Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy). The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe) depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are able to detect (more severe) depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs) included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC) values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%), the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165). With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001). The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety scale appeared to be too high. Conclusion In general practice patients on sick leave because of psychological problems, the 4DSQ and the HADS are equally able to detect depressive and anxiety disorders. However, for the detection of cases severe enough to warrant specific treatment, the 4DSQ may have some advantages over the HADS, specifically for the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia. PMID:19698153
Terluin, Berend; Brouwers, Evelien PM; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; Verhaak, Peter FM; van der Horst, Henriëtte E
Background While various measures of common mental disorders (CMD) have been found to be associated with mortality, a comparison of how different measures predict mortality may improve our understanding of the association. This paper compares how the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) predict all cause and cause-specific mortality. Methods Data on 2547 men and women from two cohorts, aged approximately 39 and 55?years, from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study who were followed up for mortality over an average of 18.9 (SD 5.0) years. Scores were calculated for HADS depression (HADS-D), HADS Anxiety (HADS-A) and GHQ-30. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to determine how each CMD measure predicted mortality. Results After adjusting for serious physical illness, smoking, social class, alcohol, obesity, pulse rate and living alone, HRs (95% CI) per SD increase in score for all-cause mortality were: 1.15 (1.07 to 1.25) for HADS-D; 1.13 (1.04 to 1.23) for GHQ-30 and 1.05 (0.96 to 1.14) for HADS-A. After the same adjustments, cardiovascular disease mortality was also related to HADS-D (HR 1.24 (1.07 to 1.43)), to GHQ-30 (HR 1.24 (1.11 to 1.40)) and to HADS-A (HR 1.15 (1.01 to 1.32)); respiratory mortality to GHQ-30 (HR 1.33 (1.13 to 1.55)) and mortality from other causes, excluding injuries, to HADS-D (HR 1.28 (1.05 to 1.55)). Conclusions There were associations between CMD and both all-cause and cause-specific mortality which were broadly similar for GHQ-30 and HADS-D and were still present after adjustment for important confounders and mediators. PMID:23543730
Hannah, Mary Kathleen; Batty, G David; Benzeval, Michaela
Background Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. Objective This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. Methods To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named "Fear and Hypervigilance" (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and "Avoidance", (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, "Cardiac with panic" patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). Conclusions These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings. PMID:24145391
Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.
Objectives The UK's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme uses the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001, J. Gen. Intern. Med., 16, 606) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7; Spitzer et al., 2006, Arch. Intern. Med., 166, 1092) to assess patients' symptoms of depression and anxiety respectively. Data are typically collected via telephone or face-to-face; however, no study has statistically investigated whether the questionnaires' items operate equivalently across these modes of data collection. This study aimed to address this omission. Methods & Results Questionnaire data from patients registered with an IAPT service in London (N = 23,672) were examined. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that unidimensional factor structures adequately matched observed face-to-face and telephone data for the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Invariance analyses revealed that while the PHQ-9 had equivalent factor loadings and latent means across data collection methods, the GAD-7 had equivalent factor loadings but unequal latent means. In support of the scales' convergent validity, positive associations between scores on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 emerged. Conclusions With the exception of the GAD-7's latent means, the questionnaires' factor loadings and latent means were equivalent. This suggests that clinicians may meaningfully compare PHQ-9 data collected face-to-face and by telephone; however, such comparisons with the GAD-7 should be done with caution. Practitioner points The PHQ-9 and GAD-7's factor loadings were equivalent across data collection methods. Only the PHQ-9's latent means were equivalent across data collection methods. Clinicians may be confident collecting PHQ-9 data by telephone and face-to-face and, then, comparing such data. Caution is recommended when determining clinical effectiveness using telephone and face-to-face GAD-7 data. More psychometric research is warranted. PMID:24117915
Ryan, Travis A; Bailey, Alastair; Fearon, Pasco; King, John
Depression and anxiety disorders are the two most common mental health problems seen in the primary care and the general hospital settings. They are both associated with poorer patient functioning, worse quality of life, more frequent utilization of health services, and higher health care costs. However, detection rates of depression and anxiety by non-mental health specialists remain very low, while most of the proposed screening tools are rather not practical and therefore they have not been widely used in practice. Over the last two decades, ultra-short tools including one to three questions have been developed and suggested as case-finding methods and their sensitivity and specificity have been investigated. We reviewed all the ultra-short screening tools for depression and anxiety and the existing evidence on their accuracy in detecting major depression and anxiety disorders. Two simple screening questions for depression, about depressed mood and loss of interest or pleasure in doing things, have been repeatedly applied in primary care settings and found to have satisfactory sensitivity but low specificity. The addition of a third question inquiring if help is needed to the two screening questions for depression improves the specificity, however on the cost of reducing the sensitivity of the method. Screening for depression using only one of these questions alone was found to be less accurate strategy than the two or three question tests. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) includes the same two depression-questions with rating scale answer choices and it was found to be more accurate than the two question test with dichotomous (yes or no) answers. Ultra-short screening strategies for depression in older people were found to have acceptable levels of accuracy, while in patients with cancer the two question tests had higher sensitivity and specificity than in other patient groups. According to the existing data, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) questionnaire, which includes two questions on "feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" and "not being able to stop or control worrying" appears to have acceptable accuracy in identifying clinically significant anxiety. We concluded that there is sufficient evidence on the suitability of the ultra-short screening instruments for depression and anxiety -especially the PHQ-2, the GAD-2 and their combination, the PHQ-4- for use in epidemiological studies. In primary and secondary care settings, the ultra-short tools can be used only as an initial screening method but diagnosis made by specially-trained clinicians or mental health specialists is warranted for patients who initially screen positive. PMID:24486977
Konstantakopoulos, G; Sofianopoulou, E; Touloumi, G; Ploumpidis, D
Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289) and control group (n=244) were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6?weeks postnatal (only matched pairs), intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048). Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09) and at six weeks (mean=1.09) were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11) and at six weeks (mean =1.07) with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their knowledge and potentially lower the risk of postnatal anxiety. Trial registration (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000667213) PMID:22849509
Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cut-off points are suitable to rule out or to rule in (which) anxiety disorders? Methods We analyzed 5 primary care datasets with standardized psychiatric diagnoses and 4DSQ scores. Unidimensionality was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We examined mean scores and anxiety score distributions per disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points. Results Total n was 969. CFA supported unidimensionality. The anxiety scale performed slightly better in detecting patients with panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and specific phobia. ROC-analysis suggested that ?4 was the optimal cut-off point to rule out and ?10 the cut-off point to rule in anxiety disorders. Conclusions The 4DSQ anxiety scale measures a common trait of pathological anxiety that is characteristic of anxiety disorders, in particular panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD and PTSD. The anxiety score detects the latter anxiety disorders to a slightly greater extent than GAD and specific phobia, without being able to distinguish between the different anxiety disorder types. The cut-off points ?4 and ?10 can be used to separate distressed patients in three groups with a relatively low, moderate and high probability of having one or more anxiety disorders. PMID:24761829
Much has been written about the situations most often feared by persons with social phobia, and several self-report measures are frequently used to assess such feared situations. However, it is not clear whether the situations feared by persons with social phobia form unidimensional or multidimensional factors. If these situations are multidimensional, reliance on a total score of feared situations would not reflect important differences between those dimensions. This research examined the multidimensional nature and multicultural validity of a newly developed instrument (the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults [SAQ-A]) in two studies with a total of 539 patients diagnosed with social phobia and 15,753 nonpatients from 20 different countries. The structure (five clear and solid factors) and psychometric properties of the final instrument (the SAQ-A30) support the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and provide a new perspective in the assessment of social phobia. PMID:22440068
Caballo, Vicente E; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G
Objective: To determine the concordance between the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) in diagnosing anxiety and depressive disorders. Method: Fifty women seeking psychiatric services for their children at two mental health centers in western Pennsylvania were assessed for anxiety and…
Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Lee, Bong-Jae
Background Electronic applications are increasingly being used in hospitals for numerous purposes. Objective Our aim was to assess differences in the characteristics of patients who choose paper versus electronic questionnaires and to evaluate the data quality of both approaches. Methods Between October 2012 and June 2013, 136 patients participated in a study on diagnosis-induced stress and anxiety. Patients were asked to fill out questionnaires at six different moments during the diagnostic phase. They were given the opportunity to fill out the questionnaires on paper or electronically (a combination of tablet and Web-based questionnaires). Demographic characteristics and completeness of returned data were compared between groups. Results Nearly two-thirds of patients (88/136, 64.7%) chose to fill out the questionnaires on paper, and just over a third (48/136, 35.3%) preferred the electronic option. Patients choosing electronic questionnaires were significantly younger (mean 47.3 years vs mean 53.5 in the paper group, P=.01) and higher educated (P=.004). There was significantly more missing information (ie, at least one question not answered) in the paper group during the diagnostic day compared to the electronic group (using a tablet) (28/88 vs 1/48, P<.001). However, in the week after the diagnostic day, missing information was significantly higher in the electronic group (Web-based questionnaires) compared to the paper group (41/48 vs 38/88, P<.001). Conclusions Younger patients and patients with a higher level of education have a preference towards filling out questionnaires electronically. In the hospital, a tablet is an excellent medium for patients to fill out questionnaires with very little missing information. However, for filling out questionnaires at home, paper questionnaires resulted in a better response than Web-based questionnaires. PMID:25364951
Wessels, Hester; van Diest, Paul J; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Haaring, Cees; van der Pol, Carmen C; Witkamp, Arjen J; van den Bosch, Maurice A; Verkooijen, Helena M
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between quality of life, anxiety, and depression in female patients with infertility. This was a cross-sectional study with 89 women with infertility. Patients completed a questionnaire that included demographic data, the FertiQoL scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The average total FertiQoL score was 66.0?±?14.5. There were negative correlations between the treatment and core FertiQoL scores and the Hospital Anxiety-Depression subscale scores. The attempted conception duration was negatively correlated with the total and core (emotional, mind-body, and social subscales) scores of the FertiQoL. The number of in vitro fertilizations was negatively correlated with the total, core (mind-body subscale), and treatment (tolerability subscale) scores of the FertiQoL. In conclusion, infertility significantly reduces quality of life in women by increasing their anxiety and depression levels. Thus, healthcare professionals should consider quality of life with a holistic approach when examining and treating women with infertility. PMID:25263133
Kahyaoglu Sut, Hatice; Balkanli Kaplan, Petek
Background Questionnaires may help in detecting and diagnosing anxiety disorders in primary care. However, since utility of these questionnaires in target populations is rarely studied, the Patient Health Questionnaire anxiety modules (PHQ) were evaluated for use as: a) a screener in high-risk patients, and/or b) a case finder for general practitioners (GPs) to assist in diagnosing anxiety disorders. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 43 primary care practices in the Netherlands. The added value of the PHQ was assessed in two samples: 1) 170 patients at risk of anxiety disorders (or developing them) according to their electronic medical records (high-risk sample); 2) 141 patients identified as a possible ‘anxiety case’ by a GP (GP-identified sample). All patients completed the PHQ and were interviewed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric interview to classify DSM-IV anxiety disorders. Psychometric properties were calculated, and a logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of the PHQ. Results Using only the screening questions of the PHQ, the area under the curve was 83% in the high-risk sample. In GP-identified patients the official algorithm showed the best characteristics with an area under the curve of 77%. Positive screening questions significantly increased the odds of an anxiety disorder diagnosis in high-risk patients (odds ratio?=?23.4; 95% confidence interval 6.9 to 78.8) as did a positive algorithm in GP-identified patients (odds ratio?=?13.9; 95% confidence interval 3.8 to 50.6). Conclusions The PHQ screening questions can be used to screen for anxiety disorders in high-risk primary care patients. In GP-identified patients, the benefit of the PHQ is less evident. PMID:23865984
BACKGROUND: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a common screening instrument excluding somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety, but previous studies have reported inconsistencies of its factor structure. The construct validity of the Japanese version of the HADS has yet to be reported. To examine the factor structure of the HADS in a Japanese population is needed. METHODS:
Tomomi Matsudaira; Hiromi Igarashi; Hiroyoshi Kikuchi; Rikihachiro Kano; Hiroshi Mitoma; Kiyoshi Ohuchi; Toshinori Kitamura
The utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) as a screening instrument for anxiety and depression during pregnancy was investigated. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted on the HADS to determine its psychometric properties and utility in 100 women from two culturally diverse populations (UK and Uzbekistan) at 12-weeks and 34-weeks pregnancy. The findings suggest that the
GK Karimova; CR Martin
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
Background The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. Methods Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores with clinical diagnoses, the GPs' diagnosis of any psychosocial problem for Distress, standardised psychiatric diagnoses for Depression and Anxiety, and GPs' suspicion of somatization for Somatization. ROC analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Construct validity was evaluated by investigating the inter-correlations between the scales, the factorial structure, the associations with other symptom questionnaires, and the associations with stress, personality and social functioning. The factorial structure of the 4DSQ was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The associations with other questionnaires were assessed with Pearson correlations and regression analyses. Results Regarding criterion validity, the Distress scale was associated with any psychosocial diagnosis (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.79), the Depression scale was associated with major depression (AUC = 0.83), the Anxiety scale was associated with anxiety disorder (AUC = 0.66), and the Somatization scale was associated with the GPs' suspicion of somatization (AUC = 0.65). Regarding the construct validity, the 4DSQ scales appeared to have considerable inter-correlations (r = 0.35-0.71). However, 30–40% of the variance of each scale was unique for that scale. CFA confirmed the 4-factor structure with a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.92. The 4DSQ scales correlated with most other questionnaires measuring corresponding constructs. However, the 4DSQ Distress scale appeared to correlate with some other depression scales more than the 4DSQ Depression scale. Measures of stress (i.e. life events, psychosocial problems, and work stress) were mainly associated with Distress, while Distress, in turn, was mainly associated with psychosocial dysfunctioning, including sick leave. Conclusion The 4DSQ seems to be a valid self-report questionnaire to measure distress, depression, anxiety and somatization in primary care patients. The 4DSQ Distress scale appears to measure the most general, most common, expression of psychological problems. PMID:16925825
Terluin, Berend; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; Adèr, Herman J; de Vet, Henrica CW; Penninx, Brenda WJH; Hermens, Marleen LM; van Boeijen, Christine A; van Balkom, Anton JLM; van der Klink, Jac JL; Stalman, Wim AB
Background. Anxious and depressive symptoms are frequent in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). Our objective is to assess their prevalence and association with district and global disability and psychological variables. Methods. 119?SSc patients were assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Clinical depression and anxiety were defined for HADS score cutoff ?8. Patients were assessed for psychological symptoms (RSES, COPE-NIV), hand (HAMIS, CHFDS, fist closure, and hand opening) and face disability (MHISS, mouth opening), global disability, and fatigue (HAQ, FACIT). Results. Both depression and anxiety in SSc are 36%. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher HADS-D score than patients with depression only (P = 0.001). HADS-A and -D are positively correlated with global disability, hands and mouth disability, fatigue, self-esteem and avoidance coping strategy, and, only HADS-A, also with social support (P < 0.05). By multiple regression, HADS-D is independently associated with FACIT-F (P < 0.001), RSES (P < 0.001), and MHISS total score (P = 0.016), together explaining 50% of variance. HADS-A is independently associated with RSES (P = 0.006), COPE-NIV SA (P = 0.003), COPE-NIV SS (P = 0.008), FACIT-F (P = 0.022), and MHISS mouth opening (P = 0.029), explaining 41% of variance. Conclusions. In SSc depression and anxiety correlate to local and global disabilities and psychological characteristics. Depressive patients with comorbid anxiety have higher level of depressive symptoms. PMID:23984376
Del Rosso, Angela; Mikhaylova, Svetlana; Baccini, Marco; Lupi, Ilaria; Matucci Cerinic, Marco; Maddali Bongi, Susanna
Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used self-report measure to assess emotional distress in clinical populations. As highlighted in recent review studies, the latent structure of the HADS is still an issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the factorial structure of the HADS in a large community sample in Italy, and to test the invariance of the best fitting model across age and gender groups. Methods Data analyses were carried out on a sample of 1.599 participants proportionally stratified according to the Italian census population pyramid. Participants aged 18 to 85 years (females?=?51.8%), living in eight different regions of Italy, voluntarily participated in the study. The survey questionnaire contained the HADS, Health Status questions, and sociodemographic variables. Results Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a bifactor model, with a general psychological distress factor and two orthogonal group factors with anxiety and depression, was the best fitting one compared to six alternative factor structures reported in the literature, with overall good fit indices [Non-normed Fit Index (NNFI)?=?.97; Comparative Fit Index (CFI)?=?.98; Root Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA)?=?.04]. Multi-group analyses supported total invariance of the HADS measurement model for males and females, and for younger (i.e., 18–44 years old) and older (i.e., 45–85 years old) participants. Our descriptive analyses showed that females reported significant higher anxiety and general distress mean scores than males. Moreover, older participants reported significant higher HADS, anxiety and depression scores than younger participants. Conclusions The results of the present study confirmed that the HADS has good psychometric properties in an Italian community sample, and that the HADS scores, especially the general psychological distress one, can be reliably used for assessing age and gender differences. In keeping with the most recent factorial studies, our analysis supported the superior fit of a bifactor model. However, the high factor loadings on the general factor also recommend caution in the use of the two subscales as independent measures. PMID:24902622
Given our aging society with an increasing number of frail elderly patients, we must provide integrated care tailored to their complex needs regarding health and well-being. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire designed to assess how frail hospitalized elderly patients experience several important aspects of individualized and integrated care. An 8-item questionnaire was developed using input from a panel representing the target group and administered to patients age ?70 years from surgical, medical, and geriatric departments to measure data characteristics, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. A total of 470 questionnaires were returned, including 78 for test-retest reliability. Data were missing from 1.7% to 7.0% within the individual questions. The percentage of questions answered with "don't know" ranged 3.8% to 21.9%. Cronbach's ? for internal consistency was 0.70. Test-retest intraclass correlation was 0.75. Achievement of goals during the hospital stay was significantly correlated with the questionnaire score. Scores did not differ significantly between departments or between the before and after measurements related to an innovative intervention study in healthcare delivery. The CareWell in Hospital questionnaire has good content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability and warrants further research to explore responsiveness. PMID:24474635
Bakker, Franka C; Persoon, Anke; Schoon, Yvonne; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M
Background. Psoriasis is a common, genetically determined inflammatory and proliferative disease of the skin. Psychological stress can exacerbate the disease. This study sought to investigate the depression and anxiety disorders among patients with psoriasis and control group. Method. In this hospital-based case-control study, One hundred patients with psoriasis (case) referred to the dermatology department and 100 patients with otolaryngology problems and dermatological healthy volunteers (control) who referred to the Otolaryngology Department of Bouali Sina Hospital in Sari, Iran, in 2007 were studied. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale I-II were administered to the patients in both groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software and descriptive statistical tests. Results. From One-hundred patients in each group, 44 (45%) were men. Depression score was 67% and 12% in psoriatic patients and control, respectively. The Beck depression scores of patients with psoriasis were significantly higher than scores of the control group (P < 0.05). Based on Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Scale, anxiety was found in 45% of patients in case group and 18% of controls. Conclusion. The results revealed that psoriatic patients reported significantly higher degrees of depression and anxiety than controls. In addition, psoriatic women were more depressed than psoriatic men. PMID:22844272
Golpour, Masoud; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Khademloo, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Maryam; Ebadi, Aghdas; Koohkan, Fatemeh; Shahmohammadi, Soheila
Background: There is an increasing trend in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Iran. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of anxiety, depression, diabetes and coronary artery disease among patients undergoing angiography in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted between September 2011 and August 2012 among 200 patients undergoing coronary angiography for symptoms of coronary disease at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The control group consisted of 697 healthy adults recruited from the individuals who attended the clinic for routine medical checkups or pre-employment examinations. The Beck anxiety and depression inventory scores and fasting blood glucose results were assessed in all the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of patients was 57.52 ± 9.33 years old and for the control group it was 55.35 ± 8.45 years; there was no significant difference between the subjects (P = 0.647) regarding age. There was also no significant difference in gender distribution between the patients and control groups (P = 0.205). There was however a significant difference in anxiety and depression scores between the patients and healthy controls (P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between anxiety score and depression score in both groups when data were analyzed by Pearson test. (P < 0.001, r = 0.604 and r = 0.521). Moreover, there was a significant positive linear correlation between the depression/anxiety scores and fasting blood glucose concentrations in the patients group (r = 0.3, P < 0.001) and a weak negative correlation in the healthy controls (r = -0.096, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Depression and anxiety are potentially important factors among patients with angiographically-defined CAD. There appear to be significant associations between glucose tolerance and anxiety and depression in these patients.
Tajfard, Mohammad; Ghayour Mobarhan, Majid; Rahimi, Hamid Reza; Mouhebati, Mohsen; Esmaeily, Habibollah; Ferns, Gordon A; Latiff, Latiffah A; Taghipour, Ali; Mokhber, Naghmeh; Abdul-Aziz, Ahmad Fazli
Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents. PMID:22988901
Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina
Despite the common use of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) with adolescents, there is limited data supporting its validity with this population. The aims of the study were to investigate the psychometric properties of the GHQ-12 among high school students, to validate the GHQ-12 against the gold standard of a diagnostic interview, and to suggest a threshold score for detecting depressive and anxiety disorders. Six hundred and fifty-four high school students from years 10 to 12 (ages 15-18) completed the GHQ-12 (Likert scored) and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Test Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted. The mean GHQ-12 score for the total sample was 9.9 (S.D.=5.4). Results from the ROC curve indicated that the GHQ-12 performed better than chance at identifying depressive and anxiety disorders (area under the curve (AUC)=0.781). A GHQ-12 threshold score of 9/10 for males and 10/11 for females was found to be optimal. Given the significant proportion of mental illness among high school students, there may be a need to introduce screening for mental illnesses as part of the school curriculum. This can assist with the early identification and enable low stigma preventive intervention within the school environment. PMID:21067813
Baksheev, Gennady Nickolaevich; Robinson, Jo; Cosgrave, Elizabeth Mary; Baker, Kathryn; Yung, Alison Ruth
The recent emphasis on cognitive factors in the treatment of emotional problems has stimulated the development of cognitive assessment techniques. This paper presents the development and initial validation of an instrument to assess self-statements about social interactions. The 30-item questionnaire contains 15 positive (facilitative) and 15 negative (inhibitory) self-statements that were derived from subjects who listed thoughts while imagining difficult
Carol R. Glass; Thomas V. Merluzzi; Joan L. Biever; Kathryn H. Larsen
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…
Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah
Background The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a widely used screening tool designed as a case detector for clinically\\u000a relevant anxiety and depression. Recent studies of the HADS in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients in European countries\\u000a suggest it comprises three, rather than two, underlying sub-scale dimensions. The factor structure of the Chinese version\\u000a of the HADS was evaluated
Wenru Wang; Violeta Lopez; David Thompson; Colin R Martin
The prevalence and correlates of the positive Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire among psychiatric outpatients: a cross-sectional survey of 176 men in a general hospital in Taiwan
Introduction The Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire is widely used to screen for late-onset hypogonadism. The positive response to the ADAM questionnaire (positive ADAM) has been associated with depression and poorer quality of life in a number of studies. It is unclear whether there is any value of the ADAM questionnaire in psychiatric populations. In this study, we aimed to determine the utility of the ADAM questionnaire in a convenient sample of male psychiatric outpatients. Methods One hundred and seventy-six men (mean age: 54.3 years; standard deviation: 10.7 years; range: 40–80 years) completed the ADAM questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Aging Males’ Symptoms (AMS) scale. Anxiety was defined as a HADS anxiety subscore ?8; depression as a HADS depression subscore ?8; and moderate/severe impairment of health-related quality of life (HQoL) as AMS ?37. ADAM, anxiety, and depression was used to model the moderate/severe impairment of HQoL. Results One hundred and sixty-four (93%) men had positive ADAM. Positive ADAM was associated with a lower body mass index (P<0.05) and moderate/severe impairment of HQoL (P<0.001), but was not associated with anxiety or depression (P>0.05). Positive ADAM was associated with five symptoms of the AMS scale: “decline of one’s feeling of general well-being”, “depressive mood”, and three sexual symptoms. In regression analysis, positive ADAM was associated with increased risk of moderate/severe impairment of HQoL (unadjusted odds ratio 20.1, 95% confidence interval 3.77–372, P<0.01), which remained significant with covariates of anxiety and depression (adjusted odds ratio 15.6, 95% confidence interval 2.52–309, P<0.05). Conclusion The ADAM questionnaire can be used to screen the sexual symptoms but not depression/anxiety in male psychiatric outpatients. Positive ADAM may indicate moderate/severe impairment of HQoL. PMID:25653527
Lee, Chin-Pang; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Kun-Hao; Chu, Chun-Lin; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yen
Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings. PMID:24016183
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients complaining of chest pain who seek a chest pain unit attendance. INTRODUCTION Patients arriving at a Chest Pain Unit may present psychiatric disorders not identified, isolated or co-morbid to the main illness, which may interfere in the patient prognosis. METHODOLOGY Patients were assessed by the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale” as a screening instrument wile following a systematized protocol to rule out the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome and other potentially fatal diseases. Patients with 8 or more points in the scale were considered “probable case” of anxiety or depression. RESULTS According to the protocol, 59 (45.4%) of 130 patients studied presented Chest Pain of Determined Cause, and 71 (54.6%) presented Chest Pain of Indefinite Cause. In the former group, in which 43 (33.1%) had acute coronary syndrome, 33.9% were probable anxiety cases and 30.5% depression cases. In the second group, formed by patients without acute coronary syndrome or any clinical conditions involving greater morbidity and mortality risk, 53.5% were probable anxiety cases and 25.4% depression. CONCLUSION The high anxiety and depression prevalence observed may indicate the need for early and specialized approach to these disorders. When coronary arterial disease is present, this may decrease complications and shorten hospital stay. When psychiatric disorder appears isolated, is possible to reduce unnecessary repeated visits to emergency room and increase patient’s quality of life. PMID:19330247
Soares-Filho, Gastão L. F.; Freire, Rafael C.; Biancha, Karla; Pacheco, Ticiana; Volschan, André; Valença, Alexandre M.; Nardi, Antonio E.
Purpose Measuring and developing a safe culture in health care is a focus point in creating highly reliable organizations being successful in avoiding patient safety incidents where these could normally be expected. Questionnaires can be used to capture a snapshot of an employee’s perceptions of patient safety culture. A commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). The purpose of this study was to adapt the SAQ for use in Danish hospitals, assess its construct validity and reliability, and present benchmark data. Materials and methods The SAQ was translated and adapted for the Danish setting (SAQ-DK). The SAQ-DK was distributed to 1,263 staff members from 31 in- and outpatient units (clinical areas) across five somatic and one psychiatric hospitals through meeting administration, hand delivery, and mailing. Construct validity and reliability were tested in a cross-sectional study. Goodness-of-fit indices from confirmatory factor analysis were reported along with inter-item correlations, Cronbach’s alpha (?), and item and subscale scores. Results Participation was 73.2% (N=925) of invited health care workers. Goodness-of-fit indices from the confirmatory factor analysis showed: c2=1496.76, P<0.001, CFI 0.901, RMSEA (90% CI) 0.053 (0.050–0056), Probability RMSEA (p close)=0.057. Inter-scale correlations between the factors showed moderate-to-high correlations. The scale stress recognition had significant negative correlations with each of the other scales. Questionnaire reliability was high, (?=0.89), and scale reliability ranged from ?=0.70 to ?=0.86 for the six scales. Proportions of participants with a positive attitude to each of the six SAQ scales did not differ between the somatic and psychiatric health care staff. Substantial variability at the unit level in all six scale mean scores was found within the somatic and the psychiatric samples. Conclusion SAQ-DK showed good construct validity and internal consistency reliability. SAQ-DK is potentially a useful tool for evaluating perceptions of patient safety culture in Danish hospitals.
Kristensen, Solvejg; Sabroe, Svend; Bartels, Paul; Mainz, Jan; Christensen, Karl Bang
Summary Objective To evaluate how an online toolkit may support ePrescribing deployments in National Health Service hospitals, by assessing the type of knowledge-based resources currently sought by key stakeholders. Design Questionnaire-based survey of attendees at a national ePrescribing symposium. Setting 2013 National ePrescribing Symposium in London, UK. Participants Eighty-four delegates were eligible for inclusion in the survey, of whom 70 completed and returned the questionnaire. Main outcome measures Estimate of the usefulness and type of content to be included in an ePrescribing toolkit. Results Interest in a toolkit designed to support the implementation and use of ePrescribing systems was high (n?=?64; 91.4%). As could be expected given the current dearth of such a resource, few respondents (n?=?2; 2.9%) had access or used an ePrescribing toolkit at the time of the survey. Anticipated users for the toolkit included implementation (n?=?62; 88.6%) and information technology (n?=?61; 87.1%) teams, pharmacists (n?=?61; 87.1%), doctors (n?=?58; 82.9%) and nurses (n?=?56; 80.0%). Summary guidance for every stage of the implementation (n?=?48; 68.6%), planning and monitoring tools (n?=?47; 67.1%) and case studies of hospitals’ experiences (n?=?45; 64.3%) were considered the most useful types of content. Conclusions There is a clear need for reliable and up-to-date knowledge to support ePrescribing system deployments and longer term use. The findings highlight how a toolkit may become a useful instrument for the management of knowledge in the field, not least by allowing the exchange of ideas and shared learning. PMID:25383199
Cresswell, Kathrin; Slee, Ann; Slight, Sarah P; Coleman, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz
Purpose: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of music therapy in reducing anxiety in hospitalized psychiatric patients.Methodology: The authors used a randomized clinical trial design and randomly allocated the 24 enrolled participants to the experimental or the control group. Patients in the experimental group received music therapy in a therapy room at a set time for 30 min each
Chyn-Yng Yang; Chiung-Hua Chen; Hsin Chu; Wen-Chun Chen; Tso-Ying Lee; Shyi-Gen Chen; Kuei-Ru Chou
Background The influenza vaccination rate in hospitals among health care workers in Europe remains low. As there is a lack of research about management factors we assessed factors reported by administrators of general hospitals that are associated with the influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers. Methods All 81 general hospitals in the Netherlands were approached to participate in a self-administered questionnaire study. The questionnaire was directed at the hospital administrators. The following factors were addressed: beliefs about the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, whether the hospital had a written policy on influenza vaccination and how the hospital informed their staff about influenza vaccination. The questionnaire also included questions about mandatory vaccination, whether it was free of charge and how delivered as well as the vaccination campaign costs. The outcome of this one-season survey is the self-reported overall influenza vaccination rate of health care workers. Results In all, 79 of 81 hospitals that were approached were willing to participate and therefore received a questionnaire. Of these, 42 were returned (response rate 52%). Overall influenza vaccination rate among health care workers in our sample was 17.7% (95% confidence interval: 14.6% to 20.8%). Hospitals in which the administrators agreed with positive statements concerning the influenza vaccination had a slightly higher, but non-significant, vaccine uptake. There was a 9% higher vaccine uptake in hospitals that spent more than €1250,- on the vaccination campaign (24.0% versus 15.0%; 95% confidence interval from 0.7% to 17.3%). Conclusions Agreement with positive statements about management factors with regard to influenza vaccination were not associated with the uptake. More economic investments were related with a higher vaccine uptake; the reasons for this should be explored further. PMID:23259743
Background There have been no previous studies conducted in Pakistan comparing the concordance of any well established Western anxiety/depression screening instrument with an indigenous scale, in a community based setting. Methods Participants (n = 1040) in the present study were recruited from the six villages of our interest from the district Gujarat of Pakistan, using a convenient sampling technique. Interview versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10-item version (HSCL-10) and the Pakistani Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire (PADQ) were used to observe the pattern of anxiety and depression among the participants. Results The internal consistency of HSCL-10 and PADQ were 0.86 and 0.84 respectively. Exploratory factor analysis found evidence for both a one-dimensional (distress) and a two-dimensional (anxiety and depression) solution for the HSCL-10, but only a one-dimensional (distress) solution for the PADQ. The HSCL-10 and PADQ found to be moderately to highly correlated (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001, 0.73 after correction for attenuation). Conclusion HSCL-10 has shown good screening abilities in a rural setting in Pakistan, and moderate to good concordance with an indigenous instrument measuring psychological distress. The HSCL-10 can therefore be used as a screening instrument, both in clinical and epidemiological settings in Pakistan, and for Pakistani immigrants living in Western societies. PMID:18647394
Syed, Hammad Raza; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dalgard, Odd Steffen; Dalen, Ingvild; Ahlberg, Nora
This study examined the extent to which sixth grade peer status could predict anxiety and/or depression in 5,242 women and 5,004 men who were born in 1953 and whose hospital records were followed up from 1973-2003. The data used was the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study. While no association could be established for men, results indicated that women…
Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca; Almquist, Ylva
An Integrated Web-Based Mental Health Intervention of Assessment-Referral-Care to Reduce Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Medically High-Risk Pregnancies: A Feasibility Study Protocol of Hospital-Based Implementation
Background At prevalence rates of up to 40%, rates of depression and anxiety among women with medically complex pregnancies are 3 times greater than those in community-based samples of pregnant women. However, mental health care is not a component of routine hospital-based antenatal care for medically high-risk pregnant women. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of the hospital-based implementation of a Web-based integrated mental health intervention comprising psychosocial assessment, referral, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for antenatal inpatients. Methods This study is a quasi-experimental design. Pregnant women are eligible to participate if they are (1) <37 weeks gestation, (2) admitted to the antenatal inpatient unit for >72 hours, (3) able to speak and read English or be willing to use a translation service to assist with completion of the questionnaires and intervention, (4) able to complete follow-up email questionnaires, (5) >16 years of age, and (6) not actively suicidal. Women admitted to the unit for induction (eg, <72-hour length of stay) are excluded. A minimum sample of 54 women will be recruited from the antenatal high-risk unit of a large, urban tertiary care hospital. All women will complete a Web-based psychosocial assessment and 6 Web-based CBT modules. Results of the psychosocial assessment will be used by a Web-based clinical decision support system to generate a clinical risk score and clinician prompts to provide recommendations for the best treatment and referral options. The primary outcome is self-reported prenatal depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment. Secondary outcomes are postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms; self-efficacy; mastery; self-esteem; sleep; relationship quality; coping; resilience; Apgar score; gestational age; birth weight; maternal-infant attachment; infant behavior and development; parenting stress/competence at 3-months postpartum; and intervention cost-effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility, and acceptability. All women will complete email questionnaires at 6-8 weeks postrecruitment and 3-months postpartum. Qualitative interviews with 10-15 health care providers and 15-30 women will provide data on feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Results The study was funded in September, 2014 and ethics was approved in November, 2014. Subject recruitment will begin January, 2015 and results are expected in December, 2015. Results of this study will determine (1) the effectiveness of an integrated Web-based prenatal mental health intervention on maternal and infant outcomes and (2) the feasibility of implementation of the intervention on a high-risk antenatal unit. Conclusions This study will provide evidence and guidance regarding the implementation of a Web-based mental health program into routine hospital-based care for women with medically high-risk pregnancies. PMID:25595167
Janes-Kelley, Selikke; Tyrrell, Janie; Clark, Lorna; Hamza, Deena; Holmes, Penny; Parkes, Cheryl; Moyo, Nomagugu; McDonald, Sheila; Austin, Marie-Paule
Background The current status of needlestick or sharp injuries of hospital nurses and factors associated with the injuries have not been systematically examined with representative registered nurse samples in South Korea. Objective To examine the incidence to needlestick or sharp injuries and identify the factors associated with such injuries among hospital nurses in South Korea. Design, settings and participants A cross-sectional survey of hospital nurses in South Korea. Data were collected from 3079 registered nurses in 60 acute hospitals in South Korea by a stratified random sampling method based on the region and number of beds. Methods The dependent variable was the occurrence of needlestick or sharp injuries in the last year, and the independent variables were protective equipment, nurse characteristics, and hospital characteristics. This study employed logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equation clustering by hospital to identify the factors associated with needlestick or sharp injuries. Results The majority (70.4%) of the hospital nurses had experienced needlestick or sharp injuries in the previous year. The non-use of safety containers for disposal of sharps and needles, less working experience as a registered nurse, poor work environments in regards to staffing and resource adequacy, and high emotional exhaustion significantly increased risk for needlestick or sharp injuries. Working in perioperative units also significantly increased the risk for such injuries but working in intensive care units, psychiatry, and obstetrics wards showed a significantly lower risk than medical–surgical wards. Conclusions The occurrence of needlestick or sharp injuries of registered nurses was associated with organizational characteristics as well as protective equipment and nurse characteristics. Hospitals can prevent or reduce such injuries by establishing better work environments in terms of staffing and resource adequacy, minimizing emotional exhaustion, and retaining more experienced nurses. All hospitals should make safety-engineered equipment available to registered nurses. Hospitals as well as specific units showing higher risk for needlestick and sharp injuries should implement organizational strategies to prevent such injuries. It is also necessary to establish a monitoring system of needlestick and sharp injuries at a hospital level and a reporting system at the national level in South Korea. PMID:22854116
Cho, Eunhee; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Choi, Miyoung; Park, Su Ho; Yoo, Il Young; Aiken, Linda H.
