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The development, testing, and characteristics of an instrument--Computers and Robots AttitudeQuestionnaire--that can be used to measure the attitudes of secondary students towards computers and robots are described. Individual questionnaire items are largely content-free and may be answered by students with no specialist knowledge of…
A questionnaire was constructed for measuring the attitudes of schoolchildren towards learning French. Factor analysis revealed a primary factor accounting for over 60% of the total variance, and an empirical validation study showed that the attitudes of children who obtained high scores on teachers’ ratings of attentiveness and enthusiasm were significantly better than those given low ratings. A subsequent replication
The great majority of questionnairesmeasuring non-observable constructs such as attitude towards CALL are often developed from a specific point of view and are seldom followed by psychometrical validation. Psychometrical properties of the questionnaire, such as construct validity and reliability, then remain unanswered too often, laying a heavy burden upon the generalizability of the obtained results. In light of recent
\\u000a Background Provider attitudes about issues pertinent to patient safety may be related to errors and adverse events. We know of no instruments\\u000a that measure safety-related attitudes in the outpatient setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To adapt the safety attitudesquestionnaire (SAQ) to the outpatient setting and compare attitudes among different types of\\u000a providers in the outpatient setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We modified the SAQ to create a 62-item
Isitri Modak; J. Bryan Sexton; Thomas R. Lux; Robert L. Helmreich; Eric J. Thomas
Sammary.—S\\\\ade and Jenner's questionnaire, developed in Great Brkain, which measures women's attitudes to females' social role was given to Dutch men and women (n = 728). A detailed investigation of the internal consis- tency by applying an optimal scaling procedure indicated ways to improve the validity by different weighting of the response categories and by eliminating items that did not
F. O. A. HUBBARD; M. H. VAN IJZENDOORN; L. W. C. TAVECCHIO
With increasing numbers of studies on research ethics and a need to improve the recruitment of research subjects, the ability to measureattitudes toward biomedical research has become important. The Research AttitudesQuestionnaire is a significant predictor of the public’s attitudes toward and willingness to participate in research, yet limited data are available on its psychometric properties. This study establishes the scale’s internal consistency and dimensionality using a large Internet-based sample from the United States. One item was removed due to a poor item-total correlation, and three additional items were removed which formed a reverse-wording measurement artifact factor. With improved internal consistency and dimensionality, the seven-item version has the advantages of shorter administration time and improved psychometric properties.
Rubright, Jonathan D.; Cary, Mark S.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Kim, Scott Y. H.
To develop a questionnaire on attitudes towards sexual health and validate it on a sample of medical and non-medical students and adult women. Methods For the purpose of constructing a Likert-type scale, four medical students generated 130 statements re- flecting clearly positive or negative attitudes towards sexual health. The scale had five scoring points (1 - strongly disagree, 2 -
Nina Nemèiæ; Sandra Novak; Ivana Novosel; Ozren Kronja; Darko Hren
The Shared Activities Questionnaire (SAQ) is a self-report measure of children's behavioral intentions towards peers with disabilities. The SAQ has been validated as a measure of elementary school students' attitudes towards peers with disabilities. In the present study, psychometric properties of the SAQ as a measure of middle school students'…
ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop a standardized questionnaire (BACKIE) that would assess the Behaviors (B), Attitudes (A), Cognitions (C), Knowledge (K), and Injury Experiences (IE) that elementary-school children possess pertaining to seven types of injuries, including: falls; motor vehicle collisions; burns; drowning; choking\\/suffocation; poisoning; and bicycle\\/pedestrian injuries.
Barbara A. Morrongiello; Michael Cusimano; Benjamin K. Barton; Elizabeth Orr; Mary Chipman; Jeffrey Tyberg; Abhaya Kulkarini; Nazilla Khanlou; Ralph Masi; Tsegaye Bekele
Considerable lack of publications and inconsistent results on construct validity make it difficult to choose an appropriate instrument to measure recovery. The aim of the present study was to evaluate additional psychometric aspects of two established measures of personal recovery with differing focuses. Bivariate associations of the recovery measures with personal, clinical and subjective factors were conducted as indicators of concurrent (convergent and divergent) validity. The scales were also tested concerning internal consistency. The sample comprised of 81 inpatients on an acute psychiatric ward (main diagnoses: 27% substance-related disorders, 27% schizophrenic disorders, 25% affective disorders, 10% neurotic or stress-related disorders, and 11% personality disorders). The "Recovery AttitudesQuestionnaire (RAQ)" has to be reevaluated before further administration due to serious psychometric shortcomings concerning internal consistency and concurrent validity. The "Recovery Process Inventory (RPI)" total scale showed acceptable concurrent and within-scale validity and can be recommended in order to measure the personal recovery process for clinical and scientific purposes. PMID:23859131
Discusses the importance of assessing camp staff attitudes, the nature of attitudes, and how attitudes are formed. Recommends Likert scales as effective in measuring the direction and strength of an attitude, identifying the object of an attitude, and detecting how an attitude was formed. Provides guidelines for developing a Likert scale and…
Foster parents are an increasingly vulnerable population, with documented parenting difficulties. The care they provide to maltreated children plays a critical role in these children's well-being. Parenting attitudes figure largely in the quality of care any parent may provide, and may be particularly salient for foster children. The current study was designed to create and test a measure of foster
Brenda Jones Harden; Allison D'Amour Meisch; Jessica E. Vick; Lisa Pandohie-Johnson
Objectives To assess the safety culture in an acute medical admissions unit (AMAU) of a teaching hospital in order to benchmark results\\u000a against international data and guide a unit-based, integrated, risk management strategy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The safety attitudesquestionnaire (SAQ), a validated instrument for the measurement of safety culture was applied to an AMAU.\\u000a All AMAU healthcare staff (n = 92) were surveyed: doctors, nurses,
The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…
In many countries, there has been a development towards the inclusion of students with special educational needs in regular education. Over the past decade, this has resulted in an increased interest in attitudes towards this educational change of those directly involved. This current study aims at the development, psychometric evaluation, and…
de Boer, Anke; Timmerman, Marieke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Minnaert, Alexander
Describes the development of a self-rating questionnaire to measure students' study habits and attitudes. Cross-validation on freshmen showed correlations of .50 and .52 with grades at the end of the semester. A final revision of the questionnaire \\
Although relationships have been found between maternal psychological characteristics and cognitive and emotional outcomes in children, the behaviors which may mediate these relationships are seldom examined. This is especially true for adolescent mothers, whose children are thought to be at high risk for adverse outcomes. In this study, adolescent mothers in two special programs completed questionnairesmeasuring perception of the
Linda LeResche; Donna Strobino; Peggy Parks; Pamela Fischer; Vincent Smeriglio
Background Aging has determined a demographic shift in the world, which is considered a major societal achievement, and a challenge. Aging is primarily a subjective experience, shaped by factors such as gender and culture. There is a lack of instruments to assess attitudes to aging adequately. In addition, there is no instrument developed or validated in developing region contexts, so that the particularities of ageing in these areas are not included in the measures available. This paper aims to develop and validate a reliable attitude to aging instrument by combining classical psychometric approach and Rasch analysis. Methods Pilot study and field trial are described in details. Statistical analysis included classic psychometric theory (EFA and CFA) and Rasch measurement model. The latter was applied to examine unidimensionality, response scale and item fit. Results Sample was composed of 424 Brazilian old adults, which was compared to an international sample (n = 5238). The final instrument shows excellent psychometric performance (discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch fit statistics). Rasch analysis indicated that modifications in the response scale and item deletions improved the initial solution derived from the classic approach. Conclusion The combination of classic and modern psychometric theories in a complementary way is fruitful for development and validation of instruments. The construction of a reliable Brazilian Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire is important for assessing cultural specificities of aging in a transcultural perspective and can be applied in international cross-cultural investigations running less risk of cultural bias.
This article describes the development of the Maternal AttitudesQuestionnaire (MAQ), a 14-item self-report instrument measuring cognitions relating to role change, expectations of motherhood, and expectations of the self as a mother in postnatal women. This questionnaire was found to have good test-retest and internal reliability. In a large sample of women (n=483) at 6–8 weeks postpartum, scores on the
Rachel Warner; Louis Appleby; Anna Whitton; Brian Faragher
A valid, reliable, and age?appropriate instrument to measure adolescent responses to menarche was constructed. The Adolescent Menstrual AttitudeQuestionnaire is a 5?point Likert scale (with six subscales) with versions for pre? and postmenarcheal girls. Scale development included (a) content validation, (b) testing (with 860 premenarcheal and 1,013 postmenarcheal girls), (c) discriminant analysis (to identify items unique to the pre? and
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) examines implicit attitudes through the measurement of response latencies. In this study, the IRAP was used to assess implicit attitudes toward "mainstream" sexual terms (e.g., Kissing) and "BDSM" terms (e.g., Bondage) among individuals reporting BDSM interests and among students who did not…
Stockwell, Fawna M. J.; Walker, Diana J.; Eshleman, John W.
This questionnaire assesses drug use practices and attitudes toward drugs in high school students. The instrument has 59 items (multiple choice or completion), some with several parts. The question pertain to aspirations for the future, general attitudes and opinions, biographic and demographic data, family background and relationships, alcohol…
The Motherhood Inventory (MI) is a 40-item questionnaire developed to study attitudes toward motherhood and the motherhood myth. It includes items related to the control of reproduction, abortion, adoption, single motherhood, male-female relationships, and idealized and punitive attitudes toward mothers. The MI was investigated using 301 subjects…
The Legal AttitudesQuestionnaire (LAQ) predicts juror bias, but there is little evidence concerning its reliability and construct validity. Two studies provide such evidence for two versions of the LAQ. In Study 1 a questionnaire containing both versions of the LAQ, measures of related and unrelated constructs, and demographic questions was completed by 294 undergraduates. In Study 2 a shortened
Contemporary social psychology takes a simplistic approach to the conceptualization and measurement of intergroup attitudes. Most definitions involve only the affective component of attitudes, and most measurement devices are restricted self-report, paper and pencil questionnaires. A broader and more flexible approach is required to adequately…
Background: Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) continue to experience major obstacles towards social, educational and vocational integration. Negative attitudes toward persons with ID has remained relevant over time and has led to discrimination and stigma. Objective: The present study describes the development of a new questionnaire…
Morin, D.; Crocker, A. G.; Beaulieu-Bergeron, R.; Caron, J.
An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required. PMID:12125854
Empathic responding is implicated in antisocial behaviors such as bullying, sexual offending, and violent crime. Identifying children and adolescents at risk for antisocial behavior and evaluating interventions designed to address problem behaviors require valid and reliable measures. Definitional controversies and limited measurement models have hindered measurement. This study describes the development and analysis of the Children's Empathic AttitudesQuestionnaire (CEAQ)
Jeanne Funk; Christine Fox; Margaret Chan; Kathleen Curtiss
The psychometric soundness of the Swansea Muscularity AttitudesQuestionnaire (SMAQ) was examined using two independent samples of Canadian male post-secondary students (Ns=250 and 310, respectively). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the final 19-item version of the SMAQ is represented by three latent constructs, which we have labeled: intention to become more muscular (eight-items), positive attributes of muscularity (nine-items),
Background To develop a Korean version of the Integrative Medicine AttitudeQuestionnaire (IMAQ) in order to evaluate physician attitudes toward integrative medicine/complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Methods We developed a Korean IMAQ through careful translation of the 28-item questionnaire developed by Schmidt et al. A web-based survey was sent via email to 118 primary care physicians in Korea. The complete respose rate wasa 52.5%. The questionnaire's reliability and validity were verified using Cronbach's ?, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis. Results Although the Korean IMAQ exhibited excellent internal consistency, its validity was insufficient. Our results suggest that Western and Korean physicians may have different understandings of CAM and the concept of holism, as factor analysis showed that incorrectly classified items were mainly part of the holism conceptual domain. Furthermore, the sum of the items within the holism conceptual domain was not significantly different for physicians who had previously received CAM education. Conclusion This study developed and tested the first Korean IMAQ. We found that this version of the questionnaire lacks sufficient validity and requires further modification.
There are no established questionnaires that evaluate habitual sleep practices in the context of beliefs and attitudes about sleep. This study describes an effort to develop and evaluate a questionnaire that assesses habitual sleep; behaviors associated with sleep and potential sleep problems; sleep hygiene; social and environmental determinants of sleep; beliefs and attitudes about sleep as it relates to health, safety, and functioning; and knowledge about sleep. A total of 124 participants completed the final questionnaire. Overall, the questionnaire and subscales demonstrated moderate internal consistency, and concurrent and divergent validity were demonstrated by comparing various subscales to existing measures. Future studies may utilize the descriptive data to determine the role of behavioral, social, and environmental determinants of healthy sleep. PMID:23514261
Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas; Gooneratne, Nalaka S; Patel, Nirav P
The present article establishes the factorial structure of the Legal AttitudesQuestionnaire, one of the most frequently used measurements for the studyof legal authoritarianism, in several Spanish samples consisting of a communitypopulation (N1 = 618 and N2 = 533). In study 1, confirmatory factorial analysesare carried out by LISREL for different models, based on theory and on previousexploratory analyses. In study
Juan García García; Emilia Inmaculada De La Fuente Solana; MA Del Rosario Martínez Arias; Leticia De La Fuente Sánchez
Despite the attention for corporate, brand and product images, only few studies focus on methodological comparisons of image research methods. This article presents a comparison of two current instruments: the Q-sort method and a Likert attitudequestionnaire. The study applies both methods to measure the image of beef, using the same assertions in similar samples of consumers. The two methods
Klooster ten Peter M; Martijn Visser; Jong de Menno D. T
Attitudemeasurement has had a somewhat chequered history since the possibility of achieving it successfully was demonstrated by Thurstone in 1929. It has been an important area in science education, particularly in the context of falling uptakes in the physical sciences in many countries, and there have been many attempts to measure learner…
This research note reports on the development of a measure for assessing attitudes to professional roles of persons working, or preparing to work, in child care services. The measure has been trialled on groups of college students undertaking early childhood care and teaching courses, and reliability and validity data have been used to refine the instrument.
In this study, we describe the development of measures used to examine pupils’ attitudes towards science. In particular, separate measures for attitudes towards the following areas were developed: learning science in school, practical work in science, science outside of school, importance of science, self?concept in science, and future participation in science. In developing these measures, criticisms of previous attitude studies
Background Hierarchical scales are useful in understanding the structure of underlying latent traits in many questionnaires. The Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ) explored the attitudes to ageing of older people themselves, and originally described three distinct subscales: (1) Psychosocial Loss (2) Physical Change and (3) Psychological Growth. This study aimed to use Mokken analysis, a method of Item Response Theory, to test for hierarchies within the AAQ and to explore how these relate to underlying latent traits. Methods Participants in a longitudinal cohort study, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, completed a cross-sectional postal survey. Data from 802 participants were analysed using Mokken Scaling analysis. These results were compared with factor analysis using exploratory structural equation modelling. Results Participants were 51.6% male, mean age 74.0 years (SD 0.28). Three scales were identified from 18 of the 24 items: two weak Mokken scales and one moderate Mokken scale. (1) ‘Vitality’ contained a combination of items from all three previously determined factors of the AAQ, with a hierarchy from physical to psychosocial; (2) ‘Legacy’ contained items exclusively from the Psychological Growth scale, with a hierarchy from individual contributions to passing things on; (3) ‘Exclusion’ contained items from the Psychosocial Loss scale, with a hierarchy from general to specific instances. All of the scales were reliable and statistically significant with ‘Legacy’ showing invariant item ordering. The scales correlate as expected with personality, anxiety and depression. Exploratory SEM mostly confirmed the original factor structure. Conclusions The concurrent use of factor analysis and Mokken scaling provides additional information about the AAQ. The previously-described factor structure is mostly confirmed. Mokken scaling identifies a new factor relating to vitality, and a hierarchy of responses within three separate scales, referring to vitality, legacy and exclusion. This shows what older people themselves consider important regarding their own ageing.
Shenkin, Susan D.; Watson, Roger; Laidlaw, Ken; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.
Tools used in the measurement of satellite attitude are described. Attention is given to the elements that characterize an attitude sensor, the references employed (stars, moon, Sun, Earth, magnetic fields, etc.), and the detectors (optical, magnetic, and inertial). Several examples of attitude sensors are described, including sun sensors, star sensors, earth sensors, triaxial magnetometers, and gyrometers. Finally, sensor combinations that make it possible to determine a complete attitude are considered; the SPOT attitudemeasurement system and a combined CCD star sensor-gyrometer system are discussed.
The Attitudes Toward Hypnosis Questionnaire (ATHQ) is a 14-item, self-report measure of positive versus negative attitudes about hypnosis. It is composed of three subscales identified via factor analysis: Positive Beliefs, Fearlessness, and Mental Stability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the generalizability of the original factor structure of the ATHQ and to provide normative data based on a large sample of 925 introductory psychology students. Internal consistency analysis and factor analysis did not support the scale's original factor structure. Accordingly, it is recommended that the subscales be abandoned and that the 14 items of the ATHQ be utilized as a unidimensional scale. Although attitudes toward hypnosis have been described as an important determinant of hypnotic responding, there has been very little research evaluating this association. If employed as a unidimensional scale, the ATHQ could be a very useful tool in future studies on this topic. PMID:22443023
The measurement of racial attitudes in contemporary America is presented with some serious methodological obstacles. In an attempt to eliminate these obstacles, Sedlacek and Brooks developed the Situational Attitude Scale (SAS) to measure the attitudes of whites toward blacks. It includes two Forms, A and B. The effects of the same individual…
BACKGROUND: How to protect patients from harm is a question of universal interest. Measuring and improving safety culture in care giving units is an important strategy for promoting a safe environment for patients. The Safety AttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ) is the only instrument that measures safety culture in a way which correlates with patient outcome. We have translated the SAQ to
Static attitude estimation and dynamic attitude estimation are used to describe a gradiometer composed of a number of accelerometers that are used to measure a combination of the local gravity gradient and instrument rotation effects. After a series of measures to isolate the gradient, a global mesh of measurements can be obtained that determine the planetary external gravity potential. Orbital and spacecraft models are developed to determine if, when the gravity potential is known, the same measurements, unsupported by any other information can be used to infer the spacecraft attitude.
