see Kushner, Abrams &
Brigitte C. Sabourin; Sherry H. Stewart
\\u000a What role does parenting play in the development, maintenance, and amelioration of child anxiety? In this chapter, we address\\u000a this question by reviewing the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and direction of the relationship between parenting\\u000a and child anxiety. Numerous theoretical models outline the role that various parenting practices may play in the development,\\u000a maintenance, and amelioration of
Bryce D. McLeod; Jeffrey J. Wood; Shelley B. Avny
DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND NEGATIVE COGNITIONS A Thesis by DOUGLAS EDWARD MOULD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject...: Psychology DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, AND NEGATIVE COGNITIONS A Thesis by DOUGLAS EDWARD MOULD A roved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) IE~Q ~~ C. (Member) ( Member) December 1975 S@OS ABSTRACT Depression...
Mould, Douglas Edward
Hospitals, particularly those that are teaching institutions, must function at a high level of efficiency and effectiveness if they are to render excellent patient care, maintain accreditation, and provide a sound environment for learning and research. An urban 500-bed teaching hospital found that conducting its own internal monthly inspections produced several benefits in the areas of patient care, infection control, maintenance, safety, and administration. This hospital's in-house inspections also reduced anxiety in preparing for visits from various licensing agencies and review boards. Generally, this hospital has found that an in-house inspection program is a valid means of quality assurance in all areas of hospital work. PMID:4046058
Objective Previous findings suggest that phobic anxiety may pose increased risk of cardiac mortality in medically healthy cohorts. The present study evaluated whether phobic anxiety is associated with increased risk of cardiac mortality in individuals with established coronary heart disease (CHD) and examined the role of reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in mediating this risk. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study in 947 CHD patients recruited during hospitalization for coronary angiography. At baseline, supine recordings of heart rate for HRV were collected, and participants completed the Crown-Crisp phobic anxiety scale. Fatal cardiac events were identified over an average period of 3 years. Results Female CHD patients reported significantly elevated levels of phobic anxiety when compared with male patients (p <.001) and survival analysis showed an interaction between gender and phobic anxiety in the prediction of cardiac mortality (p =.058) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) (p=.03). In women, phobic anxiety was associated with a 1.6-fold increased risk of cardiac mortality (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.15–2.11; p=.004) and a 2.0-fold increased risk of SCD (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.16–3.52; p=.01) and was unassociated with increased mortality risk in men (p=.56). Phobic anxiety was weakly associated with reduced high frequency HRV in female patients (r=?.14, p=.02), but reduced HRV did not alter the association between phobic anxiety on mortality. Conclusions Phobic anxiety levels are high in women with CHD and may be a risk factor for cardiac-related mortality in women diagnosed with CHD. Reduced HRV measured during rest does not appear to mediate phobic anxiety-related risk. PMID:20639390
Watkins, Lana L.; Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Davidson, Jonathan R.T.; McCants, Charles B.; O'Connor, Christopher; Sketch, Michael H.
Anxious parents can present a challenge to pediatricians. This study examines the relationship of the anxiety of parents seeking pediatric care for minor conditions to parental perceptions of the child's present condition, worries about the child not related to the present condition, and other personal worries. Assessments of 150 parents were made regarding parental anxiety, perceptions, and worries before and after a pediatric visit. A high-anxiety group (HAG) and low-anxiety group (LAG) were derived from the 25% most and 25% least-anxious parents. A 2 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that both before and after the pediatric visit, parents in the HAG reported significantly poorer understanding of the child's condition and reported more worry about the reason for the visit, the child's behavior, finances, school or day care, relationships, employment, and future and past events than parents in the LAG (p < .003). The results suggest that factors unrelated to the child influence the anxiety of highly anxious parents of a child with a minor ailment. Actions that focus solely on the child and the child's condition could have a limited impact on anxiety. When faced with an anxious parent of a child with a minor condition, it appears sensible not only to be aware of perceptions and worries related to the child, but also other personal life concerns for that parent, the parent's general tendency to worry or become anxious, and how that parent is processing information. PMID:8195432
Richtsmeier, A J; Hatcher, J W
The link between anxiety and presence in a virtual environment (VE) is still a subject of an unresolved debate, with little empirical research to support theoretical claims. Thus, the current study analyzed presence, self-reported anxiety, and a physiological parameter (heart rate [HR]) in a sample of 30 high anxious and 35 low anxious participants. Both groups delivered a 5 minute speech in a virtual lecture hall. Results indicate no mediating influences of presence on group differences in self-reported state anxiety during the speech, but point toward negative correlations between state anxiety and the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) scales "sense of being there" and "realism." Furthermore, HR was found to be unrelated to self-reported presence. Only the IPQ scale "spatial presence" showed a marginally significant influence on group differences in state anxiety. The present results support the assumption that presence and anxiety are logically distinct, meaning that presence does not directly influence the intensity of an emotion felt in a VE. Rather, it constitutes a precondition for an emotion to be at all elicited by a VE. Also, HR has proven to be no adequate substitute measure for presence, since it only assesses anxiety not presence. It may, however, mediate the interplay between trait anxiety and state anxiety. Possible implications of the current findings are discussed alongside the problem of using presence questionnaires that seem to be prone to subjective bias (i.e., participants confusing presence and emotion). PMID:24605993
Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Hetterle, Thomas; Beutl, Leon; Hlavacs, Helmut; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse
To examine the factor structure of temperament in 5 – 10-year-olds with Williams syndrome (WS), an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the responses of parents of 192 children on the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ). Four factors were identified. Two corresponded to factors reported for typically developing children: Effortful Control and Extraversion/Surgency and two corresponded to the temperament constructs of withdrawal/inhibition and irritability/frustration and activity, observed in typically-developing infants. Parents of 109 of the 192 participants also completed the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, Parent version. Children with an anxiety disorder other than specific phobia differed significantly from children without an anxiety disorder on all factors except Extraversion/Surgency. Children with ADHD differed significantly from children without ADHD on Effortful Control and Extraversion/Surgency. PMID:22371147
Leyfer, Ovsanna; John, Angela E.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet; Mervis, Carolyn B.