Background The aim of our study was to identify patient- and care-related factors that are associated with patients’ satisfaction with psychiatric hospital care, using a specific, self-administered questionnaire based exclusively on the patient’s point of view: the Satisfaction with Psychiatry Care Questionnaire-22 (SATISPSY-22). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the psychiatric departments of two French public university teaching hospitals. The data collected included sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, care characteristics, and the SATISPSY-22. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine the variables potentially associated with satisfaction levels. Results Two hundred seventy patients were enrolled in our study. Only one moderate association was found between satisfaction and sociodemographic characteristics: the personal experience dimension with age (?=0.15). Clinical improvement was moderately associated with higher global satisfaction (?=?0.15), higher satisfaction with quality of care (?=?0.19), and higher satisfaction with food (?=?0.18). Stronger associations with satisfaction were found for care characteristics, particularly the therapeutic alliance with all of the satisfaction dimensions (?, 0.20–0.43) except food, and for seclusion with global satisfaction (?=?0.33) and personal experience (?=?0.32). Patients with previous hospitalization also had a higher level of satisfaction with quality of care compared with patients who were admitted for the first time (?=?0.15). Conclusion This study has identified a number of potential determinants of satisfaction. The therapeutic relationship and seclusion were the most important features associated with a patient’s satisfaction. These factors might be amenable through intervention, which, in turn, might be expected to improve satisfaction, patients’ management, and health outcomes in psychiatric hospitals. PMID:25368515
Zendjidjian, Xavier Y; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe; Loundou, Anderson; Parola, Nathalie; Faugère, Melanie; Boyer, Laurent
A group of children (N=60) about to undergo elective surgery for hernias, tonsillectomies, or urinary-genital tract difficulties were shown on hospital admission either a relevant peer modeling film of a child being hospitalized and receiving surgery or an unrelated control film. (Author)
Melamed, Barbara G.; Siegel, Lawrence J.
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties. PMID:23197315
Rogers, Katherine D.
The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). The 3 assessment measures were translated into BSL and piloted with the Deaf signing population in the United Kingdom (n = 113). Participants completed the PHQ-9, GAD-7, WSAS, and Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) online. The reliability and validity of the BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been examined and were found to be good. The construct validity for the PHQ-9 BSL version did not find the single-factor solution as found in the hearing population. The BSL versions of PHQ-9, GAD-7, and WSAS have been produced in BSL and can be used with the signing Deaf population in the United Kingdom. This means that now there are accessible mental health assessments available for Deaf people who are BSL users, which could assist in the early identification of mental health difficulties. PMID:23197315
Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R; Kendal, Sarah
The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai
We report our experience with the use of monthly physician questionnaires, in conjunction with traditional in-house monitoring, for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) in inpatients after hospital discharge and in ambulatory surgical patients (i.e., those not requiring perioperative hospitalization) over a 7-year period (July 1988 to June 1995) involving 156,977 surgical procedures. The mean annual response rate was 73%
Farrin A. Manian; Lynn Meyer
The nursing outcomes of hospitalized patients whose plans of care include death anxiety, which is a diagnosis among patients at the end-of-life, are obscure. The authors of the current article applied data mining techniques to nursing plan-of-care data for patients diagnosed with death anxiety, as defined by North American Nursing Diagnosis Association International, from four different hospitals to examine nursing care outcomes and associated factors. Results indicate that <50% of patients met the expected outcome of comfortable death. Gerontology unit patients were more likely to meet the expected outcome than patients from other unit types, although results were not statistically significant. Younger patients (i.e., age <65) had a lower chance of meeting the outcome compared with older patients (i.e., age ?65) (?(2)(1) = 9.266, p < 0.004). Longer stays improved the chances of meeting the outcome (?(2)(2) = 6.47, p < 0.04). Results indicate that death anxiety outcomes are suboptimal and suggest the need to better educate clinicians about diagnosing and treating death anxiety among patients who face the end-of-life transition. PMID:25157534
Lodhi, Muhammad Kamran; Cheema, Umer Iftikhar; Stifter, Janet; Wilkie, Diana J; Keenan, Gail M; Yao, Yingwei; Ansari, Rashid; Khokhar, Ashfaq A
Background: Regarding the close and continuous interaction of infertility staff with hopeless infertile couples and in the contrary the atmosphere of happiness especially in obstetric wards make a sense that considering anxiety and depression it would be a difference between these two wards. Objective: The objective of this study is the comparison of the rate of depression and anxiety between the two wards of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive-correlation study based on cross-sectional method. 199 individuals who were the staff of infertility and obstetrics and gynecology wards in four provinces enrolled in this study through stratified sampling. Data collection was done by demographic questionnaire, Spiel Berger and Beck depression inventory tests. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA test. Results: The result showed the rate of anxiety in obstetrics and gynecology staff of Isfahan center (54.69±13.58) and depression rate had increased level in infertility staff of Shiraz center (14.94±10.87). Overall, there was significant correlation between anxiety, depression and work place (p=0.047, 0.008 respectively). According to ANOVA test, the mean value of anxiety level was higher in the staff of four obstetrics and gynecology centers and one infertility center Conclusion: As long as we know that infertile couples have little chance for success rate and obstetrics and gynecology wards patients have little risk of failure in treatment, it could be mentioned that the anxiety and depression in the staff are not correlated with the client illness. PMID:24799878
Pourmovahed, Zahra; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Halvaei, Iman; Nabi, Ali; Ghasemi, Mojdeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh
(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Anxiety about and fear of dental treatment have been recognized as sources of problems in the management of child dental patients. It has been suggested that some individuals who are fearful of or anxious about dental treatment have a constitutional vulnerability to anxiety disorders as is evidenced by the presence of multiple fears, generalized anxiety or panic disorders. Concerning the child population, maternal anxiety is considered to be a major factor affecting the behaviour of young children expecting dental intervention. The aim of the study was to the measure general anxiety of children undergoing dental intervention and to compare it with some personality characteristics, such as psychopathology, extroversion and neuroticism. The evaluated sample comprises 50 children (31 girls and 19 boys), randomly selected at the University Dental Hospital, Skopje. The mean age for girls was 11.4 (± 2.4) years, and for boys 10.7 (± 2.6) years. Two psychometric instruments were used: the General Anxiety Scale for Children (GASC) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The study confirms the presence of a high anxiety level (evaluated with GASC) among all children undergoing dental intervention. It also confirmed differences in anxiety scores between girls and boys, girls having higher scores for anxiety. Personality characteristics (evaluated with EPQ) showed low psychopathological traits, moderate extroversion and neuroticism, but accentuated insincerity (evaluated with L scale). L scales are lower with increasing age, but P scores rise with age, which could be related to puberty. No correlation was found between personality traits (obtained scores for EPQ) and anxiety except for neuroticism, which is positively correlated with the level of anxiety. In the management of dental anxiety some response measures (psychological support, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques) are recommended. Key words: anxiety, dental intervention, personality characteristics, children. PMID:24566020
Pop-Jordanova, N; Sarakinova, O; Markovska-Simoska, S; Loleska, S
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the WHO (five) Well Being Index (WBI-5), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), and physicians’ recognition of depressive disorders, and to recommend specific cut-off points for clinical decision making. Methods: A total of 501 outpatients completed each of the three depression screening
Bernd Löwe; Robert L. Spitzer; Kerstin Gräfe; Kurt Kroenke; Andrea Quenter; Stephan Zipfel; Christine Buchholz; Steffen Witte; Wolfgang Herzog
To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…
Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.
Anxiety disorders and physical comorbidity: increased prevalence but reduced relevance of specific risk factors for hospital-based mortality during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions.
Anxiety disorders (AD) are associated with an increase in physical comorbidities, but the effects of these diseases on hospital-based mortality are unclear. Consequently, we investigated whether the burden of physical comorbidity and its relevance on hospital-based mortality differed between individuals with and without AD during a 12.5-year observation period in general hospital admissions. During 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2012, 11,481 AD individuals were admitted to seven General Manchester Hospitals. All comorbidities with a prevalence ?1 % were compared with those of 114,810 randomly selected and group-matched hospital controls of the same age and gender, regardless of priority of diagnoses or specialized treatments. Comorbidities that increased the risk of hospital-based mortality (but not mortality outside of the hospital) were identified using multivariate logistic regression analyses. AD individuals compared to controls had a substantial excess comorbidity, but a reduced hospital-based mortality rate. Twenty-two physical comorbidities were increased in AD individuals compared with controls, which included cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The most frequent physical comorbidities in AD individuals were hypertension, asthma, cataract, and ischaemic heart disease. Risk factors for hospital-based mortality in AD individuals were lung cancer, alcoholic liver disease, respiratory failure, heart failure, pneumonia, bronchitis, non-specific dementia, breast cancer, COPD, gallbladder calculus, atrial fibrillation, and angina. The impact of atrial fibrillation, angina, and gallbladder calculus on hospital-based mortality was higher in AD individuals than in controls. In contrast, other mortality risk factors had an equal or lower impact on hospital-based mortality in sample comparisons. Therefore AD individuals have a higher burden of physical comorbidity that is associated with a reduced risk of general hospital-based mortality. Atrial fibrillation, angina, and gallbladder calculus are major risk factors for general hospital-based mortality in AD individuals. PMID:25472881
Schoepf, Dieter; Heun, Reinhard
Psychological morbidity is common in chronic respiratory diseases. The diagnostic accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and risk factors for comorbid depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are addressed. Consecutive COPD patients (GOLD stage I–IV, 40–75 years old) were enrolled in a multicentre, cross-sectional cohort study. Diagnosis of depression was ascertained through clinical records. Lung function, HADS score, 6-minute walking test (6-MWT), MRC dyspnoea score, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) were evaluated. Two hundred fifty-nine COPD patients (mean age 62.5 years; 32% female; mean FEV1 48% predicted) were included. Patients diagnosed with depression (29/259; 11.2%) had significantly higher HADS-D and HADS-Total scores than nondepressed patients (median (quartiles) HADS-D 6 [4; 9] versus 4 [2; 7], median HADS-Total 14 [10; 20] versus 8 [5; 14]). Receiver-operating characteristic plots showed moderate accuracy for HADS-D, AUC 0.662 (95%CI 0.601–0.719), and HADS-Total, AUC 0.681 (95%CI 0.620–0.737), with optimal cut-off scores of >5 and >9, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 62.1% and 62.6% for HADS-D compared to 75.9% and 55.2% for HADS-Total. Age, comorbidities, sex, and lower airflow limitation predicted depression. The HADS exhibits low diagnostic accuracy for depression in COPD patients. Younger men with comorbidities are at increased risk for depression. PMID:25548667
Nowak, Christoph; Sievi, Noriane A.; Clarenbach, Christian F.; Schwarz, Esther Irene; Schlatzer, Christian; Brack, Thomas; Brutsche, Martin; Frey, Martin; Irani, Sarosh; Leuppi, Jörg D.; Rüdiger, Jochen; Thurnheer, Robert; Kohler, Malcolm
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and proficiency in relation to organ donation among staff members of intensive care units (ICUs) in donor hospitals, and possibly identify areas for improvement. The investigation was carried out as a collaboration between the transplant center and appointed key persons in all 17 ICUs in 15 hospitals in northern Denmark.
L. Bøgh; M. Madsen
Background. Despite, increasing number of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) being performed, there is a paucity of Indian studies on the psychological effects of PTCA. Aim. To study the relation of anxiety, depression, and health related quality of life with outcome after PTCA. Methods. A total of 35 patients undergoing PTCA were included in the present project with their informed consent. All patients filled a specially designed proforma, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Coronary Scale, Seattle Angina Questionnaire, and a health related quality of life measure (EQ 5D) one day before undergoing PTCA. Three days after PTCA patients were reassessed with the Hospital anxiety & depression scale, Seattle angina questionnaire and the EQ 5D. Results. Analysis showed that 46% had significant anxiety and 32.1% had significant depression before PTCA. Following successful PTCA, none of the patients had significant anxiety, and only 2 (3.6%) had significant depression. On the Seattle Angina Questionnaire, physical limitation reduced from 67.9 to 48. Disease perception improved from 21.2 to 37.1. On the EQ5D, the health status improved from 42.7 before PTCA to 78.7 after PTCA. Conclusion. Successful PTCA resulted in significant reduction in anxiety, depression, and physical limitation and improvement in disease perception and health status. PMID:24319368
Chaudhury, Suprakash; Srivastava, Kalpana
Background Implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) is regarded as core competence to improve healthcare quality. In the current study, we investigated the EBP of six groups of professionals: physicians, nurses, pharmacists, physical therapists, technicians, and other allied healthcare personnel. Methods A structured questionnaire survey of regional hospitals throughout Taiwan was conducted by post in 2011. Questionnaires were mailed to all healthcare workers of 11 randomly selected hospitals. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors for implementing EBP. Results In total, 6,160 returned questionnaires, including 645 from physicians, 4,206 from nurses, 430 from pharmacists, 179 from physical therapists, 537 from technicians, and 163 from other allied healthcare professionals, were valid for the analysis. Physicians and pharmacists were more aware of EBP than were the other professional groups (p?0.001). Positive attitudes toward and beliefs in EBP were significantly lower among nurses than in the other groups (p?0.001). Physicians had more sufficient knowledge and skills of EBP than did the other professionals (p?0.001); in addition, they implemented EBP for clinical decision-making more often and perceived fewer personal barriers to EBP (p?0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that EBP implementation was associated with the following characteristics of participants: EBP training, having a faculty position, academic degree, one's profession, and perceptions (beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, skills and barriers). Conclusions This study depicts various levels of EBP implementation among medical, nursing, pharmacological, and allied healthcare personnel. There were significant differences in their implementation of EBP. We observed that certain factors were associated with EBP implementation, including personal backgrounds and perceptions toward EBP. The data suggest that strategies for enhancing EBP implementation should differ for various groups of professionals. PMID:24063756
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals about pharmacovigilance in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH), Perambalur (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. The second primary objective was to assess the causation of underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as it needs to be well-assessed in India. The secondary objective was to compare the findings of this study with the results of the published studies from India on evaluation of the KAP of pharmacovigilance among healthcare professional. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) working in the DSMCH, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. Results: One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 101 responded. 62.4% healthcare workers gave correct response regarding the definition of pharmacovigilance. 75.2% of healthcare workers were aware regarding the existence of a National Pharmacovigilance Program of India. 69.3% healthcare professional agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation for them. Among the participants, 64.4% have experienced ADRs in patients, but only 22.8% have ever reported ADR to pharmacovigilance center. Unfortunately only 53.5% healthcare workers have been trained for reporting adverse reactions. But, 97% healthcare professionals agreed that reporting of ADR is necessary and 92.1% were of the view that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professional. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance is gradually improving among healthcare professionals, but unfortunately the actual practice of ADR reporting is still deficient among them.
Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa P.; Shivaranjani, R.; Vidyarthi, Surendra Kumar
This paper has been retracted due to a publisher's error: the order of the authors was incorrect. The Editor and Publisher of the Journal of Traumatic Stress apologize to the authors and our readership. The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) is a widely used measure of peritraumatic dissociation, and is presumably a unidimensional construct. Two hundred forty-seven individuals admitted to five hospitals after traumatic injury were administered the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the PDEQ. Factor analysis indicated that the PDEQ involved two factors containing four items each: one factor (altered awareness) indexes alterations in awareness and the other (derealization) reflects distortions in perceptions of the self and the world. Only the derealization factor was associated with acute stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Cross-validation with independent data provided only partial support for the 2-factor structure model. These data indicate that peritraumatic dissociation may involve two distinct constructs. PMID:19370700
Brooks, Robert; Bryant, Richard A; Silove, Derrick; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; McFarlane, Alexander C; Marmar, Charles R
The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) is a widely used measure of peritraumatic dissociation, and is presumably a unidimensional construct. Two hundred forty-seven individuals admitted to five hospitals after traumatic injury were administered the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the PDEQ. Factor analysis indicated that the PDEQ involved two factors containing four items each: one factor (altered awareness) indexes alterations in awareness and the other (derealization) reflects distortions in perceptions of the self and the world. Only the derealization factor was associated with acute stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Cross-validation with independent data provided only partial support for the 2-factor structure model. These data indicate that peritraumatic dissociation may involve two distinct constructs. PMID:19189282
Bryant, Richard A; Brooks, Robert; Silove, Derrick; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; McFarlane, Alexander C; Marmar, Charles R
Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the clinical phenomena of preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, and postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes were closely related. We examined this issue using data obtained by our laboratory over the past 6 years. Only children who underwent surgery and general anesthesia using sevoflurane/O(2)/N(2)O and who did not receive midazolam were recruited. Children's anxiety was assessed preoperatively with the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), emergence delirium was assessed in the postanesthesia care unit, and behavioral changes were assessed with the Post Hospital Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14. Regression analysis showed that the odds of having marked symptoms of emergence delirium increased by 10% for each increment of 10 points in the child's state anxiety score (mYPAS). The odds ratio of having new-onset postoperative maladaptive behavior changes was 1.43 for children with marked emergence status as compared with children with no symptoms of emergence delirium. A 10-point increase in state anxiety scores led to a 12.5% increase in the odds that the child would have a new-onset maladaptive behavioral change after the surgery. This finding is highly significant to practicing clinicians, who can now predict the development of adverse postoperative phenomena, such as emergence delirium and postoperative behavioral changes, based on levels of preoperative anxiety. PMID:15562048
Kain, Zeev N; Caldwell-Andrews, Alison A; Maranets, Inna; McClain, Brenda; Gaal, Dorothy; Mayes, Linda C; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Heping
Background The prevalence of depression and anxiety and its associated factors in cervical cancer are not well evaluated in China. Meanwhile, with increasing attention given to positive psychological variables in oncology field, there is a need to conduct a study to explore the integrative effects of positive psychological variables on depression/anxiety so as to provide patients a more holistic cancer care. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of depression/anxiety as well as the integrative effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy on depression/anxiety among Chinese cervical cancer patients. Methods A multi-centre, cross-sectional study was conducted of consecutive inpatients at the Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute and the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, northeast China. A total of 224 cervical cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic and clinic variables, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Herth Hope Index, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and General Self-Efficacy Scale during February and August 2013. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 52.2% and 65.6% in cervical cancer patients. The anxiety score was significantly higher in patients at the period of 4–6 months after diagnose and at cancer stage II. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope, optimism and general self-efficacy as a whole accounted for 31.3% variance of depression and 35.6% variance of anxiety. Under standardized estimate (?) sequence, hope, optimism and general self-efficacy significantly associated with depression, respectively; hope and optimism were also significant individual predictors of anxiety. Conclusions The high prevalence of depression and anxiety among cervical cancer patients should receive more attention in Chinese medical settings. More importantly, efforts to develop the integrated psychosocial interventions are effective and necessary to alleviate depression/anxiety in cervical cancer patients by synthesizing and integrating the individual protective effects of hope, optimism and general self-efficacy. PMID:24722558
Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety and depression symptoms in outpatient migraineurs in mainland China. In addition, we evaluated whether the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) provided sufficient validity to screen depression and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively at our headache clinic. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Demographic characteristics and clinical features were collected by headache questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms about migraineurs were assessed using HADS. Several questionnaires were simultaneously used to evaluate patients with depressive disorder including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and HADS. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to test the validity of HADS. 176 outpatients with migraine (81.8 % female) were included. Overall, 17.6 and 38.1 % participants had depression and anxiety, respectively. Possible risk factors for depression in migraineurs included headache intensity of first onset of migraine, migraine with presymptom, migraine with family history and migraine disability. The possible risk factors for anxiety included fixed attack time of headache in one day and poor sleeping, and age represented a protective factor for anxiety. The correlation coefficient of HADS-A and HADS-D with HAMA and HAMD was 0.666 and 0.508, respectively (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that depression and anxiety comorbidity in our mainland Chinese migraineurs are also common, and several risk factors were identified that may provide predictive value. These findings can help clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression in order to improve migraine management. PMID:22466285
Yong, Na; Hu, Hua; Fan, Xiaoping; Li, Xuelian; Ran, Li; Qu, Yuan; Wang, Yunfeng; Tan, Ge; Chen, Lixue; Zhou, Jiying
This study sought to analyse certain metric characteristics of the Ecuadorian version (EV) of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39 EV). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 137 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients attending a Movement Disorders Unit. Neurologists' assessments were based on Hoehn and Yahr (HY), Schwab and England and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scales. Patients' self-evaluations included the Hospital Anxiety
Pablo Martínez-Martín; Marcos Serrano-Dueñas; Verónica Vaca-Baquero
The responses of 271 outpatients with diagnoses of agoraphobia with panic attacks, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or depression (major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder) to the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ) and the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) were examined. Agoraphobics scored significantly higher than all other groups on fear of body sensations associated with anxiety. In
Dianne L. Chambless; Edward J. Gracely
Background As a part of nationwide healthcare reforms, the Chinese government launched web-based appointment systems (WAS) to provide a solution to problems around outpatient appointments and services. These have been in place in all Chinese public tertiary hospitals since 2009. Methods Questionnaires were collected from both patients and doctors in one large tertiary public hospital in Shanghai, China.Data were analyzed to measure their satisfaction and views about the WAS. Results The 1000 outpatients randomly selected for the survey were least satisfied about the waiting time to see a doctor. Even though the WAS provided a much more convenient booking method, only 17% of patients used it. Of the 197 doctors surveyed, over 90% thought it was necessary to provide alternative forms of appointment booking systems for outpatients. However, about 80% of those doctors who were not associated professors would like to provide an ‘on-the-spot’ appointment option, which would lead to longer waits for patients. Conclusions Patients were least satisfied about the waiting times. To effectively reduce appointment-waiting times is therefore an urgent issue. Despite the benefits of using the WAS, most patients still registered via the usual method of queuing, suggesting that hospitals and health service providers should promote and encourage the use of the WAS. Furthermore, Chinese health providers need to help doctors to take others’ opinions or feedback into consideration when treating patients to minimize the gap between patients’ and doctors’ opinions. These findings may provide useful information for both practitioners and regulators, and improve recognition of this efficient and useful booking system, which may have far-reaching and positive implications for China’s ongoing reforms. PMID:24912568
The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise
Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein
Background/Aims Rome criteria classifying functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) were updated. The aims of this study were to assess the spectra of FGID and to evaluate the applicability of Rome III criteria in Korea. Methods New patients who visited 2 primary clinics and 2 tertiary care hospitals were consecutively invited to complete questionnaires. These consisted of questionnaires for FGID based on Rome III criteria and symptom checklist-90-revised for somatization, depression and anxiety. Results A total of 786 patients was participated. Among them, FGID was observed in 49.7%. In the patients with FGID, functional dyspepsia was most common (46.0%) followed by irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, 40.2%). Functional dyspepsia was most common both in the primary care clinics and tertiary care hospitals. Postprandial distress syndrome was the most common subtype and the frequency of epigastric pain syndrome was low. There were few responders for constipation as Bristol types 1 and 2 and for diarrhea as types 6 and 7 in subtype classification using the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Thereby, unspecified IBS defined by stool form was unexpectedly common in 43.9% of IBS, whereas unspedified IBS defined by Rome III definition was 5.1%. Patients with overlap FGIDs had higher score of anxiety, depression or somatization. Conclusions FGIDs were common both in primary care clinics and tertiary care hospitals of Korea. Overlap FGIDs is still common by Rome III criteria, which may limits its wide application. PMID:21860820
Park, Jae Myung; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Sang Woo; Chung, In-Sik
In this study, an analytical methodology was developed for the determination of psycho-active drugs in the treated effluent of the University Hospital at the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS - Brazil. Samples were collected from point A (Emergency) and point B (General effluent). The adopted methodology included a pre-concentration procedure involving the use of solid phase extraction and determination by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The limit of detection for bromazepam and lorazepam was 4.9 ± 1.0 ng L(-1) and, for carbamazepine, clonazepam and diazepam was 6.1 ± 1.5 ng L(-1). The limit of quantification was 30.0 ± 1.1 ng L(-1), for bromazepam, clonazepam and lorazepam; for carbamazepine was 50.0 ± 1.8 ng L(-1) and was 40.0 ± 1.0 ng L(-1) for diazepam. The mean concentrations in the Emergency and General effluent treated currents were as follows: for bromazepam, 195 ± 6 ng L(-1) and 137 ± 7 ng L(-1); for carbamazepine, 590 ± 6 ng L(-1) and 461 ± 10 ng L(-1); for diazepam, 645 ± 1 ng L(-1) and 571 ± 10 ng L(-1); for lorazepam, 96 ± 7 ng L(-1) and 42 ± 4 ng L(-1); and for clonazepam, 134 ± 10 ng L(-1) and 57 ± 10 ng L(-1). A preliminary risk assessment was conducted: carbamazepine and diazepam require considerable attention owing to their environmental toxicity. The occurrence of these psychoactive-drugs and the environmental risks that they pose demonstrated the need for a more efficient treatment system. As far we are aware, there have been no comparable studies to this on the hazards of hospital effluents in Brazil, and very few that have carried out a risk assessment of psycho-active drugs in hospital effluent in general. PMID:24034828
de Almeida, Carlos Alberto A; Brenner, Carla G B; Minetto, Luciane; Mallmann, Carlos A; Martins, Ayrton F
Questionnaire data were obtained from 5867 participants attending a national anxiety screening program. These participants were selected from more than 15,000 respondents on the basis of never having received treatment for a mental health problem. A screening instrument was designed to assess five anxiety disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder). The present
Lawrence A Welkowitz; Elmer L Struening; John Pittman; Mary Guardino; Joan Welkowitz
This study aimed to explore the palliative care needs of inpatients in the final stages of illness and to analyze the factors that influence them. The survey comprised 349 inpatients in the terminal stage of disease. Needs were assessed with the Patient Needs Assessment in Palliative Care (PNAP) questionnaire; mental status was evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. The importance of needs varied with respect to patients' diagnosis, age, gender, religion, and their levels of anxiety and depression. Most frequently, predictors of needs importance were lower age, poorer functional status, higher anxiety, and lower depression scores. Unmet needs were more likely to be indicated by nonreligious patients with better functional status and higher anxiety and depression scores. PMID:25361612
Buzgova, Radka; Sikorova, Lucie; Jarosova, Darja
Background The developing world is faced with a high burden of anxiety disorders. The exact prevalence of anxiety disorders in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to aid policy development on tackling anxiety and depressive disorders in the country. This is the first pilot study to address the prevalence of anxiety disorders and their association with sociodemographic factors in Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among people visiting Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), a tertiary care facility in Karachi, Pakistan. The point prevalence of anxiety amongst the sample population, which comprised of patients and their attendants, excluding all health care personnel, was assessed using the validated Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The questionnaire was administered to 423 people. Descriptive statistics were performed for mean scores and proportions. Results The mean anxiety score of the population was 5.7 ± 3.86. About 28.3% had borderline or pathological anxiety. The factors found to be independently predicted with anxiety were, female sex (odds ratio (OR) = 2.14, 95% CI 1.36–3.36, p = 0.01); physical illness (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.06–2.64, p = 0.026); and psychiatric illness (OR = 1.176, 95% CI 1.0–3.1, p = 0.048). In the final multivariate model, female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2, 95% CI 1.28–3.22) and physical illness (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI 0.97–2.48) were found to be significant. Conclusion Further studies via nationally representative surveys need to be undertaken to fully grasp the scope of this emerging public health issue in Pakistan. PMID:17999756
Khan, Hassan; Kalia, Saira; Itrat, Ahmed; Khan, Abdullah; Kamal, Mahwash; Khan, Muhammad A; Khalid, Roha; Khalid, Salman; Javed, Sunniya; Javed, Sanniya; Umer, Affan; Naqvi, Haider
We investigated the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and its association with anxiety and depression among 1,493 Portuguese college students (age 17-69 years) at Piaget Institute. The assessment instruments were the Fonseca Anamnestic Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. TMD was present in 633 (42.4%) students, and anxiety or depression was present in 456 (30.5%) students. Regarding the association of TMD with anxiety and depression, 280 of the 633 students (61.4%) with TMD symptoms also had signs of anxiety or depression (P < 0.001). As compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.53-2.46; P < 0.001) for TMD. As compared with students without signs of anxiety or depression, students with such signs had an odds ratio of 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 2.42-3.84; P < 0.001) for TMD. College students from various fields of study and regions of Portugal had a high prevalence of TMD, which was significantly associated with anxiety and depression. PMID:24930749
Minghelli, Beatriz; Morgado, Marcos; Caro, Tatiana
Background Physicians’ poor mental health not only hinders their professional performance and affects the quality of healthcare provided but also adversely affects patients’ health outcomes. Few studies in China have evaluated the mental health of physicians. The purposes of this study are to quantify Chinese physicians’ anxiety and depressive symptoms as well as evaluate associated risk factors. Methods In our study, 2641 physicians working in public hospitals in Shenzhen in southern China were recruited and interviewed by using a structured questionnaire along with validated scales testing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results An estimated 25.67% of physicians had anxiety symptoms, 28.13% had depressive symptoms, and 19.01% had both anxiety and depressive symptoms. More than 10% of the participants often experienced workplace violence and 63.17% sometimes encountered it. Among our study population, anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with poor self-reported physical health, frequent workplace violence, lengthy working hours (more than 60 hours a week), frequent night shifts (twice or more per week), and lack of regular physical exercise. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that anxiety and depressive symptoms are common among physicians in China, and the doctor-patient relationship issue is particularly stressful. Interventions implemented to minimize workload, improve doctor-patient relationships, and assist physicians in developing healthier lifestyles are essential to combat anxiety and depressive symptoms among physicians, which may improve their professional performance. PMID:25050618
Chen, Wei; Dib, Hassan H.; Yang, Guoan; Zhuang, Runsen; Chen, Yuqi; Tong, Xinyue; Yin, Xiaoxv; Lu, Zuxun
Background Cystic fibrosis and asthma are considered among the chronic respiratory diseases. Taking care of the sick child by the mother-which is usually the main care taker- can be associated with high loads of stress and result in behavioral problems like anxiety, depression and change in sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the correlation between depression-anxiety and sleep quality in mothers of children suffering from cystic fibrosis and asthma hospitalized in Masih Daneshvari Hospital. Materials and Methods This was an analytical descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 148 subjects (mothers of children with cystic fibrosis and asthma hospitalized in Masih Daneshvari Hospital) during 2008-2010. Data were collected using a questionnaire for demographic characteristics, sleep quality and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Pittsburgh sleep quality index questionnaire (PQSI) was developed by Dr. Buysse and colleagues at the University of Pittsburgh's Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic in the late 1980s. The PSQI was created after observing that most patients with psychiatric disorders had sleep disorders as well. Also, required data regarding the pulmonary function of patients was extracted from their medical records. Results In this study, high levels of anxiety and depression and poor sleep quality requiring clinical intervention were seen in 37.2%, 29.1% and 39% of mothers, respectively. A significant association was detected between sleep quality and depression-anxiety (P-value < 0.005). Also, depression-anxiety was significantly correlated with number of children and smoking (P-value < 0.005). A total of 20% of mothers suffering from depression and 14.3% of mothers with anxiety disorder had a history of cigarette smoking (P-value < 0.005). No significant association was found between substance abuse and occupation with depression-anxiety. Susceptibility was only correlated with anxiety (P-value < 0.005). Conclusion Our study showed a significant association between sleep quality and depression-anxiety in mothers of children suffering from cystic fibrosis and asthma. Greater attention should be paid to prevent development and aggravation of these conditions in susceptible mothers who are the main care taker of their sick child with chronic diseases. PMID:25191400
Safa, Mitra; Talischi, Firoozeh; Alizadeh, Saeideh
Objective The Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 assesses metacognitive beliefs and processes which are central to the metacognitive model of emotional disorder. As recent studies have begun to explore the utility of this model for understanding emotional distress after cancer diagnosis, it is important also to assess the validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 for use in cancer populations. Methods 229 patients with primary breast or prostate cancer completed the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale pre-treatment and again 12 months later. The structure and validity of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 were assessed using factor analyses and structural equation modelling. Results Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provided evidence supporting the validity of the previously published 5-factor structure of the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30. Specifically, both pre-treatment and 12 months later, this solution provided the best fit to the data and all items loaded on their expected factors. Structural equation modelling indicated that two dimensions of metacognition (positive and negative beliefs about worry) were significantly associated with anxiety and depression as predicted, providing further evidence of validity. Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that the Metacognitions Questionnaire 30 is a valid measure for use in cancer populations. PMID:25215527
Cook, Sharon A.; Salmon, Peter; Dunn, Graham; Fisher, Peter
\\u000a Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychological disorders, with a lifetime prevalence of 31.2% and a 12-month prevalence\\u000a of 19.1% in the United States (Kessler et al., 2005; Kessler, Chiu, Demler, Merikangas, & Walters, 2005). Individuals with\\u000a an anxiety disorder present with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms. Particularly unique to anxiety are the\\u000a symptoms of physical tension
Rose C. Smith; Lisa S. Elwood; Matthew T. Feldner; Bunmi O. Olatunji
Little attention has been paid to the demotivating potential of new technologies in foreign language research. Thus, this study aims to investigate Internet anxiety among foreign language learners and to determine the relationships between Internet anxiety and certain variables. A background questionnaire, an Internet information test, and an…
Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…
Studies examining fear of death and anxiety have consistently shown these constructs to be positively related. Although several measures of anxiety have been examined, fear of death has always been treated unidimensionally. The present research was an attempt to examine eight types of fear of death in relation to two types of anxiety. Questionnaire data were collected from 375 male
Jon W. Hoelter; Janice A. Hoelter
This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…
This study investigated the utility of combining the Child Trauma Screening Questionnaire (CTSQ) [Kenardy, J. A., Spence, S. H., & Macleod, A. C. (2006). Screening for post-traumatic stress disorder in children after accidental injury. Pediatrics, 118, 1002–1009] and children's heart rate (HR; emergency department and 24-h post-admission) to identify children likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at 1
Katherine A. Olsson; Justin A. Kenardy; Alexandra C. De Young; Susan H. Spence
1 General Hospital Psychiatry 29 (2007) 285-293 Title: Use of the PRIME-MD Patient Health 5, France 2 Service Universitaire de Psychiatrie Adulte, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 39 av, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, London SE5 8AF, UK
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Background Symptoms of anxiety and depression are common among family members of ICU patients and are culturally dependent. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and associated factors in family members of ICU patients in two Central European countries. Methods We conducted a prospective multicenter study involving 22 ICUs (250 beds) in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression in family members of ICU patients. Family member understanding of the patient’s condition was assessed using a structured interview and a questionnaire was used to assess satisfaction with family member/ICU staff communication. Results Twenty two intensive care units (both adult and pediatric) in academic medical centers and community hospitals participated in the study. During a 6 month period, 405 family members of 293 patients were enrolled. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms – 78% and 54%, respectively. Information leaflets distributed to family members did not lower incidences of anxiety/depression. Family members with symptoms of depression reported higher levels of satisfaction according to the modified Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. Extended contact between staff and family members was the only related factor associated with anxiety reduction (p?=?0.001). Conclusion Family members of ICU patients in East European countries suffer from symptoms of anxiety and depression. We identified limited family member/ICU staff communication as an important health care professional-related factor associated with a higher incidence of symptoms of anxiety. This factor is potentially amenable to improvement and may serve as a target for proactive intervention proactive intervention. PMID:24467834
This study aimed to identify factors contributing to anxiety at induction of anaesthesia in children. One hundred and twenty children aged five to twelve years and scheduled for surgery requiring general anaesthesia were included. Children were interviewed and assessed prior to surgery. Parents completed anxiety measures prior to surgery and were interviewed after the induction of anaesthesia. The level of children's anxiety was determined at the time of induction of anaesthesia by the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. Factors associated with increased levels of anxiety in the children included increased number of people in the room at induction of anaesthesia; longer waiting time between admission at the hospital and induction of anaesthesia; negative memories of previous hospital experiences; and having a mother who does not practise a religion. Suggestions for implementation of the findings and for future research are provided. PMID:12635399
Wollin, S R; Plummer, J L; Owen, H; Hawkins, R M F; Materazzo, F
Background: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is often presented with major depression (MD). GAD-MD can be a chronic and disabling condition, and patients suffering from this disorder often respond poorly to psychopharmacological treatment and experience side effects with medication. Therefore, there is a high demand for effective nonpharmacological therapy for GAD-MD patients. The current study explores the use of a radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) device in the treatment of GAD-MD. Methods: Participants were 24 patients diagnosed with GAD-MD being treated at a public psychiatric center. All patients were dissatisfied with their current pharmacological treatment. Patients were evaluated using the 21-item Hamilton Depression (HAM-D) rating scale and the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90R) before and after REAC brain stimulation treatment cycles. Results: After REAC brain stimulation treatment, all patients experienced a significant reduction in anxiety and depression. These results were confirmed by physician examination, HAM-D scores, and SCL-90R total scores. Conclusion: These results indicate a role for REAC brain stimulation in the management of psychiatric conditions, specifically, GAD-MD comorbidity. REAC treatments are synergistic to drug therapy and appear to be helpful in reducing the side effects of medication. Future studies should evaluate the long-term effects of REAC treatment. PMID:21857785
Olivieri, Elisabetta Bourget; Vecchiato, Caterina; Ignaccolo, Nunziatina; Mannu, Piero; Castagna, Alessandro; Aravagli, Lucia; Fontani, Vania; Rinaldi, Salvatore
Introduction: Anxiety and depression are common in older people living in the community. The aim of the study was to investigate their impact on clinical outcomes during a randomised controlled trial investigating the cost benefits of influenza vaccination in fit and healthy, independent living 65–74 year olds. Subjects and methods: A total of 729 people were recruited. Participants completed the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and EuroQol EQ-5D quality of life questionnaire immediately before receiving vaccination and every two months for the next six months after this. Side effects three days after vaccination and Barthel score at baseline were also recorded. Results: At baseline the prevalence of "definite" anxiety in this sample (HADS score ?11) was 4% and 1.2% of individuals had definite depression (HADS score ?11). Individuals with anxiety or depression (HADS score ?8) were more likely to complain of systemic side effects after vaccination and have a lower Barthel index score (p<0.001). Quality of life as measured by the EQ-5D visual analogue scale was reduced (p<0.001) at all time periods in those individuals with both anxiety and depression (HADS score ?8 on both scales). Conclusion: Although the prevalence of anxiety and depression in this sample was low, people with anxiety or depression were more likely to suffer from perceived side effects after influenza vaccine and have a lower Barthel and EQ-5D visual analogue score. In future studies the effect of anxiety and depression on older participants should be remembered and care taken to ensure that they do not affect results more than the intervention under study. PMID:12496325
Allsup, S; Gosney, M
Examined the notion that personality questionnaires can be used to predict different styles of coping with anxiety, as expressed by individual differences in patterns of autonomic, verbal, and nonverbal reactions. In line with earlier modifications of the repression–sensitization concept, the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS) were used to select 4 groups of 12
Jens B. Asendorpf; Klaus R. Scherer
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale-Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a 47-item parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression, with scales corresponding to the DSM-IV categories of Separation Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Major Depressive…
Ebesutani, Chad; Bernstein, Adam; Nakamura, Brad J.; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Weisz, John R.