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version…
BackgroundPatient safety is fundamental to healthcare quality. Attention has recently focused on the patient safety culture of an organisation and its impact on patient outcomes. A strong safety climate appears to be an essential condition for safe patient care in the hospital. A number of instruments are used to measure this patient safety climate or culture. The Safety AttitudesQuestionnaire
Els Devriendt; Koen Van den Heede; Joke Coussement; Eddy Dejaeger; Kurt Surmont; Dirk Heylen; René Schwendimann; Bryan Sexton; Nathalie I. H. Wellens; Steven Boonen; Koen Milisen
The Greek Sexuality AttitudesQuestionnaire–Learning Disabilities (GSAQ-LD) was developed as a research instrument for use with a Greek sample in order to assess its attitudes towards the sexuality of people with and without learning disabilities (LD). The 45-item, Likert-type questionnaire consists of four different scales, each of which indicated satisfactory item characteristics, adequate reliability and homogeneity, and preliminary support for
This handbook is a compilation and evaluation of 95 attitude scales for survey research. An introductory chapter outlines the fifteen chapters, discusses the background and rationale of the project, and details the major criteria for scale construction used to evaluate the scales reviewed in the volume. Chapter 2 contains a historical summary of…
Background Safety activities have been initiated at many hospitals in Taiwan, but little is known about the safety culture at these hospitals. The aims of this study were to verify a safety culture survey instrument in Chinese and to assess hospital safety culture in Taiwan. Methods The Taiwan Patient Safety Culture Survey was conducted in 2008, using the adapted Safety AttitudeQuestionnaire in Chinese (SAQ-C). Hospitals and their healthcare workers participated in the survey on a voluntary basis. The psychometric properties of the five SAQ-C dimensions were examined, including teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, perception of management, and working conditions. Additional safety measures were asked to assess healthcare workers' attitudes toward their collaboration with nurses, physicians, and pharmacists, respectively, and perceptions of hospitals' encouragement of safety reporting, safety training, and delivery delays due to communication breakdowns in clinical areas. The associations between the respondents' attitudes to each SAQ-C dimension and safety measures were analyzed by generalized estimating equations, adjusting for the clustering effects at hospital levels. Results A total of 45,242 valid questionnaires were returned from 200 hospitals with a mean response rate of 69.4%. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.792 for teamwork climate, 0.816 for safety climate, 0.912 for job satisfaction, 0.874 for perception of management, and 0.785 for working conditions. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a good model fit for each dimension and the entire construct. The percentage of hospital healthcare workers holding positive attitude was 48.9% for teamwork climate, 45.2% for perception of management, 42.1% for job satisfaction, 37.2% for safety climate, and 31.8% for working conditions. There were wide variations in the range of SAQ-C scores in each dimension among hospitals. Compared to those without positive attitudes, healthcare workers with positive attitudes to each SAQ dimension were more likely to perceive good collaboration with coworkers, and their hospitals were more likely to encourage safety reporting and to prioritize safety training programs (Wald chi-square test, p < 0.001 for all). Conclusions Analytical results verified the psychometric properties of the SAQ-C at Taiwanese hospitals. The safety culture at most hospitals has not fully developed and there is considerable room for improvement.
Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People’s attitudes toward them are however, largely\\u000a overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered\\u000a to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10–15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale\\u000a items that were loaded
This paper explores using a gravity gradiometer to measure the attitude of a satellite, given that the gravity field is accurately known. Since gradiometers actually measure a combination of the gradient and attitude rate and acceleration terms, the answer is far from obvious. The paper demonstrates that it can be done and at microradian accuracy. The technique employed is dynamic estimation, based on the momentum biased Euler equations. The satellite is assumed nominally planet pointed, and subject to control, gravity gradient, and partly radom drag torques. The attitude estimator is unusual. While the standard method of feeding back measurement residuals is used, the feedback gain matrix isn't derived from Kalman theory. instead, it's chosen to minimize a measure of the terminal covariance of the error in the estimate. This depends on the gain matrix and the power spectra of all the process and measurement noises. An integration is required over multiple solutions of Lyapunov equations.
A questionnairemeasure of Sexual Interest is described; in construction and scoring, the authors have borrowed from the Sexual Orientation Method. Five subscale scores relating to different areas of sexual behavior can be measured, and an overall Sexual Interest score obtained. The measure is fully described, and preliminary data on internal consistency, reliability, and validity are presented. Applications of the
J. J. M. Harbison; P. Joan Graham; J. T. Quinn; H. McAllister; R. Woodward
The recent development of light and low-cost airborne platforms (microlight, drones, kites, balloons,...) has led to the need for simple and low-cost devices allowing attitudemeasurement with respect to a reference horizon of the platform itself or of an embedded setting. A theoretical study of the conditions for measuringattitude angles from artificial vision is proposed and an original practical algorithm allowing these measurements to be performed in real time is described. An implementation in a CMOS retina circuit is also presented. These points are illustrated by experiments confirming the feasibility of the device.
Truchetet, F.; Aubreton, O.; Gorria, P.; Laligant, O.
BACKGROUND: Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety AttitudesQuestionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented
Annika Nordén-Hägg; J Bryan Sexton; Sofia Kälvemark-Sporrong; Lena Ring; Åsa Kettis-Lindblad
Lautenschlager and Flaherty (1990) unexpectedly found that more socially desirable responding occurred on a computer version of an attitude and personality questionnaire than on a paper-and-pencil version. The present study attempted to replicate and extend their findings in a noncollege environment. Male Navy recruits (N = 246) completed several questionnaires in either a computer-administered or paper-and-pencil condition and in either
Stephanie Booth-Kewley; Jack E. Edwards; Paul Rosenfeld
Background Patient safety has been a priority for many societies and health care systems in the last decades. Identification of preventable risks and aversion of potentially unsafe situations and fatal complications in maternity units is life saving. The explicit need to focus on quality of care underpins the aim of the study to initially evaluate the safety culture and teamwork climate in the public Maternity Units of the 5 Regional Hospitals in Cyprus as measured by a validated safety attitudes tool. Methods Data were collected from 140 midwives working in the public sector all over Cyprus by the Greek Version of the Safety AttitudesQuestionnaire-Labor version. Results One hundred and six (75.71%) registered midwives completed the questionnaire fully. The median of total work experience as a registered midwife was 3 years (IQR: 2-18.25); whereas the median of total working experience in the nursing and maternity units was 5 years (IQR: 2-21.75). Experienced midwives rated the following domains higher: team work, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions as opposed to the midwives with less experience. Additionally those with a longer working life in the current maternity units rated these domains higher: safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions as opposed to the less experienced midwives. Conclusions The high mean total score on team work and safety climate in the more experienced group of midwives is a predominant finding for the maternity units of Cyprus. In Cyprus where facilities are small in size and midwives know each other, share more responsibility towards patient safety. It could be suggested that younger midwives need more support and teamwork practice to enhance the safety and teamwork climate towards self-confidence.
Background. There are few theoretically derived questionnaires of physical activity determinants among youth, and the existing questionnaires have not been subjected to tests of factorial validity and invariance. The present study employed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factorial validity and invariance of questionnaires designed to be unidimensional measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy about
R. W. Motl; R. K. Dishman; S. G. Trost; R. P. Saunders; M. Dowda; G. Felton; D. S. Ward; R. R. Pate
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the volume of empirical research directed toward the issue of sex-roles, including the development of evaluative instruments such as the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). The United States Military Academy's Project Athena, designed to examine…
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality,
There have been a number of sexual counseling programs for spinal cord injured individuals, but little attempt has been made to assess the impact of such programs. One reason for this has been the lack of reliable and valid assessment devices. The present paper attempted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Sexual Attitude and Information Questionnaire (SAIQ) as
Children continue to experience unrelieved pain during hospitalization, despite the evidence to guide nurses’ pain management practices being readily available. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes have been identified as a possible reason for suboptimal pain management. This study examines the validity and reliability of an existing questionnaire to validate it for use in the population of interest. Initial testing demonstrated low
Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported. Methods A 10-item measure (CHBQ – CAM Health Belief Questionnaire) was constructed and administered to three successive classes of medical students simultaneously with the previously validated 29-item Integrative Medicine AttitudeQuestionnaire (IMAQ). Both measures were imbedded in a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Demographic and other data were collected on students' use of CAM modalities and their awareness and use of primary CAM information resources. Analysis of CHBQ items was performed and its reliability and criterion-related validity were established. Results Response rate was 96.5% (272 of 282 students studied). The shorter CHBQ compared favorably with the longer IMAQ in internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.75 and 0.83 for the CHBQ and IMAQ respectively. Students showed positive attitudes/beliefs towards CAM and high levels of self-reported CAM use. The majority (73.5%) of students reported using at least one CAM modality, and 54% reported using at least two modalities. Eighty-one percent use the internet as a primary source of information for CAM. Conclusions The CHBQ is a practical, valid and reliable instrument for measuring medical student attitudes/beliefs and has potential utility for measuring the impact of CAM instruction. Medical students showed a high self-reported rate of CAM use and positive attitudes towards CAM. Short, didactic exposure to CAM instruction in the first year of medical school did not additionally impact these already positive attitudes. Unlike the IMAQ, which was intended for use with physicians, the CHBQ is generic in design and content and applicable to a variety of learner types. Evaluation measures must be appropriate for specific CAM instructional outcomes.
Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measureattitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…
To examine the convergent and discriminant validity of an attitudinal questionnairemeasure of traditionalism-modernism in Thai exchange students, questionnaire scores were correlated with self and peer measures of traditionalism-modernism and with a measure of “culture-shock.” For the latter, it was anticipated that high scores on modernism would inversely correlate with culture-shock scores. Results indicated that the questionnairemeasures were positively
Objectives To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. Design The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Participants Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18?years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. Measures The 34-item Back Pain AttitudesQuestionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach ? coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. Results The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (?=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: ‘vulnerability of the back’; ‘relationship between back pain and injury’; ‘activity participation while experiencing back pain’; ‘prognosis of back pain’ and ‘psychological influences on recovery’. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (?=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (? between 0.50 and 0.78). Conclusions The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability, responsiveness to change and predictive ability needs to be conducted.
Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony
ObjectiveTo test the psychometric soundness of the Safety AttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ) in Turkish hospitals, examine differences in perceptions of safety and provide baseline data.MethodsThe SAQ (inpatient version) was translated with the back-translation technique into Turkish. Ten out of 50 teaching hospitals belonging to the Ministry of Health in Turkey were selected randomly. The Turkish version of the SAQ was administered
Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety AttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings.
Analyzed the responses of 481 US Marine Corps recruits to items in a Marine Corps Opinion Questionnaire. 5 orthogonal factors were identified and labeled as attitudes toward the toughness of Marines, the spirit among Marines, affiliation with the Marine Corps, and authority and consideration in the Marine Corps. Scales developed to provide scores on these factors are considered reliable, and
background NICU safety culture, as measured by the Safety AttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ), varies widely. Associations with clinical outcomes in the adult ICU setting make the SAQ an attractive tool for comparing clinical performance between hospitals. Little information is available on the use of the SAQ for this purpose in the NICU setting. objectives To determine whether the dimensions of safety culture measured by the SAQ give consistent results when used as a NICU performance measure. methods Cross-sectional survey of caregivers in twelve NICUs, using the six scales of the SAQ: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, stress recognition, perceptions of management, and working conditions. NICUs were ranked by quantifying their contribution to overall risk-adjusted variation across the scales. Spearman Rank Correlation coefficients were used to test for consistency in scale performance. We then examined whether performance in the top four NICUs in one scale predicted top four performance in others. results There were 547 respondents in twelve NICUs. Of fifteen NICU-level correlations in performance ranking, two were greater than 0.7, seven were between 0.4 and 0.69, the six remaining were less than 0.4. We found a trend towards significance in comparing the distribution of performance in the top four NICUs across domains with a binomial distribution p = .051, indicating generally consistent performance across dimensions of safety culture. conclusion A culture of safety permeates many aspects of patient care and organizational functioning. The SAQ may be a useful tool for comparative performance assessments among NICUs.
Profit, Jochen; Etchegaray, Jason; Petersen, Laura A; Sexton, J Bryan; Hysong, Sylvia J; Mei, Minghua; Thomas, Eric J
Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…
Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek
Objective:Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure children's attitudes towards breakfast.Design:A pilot study was used to select questionnaire items and assess test–retest reliability. The questionnaire was then administered to a larger sample of children together with a dietary recall questionnaire. Randomly selected subsets of these children also completed a dietary recall interview or their parents were asked to complete
K Tapper; S Murphy; R Lynch; R Clark; G F Moore; L Moore
Objectives: This study aimed to determine attitudinal and self reported behavioural variations between medical students in different years to scenarios involving academic misconduct. Design: A cross-sectional study where students were given an anonymous questionnaire that asked about their attitudes to 14 scenarios describing a fictitious student engaging in acts of academic misconduct and asked them to report their own potential behaviour. Setting: Dundee Medical School. Participants: Undergraduate medical students from all five years of the course. Method: Questionnaire survey. Main measurements: Differences in medical students' attitudes to the 14 scenarios and their reported potential behaviour with regards to the scenarios in each of the years. Results: For most of the scenarios there was no significant difference in the response between the years. Significant differences in the responses were found for some of the scenarios across the years, where a larger proportion of year one students regarded the scenario as wrong and would not engage in the behaviour, compared to other years. These scenarios included forging signatures, resubmitting work already completed for another part of the course, and falsifying patient information. Conclusion: Observed differences between the years for some scenarios may reflect a change in students' attitudes and behaviour as they progress though the course. The results may be influenced by the educational experience of the students, both in terms of the learning environment and assessment methods used. These differences may draw attention to the potential but unintentional pressures placed on medical students to engage in academic misconduct. The importance of developing strategies to engender appropriate attitudes and behaviours at the undergraduate level must be recognised.
Background Tens of millions of patients worldwide suffer from avoidable disabling injuries and death every year. Measuring the safety climate in health care is an important step in improving patient safety. The most commonly used instrument to measure safety climate is the Safety AttitudesQuestionnaire (SAQ). The aim of the present study was to establish the validity and reliability of the translated version of the SAQ. Methods The SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context. The survey was then carried out with 374 respondents in the operating room (OR) setting. Data was received from three hospitals, a total of 237 responses. Cronbach’s alpha and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. Results The Cronbach’s alpha values for each of the factors of the SAQ ranged between 0.59 and 0.83. The CFA and its goodness-of-fit indices (SRMR 0.055, RMSEA 0.043, CFI 0.98) showed good model fit. Intercorrelations between the factors safety climate, teamwork climate, job satisfaction, perceptions of management, and working conditions showed moderate to high correlation with each other. The factor stress recognition had no significant correlation with teamwork climate, perception of management, or job satisfaction. Conclusions Therefore, the Swedish translation and psychometric testing of the SAQ (OR version) has good construct validity. However, the reliability analysis suggested that some of the items need further refinement to establish sound internal consistency. As suggested by previous research, the SAQ is potentially a useful tool for evaluating safety climate. However, further psychometric testing is required with larger samples to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument for use in Sweden.
Expressed emotion (EE) is traditionally measured with the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), but the CFI requires considerable time for both execution and evaluation. As an alternative, we investigated the validity of the Family Attitude Scale (FAS), a questionnaire developed for the measurement of EE. The CFI, the FAS, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) were
This study investigated the properties of a new rating instrument, the Parenting Questionnaire (PQ), designed to measureattitudes\\u000a about acceptable and unacceptable parenting practices. In Study 1, subject matter experts representing culturally diverse\\u000a psychologists, parents, and college students were consulted to identify 110 items receiving high endorsement. In Study 2,\\u000a items were administered to 1,398 undergraduate students to examine their
Karen S. BuddSteven; Steven Behling; Yan Li; Sangeeta Parikshak; Rachel A. Gershenson; Rachel Feuer; Christina M. Danko
Background The compulsory treatment of anorexia nervosa is a contentious issue. Research suggests that psychiatrists have a range of attitudes towards patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, and towards the use of compulsory treatment for the disorder. Methods A postal self-completed attitudinal questionnaire was sent to senior psychiatrists in the United Kingdom who were mostly general adult psychiatrists, child and adolescent psychiatrists, or psychiatrists with an interest in eating disorders. Results Respondents generally supported a role for compulsory measures under mental health legislation in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Compared to 'mild' anorexia nervosa, respondents generally were less likely to feel that patients with 'severe' anorexia nervosa were intentionally engaging in weight loss behaviours, were able to control their behaviours, wanted to get better, or were able to reason properly. However, eating disorder specialists were less likely than other psychiatrists to think that patients with 'mild' anorexia nervosa were choosing to engage in their behaviours or able to control their behaviours. Child and adolescent psychiatrists were more likely to have a positive view of the use of parental consent and compulsory treatment for an adolescent with anorexia nervosa. Three factors emerged from factor analysis of the responses named: 'Support for the powers of the Mental Health Act to protect from harm'; 'Primacy of best interests'; and 'Autonomy viewed as being preserved in anorexia nervosa'. Different scores on these factor scales were given in terms of type of specialist and gender. Conclusion In general, senior psychiatrists tend to support the use of compulsory treatment to protect the health of patients at risk and also to protect the welfare of patients in their best interests. In particular, eating disorder specialists tend to support the compulsory treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa independently of views about their decision-making capacity, while child and adolescent psychiatrists tend to support the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa in their best interests where decision-making is impaired.
Tan, Jacinta OA; Doll, Helen A; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Stewart, Anne; Hope, Tony
This paper discusses a survey undertaken to assess the attitudes of over 2,000 high school students towards economic issues and economics courses. The premise of the survey was that more studies evaluating economics instruction at the high school level overemphasize achievement and knowledge outcomes and fail to measureattitude outcomes. The…
Remote attitudemeasurement sensor (RAMS) offers a low-cost, low-risk, proven design concept that is based on mature, demonstrated space sensor technology. The electronic design concepts and interpolation algorithms were tested and proven in space hardware like th Retroreflector Field Tracker and various star trackers. The RAMS concept is versatile and has broad applicability to both ground testing and spacecraft needs. It is ideal for use as a precision laboratory sensor for structural dynamics testing. It requires very little set-up or preparation time and the output data is immediately usable without integration or extensive analysis efforts. For on-orbit use, RAMS rivals any other type of dynamic structural sensor (accelerometer, lidar, photogrammetric techniques, etc.) for overall performance, reliability, suitability, and cost. Widespread acceptance and extensive usage of RAMS will occur only after some interested agency, such as OAST, adopts the RAMS concept and provides the funding support necessary for further development and implementation of RAMS for a specific program.