Our objective was to investigate the course of depression and anxiety symptoms in patients treated with continuous flow (CF) left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Depression and anxiety are associated with poor outcomes in patients with heart failure, yet few studies have examined such symptoms in patients with CF-LVADs. Depression and anxiety were measured as part of routine clinical care in patients who received a CF-LVAD at our institution from October 2009 to April 2012. Sixty-six patients completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and 48 of 66 patients also completed the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-7. Nineteen of 66 patients completed measures before implantation. Patients who completed measures before and after implantation demonstrated significant improvements in depression and anxiety scores. All patients showed significant improvements in depression and anxiety scores from implantation to the first time point after implantation. Pairwise mean comparisons between time intervals after implantation were not significant. In conclusion, depression and anxiety scores improve after CF-LVAD implantation and remain stable up to 1 year. The improvement does not depend on baseline psychotropic medication use and may be related to improved physical health. PMID:24931289
Reynard, Alison K; Butler, Robert S; McKee, Michael G; Starling, Randall C; Gorodeski, Eiran Z
This study compares and relates affective bodily perception (ABP), anxiety, depression, and the utilisation of some defense mechanisms in 25 neurotic women (16 depressives, 9 hysterical) and 25 normal women. ABP is evaluated according to satisfaction and anxiety (Body cathexis scale), distorsions (Body distortion questionnaire) and body conscience (Body prominence). Anxiety is measured with Cattell questionnaire, depression through Zung and Hamilton scales, and defense mechanisms by the Firo Form Cope of Schutz. Neurotics have a ABP more negative and are more depressed and anxious than normals; they use more regression while controls tend to use introjection. In comparison with depressives, hysterical women have higher scores in body distortion, mostly in the feeling of boundary loss; they express more masked anxiety and react more often through projection. Among neurotics, those who have a very disturbed ABP are more anxious, more depressed, and more prone to denial, projection, and regression in comparison with the others. In both samples, anxiety and depression have a negative correlation with body satisfaction and a positive one with body distortions and somatic anxiety. In the control group, body satisfaction is inversely related with feeling of dirt. Somatic anxiety is also inversely related to unusual feelings of body and skin obstruction. The intensity of body consciousness is related to using isolation and distortions are negatively related to using denial. In neurotics, denial is in opposition with the intensity of body awareness and is linked to somatic anxiety. The intensity of body awareness is also correlated to various forms of anxiety. Distortions are positively related to regression. The comparison of both samples shows a degradation of ABP in neurotics. The study of correlations clarifies several relations between deficient ABP anxiety, depression and the use of some defense mechanisms. PMID:1020680
The objective of this study was to illustrate the analysis of longitudinal validity, responsiveness, and importance of change, using the SCOPA-Psychosocial Questionnaire (SCOPA-PS) as a source of empirical data. Sixty-seven patients with PD in Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage 2 were followed up for 1 year and assessed by means of the Schwab and England Scale, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), PDQ-39, and SCOPA-PS. A range of methods was applied to enable each of the target attributes to be analyzed from different conceptual stances. The SCOPA-PS displayed satisfactory acceptability (no floor or ceiling effect), internal consistency (alpha = 0.80-0.84), convergent validity (r(S) = 0.70-0.82 with PDQ-39), and precision (SEM = 8.80), both at baseline and at the end of follow-up. The threshold value for significant change ranged from 17.25 (1.96 SEM) to 24.39 (Smallest real difference and Reliable change index). Threshold values for a clinically meaningful change were 0.73-1.26 (effect size, standardized response mean, responsiveness statistic). Change in SCOPA-PS scores correlated strongly with change in total UPDRS, HADS, and PDQ-39 scores, and reliably detected 70% of cases that worsened according to the PDQ-39. The minimally important change (MIC) for "minimally impaired" patients as per the PDQ39 was 8.30-9.10 points. Indices such as 1.96 SEM, effect size, and correlation with the change in other measures provide useful information about different concepts of responsiveness. The MIC should be determined for each specific setting, using distribution- and anchor-based methods. The SCOPA-PS showed satisfactory longitudinal attributes and responsiveness in stage-2 Brazilian patients with PD across 1 year of follow-up. PMID:18649392
Martínez-Martin, Pablo; Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier; da Silveira Ribeiro, Luciola; Ziomkowski, Sofia; Vargas, Antonio Pedro; Kummer, Wladimir; Mesquita, Hudson Mourão
This article reports about the development and validation of a measurement instrument assessing elementary school students' achievement emotions (Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School, AEQ-ES). Specifically, the instrument assesses students' enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom pertaining to three types of academic settings (i.e.,…
Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Reiss, Kristina; Murayama, Kou
??Public speaking anxiety and test anxiety are both psychological difficulties which may adversely influence academic achievement in undergraduate students. Previous research has indicated that both… (more)
Ogden, Jeffrey S.
Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. PMID:24769094
Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A
Background: University entrance is accompanied by major changes in social relationship, rules, and expectations that lead to psychological disorders in susceptible students. The goal of this research is to study the anxiety rate in Iranian medical residents in 2010-2011. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. It contains 370 medical residents from the 1st year to the 4th year of medical universities in Isfahan, Gilan, Zahedan, Sanandaj, and Kashan. The stratified sampling method proportionate to volume of participants is used in this study. The information is collected based on researchers’ questioners and Zung self-rating anxiety scale and analyzed with the use of spss software version 16, addition to descriptive and analytic tests (Pearson, one-way analysis of variance, t-test). Meaningful level is regarded as P ? 0.05. Results: The study showed that more than 92% of residents participated in the study did not demonstrate anxiety. Among 370 subjects 5.5% presented with mild symptoms of anxiety and no one had symptom of severe anxiety. A meaningful statistical relationship was observed between anxiety and sex, major of study and the city of study (P < 0.05). The results showed a positive meaningful relationship between the number of visits and the score of anxiety. On average the number of night floats were two in 1 week and the number of patient visit was 19 in the past 24 h. A meaningful statistical relationship between anxiety score and number of patient visits was observed. Conclusions: The anxiety rate in medical students in this study compared to the findings of previous studies reveled very low anxiety in medical residents. The low rate of anxiety could be attributed to the sense of job security and the hope for a better future among residents. The high percentage of anxiolytics abuse and absence of anxiety producing factors among residents in addition to inaccurate response to the questionnaire may all contribute to the low rate of anxiety in this study. PMID:23776745
Khorvash, Fariborz; Askari, Gholamreza; Vesal, Sahar; Mehrbod, Noshin; Ghasemi, Hamid; Fatehizade, Maryam; Ghasemi, Gholamreza; Iraj, Bijan; Ebneshahidi, Alireza
An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001) and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001). Fathers’ CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in children’s fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children’s DFA. PMID:25187737
Coric, Anka; Banozic, Adriana; Klaric, Miro; Vukojevic, Katarina; Puljak, Livia
Background Depression has been related to mortality in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients, but few studies have evaluated the role of anxiety or the role of the co?occurrence of depression and anxiety. We examined whether anxiety is associated with increased risk of mortality after accounting for depression in individuals with established CHD. Methods and Results The cohort was composed of 934 men and women with confirmed CHD (mean age, 62±11 years) who completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) during hospitalization for coronary angiography. Over the 3?year follow?up period, there were 133 deaths. Elevated scores on the HADS anxiety subscale (HADS?A?8) were associated with increased risk of mortality after accounting for established risk factors including age, congestive heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction, 3?vessel disease, and renal disease (hazard ratio [HR], 2.27; 95% CI, 1.55 to 3.33; P<0.001). Elevated scores on the HADS depression subscale (HADS?D?8) were also associated with increased risk of mortality (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.47 to 3.22; P<0.001). When both psychosocial factors were included in the model, each maintained an association with mortality (anxiety, HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.83; P=0.006; depression, HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.58; P=0.025). Estimation of the HR for patients with both anxiety and depression versus those with neither revealed a larger HR than for patients with either factor alone (HR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.95 to 4.94; P<0.001). Conclusions Anxiety is associated with increased risk of mortality in CHD patients, particularly when comorbid with depression. Future studies should focus on the co?occurrence of these psychosocial factors as markers of increased mortality risk. PMID:23537805
Watkins, Lana L.; Koch, Gary G.; Sherwood, Andrew; Blumenthal, James A.; Davidson, Jonathan R.T.; O'Connor, Christopher; Sketch, Michael H.