The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale--Parent Version (RCADS-P) is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the "DSM" diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder. The…
Ebesutani, Chad; Chorpita, Bruce F.; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K.; Nakamura, Brad J.; Regan, Jennifer; Lynch, Roxanna E.
Examined relationship betwen death anxiety and cognitive/emotional responses to the threat of nuclear war in 345 college students. Results from Templer Death Anxiety Scale and questionnaire about nuclear war found death anxiety positively related to nuclear anxiety, and negligibly associated with perceptions of political efficacy and support for…
Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others
This study investigates anxiety and defense styles in eating disorders. Seventy eating disorder (ED) patients and fifty-one female matched control subjects completed State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and 88-items Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ). ED patients were more anxious in actual situations and more anxiety prone in general. They relied on maladaptive action and Image distorting defense style. Bulimic anorexic (BAN) patients and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients differed in defense styles from restrictive anorexic (RAN) patients who displayed no significant difference in either state and trait anxiety or in defense styles when compared to healthy patients. Different levels of anxiety and ego defense maturity are present in ED patients. The almost normal ego functioning of RAN patients could be explained by pseudomaturity, tendency to control external and internal environment and the unconscious efforts to imitate normality to avoid conflicts. PMID:12955902
Vidovi?, Vesna; Henigsberg, Neven; Juresa, Vesna
Study objective To assess if less than 11 hours off work between work shifts (quick returns) was related to insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder among nurses. Methods A questionnaire including established instruments measuring insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire), anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and shift work disorder was administered. Among the 1990 Norwegian nurses who participated in the study; 264 nurses had no quick returns, 724 had 1–30 quick returns and 892 had more than 30 quick returns during the past year. 110 nurses did not report the number of quick returns during the past year. The prevalence of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder was calculated within the three groups of nurses. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quick returns and such complaints. Results We found a significant positive association between quick returns and insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue and shift work disorder. Anxiety and depression were not related to working quick returns. Conclusions There is a health hazard associated with quick returns. Further research should aim to investigate if workplace strategies aimed at reducing the number of quick returns may reduce complaints among workers. PMID:23976964
Eldevik, Maria Fagerbakke; Flo, Elisabeth; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn
Psychological problems as state anxiety (SA) in the work environment has negative effect on the employees life especially shift work nurses, i.e. negative effect on mental and physical health (sleep quality, eye fatigue and comfort thermal). The purpose of this study was determination of effects of state anxiety and thermal comfort on sleep quality and eye fatigue in shift work nurses. Methods: This cross-sectional research conducted on 82 shift-work personnel of 18 nursing workstations of Isfahan hospitals in 2012. To measure the SA, sleep quality, visual fatigue and thermal comfort, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, Pittsburg sleep quality index, eye fatigue questionnaire and thermal comfort questionnaire were used respectively. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, student test and correlation analysis. Results: Correlation between SA and sleep quality was ?0.664(P < 0001), Pearson correlation between SA and thermal comfort was ?0.276(P = 0.016) and between SA and eye fatigue was 0.57 (P < 0001). Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that improvement of thermal conditions and reduce state anxiety level can be reduce eye fatigue and increase the sleep quality in shift work nurses. PMID:25077165
Dehghan, Habibollah; Azmoon, Hiva; Souri, Shiva; Akbari, Jafar
We use a simple method for evaluating antioxidative status, by measuring the redox potential of urine, and correlate the findings with measures of anxiety and depression. We include 63 individuals (28 males and 35 females aged between 20 and 65 years). The validated anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and the validated BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) questionnaire were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Antioxidative status was determined by measuring the redox potential of urine collected in standard conditions. Correlation of the antioxidant capacity of urines evaluated using the ferric ion/specific dye method or through redox potential using the platinum electrode demonstrated the suitability of this last procedure. We found that normal anxiety state values corresponded to low urine redox potentials, whereas higher anxiety states were associated with high urinary redox potential. We also found that individuals with normal BDI values had significantly lower urine redox potentials than individuals with higher BDI values. PMID:24876911
Grases, G.; Colom, M. A.; Fernandez, R. A.; Costa-Bauzá, A.; Grases, F.
Psychologists can gain insight into human behavior by examining what people feel about, know about, and do with, computers. Two extreme reactions to computers are computer phobia, or anxiety, and computer addiction, or "hacking". A four-part questionnaire was developed to measure computer anxiety. The first part is a projective technique which…
While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…
Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.
Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to…
Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry
Objective To investigate symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART), and to study the relationship of demographic data, pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Design Descriptive, a part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’. Setting All university clinics in Sweden performing gamete donation. Population A consecutive sample of 214 lesbian couples requesting assisted reproduction, 165 of whom participated. Methods Participants individually completed three study-specific questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): time point 1 (T1), at commencement of ART; time point 2 (T2), approximately 2 months after treatment; and time point 3 (T3), 2–5 years after first treatment. Main outcome measures Anxiety and depression (HADS), pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans. Results The vast majority of lesbian women undergoing assisted reproduction reported no symptoms of anxiety and depression at the three assessment points. A higher percentage of the treated women, compared with the partners, reported symptoms of anxiety at T2 (14% versus 5%, P = 0.011) and T3 (10% versus 4%, P = 0.018), as well as symptoms of depression at T2 (4% versus 0%, P = 0.03) and T3 (3% versus 0%, P = 0.035). The overall pregnancy outcome was high; almost three-quarters of lesbian couples gave birth 2–5 years after sperm donation treatments. Open-ended comments illustrated joy and satisfaction about family building. Conclusion Lesbian women in Sweden reported good psychological health before and after treatment with donated sperm. PMID:23489411
Borneskog, C; Sydsjö, G; Lampic, C; Bladh, M; Svanberg, AS
Developed a brief, reliable, and valid questionnaire for measuring attitudes toward death and dying. In Stage 1, 4 groups of 30–82 yr old Ss (34 psychology and 27 gerontology graduate students, 25 senior-citizen-center attendees, and 14 nursing home residents) completed the Death Anxiety Questionnaire (DAQ), Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine Depression Scale (a revised
Hope R. Conte; Marcella B. Weiner; Robert Plutchik
Introduction Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities. Methodology This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS). Pearson’s chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS. Results Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65). Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%), borderline (110, 22%) or anxious (245, 49%). Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%), borderline (123, 24.6%) or depressed (159, 31.8%). Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05). Social support (SPS score) mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05). Conclusion Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors. PMID:25629925
Waqas, Ahmed; Raza, Nahal; Lodhi, Haneen Wajid; Muhammad, Zerwah; Jamal, Mehak; Rehman, Abdul
The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) was administered to 123 outpatients with principal diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder with agoraphobia, and panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD) to examine the specificity of pathological worry for GAD. The mean PSWQ scores in patients with GAD and SAD were significantly higher than the mean PSWQ scores
Vladan Starcevic; David Berle; Denise Milicevic; Anthony Hannan; Claire Lamplugh; Guy D. Eslick
The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety…
Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Hart, John
The study described here aimed to examine the relations between test anxiety, competence beliefs and achievement goals, and in particular if the relations between competence beliefs and test anxiety were moderated by achievement goals. Pupils in their first year of secondary schooling completed self-report questionnaires for test anxiety,…
Putwain, David William; Daniels, Rachel Anne
Background The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has a high morbi-mortality rate, including physical deficiencies and functional limitations with impact on quality of life. Cardiovascular rehabilitation 1 (CVR1) should begin as early as possible, to enable improvement in functional capacity and quality of life. Previous studies have shown association of cardiovascular diseases with quality of life, in which depression and anxiety are the domains most altered. The aim of the study is to verify the impact of an acute coronary event on quality of life at the moment of hospital discharge. Methodology This was a cross-sectional study, with ACS patients hospitalized in ICU of a private hospital in the city of Salvador, Brazil, submitted to CVR1. The quality of life questionnaire Euroqol-5D was applied on discharge from hospital. Patients included in the study were those with ACV, who had medical permission to walk, had not been submitted to acute surgical treatment, were time and space oriented, and over the age of 18 years. Patients excluded from the study were those with cognitive, orthopedic and neurological problems, who used orthesis on a lower limb, and were in any condition of risk at the time of beginning with CVR1. Data were collected by a previously trained ICU team. Results Data were collected of 63 patients who revealed compromise in the domains of pain/feeling ill (20.63%) and anxiety/depression (38.09%). Statistical significance was observed in the association between sex and pain/feeling ill (P < 0.01), sex and anxiety/depression (P < 0.01), diabetes and mobility (P < 0.01), hereditary factors and anxiety/depression (p < 0.01), BMI and pain/feeling ill (P < 0.01). Conclusion In this sample of patients, on discharge from hospital after ACS, the pain/feeling ill and anxiety/depression domains were shown to be compromised. PMID:25110540
Dias, Cristiane Maria Carvalho Costa; Macedo, Luciana Bilitario; Gomes, Lilian Tapioca Jones Cunha; de Oliveira, Paula Luzia Seixas Pereira; Albuquerque, Iana Verena Santana; Lemos, Amanda Queiroz; Brasil, Cristina Aires; Prado, Eloisa Pires Ferreira; Macedo, Pedro Santiago; de Oliveira, Francisco Tiago Oliveira; dos Reis, Helena Franca Correia; Darze, Eduardo Sahade; Guimaraes, Armenio Costa
Objective Hospitalization of a child can cause severe anxiety and stress in the parents, especially for the mother. This stress consequently affects the treatment course of the child. Hereby, we investigate the impact of different stressors in mothers of hospitalized children. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, 225 mothers of hospitalized children in the pediatric ward of Besat hospital were randomly selected and studied. Data collection tool was a two-part questionnaire gathered by interviewing the mother. The first part included demographic information of the patients. The second part included questions regarding stressors in four different categories; child-related factors, environmental factors, socioeconomic factors and health professional factors. SPSS 16.5 was used for statistical analysis and data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and T test. Results In the child-related factor category, fear of child death (84%); in the socioeconomic factor category, fear of disease in the other siblings (84%); in the environmental factor category, unpleasant odors in the ward (56%); and in the health professional category, not enough explanation about inserting IV lines, (54.2%) constituted the most important factors. There was a meaningful correlation between the stressors and the mothers’ age and occupation, child age, days of hospitalization, types of admission and health insurance coverage, but there was no meaningful correlation between stressors and other factors. Conclusion Professional and in depth training programs should be provided for health care providers and nursing staff regarding dealing with mothers of hospitalized children. PMID:24665279
HASAN TEHRANI, Tayebeh; HAGHIGHI, Mohammad; BAZMAMOUN, Hasan
Samples of 451 (205 male and 246 female) and 189 (78 male and 111 female) introductory psychology students completed measures of irrational beliefs, trait anxiety, test anxiety, speech anxiety, fear of negative social evaluation, and social avoidance and distress. Simultaneous regressions on full and extreme group distributions showed no sex and sex ×belief interaction effects in the prediction of anxieties,
Jerry L. Deffenbacher; Weare A. Zwemer; Mark A. Whisman; Robert A. Hill; Robin D. Sloan
Generalized Anxiety Disorder: WhenWorry Gets Out of Control Are you extremely worried about an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). national institute of mental Health U.S. Department of HealtH anD HUman ServiceS national institutes of Health #12;Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD
Bandettini, Peter A.
This study evaluated the association of level of anxiety in children with and without sleep bruxism (SB). The study was performed with 84 six- to eigth-years-old children, divided into two groups: with bruxism (BG) and without bruxism (CG). Following the criteria purposed by American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) to determine SB, the presence of tooth wear has been verified through clinical examinations, and the parents have answered a questionnaire about their children's behavior and habits. Additionally, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) was applied to parents of the selected patients. Data analysis revealed a statistical significant difference between the groups (Student's t-test, p = 0.0136). Based on the results, anxiety assessment revealed that children with bruxism have reached higher levels in the STAIC scale than the non-bruxism group. Therefore, it indicates a direct relationship between the presence of anxiety disorder and the onset of bruxism in children. PMID:25627888
Oliveira, Marcelo Tomás de; Bittencourt, Sandra Teixeira; Marcon, Karina; Destro, Samia; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo
Comorbidity between bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders has attracted considerable attention in recent years. However,\\u000a a majority of the earlier studies examined anxiety disorders in acutely ill patients resulting in a possible confounding effect\\u000a of the affective episodes. This study examines the prevalence of anxiety disorders in remitted bipolar subjects recruited\\u000a from a psychiatric hospital in India and their effect
A. Zutshi; Y. C. Janardhan Reddy; K. Thennarasu; C. R. Chandrashekhar
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between anxiety and event-free survival (i.e., composite endpoint of death, emergency department visits, or hospitalizations) for patients with HF, and examine whether behavioral and physiologic mechanisms mediate any association between anxiety and outcomes. METHODS In this longitudinal study, patients with HF completed the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory, and heart rate variability and plasma norepinephrine level were measured. Dietary and medication adherence were measured with a 24-hour urine sodium level and the Medication Event Monitoring System, respectively. Patients were followed at least 1 year for event-free survival. RESULTS A total of 147 patients were enrolled. Patients with high anxiety had a shorter (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.3, P = .03) period of event-free survival than patients with lower anxiety. Anxiety independently predicted medication adherence (P = .008), which in turn predicted event-free survival (HR 2.0, CI 1.2–3.3, P = .008). The effect of anxiety (P = .17) on event-free survival was less significant when the regression model included both anxiety and medication adherence than when the model only included anxiety (P = .03), indicating that medication adherence mediated the relationship between anxiety and event-free survival. CONCLUSION This is the first study to show that medication nonadherence links anxiety and event-free survival for patients with HF. Interventions that reduce anxiety and improve adherence may favorably benefit outcomes. PMID:21453974
De Jong, Marla J.; Chung, Misook L.; Wu, Jia-Rong; Riegel, Barbara; Rayens, Mary Kay; Moser, Debra K.
Anxiety disorders is one of the most prevalent diagnostic categories identified in children and adolescents. This chapter\\u000a provides an overview of the epidemiology of childhood anxiety disorders. Several pathways of etiology are presented, specifically\\u000a genetics, parent–child attachment, parental anxiety and parenting style, and life experiences. Six of the common childhood\\u000a anxiety disorders, separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, generalized
Gail A. Bernstein; Andrea M. Victor
Background Mindfulness has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the ways in which specific facets of mindfulness relate to symptoms of anxiety and depression remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between specific facets of mindfulness (e.g., observing, describing, nonjudging, acting with awareness, and nonreactivity) and dimensions of anxiety and depression symptoms (e.g., anxious arousal, general distress-anxiety, general distress-depression, and anhedonic depression) while controlling for shared variance among variables. Methods Participants were 187 treatment-seeking adults. Mindfulness was measured using the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. Results Bivariate correlations showed that all facets of mindfulness were significantly related to all dimensions of anxiety and depression with two exceptions: describing was unrelated to general distress -anxiety, and observing was unrelated to all symptom clusters. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine associations between mindfulness facets and depression and anxiety symptoms. Significant and marginally significant pathways were retained to construct a more parsimonious model and model fit indices were examined. The parsimonious model indicated that nonreactivity was significantly inversely associated with general distress anxiety symptoms. Describing was significantly inversely associated with anxious arousal, while observing was significantly positively associated with it. Nonjudging and nonreactivity were significantly inversely related to general distress-depression and anhedonic depression symptomatology. Acting with awareness was not significantly associated with any dimensions of anxiety or depression. Conclusions Findings support associations between specific facets of mindfulness and dimensions of anxiety and depression and highlight the potential utility of targeting these specific aspects of mindfulness in interventions for anxiety and mood disorders. PMID:23768665
Desrosiers, Alethea; Klemanski, David H.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…
Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.
The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity. Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire and a measure of Type D personality traits. Postoperative cardiac morbidity was confirmed after surgery during the index hospitalization and included stroke,renal failure, ventilation>24 h, deep sternal wound infection, reoperation, arrhythmia and 30-day mortality at any location (n=59, 37.3% of total). After adjustment for age, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertension, urgency of surgery and time spent on cardiopulmonary bypass generalized anxiety disorder was associated with cardiac morbidity (odds ratio [OR]=3.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-9.67, p=0.03). Adjusted analysis of personality traits revealed the NA component of Type D personality was associated with cardiac morbidity (OR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14, p=0.03). The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire subscales were not associated with increased morbidity risk. Affective disorders, affective phenotypes, and personality traits were differentially associated with post-cardiac surgery morbidity outcomes independent of cardiac surgery morbidity risk factors. Concurrent investigation of depression and anxiety with respect to cardiac outcomes warrants further research. PMID:21491341
Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S; Winefield, Helen R; Baker, Robert A; Turnbull, Deborah A; Denollet, Johan
ObjectivesTo determine the prevalence of significant health anxiety (hypochondriasis) in patients aged 16–75 in cardiology, respiratory medicine, neurological, endocrine and gastrointestinal clinics in general hospitals in London, Middlesex and North Nottinghamshire.
Peter Tyrer; Sylvia Cooper; Mike Crawford; Simon Dupont; John Green; David Murphy; Paul Salkovskis; Georgina Smith; Duolao Wang; Sharandeep Bhogal; Mary Keeling; Gemma Loebenberg; Richard Seivewright; Gemma Walker; Faye Cooper; Rachel Evered; Stephanie Kings; Kofi Kramo; Antoinette McNulty; Jessica Nagar; Steven Reid; Rahil Sanatinia; Julie Sinclair; David Trevor; Charlotte Watson; Helen Tyrer
To increase the sustainability of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in primary care for late-life anxiety, we incorporated nonexpert counselors, options for telephone meetings, and integration with primary care clinicians. This open trial examines the feasibility, satisfaction, and clinical outcomes of CBT delivered by experienced and nonexperienced counselors for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Clinical outcomes assessed worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory and Structured Interview Guide for Hamilton Anxiety Scale). After 3 months of treatment, Cohen's d effect sizes for worry and anxiety ranged from 0.48 to 0.78. Patients treated by experienced and nonexperienced counselors had similar reductions in worry and anxiety, although treatment outcomes were more improved on the Beck Anxiety Inventory for experienced therapists. Preliminary results suggest that adapted CBT can effectively reduce worry. The piloted modifications can provide acceptable and feasible evidence-based care. PMID:23588228
Calleo, Jessica S; Bush, Amber L; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy L; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Rhoades, Howard M; Novy, Diane M; Masozera, Nicholas; Williams, Susan; Horsfield, Matthew; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A
Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…
Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.
Aims: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and related factors of anxiety and depression in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Materials and Methods: A total of 115 DCM patients were consecutively recruited into present study, and general information was recorded. Zung’s self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were used to evaluate the anxiety and depression of these patients. In addition, factors influencing the anxiety and depression were also analyzed in these patients. Results: Of 115 patients, 23.4% were identified as anxiety and 21.7% depression. The mental work, NYHA class, arrhythmia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide, hospitalization days and hospitalization cost were significantly related to the anxiety and depression in patients with DCM. Conclusion: DCM patients have a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. Patients with mental work, poor cardiac function and arrhythmia are susceptible to anxiety and depression.
Guan, Shu; Fang, Xiang; Hu, Xue
Seventy dementia patients in hospital and two control groups comprising 50 dementia sufferers in the community and 50 mentally fit elderly people, were investigated to determine which social factors such as life events were associated with the presence of anxiety symptoms. Very high levels of social contact, problems in the patient-carer relationship and high physical dependency were all associated with
Martin Orrell; Paul Bebbington
Ninety hospitalized psychiatric patients were administered the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. The S's were then required to make up sentences in response to a stimulus card on which were printed a verb and one of six pronouns. E reinforced any sentence starting with I or WE by saying \\
Illness anxiety disorder is a preoccupation that physical symptoms are signs of a serious illness, even when there is ... People with anxiety illness disorder (IAD) are overly focused on, and always thinking about, their physical health. They have an unrealistic ...
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192…
Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley
Anxiety symptoms and disorders have long been described in schizophrenia. This article reviews the epidemiology, phenomenology,\\u000a and neurobiologic underpinnings of comorbid anxiety symptoms and disorders in schizophrenia. Recent literature was obtained\\u000a by Medline searches using key words relating to schizophrenia and anxiety symptoms or disorders. There is some evidence that\\u000a anxiety may be a core symptom dimension in schizophrenia, although
Jacqueline E. Muller; Liezl Koen; Soraya Seedat; Robin A. Emsley; Daniel J. Stein
The past decade has seen a rapid progression in our knowledge of the neurobiological basis of fear and anxiety. Specific neurochemical and neuropeptide systems have been demonstrated to play important roles in the behaviors associated with fear and anxiety-producing stimuli. Long-term dysregulation of these systems appears to contribute to the development of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder
A. Neumeister; R. J. Daher; D. S. Charney
Test anxiety is a variable cognitive, affective, or physiological response, or any combination thereof, occurring during evaluative, self-report examinations. Research suggests that the cognitive, affective, and physiological components of test anxiety are interrelated and that these components in addition to global test anxiety, are negatively…
Hickey, Kevin S.
This study aimed to investigate, through a cross-sectional study, factors that influence anxiety levels and feelings of a nursing team who care for terminal patients with cancer. The sample consisted of 50 Nursing Assistants and Technicians from the Hospital reference on cancer care in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Data were collected through the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results showed that 69.8% of the professionals have medium anxiety levels and 30.2% have high levels of anxiety. The Number of Patients attended and "Working in another Institution" interfered in the anxiety levels. The most remarkable professionals' feelings were suffering and sadness, and Child was the most difficult age group to care for. Studies which develop support strategies to those health professionals are necessary to reduce and/or to prevent high anxiety and stress levels. PMID:18235955
Faria, Daniella Antunes Pousa; Maia, Eulália Maria Chaves
Data from several studies indicate an association of headache with anxiety disorders. In this study, we assessed and differentiated\\u000a anxiety disorders in 100 headache patients by using the PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire) screening tool for generalised\\u000a anxiety disorder (GAD) and the ACQ (Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire) and BSQ (Body Sensation Questionnaire) for panic\\u000a disorder (PD). Control groups were constructed: (1)
D. Mehlsteibl; C. Schankin; P. Hering; P. Sostak; A. Straube
Background Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Methods Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire – Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Results Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), Reciprocal Social Interaction (t(351)=4.73, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), communication (t(344)=3.62, p<.001, d=.43, r=.21) and repetitive, restrictive and stereotyped behaviors subscales (t(353)=3.15, p=.002, d=.37, r=.18). Furthermore, children with Social Anxiety Disorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. Limitations The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Conclusions Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. PMID:25451393
Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy
The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze levels of computer anxiety in nurses at a public university hospital in Turkey. This study investigated the dimensions of computer anxiety in terms of computer literacy, self-efficacy, physical arousal, affective feelings, positive beliefs, and negative beliefs. Moreover in this study it was aimed to analyze relationships among computer anxiety and some characteristics of nurses (age, gender etc.). This study based on Beckers and Schmidt's computer anxiety model. The Beckers and Schmidt's Computer Anxiety Scale (BSCAS) was used for data collection. BSCAS comprises six factors: computer literacy, self-efficacy, physical arousal in the presence of computers, affective feelings towards computers, positive beliefs, and negative beliefs. At the end of the data collection period, 175 nurses were received from the population. The response rate was 43.75 %. This study showed that a majority of nurses had medium levels of computer anxiety. Overall computer anxiety means score was 12.11?±?1.72. Computer anxiety has significant relationship with age (r?=?-.153; p?.05), personal computer ownership (r?=?.171; p?.05). The highest correlation was between overall computer anxiety and self efficacy (r?=?-.859), the lowest correlation was between overall computer and negative beliefs (r?=?-.653). Multiple regression analysis revealed that computer anxiety of nurses was predicted significantly by self efficacy, affective feelings, physical arousal, computer literacy, positive beliefs, and negative beliefs, respectively. PMID:25526705
Top, Mehmet; Y?lmaz, Ali
Anxiety disorders, particularly generalized anxiety, panic, and social phobia, occur in up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This rate is higher than in normal or other disease comparison populations. Current evidence suggests that anxiety may not be a psychological reaction to the illness but rather may be linked to specific neurobiologic processes accompanying PD. Anxiety in PD often coexists with depression. The optimal pharmacologic treatment for anxiety in patients with PD has not been established, but available information about the use of anxiolytics in PD is reviewed. Further study of the relationship between anxiety and PD may provide an excellent opportunity to clarify the neurobiologic substrate of anxiety itself. PMID:9116473
Richard, I H; Schiffer, R B; Kurlan, R
The link between anxiety and negative social expectancies was examined by comparing 47 anxiety-disordered children with 31 nonanxiety-disordered controls on social expectancies, social anxiety, and self-perceived social competence. Participants were exposed to a videotape of confederate children playing a game, being told the children were next door. In anticipation of joining the play, social expectations were assessed via thought-listing and a questionnaire. Parent, teacher, and child measures of sociability were completed prior to the experimental session. Results indicated that anxiety-disordered children reported significantly more negative social expectations, lower social self-competence, and higher levels of social anxiety than controls. Parents and teachers each rated the anxiety-disordered children as significantly more socially maladjusted than controls. Social anxiety was the best predictor of social expectancies. Given the importance of healthy peer relations, treatment implications for anxiety-disordered children are highlighted. PMID:9276781
Chansky, T E; Kendall, P C
A number of factors are believed to confer risk for anxiety development in children; however, cultural variation of purported risk factors remains unclear. We examined relations between controlling and rejecting parenting styles, parental modeling of anxious behaviors, child interpretive biases, and child anxiety in a mixed clinically anxious (n = 27) and non-clinical (n = 20) sample of Latino children and at least one of their parents. Families completed discussion-based tasks and questionnaires in a lab setting. Results indicated that child anxiety was: linked with parental control and child interpretative biases; associated with parental modeling of anxious behaviors at a trend level; and not associated with low parental acceptance. Findings that controlling parenting and child interpretive biases were associated with anxiety extend current theories of anxiety development to the Latino population. We speculate that strong family ties may buffer Latino children from detrimental effects of perceived low parental acceptance. PMID:23434545
Varela, R. Enrique; Niditch, Laura A.; Hensley-Maloney, Lauren; Moore, Kathryn W.; Creveling, C. Christiane
A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational study aimed to investigate the association of sex and the presence of anxiety and depression after hospital discharge in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Fifty-nine patients undergoing PCI and receiving outpatient treatment in the first seven months after hospital discharge were evaluated. To assess the symptoms of anxiety and depression the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used. To test the possible associations between the variables anxiety, depression and sex the Chi-square test was used with a significance level of 5%. The results indicated a greater number of women with depression and the association between the variables sex and depression was statistically significant. In relation to anxiety, cases were more frequent in males and the association between the variables sex and anxiety was not statistically significant. PMID:24626358
Furuya, Rejane Kiyomi; Costa, Eliana de Cássia Arantes; Coelho, Mariana; Richter, Vitor César; Dessotte, Carina Aparecida Marosti; Schmidt, André; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida
Four different patterns of biased ratings of facial expressions of emotions have been found in socially anxious participants: higher negative ratings of (1) negative, (2) neutral, and (3) positive facial expressions than nonanxious controls. As a fourth pattern, some studies have found no group differences in ratings of facial expressions of emotion. However, these studies usually employed valence and arousal ratings that arguably may be less able to reflect processing of social information. We examined the relationship between social anxiety and face ratings for perceived trustworthiness given that trustworthiness is an inherently socially relevant construct. Improving on earlier analytical strategies, we evaluated the four previously found result patterns using a Bayesian approach. Ninety-eight undergraduates rated 198 face stimuli on perceived trustworthiness. Subsequently, participants completed social anxiety questionnaires to assess the severity of social fears. Bayesian modeling indicated that the probability that social anxiety did not influence judgments of trustworthiness had at least three times more empirical support in our sample than assuming any kind of negative interpretation bias in social anxiety. We concluded that the deviant interpretation of facial trustworthiness is not a relevant aspect in social anxiety. PMID:24041032
Cooper, Ruth; Doehrmann, Oliver; Fang, Angela; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hoijtink, Herbert J A; Hofmann, Stefan G
Current measures for major depressive disorder focus primarily on the assessment of depressive symptoms, while often omitting other common features. However, the presence of comorbid features in the anxiety spectrum influences outcome and may effect treatment. More comprehensive measures of depression are needed that include the assessment of symptoms in the anxiety-depression spectrum. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), which assesses irritability, anger attacks, and anxiety symptoms together with the commonly considered symptoms of depression. Analysis of the factor structure of the SDQ identified 5 subscales, including one in the anxiety-depression spectrum, with adequate internal consistency and concurrent validity. The SDQ may be a valuable new tool to better characterize depression and identify and administer more targeted interventions. PMID:25275853
Pedrelli, Paola; Blais, Mark A; Alpert, Jonathan E; Shelton, Richard C; Walker, Rosemary S W; Fava, Maurizio
The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a level 7 nuclear accident. Among those affected by this combined disaster were many pregnant and parturient women. Sixteen months after the earthquake, we conducted a questionnaire survey on anxiety among 259 women who gave birth around the time of the earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture, one of the affected areas. Participants reported 12 categories of anxiety, including anxiety over radioactivity. This study aimed to determine anxiety over radioactivity among this specific population and to record measures for future study. Anxiety over radiation was classified into seven subcategories: food safety, outdoor safety, effects on the fetuses of pregnant women, effects on children, radiation exposure, economic problems, and distrust of information disclosed. This study confirmed that concrete types of anxiety over radiation were keenly felt by mothers who had experienced the disaster who were currently raising children. The findings suggest the need to provide accurate information to these mothers, who are otherwise inundated with miscellaneous confusing information. PMID:25363115
Yoshii, Hatsumi; Saito, Hidemitsu; Kikuchi, Saya; Ueno, Takashi; Sato, Kineko
\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of the descriptive epidemiology of anxiety disorders based on recently completed surveys\\u000a of the general population. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders is shown to be quite high, but with considerable variation\\u000a from the most prevalent (specific phobias) to the least prevalent (agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder) disorders.\\u000a Age-of-onset (AOO) of anxiety disorders
Ronald C. Kessler; Ayelet Meron Ruscio; Katherine Shear; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen
Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-autonomic nervous system may play major roles in the arousal response to stress. It has been suggested that these systems may be particularly vulnerable to prolonged or repeated stress, further leading to a dysfunctional arousal state and pathological anxiety states, Polysomnographic studies documented limited alteration of sleep in anxiety disorders. There is some indication for alteration in sleep maintenance in generalized anxiety disorder and for both sleep initiation and maintenance in panic disorder; no clear picture emerges for obsessive-compulsive disorder or posttraumatic stress disorder. Finally, an unequivocal sleep architecture profile that could specifically relate to a particular anxiety disorder could not be evidenced; in contrast, conflicting results are often found for the same disorder. Discrepancies between studies could have been related to illness severity, diagnostic comorbidity, and duration of illness. A brief treatment approach for each anxiety disorder is also suggested with a special focus on sleep. PMID:22033804
This study investigated the role of metacognition as a mediator of the effect of test anxiety on a surface approach to studying. The following scales were completed by 109 undergraduate social sciences students: Approaches and Study Skills Inventories for Students (ASSIST), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ), and Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Positive…
Spada, Marcantonio M.; Nikcevic, Ana V.; Moneta, Giovanni B.; Ireson, Judy
A measure of threat about musical performance based on Kelly's (1955) personal construct theory, an Irrational Belief Questionnaire based on Ellis's (1962) rational emotive therapy, and a State Anxiety Inventory were administered to 33 college music majors during the beginning of the quarter. The State Anxiety Inventory was readministered three days prior to student participation in required music juries, involving
Jerome J. Tobacyk; Alan Downs
The aim of this study was to prepare a model for computer anxiety through investigating the relationship of achievement goals and epistemological beliefs with computer anxiety. In order to fulfill this, 375 undergraduate students (218 female and 157 male) from the University of Tehran were chosen through relative class sampling. They completed a questionnaire composed of an achievement goals scale,
Reza G. Jahromi; Masoud G. Lavasani; Ahmad Rastegar; Alireza Mooghali
This study examined the relation between gender role orientation and fear and anxiety in a sample of nonclinic-referred children (N = 209) ages 10 to 13 years. Children and their parents completed questionnaires assessing children's gender role orientation, toy and activity preferences, and fear and anxiety. Results generally indicated that…
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Knoops, Miranda
Background: Comorbidity between adult social anxiety disorder and major depression is extensive. Considerably less information about this relationship is available among youth. Methods: A randomly selected (from enrollees in a pediatric primary care clinic) sample of 190 families with children between the ages of 8 and 17 responded by mail to questionnaires assessing social anxiety, depression, and social functioning. Parents
Denise A Chavira; Murray B Stein; Kelly Bailey; Martin T Stein
In a replication of a previous study of the incidence and contributing factors in anxiety, depression and stress in Victorian parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a sample of 107 Gold Coast parents completed a questionnaire that assessed their demographic backgrounds, anxiety and depression scores on standardised inventories, and also tapped several aspects of those factors that
Vicki Bitsika; Christopher F. Sharpley
The level of test anxiety in mathematics subjects among early undergraduate students at the University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus is studied in this article. The sample consists of 206 students taking several mathematics modules who completed the questionnaires on test anxiety just before they entered the venue for midterm examinations. The…
Karjanto, Natanael; Yong, Su Ting
This study examined the relationship between "theory of mind" and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships--Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not…
Hunefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti
Administered a 4-part questionnaire, including Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale, the Death Anxiety Scale, Belief in Afterlife Scale-Form A, and the Fear of Death Scale, to 300 college-age Ss. Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between belief in an external locus of control and death anxiety or between externality and belief in afterlife.