Background Mobile phone based remote monitoring of medication adherence and physiological parameters has the potential of improving long-term graft outcomes in the recipients of kidney transplants. This technology is promising as it is relatively inexpensive, can include intuitive software and may offer the ability to conduct close patient monitoring in a non-intrusive manner. This includes the optimal management of comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. There is, however, a lack of data assessing the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward this technology, especially among ethnic minorities. Objective To assess the attitudes of renal transplant recipients toward mobile phone based remote monitoring and management of their medical regimen; and to identify demographic or clinical characteristics that impact on this attitude. Methods After a 10 minute demonstration of a prototype mobile phone based monitoring system, a 10 item questionnaire regarding attitude toward remote monitoring and the technology was administered to the participants, along with the 10 item Perceived Stress Scale and the 7 item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Results Between February and April 2012, a total of 99 renal transplant recipients were identified and agreed to participate in the survey. The results of the survey indicate that while 90% (87/97) of respondents own a mobile phone, only 7% (7/98) had any prior knowledge of mobile phone based remote monitoring. Despite this, the majority of respondents, 79% (78/99), reported a positive attitude toward the use of a prototype system if it came at no cost to themselves. Blacks were more likely than whites to own smartphones (43.1%, 28/65 vs 20.6%, 7/34; P=.03) and held a more positive attitude toward free use of the prototype system than whites (4.25±0.88 vs 3.76±1.07; P=.02). Conclusions The data demonstrates that kidney transplant recipients have a positive overall attitude toward mobile phone based health technology (mHealth). Additionally, the data demonstrates that most kidney transplant recipients own and are comfortable using mobile phones and that many of these patients already own and use smart mobile phones. The respondents felt that mHealth offers an opportunity for improved self-efficacy and improved provider driven medical management. Respondents were comfortable with the idea of being monitored using mobile technology and are confident that their privacy can be protected. The small subset of kidney transplant recipients who are less interested in mHealth may be less technologically adept as reflected by their lower mobile phone ownership rates. As a whole, kidney transplant recipients are receptive to the technology and believe in its utility.
Weiland, Ana Katherine; Frenzel, Ronja Maximiliane; Mueller, Martina; Brunner-Jackson, Brenda Marie; Taber, David James; Baliga, Prabhakar Kalyanpur; Treiber, Frank Anton
The psychometric properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) are evaluated using a clinical sample of children with selective mutism (SM). The study shows that SMQ is useful in determining the severity of a child's nonspeaking behaviors, the scope of these behaviors and necessary follow up assessment.
Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.
Attitudes to aging in mid-life have been found to be a predictor of health and well-being. The main purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of the Reactions to Aging Questionnaire (RAQ) to the understanding of middle-aged women's attitudes towards their aging. An additional purpose was to expand the existing information regarding the dimensions of the new version of the RAQ. Middle-aged Melbourne women (n = 381) were asked to complete the RAQ, in addition to another attitudes-to-aging scale (Worries About Aging). Factor analysis of the RAQ was used to explore its dimensionality, and frequencies of responses were used to assess the spread of response of both instruments. The factors extracted in the factor analysis of the RAQ were interpretable and meaningful in terms of emotions related to aging. They were also similar to the factors described by previous data. The RAQ was more effective in its distribution ability than the Worries About Aging Scale. With some modifications, the RAQ may be more informative than was the Worries About Aging Scale in its ability to assess emotions, opinions and beliefs associated with aging in middle-aged women. PMID:11770187
Netz, Y; Guthrie, J R; Garamszegi, C; Dennerstein, L
Background Recently, many scientists including bacteriologists have begun to focus on social aspects of antibiotic management especially the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among the general population regarding antibiotic use. However, relatively few works have published on the relationship between KAP and medical education. In this study, we analyze the present status of Chinese medical (MS)- and non-medical (NS) students’ KAP on the use of antibiotics, and examine the influence of Chinese medical curriculum on the appropriate usage of antibiotics among medical students. Methods In this study, 2500 students from 3 universities (including one medical university) in Northeastern China participate in the questionnaire survey on students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward antibiotic usage. Wilcoxon rank sum test and Chi square test were used to analyze questionnaire-related discrete and categorical variables respectively, in order to assess the impact of the medical curriculum on students’ KAP towards antibiotics. Results 2088 (83.5%) respondents (MS-1236 and NS-852) were considered valid for analysis. The level of knowledge of MS on the proper use of antibiotics was significantly higher than that of NS (p?0.0001). However, based on their responses on actual practice, MS were found to rely on antibiotics more than NS (p?0.0001). Moreover, the knowledge and attitude of MS towards antibiotic use improved with the increase in grade with discriminate use of antibiotics concurrently escalating during the same period. Conclusions This study indicates that Chinese medical curriculum significantly improves students’ knowledge on antibiotics and raises their attention on antibiotic resistance that may result from indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The study also shows an excessive use of antibiotics especially among the more senior medical students, signifying a deficiency of antibiotics usage instruction in their curriculum. This might explain why there are frequent abuses of antibiotics in both hospital and community settings from a certain angle.
The feasibility of a vector magnetometer system was investigated by developing a technique to determine attitude given magnetic field components. Sample calculations are then made using the earth's magnetic field data acquired during actual flight conditions. Results of these calculations are compared graphically with measuredattitude data acquired simultaneously with the magnetic data. The role and possible implementation of various reference angles are discussed along with other pertinent considerations. Finally, it is concluded that the earth's magnetic field as measured by modern vector magnetometers can play a significant role in attitude control systems.
Purpose: Construct validity and concurrent validity were investigated in a prototype survey instrument, the "Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Experimental Edition" (POSHA-E). The POSHA-E was designed to measure public attitudes toward stuttering within the context of eight other attributes, or "anchors," assumed to range from negative…
St. Louis, Kenneth O.; Reichel, Isabella K.; Yaruss, J. Scott; Lubker, Bobbie Boyd
The Environmental (2-MEV) Scale questionnaire was developed in Europe to measure adolescents' attitudes and gauge the effectiveness of educational programs. It also formed the basis for the Theory of Ecological Attitudes. In the present four-year study, the 2-MEV Scale was modified for use with 9-12-year-old children in the United States. Initial…
This study describes the construction and preliminary validation of a measure of the attitudes and behaviours of convicted\\u000a men whose offences are related to Internet child ‘pornography’ (abusive images). An initial measure was constructed through\\u000a the generation of items with reference to the emerging literature on these offenders. Phase 1 involved piloting this first\\u000a version of the measure with 40
In order to understand the health care system a country chooses to adopt or the health care reform a country decides to undertake,\\u000a one must first be able to measure a country’s attitude toward social health insurance. Our primary goal was to develop a construct\\u000a that allows us to measure this “attitude toward social health insurance”. Using a sample of
Chung-Ping A. Loh; Katrin Nihalani; Oliver Schnusenberg
We examined the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ), comparing the original three-factor model to a later-suggested two-factor model. We evaluated the construct validity of the ACQ by investigating the associations between the resulting factors and other eating-related questionnaires such as the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Food Thought Suppression Inventory. Finally, we compared the scores on several scales regarding eating behavior between different groups (men versus women, dieters versus non-dieters and cravers versus non-cravers). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Dutch ACQ indicated the best global fit indices for the two-factor model, with the resulting factors being "Negative consequences and Guilt" and "Craving and emotional eating". Both factors were associated with other eating-related dimensions. However, craving seemed to be uniquely associated with the amount of chocolate consumed per week, whereas guilt correlated strongly with restraint. Finally, women scored higher on nearly all scales, but there was no significant gender difference with regard to chocolate consumption. Dieters reported more disinhibition, restraint, food-thought suppression and guilt, but they did not significantly differ from non-dieters with regards to their levels of craving, hunger nor consumption. PMID:24530692
Van Gucht, Dinska; Soetens, Barbara; Raes, Filip; Griffith, James W
To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…
There is considerable evidence that mass media portrayals of body image contribute to body dissatisfaction, yet the assessment of perceived media influences has been examined fleetingly in highly populated, non-Western cultures, particularly among young males. This research examined the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) among adolescent boys in China. In an initial exploratory factor analysis (N=719), a four factor solution emerged with components reflecting General Pressure-Internalization, Sources of Appearance Information, Pressure-Internalization of an Athletic Ideal, and Pressure to be Thin. Subsequently, confirmatory factor analyses in a new sample (n=749) assessed fits of the derived four factor model, a three factor variant, and alternatives reflecting "Western" and "Malay" SATAQ-3 solutions. The derived four factor solution had the most acceptable structure across several fit indices. Patterns of correlation with other self-report measures also provided preliminary support for the validity of the derived solution. PMID:20800561
Objective: The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of a questionnaire tool for measuring students' attitudes toward components relevant to research training programs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: The paper reports the responses of 564 Saudi Arabian students from seven government universities to the questionnaire comprising 16 items on 3 conceptual subscales, which measured students' attitude to research activities in the college; students' opinion of faculty involvement in research; and infrastructural facilities in the college. The results of this study provide the final scale, with all the 16 items of the initial Likert scale, for which strong evidence was obtained. Results: Results indicated that the students' attitude toward the research (SAR) scale had three latent factors, which explained 62% of the variance: The three subscales measured includes: (i) Research activities offered in the college, (ii) students' opinion of faculty involvement in research, and (iii) infrastructural facilities offered in the college for research. The full scale including three subscales had good internal consistency (rs = 0.72 and ? = 0.77 for full scale; and ? between 0.71 and 0.79 for three subscales). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of reliability and validity of the SAR scale for the measurement of students' attitudes toward research training programs in Saudi Arabian Universities. The research findings will provide the basis for further research on health science students.
Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.
Many spacecraft attitude determination methods use exactly two vector measurements. The two vectors are typically the unit vector to the Sun and the Earth's magnetic field vector for coarse "sun-mag" attitude determination or unit vectors to two stars tracked by two star trackers for fine attitude determination. TRIAD, the earliest published algorithm for determining spacecraft attitude from two vector measurements, has been widely used in both ground-based and onboard attitude determination. Later attitude determination methods have been based on Wahba's optimality criterion for n arbitrarily weighted observations. The solution of Wahba's problem is somewhat difficult in the general case, but there is a simple closed-form solution in the two-observation case. This solution reduces to the TRIAD solution for certain choices of measurement weights. This paper presents and compares these algorithms as well as sub-optimal algorithms proposed by Bar-Itzhack, Harman, and Reynolds. Some new results will be presented, but the paper is primarily a review and tutorial.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate patient attitudes and expectations relative to dental implant treatment. A questionnaire was mailed to all 400 patients that had received dental implant treatment at a large multi-specialist clinic during 2008. The questionnaire included questions relative to the reasons for dental implant treatment, if the patient earlier had considered dental implants, expectations of the treatment, discomfort during and after surgery, and how the patient perceived the esthetic outcome. The response rate was 61% (114 men/130 women). The stated reason for tooth loss was in 50% of the patients periodontitis,19% caries, 8% accidents,13% other reasons, and 10% no stated reason. Almost all patients (96%) were satisfied with the esthetic appearance and also regarding the information of the treatment (94%). Regarding the time between surgery and completion of prosthetic work, 79% (n = 192) found it to be reasonable. 71% (n = 170) thought the cost was what they had expected. 47% of the patients experienced the implant surgery better than expected and 48% as expected. In conclusion, the present study revealed that almost all patients were satisfied with the function and esthetics of the dental implant reconstruction and most patients were also satisfied regarding the costs and treatment duration. PMID:22611900
Johannsen, Annsofi; Wikesjö, Ulf; Tellefsen, Georg; Johannsen, Gunnar
The aim of this study was to establish the differential item functioning and construct equivalence of the Aviation Gender AttitudeQuestionnaire (AGAQ) to determine the generalizability of the instrument across 2 national cultures (South African and Australian). Data were collected from 544 South African and 1,064 Australian aircraft pilots and analyzed by means of various analytical procedures. To establish the
Leopold P. Vermeulen; Pieter Schaap; Jim I. Mitchell; Alexandra Kristovics
In order to understand the health care system a country chooses to adopt or the health care reform a country decides to undertake, one must first be able to measure a country's attitude toward social health insurance. Our primary goal was to develop a construct that allows us to measure this "attitude toward social health insurance". Using a sample of 724 students from the People's Republic of China, Germany, and the United States and an initial set of sixteen items, we extract a scale that measures the basic attitude toward social health insurance in the three countries. The scale is internally consistent in each of the three countries. A secondary factor labeled "government responsibility" is marginally consistent for the total sample and for the German sample. German respondents have the most favorable attitude toward social health insurance, followed by China, and then the United States. Chinese respondents have the most favorable attitude toward government responsibility in health insurance. The scale developed here can be used to further investigate and understand which health care system will succeed and which will fail in a given country, which is important from both a political and an economic perspective. PMID:21630082
Loh, Chung-Ping A; Nihalani, Katrin; Schnusenberg, Oliver
Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (?=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed.
This volume presents a systematic review and evaluation of the major empirical measures of social psychological attitudes. It is hoped that the form of presentation adopted in this work (which includes actual scale items and scoring instructions) will help the reader to make his or her own judgments about the current state of the art in social…
Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnairemeasures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnairemeasures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding employees through efforts influencing managerial attitude. PMID:22542265
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Attitudes to Chocolate Questionnaire (ACQ). We analyzed the factor structure of the ACQ by conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of healthy adults and a sample of dietician students. Further, the relationship between the resulting ACQ factors and dimensions of eating behavior, personality, emotionality, and tests of the pleasantness, sweetness, and intensity of sugar and chocolate was examined. The results yielded a clear two-factor structure of the ACQ: The first factor (guilt) was composed of items concerning negative consequences of chocolate eating including the feeling of guilt. The second factor (craving) comprised items related to craving and emotional chocolate eating. Guilt correlated significantly with "emotional eating", "restrained eating", and with neuroticism. Craving correlated significantly with "emotional eating" and "external eating", with neuroticism, and with the "difficulty identifying feelings" facet of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale; further, it correlated highly with the average reported chocolate consumption and with the ratings of the intensity of taste of sugar. In conclusion, results support the validity of the German version of the ACQ and showed a stable factor structure and a good internal consistency. PMID:18068267
In the last decade, the importance of nicotine in maintaining smoking and in cessation difficulty has been acknowledged. Consequently, this has led to efforts to measure nicotine dependence. This paper focuses on a widely used, paper-and-pencil test of nicotine dependence- the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ). The findings indicate that the FTQ correlates with other proposed measures of nicotine dependence (carbon
Background Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare. Methods A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS), was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Results The Swedish Improvement MeasurementQuestionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work. Conclusions The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities.
A video questionnaire (VQ) for measuring asthma prevalence in adolescents was assessed for repeatability and validity in relation to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) (PD20 less than or equal to 7.8 mumol methacholine). Comparison was also made with a standard, self completed written questionnaire (SQ), based on the IUATLD Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire, which included five questions seeking comparable data to those in the VQ. Both the VQ and SQ were administered to 707 schoolchildren (13-16 years), in whom English was the primary language. One hundred and six randomly selected children subsequently underwent bronchial challenge to methacholine. Both the sensitivity and specificity for BHR were higher for a combination of three or more positive responses to the VQ (0.73 and 0.88), than to the SQ (0.63 and 0.82), although these differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.24). When administered again after a two week interval, the VQ had a significantly higher (P = 0.03) coefficient of repeatability (0.79) than the SQ (0.50). We conclude that the VQ is a valid and reliable method of determining asthma prevalence, and propose that by providing data relatively free from biases due to language, culture, literacy or interviewing techniques it may be particularly useful when comparing asthma prevalence and severity in different populations. PMID:1628254
Shaw, R A; Crane, J; Pearce, N; Burgess, C D; Bremner, P; Woodman, K; Beasley, R
Background Knowledge about the determinants of participation and attitude towards the National Immunisation Program (NIP) may be helpful in tailoring information campaigns for this program. Our aim was to determine which factors were associated with nonparticipation in the NIP and which ones were associated with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. Further, we analyzed possible changes in opinion on vaccination over a 10 year period. Methods We used questionnaire data from two independent, population-based, cross-sectional surveys performed in 1995-96 and 2006-07. For the 2006-07 survey, logistic regression modelling was used to evaluate what factors were associated with nonparticipation and with parents' intention to accept remaining vaccinations. We used multivariate multinomial logistic regression modelling to compare the results between the two surveys. Results Ninety-five percent of parents reported that they or their child (had) participated in the NIP. Similarly, 95% reported they intended to accept remaining vaccinations. Ethnicity, religion, income, educational level and anthroposophic beliefs were important determinants of nonparticipation in the NIP. Parental concerns that played a role in whether or not they would accept remaining vaccinations included safety of vaccinations, maximum number of injections, whether vaccinations protect the health of one's child and whether vaccinating healthy children is necessary. Although about 90% reported their opinion towards vaccination had not changed, a larger proportion of participants reported to be less inclined to accept vaccination in 2006-07 than in 1995-96. Conclusion Most participants had a positive attitude towards vaccination, although some had doubts. Groups with a lower income or educational level or of non-Western descent participated less in the NIP than those with a high income or educational level or indigenous Dutch and have been less well identified previously. Particular attention ought to be given to these groups as they contribute in large measure to the rate of nonparticipation in the NIP, i.e., to a greater extent than well-known vaccine refusers such as specific religious groups and anthroposophics. Our finding that the proportion of the population inclined to accept vaccinations is smaller than it was 10 years ago highlights the need to increase knowledge about attitudes and beliefs regarding the NIP.