Setting up a successful trauma system requires a significant amount of hospital support. This includes personnel and programs to assist with quality assurance programs, clinical compliance, and rural support and development. It is imperative that orthopaedic trauma surgeons are well versed in the types of hospital support available and the costs associated with each support measure. With this understanding, a strong, sustainable physician-hospital relationship can be created. PMID:24918831
O?Mara, Timothy J; Hill, Austin D; Althausen, Peter L
Worry is a common symptom in various psychiatric problems and the key symptom of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). The Penn\\u000a State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is the most widely used self-report scale for measuring worry. The present study provides\\u000a normative data for the Dutch version of the PSWQ for a large community sample and a clinically referred sample of patients\\u000a with
Colin van der Heiden; Peter Muris; Arjan E. R. Bos; Henk van der Molen; Martijn Oostra
The psychometric properties of the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire — Revised (Modified DMQ-R) [Blackwell, E., & Conrod, P. J. (2003). A five-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia], based on a five-factor model of drinking motives with separate coping-anxiety and coping-depression factors, were evaluated in undergraduates. In Study 1, confirmatory factor analyses supported
Valerie V. Grant; Sherry H. Stewart; Roisin M. O'Connor; Ekin Blackwell; Patricia J. Conrod
Objective: To directly compare estimates of potential depressive disorders and clinically significant depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Older Adult Health and Mood Questionnaire (OAHMQ) among participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). Research Design: 727 participants from a hospital in the Southeastern United States were administered the PHQ-9 and OAHMQ during a follow-up survey. We compared the
James S. Krause; Lee L. Saunders; Karla S. Reed; Jennifer Coker; Yusheng Zhai; Emily Johnson
Hospital diversification and its impact on the operating ratio are studied for 168 hospitals during the period from 1999 to 2004. Diversification and the operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as being jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield a better financial position, and the better operating ratio allows the institution the wherewithal to diversify. The impact of external government planning and hospital competition are also measured. An institution lifecycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger. Management's attitude concerning risk and reward is considered. PMID:18972998
Eastaugh, Steven R
We describe the test-retest reliability of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire: Revised (PDQ-R), which was developed to assess DSM-III-R personality disorders (PD). Thirty patients, diagnosed clinically with PD, filled out the PDQ-R twice at 1 month intervals after having undergone 8 weeks of treatment leading to moderate resolution of their acute axis-I symptomatology. The chance-corrected agreement was almost perfect for all DSM-III-R PD (kappa coefficients: 0.76-1.00). Dimensional scores for individual PD and the total PDQ-Q score were highly correlated (Pearson's correlation coefficients: 0.62-0.99) and the mean of scores did not significantly differ between test and retest. Based on these results, we propose that highly reliable PD diagnoses are possible, even using a self-report questionnaire, if the axis-I symptomatology of depression and anxiety have moderately subsided. These results clarify controversy over how and when reliable PD diagnoses may be obtained via a self-report questionnaire in a clinical sample. PMID:9472120
Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Sato, T
The objective of this study was to adapt the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) to women who speak Turkish and are from the Turkish culture, and to assess the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the scale. A convenience sample of women undergoing the menopausal transition or in the postmenopausal period was recruited at one primary health care center in Erzurum, Turkey. The researchers selected consecutive women who applied to the center for health care services. Three hundred sixty-six women were asked to participate in the study and to complete the WHQ during their appointment at the health care center in 2010. In the assessment of construct validity, nine factors were identified: depressed mood; menstrual symptoms; somatic symptoms; anxiety/fears; attractiveness; sexual behaviour; vasomotor symptoms; memory; and sleep problems. The nine factors explained 56.5% of the total variance. The overall internal reliability coefficient of this scale was 0.80. Evidence of the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the questionnaire was provided in this study. The Turkish version of the questionnaire is easy to understand and allows evaluation of women's quality of life for various purposes. PMID:24236528
Erci, Behice; Güngörmü?, Zeynep; Oztürk, Sibel
: Termination Date: Reason for Departure: Resignation Retirement End of Contract Other Reason (specify) CouldExit Interview Questionnaire Employee's Name: Department/Unit: Position Title: Date Hired, Signature of Employee: Do you have any further comments or suggestions of a general nature? Comments
TIME MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP #12;2 Time Management Questionnaire Self Assessment: Answer "Yes" or "No you tend to complete your assignments on time? 3. ____ Have you estimated how long it takes to read schedule time to study for exams? 8. ____ Do you have a job that requires more than 20 hours a week? 9
This 15-item student questionnaire is part of a study conducted in the Springfield, Illinois high schools to evaluate the double shift scheduling program instituted there. Students' reactions and opinions concerning the new scheduling technique are elicited by the forced-choice and open-ended items. See also TM 000 881-882, 884 for information on…
Springfield School District 186, IL.