Alan L. Berman; James E. Hays
We present prevalence and treatment utilization rates for child anxiety disorders in a university-affiliated primary care clinic. Families were recruited from a pediatric patient list and 714 families participated in an initial study wherein they completed child anxiety questionnaires. According to parent and child self-report questionnaires (n=714), 22% and 20% of children, respectively, were above a suggested clinical cutoff on a brief anxiety screen; 19% and 14% of children exceeded clinical cutoffs on a separate social anxiety questionnaire. All families were invited to participate in a second study that included the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Version and questions about treatment utilization; telephone interviews with 190 parents showed 1-year prevalence rates of DSM-IV child disorders to be 10.0% (se=2.2%) for specific phobia, 6.8% (se=1.8%) for social phobia, 3.2% (se=1.3%) for generalized anxiety disorder, 0.5% (se=.7%) for selective mutism, 1.6% (se=.9%) for major depressive disorder, 1.1% (se=.7%) for dysthymia, and 12.6% (se=2.4%) for attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Among children with a current anxiety disorder, 31% had received counseling or medication treatment during their lifetime, compared to 40% of children with depression and 79% with ADHD. Adolescent age and being Caucasian were predictors of psychotherapy use; having an ADHD diagnosis was a predictor of both psychotherapy and medication use. The high prevalence of impairing anxiety disorders, in concert with the very low extent of treatment utilization, suggests a need for methods to identify and disseminate empirically validated treatments for these disorders in the primary care setting. PMID:15643639
Chavira, Denise A; Stein, Murray B; Bailey, Kelly; Stein, Martin T
Background Individual-based cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is in short supply and expensive. Aims The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare mindfulness-based group therapy with treatment as usual (primarily individual-based CBT) in primary care patients with depressive, anxiety or stress and adjustment disorders. Method This 8-week RCT (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01476371) was conducted during spring 2012 at 16 general practices in Southern Sweden. Eligible patients (aged 20-64 years) scored ?10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, ?7 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or 13-34 on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (self-rated version). The power calculations were based on non-inferiority. In total, 215 patients were randomised. Ordinal mixed models were used for the analysis. Results For all scales and in both groups, the scores decreased significantly. There were no significant differences between the mindfulness and control groups. Conclusions Mindfulness-based group therapy was non-inferior to treatment as usual for patients with depressive, anxiety or stress and adjustment disorders. PMID:25431430
Sundquist, Jan; Lilja, Åsa; Palmér, Karolina; Memon, Ashfaque A; Wang, Xiao; Johansson, Leena Maria; Sundquist, Kristina
Objective to assess the effects of a workplace physical activity (WPA) program on levels of anxiety, depression, burnout, occupational stress and self-perception of health and work-related quality of life of a nursing team in a palliative care unit. Methods the WPA was conducted five days per week, lasting ten minutes, during three consecutive months. Twenty-one nursing professionals were evaluated before and after the intervention, with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Maslch Burnout Inventory, and the Job Stress Scale. The changes in self-perceived health and work-related quality of life were measured using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results the WPA did not yield significant results on the levels of anxiety, depression, burnout or occupational stress. However, after the intervention, participants reported improved perceptions of bodily pain and feeling of fatigue at work. Conclusion the WPA did not lead to beneficial effects on occupational stress and psychological variables, but it was well accepted by the nursing professionals, who reported improvement in perceptions of health and work-related quality of life.
Freitas, Anderson Rodrigues; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro
This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…
Haagen, C. Hess
Models based on modern theories of anxiety were used to develop a hypothesis concerned with the relationship of anxiety and/or the tendency to aggressive behavior and the tendency to depressive reactions in prisoners. Anxiety, aggression and depression scales were the instruments used in this study. Special emphasis was placed on the question as to whether there is a quantitative difference in anxiety and aggression in non-working as compared with working prisoners. Significant differences were found between working and non-working prisoners with regard to anxiety and depression. A difference was also calculated for the parameter of reactive aggression. In the following the far-reaching implications of these results for penological practice and perspectives for further studies are discussed. PMID:1468735
Lapornik, R; Lehofer, M; Posch, C
There is growing evidence linking psychological stress to atopic disease, particularly asthma. Anxiety sensitivity, which is the fear of anxiety-related symptoms, may be particularly important in the study of anxiety and atopic disease. The present study examined the association between atopy and anxiety sensitivity in adult asthmatics. A total of 217 asthma patients who had undergone standard pulmonary function and allergen skin prick testing were included. Participants completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Type D Personality Scale-16 and Beck Depression Inventory-II on the day of their asthma clinic visit. Total Anxiety Sensitivity Index score was found to be significantly higher in atopic (M = 17.15, SE = .9) versus non-atopic (M = 12.68, SE = 1.5) asthmatics, independent of age, sex, smoking status, asthma severity, asthma duration, and anxiolytic medication use (F = 6.11, p = .014). There was no evidence for a significant association between any of the other questionnaire scores and atopic status. PMID:18612807
Barone, Silvana; Bacon, Simon L; Campbell, Tavis S; Labrecque, Manon; Ditto, Blaine; Lavoie, Kim L
Benchmarks for multidimensional recovery after burn injury in young adults: the development, validation, and testing of the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children young adult burn outcome questionnaire.
Although data exist on burn survival, there are little data on long-term burn recovery. Patient-centered health outcomes are useful in monitoring and predicting recovery and evaluating treatments. An outcome questionnaire for young adult burn survivors was developed and tested. This 5-year (2003-2008) prospective, controlled, multicenter study included burned and nonburned adults ages 19 to 30 years. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaires were completed at initial contact, 10 days, and 6 and 12 months. Factor analysis established construct validity. Reliability assessments used Cronbach ? and test-retest. Recovery patterns were investigated using generalized linear models, with generalized estimating equations using mixed models and random effects. Burned (n = 153) and nonburned subjects (n = 112) completed 620 questionnaires (47 items). Time from injury to first questionnaire administration was 157 ± 36 days (mean ± SEM). Factor analysis included 15 factors: Physical Function, Fine Motor Function, Pain, Itch, Social Function Limited by Physical Function, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Sexual Function, Emotion, Family Function, Family Concern, Satisfaction With Symptom Relief, Satisfaction With Role, Work Reintegration, and Religion. Cronbach ? ranged from 0.72 to 0.92, with 11 scales >0.8. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.29 to 0.94, suggesting changes in underlying health status after burns. Recovery curves in five domains, Itch, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Family Concern, and Satisfaction with Symptom Relief, remained below the reference group at 24 months. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for multidimensional functional outcomes assessment. Recovery in some domains was incomplete. PMID:23511284
Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin; Li, Nien-Chen; Hinson, Michelle; Bauk, Helena; Peck, Michael; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G
Analyzed the nature of test anxiety and its relationships to performance and cognitive interference from the standpoint of attentional processes. A new instrument to assess dimensions of reactions to tests is presented, and its psychometric properties are described. The scales of the Reactions to Tests (RTT) questionnaire (Worry, Tension, Test-Irrelevant Thinking, Bodily Symptoms) were compared with regard to intellective performance
Irwin G. Sarason
This study examined putative subtypes of pathological gamblers (PGs) based on the Pathways model, and it also evaluated whether the subtypes would benefit differentially from treatment. Treatment-seeking PGs (N = 229) were categorized into Pathways subtypes based on scores from questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression, and impulsivity. The Addiction Severity Index—Gambling assessed severity of gambling problems at baseline, posttreatment, and 12-month
David M. Ledgerwood; Nancy M. Petry
The possibility that anxiety interferes with language learning has long interested scholars, language teachers, and language learners themselves. It is intuitive that anxiety would inhibit the learning and/or production of a second language (L2). The important term in the last sentence is "anxiety". The concept of anxiety is itself multi-faceted,…
Horwitz, Elaine K.
Background: Hospitalization causes anxiety for many patients. It increases when patients anticipate their turn for cardiac catheterization. Music therapy reduces the psychophysiologic effects of anxiety and stress through the relaxation response.Aim: To determine the effects of music therapy an anxiety, heart rate and arterial blood pressure in patients waiting for their scheduled cardiac catheterization.Methods: In a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 101
Wallace J. Hamel
The Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ) was developed to evaluate burden among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to examine its psychometric properties among caregivers of patients with eating disorders (ED). A prospective study was carried out, recruiting caregivers of patients with an ED attending two outpatient clinics in Bizkaia, Spain. Caregivers provided sociodemographic information and completed the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and the Anorectic Behaviour Observation Scale (ABOS). The same information was requested one year later. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provided satisfactory fit indexes. Almost all of the factor loadings were above 0.40. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were mostly superior to 0.70. The correlation coefficients between the IEQ domains and the other questionnaires were lower than the Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Known-groups validity was supported by significant differences in the IEQ mean scores according to certain variables, as contact hours, living with the patient, type of caregiver and gender. The indexes employed for the evaluation of responsiveness were between 0.13 and 0.99. The IEQ has good psychometric properties and can be used to evaluate burden among caregivers of patients with ED. PMID:22884308
González, Nerea; Bilbao, Amaia; Padierna, Angel; Martín, Josune; Orive, Miren; Quintana, José M
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off
George Christo; Susan L Jones; Samantha Haylett; Geoffrey M Stephenson; Robert M. H Lefever; Robin Lefever
Attachment theory provides a framework for understanding individual differences in chronic interpersonal stress. Attachment anxiety, a type of relationship insecurity characterized by worry about rejection and abandonment, is a chronic interpersonal stressor. Stress impacts cellular immunity, including herpesvirus reactivation. We investigated whether attachment anxiety was related to the expression of a latent herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), when individuals were being tested for breast or colon cancer and approximately 1 year later. Participants (N=183) completed a standard attachment questionnaire and provided blood to assess EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG antibody titers. Individuals with more attachment anxiety had higher EBV VCA IgG antibody titers than those with less attachment anxiety. The strength of the association between attachment anxiety and antibody titers was the same at both assessments. This study is the first to show an association between latent herpesvirus reactivation and attachment anxiety. Because elevated herpesvirus antibody titers reflect poorer cellular immune system control over the latent virus, these data suggest that high attachment anxiety is associated with cellular immune dysregulation. PMID:24945717
Fagundes, Christopher P; Jaremka, Lisa M; Glaser, Ronald; Alfano, Catherine M; Povoski, Stephen P; Lipari, Adele M; Agnese, Doreen M; Yee, Lisa D; Carson, William E; Farrar, William B; Malarkey, William B; Chen, Min; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K
The aim of the present study was to examine predictors of 'escape style' problem gambling among young Australian gamblers. Anxiety and dissociation are considered to be predictors of 'escape style' gambling behaviour although this assessment has neglected consideration of different modes of gambling. This study builds on existing research, to examine the role of anxiety and dissociation in the gambling habits of young Australian male and female gamblers. One hundred and forty-two participants aged between 18 and 35 years self-selected and completed an online questionnaire. The hypothesis that gamblers would have similar levels of dissociation and anxiety despite different modes of gambling was supported. The hypothesis that anxiety and dissociation would both together and uniquely predict problem gambling behaviour across a range of gambling modalities was supported. Further, the hypothesis that there would be an interaction effect between anxiety and dissociation such that their presence together would predict a higher degree of problem gambling behaviour was supported. Results suggest that anxiety and dissociation play an important role in 'escape style' gambling and that strategies to combat problem gambling may benefit from research targeting anxiety and attempting to rechannel dissociative behaviour into healthier pursuits. PMID:25371033
Cartmill, Tomas; Slatter, Tilsa; Wilkie, Brian
Background There is some evidence that quality of life measured by long disease-specific questionnaires may predict exacerbations in asthma and COPD, however brief quality of life tools, such as the Airways Questionnaire 20 (AQ20) or the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), have not yet been evaluated as predictors of hospital exacerbations. Objectives To determine the ability of brief specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires (AQ20 and CCQ) to predict emergency department visits (ED) and hospitalizations in patients with asthma and COPD, and to compare them to longer disease-specific questionnaires, such as the St George´s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Methods We conducted a two-year prospective cohort study of 208 adult patients (108 asthma, 100 COPD). Baseline sociodemographic, clinical, functional and psychological variables were assessed. All patients completed the AQ20 and the SGRQ. COPD patients also completed the CCQ and the CRQ, while asthmatic patients completed the AQLQ. We registered all exacerbations that required ED or hospitalizations in the follow-up period. Differences between groups (zero ED visits or hospitalizations versus???1 ED visits or hospitalizations) were tested with Pearson´s X2 or Fisher´s exact test for categorical variables, ANOVA for normally distributed continuous variables, and Mann–Whitney U test for non-normally distributed variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the predictive ability of each HRQoL questionnaire. Results In the first year of follow-up, the AQ20 scores predicted both ED visits (OR: 1.19; p?=?.004; AUC 0.723) and hospitalizations (OR: 1.21; p?=?.04; AUC 0.759) for asthma patients, and the CCQ emerged as independent predictor of ED visits in COPD patients (OR: 1.06; p?=?.036; AUC 0.651), after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables. Among the longer disease-specific questionnaires, only the AQLQ emerged as predictor of ED visits in asthma patients (OR: 0.9; p?=?.002; AUC 0.727). In the second year of follow-up, none of HRQoL questionnaires predicted exacerbations. Conclusions AQ20 predicts exacerbations in asthma and CCQ predicts ED visits in COPD in the first year of follow-up. Their predictive ability is similar to or even higher than that of longer disease-specific questionnaires. PMID:23706146
Background: High levels of childhood traumatic experiences have been observed among substance abusers. There has been insufficient study of the effects of childhood trauma in adulthood. Objective: The aim of this study is to research the relationship between childhood trauma, self-esteem, and levels of depression and anxiety in substance-dependent (SD) people. Method: This study took place between March 2012 and April 2013, at Bal?kl? Rum Hospital (Istanbul) substance dependency clinic. It included 50 patients diagnosed as substance dependent according to the criteria of DSM-IV as compared with 45 healthy controls. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Diagnosis (SCID-I) was used to identify Axis I disorders. All other data was collected using a semi-structured socio-demographic questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Findings: The total scores of the SD group on the CTQ and on its Emotional Abuse/Emotional Neglect (EA/EN), Physical Abuse (PA) and Sexual Abuse (SA) subscales were statistically significant. In relation to the healthy controls, the SD group scored higher on the RSES, BDI and BAI. A correlation was observed between the total scores of SD individuals on the CTQ and their scores on the RSES, BDI and BAI. Conclusion: This study showed high levels of childhood traumatic experiences for SD people and indicates that there may be a relationship between these experiences and their levels of self-esteem, depression and anxiety. PMID:25434460
Ekinci, Suat; Kandemir, Hasan
to develop postpartum depression  and that the development of the foetus and the child is negatively and coping strategies during late pregnancy and early postpartum. Methods: Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety Depression-Anxiety subscale and Carver's Brief COPE at two time points, namely during
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…
Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.
Personality traits and most anxiety disorders are strongly related. In this article, we review existing evidence for ways\\u000a in which personality traits may relate to anxiety disorders: 1) as predisposing factors, 2) as consequences, 3) as results\\u000a of common etiologies, and 4) as pathoplastic factors. Based on current information, we conclude the following: 1) Personality\\u000a traits such as high neuroticism,
Mina Brandes; O. Joseph Bienvenu
A questionnaire was administered to 1,929 applicants to Oxford University, including measures of trait anxiety, behavioural response to examinations and to breakdown in relationships. 635 of these applicants were admitted to the university and of these, 383 also responded to a questionnaire administered 4 years later, just before their final…
Mellanby, Jane; Zimdars, Anna
Background Depression and anxiety are two common normal responses to a chronic disease such as glaucoma. This study analysed the measurement properties of the depression screening instrument - Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) using Rasch analysis to determine if it can be used as a measure. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, the PHQ-9 was administered to primary glaucoma adults attending a glaucoma clinic of a tertiary eye care centre, South India. All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation. Patient demographics and sub-type of glaucoma were abstracted from the medical record. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the following properties of the PHQ-9: behaviour of the response categories, measurement precision (assessed using person separation reliability, PSR; minimum recommended value 0.80), unidimensionality (assessed using item fit [0.7–1.3] and principal components analysis of residuals), and targeting. Results 198 patients (mean age ± standard deviation ?=?59.83±12.34 years; 67% male) were included. The native PHQ-9 did not fit the Rasch model. The response categories showed disordered thresholds which became ordered after category reorganization. Measurement precision was below acceptable limits (0.62) and targeting was sub-optimal (?1.27 logits). Four items misfit that were deleted iteratively following which a set of five items fit the Rasch model. However measurement precision failed to improve and targeting worsened further (?1.62 logits). Conclusions The PHQ-9, in its present form, provides suboptimal assessment of depression in patients with glaucoma in India. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new depression instrument for our glaucoma population. A superior strategy would be to use the item bank for depression but this will also need to be validated in glaucoma patients before deciding its utility. PMID:24999659
Gothwal, Vijaya K.; Bagga, Deepak K.; Bharani, Seelam; Sumalini, Rebecca; Reddy, Shailaja P.
The effects of anger feelings (rated by the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory) and witnessing family violence on anxiety and depression (rated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were examined in 457 junior high school students. Anxiety and depression scores were correlated with frequencies of witnessing family violence. In a…
Kitamura, Toshinori; Hasui, Chieko
Background Negative trends in adolescent mental and subjective health are a challenge to public health work in Sweden and worldwide. Self-reported mental and subjective health complaints such as pain, sleeping problems, anxiety, and various stress-related problems seem to have increased over time among older adolescents, especially girls. The aim of this study has therefore been to investigate perceived stress, mental and subjective health complaints among older adolescents in Northern Sweden. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional school-based survey with a sample consisting of 16–18?year olds (n?=?1027), boys and girls, in the first two years of upper secondary school, from different vocational and academic programmes in three public upper secondary schools in a university town in northern Sweden. Prevalence of perceived stress, subjective health complaints, general self-rated health, anxiety, and depression were measured using a questionnaire, including the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results A large proportion of both girls and boys reported health complaints and perceived stress. There was a clear gender difference: two to three times as many girls as boys reported subjective health complaints, such as headache, tiredness and sleeping difficulties and musculoskeletal pain, as well as sadness and anxiety. High pressure and demands from school were experienced by 63.6% of girls and 38.5% of boys. Perceived stress in the form of pressure and demands correlated strongly with reported health complaints (r?=?0.71) and anxiety (r?=?0.71). Conclusions The results indicate that mental and subjective health complaints are prevalent during adolescence, especially in girls, and furthermore, that perceived stress and demands may be important explanatory factors. Future studies should pay attention to the balance between gender-related demands, perceived control and social support, particularly in the school environment, in order to prevent negative strain and stress-related ill-health. The gender gap in subjective adolescent health needs to be further explored. PMID:23158724
In their daily practice, the nurses note the patients' anxiety when they are in hospital for diagnosis exams. Considering this observation, we wanted to assess the potential benefits provided by the behavioural and relational techniques, such as sophrology, maintenance of the help relation, visualization-relaxation. In order to carry out this survey, we adopted the model of Betty NEUMAN, who relies on the concept of homeostasis and on the stress theory of Hans Seyle. The measurement of anxiety by the STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory), a scale worked out by SPIELBERGER, enabled us to prove that these relational tools, used by the nurses, made it possible for the patients to better mobilize their adjustment or coping strategies. Recommendations concerning the management of anxiety were set out as not to trigger an attitude of vigilant coping. PMID:10897742
Léophonte, P; Delon, S; Dalbiès, S; Fontes-Carrère, M; de Carvalho, E G; Lepage, S
Fear and\\/or anxiety about pain is a useful construct, in both theoretical and clinical terms. This article describes the development and refinement of the Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ), which exists in its most current form as the FPQ-III. Factor analytic refinement resulted in a 30-item FPQ-III which consists of Severe Pain, Minor Pain, and Medical Pain subscales. Internal consistency
Daniel W. McNeil; Avie J. Rainwater
Background and Objective : Research evidence supports the relationship of psychological and demographic factors with hypertension and these variables are strongest predictors of hypertension which are scarcely studied in Pakistan. The present study was carried out to explore the correlation of depression, anxiety, stress and demographic factors with hypertension. Method: We used correlation research design and a sample of (N = 237), hypertensive patients (N = 137) and their age matched healthy controls (N = 100) was taken from hospitals. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) was used to assess depression, anxiety and stress. Results: Results indicated significant positive correlation between depression (?2MH = 104.18, p < .001), anxiety (?2MH = 78.48, p < .001), stress (?2MH = 110.95, p < .001) and overall negative states (?2MH = 97.43, p < .001) with hypertension. Depression (OR = 1.44, p < .01), anxiety (OR = 1. 76, p < .01) stress (OR = 1.37, p < .01), job and dependents, working hours and weight turned out as predictors of hypertension. Conclusion: Hypertension has significant positive relationship with depression, anxiety, stress and with demographic variables. The findings of the present study will contribute in the existing knowledge of health professionals to enhance public awareness regarding the harmful outcomes of depression, anxiety and stress upon human health.
Mushtaq, Mamoona; Najam, Najma
Objective: To assess hospital waste management in nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted on the staffs of nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow from September 2012 to March 2013. A total of eight hospitals were chosen as the study sample size. Simple random sampling technique was used for the selection of the nonteaching hospitals. A pre-structured and pre-tested interview questionnaire was used to collect necessary information regarding the hospitals and biomedical waste (BMW) management of the hospitals. The general information about the selected hospitals/employees of the hospitals was collected. Results: Mean hospital waste generated in the eight nonteaching hospitals of Lucknow was 0.56 kg/bed/day. About 50.5% of the hospitals did not have BMW department and colored dustbins. In 37.5% of the hospitals, there were no BMW records and segregation at source. Incinerator was used only by hospital A for treatment of BMW. Hospital G and hospital H had no facilities for BMW treatment. Conclusion: There is a need for appropriate training of staffs, strict implementation of rules, and continuous surveillance of the hospitals of Lucknow to improve the BMW management and handling practices. PMID:25657950
Manar, Manish Kumar; Sahu, Krishna Kumar; Singh, Shivendra Kumar
Background A medication information intervention was delivered to patients with a major depressive episode prior to psychiatric hospital discharge. Methods The objective of this study was to explore how patients evolved after hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing this evolution. Using a quasi-experimental longitudinal design, the quantitative analysis measured clinical (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the somatic dimension of the Symptom Checklist 90 and recording the number of readmissions) and humanistic (using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire) outcomes of patients via telephone contacts up to one year following discharge. The qualitative analysis was based on the researcher diary, consisting of reports on the telephone outcome assessment of patients with major depression (n = 99). All reports were analyzed using the thematic framework approach. Results The change in the participants' health status was as diverse as it was at hospital discharge. Participants reported on remissions; changes in mood; relapses; and re-admissions (one third of patients). Quantitative data on group level showed low anxiety, depression and somatic scores over time. Three groups of contributing factors were identified: process, individual and environmental factors. Process factors included self caring process, medical care after discharge, resumption of work and managing daily life. Individual factors were symptom control, medication and personality. Environmental factors were material and social environment. Each of them could ameliorate, deteriorate or be neutral to the patient's health state. A mix of factors was observed in individual patients. Conclusions After hospital discharge, participants with a major depressive episode evolved in many different ways. Process, individual and environmental factors may influence the participant's health status following hospital discharge. Each of the factors could be positive, neutral or negative for the patient. PMID:22074732
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social\\u000a anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses\\u000a of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192 children drawn from a community\\u000a sample of
Heidi Gazelle; Jamie Olson Workman; Wesley Allan
of the global hospitality industry. Academic Offerings HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR HOSPITALITY AND FOOD SERVICE MANAGEMENT MINOR Students pursuing programs in other areas of study may choose a minor Service Operations 4 OR NSD 225 Nutrition in Health 3 12 credits needed: HPM 300 Selected Topics: Advanced
Lung cancer is a stressful condition for both patient and family. The anxiety and pain accompanying cancer and its treatment have a significant negative influence on the patient's quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between anxiety, pain, and perceived family support in a sample of lung cancer patients. The sample consisted of a total of 101 lung cancer outpatients receiving treatment at the oncology department of a general hospital. Anxiety, pain (severity and impact on everyday life), and perceived family support were assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, and the Family Support Scale, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed correlations between anxiety, pain, and family support as perceived by the patients. The intensity of pain had a positive correlation with both state and trait anxiety and a negative correlation with family support. Anxiety (state and trait) had a significant negative correlation with family support. In conclusion, high prevalence rates of anxiety disorders were observed in lung cancer patients. Females appeared more susceptible to anxiety symptoms with a less sense of family support. A negative correlation was evidenced between family support and anxiety and a positive one between anxiety and pain. PMID:25126424
Lekka, Dimitra; Pachi, Argiro; Zafeiropoulos, Georgios; Evmolpidi, Argiri; Ilias, Ioannis; Karkanias, Athanasios; Moussas, Georgios; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Syrigos, Konstantinos N.
The Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) attempts to address the limitations of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). As there is no Turkish version of the FIQR available, we aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of a Turkish translation of the FIQR in Turkish female fibromyalgia (FM) patients. After translating the FIQR into Turkish, it was administered to 87 female patients with FM. All of the patients filled out the questionnaire together with a Turkish version of the FIQ, hospital anxiety and depression scales (HADS), short form-36 (SF-36). The tender-point count (TPC) was also calculated from tender points identified by thumb palpation. One week later, FM patients filled out the Turkish FIQR at their second visit. The test-retest reliability of the Turkish FIQR questions ranged from 0.714 to 0.898. The test and retest reliability of total FIQR score was 0.835. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 for FIQR visit 1 (the first assessment) and 0.91 for FIQR visit 2 (the second assessment), indicating acceptable levels of internal consistency for both assessments. The total scores of the FIQR and FIQ were significantly correlated (r?=?0.87, P?0.01). Significant correlations for construct validity were also obtained between the FIQR total and domain scores and the FIQ, the HADS and the subscales of the SF-36 (FIQR total versus SF-36 physical component score and mental component score were r?=?-0.63, P?0.01 and r?=?-0.51, P?0.01, respectively). The Turkish FIQR is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring health status in FM, showing sufficient reliability and construct validity. It may be utilized for both clinical practice and research use in the Turkish-speaking population in place of FIQ, since its Turkish version has problems in the wording, omissions, concepts, and scoring from the original FIQ. PMID:20703890
Ediz, Levent; Hiz, Ozcan; Toprak, Murat; Tekeoglu, Ibrah?m; Ercan, Songul
This study investigated the relationship between foreign language (FL) anxiety and achievement in that language. The role of the FL teacher as perceived by the learners was also tested. Participants were 67 seventh-grade students. They were administered an anxiety questionnaire, a Hebrew reading comprehension test, an English reading comprehension…
Objective: Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Methods: Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18 to 71?years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and symptoms of stress and anxiety. Results: Past and current cannabis users reported higher incidence of lifetime anxiety than participants who had never used cannabis; however, these groups did not differ in state-anxiety, stress, or age of onset of anxiety. State-anxiety and stress were not associated with frequency of cannabis use, but reported use to self-medicate for anxiety was positively associated with all three. Path analyses indicated two different associations between anxiety and cannabis use, pre-existing and high state-anxiety was associated with (i) higher average levels of intoxication and, in turn, acute anxiety responses to cannabis use; (ii) frequency of cannabis use via the mediating effects of stress and self-medication. Conclusion: None of the theories was fully supported by the findings. However, as cannabis users reporting self-medication for anxiety were found to be self-medicating stress symptomology, there was some support for the stress-misattribution hypothesis. With reported self-medication for anxiety being the strongest predictor of frequency of use, it is suggested that researchers, clinicians, and cannabis users pay greater attention to the overlap between stress and anxiety symptomology and the possible misinterpretation of these related but distinct conditions. PMID:25505428
Temple, Elizabeth C.; Driver, Matthew; Brown, Rhonda F.
Can the painDETECT Questionnaire score and MRI help predict treatment outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: protocol for the Frederiksberg hospital's Rheumatoid Arthritis, pain assessment and Medical Evaluation (FRAME-cohort) study
Introduction Pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered to be of inflammatory origin. Despite better control of inflammation, some patients still report pain as a significant concern, even when being in clinical remission. This suggests that RA may prompt central sensitisation—one aspect of chronic pain. In contrast, other patients report good treatment response, although imaging shows signs of inflammation, which could indicate a possible enhancement of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. When assessing disease activity in patients with central sensitisation, the commonly used disease activity scores (eg, DAS28-CRP (C reactive protein)) will yield constant high total scores due to high tender joint count and global health assessments, whereas MRI provides an isolated estimate of inflammation. The objective of this study is, in patients with RA initiating anti-inflammatory treatment, to explore the prognostic value of a screening questionnaire for central sensitisation, hand inflammation assessed by conventional MRI, and the interaction between them regarding treatment outcome evaluated by clinical status (DAS28-CRP). For the purpose of further exploratory analyses, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is performed. Method and analysis The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ), originally developed to screen for a neuropathic pain component, is applied to indicate the presence of central sensitisation. Adults diagnosed with RA are included when either (A) initiating disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment, or (B) initiating or switching to biological therapy. We anticipate that 100 patients will be enrolled, tested and reassessed after 4?months of treatment. Data collection includes Clinical data, conventional MRI, DCE-MRI, blood samples and patient-reported outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This study aims at supporting rheumatologists to define strategies to reach optimal treatment outcomes in patients with RA based on chronic pain prognostics. The study has been approved by The Capital region of Denmark's Ethics Committee; identification number H-3-2013-049. The results will be published in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID:25394817
Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Christensen, Anton Wulf; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Bartels, Else Marie; Locht, Henning; Amris, Kirstine
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
Kleinke, Chris L.
Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…
Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin
Although the syndromes of anxiety have only been recognized this century, the belief that the emotion of fearful apprehension could cause physical illness has a much longer history. James Vere wrote his book entitled "A physical and moral enquiry into the causes of that internal restlessness and disorder in man which has been the complaint of all ages" in 1778. The earliest accounts of phobia, as anxiety associated with specific circumstances have been ascribed to two cases from Hippocrates, whilst one of the earliest accounts in the English language may be that of William Shakespeare in The Merchant of Venice describing a supposed phobia for cats. Robert Burton (1621) described various anxiety disorders in classical detail in his 'Anatomy of Melancholy'. PMID:3064064
Background: Infertility is a major psychosocial crisis as well as being a medical problem. The factors that predict psychosocial consequences of infertility may vary in different gender and different infertile populations. Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether Turkish infertile couples had higher levels of depression and anxiety when compared to non-infertile couples. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression and anxiety in Turkish infertile couples. Materials and Methods: We designed a descriptive cross sectional study of 248 infertile women and 96 infertile men with no psychiatric disturbance and 51 women and 40 men who have children to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels between infertile couples and fertile couples. A gynecologist evaluated participants for demographic data and then they were visited by a psychologist to perform questionnaire scales which were The Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for the evaluation of the degree of psychopathology. The data were statistically analyzed, with p<0.05 as the level of statistical significance. Results: We observed significant differences between the infertile couples and fertile couples with respect to state and trait anxiety (p<0.0001) while no difference was regarding with depression, both of women and men. Anxiety and depression were observed as independent from gender when infertile women and men were compared (p=0.213). Conclusion: We believed that the psychological management at infertile couples must be individualized with cultural, religious, and class related aspects.