Objectives To determine current evidence-based medicine skills and practice among trainees. Design Questionnaire study. Setting Electronic survey was sent to all obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midlands South Deanery, and responses collected were anonymous. Participants All obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midland South Deanery. Main outcome measures Self-reported attitude, skills and knowledge in various components of evidence-based medicine. Results 69 trainees were included in the study of which 35 responded. Among all respondents, almost 72% of trainees use non-evidence-based methods to find answers for their clinical questions, whereas only 18% use appropriate evidence-based medicine practice for such queries. Just 35% of trainees have minimum skills of literature searching. Most of the trainees struggle to understand various components of evidence-based medicine. Nearly 80% of trainees do not have formal education or training with regard to evidence-based medicine. Conclusions This study highlights the inadequacy of evidence-based medicine skills among trainees and urges that evidence-based medicine be incorporated in formal training along with specialty study modules.
The Competitiveness Questionnaire (CQ) was constructed to measure two competitiveness perspectives, Interpersonal Competitiveness and Goal Competitiveness. Initial version of CQ was administered to 94 college students; revised version was administered to 195 students. Findings provide some evidence for construct of Goal Competitiveness and for its…
In this paper, three dimensions are conceptualized to represent elements of mobile business service experience. By combining these perspectives, namely usability, mobile working context and mobile work productivity, we aim to understand the nature of mobile work and how mobile business services could support users in this context. A questionnaire, MoBiS-Q, for measuring these dimensions has been developed and tested
Maiju Vuolle; Mari Tiainen; Titti Kallio; Teija Vainio; Minna Kulju; Heli Wigelius
A questionnairemeasure of emotional control was developed to evaluate the extent to which individuals report controlling anger, anxiety and depressed mood. Scale items were derived from responses to semi-structured clinical interviews with patients who were awaiting breast biopsy. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability data are reported, as well as correlations with the Marlowe-Crowne, the Spielberger State-Trait Personality Inventory, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Bortner Type A Behavior Scale. Although intended for use with breast cancer patients this scale is envisaged to have wider application to other clinical populations. PMID:6620206
Background To broaden the range of outcomes that we can measure for patients undergoing treatment for oncological and other chronic conditions, we aimed to validate a questionnairemeasuring self-reported autonomic regulation (aR), i.e. to characterise a subject's autonomic functioning by questions on sleeping and waking, vertigo, morningness-eveningness, thermoregulation, perspiration, bowel movements and digestion. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 440 participants (?: N = 316, ?: N = 124): 95 patients with breast cancer, 49 with colorectal cancer, 60 with diabetes mellitus, 39 with coronary heart disease, 28 with rheumatological conditions, 32 with Hashimoto's disease, 22 with multiple morbidities and 115 healthy people. We administered the questionnaire a second time to 50.2% of the participants. External convergence criteria included the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), a short questionnaire on morningness-eveningness, the Herdecke Quality of Life Questionnaire (HLQ) and a short version questionnaire on self-regulation. Results A principal component analysis yielded a three dimensional 18-item inventory of aR. The subscales orthostatic-circulatory, rest/activity and digestive regulation had internal consistency (Cronbach-?: r? = 0.65 – 0.75) and test-retest reliability (rrt = 0.70 – 85). AR was negatively associated with anxiety, depression, and dysmenorrhoea but positively correlated to HLQ, self-regulation and in part to morningness (except digestive aR) (0.49 – 0.13, all p < 0.05). Conclusion An internal validation of the long-version scale of aR yielded consistent relationships with health versus illness, quality of life and personality. Further studies are required to clarify the issues of external validity, clinical and physiological relevance.
Kroz, M; Feder, G; von Laue, HB; Zerm, R; Reif, M; Girke, M; Matthes, H; Gutenbrunner, C; Heckmann, C
BACKGROUND: Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters,
Annabelle M Wilson; Anthea M Magarey; Nadia Mastersson
ObjectivesTo determine applicability of the Japanese-translated versions of the Ben-Tovim Walker Body AttitudesQuestionnaire (BAQ) and the Attention to the Body Shape Scale (ABS) in Japanese males and females.
Masaharu Kagawa; Hayato Uchida; Kazuhiro Uenishi; Colin W. Binns; Andrew P. Hills
Lautenschlager and Flaherty (1990) unexpectedly found that more socially desirable responding occurred on a computer version of an attitude and personality questionnaire than on a paper-and-pencil version. The present study attempted to replicate and exte...
A study is presented which aims at measuring the Big Five factors in late childhood through self-report as well as parent and teacher ratings. First, several factor analyses examined self-report and teacher and parent ratings on a 65-item questionnaire developed for assessing the Big Five. Five clear factors emerged from these analyses conducted on self-report and other ratings of elementary
Claudio Barbaranelli; Gian Vittorio Caprara; Annarita Rabasca; Concetta Pastorelli
This article describes a questionnaire survey of 747 students enrolled in a graduate school of education, who are currently teachers or prospective teachers. The Literacy Habits Questionnaire, developed by Applegate and Applegate, was administered in September 2006. Findings suggest a high prevalence of aliteracy, the ability to read but a…
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing availability of multidimensional health status and outcome measures of the patient's physical and emotional functioning, and a number of national initiatives to promote their use, little is known about the attitudes and behaviour of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) regarding their use in evaluating the effectiveness of health care. What evidence there is remains largely anecdotal but supports the view that health outcome data is currently not used in the routine management of the patient. AIM: To investigate the attitudes and behaviour of GPs and PNs regarding the use of health outcome data in the routine care of patients with diabetes. METHOD: A questionnaire comprising 20 attitudinal and behavioural statements covering the use and benefits of health outcome data in the routine care of patients with diabetes were sent to 156 GPs and 114 PNs in the Doncaster area together with a covering letter and two examples of multidimensional health outcome measures. RESULTS: Completed questionnaires were received from 90 (58%) GPs and 49 (50% corrected for out of scope) nurses. Median response scores showed that both GPs and nurses expressed a positive overall attitude towards health outcome measurement giving responses favourable to it in 15 (75%) and 18 (90%) of the statements respectively. A key finding was that 48% and 46% of GPs and PNs were unclear as to how they would use health outcome data. CONCLUSION: While our findings reflect a favourable view towards the use of health outcome data for the routine management of the patient with diabetes in a general practice setting, a number of important barriers to their implementation have been identified. These include insufficient knowledge on their use, the need for easily interpretable data, and a lack of resources.
We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive vs. negative attitudes, a trait termed the dispositional attitude. Across 4 studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional AttitudeMeasure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual preexisting attitudes; (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits; and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the Big 5 and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction. PMID:23586409
We hypothesized that individuals may differ in the dispositional tendency to have positive versus negative attitudes, a trait termed the Dispositional Attitude. Across four studies, we developed a 16-item Dispositional AttitudeMeasure (DAM) and investigated its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity. DAM scores were (a) positively correlated with positive affect traits, curiosity-related traits, and individual pre-existing attitudes, (b) negatively correlated with negative affect traits, and (c) uncorrelated with theoretically unrelated traits. Dispositional attitudes also significantly predicted the valence of novel attitudes while controlling for theoretically relevant traits (such as the big-five and optimism). The dispositional attitude construct represents a new perspective in which attitudes are not simply a function of the properties of the stimuli under consideration, but are also a function of the properties of the evaluator. We discuss the intriguing implications of dispositional attitudes for many areas of research, including attitude formation, persuasion, and behavior prediction.
Background. We previously developed questionnaires based on contemporary theories to measure physical activity determinants among youth [Motl et al., Prev Med 2000; 31:584–94]. The present study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean structure of unidimensional models fit to the questionnairesmeasuringattitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy about physical activity among black and white adolescent girls.Methods. Black
R. K. Dishman; R. W. Motl; R. P. Saunders; M. Dowda; G. Felton; D. S. Ward; R. R. Pate
Due to the importance of the relation between attitudes and the experimentation with and use of drugs among adolescents, an instrument was developed composed of individual and societal attitudes toward drugs. A pilot study was carried out on the basis of which a questionnaire containing 63 items was constructed. This questionnaire was given to the research sample of 566 Israeli high school students aged 15-17. Three criteria were used to determine the final version of the instrument, which contains 55 items. Factor analysis revealed seven factors: curiosity and willingness to use drugs, social concern, individual freedom, attribution of positive characteristics to drugs, perceived harmfulness of drugs, perceived characteristics of drug users, and legalization of drugs. Reliability of the factors ranges from alpha = 0.64 to alpha = 0.88; reliability of the entire questionnaire is alpha = 0.89. A short version of the questionnaire consisting of 27 items (alpha = 0.80) was developed for special populations. These findings suggest that the Green Individual and Societal Attitudes Toward Drugs Questionnaire can be employed as a diagnostic tool to identify potential drug experimenters, and as a planning and evaluation measure to preventive drug educational programs. PMID:2228330
During the spring of 1971, the political attitudes of middle-class Mexican Americans in the El Paso (Texas) area were surveyed. An 86-item questionnaire was administered to 187 people in six area Councils of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), four posts of the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), and one area Council of the Knights…
A latent trait model for rating scales is used to ana lyze responses to an attitude-to-school questionnaire as part of an evaluation of projects operating in 10 West ern Australian schools under the Australian Priority Schools Program. The invariance of item parameter estimates over the 10 schools is examined, and varia tions in item estimates from school to school are
The dimensionality of a new multidimensional benefits satisfaction questionnaire called the Attitudes Toward Benefits Scale was examined using a principal components analysis with an orthogonal rotation, and the parallel analysis criterion was used to determine the number of components to retain. It was found that the items loaded on three separate components, as had been hypothesized, and that only one
Measuring medical and allied health students' attitudes towards older people has been identified as an important research area. The present study compared the use of implicit and explicit attitudemeasures. Sixty-five undergraduates completed one explicit measure, the Fraboni Scale of Ageism (FSA), (Fraboni, Saltstone, & Hughes, 1990) and one…
Lin, Xiaoping; Bryant, Christina; Boldero, Jennifer
Tested the hypothesis that authoritarianism as measured by the California F Scale would be related to both behavioral and self-report measures of Ss' attitudes toward United States involvement in the Vietnam war. The F Scale and a 6-statement self-report questionnaire pertaining to the Vietnam war were administered to 131 undergraduates. 65 Ss acitvely demonstrated against United States involvement in the
The evidence?based practice agenda in many healthcare professions has increased the importance of teaching research skills to students in these professions. However, concern exists that many healthcare educators may be reluctant to teach research. This study investigated potential barriers to their adoption of this role. A questionnaire was distributed to 111 healthcare educators within the Faculty of Health of a
The accuracy of attitude determination using GPS signals is considered as a function of signal-to-noise ratio and platform kinematics. The trade-offs and design limitations of various GPS schemes for attitude determination are investigated. Tolerances are derived for such parameters as antenna gain and integration time for a given accuracy.
We used data from two pilot studies to compare the change in patients' self-reported health-related quality of life after participation in two nearly identical Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Blind Rehabilitation Center (BRC) programs, the Southwestern BRC in Tucson, Arizona, and the BRC at the VA hospital in Hines, Illinois. Researchers at the Southwestern BRC administered the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire as directed by the developer. Researchers at the Hines BRC modified the directions to consider use of low-vision devices. Interval person-ability and item-difficulty measures estimated from patient responses pre- and postrehabilitation were compared with these same measures obtained at follow-up. At the Southwestern BRC, no change was reported in either person or item measures 3 months after rehabilitation. At the Hines BRC, improvement was seen in both the person and item measures when measurements were made immediately following rehabilitation. Because a temporary halo effect may explain the higher ratings at discharge, veterans from the Hines cohort were contacted by telephone and administered the same instrument 3 years later. For these subjects, the improvement noted in the person measure disappeared at follow-up, while the improvement in the item measure was maintained. PMID:17310429
Stelmack, Joan A; Babcock-Parziale, Judith L; Head, Daniel N; Wolfe, Gregory S; Fakhoury, Nader E; Wu, Shelley M; Massof, Robert W
The design and use of questionnaires in course and faculty evaluation are discussed and the literature reviewed. Problems of questionnaire construction and interpretation of results are described and a questionnaire developed at the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Waterloo is given as an example. (Author/MSE)
The aim of this study is to verify whether a given semantic differential scale is appropriate for measuringattitudes toward\\u000a four health-related behaviors: smoking cigarettes; using oral contraceptives; breast self-examination; and using dental floss.\\u000a 193 undergraduate university women completed an attitudinal questionnaire concerning these behaviors and three months later\\u000a the corresponding behaviors were self-reported. Internal consistency values varied from 0.49
A nutrition attitude scale for use with university nutrition students was modeled on the Carruth and Anderson attitude scale. Content validity for the Attitude Toward Nutrition Scale (ATNS) was achieved by a review panel of experts. The ATNS and the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale were administered simultaneously for criterion-related validity indicating a reasonable construct relationship. Reliability was demonstrated by a coefficient alpha of 0.84 and a split-half reliabiltiy estimate of 0.86. The new scale excludes statements regarding nutrition knowledge and avoids sexist language. PMID:6827005
How can a researcher engage a participant in a survey, when the subject matter may be perceived as 'challenging' or even be totally unfamiliar to the participant? The Genomethics study addressed this via the creation and delivery of a novel online questionnaire containing 10 integrated films. The films documented various ethical dilemmas raised by genomic technologies and the survey ascertained attitudes towards these. Participants were recruited into the research using social media, traditional media and email invitation. The film-survey strategy was successful: 11,336 initial hits on the survey website led to 6944 completed surveys. Participants included from those who knew nothing of the subject matter through to experts in the field of genomics (61% compliance rate), 72% of participants answered every single question. This paper summarises the survey design process and validation methods applied. The recruitment strategy and results from the survey are presented elsewhere. PMID:24468445
Describes a study that developed an instrument to provide a quantitative measure of the attitudes of undergraduates toward educational use of the Internet and studied selected behavioral correlates of those attitudes. Discusses keeping track of educational Internet sites, sharing educational Internet information with friends, and choosing classes…
Duggan, Ashley; Hess, Brian; Morgan, Deanna; Kim, Sooyeon; Wilson, Katherine
Background: Studies on attitudes toward suicide are of great interest to researchers worldwide. Although various instruments have been developed to measureattitudes toward suicide, psychometric properties of these instruments have not been systematically reviewed and organized.Aim: We aimed to identify valid, reliable and feasible attitudinal scales by systematically reviewing published articles on scale development and validation studies. In particular, this
Manami Kodaka; Vita Poštuvan; Masatoshi Inagaki; Mitsuhiko Yamada
This article reports a study intended to develop a scale that measuresattitudes of PreK-12 in-service educators toward educational research. A major part of the study was an exploratory factor analysis of the educators' attitudes toward educational research scale. The scale was given to 193 PreK-12 in-service educators (teachers, school…
The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuringattitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…
Background: Dental trauma is one of the main oral health problems in childhood, and can cause pain and distress. It is important to provide emergency care to combat the aftermaths of trauma. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of mothers regarding dental trauma and its management. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 33 closed-ended questions were used to interview 150 mothers who participated in the study. The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude of mothers towards their child's dental visit, dental trauma, and its management. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Results: Mother's previous experience of dental trauma when associated with the preservation of avulsed tooth of the child, those mothers who had the experience of dental trauma reported that they would discard the tooth which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) when compared to the mothers with no experience of trauma. The education status of the study population when associated with the knowledge variables of avulsion, it was found that most of the variables had statistically significant association with P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study reveals that there is a lack of awareness among the mothers regarding the emergency management of dental trauma. This warrants the need of an effective communication between dental professionals and mothers for better handling of dental emergencies. PMID:25001438
A sequential filtering algorithm is presented for attitude and attitude-rate estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) differential carrier phase measurements. A third-order, minimal-parameter method for solving the attitude matrix kinematic equation is used to parameterize the filter's state, which renders the resulting estimator computationally efficient. Borrowing from tracking theory concepts, the angular acceleration is modeled as an exponentially autocorrelated stochastic process, thus avoiding the use of the uncertain spacecraft dynamic model. The new formulation facilitates the use of aiding vector observations in a unified filtering algorithm, which can enhance the method's robustness and accuracy. Numerical examples are used to demonstrate the performance of the method.
As part of the instrumentation to assess the effectiveness of the Schools Without Failure (SWF) program in 10 elementary schools in the New Castle, Pa. School District, the Philosophy of Glasser Questionnaire was developed. This 15-item scale measuringattitudes toward the philosophy of William Glasser had a coefficient alpha reliability of .77…
Background This study evaluated the score reliability and equivalence of factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3)  in a sample of female college students from the four largest ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Participants were 1245 women who self-identified as European American/White (n = 543), African American/Black (n = 137), Asian American (n = 317), or Latina/Hispanic (n = 248). All completed the SATAQ-3 and a demographic questionnaire. To test the factor similarity and score reliability across groups, we used exploratory factor analysis and calculated Cronbach’s alphas (respectively). Results Score reliability was high for all groups. Tests of factor equivalence suggested that the four pre-established factors of the SATAQ-3 (i.e., knowledge, perceived pressure, thin-ideal internalization, athletic-ideal internalization) were similar for women of all ethnic groups. Only two items (20 and 27) did not consistently load on the previously identified scale across all four groups. When scored, African Americans reported significantly less perceived pressure and internalization than all other groups. Conclusions Results support the use of the SATAQ-3 in female college students of these four ethnicities.
To demonstrate the utility of satellite attitude control magnetometer measurements for mapping main field variations, we analyzed the three-axis magnetometer (TAM) measurements that provide attitude control for the KOMPSAT-1 satellite. Initial processing involved transforming the TAM's magnetic measurements from the Earth-Centered Inertial coordinates (ECI) to the Earth-Centered Earth-Fixed coordinates (ECEF) and then to spherical coordinates. The magnetic field of the
Jeong Woo Kim; Jong Sun Hwang; Ralph R. B. von Frese; Hyung Rae Kim; Seon-Ho Lee
The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) was designed to measure the intensity of dysfunctional attitudes, a hallmark feature\\u000a of depression. Various exploratory factor analytic studies of the DAS form A (DAS-A) yielded mixed results. The current study\\u000a was set up to compare the fit of various factor models. We used a large community sample (N = 8,960) to test the previously proposed factor
L. Esther de Graaf; Jeffrey Roelofs; Marcus J. H. Huibers
The manner in which health care workers (HCWs) interact with HIV\\/AIDS patients and drug users during their work clearly influences the sustainability of harm reduction programs. To evaluate the professional attitudes of HCWs, we designed a questionnaire with four constructs – discrimination, acceptance of HIV\\/AIDS patients, acceptance of drug users, and fear – and tested its reliability and validity. Ten
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
This report presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic effects of angular motion in yaw and pitch on model attitudemeasurements in which inertial sensors were used during wind tunnel tests. A technique is developed to reduce the error caused by these effects. The analysis shows that a 20-to-1 reduction in model attitudemeasurement error caused by angular motion is possible with this technique.