This 13-item parent questionnaire is part of a study conducted in the Springfield, Illinois high schools to evaluate the double shift scheduling program instituted there. Parents' reactions and opinions concerning the new scheduling technique are determined by a combination of forced-choice and open-ended questions. See also TM 000 881, 883-884…
Springfield School District 186, IL.
This 32-item faculty questionnaire is part of a study conducted in the Springfield, Illinois high schools to evaluate the double shift scheduling program instituted there. Teachers' reactions and opinions on the new scheduling technique are determined by the forced-choice and open-ended items. See also TM 000 881-883 for information on the study,…
Springfield School District 186, IL.
Exit Questionnaire to the attention of Karen Iler at firstname.lastname@example.org or by mail at P.O. Box Â seeking another opportunity ( ) Resigned Â other ( ) Transfer to Affiliate ( ) Family circumstances ( ) Career opportunity ( ) Self-employment ( ) Seeking higher salary ( ) Transfer
Hutcheon, James M.
The objective of this paper is to discuss the survey as a research method based on three questionnaire surveys developed and administered in educational settings: (1) a survey exploring the status aspiration and gender awareness of undergraduate women completed by 62 respondents; (2) a survey of computer-assisted instruction completed by 111…
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 13 Do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness or recreational (leisure) activities that causes a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, volleyball) for at least 10 minutes continuously?
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of music therapy in decreasing anxiety in ventilator-dependent patients. Design: A crossover repeated measures design with random assignment was used. Setting: The intensive care unit of a university hospital in Hong Kong was used as the setting for this study. Patients: Twenty patients who were ventilator-dependent were recruited for
H. L. C. Wong; Violeta Lopez-Nahas; A. Molassiotis
Investigated a stress management training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and…
Charlesworth, Edward A.; Dempsey, George
As induction of pediatric anesthesia can elicit anxiety in children and parents alike, this study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of clown intervention in decreasing maternal anxiety and stress in the preoperative phase. Before anesthesia induction, 25 children were randomly assigned to clown intervention and 25 to a control group with a routine procedure. In the waiting room and after separation from the child, maternal anxiety and stress were measured. The results showed that after separation, only in the clown group, maternal state anxiety significantly decreased and the tendency to somatization did not increase. Moreover, after clown intervention, older children's mothers significantly reduced the level of perceived stress. As clown intervention can positively influence maternal anxiety and stress in the preoperative period, its promotion in clinical-hospital environments is recommended. PMID:23456215
Agostini, Francesca; Monti, Fiorella; Neri, Erica; Dellabartola, Sara; de Pascalis, Leonardo; Bozicevic, Laura
The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is considered to be multifactorial with a complex interaction of genetic factors and individual environmental factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine gene-by-environment interactions of the genes coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) with life events on measures related to anxiety. A sample of healthy subjects (N = 782; thereof 531 women; mean age M = 24.79, SD = 6.02) was genotyped for COMT rs4680 and MAOA-uVNTR (upstream variable number of tandem repeats), and was assessed for childhood adversities [Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] and anxious apprehension [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)]. Main and interaction effects of genotype, environment and gender on measures related to anxiety were assessed by means of regression analyses. Association analysis showed no main gene effect on either questionnaire score. A significant interactive effect of childhood adversities and COMT genotype was observed: Homozygosity for the low-active met allele and high CTQ scores was associated with a significant increment of explained ASI variance [R(2) = 0.040, false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P = 0.04]. A borderline interactive effect with respect to MAOA-uVNTR was restricted to the male subgroup. Carriers of the low-active MAOA allele who reported more aversive experiences in childhood exhibited a trend for enhanced anxious apprehension (R(2) = 0.077, FDR corrected P = 0.10). Early aversive life experiences therefore might increase the vulnerability to anxiety disorders in the presence of homozygosity for the COMT 158met allele or low-active MAOA-uVNTR alleles. PMID:24118915
Baumann, C; Klauke, B; Weber, H; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Pauli, P; Deckert, J; Reif, A
Background Approximately 60 million people in the United States live with one of four chronic conditions: heart disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and major depression. Anxiety and depression are very common comorbidities in COPD and have significant impact on patients, their families, society, and the course of the disease. Methods We report the proceedings of a multidisciplinary workshop on anxiety and depression in COPD that aimed to shed light on the current understanding of these comorbidities, and outline unanswered questions and areas of future research needs. Results Estimates of prevalence of anxiety and depression in COPD vary widely but are generally higher than those reported in some other advanced chronic diseases. Untreated and undetected anxiety and depressive symptoms may increase physical disability, morbidity, and health-care utilization. Several patient, physician, and system barriers contribute to the underdiagnosis of these disorders in patients with COPD. While few published studies demonstrate that these disorders associated with COPD respond well to appropriate pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapy, only a small proportion of COPD patients with these disorders receive effective treatment. Conclusion Future research is needed to address the impact, early detection, and management of anxiety and depression in COPD. PMID:18842932
Maurer, Janet; Rebbapragada, Venkata; Borson, Soo; Goldstein, Roger; Kunik, Mark E.; Yohannes, Abebaw M.; Hanania, Nicola A.