Kazandi, Mert; Gunday, Ozlem; Mermer, Timucin Kurtulus; Erturk, Nuray; Ozk?nay, Erdinc
Objective: The pure essence of plants (essential oils) provides both psychological and physiological benefits when used accurately and safely. Conventionally, Lavender oil is known for relaxing, carminative, and sedative effects. Hence, an attempt was made to know the effect of Lavender essential oil on dental patient anxiety. Methods: The present study included two comparison groups (Lavender and control group), each comprising five dental clinics. In Lavender group, the ambient odor of Lavender essential oil was maintained with the help of a candle warmer in the reception area and in the control group, candle warmer with normal water was used. A total of 597 patients, aged above 18 years were included. A questionnaire comprising demographic information, and a modified dental anxiety scale was given to the patients in waiting room, and data regarding anxiety levels was recorded. Findings: Student's t-test (unpaired) showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores of Lavender group compared with the control group. Analysis of variances test showed reduction in anxiety scores as age increased in Lavender group. Conclusion: Fragrance of Lavender oil at reception area may effectively reduce the patient's state or current anxiety. This practice on routine usage can improve the quality of dental treatments. PMID:25328900
Zabirunnisa, Md.; Gadagi, Jayaprakash S.; Gadde, Praveen; Myla, Nagamalleshwari; Koneru, Jyothirmai; Thatimatla, Chandrasekhar
The current study evaluated the relationships among trait anxiety, subjective response to alcohol, and simulated driving following a simulated alcohol binge. Sixty drinkers with a binge history completed the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, and subsequently completed a driving simulation. Participants were then administered 0.2 g/kg ethanol at 30 minute intervals (cumulative dose 0.8 g/kg). Following alcohol consumption, the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and visual analog scales of subjective impairment and driving confidence were administered, after which simulated driving was re-assessed. Due to the emphasis on simulated driving after drinking in the current study, subjective response to alcohol (i.e., self-reported sedation, stimulation, impairment, and confidence in driving ability) was assessed once following alcohol consumption, as this is the time when drinkers tend to make decisions regarding legal driving ability. Alcohol increased driving speed, speeding tickets, and collisions. Sedation following alcohol predicted increased subjective impairment and decreased driving confidence. Subjective impairment was not predicted by sensitivity to stimulation or trait anxiety. High trait anxiety predicted low driving confidence after drinking and this relationship was mediated by sedation. Increased speed after alcohol was predicted by sedation, but not by trait anxiety or stimulation. Anxiety, combined with the sedating effects of alcohol, may indicate when consumption should cease. However, once driving is initiated, sensitivity to sedation following alcohol consumption is positively related to simulated driving speed. PMID:24955664
Aston, Elizabeth R.; Shannon, Erin E.; Liguori, Anthony
Individuals vary in their propensity to engage in aggressive behaviors, and recent research has sought to identify individual differences that contribute to a person's propensity for physical aggression. Previous research has shown that impulsivity and aggression have a consistent relational pattern among many different samples. However, not all impulsive people will engage in aggressive behavior, perhaps because of other factors such as level of physiological arousal from anxiety. Specifically, one factor, namely physiological symptoms of anxiety such as those often associated with panic, may help as a predictor variable to be used in risk assessments or subclassification systems of aggression. Participants included 689 college students who completed self-report questionnaires assessing impulsivity, physical aggression, and anxiety. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. Greater scores on the measure of impulsivity were associated with higher levels of reported physical aggression. The interaction (impulsivity x anxiety) was not statistically significant, suggesting that impulsivity has the same effect on physical aggression regardless of the level of anxiety. There was a main effect for anxiety, which was associated with higher levels of reported physical aggression. Our findings may help inform typologies for identifying predictor variables used in risk assessment and treatment planning. PMID:24934013
Hatfield, Joshua; Dula, Chris S
Background: Anxiety is an important mental health problem in patients with cardiac disease. Anxiety reduces patients’ quality of life and increases the risk of different cardiac complications. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhalation aromatherapy on anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Patients and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial conduced on 68 patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in coronary care units of a large-scale teaching hospital affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran in 2013. By using the block randomization technique, patients were randomly assigned to experimental (33 patients receiving inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma twice a day for two subsequent days) and control (35 patients receiving routine care of study setting including no aromatherapy) groups. At the beginning of study and twenty minutes after each aromatherapy session, anxiety state of patients was assessed using the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory. Data was analyzed using SPSS v. 16.0. We used Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, independent-samples T-test and repeated measures analysis of variance to analyze the study data. Results: The study groups did not differ significantly regarding baseline anxiety mean and demographic characteristics. However, after the administration of aromatherapy, anxiety mean in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group. Conclusions: Inhalation aromatherapy with lavender aroma can reduce anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction. Consequently, healthcare providers, particularly nurses, can use this strategy to improve postmyocardial infarction anxiety management. PMID:25389481
Najafi, Zahra; Taghadosi, Mohsen; Sharifi, Khadijeh; Farrokhian, Alireza; Tagharrobi, Zahra
Anxiety disorders frequently occur in association with PD and may be important causes of morbidity. Actual prevalence rates are uncertain, but estimates suggest that up to 40% of patients with PD experience substantial anxiety. This percentage is greater than expected, particularly for an elderly population. In addition, the age at onset of anxiety in PD (and particularly panic disorder) is later than would be expected from current information regarding the natural course of anxiety disorders. Virtually all of the types of anxiety disorders have been described in PD, but panic disorder, GAD, and social phobia appear to be the ones most commonly encountered. Although most patients with motor fluctuations experience greater anxiety during the "off" phase, this is not a universal phenomenon. Anxiety frequently develops before the motor features do, suggesting that anxiety may not represent psychological and social difficulties in adapting to the illness but rather may be linked to specific neurobiologic processes that occur in PD. Most evidence points to disturbances in central noradrenergic systems, but other neurotransmitters (e.g., serotonin, dopamine) may be involved as well. Studies suggest that right hemispheric disturbances may be particularly important for the genesis of anxiety, especially panic and OCD. Whether antiparkinsonian medications themselves contribute to anxiety needs clarification. Anxiety and depression frequently coexist in PD. It remains to be determined whether anxiety in patients with PD reflects one of the following pathologies: (a) an underlying depressive mood disorder, (b) a particular subtype of depression (atypical depression, anxious or agitated depression), or (c) an independent psychiatric disturbance. The relationship between anxiety and dementia in PD is not clear, but current evidence suggests that cognitive dysfunction is not related to the presence of anxiety symptoms in this disorder. The optimal pharmacologic treatment for anxiety in patients with PD has not been established, nor has the effect of PD surgery on anxiety symptoms. PMID:16383211
Richard, Irene H
Objective To explore health anxiety in a sample of nursing students to determine the relationships between health anxiety and life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia. Methods Two thousand and eighty-six nursing students in junior college, which were divided into five groups, were evaluated by questionnaires, including the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students, the Chinese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results The mean age, whether the individual was an only child, residence (urban or rural), and were significantly different between the groups. The self-assessment scores were also significantly different between the groups. The Short Health Anxiety Inventory total score and the factor of fearing the likelihood of becoming ill were significantly negatively correlated with the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students total score and its two factors, but were significantly positively correlated with psychoticism, neuroticism, and TAS-20 total scores and its scores of the three TAS-20 factors. The negative consequence scale of Short Health Anxiety Inventory was not significantly correlated with externally oriented thinking, but was significantly negatively correlated with extraversion. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that objective satisfaction, subjective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the three factors of TAS-20 were predictors of health anxiety. Conclusion Health anxiety was correlated with life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia in junior college nursing students. Subjective and objective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the identification and expression of emotions may be predictors of health anxiety in nursing students. PMID:25045266
Zhang, Yuqun; Zhao, Yueqiu; Mao, Shengqin; Li, Guohong; Yuan, Yonggui
This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…
Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…
Williams, Amanda S.
Presents dialog among David Lester, author of first critical survey of death anxiety measures, developer of scales, and researcher about suicide and fear of death; Donald Templer, Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) creator; and journal editor. Lester and Templer discuss origins, uses, results, limitations, and future of death anxiety scales and research on…
Lester, David; Templer, Donald
The presentation covers information on test anxiety reduction strategies from over thirty years of experience with clients of a variety of ages. Dr. Ross is from the College of Lake County. Dr. Driscoll is a private practitioner and Director of the American Test Anxieties Association. The purpose is to address age appropriate test anxiety…
Ross, David B.; Driscoll, Richard
This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the same for the mandala- and plaid-coloring groups
Nancy A. Curry; Tim Kasser
-anxiety medications and antidepressants.Anti-anxiety medications are powerful and there are different types. Many types begin working right away, but they generally should not be taken for long periods. Antidepressants at work or school? If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social
Bandettini, Peter A.
The magnitude of [anxiety] is measured by its effect upon the rate with which [hungry] rats pressed a lever under periodic reinforcement with food. Repeated presentations of a tone terminated by an electric shock produced a state of anxiety in response to the tone When the shock was thus preceded by a period of anxiety it produced a much more
W. K. Estes; B. F. Skinner
Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of Chinese Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ-C) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in China. Methods 162 RA patients were recruited in the evaluation process. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested by internal consistency and item analysis. Convergent validity was assessed by correlations of MDHAQ-C with Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital anxiety and depression scales (HAD). Discriminant validity was tested in groups of patients with varied disease activities and functional classes. To evaluate the clinical values, correlations were calculated between MDHAQ-C and indices of clinical relevance and disease activity. Agreement with the Disease Activity Score (DAS28) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was estimated. Results The Cronbach's alpha was 0.944 in the Function scale (FN) and 0.768 in the scale of psychological status (PS). The item analysis indicated all the items of FN and PS are correlated at an acceptable level. MDHAQ-C correlated with the questionnaires significantly in most scales and scores of scales differed significantly in groups of different disease activity and functional status. MDHAQ-C has moderate to high correlation with most clinical indices and high correlation with a spearman coefficient of 0.701 for DAS 28 and 0.843 for CDAI. The overall agreement of categories was satisfying. Conclusion MDHAQ-C is a reliable, valid instrument for functional measurement and a feasible, informative quantitative index for busy clinical settings in Chinese RA patients. PMID:24848431
Song, Yang; Zhu, Li-an; Wang, Su-li; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Lu, Liang-Jing
As the basis of a society undergoes a fundamental change, such as progression from the industrial age to the knowledge/information age, the massive change affects every aspect of life. Change causes stress in individuals that often manifest itself as anxiety. Using an economic model of the endogenous growth, which includes technology as input,…
Rice, Patricia Brisotti
This study hypothisized that when a person perceives his social network as constricted, and this constriction has been a "conscious" decision by that individual, then he or she should express little death anxiety. Subjects were 38 individuals who were at least age 60. Of these, 18 were members of the Gray Panthers (with expanding numbers of social…
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
Daniel R. Zalles
BACKGROUND: A cross sectional study was designed to survey the relationship between anxiety\\/depression and duration\\/cause of infertility, in Vali-e-Asr Reproductive Health Research Center, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: After obtaining their consents, 370 female patients with different infertility causes participated in, and data gathered by Beck Depression Inventory(BDI) and Cattle questionnaires for surveying anxiety and depression due to the duration of infertility.
Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh; Malek Mansour Aghssa; Nasrin Abedinia; Farid Zayeri; Navid Khanafshar; Mamak Shariat; Mina Jafarabadi
The effects of negative air ions on computer operation were examined using a biochemical index of the activity of the sympathetic\\/adrenomedullary system (i.e. salivary chromogranin A-like immunoreactivity (CgA-like IR)) and a self-report questionnaire (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety State—STAI-S). Twelve female students carried out a word processing task for 40 min. The salivary CgA-like IR increased more than three times on
Hideo Nakane; Osamu Asami; Yukio Yamada; Hideki Ohira
The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 years, each prospectively tracked their menstrual symptoms for one cycle and completed the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow Behav Ther 27:279-293. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9 , 1996) in their follicular and premenstrual phases. A mixed model analysis revealed perceived control over anxiety-related events was a more prominent predictor of menstrual symptom severity than anxiety sensitivity, regardless of the current cycle phase. This finding provides preliminary evidence that perceived control over anxiety-related events is associated with the perceived intensity of menstrual symptoms. This finding highlights the role of psychological vulnerabilities in menstrual distress. Future research should examine whether psychological interventions that target cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety may help reduce severe menstrual distress. PMID:25269759
Mahon, Jennifer N; Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Zvolensky, Michael J
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
This study examines whether patients self-reported attachment representations and levels of depression and anxiety influenced psychologists' evaluations of morbidly obese patients applying for bariatric surgery. A sample of 250 patients (mean age 44, 84 % female) who were referred for bariatric surgery completed questionnaires to measure adult attachment and levels of depression and anxiety. Psychologists rated patients' suitability for bariatric surgery using the Cleveland Clinic Behavioural Rating System (CCBRS), unaware of the results of the completed questionnaires. Attachment anxiety (OR = 2.50, p = .01) and attachment avoidance (OR = 3.13, p = .001) were found to be associated with less positive evaluations on the CCBRS by the psychologists, and symptoms of depression and anxiety mediated this association. This study strongly supports the notion that patients' attachment representations influence a psychologist's evaluation in an indirect way by influencing the symptoms of depression and anxiety patients report during an assessment interview. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24492914
Aarts, Floor; Hinnen, Chris; Gerdes, Victor E A; Acherman, Yair; Brandjes, Dees P M
The purpose of this article is to offer tips in designing quality questionnaires and on avoiding common errors. Some of the more prevalent problems in questionnaire development are identified and suggestions of ways to avoid them are offered.
The goal was to examine the predictiveness of achievement goals for self-confidence, cognitive anxiety, and somatic anxiety using a prospective design. 160 high school athletes completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport after daily practice and the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 before an official competition. Using hierarchical regression analyses, mastery-approach goals were found as positive predictors of self-confidence and negative predictors of cognitive and somatic anxiety. In contrast, performance- and mastery-avoidance goals positively predicted cognitive and somatic anxiety. Also, performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted self-confidence. Generally, athletes who pursued task mastery and improvement of competence were less physically and cognitively anxious and more self-confident. However, athletes felt tense, worried, and had lower confidence when they endorsed avoidance forms of achievement goals. PMID:24611239
A sample of 374 public elementary and junior high school students aged 8 to 13 years were evaluated to assess the prevalence of frequent headache complaints, associated with indications of anxiety disorder. Parents answered a questionnaire to investigate the presence and frequency of headache and of behaviors/symptoms that might indicate the presence of anxiety disorders. Children were evaluated using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale adapted to this population. Among them, 45.4% had never had a headache complaint; 41.2% had occasional headache complaints; and 13.5% had frequent headache complaints. Among children with frequent headache complaints there were more girls than boys, higher anxiety scores, higher occurrence of bruxism, and higher frequency of agitation. The high prevalence of headache and its association with bruxism in this sample is compatible with North American and Brazilian epidemiological data. Results show an association between frequent headache complaints and high anxiety scores. PMID:12364946
Gorayeb, Maria Angela Marchini; Gorayeb, Ricardo
INTRODUCTION: To study the level and predictors of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms in medical, surgical and trauma patients during the first year post intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. METHODS: Of 255 patients included, 194 participated at 12 months. Patients completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Life Orientation Test (LOT) at 4
Hilde Myhren; Øivind Ekeberg; Kirsti Tøien; Susanne Karlsson; Olav Stokland
The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic.…
Langer, David A.; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.
Investigated effects of art history enrichment of art therapy task on anxiety, time on task, and art product quality among 13 chronic adult psychiatric day hospital patients. Results indicated art history enrichment task reduced anxiety and increased time on task. Art organization level tended toward significant increase compared with control…
Miller, Carol L.
Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n?=?958) hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item). The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10), and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies. PMID:22938170
Objective Comorbid anxiety disorder is reported to increase suicidality in bipolar disorder. However, studies of the impact of anxiety disorders on suicidal behavior in mood disorders have shown mixed results. The presence of personality disorders, often comorbid with anxiety and bipolar disorders, may explain these inconsistencies. This study examined the impact of comorbid Cluster B personality disorder and anxiety disorder on suicidality in bipolar disorder. Methods A total of 116 depressed bipolar patients with and without lifetime anxiety disorder were compared. Multiple regression analysis tested the association of comorbid anxiety disorder with past suicide attempts and severity of suicidal ideation, adjusting for the effect of Cluster B personality disorder. The specific effect of panic disorder was also explored. Results Bipolar patients with and without anxiety disorders did not differ in the rate of past suicide attempt. Suicidal ideation was less severe in those with anxiety disorders. In multiple regression analysis, anxiety disorder was not associated with past suicide attempts or with the severity of suicidal ideation, whereas Cluster B personality disorder was associated with both. The results were comparable when comorbid panic disorder was examined. Conclusions Comorbid Cluster B personality disorder appears to exert a stronger influence on suicidality than comorbid anxiety disorder in persons with bipolar disorder. Assessment of suicide risk in patients with bipolar disorder should include evaluation and treatment of Cluster B psychopathology. PMID:18452449
Nakagawa, Atsuo; Grunebaum, Michael F; Sullivan, Gregory M; Currier, Dianne; Ellis, Steven P; Burke, Ainsley K; Brent, David A; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A
Many women experience anxiety during pregnancy with potential negative effects on maternal, birth, and child outcomes. Because of potential risks of fetal exposure to psychotropic medications, efficacious non-pharmacologic approaches are urgently needed. However, no published studies of psychotherapeutic treatments for anxiety in pregnancy exist. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) may substantially reduce anxiety and co-morbid symptoms in people with anxiety disorders. Coping with Anxiety through Living Mindfully (CALM) Pregnancy is an adaptation of MBCT designed to address anxiety in pregnant women. This study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and clinical outcomes of the CALM Pregnancy intervention in pregnant women anxiety. Twenty-four pregnant women with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or prominent symptoms of generalized anxiety participated in an open treatment trial of the CALM Pregnancy group intervention. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined by structured clinical interview, and self-report measures of anxiety, worry, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were completed at baseline and post-intervention. Qualitative feedback was elicited via questionnaire. Twenty-three participants completed the intervention with high attendance and good compliance with home practice. Completers showed statistically and clinically significant improvements in anxiety, worry, and depression, and significant increases in self-compassion and mindfulness. Of the 17 participants who met GAD criteria at baseline, only one continued to meet criteria post-intervention. Participants regarded their experience in the intervention to be overwhelmingly positive. MBCT in the form of the CALM Pregnancy intervention holds potential to provide effective, non-pharmacological treatment for pregnant women with anxiety. These promising findings warrant further testing of the intervention with a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24449191
Goodman, Janice H; Guarino, Anthony; Chenausky, Kerry; Klein, Lauri; Prager, Joanna; Petersen, Rebecca; Forget, Avery; Freeman, Marlene
Introduction Dental anxiety is an important challenge for many patients and clinicians. It is thus of importance to know more about dental students’ own experiences with dental anxiety and their understanding of dental anxiety. The aim was to investigate differences in dental anxiety levels between dental students, psychology students, and biology students at a Norwegian university. Materials and methods A total of 510 students of dentistry, psychology, and biology at the University of Tromsø received a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, demographic questions, and questions relating to their last visit to the dentist/dental hygienist; 169 students gave complete responses. Nonparametric tests were used to investigate differences between the student groups. Results The respondents were 78% female and 22% male; their mean age was 24 years. The dental students showed a significantly lower degree of dental anxiety than the psychology (P<0.001) and biology students (P<0.001). A significant decrease in dental anxiety levels was found between novice and experienced dentistry students (P<0.001). Discussion The dental students had less dental anxiety compared to psychology students and biology students. Experienced dental students also had less dental anxiety than novice dental students. This could indicate that the dentistry program structure at the university may influence dental anxiety levels. Conclusion Dental anxiety seemed to be less frequent in dentistry students compared to students of biology or clinical psychology. The practice-oriented dentistry education at the university might contribute to the differences in anxiety levels between new and experienced dentistry students. PMID:25285013
Storjord, Helene Persen; Teodorsen, Mari Mjønes; Bergdahl, Jan; Wynn, Rolf; Johnsen, Jan-Are Kolset
Anxiety symptoms and disorders are associated with a range of general medical disorders. This association may be a physiologic\\u000a consequence of the general medical disorder, a psychologic reaction to the experience of having a medical illness, a side\\u000a effect of treatment, or a chance occurrence. This article briefly reviews the associations of panic disorder with seizure\\u000a disorder, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, mitral
Jacqueline E. Muller; Liezl Koen; Dan J. Stein
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, but they represent a particular challenge for treatment.\\u000a The standard first-line treatments, including antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and buspirone, result in significant response\\u000a rates for a majority of patients; however, unfavorable side effect profiles or risk for dependency for particular agents might\\u000a limit their use by anxious patients, who often have low thresholds
Jonathan M. Amiel; Sanjay J. Mathew
ObjectiveTo investigate whether a brief in-hospital illness perception intervention for myocardial infarction (MI) patients and their spouses could change spouses' illness perceptions and reduce spouses' anxiety about the illness.
Elizabeth Broadbent; Chris J. Ellis; Janine Thomas; Greg Gamble; Keith J. Petrie
This study presents an empirical evidence of benefit of narrative video clips in embedded virtual reality websites of hotels for relieving travel anxiety. Even though it was proven that virtual reality functions do provide some relief in travel anxiety, a stronger virtual reality website can be built when narrative video clips that show video clips with narration about important aspects of the hotel. We posit that these important aspects are 1. Escape route and 2. Surrounding neighborhood information, which are derived from the existing research on anxiety disorder as well as travel anxiety. Thus we created a video clip that showed and narrated about the escape route from the hotel room, another video clip that showed and narrated about surrounding neighborhood. We then conducted experiments with this enhanced virtual reality website of a hotel by having human subjects play with the website and fill out a questionnaire. The result confirms our hypothesis that there is a statistically significant relationship between the degree of travel anxiety and psychological relief caused by the use of embedded virtual reality functions with narrative video clips of a hotel website (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 26). PMID:24156685
Ahn, J C; Lee, O
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety of patients is one of the problems in dentistry which are considered in recent years, and it prevents them from having a treatment out of stress. This study was conducted to specify anxiety prevalence and related elements among endodontic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 150 patients referred to Endodontic department of dental school of Islamic Azad University, using a cross sectional descriptive method in 2006. Using background characteristics, the patients were classified as a matter of age, sex, education and related factors such as previous dental visit, unfavorable experience in dental office, and the most prevalent cause of referring to dentist. In this regard, Dental Fear Survey (DFS), questionnaire was used and patients were divided in three groups of anxiety level. The results were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher exact tests. RESULTS: The findings showed highest anxiety scales among dental office referents were statistically significant for age group of 20-30, women, and under diploma education (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improving the knowledge about causes of anxiety and its preventive methods are suggested to dentists. They should also provide treatments without annoyance and trauma. PMID:24348655
Akhavan, Hengameh; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Sheikholeslami, Mahshid; Dibaj, Masomeh; Eslami, Shahrooz
The Chair Massage service considered in this evaluation study was provided to carers, visiting in-patients at a major cancer hospital in the UK. The two-stage evaluation comprised: firstly, a retrospective review of treatment records for the previous 12 months (n=182), and secondly, a prospective study, gathering data by interview and a 'next-day' questionnaire from carers (n=34), during 1 week of service delivery. The study at both stages sought to identify who used the service, post-treatment comments and changes in scores using a Feeling Good Thermometer (Field, T., 2000. Touch Therapy. Churchill Livingstone, London). During the second stage the carers were also asked about their concerns and worries, and to report changes in physical and emotional states using visual scales. Findings included significant improvements in physical and psychological scores; these were retained through to the next day. The next-day questionnaire also reported improved sleep for the majority of carers. A number of concerns and worries were raised at interview, notably anxieties about the patient and uncertainty about the future, family and financial worries. Overall, the service was well evaluated with parents and in particular female carers appearing to gain the most from the intervention. PMID:15944109
Mackereth, Peter; Sylt, Paola; Weinberg, Ashley; Campbell, Gwynneth
What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.
Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students' achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in…
Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas; Frenzel, Anne C.; Barchfeld, Petra; Perry, Raymond P.
The Questionnaire about Interpersonal Difficulties for Adolescents (QIDA) is a self-report instrument designed to measure adolescents' perceived interpersonal anxiety levels in a wide range of relationships with people of different ages, genders, levels of authority, and levels of intimacy and in several contexts: family, school, friends, opposite…
Ingles, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Zhou, Xinyue; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.
Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety, anxiety disorders, tobacco use, and nicotine dependence and reviewed the existing empirical literature. Future
Sandra Baker Morissette; Matthew T. Tull; Suzy Bird Gulliver; Barbara Wolfsdorf Kamholz; Rose T. Zimering
\\u000a Few clinicians would suggest that the parent’s role during the treatment of their child’s anxiety should be limited to keeping\\u000a a chair warm in the therapist’s waiting room. In fact, etiological models suggest that parenting behaviors impact child anxiety\\u000a (Hudson & Rapee, 2001). However, the optimal role of parents in the treatment of children with anxiety disorders is unclear.\\u000a What
Adam B. Lewin
The improvement of social support promotes the mental health and improves the health status. The study aimed to examine the influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis and provide the scientific basis to further alleviate anxiety and depression and to monitor their whole quality of life. We investigated 324 inpatients with silicosis between April 2011 and September 2011. The HADS (the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale) was the major methodology used to evaluate anxiety and depression, and the MSPSS (the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) to evaluate the social support level. Among patients with silicosis, 99.1% had anxiety symptoms, and 86.1% had depression symptoms. Meanwhile, the social support significantly influenced symptoms of anxiety and depression. The study suggested that patients with silicosis presented more anxiety and depression symptoms, while the social support levels of the patients were relatively low. The influence of social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis implied that improving the level of social support and the effective symptomatic treatment might alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms and improve physical and mental status. PMID:24892079
Han, Bing; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Jian; Zhao, Na; Sun, Jinkai; Li, Chao; Lei, Xibing; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Jie
Uncertainty about a possible future threat disrupts our ability to avoid it or to mitigate its negative impact, and thus results in anxiety. Here, we focus the broad literature on the neurobiology of anxiety through the lens of uncertainty. We identify five processes essential for adaptive anticipatory responses to future threat uncertainty, and propose that alterations to the neural instantiation of these processes results in maladaptive responses to uncertainty in pathological anxiety. This framework has the potential to advance the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of clinical anxiety. PMID:23783199
Grupe, Dan W.; Nitschke, Jack B.
Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric condition presenting to primary care practitioners. Yet they can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Patients that struggle with anxiety disorders are more likely to seek treatment from primary care providers than mental health specialists. Given the costs in terms of debilitation and associated financial burden, and increased risk of suicide, the identification and successful treatment of anxiety is imperative. By means of clinical acumen and the use of screening tools, the provider can develop expertise in recognition and effective treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:25134870
Combs, Heidi; Markman, Jesse
The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-induced oxidative stress. Studies using knockout or overexpression of antioxidant enzymes have shown a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress. Related factors of oxidative stress that could influence anxious behavior are revised, including impaired function of different mitochondrial proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors. It has been suggested that a therapy specifically focus in reducing reactive species production may have a beneficial effect in reducing anxiety. However, the neurobiological pathways underlying the effect of oxidative stress on anxiety symptoms are not fully comprehended. The challenge now is to identify the oxidative stress mechanisms likely to be involved in the induction of anxiety symptoms. Understanding these pathways could help to clarify the neurobiology of the anxiety disorder and provide tools for new discovery in therapies and preventive strategies. PMID:24669212
R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) in children with a history of repeated hospitalization is distressing for children as well as their parents leading to anxiety and has negative effects on the psychological state of children and their families. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the overall effect of SCD on the behavior of young children age 1½ to 5 years old who had repeated history of hospitalization, compared to a control group of healthy children attended a vaccination clinic. Patients and Methods: Thirty-five children of age 1½ to 5 years who have SCD and repeated history of hospitalization were recruited from pediatric clinic as the study group and matched with same number of healthy children who attended vaccination clinic, as a control group. Both groups were administered the child behavior checklist (CBCL) 1½ to 5 years and diagnostic and statistical (DSM)-oriented scale. Behavior data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Children who have SCD had statistically significant behavioral changes on CBCL compared to the control group: Anxiety/depression (65.2 vs. 55.1; P < 0.001), somatic complaint (66.7 vs. 54.4; P < 0.001) withdrawn (63.4 vs. 53.2; P < 0.001), aggressive behavior (60.4 vs. 56; P=0.04), and internalizing symptoms (64.7 vs. 51.5; P < 0.001), respectively. The DSM scale showed that children with SCD scored significantly higher in pervasive developmental disorder compared to the control group (60.9 vs. 53.9; P < 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Children with SCD who had history of repeated hospitalization are at an increased risk of developing behavioral problems. Psychological counseling, social support, and proper pain management could minimize these behavioral consequences. PMID:25422609
Bakri, Mohamed H.; Ismail, Eman A.; Elsedfy, Ghada O; Amr, Mostafa A.; Ibrahim, Ahmed
... of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social anxiety disorder. What is social phobia? Social phobia is a ... us to find out more about Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder). Visit the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus En ...
The effect of psychological resilience as a buffer against anxiety was investigated in a sample of 39 boys with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) via individual online questionnaire responses to standardised inventories for assessing anxiety and psychological resilience. Ability to handle problems, make good decisions, think before…
Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.
Purportedly fear of the unknown, death anxiety, and insomnia are prevalent problems among some gifted individuals. The present study tested this assertion and examined the relationship of these variables to Dabrowski's (1967) overexcitabilities. The study involved 73 gifted and 143 typical middle and high school adolescents who were given a death anxiety questionnaire, a fear of the unknown scale, an
Gregory E. Harrison; James P. Van Haneghan
Background: In the Netherlands, no self-report screening questionnaire for anxiety in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) was available yet. Therefore, we have translated the Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability (GAS-ID) into Dutch and studied its reliability and validity in adults with borderline, mild or…
Hermans, H.; Wieland, J.; Jelluma, N.; Van der Pas, F.; Evenhuis, H.
BACKGROUND: IVF and embryo transfer has become an established and increasingly successful form of treatment for infertility, yet significant numbers of couples discontinue treatment without achieving a live birth. This study aims to identify major factors that influence the decision to discontinue IVF treatment. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to 1510 couples who had undergone IVF treatment at Ninewells Hospital and
M. Rajkhowa; A. Mcconnell; G. E. Thomas
Objective: This study was performed to survey the relationship between coaches’ and athletes’ competitive anxiety, and their performance. Methods: This is a descriptive correlational study performed using a demographic questionnaire, an athletic performance checklist, and sport competition anxiety test designed by Martens consisting of 15 questions. The study population consisted of 540 players and 60 coaches from 60 futsal teams (5 main players, 4 reserves, and 1 coach for each team). All of the players and the coaches were surveyed in a census method and no sampling was done. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using chi-square, and Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results: The results showed a positive significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and sport competition anxiety level in the athletes (p = 0.019, r = 0.56). It also showed that there was a negative significant relationship between the coaches’ anxiety level and performance level of the athletes (p = 0.012, r = -0.80). A negative significant relationship was also demonstrated between the athletes’ competitive anxiety level, and their athletic experiences (p < 0.001, r = -0.45) and age (p = 0.001, r = -0.37). Conclusions: Coaches and officials should consider sport competition anxiety among athletes before and during competitions. Formal and planned competitions, training sessions, and preparation practices can be a major factor assisting to decrease athletes' anxiety. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24644512
Mottaghi, Mahmoodreza; Atarodi, Alireza; Rohani, Zahra
The relationship between anxiety and impulsivity is controversial and not well explored. The present investigation aims to compare impulsivity, measured by different rating tools, in patients with anxiety disorders vs. healthy controls. Forty-seven subjects with different anxiety disorders and 45 matched controls underwent diagnostic and symptomatological evaluations by the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I) Plus 5.0, Bech-Raphaelsen Depression and Mania Scale (BRDMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hypomania Check List (HCL-32) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI); temperamental evaluations by the Questionnaire for the Affective and Anxious Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-Modified (TEMPS-M), the Separation Anxiety Sensitivity Index (SASI), the Interpersonal Sensitivity Symptoms Inventory (ISSI); and psychometric and a neurocognitive evaluations of impulsivity using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT-DMT). Subjects with anxiety disorders were more impulsive than the controls in all the explored measures, with higher scores in symptomatological and, temperamental scales. Patients with anxiety disorders but without a lifetime history of comorbid major mood episodes had greater trait and state impulsivity than controls. Further investigations are needed to assess the extent to which impulsivity might or might not be directly related to the anxiety disorder. PMID:22357357
Del Carlo, Alessandra; Benvenuti, Marzia; Fornaro, Michele; Toni, Cristina; Rizzato, Salvatore; Swann, Alan C; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Perugi, Giulio
To determine whether physicians with harm avoidance (HA) personality traits were more prone to developing increased anxiety and depression during the medical internship.A prospective longitudinal study of 74 medical interns was carried out using repeated measures of symptoms of anxiety and depression with the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI and BDI) before, at the 3rd, 6th, and 12th months during the internship, and 2 weeks after the internship was completed. Baseline personality was assessed by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire with 3 dimensions: novelty-seeking, HA, and reward dependence (RD).Levels of both depression and anxiety increased (6.4 and 3.4 on scores for BDI and BAI, respectively) during the internship and returned to baseline 2 weeks after it ended. HA scores were significantly correlated with depression and anxiety (0.3 scores on both the BDI and the BAI) and the scores for RD were significantly correlated with anxiety but not with depression. The interaction of HA and point in internship showed no significant differences.Internship plays a major role in the increase in depression and anxiety. A HA personality was also associated with the development of both depression and anxiety. PMID:25590843
Chen, Ching-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Li, Peng; Huang, Wei-Lieh; Lin, Yu-Hsuan
To develop and validate a specific questionnaire to assess burden on families of children with infantile haemangioma (IH): the Haemangioma Family Burden questionnaire (HFB). Items were generated from a literature review and a verbatim report from parents. Subsequently, a study was implemented at the Necker Hospital and the Pellegrin Children's Hospital for psychometric analysis. The HFB was refined via item reduction according to inter-question correlations, consensus among experts and exploratory factor analysis. A 20-item questionnaire, grouped into 5 dimensions, was obtained. Construct validity was demonstrated and HFB showed good internal coherence (Cronbach's ?: 0.93). The HFB was significantly correlated with the mental dimension of the Short-Form-12 (r?=?-0.75), and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (r?=?-0.61). HFB scores differed significantly according to the size and localization of the IH. A validated tool for assessing the burden on families of children with IH is now available. PMID:24676555
Boccara, Olivia; Méni, Cecile; Léauté-Labreze, Christine; Bodemer, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Dufresne, Hélène; Brauchoux, Sébastien; Taieb, Charles
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease with many somatic, psychological and social consequences. Somatic consequences are connected mainly with increasing levels of negative emotions such as depression, anxiety and a tendency to react with anger to many daily life situations. Additionally, loss of hope has been reported as another effect of rheumatoid arthritis. The goal of the study was to describe anxiety levels and its determinants in RA patients. The study was carried out on 31 RA patients, 22 (71%) of whom were females and 9 (29%) of whom were males. The respondents were assessed with a set of questionnaires such as Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire - Revised (EPQ-R). We have found the relationship between anxiety as (1) a state and external locus of control - powerful others (tau-b = 0.23, p = 0.09), task - oriented style of coping (tau-b = -0.34, p = 0.01), emotion-oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.33, p = 0.02) and neuroticism levels (tau-b = 0.29, p = 0.03) and (2) anxiety as a trait and external locus of control - powerful others (tau-b = 0.40, p = 0.01), task - oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.36, p = 0.01), emotion-oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.33, p = 0.02) and neuroticism levels (tau-b = 0.47, p = 0,01). PMID:22235646
Mojs, Ewa; Ziarko, Micha?; Kaczmarek, ?ukasz; Samborski, W?odzimierz
Recent media reports in the USA of baby-switching at birth have caused anxiety for a number of maternity patients. Although alternative precautionary procedures are being implemented by hospitals to prevent baby-switching, ways to allay the maternity patient's anxiety must also be considered. While maternity patients can be expected to recognize their neonates, it is less clear how well they perform recognition under specified conditions. An American team of researchers noted postpartum mothers' anxiety levels and their natural cues to recognize crying sounds and garment smells of their babies as preventive measures against baby-switching. An experimental study design was used to conduct this research. Participants completed a demographic form and Levin's pregnancy anxiety instrument, followed by three recognition challenges for hearing and smelling cues. Ten per cent of mothers reported anxiety about baby-switching, 65.9% recognized their babies from recorded crying, and 52.3% recognized their babies by smell. Mothers do have the natural ability to recognize the cries or smells of their babies, even when anxious about baby-switching. Educating new mothers, acknowledging their natural ability for baby recognition, and promoting the use of private rooms with same-room (couplet) care can serve as extra safeguards. PMID:12048488
DiPasquale Davis, J; Moran, M K; Horger, E O; Dajani, A N
Several epidemiological studies confirmed that Anxiety Disorders as a group are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions in the United States. The importance of these conditions is underlined by the fact that they cause significant disability, poor quality of life, alcohol and drug abuse. Anxiety disorders are treatable conditions and respond to the front-line interventions such as serotonin reuptake inhibitors and
Over the last few years, a number of medications have demonstrated their efficacy in the acute treatment of social anxiety disorder. At present, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors probably constitute the first line treatment, based on their safety, tolerability, and efficacy in the treatment of social anxiety disorder and common comorbid conditions. Data from single trials suggest that clonazepam, bromazepam, and
Carlos Blanco; Smita X. Antia; Michael R. Liebowitz
Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…
Sparks, Sarah D.
Investigated the relationship between death imagery and death anxiety among 179 undergraduate students. Results reveal subjects with low death anxiety scores had more positive death images. Subjects who imagined death to be young had a more positive image of death. Death was seen as male by majority of respondents. (Author/BL)
McDonald, Rita T.; Hilgendorf, William A.
Socially anxious (SA) individuals interpret ambiguous social events negatively. It is not clear, however, whether this bias is due to general distress (e.g., depression and general anxiety) or level of social anxiety. In the current study we conducted two experiments examining interpretation bias in SA individuals using videos. Each video involved an actor or actress who approached the camera and
Nader Amir; Courtney Beard; Emily Bower
The rapid progress in knee implants technology and operational techniques go together with more and more modem medical programs, designed to optimize the patients' care and shorten their stay in hospital. However, this does not guarantee any elimination ofperioperative stress in patients. Anxiety is a negative emotional state arising from stressful circumstances accompanied by activation of the autonomous nervous system. Anxiety causes negative physiological changes, including wound healing, resistance to anesthetic induction, it is associated with an increased perioperative pain and prolong recovery period. The purpose of this work is to present the current state of knowledge on the preoperative anxiety and discuss its impact on pain and other parameters in patients undergoing fast-track arthroplasty of big joints. The work also shows selected issues of anxiety pathomechanism, and actual methods reducing preoperative anxiety in hospitalized patients. The common prevalence of anxiety in patients undergoing surgery induces the attempt to routinely identify patients with higher anxiety, which may be a predictive factor of worse results after TKA. Undertaking widely understood psychological support in these patients before and after the operation could be a favorable element, which would influence thefinal result of the treatment of patients after big joints arthroplasties. PMID:25639020
Zi?tek, Pawe?; Zi?tek, Joanna; Szczypiór, Karina
The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cytokine levels correlate with depression and anxiety in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Twenty patients hospitalized for surgical resection of CRC were included in the study group and twenty healthy volunteers comprised the control group. Depression and anxiety were analyzed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-?, and TGF-? were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. We found that more than half of CRC patients presented clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression, and 65% of them manifested a combination of severe anxiety and depression. CRC patients had increased serum levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? but lower IL-10 concentrations. Correlation analysis between HADS score and cytokine levels revealed a positive association of anxiety and/or depression with IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? and a negative correlation with IL-10. These results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression in CRC patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these psychological disorders will allow the design of therapeutic interventions that lead to an improved quality of life and overall survival of CRC patients. PMID:25309921
Soares de Lima, Taís Aparecida; Ribeiro Azevedo, Lucas; Feres, Omar; Ribeiro da Rocha, José Joaquim
It was hypothesized that children identified by their peers at school as anxious solitary would report more symptoms of social anxiety disorder on a self report questionnaire and, on the basis of child and parent clinical interviews, receive more diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and additional anxiety and mood disorders. Participants were 192 children drawn from a community sample of 688 children attending public elementary schools. Half of these children were selected because they were identified as anxious solitary by peers and the other half were demographically-matched controls. 192 children provided self reports of social anxiety disorder symptoms on a questionnaire, and 76 of these children and their parent participated in clinical interviews. Results indicate that children identified by their peers as anxious solitary in the fall of 4th grade, compared to control children, were significantly more likely to receive diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and selective mutism based on parent clinical interviews. Additionally, there was a tendency for these children to be diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder and post traumatic stress disorder based on parent clinical interviews. Furthermore, children who had been identified as anxious solitary at any time in the 3rd or 4th grades were more likely than control children to report symptoms of social anxiety disorder that fell in the clinical range and to receive diagnoses of social anxiety disorder and dysthymia (both trends) and major depression (a significant effect) according to parental clinical interview. PMID:19707867
Gazelle, Heidi; Workman, Jamie Olson; Allan, Wesley
With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Trujillo, Anna C.