The effect of a behavioral sciences course on first-year medical students' attitudes toward social factors as determinants of health or illness, preventive medicine, paramedical cooperation, physician-patient relationships, government role in health care, and general liberalism was found to be minimal immediately after the course. (MSE)
The Freedoms Scale was developed to assess the attitudes of slow learning and nonacademic secondary students in Canada toward democratic values, and, in particular, toward civil liberties. Vignettes were developed around situations describing threats to an individual or group's constitutional rights. Students were asked how they feel (e.g.,…
Empathic responding is implicated in antisocial behaviors such as bullying, sexual offending, and violent crime. Identifying children and adolescents at risk for antisocial behavior and evaluating interventions designed to address problem behaviors require valid and reliable measures. Definitional controversies and limited measurement models have…
Decreasing the stigma of mental illness is not sufficient. Rather promoting important ideas, such as recovery, empowerment, and self-determination, is important to increase social inclusion, or more broadly, affirming attitudes. The goal of this article is to evaluate the psychometrics of a battery of measures that assess both stigmatizing and affirming attitudes toward people with mental illnesses. The aforementioned battery was used in four separate RCTs on stigma change with different samples: college students, adults, health care providers, and mental health service providers. Test-retest indices were satisfactory for all samples except for the Empowerment Scale score for the mental health providers. Attribution Questionnaire-9 (AQ-9) scores were significantly and inversely associated with the three affirming attitude scale scores for eight of twelve correlations, with five of these meeting the Bonferroni Criterion. Research on social attitudes and structures needs to incorporate assessment of affirming perspectives about a group and effective anti-stigma programs need to promote social inclusion and affirming attitudes. PMID:24388505
Corrigan, Patrick W; Powell, Karina J; Michaels, Patrick J
Liaw's two scales for measuringattitudes toward computers and the Internet were found to be reliable but factorially complex. Computer attitudes were more strongly associated with computer and Internet skills and behavior than were Internet attitudes.
The relationship between parent behaviors, child development and subsequent child behavior outcomes has been examined. However, few tools have been developed and utilized to assess and quantify parenting behaviors in relationship to parent and child demographic characteristics. This study uses the Parenting Behaviors Questionnaire (PBQ), to examine whether parent and child backgrounds influence parents' perceptions of their parenting. Specifically, the
Purpose – This paper aims to assess the validity of a questionnaire aimed at assessing how general practitioners (GPs) and specialists rate collaboration. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Primary data were collected in The Netherlands during March to September 2006. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 259 GPs and 232 specialists. Participants were randomly selected from The Netherlands Medical Address Book. Specialists rarely
Annette J. Berendsen; Wim H. G. M. Benneker; Klaas H. Groenier; Jan Schuling; Richard P. T. M. Grol; Betty Meyboom-de Jong
Attitudes toward risk were measures in 240 households using two methods: an interview method eliciting certainty equivalents and an experimental gambling approach with real payoffs which, at their maximum, exceeded monthly incomes of unskilled laborers. The interview method is subject to interviewer bias and its results were totally inconsistent with the experimental measures of risk aversion. Experimental measures indicate that,
The Sex Stereotype Measure (SSM II) measures children's knowledge of adult-defined, conventional, sex-trait stereotypes while the Sex AttitudeMeasure (SAM) measures children's attitudes or evaluative bias toward male and female persons, independent of their stereotype knowledge. Both procedures employ two or three sentence stories and human…
Although some studies have demonstrated that the indirectly measuredattitude towards alcohol is related to alcohol use, this relationship has not always been confirmed. In the current study, we attempted to shed light on this issue by investigating whether the predictive validity of an indirect attitudemeasure is dependent upon attitude accessibility. In a sample of 88 students, the picture-picture naming task, an adaptation of the affective priming paradigm, was used to measure the automatically activated attitude towards beer. Attitude accessibility was measured using a speeded evaluative categorization task. Behavioral measures were the amount of beer poured and drunk during a bogus taste test and the choice between a bottle of beer or water at the end of the experiment. In line with our hypothesis, the indirectly measuredattitude towards beer predicted behavior during the taste test only when it was highly accessible. In contrast, this attitude was related to choice behavior irrespective of attitude accessibility. This study confirms that indirect attitudemeasures can be valuable predictors of alcohol-related behavior, but that it is sometimes necessary to take attitude accessibility into account.
This paper demonstrates how to construct reliable scales for measuringattitudes to immigration by using a diversity methodology. It discusses underway the validity of the two most established presumptive criteria for creating quantitative scales: A dominant assumption in measurement theory is that there are common dimensions underlying multiple interrelated items. This paper asserts that this assumption may disable the resultant
Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ), an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ's factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N?=?7,766) supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N?=?141). Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N?=?476), we report (re-)analyses of three datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy), other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism), and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control). Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual difference measures. PMID:23641227
Bruder, Martin; Haffke, Peter; Neave, Nick; Nouripanah, Nina; Imhoff, Roland
STUDY OBJECTIVE--To develop a carer satisfaction questionnaire for use as an outcome measure in stroke, to test the measure for reliability and validity, and to survey levels of carer satisfaction with services for stroke patients. DESIGN--Postal survey of carer satisfaction with stroke services was carried out using the questionnaire we developed and tested. Internal consistency was tested and construct validation
Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children, but estimates of that use vary widely partly due to the range of questionnaires used to assess CAM use. However, no studies have attempted to appraise measurement properties of these questionnaires. The aim of this systematic review was to critically appraise and summarize measurement properties of questionnaires of CAM use in pediatrics. Study design A search strategy was implemented in major electronic databases in March 2011 and conference websites, scientific journals and experts were consulted. Studies were included if they mentioned a questionnaire assessing the prevalence of CAM use in pediatrics. Members of the team independently rated the methodological quality of the studies (using the COSMIN checklist) and measurement properties of the questionnaires (using the Terwee and Cohen criteria). Results A total of 96 CAM questionnaires were found in 104 publications. The COSMIN checklist showed that no studies reported adequate methodological quality. The Terwee criteria showed that all included CAM questionnaires had indeterminate measurement properties. According to the Cohen score, none were considered to be a well-established assessment, two approached the level of a well-established assessment, seven were promising assessments and the remainder (n?=?87) did not reach the score’s minimum standards. Conclusion None of the identified CAM questionnaires have been thoroughly validated. This systematic review highlights the need for proper validation of CAM questionnaires in pediatrics, which may in turn lead to improved research and knowledge translation about CAM in clinical practice.
Toupin April, Karine; Moher, David; Stinson, Jennifer; Byrne, Ani; White, Meghan; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciaran M.; Rader, Tamara; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter
The Protest Situational Attitude Scale (PSAS) is designed to measure reactions to various types of protest behavior. The PSAS consists of two forms, a general, neutral version and a more extreme or concrete form. Results demonstrate that students have not become negatively disposed toward the idea of protest behavior. (Author)
To develop a measure of attitudes toward government employment, a preliminary scale administered to 173 college students was item analyzed and then tried out on 493 government employees and 299 private industry employees. A final scale was selected that includes 70 items that discriminate between satisfied government and private industry employees in professional and managerial positions.
By design or default, anatomy educators are often responsible for introducing students to medical professionalism. Although much has been said about the role of anatomical education, there are no published reports suggesting how to measure change. This study investigated what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course.…
Experience gained during the flight operations of the Attitude Control System of the ROSAT spacecraft is described. The ROSAT spacecraft comprises a three-axis stabilized supporting the largest X-ray telescope flown up to now. The control system consists of high precision star trackers and gyros for attitude reference and reaction wheels for maneuvers. The satellite has successfully performed the first all-sky survey with an imaging X-ray telescope. During observations of selected sources, severs degradation of the gyros forced modifications of the onboard software to use the magnetometer and coarse Sun sensor measurements. The attitude control accuracy was thereby improved again to allow autonomous star acquisition by the star trackers for high precision pointing. This allowed resumption of the nominal mission under conditions specified prior to launch. Further software changes as results of other device failures are also described.
A stereo camera tracking system was developed to provide a near real-time measure of the position and attitude of the Spacecraft COntrol Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE). The SCOLE is a mockup of the shuttle-like vehicle with an attached flexible mast and (simulated) antenna, and was designed to provide a laboratory environment for the verification and testing of control laws for large flexible spacecraft. Actuators and sensors located on the shuttle and antenna sense the states of the spacecraft and allow the position and attitude to be controlled. The stereo camera tracking system which was developed consists of two position sensitive detector cameras which sense the locations of small infrared LEDs attached to the surface of the shuttle. Information on shuttle position and attitude is provided in six degrees-of-freedom. The design of this optical system, calibration, and tracking algorithm are described. The performance of the system is evaluated for yaw only.
Welch, Sharon S.; Montgomery, Raymond C.; Barsky, Michael F.
The Individualism-Collectivism Vocational AttitudesQuestionnaire (ICVAQ) was developed to assess cultural attitudes and behaviors that may be important in the provision of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities from diverse cultural backgrounds. Results of study were mixed but provided some support for the reliability and…
The development and validation of the Attitudes Toward Statistics (ATS) for measuringattitude changes in introductory statistics students is described. Two ATS subscales are identified: Attitude Toward Course and Attitude Toward the Field. These were demonstrated to have both high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. (Author/DWH)
Expressed emotion (EE) is traditionally measured with the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI), but the CFI requires considerable time for both execution and evaluation. As an alternative, we investigated the validity of the Family Attitude Scale (FAS), a questionnaire developed for the measurement of EE. The CFI, the FAS, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Five-Minute Speech Sample (FMSS) were administered in 57 members of the families of 41 patients with acute episodes of schizophrenia. The relative sensitivity and specificity of EE assessment with the FAS compared with the criticism component of the CFI were 100% and 88.5%, respectively. EE assessment based on criticism as assessed with the FMSS compared with the CFI had a sensitivity of 40.0% and a specificity of 90.4%. The GHQ score tended to be higher in the high-scoring FAS group than in the low-scoring FAS group. The FAS showed excellent validity for the measurement of critical aspects of family attitudes, and the FAS score reflected the state of psychological health of the families. PMID:12127477
Background: Individual trials have suggested high levels of general patient satisfaction with intermediate care, but this topic has not been examined in detail.Aims: To identify the key elements of patient satisfaction with intermediate care, and to see whether these can be validly measured using a questionnaire.Method: A questionnaire was developed on the basis of a literature review and piloting with
A Wilson; G Hewitt; R Matthews; S H Richards; S Shepperd
ABILHAND is, in its original version, a 46-item, 4-level questionnaire. It measures the difficulty perceived by patients with rheumatoid arthritis as they do various daily manual tasks. ABILHAND was originally built through Rasch analysis. In a later study, it was simplified to a generic 23-item, three-level questionnaire, showing both…
Simone, Anna; Rota, Viviana; Tesio, Luigi; Perucca, Laura
Background Patient safety has been a priority in primary healthcare in the last years. The prevailing culture is seen as an important condition for patient safety in practice and several tools to measure patient safety culture have therefore been developed. Although Dutch primary care consists of different professions, such as general practice, dental care, dietetics, physiotherapy and midwifery, a safety culture questionnaire was only available for general practices. The purpose of this study was to modify and validate this existing questionnaire to a generic questionnaire for all professions in Dutch primary care. Methods A validated Dutch questionnaire for general practices was modified to make it usable for all Dutch primary care professions. Subsequently, this questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 2400 practices from eleven primary care professions. The instrument’s factor structure, reliability and validity were examined using confirmatory and explorative factor analyses. Results 921 questionnaires were returned. Of these, 615 were eligible for factor analysis. The resulting SCOPE-PC questionnaire consisted of seven dimensions: ‘open communication and learning from errors’, ‘handover and teamwork’, ‘adequate procedures and working conditions’, ‘patient safety management’, ‘support and fellowship’, ‘intention to report events’ and ‘organisational learning’ with a total of 41 items. All dimensions had good reliability with Cronbach’s alphas ranging from 0.70 – 0.90, and the questionnaire had a good construct validity. Conclusions The SCOPE-PC questionnaire has sound psychometric characteristics for use by the different professions in Dutch primary care to gain insight in their safety culture.
Energy literacy is a broad term encompassing content knowledge as well as a citizenship understanding of energy that includes affective and behavioral aspects. This article presents explicit criteria that will serve as a foundation for developing measurable objectives for energy literacy in three dimensions: cognitive (knowledge, cognitive…
This paper establishes environmental attitude, a construct in environmental psychology, as a powerful predictor of ecological behavior. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, this study uses a unified concept of attitude and a probabilistic measurement approach. Questionnaire data from members of two ideologically different Swiss…
Background.The purpose of this study was to develop and validate questionnaires used to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity in preadolescent children.Methods.Three theory-based questionnaires and a measure of after-school physical activity were administered to 422 fifth-grade students. A cross-validation design was employed for psychometric development of the scales, including factor analysis, reliability, and validation by correlating scale scores with intention
Ruth P. Saunders; Russell R. Pate; Gwen Felton; Marsha Dowda; Martin C. Weinrich; Dianne S. Ward; Mary Ann Parsons; Tom Baranowski
Various studies have demonstrated an association between implicit measures of attitudes and dietary-related behaviours. However, no study has tested whether implicit measures of attitudes predict dietary behaviour after controlling for explicit measures of palatability. In a prospective design, two studies assessed the validity of measures of implicit attitude (Implicit Association Test, IAT) and explicit measures of palatability and health-related attitudes on self-reported (Studies 1 and 2) and objective food (fruit vs. chocolate) choice (Study 2). Following regression analyses, in both studies, implicit measures of attitudes were correlated with food choice but failed to significantly predict food choice when controlling specifically for explicit measures of palatability. These consistent relationships emerged despite using different category labels within the IAT in the two studies. The current research suggests implicit measures of attitudes may not predict dietary behaviours after taking into account the palatability of food. This is important in order to establish determinants that explain unique variance in dietary behaviours and to inform dietary change interventions. PMID:22326883
Ayres, Karen; Conner, Mark T; Prestwich, Andrew; Smith, Paul
Sexual behaviors may be related to or influenced by a range of factors including individuals' attitudes toward women's genitals. To date, however, no reliable and valid measure exists with which researchers or clinicians can assess individuals' attitudes toward women's genitals. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid scale to measureattitudes toward women's genitals and
Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs.
The issue of sexuality is a major concern for parents of children with learning disability and causes them great anxiety. Due to the lack of large-scale studies examining parental attitudes towards the sexuality of people with learning disability in Greece, it was decided to develop and evaluate a culturally appropriate instrument to use with Greek parents. Thus, the Parents' Own
OBJECTIVE--To assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the short form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire (a shortened version of a battery of 149 health status questions) as a measure of patient outcome in a broad sample of patients suffering from four common clinical conditions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire, followed up by two reminders at two week intervals. SETTING--Clinics and four
A M Garratt; D A Ruta; M I Abdalla; J K Buckingham; I T Russell
We examined two recently developed measures of positive automatic thought, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-P)\\u000a and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire—Revised (ATQ-RP). Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and convergent and discriminant\\u000a validity were addressed. Two hundred one undergraduates completed self-report measures of positive automatic thoughts, negative\\u000a automatic thoughts, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and positive affectivity. The ATQ-P and ATQ-RP both showed
Background Universal BCG vaccination in the UK ended in 2005. The new vaccination policy instead offers a number of different forms of selective vaccination to newborns based on risk of acquiring TB. We set out to assess the attitudes and knowledge of both parents and professionals to the new policy for neonatal BCG vaccination. Methods A short questionnaire was designed, made up of demographic and attitude questions, as well as very basic knowledge questions. The researchers handed out the questionnaire to all parents and professionals in the antenatal and postnatal areas, as well as the paediatric and neonatal units during a 6-week period. The site was the Royal Oldham hospital, a district general hospital with 3250 deliveries per year and multi-ethnic in its population mix. Results A total of 253 completed questionnaires were collected. The ethnic origin of responders was 50.6% White British, 18.2% Bangladeshi, 8.7% Indian, 4% White/Asian, the remaining 18.5% of other origins. 71.5% of responders said they had heard of BCG vaccine. When asked if they knew the new policy for its use, 33.2% answered yes. 24.5% gave the most accurate response when asked who now receives BCG. Conclusion We have found that amongst parents and professionals alike there is a lack of knowledge of the new policy. This has lead to confusion and as knowledge amongst the professionals who identify neonates for vaccination is low, uptake may be sub-optimal. We suggest that units investigate the issue and ensure that the new policy is understood and implemented correctly.
Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used and popular among patients with primary headache or low back pain (LBP). Aim of the study was to analyze attitudes of headache and LBP patients towards the use of CAM. Methods Two questionnaire-based surveys were applied comparing 432 primary headache and 194 LBP patients. Results In total, 84.75% of all patients reported use of CAM; with significantly more LBP patients. The most frequently-used CAM therapies in headache were acupuncture (71.4%), massages (56.4%), and thermotherapy (29.2%), in LBP thermotherapy (77.4%), massages (62.7%), and acupuncture (51.4%). The most frequent attitudes towards CAM use in headache vs. LBP: "leave nothing undone" (62.5% vs. 52.1%; p = 0.006), "take action against the disease" (56.8% vs. 43.2%; p = 0.006). Nearly all patients with previous experience with CAM currently use CAM in both conditions (93.6% in headache; 100% in LBP). However, the majority of the patients had no previous experience. Conclusion Understanding motivations for CAM treatment is important, because attitudes derive from wishes for non-pharmacological treatment, to be more involved in treatment and avoid side effects. Despite higher age and more permanent pain in LBP, both groups show high use of CAM with only little specific difference in preferred methods and attitudes towards CAM use. This may reflect deficits and unfulfilled goals in conventional treatment. Maybe CAM can decrease the gap between patients' expectations about pain therapy and treatment reality, considering that both conditions are often chronic diseases, causing high burdens for daily life.