Eating and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in females, increase during adolescence, and are associated with early pubertal development. This study examined whether timing of puberty onset is associated with disordered eating and anxiety in a large sample of post-pubertal male and female undergraduate students. Self-report questionnaires assessed timing of puberty, disordered eating, anxiety, alcohol use, personality, and sensation seeking. Females scored significantly higher on measures of disordered eating (binge eating, dietary restraint, eating concerns, and weight and shape concerns) and anxiety (state and trait anxiety) than did males. In addition, early maturing women and men scored significantly higher on measures of disordered eating and anxiety than on-time or late maturing women and men. Measures of alcohol use, sensation seeking, and personality characteristics differed in males and females but did not vary with pubertal timing. Findings suggest that early puberty is associated with disordered eating and anxiety, and this association may be due to an organizational effect of pubertal hormones. Despite important differences in body fat composition, both males and females experiencing early puberty had an increased incidence of disordered eating. The fact that early puberty was associated with increased eating and anxiety symptoms in both sexes suggests that puberty may influence these symptoms through both biological and psychosocial mechanisms. PMID:17707381
Zehr, Julia L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Klump, Kelly L.
Objective: Approximately 66-80%of graduate students experience statistics anxiety and some researchers propose that many students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their academic curriculums. As such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. This paper proposes a canonical model by treating academic procrastination (AP), learning strategies (LS) as predictor variables and statistics anxiety (SA) as explained variables. Methods: A questionnaire survey was used for data collection and 246-college female student participated in this study. To examine the mutually independent relations between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety variables, a canonical correlation analysis was computed. Results: Findings show that two canonical functions were statistically significant. The set of variables (metacognitive self-regulation, source management, preparing homework, preparing for test and preparing term papers) helped predict changes of statistics anxiety with respect to fearful behavior, Attitude towards math and class, Performance, but not Anxiety. Conclusion: These findings could be used in educational and psychological interventions in the context of statistics anxiety reduction. PMID:24644468
Vahedi, Shahrum; Farrokhi, Farahman; Gahramani, Farahnaz; Issazadegan, Ali
Objective: Anxiety is associated with increased physiological reactivity and also increased “interoceptive” sensitivity to such changes in internal bodily arousal. Joint hypermobility, an expression of a common variation in the connective tissue protein collagen, is increasingly recognized as a risk factor to anxiety and related disorders. This study explored the link between anxiety, interoceptive sensitivity and hypermobility in a sub-clinical population using neuroimaging and psychophysiological evaluation. Methods: Thirty-six healthy volunteers undertook interoceptive sensitivity tests, a clinical examination for hypermobility and completed validated questionnaire measures of state anxiety and body awareness tendency. Nineteen participants also performed an emotional processing paradigm during functional neuroimaging. Results: We confirmed a significant relationship between state anxiety score and joint hypermobility. Interoceptive sensitivity mediated the relationship between state anxiety and hypermobility. Hypermobile, compared to non-hypermobile, participants displayed heightened neural reactivity to sad and angry scenes within brain regions implicated in anxious feeling states, notably insular cortex. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the dependence of anxiety state on bodily context, and increase our understanding of the mechanisms through which vulnerability to anxiety disorders arises in people bearing a common variant of collagen.
Mallorqui-Bague, Nuria; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Engels, Miriam; Eccles, Jessica A.; Pailhez, Guillem; Bulbena, Antonio; Critchley, Hugo D.
Background Animal studies have suggested that the hippocampus may play an important role in anxiety as part of the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), which mediates reactivity to threat and punishment and can predict an individual’s response to anxiety-relevant cues in a given environment. The aim of the present structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was to examine the relationship between individual differences in BIS and hippocampal structure, since this has not received sufficient attention in non-clinical populations. Thirty healthy right-handed participants with no history of alcohol or drug abuse, neurological or psychiatric disorders, or traumatic brain injury were recruited (16 male, 14 female, age 18 to 32 years). T1-weighted structural MRI scans were used to derive estimates of total intracranial volume, and hippocampal and amygdala gray matter volume using FreeSurfer. To relate brain structure to Gray’s BIS, participants completed the Sensitivity to Punishment questionnaire. They also completed questionnaires assessing other measures potentially associated with hippocampal volume (Beck Depression Inventory, Negative Life Experience Survey), and two other measures of anxiety (Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory). Results We found that high scores on the Sensitivity to Punishment scale were positively associated with hippocampal volume, and that this phenomenon was lateralized to the right side. In other words, greater levels of behavioural inhibition (BIS) were positively associated with right hippocampal volume. Conclusions Our data suggest that hippocampal volume is related to the cognitive and affective dimensions of anxiety indexed by the Sensitivity to Punishment, and support the idea that morphological differences in the hippocampal formation may be associated with behavioural inhibition contributions to anxiety. PMID:24607258
This study explored the convergent and discriminant validity of the Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS), a new measure of anxiety symptoms for older adults. The GAS, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were administered to 117 community-dwelling, predominantly White, older adults (62% female; M age = 74.75 years,
Brian P. Yochim; Anne E. Mueller; Andrea June; Daniel L. Segal
Examined three aspects of childhood anxiety and peer liking: (1) whether or not children can detect anxiety in age-mates,\\u000a (2) the degree to which peer-reported anxiety, self-reported anxiety, and presence of anxiety disorders are associated with\\u000a peer liking, and (3) whether or not self-reported anxiety and presence of anxiety disorders are associated with peer liking\\u000a after controlling for peer-reported anxiety.