Background Parental overprotection has commonly been implicated in the development and maintenance of childhood anxiety disorders. Overprotection has been assessed using questionnaire and observational methods interchangeably; however, the extent to which these methods access the same construct has received little attention. Edwards et al. (2008, 2010) developed a promising parent-report measure of overprotection (OP) and reported that, with parents of pre-school children, the measure correlated with observational assessments and predicted changes in child anxiety symptoms. We aimed to validate the use of the OP measure with mothers of children in middle childhood, and examine its association with child and parental anxiety. Methods Mothers of 90 children (60 clinically anxious, 30 non-anxious) aged 7–12 years completed the measure and engaged in a series of mildly stressful tasks with their child. Results The internal reliability of the measure was good and scores correlated significantly with observations of maternal overprotection in a challenging puzzle task. Contrary to expectations, OP was not significantly associated with child anxiety status or symptoms, but was significantly associated with maternal anxiety symptoms. Limitations Participants were predominantly from affluent social groups and of non-minority status. Overprotection is a broad construct, the use of specific sub-dimensions of behavioural constructs may be preferable. Conclusions The findings support the use of the OP measure to assess parental overprotection among 7–12 year-old children; however, they suggest that parental responses may be more closely related to the degree of parental rather than child anxiety. PMID:23916305
Clarke, Kiri; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy
Emotional dysregulation is a process which consists in mitigating, intensifying, or maintaining a given emotion and is the trigger for some psychological disorders. Research has shown that an anxiety control plays an important role in emotional expression and regulation and, in addition, for anorexia nervosa (AN) and, more in general, in drive for thinness. Scientific literature suggests that in AN there is a core of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control. The aim of this study is to explore the roles of emotional dysregulation and anxiety control as independent or third variables in a mediational regression model related to drive for thinness. One hundred fifty-four clinical individuals with anorexia participated in the study and all completed a set of self-report questionnaires: eating disorders inventory version 3 (EDI-3), DERS, and the anxiety control questionnaire. The data confirmed a mediational model in which the relation between emotional dysregulation and drive for thinness is mediated by anxiety control. The current study partially supports a clinical model in which emotional dysregulation is a distal factor in eating disorders while the mediator variable anxiety control is a proximal factor in the psychopathological process underlying it. PMID:24795659
Fiore, Francesca; Ruggiero, Giovanni M.; Sassaroli, Sandra
The present study is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (MBCBT) for reducing cognitive and somatic anxiety and modifying dysfunctional cognitions in patients with anxiety disorders. A single case design with pre- and post-assessment was adopted. Four patients meeting the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Three patients received a primary diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), while the fourth patient was diagnosed with Panic Disorder. Patients were assessed on the Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Hamilton's Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. The therapeutic program consisted of education regarding nature of anxiety, training in different versions of mindfulness meditation, cognitive restructuring, and strategies to handle worry, such as, worry postponement, worry exposure, and problem solving. A total of 23 sessions over four to six weeks were conducted for each patient. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the available research, and implications and limitations are highlighted along with suggestions for future research. PMID:23439854
Sharma, Mahendra P.; Mao, Angelina; Sudhir, Paulomi M.
Introduction: During the war circumstances, women and children are exposed to multiple traumatic experiences, one of which is an violent disappearance of a family member. Goal: The aim of this research was to establish the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization in women in Bosnia and Herzegovina who have sought their war missing family members for 15 to 18 years. Subjects and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 120 women with war missing family member and 40 women without a war missing family member as a control group. For assessment of depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Somatic Symptoms Index (SSI) questionnaire and a general questionnaire on the sociodemographic data and data on war missing family members were used. Results: A significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001) and somatization (p = 0.013) was present in women with, in comparison to women without a missing family member. In comparison of the kinship with the missing family members, statistically significantly higher intensity of symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization was in women with a missing child (p<0.001) in comparison to other missing family members. Conclusion: A prolonged period of seeking, waiting and uncertainty of what happened in the war with the missing family member presents for those women a prolonged suffering manifested through depression, anxiety and symptoms of somatization. PMID:24167436
Barakovi?, Devla; Avdibegovi?, Esmina; Sinanovi?, Osman
This study examined the interrelations among negative cognitive errors, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety control beliefs and explored their unique and specific associations with anxiety symptoms in a community sample of youth. Existing research has suggested that these constructs are related to childhood anxiety disorder symptoms; however,…
Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.; Watts, Sarah E.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Cannon, Melinda F.
Introduction: Information concerning the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is controversial. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: determine the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with SDB; explore whether the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms rises with increasing parameters of SDB severity; and investigate the factors potentially associated with anxiety and depression. Materials and Methodology: Data was collected from consecutive adult patients referred to the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases’ Sleep Medicine Unit from October 2008 to October 2009. SDB diagnoses were established using standard polysomnography or simplified respiratory polygraphy. All patients routinely completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on their first visit to the Sleep Medicine Unit. Results: 382 patients with SDB were included. Mean age was 50.8±13.6 years, 62% were male. Anxiety symptoms were acknowledged by 71 patients (18.5%), while 29 (7.6%) had depression symptoms, and 116 (30.4%) had symptoms of anxiety plus depression. Patients who reported anxiety and depression symptoms scored higher on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, 16±7) than those with no symptoms (11±6) (p<0.0001). Patients with symptoms of anxiety plus depression also had higher BMIs (36 ± 8 K/m2) than patients with SDB without anxiety or depression. No other differences were observed, not even with respect to the parameters of the severity of their SDB. Conclusions: Our results support the recommendation that due to their high frequency and potential importance for long-term adherence to CPAP, anxiety and depression symptoms should be included in the routine evaluation of all adults with SDB. PMID:23115600
Reyes-Zúñiga, Margarita; Castorena-Maldonado, Armando; Carrillo-Alduenda, José Luis; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Martínez-Estrada, Araceli; Gómez-Torres, Leonardo; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis
This study combined a standardized measure of stress with a questionnaire about job stressors, individual job and career variables, and personal variables. Seventy-nine police officers from three different departments in the United States participated in the study. In general, the officers scored low on the Spielberger et al. (1983) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The stressors in police work identified by them
Jerome E. Storch; Robert Panzarella
Administered the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire and the What I Think and Feel test to 159 male prisoners. Participants reported low levels of anxiety and an absence of debilitating personality characteristics, suggesting the absence of a criminal personality that is a separate and distinct type of personality. (JAC)
Richmond, Bert O.; And Others
The present study examined the role of childhood trauma, major depressive disorder (MDD), and anxiety disorder (AD) in overgeneral autobiographical memory. Ninety-three outpatients and 24 healthy controls completed a childhood trauma questionnaire and an autobiographical memory test (AMT). Results showed that MDD diagnosis rather than trauma history predicted AMT-performance. Memory specificity was not related to AD diagnosis, recovered MDD, or
Ineke Wessel; Masja Meeren; Frenk Peeters; Arnoud Arntz; Harald Merckelbach
The aims of the study were to test the linkages between achievement goals to task performance, as mediated by state anxiety arousal. Performance expectancy was also examined as antecedents of achievement goals. A presentation task in a computer practice class was used as achievement task. Fifty-three undergraduates (37 females and 16 males) were administered self-report questionnaire measures before and immediately
Ayumi Tanaka; Takuma Takehara; Hirotsugu Yamauchi
The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…
Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.
A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…
Blackie, Norman K.
This study investigates the role of attachment anxiety and the experience of intense life adversity in the development of compliance. It also seeks to specify which types of negative life events may be especially relevant in encouraging compliant behaviour, and whether gender may moderate this effect. Participants (N=125) completed the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire and the Relationship
Kim E. Drake; David Sheffield; Deborah Shingler
College-age students were given a four-part questionnaire consisting of: (1) Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, (2) the Belief in Afterlife Scale-Form A, (3) Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, and (4) Lester's Fear of Death Scale. In general, the findings suggest that the relationship between death and afterlife beliefs is weak.…
Berman, Alan L.; Hays, James E.
Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…
Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika
Temperament was examined as a moderator of maternal parenting behaviors, including warmth, negativity, autonomy granting, and guidance. Observations of parenting and questionnaire measures of temperament and adjustment were obtained from a community sample (N = 214; ages 8-12). Trajectories of depression and anxiety were assessed across 3 years.…
Kiff, Cara J.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Bush, Nicole R.
The purpose of this study was to examine a theoretically-based model in which insecure attachment is related to career indecision through the mediation of negative emotions. Two hundred college students completed questionnaires measuring anxious and avoidant dimensions of insecure attachment, negative emotions (trait and career-choice anxiety,…
Braunstein-Bercovitz, Hedva; Benjamin, Benny A.; Asor, Shiri; Lev, Maya
The purpose of the study was to examine whether poor working conditions influenced drivers' psychological health, and to identify drivers' personality characteristics. The subjects were 208 bus drivers working in the European sector in Istanbul. Their personality characteristics, psychological symptoms and anxiety levels were investigated using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the Symptom Check List (SCL90-R) and Spielberger's State and
H. Issever; L. Onen; H. H. Sabuncu; O. Altunkaynak
The present study examines the construct validity of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoP), panic disorder (PD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a clinical sample of children. Participants were 174 children, 6 to 17 years old (94 boys) who had undergone a diagnostic evaluation at a university hospital based clinic. Parent and child ratings of symptom severity were assessed using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). Diagnostician ratings were obtained from the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children and Parents (ADIS: C/P). Discriminant and convergent validity were assessed using confirmatory factor analytic techniques to test a multitrait–multimethod model. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the current classification of these child anxiety disorders. The disorders demonstrated statistical independence from each other (discriminant validity of traits), the model fit better when the anxiety syndromes were specified than when no specific syndromes were specified (convergent validity), and the methods of assessment yielded distinguishable, unique types of information about child anxiety (discriminant validity of methods). Using a multi-informant approach, these findings support the distinctions between childhood anxiety disorders as delineated in the current classification system, suggesting that disagreement between informants in psychometric studies of child anxiety measures is not due to poor construct validity of these anxiety syndromes. PMID:20443053
Wood, Jeffrey J.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Piacentini, John C.
Anxiety can be broadly described as a psychological state in which normally innocuous environmental stimuli trigger negative emotional expectations. Human anxiety disorders are multidimensional and may be organic or acquired, situational or pervasive. The broad ranging nature of the anxiety phenotype speaks to the need for models that identify its various components and root causes to develop effective clinical treatments. The cross-species comparative approach to modeling anxiety disorders in animals aims to understand mechanisms that both contribute to and modulate anxiety. Nonhuman primate models provide an important bridge from nonprimate model systems because of the complexity of nonhuman primates’ biobehavioral capacities and their commonalities with human emotion. The broad goal of this review is to provide an overview of various procedures available to study anxiety in the nonhuman primate, with a focus on the behavioral aspects of anxiety. Commonly used methods covered in this review include assessing animals in their home environment or in response to an ethologically relevant threat, associative conditioning and startle response tests, and cognitive bias tests. We also discuss how these procedures can help veterinarians and researchers care for captive nonhuman primates. PMID:25225310
Coleman, Kristine; Pierre, Peter J.
Students' attitudes and anxieties about science were measured by responses to two self-report questionnaires. The cohorts were Danish and American students at the upper secondary- and university-levels. Relationships between and among science attitudes, science anxiety, gender, and nationality were examined. Particular attention was paid to constructivist attitudes about science. These fell into at least three broad conceptual categories: Negativity of Science Toward the Individual, Subjective Construction of Knowledge, and Inherent Bias Against Women. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses revealed that these dimensions of constructivist attitudes were equally applicable and had the same meaning in both cultures. Gender differences in mean levels of constructivist attitudes were found; these varied across the two cultures. Constructivist beliefs were associated with science anxiety, but in different ways for females and males, and for Danes and Americans. In agreement with earlier studies, females in both the US and Danish cohorts were significantly more science anxious than males, and the gender differences for the Americans were larger than those for the Danes. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for reducing science anxiety by changing constructivist beliefs.
Bryant, Fred B.; Kastrup, Helge; Udo, Maria; Hislop, Nelda; Shefner, Rachel; Mallow, Jeffry
It is well documented that the psychiatric disorders are common in Asthma patients in China while the studies on the relationship between asthma control and psychological disorder are comparatively rare. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study on asthmatic outpatients in one Chinese tertiary center to investigate the correlation among asthma, anxiety and depression. Demographic data, anxiety and depression scores, the level of asthma control were collected in 261 patients. All patients were evaluated with Asthma Control Test (ACT), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-rating depression scale (SDS) questionnaires. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between asthma control and psychological disorder. The result showed that 31 asthma patients had anxiety symptom while thirty-five asthma patients had depression. One hundred and ninety-two asthma patients were well controlled and 69 patients were not. The study found a negative correlation between ACT and SAS(r?=??0.231, p<0.001) as well as ACT and SDS(r?=??0.23, p<0.001) and depression (OR: 12.295, 95%CI: [5.374–28.128], p<0.001) were both independently associated with poor asthma control. We concluded that Asthma control is greatly affected by psychological disorder in Chinese patients. PMID:25054657
Li, Lei; Liu, Li; Li, Guoqin; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yuyan; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Hong; Li, Guangxi; Li, Hui
IN BRIEF To keep memories from becoming jumbled, the brain must encode the distinct features of events and situations in a way that allows them to be distinguished from one another—a process called pattern separation. Pattern separation enables us to distinguish dangerous situations from similar ones that pose no risk. People with defects in this ability may be prone to anxiety disorders. The process occurs in one of the two regions of the brain that generate neurons throughout life. These fledgling cells seem to be critical to pattern separation. Interventions that specifically boost the ranks of rookie neurons could provide new ways to regulate mood and possibly treat conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24974712
Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Hen, René
Introduction: Studies showed that lack of interest in the field of study in the 1st year of residency could create stress and then causing psychological problems like anxiety. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of relationship between interest to the specialized field of study and the level of medical residents’ anxiety in 2010. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population of this study was the medical residents (1st-4th year) from the Universities of Medical Sciences of Isfahan, Gilan, Sanandaj and Kashan (370 residents). They were selected by stratified sampling method proportional to size and were included in this study. Data was collected by using the researcher-made questionnaire of demographic characteristics, the questionnaire about the field of study selection and Zung anxiety self-assessment standard questionnaire. The findings were analyzed by using the SPSS statistical software version 16, descriptive and analytical tests (t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson). The significance level was considered as P ? 0.05. Results: The results showed that more than 92% of the surveyed residents did not have anxiety and were in the normal group. There was a significant correlation between the specialized field of interest and anxiety scores of the residents (P < 0.05). In particular, the following cases had a direct effect on interest rates and anxiety in residents: the amount of time for visiting and patient care, job stress, time for personal affairs, the ability to predict the agenda and job security. Conclusions: The relationship between various factors and anxiety level was corroborated that the residents’ interest and success in studying was the result of their choices and management plans to eliminate barriers for the selection of the field and the favorite city by the officials and planners. PMID:25013826
Khorvash, Fariborz; Vesal, Sahar; Yamani, Nikoo; Hadadgar, Arash; Mehrbod, Nooshin
Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…
Williams, Amanda S.
Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…
O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…
The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…
Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu
The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service…
A fair amount of research exists on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) as a model and a treatment for anxiety disorders and OCD spectrum disorders; this paper offers a quantitative account of this research. A meta-analysis is presented examining the relationship between psychological flexibility, measured by versions of the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ and AAQ-II) and measures of anxiety. Meta-analytic results showed positive and significant relationships between the AAQ and general measures of anxiety as well as disorder specific measures. Additionally, all outcome data to date on ACT for anxiety and OCD spectrum disorders are reviewed, as are data on mediation and moderation within ACT. Preliminary meta-analytic results show that ACT is equally effective as manualized treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Future directions and limitations of the research are discussed. PMID:25041735
Bluett, Ellen J; Homan, Kendra J; Morrison, Kate L; Levin, Michael E; Twohig, Michael P
We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive\\u000a disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES),\\u000a Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety
Leonardo F. Fontenelle; Aline M. Domingues; Wanderson F. Souza; Mauro V. Mendlowicz; Gabriela B. de Menezes; Ivan L. Figueira; Marcio Versiani
Background The School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR) was designed to assess anxiety in children at school. The SAS-TR is a proxy rated measure and could assess social anxiety, generalized anxiety and also gives a total anxiety score. This study aimed to translate and validate the SAS-TR in Iran. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire were carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. A sample of students participated in the study. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and test-retest analysis. Validity was assessed using content validity. The factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results In all 200 elementary students aged 6 to 10?years were studied. Considering the recommended cut-off values, overall the prevalence of high anxiety condition in elementary students was found to be 21?%. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Iranian SAS-TR was 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.81. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure for the questionnaire (generalized and social anxiety) that jointly accounted for 55.3?% of variances observed. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure of the questionnaire. Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the Iranian version of SAS-TR has satisfactory reliability, and validity for measuring anxiety in 6 to 10?years old children in Iran. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in future studies. PMID:22809403
Background A couple's decision to undergo an invasive test based on a screening test result is a process associated with anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine whether anxiety and prenatal attachment were affected by undergoing an invasive test compared to women in early pregnancy and after a reassuring anomaly scan. Methods 200 women were recruited at booking, 14 women and 20 partners after an invasive test and 81 women following an anomaly scan. A questionnaire was completed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and Maternal or Paternal Antenatal Attachment Scales. Results Women who have had an invasive test have higher levels of anxiety compared to women at booking (P < 0.01) and after an anomaly scan (P = 0.002). Anxiety declines from booking to the time of an anomaly scan (P = 0.025), whilst attachment increases (P < 0.001). There is a positive correlation between anxiety and attachment in women who have had an invasive test (r = 0.479). Partners of women undergoing an invasive test experience lower levels of anxiety (P < 0.05). Conclusions Women undergoing prenatal diagnostic procedures experience more psychological distress, which may be currently underestimated. Establishment of interdisciplinary treatment settings where access to psychological support is facilitated may be beneficial. PMID:21749702
The current study is a preliminary test of a virtual reality (VR) anxiety-provoking tool using a sample of participants with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The tasks were administrated to 33 participants with OCD and 30 healthy control participants. In the VR task, participants navigated through a virtual environment using a joystick and head-mounted display. The virtual environment consisted of three phases: training, distraction, and the main task. After the training and distraction phases, participants were allowed to check (a common OCD behavior) freely, as they would in the real world, and a visual analogy scale of anxiety was recorded during VR. Participants' anxiety in the virtual environment was measured with a validated measure of psychiatric symptoms and functions and analyzed with a VR questionnaire. Results revealed that those with OCD had significantly higher anxiety in the virtual environment than did healthy controls, and the decreased ratio of anxiety in participants with OCD was also higher than that of healthy controls. Moreover, the degree of anxiety of an individual with OCD was positively correlated with a his or her symptom score and immersive tendency score. These results suggest the possibility that VR technology has a value as an anxiety-provoking or treatment tool for OCD. PMID:18991527
Kim, Kwanguk; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Cha, Kyung Ryeol; Park, Junyoung; Han, Kiwan; Kim, Yun Ki; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I
People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance. PMID:24678759
Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan
The present study aims to assess comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in anxiety and depressive disorders and to determine whether childhood trauma types and other putative independent risk factors for comorbid PTSD are unique to PTSD or shared with anxiety and depressive disorders. The sample of 2402 adults aged 18-65 included healthy controls, persons with a prior history of affective disorders, and persons with a current affective disorder. These individuals were assessed at baseline (T0) and 2 (T2) and 4 years (T4) later. At each wave, DSM-IV-TR based anxiety and depressive disorder, neuroticism, extraversion, and symptom severity were assessed. Childhood trauma was measured at T0 with an interview and at T4 with a questionnaire, and PTSD was measured with a standardized interview at T4. Prevalence of 5-year recency PTSD among anxiety and depressive disorders was 9.2%, and comorbidity, in particular with major depression, was high (84.4%). Comorbidity was associated with female gender, all types of childhood trauma, neuroticism, (low) extraversion, and symptom severity. Multivariable significant risk factors (i.e., female gender and child sexual and physical abuse) were shared among anxiety and depressive disorders. Our results support a shared vulnerability model for comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders with PTSD. Routine assessment of PTSD in patients with anxiety and depressive disorders seems warranted. PMID:24629482
Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Elzinga, Bernet M
The objective of this work is To investigate the prevalence, comorbidities, impairment, and treatment-seeking of social anxiety disorder in the Chinese military personnel. Military personnel (n=11,527) were surveyed from May to August 2007 using a multistage whole cohort probability sampling method. A Chinese version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used for assessment, and a military-related socio-demographic questionnaire was used to describe the prevalence distribution. A unified survey was performed to investigate 11 different social situations. The short-form health survey was used to assess role impairment. The 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder were 3.34% (95% CI: 3.25-3.42%) and 6.22% (95% CI: 6.11-6.32%), respectively. Social anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of depression, substance abuse, panic attacks/disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Childhood foster, female, stressful life events, younger age, and being divorced/widowed increase the incidence of social anxiety disorder. Treatment-seeking was relatively rare. Social anxiety disorder is a common disorder in military personnel in China, and it is a risk factor for subsequent depressive illness, substance abuse and other mental disorder. Early detection and treatment of social anxiety disorder are important because of the low rate of treatment-seeking. PMID:25262639
Wang, Huaning; Zhang, Ruiguo; Chen, Yunchun; Wang, Huaihai; Zhang, Yahong; Gan, Jingli; Zhang, Liyi; Tan, Qingrong
According to social psychology models of adult attachment, a fundamental dimension of attachment is anxiety. Individuals who are high in attachment anxiety are motivated to achieve intimacy in relationships, but are mistrustful of others and their availability. Behavioral research has shown that anxiously attached persons are vigilant for emotional facial expression, but the neural substrates underlying this perceptual sensitivity remain largely unknown. In the present study functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine automatic brain reactivity to approach-related facial emotions as a function of attachment anxiety in a sample of 109 healthy adults. Pictures of sad and happy faces were presented masked by neutral faces. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ) was used to assess attachment style. Attachment anxiety was correlated with depressivity, trait anxiety, and attachment avoidance. Controlling for these variables, attachment-related anxiety was positively related to responses in left inferior, middle, and medial prefrontal areas, globus pallidus, claustrum, and right cerebellum to masked happy facial expression. Attachment anxiety was not found to be associated with brain activation due to masked sad faces. Our findings suggest that anxiously attached adults are automatically more responsive to positive approach-related facial expression in brain areas that are involved in the perception of facial emotion, facial mimicry, or the assessment of affective value and social distance. PMID:22732507
Donges, Uta-Susan; Kugel, Harald; Stuhrmann, Anja; Grotegerd, Dominik; Redlich, Ronny; Lichev, Vladimir; Rosenberg, Nicole; Ihme, Klas; Suslow, Thomas; Dannlowski, Udo
Introduction: We assess the effect of video-based education on patient anxiety during transrectal prostate biopsy. Methods: A total of 246 patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy were prospectively enrolled in the study. Group 1 included 123 patients who received both written and video-based education, while Group 2 included 123 patients who received only written instructions regarding prostate biopsies. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess state and trait anxiety (STAI-S/T) After completing the STAI-S and STAI-T questionnaires, all patients in Group 1 received written information and video-based education and they again completed STAI-S before the biopsy. On the contrary, after completing the STAI-S and STAI-T questionnaires, the patients in Group 2 received only written information and then they completed the STAI-S before the biopsy. Moreover, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain scores during digital rectal examination, probe insertion, periprostatic local anesthesic infiltration, and biopsy. Results: No difference was noted between 2 groups regarding VAS scores. Comparing the 2 groups on baseline anxiety, we found that trait anxiety scores (STAI-T) were similar (p = 0.238). Pre-information STAI-S scores were similar in both groups (p = 0.889) and they both indicated high anxiety levels (score ?42). While post-information STAI-S scores remained high in Group 2, post-information STAI-S scores significantly decreased in Group 1 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Undergoing a prostate biopsy is stressful and may cause anxiety for patients. Video-based education about the procedure can diminish patient anxiety. PMID:25553162
Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Unal, Elif; Akarken, Ilker; Un, Sitki; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Konyalioglu, Ersin; Isoglu, Cemal Selcuk; Zorlu, Ferruh
Background Post-conflict reconciliation is supposed to have a positive impact on survivors of war and conflict. However, knowledge is limited as validated questionnaires to assess individual readiness to reconcile in the context of human rights violations are still missing. Objectives This study aimed to develop and pilot-test a questionnaire to assess individual readiness to reconcile in victims of human rights violations. Methods The questionnaire was developed and pilot-tested in a sample of 60 adult Kurdish refugees from Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire, trauma exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, perceived emotional closeness to the Kurdish people as well as the participants’ ability to differentiate between perpetrators and the people in general were assessed in structured interviews, and their associations with readiness to reconcile were analyzed. Results Factor and item analysis resulted in an 18-item questionnaire with three subscales (openness to interactions; absence of feelings of revenge; openness to conflict resolution). Cronbach's ? for the subscales ranged from 0.74 to 0.90, explaining 61% of the total variance. The ability to differentiate between perpetrators and people in general and perceived emotional closeness were the best predictors for readiness to reconcile. The level of trauma exposure was not linked to readiness to reconcile. Although readiness to reconcile was negatively related to PTSD, depression and anxiety, none of these associations reached statistical significance. Conclusions The questionnaire appears to be a reliable measure with good psychometric properties. Further validations in different samples are needed. PMID:22893837
Stammel, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Böttche, Maria; Knaevelsrud, Christine
Anxiety disorders are one of the most common categories of psychopathology in children and adolescents. This article provides an overview of several anxiety disorders that are diagnosed often during childhood and adolescence, including separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Although anxiety disorders commonly show similar clinical characteristics during childhood and adulthood, this article highlights some of the differences that may present across the life span. PMID:19248916
Victor, Andrea M; Bernstein, Gail A
Despite psychometric rationale to include multiple informants, psychological assessment typically involves data collected from the patient (target) only, particularly with regard to depressive and anxious symptomatology. This study addressed this gap in the literature by assessing convergence between targets and their close friends (informants) in an ethnically diverse sample of young adults. One hundred and thirty-nine friendship dyads completed a packet of questionnaires including different versions administered to the targets and informants, with targets completing the standard questionnaire battery focused on their own symptoms and informants completing questionnaires on their view of the target participants’ symptoms, rather than their own characteristics. Measures were included to assess a wide range of symptomatology, including behavioral, cognitive, and physiological symptoms of anxiety and depression. The target-informant correlations were largely significant and of small-to-medium magnitude. In addition, target-informant agreement was higher in more visible symptoms (e.g., behavioral) than in less visible symptoms (e.g., physiological) of anxiety and depression. Interestingly, level of closeness in the relationship did not influence the magnitude of correlations. Implications for future research and integration into clinical assessment practices are discussed. PMID:25089072
GROS, DANIEL F.; MILANAK, MELISSA e.; HERSHENBERG, RACHEL
\\u000a A range of medications have been shown effective for the treatment of social anxiety disorder. The largest trials to date\\u000a have been with various selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Several of these agents have been registered for the\\u000a treatment of social anxiety disorder with agencies such as the FDA or EMEA, meta-analyses confirm their efficacy and safety,\\u000a and expert consensus
Keith A. Ganasen; Dan J. Stein
\\u000a What role does parenting play in the development, maintenance, and amelioration of child anxiety? In this chapter, we address\\u000a this question by reviewing the current state of knowledge regarding the nature and direction of the relationship between parenting\\u000a and child anxiety. Numerous theoretical models outline the role that various parenting practices may play in the development,\\u000a maintenance, and amelioration of
Bryce D. McLeod; Jeffrey J. Wood; Shelley B. Avny
The relationship between anxiety and alcohol use is a topic of great theoretical and practical interest for both scientists interested in the nature and causes of psychopathology and practitioners working with anxious and\\/or alcohol abusing clients. Although it has been clearly established that anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders are highly ‘‘comorbid’’ or co-occurring conditions (e.g., see Kushner, Abrams &
Brigitte C. Sabourin; Sherry H. Stewart
The present study evaluated the temporal course of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS; concerns over physical symptoms, mental incapacitation, and social embarrassment) and their relationships with behavioral inhibition (BI) and depression (DEP) in 606 outpatients with anxiety and mood disorders. A semi-structured interview and self-report questionnaires were administered on three occasions over a two-year period. All three constructs decreased over the study period and AS temporally functioned more similar to DEP than BI. Cross-sectional and temporal correlations supported the discriminant validity of AS from BI. As expected, initial levels of BI predicted less improvement in all AS dimensions. In contrast, higher initial levels of mental incapacitation AS were associated with greater improvement in DEP. Our results are discussed in regard to the measurement of AS in clinical samples, conceptualizations of AS as a lower-order vulnerability, and prognostic implications of directional paths between BI and AS and AS and DEP. PMID:21377316
Rosellini, Anthony J.; Fairholme, Christopher P.; Brown, Timothy A.
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
Actual Conditions of the Mixing of Antineoplastic Drugs for Injection in Hospitals in Osaka Prefecture, Japan: Jin YOSHIDA, et al. Department of Environmental Health, Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health—W e conducted a questionnaire survey in order to grasp the actual conditions under which antineoplastic drugs are mixed for injection in hospitals. Questionnaires were sent to all 155 hospitals with
Jin Yoshida; Hiroshi Kosaka; Shozo Nishida; Shinji Kumagai
Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90) included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45) not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items), subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items), and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items) at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P<0.001) at Day 10 (66.7 ± 13.0) versus Day 1 (72.5 ± 14.7). Also, positive SUBI scores (F1– F6) improved significantly (P<0.01) at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001) at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases. PMID:22869998
Yadav, Raj Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Mehta, Nalin; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra
Background\\/purpose Following a recent classification of the VATER Association provided by the CURE-Net consortium (submitted), we investigate\\u000a medical predictors of psychological stress and anxieties in this particular condition.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We developed a new set of questionnaires measuring psychological adjustment and quality of life outcome in conditions associated\\u000a with anorectal and\\/or urogenital malformation (one self- report form to be completed by patients 7–17 years
Meinolf Noeker; Muriel Schmitz; Eberhard Schmiedeke; Nadine Zwink; Heiko Reutter; Dominik Schmidt; Ekkehart Jenetzky
An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001) and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001). Fathers’ CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in children’s fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children’s DFA. PMID:25187737
Coric, Anka; Banozic, Adriana; Klaric, Miro; Vukojevic, Katarina; Puljak, Livia
This article reports about the development and validation of a measurement instrument assessing elementary school students' achievement emotions (Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School, AEQ-ES). Specifically, the instrument assesses students' enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom pertaining to three types of academic settings (i.e.,…
Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Reiss, Kristina; Murayama, Kou
ABSTRACT Background: The Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) is a recently developed scale aiming to evaluate symptoms of anxiety in later life. This 20-item scale uses dichotomous answers highlighting non-somatic anxiety complaints of elderly people. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version GAI (GAI-BR) in a sample from community and outpatient psychogeriatric clinic. Methods: A mixed convenience sample of 72 subjects was recruited for answering the research protocol. The interview procedures were structured with questionnaires about sociodemographic data, clinical health status, anxiety, and depression previously validated instruments, Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and GAI-BR. Twenty-two percent of the sample were interviewed twice for test-retest reliability. For internal consistency analyses, the Cronbach's ? test was applied. The Spearman correlation test was applied to evaluate the test-retest GAI-BR reliability. A ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve study was made to estimate the GAI-BR area under curve, cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity for the Generalized Anxiety Disorder diagnosis. Results: The GAI-BR version showed high internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.91) and strong and significant test-retest reliability (? = 0.85, p < 0.001). It also showed moderate and significant correlation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (? = 0.68, p < 0.001) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (? = 0.61, p < 0.001) showing evidence of concurrent validation. The cut-off point of 13 estimated by ROC curve analyses showed sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 84.6% to detect Generalized Anxiety Disorder (DSM-IV). Conclusion: GAI-BR has demonstrated very good psychometric properties and can be a reliable instrument to measure anxiety in Brazilian elderly people. PMID:24946782
Massena, Patrícia Nitschke; de Araújo, Narahyana Bom; Pachana, Nancy; Laks, Jerson; de Pádua, Analuiza Camozzato
Colonoscopy is commonly used to investigate gastrointestinal symptoms such as pain or changes in bowel habits and may either induce patient anxiety or assist in patient reassurance. Currently, 2 studies investigating negative colonoscopy, reassurance, and anxiety came to conflicting conclusions on this issue. Furthermore, it is possible that differences in coping styles may influence patient anxiety. A mixed-methods study was conducted with 26 precolonoscopy and 24 postcolonoscopy patients to address the conflicting, limited literature regarding colonoscopy, coping, and anxiety. Participants completed postal surveys and interviews were conducted with 16 participants. There was no significant difference between pre- and postcolonoscopy groups on any anxiety measures; however, this was possibly because of individual differences. Significant positive correlations were found between maladaptive coping and state anxiety indicating that healthcare professionals should consider screening for maladaptive coping in patients needing invasive procedures. Neither problem- nor emotion-focused coping showed any significant relationship with state anxiety. Interviews revealed that clinicians and endoscopy nurses should be aware that some patients are not absorbing correct information about colonoscopy, specifically that they may be conscious or experience pain during the procedure. Because of this, clinicians should ensure that patients understand standard practice at their hospital. In addition, interview data suggested that more attention should be given to pain management as it currently may not be adequate during conscious sedation. PMID:24691088
Rollbusch, Nicole; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A; Andrews, Jane M
Background: Concerning the prevalence of test anxiety among nursing students and presence of stress in nursing education years, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation method on test anxiety among nursing students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in three stages on 49 male and female nursing students divided into two groups (study and control). In the pre-test stage, demographic data and Sarason anxiety questionnaires were filled by 94 students (of terms 3 and 4). Then, in the intervention stage, the students having test anxiety were assigned to two groups (study and control), and the progressive muscle relaxation method was performed in the experiment group in four sessions. Then, the students did this method two times a day until final exams, immediately following which they filled the self-reported checklists. On the first day of the final exams, test anxiety questionnaire was filled by the two groups again. The collected data were analyzed by the statistical tests, i.e. ?2, paired t-test, independent sample t-test, Mann–Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS 18. Results: Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety after intervention between the two groups of study and control (P = 0.00), but this difference was not significant before intervention (P = 0.76). Also, in the study group, there was a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety before and after intervention (P = 0.00), but this difference was not significant in the control group (P = 0.09). Mann–Whitney test showed no significant difference in categorization of test anxiety scores before intervention in the study and control groups (P = 0.60), but the difference was significant after intervention (P = 0.00). Wilcoxon test showed a significant difference in categorization of test anxiety scores in the study group before and after intervention (P = 0.00), but the difference was not significant in the control group (P = 0.083). Conclusions: Generally, the results showed that performing progressive muscle relaxation method was effective in reducing test anxiety among nursing students. It is suggested to conduct educational programs concerning this method in the faculties of nursing to decrease the test anxiety of nursing students.