Results are reported from 2 common measures of medical student attitudes toward older adults: Maxwell-Sullivan Attitude Survey (MSAS); and UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Survey (GAS), with students entering the University of South Carolina School of Medicine (USCSM) in the period 2000--2005. A reliability analysis incorporating item means, Cronbach's…
Stewart, T. J.; Roberts, E.; Eleazer, P.; Boland, R.; Wieland, D.
Despite documented, negative effects of sexist language, some people still strongly oppose inclusive language. Their attitudes need study, but existing measures of attitude lack comprehensiveness or validity. This paper reports construction and validation of the 42-item Inventory of Attitudes Toward Sexist\\/Nonsexist Language (IASNL), which is based on a conceptual framework related to beliefs about language, recognition of sexist language, and
Appraises and provides validity evidence on the reliability of secondary students' scores on attitudes toward writing as measured by the Daly and Miller Writing Apprehension Scale (WAS) and the Attitudes toward Writing with the Computer Scale (ATWCS). Concludes that students' attitudes toward writing and toward writing with the computer can be…
Vocational education researchers have relied heavily on opinionnaires to measure opinions and attitudes. Usually respondents are asked to indicate their degree of agreement to an attitude or opinion statement. Where significant statistical differences exist for opinions/attitudes there is still always the problem of confidence with which…
We comprehensively compared all available questionnaires for measuring quantitative autistic traits (QATs) in terms of reliability and construct validity in 3,147 non-clinical and 60 clinical subjects with normal intelligence. We examined four full-length forms, the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), the Broader Autism Phenotype Questionnaire, the Social Responsiveness Scale2-Adult Self report (SRS2-AS), and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). The SRS2-AS and the AQ each had several short forms that we also examined, bringing the total to 11 forms. Though all QAT questionnaires showed acceptable levels of test-retest reliability, the AQ and SRS2-AS, including their short forms, exhibited poor internal consistency and discriminant validity, respectively. The SATQ excelled in terms of classical test theory and due to its short length. PMID:24342972
PURPOSE: It is vital to understand the associations between the medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) and self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) because both are often used to measure medication adherence and can produce different results. In addition, the economic implication of using alternative measures is important as the cost of electronic monitoring devices is not covered by insurance, while self-reports are the
Background Infertility has potentially inappropriate effects on quality of life in infertile couples. Various general and specific questionnaires have been structured for assessing different aspects of quality of life in infertile men, women, or couples. The present systematic review was designed to assess these questionnaires and also identify different factors affecting infertile couples based on the aforesaid questionnaires. Methods The research strategy involved general and specific terms in relation to couples's infertility and their quality of life. A review was done for studies published from 1982 to 2012 that were indexed in Medline, ISI Web of Science and Scopus as well as abstract books on this subject. We also corresponded with the authors of the references in related studies for introducing more resources and references. Results In all reviewed studies, different aspects of the quality of life in couples were evaluated including sexual, psychological, social, communicational, environmental, occupational, medical, as well as economical ones. In total, after initial screening of all studies, 10 general and 2 specific questionnaires were retrieved. Although no meta-analysis was found in the review, infertility had a negative effect on quality of life in couples. Conclusion This study revealed that some general questionnaires such as SF-36 and WHO-QOL were mostly used for assessing quality of life in infertile couples and some specific questionnaires such as FERTI-QoL and Fertility Problem Inventory were rarely used. Thus, it seems that the evaluation of quality of life in infertile couples needs valid instruments for measurement.
In this paper we research the extraction of the angular rate vector from attitude information without differentiation, in particular from quaternion measurements. We show that instead of using a Kalman filter of some kind, it is possible to obtain good rate estimates, suitable for spacecraft attitude control loop damping, using simple feedback loops, thereby eliminating the need for recurrent covariance computation performed when a Kalman filter is used. This considerably simplifies the computations required for rate estimation in gyro-less spacecraft. Some interesting qualities of the Kalman filter gain are explored, proven and utilized. We examine two kinds of feedback loops, one with varying gain that is proportional to the well known Q matrix, which is computed using the measured quaternion, and the other type of feedback loop is one with constant coefficients. The latter type includes two kinds; namely, a proportional feedback loop, and a proportional-integral feedback loop. The various schemes are examined through simulations and their performance is compared. It is shown that all schemes are adequate for extracting the angular velocity at an accuracy suitable for control loop damping.
Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Harman, Richard R.; Thienel, Julie K.
Background Several disease-specific questionnaires to measure pain and disability in patients with neck pain have been translated. However, a simple translation of the original version doesn't guarantee similar measurement properties. The objective of this study is to critically appraise the quality of the translation process, cross-cultural validation and the measurement properties of translated versions of neck-specific questionnaires. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched for articles concerning the translation or evaluation of the measurement properties of a translated version of a neck-specific questionnaire. The methodological quality of the selected studies and the results of the measurement properties were critically appraised and rated using the COSMIN checklist and criteria for measurement properties. Results The search strategy resulted in a total of 3641 unique hits, of which 27 articles, evaluating 6 different questionnaires in 15 different languages, were included in this study. Generally the methodological quality of the translation process is poor and none of the included studies performed a cross-cultural adaptation. A substantial amount of information regarding the measurement properties of translated versions of the different neck-specific questionnaires is lacking. Moreover, the evidence for the quality of measurement properties of the translated versions is mostly limited or assessed in studies of poor methodological quality. Conclusions Until results from high quality studies are available, we advise to use the Catalan, Dutch, English, Iranian, Korean, Spanish and Turkish version of the NDI, the Chinese version of the NPQ, and the Finnish, German and Italian version of the NPDS. The Greek NDI needs cross-cultural validation and there is no methodologically sound information for the Swedish NDI. For all other languages we advise to translate the original version of the NDI.
Following descriptions of a semantic differential (SD) and test of science-related attitudes (TOSRA)--a Likert-type scale--reports results of using the instruments with secondary school students in various Australian schools (N=1,049 for TOSRA and 1,116 for SD). Suggests SD for general attitude and Likert-type scales of specific attitude…
Man and quadruped animals use various attitudes in walking or running. The reason for them to do so are that using various attitudes can increase speed of motion, keep balance of their bodies, save energy, be adaptable to environments. It is found that quadruped robot can simulate quadruped animals to use same attitudes and obtain same advantages. In this paper
This study was conducted to scale the Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Scale (ATIES) with Rasch analysis. The ATIES records positive and negative attitudes toward integrating children with various disabilities into regular classes. Rasch analysis resolved the nonlinear relationship between the finite range of recorded ATIES scores and the conceptually infinite range of attitudes. Results showed that the 16-item scale defined
Aim: To explore factors associated with students' attitudes towards their peers with disabilities. Method: All 7th grade students (aged 12-13y) from 12 schools in the Toulouse area were invited to participate (n = 1509). Attitudes were measured using the Chedoke-McMaster Attitudes Towards Children with Handicaps (CATCH) questionnaire (affective,…
This paper describes the development and validation of a new 40-item Internet Attitude Scale (IAS), a one-dimensional inventory for measuring the Internet attitudes. The first experiment initiated a generic Internet attitudequestionnaire, ensured construct validity, and examined factorial validity and reliability. The second experiment further…
The Mehrabian Achieving Tendency Scale (MATS) provides a broad-scoped assessment of individual characteristics associated\\u000a with achievement. The MATS is highly reliable and reasonably free of response bias. It correlated negatively with various\\u000a measures of general (trait) anxiety and fear of success. The MATS successfully predicted performance in situations approximating\\u000a real-life tests of work and school performance and academic attitudes (e.g.,
To date no instrument for the assessment of parenting styles is available in the German -language area that has been validated in patients with addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of this study was the confirmatory evaluation of the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Parental Attitudes and Rearing Practices (FEPS) in 186 alcohol dependent patients. The model as proposed by the test developers with the 4 factors Care, Autonomy, Low Punishment, and Low Material Reinforcement showed acceptable fit when residual correlations were allowed (mother: ?(2)/df=1,92, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,79; father: ?(2)/df=1,75, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,82). All factors showed sufficient factor reliabilities as well as good to very good internal consistencies. Factor loadings, discriminations and difficulties of the indicators could be regarded as good, with the exception of 2 items. These results indicate the factorial validity of the FEPS in patients with alcohol dependence. PMID:23446826
The Body Attitude Test (BAT) questionnaire was specifically developed for the assessment of patients with eating disorders. To test its usefulness, the BAT was administered together with other self-report measures (Body Shape Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Inventory, Body AttitudeQuestionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) in 69 anorectic, 26 bulimic patients and 165 female university students. The results indicate that the negative body attitude expressed on the BAT is related to other signs of negative body experience. The BAT differentiates between clinical and non-clinical subjects and between anorectics and bulimics. PMID:14655849
This manual provides directions for administering, scoring, and interpreting the 44-item Change Facilitator Stages of Concern Questionnaire (CFSoCQ), which measures types of concerns that persons have in relation to their change facilitator role. Section 1 provides background information about earlier research (describing concerns, initial…
Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one’s thoughts and feelings as temporary, objective events in the mind, as opposed to reflections of the self that are necessarily true. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) was designed to measure both decentering and rumination but has not been empirically validated. The current study investigated the factor structure of the EQ in both
David M. Fresco; Michael T. Moore; Manfred H. M. van Dulmen; Zindel V. Segal; S. Helen Ma; John D. Teasdale; J. Mark G. Williams
The authors conducted a three-phase, mixed-methods study to develop a self-report measure assessing the unique aspects of minority stress for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender adults. The Daily Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire has 50 items and nine subscales with acceptable internal reliability, and construct and concurrent validity. Mean sexual orientation and gender differences were found.
Measurement of principal implementation behaviors has proved difficult to researchers in educational leadership due to a lack of consensus on the operational definitions of leadership constructs. The Principal Implementation Questionnaire (PIQ) was developed and validated with the intention of providing clarity in the assessment of principal…
This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement--a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be…
Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Salanova, Marisa
Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings as temporary, objective events in the mind, as opposed to reflections of the self that are necessarily true. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) was designed to measure both decentering and rumination but has not been empirically validated. The current study investigated…
Fresco, David M.; Moore, Michael T.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Segal, Zindel V.; Ma, S. Helen; Teasdale, John D.; Williams, J. Mark G.
In a series of publications, the author and his colleagues have obtained scores from students in higher education on different questionnaires, and they have described the relationships among these scores using the statistic known as Wilks' [lambda]. Burt (2005) has criticized that the use of this measure is inappropriate, arguing (1) that the…
The Overexcitability Questionnaire-Two (OEQII) is a quantitative instrument for assessing overexcitabilities as they are described in Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration. This article uses multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to examine the measurement invariance of OEQII scores across genders. Results indicate that raw OEQII scores…
This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in 2 large community samples…
Willcutt, Erik G.; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W.; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.
Two large surveys of children and adolescents in the general British population is used to evaluate the dimensionality of the total difficulties score of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The findings support the use of SDQ as a measure of child mental health.
As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a…
Banh, My K.; Crane, Paul K.; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; McCauley, Elizabeth
PURPOSE: The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) is the largest research program ever initiated in the United States with a focus on diet and health. Therefore, it is important to understand and document the measurement characteristics of the key dietary assessment instrument: the WHI food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).METHODS: Data are from 113 women screened for participation in the WHI in 1995.
Ruth E. Patterson; Alan R. Kristal; Lesley Fels Tinker; Rachel A. Carter; Mary Pat Bolton; Tanya Agurs-Collins
The Couple's Relating to Each Other Questionnaires (CREOQ) are a set of four questionnaires for measuring negative forms of interrelating within couples. They enable each partner to rate his/her relating to the other and the other's relating to him/her. They are based upon the theoretical structure called the interpersonal octagon, and each questionnaire has eight scales. They are usually accompanied by a brief, single-scale questionnaire called the US (us as a couple), by which each partner rates the quality of the relationship. The set of questionnaires was administered to 130 English couples from the community, 157 English couples seeking couple therapy and 89 Dutch community couples. The Dutch couples were also invited to rate themselves and their partners according to the items of the revised interpersonal checklist (ICL-R). The mean scores for the US and for most of the scales of the four CREOQ were significantly higher in the couple therapy sample. The internal reliabilities of the Dutch sample were generally lower than those of the English sample. Correlations were examined between the 10 ICL-R scales and the 8 CREOQ ones. Some agreement emerged, and for the ICL-R, there appeared to be one close, one distant, four upper and two lower scales. PMID:16945196
Background In Switzerland, nurses are allowed to prescribe and administer morphine in emergency situations without a doctor. Still, nurses and other health professionals are often reluctant to prescribe and administer morphine for pain management in patients. No valid French-speaking instrument is available in Switzerland to assess the attitudes of nurses and other health professionals towards the prescription and administration of morphine. In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the French version of the questionnaire “Attitudes towards morphine use”. Methods The instrument was derived from an Italian version. Forward and back translations of the questionnaire were performed. Item analysis and construct validity were assessed between April and December 2010 in a cross sectional study including five Swiss hospitals in a sample of 588 health professionals (533 nurses, mean age 38.3?±?10.2 years). Thirty subjects participated in test-retest reliability. Results The time to complete the instrument ranged between 12 and 15 minutes and neither floor nor ceiling effect were found. The initial 24-item instrument showed an intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.64 to 0.73, P?0.001), and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.700. Factor analysis led to a six-component solution explaining 52.4% of the total variance. After excluding five items, the shortened version showed an ICC of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.77, P?0.001) and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.741. Factor analysis led to a five-component solution explaining 54.3% of the total variance. The five components were named “risk of addiction/dependence”; “operational reasons for not using morphine”; “risk of escalation”; “other (non-dependence) risks” and “external (non-operational) reasons”. In test-retest, the shortened instrument showed an ICC of 0.797 (95% CI, 0.630 to 0.911, P?0.001) and a Cronbach’s ? of 0.797. Conclusions The 19-item shortened instrument assessing attitudes towards the prescription and administration of morphine showed adequate content and construct validity.
Aim To evaluate the knowledge, motivation, and attitudes of Hungarian family physicians toward pandemic influenza vaccination in the 2009/10 influenza season. Method A questionnaire with 20 questions was developed and sent to 232 family physicians in 3 largest Hungarian cities: Budapest, Debrecen, and Miskolc. The study was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010. Results A hundred and ninety eight (85%) physicians answered the questionnaire adequately. Respondents believed that the influenza outbreak represented less of a threat to their practices than to Hungary or the world as a whole. They mostly agreed that vaccination was important and were frequently dissatisfied with the support from health authorities. The proportion of vaccinated patients ranged between 2% and 53%, without differences according to geographical region, age, sex, and duration of physicians’ employment in family practice. Physicians who were satisfied with the payment for procedures and underwent vaccination themselves were more active in vaccination. Conclusion Health authorities should provide clear and evidence-based professional support to family physicians and should encourage them to get vaccinated against pandemic influenza, while insurance funds have to establish appropriate reimbursement system.
Drawing from recent developments in social cognition, cognitive psychology, and behavioral decision theory, we analyzed when and how the act of measuring beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors affects observed correlations among them. Belief, attitude, or intention can be created by measurement if the measured constructs do not already exist in long-term memory. The responses thus created can have directive effects
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable, valid measure of patient satisfaction with out of hours care suitable for large scale service evaluation. DESIGN: Focus group meetings and semistructured interviews with patients to identify issues of importance to patients and possible questionnaire items; interviews and two pilot studies to test and identify new questionnaire items; modification or removal of items to eliminate ambiguity and reduce non-response and skewed responses; questionnaire survey of out of hours care. SETTING: Greater Manchester and Leicester. SUBJECTS: 11 general practice patients participated in the focus groups and 28 in the semistructured interviews; 41 in the preliminary interviews; 41 and 378 in the postal pilots; and 1466 in the survey of out of hours care. RESULTS: A 32 item questionnaire was developed. Component analysis indicated seven scales (satisfaction with communication and management, doctor's attitude, continuity of care, delay until visit, access to out of hours care, initial contact person, telephone advice) related to overall satisfaction and containing issues identified as important to patients. Levels of reliability were satisfactory, Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient exceeding 0.60 for all scales. CONCLUSION: A reliable, valid measure of patient satisfaction has been developed, suitable for large scale evaluation of out of hours care.
McKinley, R. K.; Manku-Scott, T.; Hastings, A. M.; French, D. P.; Baker, R.