Timothy L. Verduin; Philip C. Kendall
Altered neural mechanisms implying autonomic functioning have been described related to anxiety. Pre-competitive stress may\\u000a be considered as an anxiety-state associated with disorders (i.e. somatic and cognitive alterations, and self-confidence worsening)\\u000a that severely impair sport performance, conditioning short-lasting strength-related disciplines like BMX. From the psychological\\u000a perspective, coaches use questionnaires like CSAI-2R to identify these alterations. However, with the emergence of
Manuel Mateo; Cristina Blasco-Lafarga; Ignacio Martínez-Navarro; José F. Guzmán; Mikel Zabala
Two successive studies probed the psychometric properties of a Math Anxiety questionnaire (in Spanish) by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Participants were 411 and 216 Spanish adolescents. Convergent validity was examined by correlating the scale with both the Fennema and Sherman Attitude Scale and a math achievement test. The results show that the scores are psychometrically appropriate, and replicate those reported in meta-analyses: medium-sized negative correlations with achievement and with attitudes toward mathematics, as well as moderate sex-related differences (with girls presenting higher anxiety levels than boys). PMID:17440258
Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R
Background Depression is associated with a variety of diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and macrovascular complications. The prevalence of the symptoms of anxiety (32%) and depression (22.4%) in patients with diabetes is considerably higher than in general population samples (10%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Material/Methods This survey was conducted during 2007–2010. In total, 1500 patients were invited to participate in the study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure depression and anxiety for the evaluation of the depressive state and anxiety. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Results More than 70% of all respondents who participated in the study had diabetes mellitus complications (72.2%). The prevalence of mild to severe depression score was 28.5% (95% CI 25.7–31.4). The prevalence of anxiety was 42.4% (95% CI 39.3–45.5). Anxiety was more frequent among females (46.8%) than among males (34.7%) (p<0.001). A significant negative trend was observed between prevalence of anxiety and depression, and age and education (p for trend <0.001). Conclusions A significant association between depression and diabetic complications was identified (p<0.05). Duration of diabetes was a risk factor significantly associated with higher scores of anxiety among the patients with T2DM. PMID:24492643
Mikaliukstiene, Aldona; Zagminas, Kestutis; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Narkauskaite, Laura; Salyga, Jonas; Jankauskiene, Konstancija; Stukas, Rimantas; Surkiene, Gene
Danger and harm are avoided by strategic decisions made at all three levels of the triune forebrain: rational (neomammalian), emotional (paleomammalian), and instinctive (reptilian). This applies also to potential harm from conspecifics, which leads to a choice between escalating and de-escalating strategies. Anxiety is a component of de-escalating strategies mediated by the paleomammalian and reptilian forebrains. When the neomammalian (rational) brain fails to deal with the threat of conspecific danger, these more primitive de-escalating strategies may be activated and may present as anxiety disorders. The capacity for concealment of anxiety and other forms of negative affect has also evolved, and excessive concealment may lead to psychopaihology by breaking the negative feedback loop of excessive motivation, leading to impaired performance, leading to signals of distress, and leading to reduced exhortation to succeed on the part of parents and teachers; this situation is illustrated by a model based on the Yerkes-Dodson law. PMID:22033473
Price, John S.