Zargarzadeh, Maryam; Shirazi, Maryam
One year after neuritis vestibularis, 29% from a sample of 75 patients still complained of vertigo. The objective of this investigation was to study why patients suffer from persisting vertigo. The alternative hypotheses were that the vertigo experienced could be explained either by a persisting vestibular dysfunction or by psychopathological changes. To elucidate this question, patients were examined with dynamic posturography, the symptom check list (SCL 90 R), the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), the agoraphobic cognitions questionnaire (ALQ) and the body sensations questionnaire (BSQ). After one year, only two patients had overall pathological results in the posturography. Following the assumption that sub-clinical dysfunction of the organs of balance can also lead to an altered body perception in combination with anxiety, the pathological results of posturographic sub-tests were related to experiences of vertigo. Here also there were no significant associations. However, vertigo correlated highly significantly with body-related anxiety and anxiety-related apprehension. In conclusion, chronic vertigo after an acute vestibular disorder could be regarded as a somatopsychic process. Persisting experience of vertigo is not explained by sub-clinical organic changes. Anxiety seems to be the crucial factor in persisting vertigo. PMID:15992562
Godemann, F; Siefert, K; Hantschke-Brüggemann, M; Neu, P; Seidl, R; Ströhle, A
Objective. To examine the effects of temperament and character profiles on state and trait depression and anxiety in a Japanese youth population. Method. Japanese university students were solicited for participation in a two-wave study, with assessments performed at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), separated by a five-month interval. A total of 184 students completed the Japanese version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) at T1 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at T1 and T2. We posited two latent variables, trait depression and anxiety, composed of the T1 and T2 HADS depression and anxiety scores, respectively. We also posited that temperament domain traits would predict character domain traits, and that all the personality traits would be linked to trait depression and anxiety and also predict T2 depression and anxiety. Results. Structural regression modeling showed that (1) only high Novelty Seeking predicted T2 Anxiety score, (2) trait depression and anxiety were linked to high harm avoidance and low self-directedness, and (3) trait depression was linked to high self-transcendence whereas trait anxiety was linked to low reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness. Conclusion. The characteristic associations between TCI subscales and depression and anxiety were limited to the trait rather than state aspects of depression and anxiety. PMID:22957225
Lu, Xi; Chen, Zi; Cui, Xiaoyi; Uji, Masayo; Miyazaki, Wataru; Oda, Masako; Nagata, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Toshinori; Katoh, Takahiko
Massachusetts General Hospital Â Center for Women's Mental Health Clinical Research Coordinator Position Announcement Program Description: The Center for Women's Mental Health is a clinical medications during pregnancy; treatment for postpartum mood and anxiety disorders; treatment for premenstrual
Patel, Aniruddh D.
Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse and neglect in childhood. Methods A total of 325 outpatients diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders completed questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, different forms of childhood trauma, and current interpersonal problems. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to measure five different forms of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect, and sexual abuse) and the short form of the Korean-Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale (KIIP-SC) was used to assess current interpersonal problems. We dichotomized patients into two groups (abused and non-abused groups) based on CTQ score and investigated the relationship of five different types of childhood trauma and interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders using multiple regression analysis. Result Different types of childhood abuse and neglect appeared to have a significant influence on distinct symptom dimensions such as depression, state-trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity. In the final regression model, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse during childhood were significantly associated with general interpersonal distress and several specific areas of interpersonal problems in adulthood. No association was found between childhood physical neglect and current general interpersonal distress. Conclusion Childhood emotional trauma has more influence on interpersonal problems in adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders than childhood physical trauma. A history of childhood physical abuse is related to dominant interpersonal patterns rather than submissive interpersonal patterns in adulthood. These findings provide preliminary evidence that childhood trauma might substantially contribute to interpersonal problems in adulthood. PMID:25648979
Background Animal studies have suggested that the hippocampus may play an important role in anxiety as part of the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS), which mediates reactivity to threat and punishment and can predict an individual’s response to anxiety-relevant cues in a given environment. The aim of the present structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was to examine the relationship between individual differences in BIS and hippocampal structure, since this has not received sufficient attention in non-clinical populations. Thirty healthy right-handed participants with no history of alcohol or drug abuse, neurological or psychiatric disorders, or traumatic brain injury were recruited (16 male, 14 female, age 18 to 32 years). T1-weighted structural MRI scans were used to derive estimates of total intracranial volume, and hippocampal and amygdala gray matter volume using FreeSurfer. To relate brain structure to Gray’s BIS, participants completed the Sensitivity to Punishment questionnaire. They also completed questionnaires assessing other measures potentially associated with hippocampal volume (Beck Depression Inventory, Negative Life Experience Survey), and two other measures of anxiety (Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory). Results We found that high scores on the Sensitivity to Punishment scale were positively associated with hippocampal volume, and that this phenomenon was lateralized to the right side. In other words, greater levels of behavioural inhibition (BIS) were positively associated with right hippocampal volume. Conclusions Our data suggest that hippocampal volume is related to the cognitive and affective dimensions of anxiety indexed by the Sensitivity to Punishment, and support the idea that morphological differences in the hippocampal formation may be associated with behavioural inhibition contributions to anxiety. PMID:24607258
Objective: Anxiety is associated with increased physiological reactivity and also increased “interoceptive” sensitivity to such changes in internal bodily arousal. Joint hypermobility, an expression of a common variation in the connective tissue protein collagen, is increasingly recognized as a risk factor to anxiety and related disorders. This study explored the link between anxiety, interoceptive sensitivity and hypermobility in a sub-clinical population using neuroimaging and psychophysiological evaluation. Methods: Thirty-six healthy volunteers undertook interoceptive sensitivity tests, a clinical examination for hypermobility and completed validated questionnaire measures of state anxiety and body awareness tendency. Nineteen participants also performed an emotional processing paradigm during functional neuroimaging. Results: We confirmed a significant relationship between state anxiety score and joint hypermobility. Interoceptive sensitivity mediated the relationship between state anxiety and hypermobility. Hypermobile, compared to non-hypermobile, participants displayed heightened neural reactivity to sad and angry scenes within brain regions implicated in anxious feeling states, notably insular cortex. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the dependence of anxiety state on bodily context, and increase our understanding of the mechanisms through which vulnerability to anxiety disorders arises in people bearing a common variant of collagen. PMID:25352818
Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Garfinkel, Sarah N.; Engels, Miriam; Eccles, Jessica A.; Pailhez, Guillem; Bulbena, Antonio; Critchley, Hugo D.
Eating and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in females, increase during adolescence, and are associated with early pubertal development. This study examined whether timing of puberty onset is associated with disordered eating and anxiety in a large sample of post-pubertal male and female undergraduate students. Self-report questionnaires assessed timing of puberty, disordered eating, anxiety, alcohol use, personality, and sensation seeking. Females scored significantly higher on measures of disordered eating (binge eating, dietary restraint, eating concerns, and weight and shape concerns) and anxiety (state and trait anxiety) than did males. In addition, early maturing women and men scored significantly higher on measures of disordered eating and anxiety than on-time or late maturing women and men. Measures of alcohol use, sensation seeking, and personality characteristics differed in males and females but did not vary with pubertal timing. Findings suggest that early puberty is associated with disordered eating and anxiety, and this association may be due to an organizational effect of pubertal hormones. Despite important differences in body fat composition, both males and females experiencing early puberty had an increased incidence of disordered eating. The fact that early puberty was associated with increased eating and anxiety symptoms in both sexes suggests that puberty may influence these symptoms through both biological and psychosocial mechanisms. PMID:17707381
Zehr, Julia L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Klump, Kelly L.
Surgery patients (N=24) were randomly assigned either to a stress inoculation intervention or to a standard hospital instructions control. The results demonstrated the utility of stress inoculation training in providing surgical patients with a self-regulation technique to reduce their experiences of anxiety and pain and to improve their…
Wells, Judith K.; And Others
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of music therapy in decreasing anxiety in ventilator-dependent patients. Design: A crossover repeated measures design with random assignment was used. Setting: The intensive care unit of a university hospital in Hong Kong was used as the setting for this study. Patients: Twenty patients who were ventilator-dependent were recruited for
H. L. C. Wong; Violeta Lopez-Nahas; A. Molassiotis
Investigated death fear as a function of discomfort level, previous experience with death, and religiosity among indigent cancer patients in a county general hospital. The patients were those participants in a cancer rehabilitation program who were judged closest to death. The Allport Religious Orientation Scale, Discomfort Indices, and the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) were administered to each patient. Patients also
Harriett W. Gibbs; Jeanne Achterberg-Lawlis
Investigated a stress management training program for 11 hospitalized drug-abusing patients, compared to a control group in different psychotherapy programs. Results indicated that the stress management treatment group produced significant decreases in trait anxiety. Subjects used the stress management techniques to overcome insomnia, anger, and…
Charlesworth, Edward A.; Dempsey, George
Summary \\u000a Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors for antenatal anxiety (AA) and antenatal depression (AD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: We performed a cross sectional study of 432 women attending a private clinic in the city of Osasco, São Paulo, from 5\\/27\\/1998\\u000a to 5\\/13\\/2002. The following instruments were used: Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), Beck depression inventory\\u000a (BDI), and a questionnaire for
A. Faisal-Cury; P. Rossi Menezes
Altered neural mechanisms implying autonomic functioning have been described related to anxiety. Pre-competitive stress may\\u000a be considered as an anxiety-state associated with disorders (i.e. somatic and cognitive alterations, and self-confidence worsening)\\u000a that severely impair sport performance, conditioning short-lasting strength-related disciplines like BMX. From the psychological\\u000a perspective, coaches use questionnaires like CSAI-2R to identify these alterations. However, with the emergence of
Manuel Mateo; Cristina Blasco-Lafarga; Ignacio Martínez-Navarro; José F. Guzmán; Mikel Zabala
This study explored the convergent and discriminant validity of the Geriatric Anxiety Scale (GAS), a new measure of anxiety symptoms for older adults. The GAS, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI), Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were administered to 117 community-dwelling, predominantly White, older adults (62% female; M age = 74.75 years,
Brian P. Yochim; Anne E. Mueller; Andrea June; Daniel L. Segal
Burnout as a measure of stress has generated research interest in the past two decades. However, there is a dearth of research on this interesting and important phenomenon in Nigeria. This study compared burnout and its associated factors in various health professionals working at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and sixty health care providers were sampled from 5 main units: Theatre/Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Accident and Emergency (A & E), Oncology, Dentistry and General Outpatients Department (GOP), among others. Included were 104 nurses (40%), 83 doctors (31.9%), 21 pharmacists/pharmacy technicians (8.0%), 10 medical social workers (3.8%) and 42 nursing assistants (16.1%). Outcome measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Core findings indicated that nurses consistently reported higher scores on all measures of burnout: exhaustion (F = 3.60, df = 258, P < .05); accomplishment (F = 3.94, df = 258, P < .05) and depersonalization (F = 4.58, df 258, P < .01) when compared with other health care providers. Significant differences were also noted between nurses and all other care providers in total scores on the General Health Questionnaire (F = 6.54, df 258, P < .01) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (F = 1.91, df 258, P < .05), respectively. These results are discussed in relation to the existing literature on burnout in Nigeria. Further empirical study is highly suggested in view of dearth of studies on the occupational health of health care providers in Nigeria. PMID:15030092
Olley, B O
Danger and harm are avoided by strategic decisions made at all three levels of the triune forebrain: rational (neomammalian), emotional (paleomammalian), and instinctive (reptilian). This applies also to potential harm from conspecifics, which leads to a choice between escalating and de-escalating strategies. Anxiety is a component of de-escalating strategies mediated by the paleomammalian and reptilian forebrains. When the neomammalian (rational) brain fails to deal with the threat of conspecific danger, these more primitive de-escalating strategies may be activated and may present as anxiety disorders. The capacity for concealment of anxiety and other forms of negative affect has also evolved, and excessive concealment may lead to psychopaihology by breaking the negative feedback loop of excessive motivation, leading to impaired performance, leading to signals of distress, and leading to reduced exhortation to succeed on the part of parents and teachers; this situation is illustrated by a model based on the Yerkes-Dodson law. PMID:22033473
Price, John S.
Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and is associated with marked impairments. However, a small proportion of individuals with SAD seek and receive treatment. Internet-administrated cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) has been found to be an effective treatment for SAD. This trial will be the first Internet-delivered guided self-help intervention for SAD in Romania. Methods Participants with social anxiety disorder (N = 96) will be recruited via newspapers, online banners and Facebook. Participants will be randomized to either: a) an active treatment, or b) a waiting list control group. The treatment will have a guided iCBT format and will last for nine weeks. Self-report questionnaires on social phobia, anxiety, depression, treatment credibility and irrational thinking will be used. All assessments will be collected pre, post and at follow-up (six months after intervention). Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale – Self-Report version (LSAS-SR) will be the primary outcome measure and will be administrated on a weekly basis in both conditions. Discussion The present randomized controlled trial investigates the efficacy of an Internet-administered intervention in reducing social anxiety symptoms in a culture where this form of treatment has not been tested. This trial will add to the body of knowledge on the efficacy of iCBT, and the results might lead to an increase of the accessibility of evidence-based psychological treatment in Romania. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01557894 PMID:23111108
Dental anxiety is associated with previous distressing dental experiences, such as lack of understanding of the dentist intentions, perceptions of uncontrollability and experiences of pain during dental treatment. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in building flexible predictions and expectations, which is very much needed during a dental visit. The aims of the study were to investigate if people with ASD have more negative dental experiences and a higher level of dental anxiety compared to a matched control group. Forty-seven adults with ASD and of normal intellectual performance, and 69 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls completed questionnaires on previous dental experiences and dental anxiety, the Dental Anxiety Scale, and the Dental Beliefs Survey. The ASD group experienced pain during dental treatments more often than the controls and 22% had repeatedly experienced being forced to dental treatment they were not prepared for, compared to 3% of the controls. A higher level of dental anxiety was reported by the ASD group. Dental treatment and methods for supporting the communication with patients with ASD need to be developed, in order to reduce the negative dental experiences and dental anxiety in people with ASD.
Dahllöf, Göran; Bejerot, Susanne
Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. PMID:22154338
Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A
Background Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer. Methods The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast cancer were randomly divided into two experimental group and control group. Then, all patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The experimental group received Logotherapy-based group counseling for eight sessions; however, the control group did not receive any specific training. In the end, both groups were tested again. After collecting the questionnaires, data was analyzed by the statistic software SPSS version 18 and using analysis of covariance. Results The research results showed that group Logotherapy was effective in reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer (p<0.005). In other words, this intervention could reduce anxiety in the experimental group. Conclusion The results suggest that in line with current medical treatment, psychosocial interventions can be used to reduce anxiety in the breast cancer patients. PMID:25250168
Mohabbat-Bahar, Sahar; Golzari, Mahmoud; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaiel
Introduction: One of the most common anxieties in higher education is research anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the research anxiety level among the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Methods: this was survey- analytical study. The stratified random sampling method was used and a sample of 212 people was selected. For data collection was used a questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical (T Test, ANOVA and LSD) statistics. Findings: The average anxiety research in IUMS was about 3.27 ±0.536. Among factors, highest scores in descending order are related to lack of timely payment of fees (3.97±0.961), the long approval process of proposals and research project reporting (3.86.±0.99) and lack of research efficiency on the part of faculty (3.70±1.00). The lowest scores were related to having insufficient funds to conduct research (2.67±1.08), another’s understanding of inability for researching (2.84±1.192), and unfriendly behavior from journals and research center staffs (2.89±0.802). Conclusion: The mean level of research anxiety among faculty members of IUMS was found higher than average. So it’s essential that authorities pay greater attention to the factors that cause research anxiety.
Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Zarmehr, Fateme; Bahrami, Susan; Ghazavi-Khorasgani, Zahra; Kazempour, Zahra; Shahrzadi, Leila
... resolved. Back Continue Focusing on Anxieties, Fears, or Phobias Try to answer the following questions honestly: Is ... Story on Stress When Tests Make You Nervous Phobias Being Afraid Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Stress & ...
Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (JD)
Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others
In this brief article the author details a study on the effects of math anxiety on the ability of the brain to function properly. After detailing the results of the study, the author presents possible approaches to relieve math anxiety.
Annie Murphy Paul
Background The prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in cancer patients and its associated factors in Pakistan is not known. There is a need to develop an evidence base to help introduce interventions as untreated depression and anxiety can lead to significant morbidity. We assessed the prevalence of depression and anxiety among adult outpatients with and without cancer as well as the effect of various demographic, clinical and behavioral factors on levels of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in outpatient departments of Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy and Nishtar Medical College Hospital, Multan. Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS) was used to define the presence of depression and anxiety in study participants. The sample consisted of 150 diagnosed cancer patients and 268 participants without cancer (control group). Results The mean age of cancer patients was 40.85 years (SD = 16.46) and median illness duration was 5.5 months, while the mean age of the control group was 39.58 years (SD = 11.74). Overall, 66.0% of the cancer patients were found to have depression and anxiety using a cutoff score of 20 on AKUADS. Among the control group, 109 subjects (40.7%) had depression and anxiety. Cancer patients were significantly more likely to suffer from distress compared to the control group (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.89-4.25, P = 0.0001). Performing logistic regression analysis showed that age up to 40 years significantly influenced the prevalence of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. There was no statistically significant difference between gender, marital status, locality, education, income, occupation, physical activity, smoking, cancer site, illness duration and mode of treatment, surgery related to cancer and presence of depression and anxiety. Cancers highly associated with depression and anxiety were gastrointestinal malignancies, chest tumors and breast cancer. Conclusions This study highlights high prevalence rates of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Younger age was associated with a higher likelihood of meeting criteria for psychological morbidity. The findings support screening patients for symptoms of depression and anxiety as part of standard cancer care and referring those at a higher risk of developing psychological morbidity for appropriate care. PMID:21034465
Axis I comorbidity is associated with greater severity of social anxiety disorder. However, the differential effects of comorbid mood and anxiety disorders on symptom severity or treatment outcome have not been investigated. We evaluated 69 persons with uncomplicated social anxiety disorder, 39 persons with an additional anxiety disorder, and 33 persons with an additional mood disorder (with or without additional
Brigette A Erwin; Richard G Heimberg; Harlan Juster; Melissa Mindlin
Benzodiazepines are advantageous treatments for anxiety disorders because they work quickly. However, benzodiazepines can vary in terms of efficacy across anxiety disorders. Benzodiazepines have been found to be a superior treatment in social anxiety disorder. While benzodiazepines are effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, other treatments such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be more effective. Also, research
Jonathan R. T. Davidson
Although speech anxiety is treated as a constant in speech communication research, speech teachers and speakers know that anxiety levels change during the course of one speech event This essay describes the Communication Anxiety Graph, a tool classroom teachers can use to help student speakers trace the pattern of their anxiety during one speech event. The data obtained from the
Winifred W. Brownell; Richard A. Katula
Clinician ratings of anxiety hold the promise of clarifying discrepancies often found between child and parent reports of anxiety. The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) is a clinician-administered instrument that assesses the frequency, severity, and impairment of common pediatric anxiety disorders and has been used as a primary outcome…
Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Riddle, Mark A.
Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) A1 In a USUAL WEEK, do you cycle in or around your new neighbourhood or new local area to get to or from somewhere (such as cycling to a shop or to public transport) or for recreation, health or fitness (including cycling with your dog)?
The Physician Survey of Practices on Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control -- Adult Questionnaire is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The Preschool Parent's Questionnaire (PPQ) was administered, in English and Spanish, to 120 parents (95 Black, 25 Mexican) of preschool children enrolled in child care programs, to ascertain the parents' attitudes regarding four basic issues: (1) parent's relationship to the child care program, (2) parent's attitudes toward teachers, (3) parent's…
Smith, Rutha L.
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 13 Do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness or recreational (leisure) activities that causes a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, volleyball) for at least 10 minutes continuously?
Background Most patients are anxious before surgery. The level of preoperative anxiety depends on several factors and merits an objective evaluation. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-report questionnaire comprising six questions that have been developed and validated to evaluate the preoperative anxiety of patients. This global index assesses three separate areas: anxiety about anaesthesia, anxiety about surgery, and the desire for information. The purpose of this study was to translate the APAIS into French and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the APAIS. Methods The process consisted of two steps. The first step involved the production of a French version of the APAIS that was semantically equivalent to the original version. In the second step, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version, including the internal consistency and reliability, the differential item functioning, and the external validity. Participants older than 18, undergoing elective surgery (except obstetric), able to understand and read French, and able to complete a self-report questionnaire were eligible for inclusion in the study. A forward-backward translation was performed. The psychometric evaluation covered three domains: internal validity, external validity, and acceptability. Within 4–48 h after surgery, the patients were asked to complete the “Evaluation du Vécu de l’ANesthésie” questionnaire” (EVAN) questionnaire, which is a validated, multi-dimensional questionnaire that assesses the patient’s experiences in the perioperative period. Results A database with 175 patients was created. The principal component factor analysis revealed the same three-dimensional structure as the original scale. The confirmatory factor analysis showed a strong fit with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.069 and a comparative fit index of 1.00. The amount of differential item functioning (DIF) between the subgroups of patients (i.e., based on age, gender, type of anaesthesia or surgery, premedication, ASA physical status, and ambulatory course) was low. The APAIS was strongly correlated with the dimensions of the EVAN. Each dimension had a low proportion of missing values (ranging from 0.6 to 2.9%), which indicates good acceptability of the questionnaire. Conclusions The French version of the APAIS is valid and reliable. The availability of this tool enables the evaluation of anxiety in French patients undergoing anaesthesia. PMID:24099176
When occupational stressors, that is stress-producing environmental circumstances (SPECs) in the workplace, lead to anxiety, this anxiety is considered work-related strain. Social support is frequently recommended as a treatment of such strain, because it is expected to help in one of three ways: by directly reducing the anxiety, by interacting with SPECs to reduce the strength of their effects on
Terry A. Beehr; Joseph E. McGrath
Academic anxiety interferes with achievement and performance, as well as social and psychological development among children and adults. Although the writings of Michel Foucault do not address anxiety directly, his themes of knowledge and power have been applied to education and describe relationships that are likely to create anxiety among some…
Taxometrics is a statistical tool that can be used to discern categories from continua. Taxometric analyses (MAXCOV and MAXEIG) were conducted in a large nonclinical sample (N=1,215) to determine whether extreme anxiety forms a distinct psychopathological category, an anxiety taxon. Anxiety was operationalized with self-report measures of…
Kotov, Roman; Schmidt, Norman B.; Lerew, Darin R.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
BACKGROUND: Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific
Orly Rubinsten; Rosemary Tannock
Humans experience social anxiety to different degrees and in different areas. In school settings, this can be a barrier to learning. The school is a social place and to experience anxiety around peers can be challenging, especially if the student also has a learning disability. Social anxiety problems are often associated with learning…
Cowden, Peter A.
Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…
Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.
The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…
Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.
High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…
Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean
Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…
Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.
Research suggests that test anxiety is associated with a number of maladaptive factors. The majority of test anxiety research includes the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) as a primary outcome variable. However, the TAI was normed on college undergraduates in 1980. The academic landscape has altered in a variety of ways in the past 30 years, which may result in out-of-date
Derek D. Szafranski; Terri L. Barrera; Peter J. Norton
It is known that bioscience is perceived to be difficult and causes anxiety within undergraduate nursing students; yet, commencing students' perceptions of bioscience is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain incoming students' perceptions, knowledge and approaches to learning bioscience. Incoming students to the Bachelor of Nursing completed a questionnaire prior to undertaking bioscience. Two hundred and seventy three students completed the questionnaire that explored their expectations, preconceptions of bioscience content, approaches to learning bioscience, and relationship to clinical practice in the context of biosciences. Participant ages ranged from 17 to 53 (mean 23 years), and 78% of students had completed at least one secondary school science subject, of which 60% had studied biology. Overall, students' preconceptions included anxiety about studying bioscience, bioscience being difficult and harder than nursing subjects, and that more content will be required for bioscience than nursing subjects. Analysis using ANOVA revealed the relationships for secondary school science and age on student responses. A significant effect of secondary school science was found for science in school being advantageous for bioscience (p=0.010), understanding what bioscience entails (p=0.002), needing to study science prior to the start of the semester (p=0.009), and that bioscience is considered difficult (p=0.029). A significant effect of age was found for exams being more difficult than other assessments (p=0.000) and for being able to see the relevance of nursing when reaching the workplace (p=0.011). The findings also indicated that perceptions and associated anxieties related to bioscience were present in commencing students, similar to those which have been reported previously in established student groups. This strongly suggests that the faculty should attempt to dispel preconceptions about bioscience and target improved supports to facilitate the transition of students into the commencement of bioscience for nursing students. PMID:23182891
Craft, Judy; Hudson, Peter; Plenderleith, Mark; Wirihana, Lisa; Gordon, Christopher
Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…
Osborne, Jason W.
Purpose: Excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) is an overlooked and potentially disabling symptom, which is often seen in social anxiety disorder (SAD). We conducted a retrospective review of data acquired in patients with SAD who had participated in placebo-controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine, cognitive behavior therapy, clonazepam and gabapentin. Four specific topics were addressed: (1) overall levels of sweating; (2) characteristics of
Jonathan R. T. Davidson; Edna B. Foa; Kathryn M. Connor; L. Erik Churchill
Millions of people across the United States live with a variety of anxiety disorders and for twenty-five years, the Anxiety Disorders Association of American (ADAA) has worked to promote the prevention, treatment and cure of these disorders. From the siteÃ¢ÂÂs homepage visitors can learn about some of the most common anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder, social phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The siteÃ¢ÂÂs homepage also offers visitors the opportunity to sign up to receive their e-newsletter. As might be expected, there is a rather useful section titled Ã¢ÂÂGetting HelpÃ¢ÂÂ. Here visitors can learn about how they find a therapist for themselves (or a loved one). There are a myriad of resources within this particular area that will be of great use, including a section where visitors can learn about how to pick a therapist and a place for first-person narratives about living with a variety of anxiety disorders.
Research on selective mutism (SM) has been limited by the absence of standardized, psychometrically sound assessment measures. The purpose of our investigation was to present two studies that examined the factor structure and initial reliability and validity of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a 17-item parent report measure of failure to speak related to SM. Study 1 (N = 589) utilized an Internet sample of parents of children ages 3 to 11 to demonstrate that the SMQ has a theoretically and clinically meaningful factor structure accounting for a significant portion of variance in responses with good internal consistency. Study 2 (N = 66) supported the validity of the SMQ in that scores discriminated clinic-referred children with SM from children with other anxiety disorders. Scores on the SMQ were correlated with measures of several theoretically and clinically important dimensions. PMID:18470781
Bergman, R Lindsey; Keller, Melody L; Piacentini, John; Bergman, Andrea J
Background: The anxiety reduction before coronary angiography has clinical advantages and is one of the objectives of nursing. Reflexology is a non-invasive method that has been used in several clinical situations. Applying reflexology might have effect on the reduction of anxiety before coronary angiography. Objectives: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate the effect of reflexology on anxiety among patients undergoing coronary angiography. Patients and Methods: This trial was conducted in Shahid Beheshti Hospital, in Kashan, Iran. One hundred male patients who were undergoing coronary angiography were randomly enrolled into intervention and placebo groups. The intervention protocol was included 30 minutes of general foot massage and the stimulation of three reflex points including solar plexus, pituitary gland, and heart. The placebo group only received the general foot massage. Spielbergers state trait anxiety inventory was used to assess the anxiety experienced by patients. Data was analyzed using Man-Witney, Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests. The stepwise multiple regressions used to analyze the variables that are involved in anxiety reduction. Results: The mean range of anxiety decreased from 53.24 to 45.24 in reflexology group which represented 8 score reduction (P = 0.0001). The reduction in anxiety was 5.9 score in placebo group which was also significant (P = 0.0001). The anxiety reduction was significantly higher in reflexology group (P = 0.014). The stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that doing reflexology can explain the 7.5% of anxiety reduction which made a significant model. Conclusions: Reflexology can decrease the anxiety level before coronary angiography. Therefore, reflexology before coronary angiography is recommended. PMID:25414869
Molavi Vardanjani, Mehdi; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Razavi, Narges Sadat; Aghajani, Mohammad; Azizi-Fini, Esmail; Vaghefi, Seied Morteza
The present study aims at analyzing the effect of achievement goals on statistics anxiety through academic motivation and statistics learning approaches. In doing so, 345 undergraduate students (68 male and 277 female) from the faculties of psychology and educational sciences of Tehran city were selected using census sampling method. The participants answered the questionnaires prepared on achievement goals, academic motivation,
Masoud Gholamali Lavasani; Mokhtar Weisani; Javad Ejei
Three test instruments were used in a self-concept study of 373 school children in grades three through six: (1) the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale; (2) the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire; and (3) the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale. The study explored the relationship of self-concept to acceptance of responsibility for…
Stanwyck, Douglas J.; Felker, Donald W.
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were tested. In all, 15 children with NLD, 15 with RD, and 15 with TD were administered self-report questionnaires to assess different types of anxiety and depression symptoms. Both NLD and RD children reported experiencing more generalized and social anxiety than TD, the NLD children reported more severe anxiety about school and separation than TD, and the children with RD had worse depressive symptoms than those with NLD or TD. PMID:24733818
Mammarella, Irene C; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
Anxiety sensitivity represents a stimulus-outcome expectancy that reflects individual differences in the propensity to experience fear in response to one's arousal-related bodily sensations. It refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms that are based on beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social or psychological consequences. Anxiety sensitivity occupies an important place in theory and research on panic and related interoceptive fear disorders. Findings from this body of research indicate that this construct may act as a specific vulnerability variable in the development of panic attacks and anxiety symptoms. However, anxiety sensitivity theory also has been applied to understanding mood disorders and chronic pain disorders. Thus, as a psychological construct, anxiety sensitivity holds specific relevance to understanding panic disorders and general relevance for expanding knowledge about negative emotional functioning in other pathologies. All the research on anxiety sensitivity has been completed with the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI). The review of the literature using this instrument suggested that anxiety sensitivity has three lower-order factors that all load on a single higher-order factor. The lower-order factors represent Physical-Concerns, Mental Incapacitation Concerns, and Social Concerns, and the higher-order factor represents the global anxiety sensitivity construct (21). Taylor and Cox (22) suggested that this questionnaire was not designed on an a priori basis to measure the identified lower-order factors. The low number of items for the Social and Mental Incapacitation dimensions of the 16-item ASI often leads to relatively lower levels of reliability compared to the third dimension. To address this issue, Taylor and Cox (22) developed an expanded measure of the anxiety sensitivity construct. The 36-item Revised Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-R) maintains the same format as the 16-item ASI, but expands the number of content domains assessed. The ASI-R was designed to assess 6 lower-order domains identified in previous factor analytic research using the 16-item ASI (21), including fear of cardiovascular symptoms, fear of respiratory symptoms, fear of gastrointestinal symptoms, fear of publicity observable reactions, fear of dissociative and neurological symptoms, and fear of cognitive dyscontrol. The principal components factor analysis using the ASI-R among psychiatric outpatients indicated that there were 4 lower-order factors tapping the constructs of (1) fear of respiratory symptoms, (2) fear of publicly observable anxiety reactions, (3) fear of cardiovascular symptoms, and (4) fear of cognitive dyscontrol (22). A recent study (27) provided an initial psychometric evaluation of the ASI-R in a large, diverse sample of people (n = 2,786) from 6 different countries: Canada, United States, Mexico, Spain, The Netherlands and France. The data suggested that the two-factor solution is most replicable than other solutions (2 to 6 factors). The underlying structure of the anxiety sensitivity construct was generally similar across countries, tapping fear about the negative consequences of anxiety-related physical and social-cognitive sensations. Lower-order factors were moderately to strongly correlated with one another and showed good internal consistency. This manuscript presents the French translation of the ASI-R and a preliminary validation study. This research was realized conjointly with the transcultural study previously mentioned (27). Seven hundred and one French university students (non-clinical participants) completed the questionnaire at the beginning of a class. Subjects were undergraduate students from 2 universities (psychology and classics). Table I provides age, sex and marital status. There were no differences between the two groups on sex. The two groups were not comparable on age and marital status. The psychology group was older than the other was. The psychology students were also more married. The total group (n = 701) comprises 79 men and 622 women, with a
Bouvard, M; Ayxères-Vighetto, A; Dupont, H; Aupetit, J; Portalier, S; Arrindell, W
The stigma associated with mental illness can lead to a range of negative outcomes, including delaying or avoiding help seeking. Identifying the characteristics of people who are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes enables the development of targeted stigma reduction programs. However, no previous research has systematically examined the predictors of anxiety stigma. This study used the Generalized Anxiety Stigma Scale (GASS) to assess the predictors of personal stigma and perceived stigma associated with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. A community sample of 617 Australian adults completed a survey that included the GASS, the Depression Stigma Scale, exposure to anxiety disorders, emotional distress and a range of demographic characteristics. Linear regression models indicated that women, people with greater exposure to anxiety disorders and people reporting a previous anxiety diagnosis had lower personal stigma toward anxiety. Higher exposure to anxiety disorders and rurality were significantly associated with higher perceived anxiety stigma. Results also suggested that respondents who had only been exposed to anxiety disorders through the media tended to be no more stigmatizing than respondents who had direct contact with people with an anxiety disorder. Media campaigns may be an effective vehicle for decreasing stigmatizing views in the community. PMID:23218916
Batterham, Philip J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Barney, Lisa J; Parsons, Alison
Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380
Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.
Thousands of men and women have begun their recovery from alcoholism through the support of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its well-known "12-Step" program. The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale to measure alcoholics' levels of agreement with the first three of AA's 12 Steps and to test the relationship between sobriety and belief in these three steps. Using both factor analysis and Rasch analysis, two versions of a "Steps Questionnaire" were developed. A 96-member subset of the original subject pool was assessed quarterly for 1 year following inpatient treatment to determine the predictive validity of the questionnaire. The results of this study suggested that agreement with AA's first three steps can be measured and that agreement with AA's first step correlates with number of sober days posttreatment. The dichotomization of Steps Questionnaire scores into total agreement versus partial agreement with Step 1, and from this the reduction of uncertainty in the prediction of abstention over a lengthy follow-up period, provides support for AA's contention that total surrender to one's powerlessness over alcohol is part of the process of achieving abstention. PMID:1875709
Gilbert, F S
Background: Caregivers are a vital resource in the care of transplant candidates or recipients. However, few strategies have been tested that attempt to decrease the stress and anxiety they commonly encounter. Objective: To test the feasibility of using mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) techniques to decrease stress and anxiety in caregivers of lung transplant candidates/recipients who required admission to an acute care facility. Methods: 30 caregivers of lung transplant candidates/recipients were recruited during hospitalization of their significant other. Each completed the perceived stress scale (PSS) and state trait anxiety inventory (STAI) before and 4 weeks after receiving a DVD that demonstrated MBSR techniques. Participants were asked to practice MBSR techniques for 5–15 min a day for 4 weeks. Results: The participants had a mean±SD age of 55.6±13.6 years; 77% of participants were female and 93% Caucasian. The mean PSS and STAI (trait and anxiety) scores of caregivers were higher than population norms pre- and post-intervention. Scores for caregivers who stated they watched the entire DVD and practiced MBSR techniques as requested (n=15) decreased significantly from pre- to post-testing for perceived stress (p=0.001), state anxiety (p=0.003) and trait anxiety (p=0.006). Scores for those who watched some or none of the DVD (n=15) did not change significantly. Conclusion: Caregivers can benefit from stress reduction techniques using MBSR. PMID:25013679
Haines, J.; Spadaro, K. C.; Choi, J.; Hoffman, L. A.; Blazeck, A. M.