This study examines the attitudes towards disciplinary measures among managers and workers at the Bophelong psychiatric hospital, Mafikeng. This is based on the fact that undisciplined workforce may lead to disorder in the workplace and eventually to an organisation's failure to reach its objectives. From a population of four hundred workers and one hundred managers, a simple random sampling technique was used to select sixty workers and forty managers. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire made up of six different sections and analysed using SPSS. Frequency counts, mean and standard deviations were used to describe the data. The results of the study show that 47 percent of the workers and 35 percent of managers are between 30 to 40 years. About 69 percent of workers are female while 70 percent of managers are male. The common educational level among workers is the matric while managers had Diploma and BSc degree. In terms of attitude to disciplinary measure, 73% and 75% agreed that disciplinary measures are legal at BPH by workers and managers respectively. In terms of knowledge of disciplinary measures, sixty six percent of workers at BPH are aware of written warning and Employee Assistance Programmes as disciplinary techniques. Results on implementation of disciplinary measures show that seventy percent of workers mostly had verbal warnings and fifty six percent of managers had withholding all privileges. Common constraints to the implementation of discipline as indicated by workers head office taking too long, unions being too defensive, unqualified managers. The study concludes by advocating the need to review and enforce discipline at the work place if service delivery has to improve. PMID:24498676
In a cross-sectional study of 146 women, we examined the association of M. Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem questionnaire and the Self-Evaluation and Social Support Instrument (SESS), an interview measure of self-esteem, with two major risk factors for depression—early adversity and negativity in current close relationships. Although both measures were related to the risk factors, only the SESS accounted for unique variance
The relationship between food preference patterns and several psychological and sensory variables was assessed using the Food Attitudes Survey (FAS). Previous research with the FAS, which consists of preference ratings for a variety of common, unusual and fictitious foods, showed that it provides both reliable and valid information about individual differences in food preferences and attitudes (Frank & van der Klaauw, 1994). In the studies reported here, significant correlations were found between preferences for a variety of activities (as measured by the Activity Attitudes Survey or ACT) and liking for and willingness to try foods, It was also found that individuals who report that they are unwilling to try many foods are low in general sensation seeking, and that odor pleasantness ratings significantly correlate with liking for and willingness to try foods. No associations were found between FAS performance and general phobic tendencies, optimism/pessimism or disordered eating. Multiple regression analysis revealed that responses on the ACT, sensation seeking scale, a 20-item food and eating questionnaire and odor pleasantness judgments could account for from 41 to 65% of the variance in food likes, dislikes and willingness to try foods. It was concluded that personality and sensory factors contribute to pattern of responding on the FAS, and that FAS response patterns provide an index of both attitudes toward foods and general openness to experiences and activities. PMID:7495323
The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently participating in an American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) sponsored Model Attitude and Deformation Working Group. This working group is chartered to develop a best practices document dealing with the measurement of two primary areas of wind tunnel measurements, 1) model attitude including alpha, beta and roll angle, and 2) model deformation. Model attitude is a principle variable in making aerodynamic and force measurements in a wind tunnel. Model deformation affects measured forces, moments and other measured aerodynamic parameters. The working group comprises of membership from industry, academia, and the Department of Defense (DoD). Each member of the working group gave a presentation on the methods and techniques that they are using to make model attitude and deformation measurements. This presentation covers the NASA Glenn Research Center s approach in making model attitude and deformation measurements.
Background The existing studies have indicated that persons with positive attitude and believe to narcotics have more addiction than those with negative or natural attitudes. The aim of the present study was to specify the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral training on increasing of self-concept's measure, and the attitude style toward narcotic drugs in addicted prisoners of Tonekabon. Objectives The objective of this study was to assess the effects of cognitive-behavioral training on increasing self-concept and the attitude style toward narcotic drugs. Patients and Methods Statistical population included 450 persons. After screening, 65 entered the study. Among them, 40 persons were selected randomly and allocated in experimental and control group. Self-concept and gauge attitudequestionnaire were used to gather the data. The program of cognitive–behavioral training was executed at 12 weekly sessions in 120 minutes for experimental group. The past-quest was executed after finishing training for two groups. Results The result using analysis of covariance showed that the difference between two groups on self–concept and the attitude toward narcotic drugs was significant at P < 0.5. Conclusions Therefore it can be resulted that cognitive–behavioral training is effective on self–concept and the changing of attitude toward narcotic drugs.
Mohammadi arya, Ali Reza; Shirazi, Mahmoud; Hossien khanzadeh, Abbas Ali; Lachinnani, Fatemeh; Yoosefi Joubari, Fahimeh; Halajian, Zohreh; Dosti Sarabi, Salar; Ahmed Khan, Matloob
This article describes a study investigating what professionalism attitudes, if any, change during a gross anatomy course. Research methods, assessments used to evaluate professionalism and outcomes are discussed.
William G Pearson Jr. (Boston University Anatomy and Neurobiology)
Given the importance of season ticket holders (STH) to sporting organisations, we empirically examine a scale for measuring their attitudes to the season ticket product. This involved identifying through qualitative research and past literature, the various elements that are perceived to comprise the season ticket package and developing items to measure STH attitudes to them. The season ticket package was
This study aimed to identify instruments for measuring children's attitudes towards their peers with disabilities that are suitable for use in epidemiological studies and to report on their psychometric properties. A literature review was conducted to identify instruments measuring at least one of the three components of children's attitudes…
Background. Valid instruments to measure practitioners' attitudes towards clinical practice guidelines need to be developed. However, few of the available instruments have been thoroughly validated. Objective. To adapt into French and to test the reliability and validity of a scale for measurement of attitudes towards guide- lines developed by Elovainio et al. Methods. A 27-item scale (divided into six dimensions)
E. Touze; F. SAILLOUR-GLENISSON; P. DURIEUX; A. VERDIER; S. LEYSHON; S. BENDAVID; T. ATTARD; A. SCHEIMANN; J. L. MAS; J. COSTE
Background: Development of reliable measures of medical student and resident attitudes about nutrition in patient care is needed before the effects of educational interventions or clinical experience can be gauged. This report describes the systematic development of a measure of attitude toward nutrition in patient care. It presents evidence about scale reliability and the absence of response bias that endorses
William C McGaghie; Linda Van Horn; Marian Fitzgibbon; Alvin Telser; Jason A Thompson; Robert F Kushner; Jay B Prystowsky
The undisputed increase of the relevance of mental work load is confronted with a lack of qualified or at least well documented measuring instruments covering all important aspects. The COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire), a comprehensive instrument for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work, was tested in a partly modified version in a large German sample (N = 2561 employees). The aims of the study were the detailed investigation of the psychometric measurement properties, and based on these results, the development of an abbreviated version of the instrument. The analysis of objectivity, acceptance, practicability, sensitivity and content validity of the questionnaire as a whole did not show any problematic results – with some limitations regarding the length of the questionnaire. The assessment of the reliability, generalisability, construct validity, criterion validity and diagnostic power of the single scales showed medium to good measuring qualities for the majority of the scales (i.e. Cronbach’s alpha mostly >0.7). In addition, the psychometric properties were very similar to those in the Danish COPSOQ-study. Considering all aspects of the measurement quality, a shortened version of the instrument was created. It attempts to combine measuring qualities as high as possible with a number of questions as low as possible. The German COPSOQ questionnaire is a free screening-instrument for the recording of psychosocial work load and strain for all enterprises and organisations interested. The next step is the construction of a "job exposure matrix" for psychosocial factors at work, that means a central database with work load profiles and reference values for as many occupational groups as possible.
Nubling, Matthias; Stossel, Ulrich; Hasselhorn, Hans-Martin; Michaelis, Martina; Hofmann, Friedrich
Analysing the quality of integrated healthcare, as a new form of care, measurement of patient satisfaction becomes more and more important. However, there is a lack of standardised instruments of questionnaires for integrated network structures that could be used to measure and compare the satisfaction of participating insured persons. This gap should be closed by the study at hand, by arranging an exemplary measurement of satisfaction in the integrated care project OPTI-MuM. Because of the specific offers provided by the OPTI-MuM project, an existing questionnaire from the ambulatory sector had to be modified. A random sample of 1,000 insured individuals that have been enrolled in the project until now was interviewed. The response rate was 46.6%. In general, the survey respondents were very much satisfied with the provided integrated healthcare services. 75% of the respondents were 'very satisfied' or 'rather satisfied' with the range of services offered within the OPTI-MuM project. In addition, about 80% of the respondents would again participate in the project and recommend it. But the survey also demonstrated that there is potential for improving the provision of information. The study shows that the OPTI-MuM project is effective regarding the satisfaction of the participants. The questionnaire should be used for measuring satisfaction in comparable healthcare projects in order to enable a better classification of the results of this study. PMID:20441017
Braun, Sebastian; Kreimeier, Simone; Greiner, Wolfgang
Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ) for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability, and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every 6 months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardized fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods.
Impairments of retrospective memory and cases of retrograde amnesia are often seen in clinical settings. A measure of the proportion of memories retained over a specified time can be useful in clinical situations and public events questionnaires may be valuable in this respect. However, consistency of retention of public events memory has rarely been studied in the same participants. In addition, when used in a research context, public events questionnaires require updating to ensure questions are of equivalent age with respect to when the test is taken. This paper describes an approach to constructing and updating a Public Events Questionnaire (PEQ) for use with a sample that is recruited and followed-up over a long time-period. Internal consistency, parallel-form reliability, test-retest reliability, and secondary validity analyses were examined for three versions of the PEQ that were updated every 6 months. Versions 2 and 3 of the questionnaire were reliable across and within versions and for recall and recognition. Change over time was comparable across each version of the PEQ. These results show that PEQs can be regularly updated in a standardized fashion to allow use throughout studies with long recruitment periods. PMID:24678306
Empirical studies that include travel?related attitudes to identify the role of residential self?selection in the relationship between the built environment and travel behaviour display a wide variety in the type of attitudes that they include, the relationships between the variables that they analyse and the ways they measureattitude. This paper discusses what theories on attitudes and behaviour can contribute
We used a new self-report measure, the Kings Schizotypy Questionnaire (KSQ; Williams, M. The psychometric assessment of schizotypal personality. PhD thesis. Institute of Psychiatry, University of London, 1993), to investigate schizotypy as a quantitative measure of familial liability to schizophrenia. The KSQ was administered to 135 DSM-IV schizophrenia probands, 153 of their healthy first-degree relatives, and 267 control subjects. We found that the questionnaire clearly differentiated schizophrenic from non-schizophrenic individuals, but failed to differentiate the relatives from controls. Possible reasons for this include defensive responding among relatives, self-selection bias among relatives, differences in data collection methods, and the possibility that positive aspects of schizotypy may not be closely related to familial liability to schizophrenia. PMID:11042439
Jones, L A; Cardno, A G; Murphy, K C; Sanders, R D; Gray, M Y; McCarthy, G; McGuffin, P; Owen, M J; Williams, J
This article brings together the principles of designing Likert attitude scales and demonstrates the procedure through the development of a chemistry attitude scale. Design procedures and validity and reliability of the scale are each discussed, with a data summary for the 20-item chemistry scale. (MNS)
Objective: To develop a short and easy to use questionnaire to measure use and usability of custom-made orthopaedic shoes, and to investigate its reproducibility.\\u000aDesign: Development of the questionnaire (Monitor Orthopaedic Shoes) was based on a literature search, expert interviews, 2 expert meetings, and exploration and testing of reproducibility. The questionnaire comprises 2 parts: a pre part, measuring expectations; and
Netten van Jaap J; Juha M. Hijmans; Michiel J. A. Jannink; Jan H. B. Geertzen; Klaas Postema
The purpose of this study was to investigate the internal consistency reliability of the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ) when the measure is administered to naive subjects as a pretest. The SoCQ was developed by G. E. Hall, A. A. George, and W. L. Rutherford (1979/1986). In the present study, the SoCQ was administered to secondary school…
Three studies describe the development and validation of the Play Activity Questionnaire (PQ), a parent report measure of children's play preferences. In Study 1, the 15-item PQ was completed by parents of 239 6- to 8-year-old children, and exploratory factor analysis revealed four play factors: Active and Adventurous, Athletic, Rough-and-Tumble, and Quiet. In Study 2, the factor structure was replicated
Jo-Anne K. Finegan; G. Alison Niccols; James E. Zacher; Jane E. Hood
The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensional structure and measurement invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) (Raine and Benishay, 1995) across sex and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents and young adults. The sample consisted of 1789 adolescents and young adults (42.1% males), with a mean age of 17.1years (S.D.=2.9). The results indicated that
Eduardo Fonseca-Pedrero; Mercedes Paino; Serafín Lemos-Giráldez; Susana Sierra-Baigrie; José Muñiz
Psychometric research on widely used questionnaires aimed at measuring experiential avoidance of chronic pain has led to inconclusive results. To test the structural validity, internal consistency, and construct validity of a recently developed short questionnaire: the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II-pain version (AAQ-II-P). Cross-sectional validation study among 388 adult patients with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain admitted for multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation in four tertiary rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. Cronbach's ? was calculated to analyze internal consistency. Principal component analysis was performed to analyze factor structure. Construct validity was analyzed by examining the association between acceptance of pain and measures of psychological flexibility (two scales and sum), pain catastrophizing (three scales and sum), and mental and physical functioning. Interpretation was based on a-priori defined hypotheses. The compound of the seven items of the AAQ-II-P shows a Cronbach's ? of 0.87. The single component explained 56.2% of the total variance. Correlations ranged from r=-0.21 to 0.73. Two of the predefined hypotheses were rejected and seven were not rejected. The AAQ-II-P measures a single component and has good internal consistency, and construct validity is not rejected. Thus, the construct validity of the AAQ-II-P sum scores as indicator of experiential avoidance of pain was supported. PMID:24418966
Reneman, Michiel F; Kleen, Marco; Trompetter, Hester R; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Köke, Albère; van Baalen, Bianca; Schreurs, Karlein M G
The study evaluated the use of questionnaires as a tool for finding out how people feel about using computer systems. Three published computer usability questionnaires were collated into a single questionnaire booklet and presented to the user community o...
Research investigating attitudes towards individuals with disabilities has largely focused on self-reported explicit attitudes. Given that factors such as social desirability may influence explicit attitudes, researchers have developed tools which instead assess less consciously controllable implicit attitudes. Considering research on implicit attitudes thus seems pertinent. A review of studies measuring implicit attitudes towards individuals with physical disabilities (visual, motor or hearing) or intellectual disabilities via the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) was carried out. Systematic searches of PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus and Web of Science databases identified relevant articles published between January 2000 and September 2012. Seventeen articles (reporting on 18 studies that employed the IAT) were identified. These investigated implicit attitudes towards individuals with; physical disabilities (N=13), intellectual disabilities (N=3), both physical and intellectual disabilities (N=1), and 'unspecified disabilities' (N=1). Across all studies, moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes were found and there was little to no association between explicit and implicit attitudes. Individuals' beliefs about the controllability of their future, sensitivity to the concept of disease, and contact with individuals with disabilities appear to be associated with implicit attitudes. A consistent pattern of moderate to strong negative implicit attitudes towards individuals with disabilities was evident. These studies provide a starting point, but methodological issues related to sampling and the employed IATs limit the generalizability of these results. Further research investigating implicit attitudes towards specific disability types, with a wider subject pool are necessary as well as further investigation of factors that contribute to these attitudes. PMID:24316588
There is a lack of economical and reliable instruments to measure religious attitudes in the German language. Therefore, we analyzed a German version of an originally-American, 15-item questionnaire. The German version of the two-scale Systems of Belief Inventory (SBI-15R) by Holland et al. (1998) was validated in a representative sample (N=1,967). The overall scale and the two subscales were shown
Norbert Grulke; Harald Bailer; Gerd Blaser; Michael Geyer; Elmar Brähler; Cornelia Albani
Mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of innovation in general, and toward evidence-based practice (EBP) in particular, are important in considering how best to disseminate and implement EBPs. This article first explores the role of attitudes in acceptance of innovation and proposes a model of organizational and individual factors that may affect or be affected by attitudes toward adoption of EBP. Next, a recently developed measure of mental health provider attitudes toward adoption of EBP is presented along with a summary of preliminary reliability and validity findings. Attitudes toward adoption of EBP are then discussed in regard to provider individual differences and the context of mental health services. Finally, potential applications of attitude research to adoption of EBP are discussed.
This study had three objectives: (1) to assess the validity of questionnaire-based measures in identifying households experiencing hunger and food insecurity, (2) to examine the interrelationships of different questionnaire-based measures, and (3) to examine the construction of a continuous food insecurity scale intended to differentiate three levels of food insecurity within households. A 1993 survey of 193 randomly sampled rural
Edward A. Frongillo; B. S. Rauschenbach; C. M. Olson; A. Kendall; A. G. Colmenares
This investigation aimed to develop psychometric instruments that measureattitudes toward participating in cancer treatment trials (CTs) and cancer prevention trials (CPTs), that is, the Attitudes Toward Cancer Trials Scales (ACTS). A conceptualized construct of attitudes toward CTs and CPTs guided the writing of items for psychometric measurement. An expert panel assessment condensed reduced items to 116, and these were formatted into a self-report written survey. Data collection occurred within multiple settings, targeting an ethnically diverse sample (N = 312). Item and principal component analyses empirically supported the Attitudes Toward Cancer Trials Scales (ACTS), a 2-dimensional instrument containing an 18-item CT scale (four components) and a 16-item CPT scale (3 components) with Cronbach's alpha values of .86 and .89, respectively. Four components comprised the CT scale: personal benefits, personal barriers and safety, personal and social value, and trust in the research process. Three components comprised the CPT scale: personal barriers and safety, altruism, and personal value. Early evidence of the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the ACTS was provided by the sample. PMID:18939718
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on Aids or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnairemeasuring their knowledge of Aids, attitudes toward Aids, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudesmeasures were slight.
The goals of this research were to translate and analyze the psychometric properties of the Learning Climate Questionnaire (LCQ) and to develop a short form. The LCQ is a 15-item self-report measure that assesses autonomy support in educational settings. A total of 422 students (60 men and 362 women) took part in this study. Results showed evidence of construct validity and adequate reliability for the LCQ. The short form consists of five items that showed sound psychometric properties. Results of Pearson correlation and Gower index showed high agreement between the long and short forms. In conclusion, both forms can be considered as preliminary versions of the original questionnaire to assess autonomy support in educational settings. PMID:23156948
Núñez, Juan L; León, Jaime; Grijalvo, Fernando; Martín Albo, José
Distinct automatic and controlled processes are presumed to influence social evaluation. Most empirical approaches examine automatic processes using indirect methods, and controlled processes using direct methods. We distinguished processes from measurement methods to test whether a process distinction is more useful than a measurement distinction for taxonomies of attitudes. Results from two studies suggest that automatic components of attitudes can be measured directly. Direct measures of automatic attitudes were reports of gut reactions (Study 1) and behavioral performance in a speeded self-report task (Study 2). Confirmatory factor analyses comparing two-factor models revealed better fits when self-reports of gut reactions and speeded self-reports shared a factor with automatic measures versus sharing a factor with controlled self-report measures. Thus, distinguishing attitudes by the processes they are presumed to measure (automatic vs. controlled) is more meaningful than distinguishing based on the directness of measurement.
Ranganath, Kate A.; Smith, Colin Tucker; Nosek, Brian A.