Nesfatin-1 is derived from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) and implicated in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Plasma levels are altered under conditions of chronically altered body weight such as obesity. Nesfatin-1 was also shown to be involved in the modulation of emotion. Since obesity is often associated with anxiety and depression we investigated plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in obese women (n=77) over a broad range of body mass index (BMI, 32-67 kg/m(2)) with different levels of anxiety assessed by the generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7). Stress was assessed using the perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ-20) and depression using the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9). The study population was divided in patients with low anxiety (n=40, GAD scores, mean ± SD, 5.0 ± 2.7) and high anxiety (n=37, 14.2 ± 3.3, p<0.001). Patients with high anxiety showed higher levels of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 (+33%), perceived stress (+60%) and depression (+98%) compared to the low anxiety group (p<0.001). NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels positively correlated with GAD-7 (r=0.68, p<0.001), total PSQ-20 (r=0.57, p<0.001) and PHQ-9 scores (r=0.45, p<0.001), while no significant correlation was observed with BMI (r=-0.21, p=0.09). Also the subscales of the PSQ-20, "worries", "tension" and "demands" were higher in the high anxiety group and correlated positively with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 (p<0.001), whereas "joy" was lower and correlated negatively with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 (p=0.015). Summarized, plasma NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels were altered under conditions of perceived anxiety, stress and depression in obese women. No correlation was observed with BMI. These data point toward an involvement of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the regulation of emotion in addition to its impact on body weight. PMID:23796625
Hofmann, Tobias; Stengel, Andreas; Ahnis, Anne; Buße, Petra; Elbelt, Ulf; Klapp, Burghard F
Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (JD)
Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others
In this brief article the author details a study on the effects of math anxiety on the ability of the brain to function properly. After detailing the results of the study, the author presents possible approaches to relieve math anxiety.
Paul, Annie M.
Although common among patients with heart failure, depression and anxiety have been relatively neglected by researchers and practitioners. Both depression and anxiety have been implicated in contributing independently to the poor outcomes seen in patients...
M. J. De Jong, V. Konstam, D. K. Moser
Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and is associated with marked impairments. However, a small proportion of individuals with SAD seek and receive treatment. Internet-administrated cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) has been found to be an effective treatment for SAD. This trial will be the first Internet-delivered guided self-help intervention for SAD in Romania. Methods Participants with social anxiety disorder (N = 96) will be recruited via newspapers, online banners and Facebook. Participants will be randomized to either: a) an active treatment, or b) a waiting list control group. The treatment will have a guided iCBT format and will last for nine weeks. Self-report questionnaires on social phobia, anxiety, depression, treatment credibility and irrational thinking will be used. All assessments will be collected pre, post and at follow-up (six months after intervention). Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale – Self-Report version (LSAS-SR) will be the primary outcome measure and will be administrated on a weekly basis in both conditions. Discussion The present randomized controlled trial investigates the efficacy of an Internet-administered intervention in reducing social anxiety symptoms in a culture where this form of treatment has not been tested. This trial will add to the body of knowledge on the efficacy of iCBT, and the results might lead to an increase of the accessibility of evidence-based psychological treatment in Romania. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01557894 PMID:23111108
Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. PMID:22154338
Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A
While Wells’ metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) posits that certain metacognitive processes, such as negative meta-worry (negative beliefs about worry), are more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD than other anxiety disorders in adults, research has yet to determine whether the same pattern is true for younger individuals. We examined the relationship between several metacognitive processes and anxiety disorder diagnostic status in a sample of 98 youth aged 7–17 years. Twenty youth with GAD were compared with similarly sized groups of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, n = 18), social phobia (SOC, n = 20), separation anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 20), and healthy controls who were not patients (NONP, n = 20) using a self-report measure of metacognition adapted for use with young people in this age range (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children). Contrary to expectations, only one specific metacognitive process was significantly associated with an anxiety disorder diagnosis, in that the controls endorsed a greater degree of cognitive monitoring (self-reported awareness of one’s thoughts) than those with SAD. In addition, there was a trend indicating that nonpatients scored higher than youth with GAD on this scale. These surprising results suggest potentially differing patterns in the relationships between symptoms and metacognitive awareness in anxious youth, depending on the type of anxiety disorder presentation. PMID:22110332
Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Brody, Leslie R; Pincus, Donna B
Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast cancer were randomly divided into two experimental group and control group. Then, all patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The experimental group received Logotherapy-based group counseling for eight sessions; however, the control group did not receive any specific training. In the end, both groups were tested again. After collecting the questionnaires, data was analyzed by the statistic software SPSS version 18 and using analysis of covariance. Results The research results showed that group Logotherapy was effective in reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer (p<0.005). In other words, this intervention could reduce anxiety in the experimental group. Conclusion The results suggest that in line with current medical treatment, psychosocial interventions can be used to reduce anxiety in the breast cancer patients.
Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel
The purpose of this study was to determine whether law students experienced library anxiety and, if so, which components contributed to that anxiety. The Multidimensional Library Anxiety Scale (MLAS) developed by Dr. Doris Van Kampen was used to assess library anxiety levels of law students. The MLAS is a 53 question Likert scale instrument that…
Bowers, Stacey L.
Although speech anxiety is treated as a constant in speech communication research, speech teachers and speakers know that anxiety levels change during the course of one speech event This essay describes the Communication Anxiety Graph, a tool classroom teachers can use to help student speakers trace the pattern of their anxiety during one speech event. The data obtained from the
Winifred W. Brownell; Richard A. Katula