Non ulcer dyspepsia is essentially a diagnosis of organic disease exclusion. Non ulcer dyspepsia falls under the rubric of functional bowel disorder. Life stress, anxiety and depression may be important to the onset or exacerbation of this condition. The effect of life stress, anxiety and depression on non ulcer dyspepsia vary from region to region and group of population. Patients who had dyspepsia and undergone successful upper G.I. endoscopy at the M.G.M. Medical College, M.Y. Hospital, Gastroenterology Unit, between January 1997 and November 1997 and showed no organic lesion were tested for life stress, anxiety and depression. They were compared with healthy persons of comparable age. sex and social status on scales of life stress, anxiety and depression. Of the 38 patients with non ulcer dyspepsia, 26 (68%) experienced undesirable events, 35 (92%) significant anxiety Undesirable life events were statistically insignificant and anxiety was significantly related to non ulcer dyspepsia While other psychological variable, depression was seen in all 38 (100%) cases, but was not statistically related to non ulcer dyspepsia. PMID:21407915
Vishnar, A.; Ghulam, R.; Mittal, R.K.
Non ulcer dyspepsia is essentially a diagnosis of organic disease exclusion. Non ulcer dyspepsia falls under the rubric of functional bowel disorder. Life stress, anxiety and depression may be important to the onset or exacerbation of this condition. The effect of life stress, anxiety and depression on non ulcer dyspepsia vary from region to region and group of population. Patients who had dyspepsia and undergone successful upper G.I. endoscopy at the M.G.M. Medical College, M.Y. Hospital, Gastroenterology Unit, between January 1997 and November 1997 and showed no organic lesion were tested for life stress, anxiety and depression. They were compared with healthy persons of comparable age. sex and social status on scales of life stress, anxiety and depression. Of the 38 patients with non ulcer dyspepsia, 26 (68%) experienced undesirable events, 35 (92%) significant anxiety Undesirable life events were statistically insignificant and anxiety was significantly related to non ulcer dyspepsia While other psychological variable, depression was seen in all 38 (100%) cases, but was not statistically related to non ulcer dyspepsia. PMID:21407915
Vishnar, A; Ghulam, R; Mittal, R K
Animal behavioural profiles are commonly employed to investigate new therapeutic agents to treat anxiety disorders as well as to investigate the mechanism of action of anxiolytic drugs. However, many clinically important symptoms of anxiety can not be modelled directly in animals. Human models of anxiety should bridge between animal models and anxiety disorders. Experimental anxiety states in humans can be induced by either pharmacological means such as CO2 inhalation or psychological means such as aversive conditioning of skin conductance responses to tones. Investigation of these models may contribute to a better understanding of anxiety disorders, both from a biological and behavioural point of view. In a comprehensive review existing models of human experimental anxiety states are summarized and validity is discussed. PMID:18615150
Siepmann, Martin; Joraschky, Peter
Background There are no risk algorithms for the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months in primary care. We aimed to develop and validate internally a risk algorithm to predict the onset of anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Methods A prospective cohort study with evaluations at baseline, 6 and 12 months. We measured 39 known risk factors and used multilevel logistic regression and inverse probability weighting to build the risk algorithm. Our main outcome was generalized anxiety, panic and other non-specific anxiety syndromes as measured by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, Patient Health Questionnaire (PRIME-MD-PHQ). We recruited 3,564 adult primary care attendees without anxiety syndromes from 174 family physicians and 32 health centers in 6 Spanish provinces. Results The cumulative 12-month incidence of anxiety syndromes was 12.2%. The predictA-Spain risk algorithm included the following predictors of anxiety syndromes: province; sex (female); younger age; taking medicines for anxiety, depression or stress; worse physical and mental quality of life (SF-12); dissatisfaction with paid and unpaid work; perception of financial strain; and the interactions sex*age, sex*perception of financial strain, and age*dissatisfaction with paid work. The C-index was 0.80 (95% confidence interval?=?0.78–0.83) and the Hedges' g?=?1.17 (95% confidence interval?=?1.04–1.29). The Copas shrinkage factor was 0.98 and calibration plots showed an accurate goodness of fit. Conclusions The predictA-Spain risk algorithm is valid to predict anxiety syndromes at 12 months. Although external validation is required, the predictA-Spain is available for use as a predictive tool in the prevention of anxiety syndromes in primary care. PMID:25184313
Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Luna, Juan de Dios; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Nazareth, Irwin; Motrico, Emma; GildeGómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Torres-González, Francisco; Montón-Franco, Carmen; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; Muñoz-Bravo, Carlos; Bellón, Juan Ángel
We aimed to compare the history of trauma and the profile and severity of dissociative symptoms of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) to those of patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Patients with OCD (n = 34) and patients with SAD (n = 30) were examined with the following instruments: Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI), Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Patients with OCD reported significantly lower rates of exposure to traumatic events. Nevertheless, the severity of dissociative symptoms was not significantly different between the groups. Regression analyses showed that, while the OCI scores better predicted the variance on DES scores in the OCD sample, the LSAS and the BAI better predicted the variance on the DES among patients with SAD. Patients with OCD are probably less vulnerable to some types of traumatic experiences. Dissociative symptoms may cut across different anxiety disorders. PMID:17453345
Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Domingues, Aline M; Souza, Wanderson F; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; de Menezes, Gabriela B; Figueira, Ivan L; Versiani, Marcio
Development of the Italian version of the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire in patients with chronic low back pain: cross-cultural adaptation, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and validity.
Translating, culturally adapting and validating the Italian version of the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ-I) to allow its use with Italian-speaking patients with low back pain. The PSOCQ-I was developed by forward-backward translation, a final review by an expert committee and a test of the prefinal version to establish its correspondence with the original English version. Psychometric testing included confirmatory factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach's ?) and test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation), and construct validity by comparing PSOCQ-I with the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Roland Morris Disability Scale (RMDQ), a pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Pearson's correlation). The questionnaire was administered to 308 patients with chronic low back pain. Factor analysis confirmed a four-factor solution (namely, Precontemplation, Contemplation, Action, and Maintenance), achieving an acceptable data-model fit. Internal consistency (?=0.91-93) and test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation=0.74-0.81) were satisfactory. Construct validity showed moderate correlations between Precontemplation and PCS (r=0.318), TSK (r=0.385), RMDQ (r=0.320) and NRS (r=0.335); low correlations were found between the other PSOCQ subscales and PCS (r=-0.062; 0.039), TSK (r=-0.164; 0.024), RMDQ (r=-0.073; 0.004) and NRS (r=-0.170; 0.020). Low correlations were found between the PSOCQ-I subscales and anxiety (r=-0.132; 0.150) and depression (r=-0.113; 0.186). The PSOCQ was translated successfully into Italian, and proved to have a good factorial structure and psychometric properties that replicated the results of other versions. Its use is recommended for research purposes. PMID:24557491
Monticone, Marco; Ferrante, Simona; Ferrari, Silvano; Mugnai, Raffaele; Pillastrini, Paolo; Rocca, Barbara; Vanti, Carla; Foti, Calogero
Early patterns of temperament lay the foundation for a variety of developmental constructs such as self-regulation, psychopathology, and resilience. Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) display unique patterns of temperament compared to age-matched clinical and non-clinical samples, and early patterns of temperament have been associated with later anxiety in this population. Despite these unique patterns in FXS and recent reports of atypical factor structure of temperament questionnaires in Williams Syndrome (Leyfer, John, Woodruff-Borden, & Mervis, 2012), no studies have examined the latent factor structure of temperament scales in FXS to ensure measurement validity in this sample. The present study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factor structure of a well-validated parent-reported temperament questionnaire, the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (Rothbart, Ahadi, Hershey, & Fisher, 2001), in a sample of 90 males with FXS ages 3-9 years. Our data produced a similar, but not identical, three-factor model that retained the original CBQ factors of negative affectivity, effortful control, and extraversion/surgency. In particular, our FXS sample demonstrated stronger factor loadings for fear and shyness than previously reported loadings in non-clinical samples, consistent with reports of poor social approach and elevated anxiety in this population. Although the original factor structure of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire is largely retained in children with FXS, differences in factor loading magnitudes may reflect phenotypic characteristics of the syndrome. These findings may inform future developmental and translational research efforts. PMID:24380785
Roberts, Jane E.; Tonnsen, Bridgette L.; Robinson, Marissa; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Hatton, Deborah D.
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infection with various presentations that can perplex even the most experienced clinicians. To our knowledge, there is a lack of published reports that link psychiatric symptoms directly with miliary TB (either alone or co-occurring with other medical symptoms). Mental health workers may, therefore, not consider, and consequently miss, this important diagnosis. Here we are reporting a case of cyclical anxiety occurring in a 67-year-old patient. For 3 years prior to admission, the patient failed to respond to multiple courses of different antianxiety medications. The patient required hospital admission as he deteriorated and had a reduced level of consciousness. A chest X-ray revealed bilateral nodules and a magnetic resonance imaging scan showed multiple enhancing tuberculous lesions in the cerebral white matter, brain stem, and cerebellum. A diagnosis of miliary TB was finally made. Several characteristics of this case suggest that the diagnosed anxiety disorder was due to miliary TB. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that generalized anxiety disorder preceded the onset of miliary TB or that both diseases were coincidental. The report serves as a reminder that organic causes for psychiatric symptoms always need to be considered, particularly if they follow an atypical pattern or fail to improve with usual psychiatric medications. PMID:25018656
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alkharboush, Feras A; Altuwariqi, Maram H
This study investigates how scores on the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) relate to Bratman's orthorexia test (BOT) scores with regard to age, sex, and self-reported exercise frequency and duration in a sample of Swedish participants in fitness center activities. A total of 251 participants (166 women and 85 men) completed the SPAS, the SATAQ, and a questionnaire focusing on exercise frequency and duration. The results indicated that the SATAQ subdomain internalization could itself explain the variation in BOT results. In women, the results indicated that exercise frequency, followed by SPAS score and the SATAQ subdomains internalization and awareness, could together explain the variation in BOT results. Fitness centers could make a point of emphasizing that some physical ideals are neither healthy nor realistic, thus strengthening member self-image and preventing social physique anxiety, eating disorders, and negative attitudes toward appearance. PMID:18067519
Eriksson, L; Baigi, A; Marklund, B; Lindgren, E C
Under the current system, orthopaedic trauma surgeons must work in some form of hospital setting as our primary service involves treatment of the trauma patient. We must not forget that just as a trauma center cannot exist without our services, we cannot function without their support. As a result, a clear understanding of the balance between physicians and hospitals is paramount. Historical perspective enables physicians and hospital personnel alike to understand the evolution of hospital-physician relationship. This process should be understood upon completion of this chapter. The relationship between physicians and hospitals is becoming increasingly complex and multiple forms of integration exist such as joint ventures, gain sharing, and co-management agreements. For the surgeon to negotiate well, an understanding of hospital governance and the role of the orthopaedic traumatologist is vital to success. An understanding of the value provided by the traumatologist includes all aspects of care including efficiency, availability, cost effectiveness, and research activities. To create effective and sustainable healthcare institutions, physicians and hospitals must be aligned over a sustained period of time. Unfortunately, external forces have eroded the historical basis for the working relationship between physicians and hospitals. Increased competition and reimbursement cuts, coupled with the increasing demands for quality, efficiency, and coordination and the payment changes outlined in healthcare reform, have left many organizations wondering how to best rebuild the relationship. The principal goal for the physician when partnering with a hospital or healthcare entity is to establish a sustainable model of service line management that protects or advances the physician's ability to make impactful improvements in quality of patient care, decreases in healthcare costs, and improvements in process efficiency through evidence-based practices and protocols. PMID:24918827
Althausen, Peter L; Hill, Austin D; Mead, Lisa
Objetives: To determine whether preoperative state anxiety and depression modulate or influence objective and subjective postoperative pain following dental implant insertion. Study Design: Prospective, clinical study with 7-day follow-up of a sample of 105 subjects who preoperatively completed the state anxiety questionnaire (STAI-E) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and postoperatively, at 2 and 7 days, recorded objective pain with the Semmes-Weinstein mechanical esthesiometer (SW test) and subjective pain with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Results: 85.6% and 81.5% of patients, respectively, recorded no signs of state anxiety or depression. The correlation between anxiety and depression for both maxillary bones was the lower (P=0.02). The correlation between subjective and objective pain at 2 and 7 days, and the anatomic regions intervened, was statistically significant in the mandible at day 7 (P<0.01), and highly significant (P<0.001) for the other variables. The correlation between state anxiety and objective pain at day 7 was nearly statistically significant (P=0.07). Conclusions: The correlation between state anxiety and depression, and objective and subjective pain at day 7 was not statistically significant. A strong correlation was found between objective and subjective pain in the immediate postoperative period. Key words:Anxiety, depression, postoperative pain, dental implants. PMID:24880447
Gómez-de Diego, Rafael; Cutando-Soriano, Antonio; Montero-Martín, Javier; Prados-Frutos, Juan C.
Background: Leukemia is the most common and fatal cancer among young adults. Among all malignancies, it has the greatest effects on emotional and mental aspects of the patients. While 25-33% of patients with non-hematological malignancies suffer from anxiety disorder, some studies have reported the rate among patients with leukemia as high as 50%. Anxiety can negatively affect other important characteristics and parameters in patients with cancer. Furthermore, cancer increases the patients’ spiritual needs. Therefore, spirituality has a significant role in adapting to leukemia and coping with its consequent mental disorders such as anxiety. This study was hence performed to determine the effects of a spiritual care program on anxiety of patients with leukemia. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Sayyed-Al-Shohada Hospital affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran) in 2012. Sixty four adult patients with leukemia were randomly divided into the experiment and control groups. The spiritual care program including supportive presence and support for religious rituals was implemented for 3 days. Anxiety subscale from the 42-item depression, anxiety and stress scale was completed before and after the intervention for both groups. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods (Chi-square, paired and independent t-tests) in SPSS18. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups before the intervention. However, after the intervention, mean score of anxiety were significantly lower in the experiment group than in the control group (P < 0.01). There was also a significant difference in the scores of the experiment group before and after the intervention (P < 0.01). Such a difference was absent in the control group. Conclusions: Our spiritual care program could successfully decrease anxiety levels in patients with leukemia. Therefore, in cases of refractory diseases such as cancer, nurses have to apply a holistic care approach with emphasis on spiritual care. PMID:24554966
Moeini, Mahin; Taleghani, Fariba; Mehrabi, Tayebeh; Musarezaie, Amir
PURPOSE: To test the validity of the Impact of Visual Impairment (IVI) questionnaire in a cataract population. SETTING:FlindersEyeCentre,FlindersMedicalCentre,FlindersUniversity,Adelaide,SouthAustralia. METHODS: Cataract patients recruited from a hospital waiting list completed the IVI questionnaire. The scale was assessed for fit to the Rasch model. Unidimensionality, item and person fit to the model, response category performance, differential item functioning (whether different subgroups responded differently),
Konrad Pesudovs; Lynda E Caudle; Gwyneth Rees; Ecosse L Lamoureux
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral treatment package for comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA). A single-case, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used with 3 primary GAD patients with secondary PDA. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated with a structured interview, a battery of self-report questionnaires, and daily
Joane Labrecque; Michel J. Dugas; André Marchand; Andrée Letarte
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric properties of a cardiovascular extension of an existing utility-based quality of life questionnaire (Health Measurement Questionnaire). The new instrument has been named the Utility Based Quality of life--Heart questionnaire, or UBQ-H. DESIGN: Explored the test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the UBQ-H. PATIENTS: A sample of 322 patients attending cardiac outpatient clinics were recruited from two large metropolitan teaching hospitals. A second sample of 1112 patients taking part in the LIPID trial was also used to investigate the validity and responsiveness of the UBQ-H. RESULTS: Ninety per cent of all UBQ-H questionnaires were returned, and item completion rates were high (median of less than 1% missing or N/A answers). Cronbach's alpha measure of internal consistency for the scales ranged between 0.79- 0.91, and each item was also most strongly correlated with its hypothesised domain than alternative domains. The intra-class test- retest reliability of the UBQ-H scales ranged from 0.65 to 0.81 for patients with stable health. Results supported the construct validity of the UBQ-H. The UBQ-H was significantly correlated with other information on quality of life (for example, General Health Questionnaire) as anticipated. The instrument was able to distinguish between contrasted groups of patients (for example, with versus without symptoms of dyspnoea, prior myocardial infarction versus none, etc), and was responsive to changes in health associated with adverse events requiring hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: The modifications made to the Health Measurement Questionnaire has resulted in an assessment designed for cardiovascular patients that has proved to be both reliable and valid. PMID:10562879
Martin, A. J.; Glasziou, P. P.; Simes, R. J.
A growing literature suggests that the oxytocin (OT) system may play a role in human anxiety states, anxiety-related traits, and moreover, that this system may be a target for the development of novel anxiolytic treatments. However, studies of OT's acute and chronic effects on various aspects of anxiety have produced mixed results. In this forward-looking review, we discuss the myriad phenomena to which the term "anxiety" is applied in the OT literature and the problem this presents developing a coherent picture of OT's role in anxiety. We then survey several different fields of research that support the role of the OT system in human anxiety, including evolutionary perspectives, translational and neuroimaging research, genetic studies, and clinical trials of intranasal OT. As an outgrowth of this data, we propose a "bowtie" model of OT's role at the interface of social attachment and anxiety. We next direct attention to understudied brain regions and neural circuits which may be important to study in OT experiments in humans anxiety disorders. Finally, we conclude by proposing questions and priorities for studying both the clinical potential of OT in anxiety, as well as mechanisms that may underlie this potential. Crucially, these priorities include targeted proof-of-concept clinical trials of IN OT in certain anxiety disorders, including investigations of individual moderators of OT's anxiolytic effects (i.e. sex, genetic factors, and early experience). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. PMID:24468203
MacDonald, Kai; Feifel, David
Recent attention has been given to the role of emotion regulation in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Gross (1998) provided a framework from which to understand emotion regulation processes, and it is within this framework that the literature on emotion regulation/dysregulation in the anxiety disorder population is reviewed, with a focus on possible deficiencies that lead to or maintain the disorders. The present paper aims to (1) briefly introduce emotion regulation strategies of suppression and reappraisal; (2) summarize the empirical studies of emotion regulation within anxiety disorders; (3) discuss the neurobiological markers of emotion regulation within these disorders; (4) provide future directions for research; and (5) summarize possible treatment implications resulting from this important area of research. PMID:17349775
Amstadter, Ananda B.
Anxiety disorders are common and debilitating mental illnesses. Current pharmacological treatments are beset by problems of poor efficacy and side effect profiles. Increasing understanding of novel neurotransmitter systems and the interplay between these systems is broadening the scope of anxiolytic drug treatment. This article aims to describe the areas of current interest and possible future development of anxiolytic drugs by outlining recent patents in this field. A patent database was searched for 17 neurotransmitters and their synonyms as well as 23 compounds of recent known interest from May 2003 to May 2005. The internet resources Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched for peer reviewed literature using the same search parameters. Results were grouped into neurotransmitter systems to present an overview of recent developments in the neuropharmacology of anxiety disorders. PMID:18221210
Christmas, David M; Hood, Sean D
The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders. PMID:24887371
\\u000a Antidepressant drug treatment is the clinical standard of care for all types of anxiety disorders. Broad efficacy of selective\\u000a serotonin reuptake inhibitors suggests the importance of enhanced serotonergic function of the anxiolytic properties of current\\u000a antidepressants. However, analysis of the preclinical evidence indicates that most conventional “anxiolytic” drug tests are\\u000a not sensitive to antidepressants. Such dissociation is not surprising because
Anton Y. Bespalov; Marcel M. van Gaalen; Gerhard Gross
Despite advances in the treatment of anxiety disorders, there is a need for medications with greater efficacy and fewer side\\u000a effects. Advances in techniques to facilitate high throughput, mass analysis of proteins potentially allows for new drug targets,\\u000a with a shift in focus from membrane receptor proteins and enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism to molecules in intracellular\\u000a signal transduction and other
Joachim D. K. Uys; Dan J. Stein; Willie M. U. Daniels
Claude Steele’s stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory—that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance—using real?time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or low stereotype threat conditions involving a challenging mathematics task while physiological measures of
Jason W. Osborne
Objective The present study explored treatment dose and patient engagement as predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. Method Measures of high versus low treatment dose, and high versus low patient engagement in CBT were compared as predictors of 12 and 18 month outcomes for patients being treated for anxiety disorders with CBT (with or without concurrent pharmacotherapy) in primary care settings as part of a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) intervention. Measures of dose (attendance, exposure completion) and engagement in CBT (homework adherence, commitment) were collected throughout treatment, and blinded follow-up phone assessments of outcome measures (12-item Brief Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire 8, Sheehan Disability Scale) were completed at 12 and 18 months. Propensity score weighting controlled for baseline differences in demographics and symptom severity between patients with high and low dose and engagement. These analyses included the 439 patients that selected CBT as treatment modality. Results Completing exposures, high attendance, and being more homework adherent predicted better outcomes across all measures at 12 and 18 months, and high CBT commitment predicted better outcomes on all measures at 18 months. Conclusions This study found that higher treatment dose and patient engagement in CBT for anxiety disorders were stable and robust predictors of greater reductions in anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and functional disability. PMID:23750465
Glenn, Daniel; Golinelli, Daniela; Rose, Raphael D.; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B.; Sullivan, Greer; Bystritksy, Alexander; Sherbourne, Cathy; Craske, Michelle G.
Background This investigation examines differences in cognitive profiles in subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods Data were used from subjects with current MDD (n?=?655), GAD (n?=?107) and comorbid MDD/GAD (n?=?266) diagnosis from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose MDD and GAD. Cognitive profiles were measured using the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Results Results showed that differences in cognitive profiles between single MDD and single GAD subjects were present: scores on hopelessness/suicidality and rumination were significantly higher in MDD than GAD, whereas anxiety sensitivity for physical concerns and pathological worry were higher in GAD than MDD. The cognitive profile of comorbid MDD/GAD showed more extreme depression cognitions compared to single disorders, and a similar anxiety profile compared to single GAD subjects. Conclusions Despite the commonalities in cognitive profiles in MDD and GAD, there are differences suggesting that MDD and GAD have disorder-specific cognitive profiles. Findings of this investigation give support for models like the cognitive content-specificity model and the tripartite model and could provide useful handles for treatment focus. PMID:24690413
Describes the elements required for a well-designed questionnaire, including appearance, question writing, organization, and cover letter. A checklist for effective questionnaire design is provided, as well as seven references. (BK)
Objective Depressed patients discharged from psychiatric hospitalizations face increased risks for adverse outcomes including suicide, yet antidepressant adherence rates during this high-risk period are unknown. Using Veterans Affairs (VA) data, we assessed antidepressant adherence and predictors of poor adherence among depressed veterans following psychiatric hospitalization. Method We identified VA patients nationwide with depressive disorders who had a psychiatric hospitalization between April 1, 1999 and September 30, 2003, received antidepressant medication, and had an outpatient appointment following discharge. We calculated medication possession ratios (MPRs), a measure of medication adherence, within three and six months following discharge. We assessed patient factors associated with having lower levels of adherence (MPRs <0.8) after discharge. Results 20,931 and 23,182 patients met criteria for three and six month MPRs. The mean three month MPR was 0.79 (s.d.=0.37). The mean six month MPR was 0.66 (s.d.=0.40). Patients with poorer adherence were male, younger, non-white, and had a substance abuse disorder, but were less likely to have PTSD or other anxiety disorders. Conclusion Poor antidepressant adherence is common among depressed patients after psychiatric hospitalization. Efforts to improve adherence at this time may be critical in improving the outcomes of these high-risk patients. PMID:19609666
Zivin, Kara; Ganoczy, Dara; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Miller, Erin M.; Valenstein, Marcia
Terror Management Theory (TMT) (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) suggests that culturally-provided worldviews (e.g., religion) may protect individuals from experiencing death anxiety, and several studies have supported this position. However, if one's worldview can offer protection, doubts concerning one's worldview could undermine this protection. The current study investigated whether age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt were associated with death anxiety. Using data from 635 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, a structural equation model with age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt predicting death anxiety was tested. The model had a good fit (chi2 (76) = 193.467, p < .001; GFI = .961, CFI = .976, TLI = .967, RMSEA = .049) and accounted for 12.3% of the variance in death anxiety. Results were consistent with TMT, as religiousness was inversely associated with death anxiety, while religious doubt was positively associated with death anxiety. PMID:25265678
Henrie, James; Patrick, Julie Hicks
This comprehensive guide leads the user step-by-step through questionnaire creation. Topics include preliminary considerations, writing the questionnaire items, issues that may come up when giving the questionnaire, statistical considerations, and references for further reading. This resource is intended for novice and professional evaluators.
A questionnaire designed to detect Parkinson's disease (PD) was developed by Tanner et al. in 1990. It consists of nine symptom questions and has been tested in several languages. We investigated the validity of the questionnaire in a Chinese population. Because handwriting is not common for elderly Chinese people, item 2 about "smaller handwriting" may be of no use, thus we also computed the performance of the questionnaire without item 2. The questionnaire was administered face-to-face to all 59 PD patients registered in our hospital and 217 non-neurological outpatients from the same hospital. All 217 outpatients were offered a short interview and examination related to PD. Of the 59 PD patients, 47 participated the study. None of the 217 non-neurological outpatients was diagnosed with parkinsonism. A combination of any three questions yielded the best balance between sensitivity (93.6%) and specificity (88.9%). There was no difference in validity between the questionnaire with and without item 2. This symptom questionnaire is an appropriate instrument to identify PD in a Chinese population. The questionnaire without item 2 is also satisfactory as a screening instrument to detect PD and may be more suitable for areas with a high illiteracy rate. PMID:24060624
Wei, Zhang; Xiaoyuan, Niu; Shengwei, Gao; Zhizong, Hou; Jiyuan, Li; Yang, Li
Research in pediatric medical art therapy is comprised largely of case studies. The motivation for this study was to contribute quantitative data to the literature on art therapy with children who experienced hospitalization and medical treatment. The study question focused on the efficacy of art therapy in reducing the anxiety of hospitalized pediatric patients. To address this issue, a subgroup
Gaelynn Patricia Wolf Bordonaro
The use of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis has been restricted by the risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JC virus carriership, duration of natalizumab treatment and past immunosuppression are known risk factors. This has allowed for calculated risk assessment for individual patients to be implemented. Not much data are available about the effect of JCV carriership on patient willingness to continue natalizumab. Here, we evaluated the impact of JCV seropositivity on safety feelings, anxiety and treatment continuation for patients treated with natalizumab, using a visual analog scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a decisional conflict scale. Seropositivity led to an elevated anxiety level for PML (p = 0.004). However, so far only 3% of patients have discontinued natalizumab because of JCV positivity in our cohort. PMID:23828867
van Rossum, Johannis A; Vennegoor, Anke; Balk, Lisanne; Uitdehaag, Bernard M; Polman, Chris H; Killestein, Joep
Cannabinoid agonists induce complex and often contradictory effects on anxiety in humans and experimental animals. The data from animal tests provide evidence of dose-dependent bidirectional modulation of anxiety by the cannabinoid system and the importance of environmental context. The mechanisms mediating the effects of cannabinoids on anxiety-related responses appear to involve CB1 and non-CB1 cannabinoid receptors. In addition, the CRH,
M. P. Viveros; Eva M. Marco; Sandra E. File
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have negative consequences on individual and societal level. This study examined\\u000a the usefulness of screening for anxiety disorders in primary school children. More specifically, the value of the screening\\u000a method to discriminate between and to predict anxiety disorders was studied. Children and their parents were selected if the\\u000a children had self-reported scores on the
Ellin Simon; Susan Maria Bögels
Social anxiety disorder—an excessive fear of social situations, such as eating or speaking in public—affects 2 to 13 percent of the U.S. population. About one-fifth of patients with social anxiety disorder also suffer from an alcohol use disorder (AUD) (i.e., alcohol abuse or dependence). One theory to explain the comorbidity between social anxiety disorder and AUDs is the tension reduction
Carrie L. Randall
Health anxiety is a ubiquitous experience that arises when bodily sensations or changes are believed to be indicative of a\\u000a serious disease. Severe expressions of health anxiety are most often classified as hypochondriasis in the current DSM-IV-TR; however, various alternative classification schemas have been proposed for the DSM-V. Regardless of classification, severe health anxiety has significant negative impacts on well-being,
Gordon J. G. Asmundson; Jonathon S. Abramowitz; Ashley A. Richter; Margaret Whedon
Anxiety sensitivity refers to the fear of anxiety-related physical sensations arising from beliefs that these sensations have harmful consequences (Reiss & McNally, 1985). The present study examined whether individuals with high (vs. low) anxiety sensitivity show stronger implicit associations in memory between anxiety-related symptoms, as opposed to neutral body parts, and harmful, as compared to harmless, consequences. A total of
Margo C. Watt; Sherry H. Stewart; Kristi D. Wright
The objective of the present study was to assess factors predicting eating disorder risk in a sample of undergraduate students. A structured questionnaire was employed on a random sample (n = 1865) consisting of the following sections: demographics, SCOFF (Sick, Control, One stone, Fat, Food) questionnaire for screening eating disorders and the Achievement Anxiety Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. The students at risk for eating disorders (SCOFF score ?2) were 39.7%. Eating disorder risk was more frequent in females, students with divorced parents, students who lived alone, students who were seeking a romantic relationship or were married, students who were at a post-secondary vocational institute/college (private-public) educational level and who were more likely to have marks under merit level. Also, the mean scores for the psychological factors of depression, stress and anxiety were higher in students with eating disorder risk. A logistic regression model was produced depicting that depression, stress, female gender, being married and searching for a romantic relationship were risk factors of having an eating disorder risk. The suggested psychological model examined with structural equation modelling signified the role of academic anxiety as an immediate precursor of general anxiety. Hence, college populations in Greece need organized infrastructures of nutrition health services and campaigns to assist in reducing the risk of eating disorders. PMID:23482057
Fragkos, Konstantinos C.; Frangos, Christos C.
There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…
According to cognitive theories of anxiety, anxious adults interpret ambiguous situations in a negative way: They overestimate danger and underestimate their abilities to cope with danger. The present study investigated whether children with social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder have such a bias, compared to a clinical and a normal control group. Children were exposed to stories
Susan M. Bögels; Denise Zigterman
This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…
Parental anxiety is a risk to optimal treatment outcomes for childhood anxiety disorders. The current trial examined whether the addition of a brief parental anxiety management (BPAM) program to family cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was more efficacious than family CBT-only in treating childhood anxiety disorders. Two hundred nine children (aged 6–13 years, 104 female, 90% Caucasian) with a principal anxiety disorder were randomly allocated to family CBT with a five-session program of BPAM (n = 109) or family CBT-only (n = 100). Family CBT comprised the Cool Kids program, a structured 12-week program that included both mothers and fathers. Overall, results revealed that the addition of BPAM did not significantly improve outcomes for the child or the parent compared to the CBT-only group at posttreatment or 6-month follow-up. Overall, however, children with nonanxious parents were more likely to be diagnosis free for any anxiety disorder compared to children with anxious parents at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. BPAM did not produce greater reductions in parental anxiety. The results support previous findings that parent anxiety confers poorer treatment outcomes for childhood anxiety disorders. Nevertheless the addition of BPAM anxiety management for parents in its current format did not lead to additional improvements when used as an adjunct to family CBT in the treatment of the child's anxiety disorder. Future benefits may come from more powerful methods of reducing parents’ anxiety. PMID:23845064
Hudson, Jennifer L.; Newall, Carol; Rapee, Ronald M.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Schniering, Carolyn C.; Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Schneider, Sophie; Seeley-Wait, Elizabeth; Edwards, Susan; Gar, Natalie S.
Introduction: Test anxiety inhibits students from performing according to their full potential in academic setting. Objectives: This study investigated self-efficacy, gender and trait anxiety as moderators of test anxiety. Method: Two hundred and forty nine (249) psychology majors drawn from a university in Eastern Nigeria participated in the…
Onyeizugbo, Euckay U.
Conflicting findings exist regarding (1) whether anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a construct distinct from anxiety in children and (2) the specific nature of the role of AS in child anxiety. This study uses meta-analytic techniques to (1) determine whether youth (ages 6-18 years) have been reported to experience AS, (2) examine whether AS…
Noel, Valerie A.; Francis, Sarah E.
Background and Objective: Anxiety and depression are among the psychological disorders in heart surgeries. Establishing a simple communication is essential to reduce anxiety and depression. Hence, the objective of the present studywas to examine the impact of Peplau therapeutic communication model on anxiety and depression in patients, who were candidate for coronary artery bypass in Al-Zahra Heart Hospital, Shiraz during 2012-2013. Methods: This is a clinical trial in which 74 patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups, each consisted of 37 patients. Anxiety and depression levels were assessed before, and two and four months after intervention using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Seven therapeutic communication sessions were held in four stages. Data were analyzed with the SPSS (version 16) using analysis of covariance. Results: The mean anxiety and depression levels decreased in the intervention group after the therapeutic communication (p<0.01). Anxiety scores in the intervention group before and after intervention were 10.23 and 9.38, respectively. While the corresponding scores in the control group were 10.26 and 11.62, respectively. Depression scores in the intervention group before and after intervention were 11 and 9.13, respectively. The corresponding scores in the control group were 11.30 and 12.08, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the positive role of therapeutic communication in reducing anxiety and depression of the patients. Therefore, the therapeutic communication is recommended as a simple, cost effective and efficient method in this area. PMID:25505931
Zarea, Kourosh; Maghsoudi, Solmaz; Dashtebozorgi, Bahman; Hghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossin; Javadi, Mostafa
... issues, including school, work, money, friends, and health Social Anxiety Disorder:Avoidance of everyday social situations due to extreme ... occurred Anxiety disorders are real, serious, and treatable. Social Anxiety Disorder Taylor had always been shy—rarely partici- pating ...
Background Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and functional measures, quality of life and dyspnea. Methods Data from 1828 patients with moderate to severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), collected prior to rehabilitation and randomization, were used in linear regression models to test the association between anxiety symptoms, measured by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and: (a) six-minute walk distance test (6 MWD), (b) cycle ergometry peak workload, (c) St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SRGQ), and (d) UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), after controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, FEV1 (% predicted), DLCO (% predicted), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Anxiety was significantly associated with worse functional capacity [6 MWD (B = -0.944, p < .001), ergometry peak workload (B = -.087, p = .04)], quality of life (B = .172, p < .001) and shortness of breath (B = .180, p < .001). Regression coefficients show that a 10 point increase in anxiety score is associated with a mean decrease in 6 MWD of 9 meters, a 1 Watt decrease in peak exercise workload, and an increase of almost 2 points on both the SGRQ and SOBQ. Conclusion In clinically stable patients with moderate to severe emphysema, anxiety is associated with worse exercise performance, quality of life and shortness of breath, after accounting for the influence of demographic and physiologic factors known to affect these outcomes. Trail Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000606 PMID:20214820
Introduction: Anxiety and depression are common in older people living in the community. The aim of the study was to investigate their impact on clinical outcomes during a randomised controlled trial investigating the cost benefits of influenza vaccination in fit and healthy, independent living 65–74 year olds.Subjects and methods: A total of 729 people were recruited. Participants completed the hospital
S J Allsup; M A Gosney
Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The study group was given a systematic preoperative instruction while the control group was given routine nursing care. Patients were interviewed in the postoperative period and anxiety was measured. The data-collecting tool consisted of the Individual Information Form and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS Program to find the frequency, the percentage, the mean and the standard variables, and the hypothesis was tested with Chi-square, variance, and t-independent test. Results It was found that the incidence rates from the post-operative anxiety score of the study group were lower than those of the control group (p < .05). The results of this research demonstrated that gyneoncologic surgery patients who were given systematic preoperative instruction felt less anxious than the ones who were given merely a routine nursing care. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that preoperative instruction programs aiming at informing gyneoncologic surgery patients at the preoperative stage should be organized in hospitals and have an essential role. PMID:21477315
The main aim of this study was to examine the moderating effects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on anxiety\\u000a disorders in children. Data were analyzed from a large referred sample of children with anxiety disorder without comorbid\\u000a ADHD (anxiety disorder, N = 253), anxiety disorder plus comorbid ADHD (anxiety disorder + ADHD, N = 704), and ADHD without comorbid anxiety disorder (ADHD, N = 511). Children were