High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relative little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses. We then focus on the measurement of ICU nurses' workload using a subjective rating instrument: the NASA TLX.We conducted secondary data analysis on data from two, multi-side, cross-sectional questionnaire studies to examine several instruments to measure ICU nurses' workload. The combined database contains the data from 757 ICU nurses in 8 hospitals and 21 ICUs.Results show that the different methods to measure workload of ICU nurses, such as patient-based and operator-based workload, are only moderately correlated, or not correlated at all. Results show further that among the operator-based instruments, the NASA TLX is the most reliable and valid questionnaire to measure workload and that NASA TLX can be used in a healthcare setting. Managers of hospitals and ICUs can benefit from the results of this research as it provides benchmark data on workload experienced by nurses in a variety of ICUs. PMID:22773941
Hoonakker, Peter; Carayon, Pascale; Gurses, Ayse; Brown, Roger; McGuire, Kerry; Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn; Walker, James M
High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relative little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses. We then focus on the measurement of ICU nurses’ workload using a subjective rating instrument: the NASA TLX. We conducted secondary data analysis on data from two, multi-side, cross-sectional questionnaire studies to examine several instruments to measure ICU nurses’ workload. The combined database contains the data from 757 ICU nurses in 8 hospitals and 21 ICUs. Results show that the different methods to measure workload of ICU nurses, such as patient-based and operator-based workload, are only moderately correlated, or not correlated at all. Results show further that among the operator-based instruments, the NASA TLX is the most reliable and valid questionnaire to measure workload and that NASA TLX can be used in a healthcare setting. Managers of hospitals and ICUs can benefit from the results of this research as it provides benchmark data on workload experienced by nurses in a variety of ICUs.
Hoonakker, Peter; Carayon, Pascale; Gurses, Ayse; Brown, Roger; McGuire, Kerry; Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn; Walker, James M.
The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) measures the cognitive vulnerability factor featured in the hopelessness theory of depression. The CSQ has been used in over 30 published studies since its inception, yet detailed information about the psychometric and validity properties of this instrument has yet to be published. In this article, we describe the development of the CSQ and review reliability and validity evidence. Findings to date using college samples, indicate that the CSQ is a reliable measure of cognitive vulnerability with a high degree of construct validity.
Haeffel, Gerald J.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Metalsky, Gerald I.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Swendsen, Joel D.
Results of an experimental study of a wind tunnel model inertial angle-of-attack sensor response to a simulated dynamic environment are presented. The inertial device cannot distinguish between the gravity vector and the centrifugal accelerations associated with wind tunnel model vibration, this situation results in a model attitudemeasurement bias error. Significant bias error in model attitudemeasurement was found for the model system tested. The model attitude bias error was found to be vibration mode and amplitude dependent. A first order correction model was developed and used for estimating attitudemeasurement bias error due to dynamic motion. A method for correcting the output of the model attitude inertial sensor in the presence of model dynamics during on-line wind tunnel operation is proposed.
Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Balakrishna, S.; Kilgore, W. Allen
The development and validation of two instruments which measureattitudes and self-efficacy of teacher education students and practicing teachers toward computer use are described. One instrument--Attitudes toward Computer Technologies (ACT)--assesses perceived usefulness of and comfort/anxiety with computer technologies. The second…
Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…
Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali
This article reports on an exploratory study designed to measure community leaders' attitudes toward scenes from working rural landscapes as elicited by photographs paired with a semantic differential scale. Using this approach it is determined that age, occupation, knowledge about farm structure, and community size are important factors shaping the diverse attitudes held by community leaders in rural southern Illinois.
The study of student's attitude towards e-learning can in many ways help managers better prepare in light of e-learning for the future. This article describes the process of the development of an instrument to measure university students' attitude towards e-learning. The scale was administered to 200 University students from two countries (India…
In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…
Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen
An algorithm based on the marginalized particle filters (MPF) is given in details in this paper to solve the spacecraft attitude\\u000a estimation problem: attitude and gyro bias estimation using the biased gyro and vector observations. In this algorithm, by\\u000a marginalizing out the state appearing linearly in the spacecraft model, the Kalman filter is associated with each particle\\u000a in order to
This paper describes a method for correcting the dynamically induced bias errors in wind tunnel model attitudemeasurements using measured modal properties of the model system. At NASA Langley Research Center, the predominant instrumentation used to measure model attitude is a servo-accelerometer device that senses the model attitude with respect to the local vertical. Under smooth wind tunnel operating conditions, this inertial device can measure the model attitude with an accuracy of 0.01 degree. During wind tunnel tests when the model is responding at high dynamic amplitudes, the inertial device also senses the centrifugal acceleration associated with model vibration. This centrifugal acceleration results in a bias error in the model attitudemeasurement. A study of the response of a cantilevered model system to a simulated dynamic environment shows significant bias error in the model attitudemeasurement can occur and is vibration mode and amplitude dependent. For each vibration mode contributing to the bias error, the error is estimated from the measured modal properties and tangential accelerations at the model attitude device. Linear superposition is used to combine the bias estimates for individual modes to determine the overall bias error as a function of time. The modal correction model predicts the bias error to a high degree of accuracy for the vibration modes characterized in the simulated dynamic environment.
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire -R18 (TFEQ-R18), a measure of eating behaviour, and to evaluate cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of adolescent and young adult females of different weights. METHODS: Subjects were 2 997 females, aged 17 to 20 years, who participated in
Susanna Anglé; Janne Engblom; Tiina Eriksson; Susanna Kautiainen; Marja-Terttu Saha; Pirjo Lindfors; Matti Lehtinen; Arja Rimpelä
Background The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire -R18 (TFEQ-R18), a measure of eating behaviour, and to evaluate cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in a sample of adolescent and young adult females of different weights. Methods Subjects were 2 997 females, aged 17 to 20 years, who participated in a phase III human papillomavirus vaccination trial in Finland in 2004 – 2009. Self-administered questionnaires and weight and height measurements were used. The factor structure of the TFEQ-R18 was verified by factor analysis. Connections between measured eating behaviour and Body Mass Index (BMI) were tested using analysis of variance. Results The original factor structure of the TFEQ-R18 was replicated: six of the eighteen items measured cognitive restraint, nine measured uncontrolled eating, and three measured emotional eating. On average, higher BMI was associated with higher levels of cognitive restraint (p < 0.001) and emotional eating (p < 0.001), but not with uncontrolled eating. Conclusion Structural validity of the TFEQ-R18 was good in this sample of young Finnish females with a varying range of body weights. Use of the instrument as a measure of eating behaviour was thus corroborated. Connections of restrained and emotional eating with BMI were in accordance with previous findings from young females.
Socioemotional guidance of students has recently become an integral part of education, however no instrument exists to measure integrated socioemotional guidance. This study therefore examines the factor structure and reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire and…
Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of a mobility questionnaire (MobQues) that was developed to measure the mobility limitations of children with cerebral palsy (CP) as rated by their parents. A clinical version of the questionnaire, consisting of 47 items (MobQues47), is available, as well as a research version with 28…
Van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Roorda, Leo D.; Becher, Jules G.
Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…
The current report provides a new framework to explore the role of parenting practices and principles during infancy. We identify structure and attunement as key parenting principles during infancy. Structure represents reliance on regularity and routines in daily life. Attunement represents reliance on infant cues and close physical contact. We suggest parents’ relative endorsement of these parenting principles is related to their choices about practices such as feeding, holding and night-time sleeping. We designed the Baby Care Questionnaire to measure parents’ endorsement of structure and attunement, as well as their daily parenting practices. We report data demonstrating the factor structure, reliability and validity of the BCQ. The BCQ, to our knowledge, is the first comprehensive measure of parenting practices and principles during infancy. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the measure.
As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a differential item functioning (DIF) framework to data from a sample of 6th and 8th grade students in the Seattle Public School District (N=3,593) to investigate the measurement equivalence of the MFQ. Several items in the MFQ were found to have DIF, but this DIF was associated with negligible individual- or group-level impact. These results suggest that differences in MFQ scores across groups are unlikely to be caused by measurement non-equivalence.
Crane, Paul K.; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; McCauley, Elizabeth
Using religious orientation paradigm, this twofold study examined the relationship between euthanasia attitude and religiosity, and compared single-item and multi-item scales of euthanasia attitude. Three hundred students were asked whether they view euthanasia as moral. In addition, participants completed the Euthanasia Attitude Scale (EAS) and Religious Orientation Scale-Revised. Results indicated that intrinsic religiosity was the strongest correlate of negative attitudes toward euthanasia. This type of religiosity explained additional variance when added to the two types of extrinsic religiosity (social, personal), but the reverse was not the case. The fairly strong correlation of intrinsic religiosity with the EAS provides evidence of construct validity for the EAS and proved it to be a better measure for assessing euthanasia attitude, rather than the single-item scale. PMID:23785984
Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs?=?.08, P?=?0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level.
The Two-Track Model of Bereavement Questionnaire (TTBQ) was designed to assess response to loss over time. Respondents were 354 persons who completed the 70-item self-report questionnaire constructed in accordance with the Two-Track Model of Bereavement. Track I focuses on the bereaved's biopsychosocial functioning and Track II concerns the bereaved's ongoing relationship to the range of memories, images, thoughts, and feeling states associated with the deceased. Factor analysis identified 5 factors that accounted for 51% of the variance explained. In accord with the theoretical and clinical model, 3 factors were primarily associated with the relationship to the deceased (Track II): Active Relational Grieving, Close and Positive Relationship, and Conflictual Relationship; and 2 factors with aspects of functioning (Track I): General Biopsychosocial Functioning and Traumatic Perception of the Loss. Construct and concurrent validity were examined and were found satisfactory. Differences by kinship, cause of death, gender, and time elapsed were examined across the 5 factors, the total TTBQ, and the ITG. The new measure is shown to have both construct and concurrent validity. Discussions of the results and implications for the measurement of response to loss conclude the article. PMID:19368062
Rubin, Simon Shimshon; Nadav, Ofri Bar; Malkinson, Ruth; Koren, Dan; Goffer-Shnarch, Moran; Michaeli, Ella
Background: To assess the student's attitude, perception and feedback on teaching–learning methodology and evaluation methods in pharmacology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty second year medical students studying at Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College, Pune, were selected. They were administered a pre-validated questionnaire containing 22 questions. Suggestions were also asked regarding the qualities of good pharmacology teachers and modification in pharmacology teaching methods. Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed as percentage. Results: Majority of the students found cardiovascular system (49.25%) as the most interesting topic in pharmacology, whereas most of the students opined that cardiovascular system (60.10%), chemotherapy (54.06%) and central nervous system (44.15%) are going to be the most useful topics in internship. 48.53% students preferred clinical/patient-related pharmacology and 39.13% suggested use of audiovisual-aided lectures. Prescription writing and criticism of prescription were amongst the most useful and interesting in practical pharmacology. Students expressed interest in microteaching and problem-based learning, whereas seminars, demonstrations on manikin and museum studies were mentioned as good adjuvants to routine teaching. Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) practice tests and theory viva at the end of a particular system and periodical written tests were mentioned as effective evaluation methods. Students were found to have lot of interest in gathering information on recent advances in pharmacology and suggested to include new drug information along with prototype drugs in a comparative manner. Conclusion: There is a need of conducting few microteaching sessions and more of clinical-oriented problem-based learning with MCQ-based revisions at the end of each class in the pharmacology teaching at undergraduate level.
Bhosale, Uma A.; Yegnanarayan, Radha; Yadav, Gauri E.
A study was conducted to examine the influence of parents' attitudes toward and use of media on their college-age children's media use and attitudes. Telephone interviews were conducted with 400 university students in the Northeast, and a questionnaire was sent to their parents. Both instruments measured media use variables, attitudes toward the…
This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of a new version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ), which measures an extended set of psychosocial factors at work by adding new scales/items to the current version of the BJSQ. Additional scales/items were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaires in several countries. Scales/items were field-tested and refined through a pilot internet survey. Finally, an 84-item questionnaire (141 items in total when combined with the current BJSQ) was developed. A nationally representative survey was administered to employees in Japan (n=1,633) to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Principal component analyses showed that the first factor explained 50% or greater proportion of the variance in most scales. A scale factor analysis and a correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided a piece of evidence that the New BJSQ scales are reliable and valid. Although more detailed content and construct validity should be examined in future study, the New BJSQ is a useful instrument to evaluate psychosocial work environment and positive mental health outcomes in the current workplace. PMID:24492763
A correction to a differential phase measurement used for vehicle attitude determination on nonaligned antenna arrays is determined by calculating a carrier phase angle of carrier signals received by each antenna, and correcting the measurement for the right-hand circular polarization effect on the nonaligned antennas. Accordingly, circular polarization effects of the carrier signals are removed from a nonaligned antenna array, allowing the nonaligned antenna array to be used for vehicle attitude determination.
Abstract Objectives Existing studies on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) have produced diverse results regarding the types and prevalence of CAM use due, in part, to variations in the measurement of CAM modalities. A questionnaire that can be adapted for use in a variety of populations will improve CAM utilization measurement. The purposes of this article are to (1) articulate the need for such a common questionnaire; (2) describe the process of questionnaire development; (3) present a model questionnaire with core questions; and (4) suggest standard techniques for adapting the questionnaire to different languages and populations. Methods An international workshop sponsored by the National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NAFKAM) of the University of Tromsø, Norway, brought CAM researchers and practitioners together to design an international CAM questionnaire (I-CAM-Q). Existing questionnaires were critiqued, and working groups drafted content for a new questionnaire. A smaller working group completed, tested, and revised this self-administered questionnaire. Results The questionnaire that was developed contains four sections concerned with visits to health care providers, complementary treatments received from physicians, use of herbal medicine and dietary supplements, and self-help practices. A priori–specified practitioners, therapies, supplements, and practices are included, as well as places for researcher-specified and respondent-specified additions. Core questions are designed to elicit frequency of use, purpose (treatment of acute or chronic conditions, and health maintenance), and satisfaction. A penultimate version underwent pretesting with “think-aloud” techniques to identify problems related to meaning and format. The final questionnaire is presented, with suggestions for testing and translating. Conclusions Once validated in English and non-English speaking populations, the I-CAM-Q will provide an opportunity for researchers to gather comparable data in studies conducted in different populations. Such data will increase knowledge about the epidemiology of CAM use and provide the foundation for evidence-based comparisons at an international level.
Verhoef, Marja J.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Lewith, George T.; Steinsbekk, Aslak; Kristoffersen, Agnete E.; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; F?nneb?, Vinjar
Students majoring in home economics education were studied to see if any change in attitude occurred following a course on teaching learners with special needs. The categories of special needs learners were: physically handicapped, emotionally disturbed, hearing and visually impaired, urban, rural, and Indian disadvantaged, and the educable…
The results from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) pinhole camera were reanalyzed to include the effects of corotation of the atmosphere with the Earth as well as satellite oscillation. Previous results from the instrument showed that the satellite had stable attitude offsets in yaw of 8.0 deg and 1.0 deg in pitch; these offsets are unchanged by the
Palmer N. Peters; Paul N. Whitehouse; John C. Gregory
Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…
McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie
There has been growing interest in the assessment of a muscular appearance. Given the importance of assessing muscle appearance attitudes, the aim of this study was to explore the convergence of the Drive for Muscularity Scale, Somatomorphic Matrix, Contour Drawing Rating Scale, Male Figure Drawings, and the Muscularity Rating Scale. Participants…
This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in 2 large community samples and 2 samples from clinics that specialize in the assessment of learning disabilities and related disorders (total N = 8,004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 correlated but separable dimensions that were labeled reading, math, social cognition, social anxiety, and spatial difficulties. Results revealed strong convergent and discriminant evidence for the CLDQ Reading scale, suggesting that this scale may provide a useful method to screen for reading difficulties in both research studies and clinical settings. Results are also promising for the other 4 CLDQ scales, but additional research is needed to refine each of these measures. PMID:21574721
Willcutt, Erik G; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C; Pennington, Bruce F
This study evaluated the internal structure and convergent and discriminant evidence for the Colorado Learning Difficulties Questionnaire (CLDQ), a 20-item parent-report rating scale that was developed to provide a brief screening measure for learning difficulties. CLDQ ratings were obtained from parents of children in two large community samples and two samples from clinics that specialize in the assessment of learning disabilities and related disorders (total N = 8,004). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed five correlated but separable dimensions that were labeled reading, math, social cognition, social anxiety, and spatial difficulties. Results revealed strong convergent and discriminant evidence for the CLDQ Reading scale, suggesting that this scale may provide a useful method to screen for reading difficulties in both research studies and clinical settings. Results are also promising for the other four CLDQ scales, but additional research is needed to refine each of these measures.
Willcutt, Erik G.; Boada, Richard; Riddle, Margaret W.; Chhabildas, Nomita; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.
The Distressing Event Questionnaire (DEQ) is a brief instrument for assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to criteria provided in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). The DEQ possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term temporal stability in studies with Vietnam War combat veterans and battered women. In a sample of Vietnam War veterans and 4 separate samples of abused women (with histories of incest, rape, intimate partner abuse, or prostitution and abuse), the DEQ exhibited very good discriminative validity when judged against structured interview assessment of PTSD. The DEQ exhibited strong convergent validity with other PTSD measures and other indexes of adjustment and also exhibited strong convergent validity as a measure of PTSD across ethnic groups in both the veteran sample and the combined women's sample. PMID:10887766
Decentering is described as referring to one's current mental experiences from an objective perspective. This study presents a psychometric evaluation of a German version of the Experiences Questionnaire (EQ-D), a self-report instrument designed to measure decentering. Confirmatory factor analysis on a sample of 506 university students indicates acceptable-to-good model fit (?(2)=58.3; TLI=.92; CFI=.95; RMSEA=.067) for a second-order factor Overall Decentering comprising the two first-order factors Accepting Self-Perception and Distanced Perspective. Preliminary evidence for the validity of the EQ-D was demonstrated via negative correlations with measures of depression and depressive rumination. The present results stress the multidimensional nature of decentering and provide important suggestions for future research on how to investigate and operationalize the decentering construct. PMID:23957243
OBJECTIVE--To assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the short form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire (a shortened version of a battery of 149 health status questions) as a measure of patient outcome in a broad sample of patients suffering from four common clinical conditions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire, followed up by two reminders at two week intervals. SETTING--Clinics and four training practices in north east Scotland. SUBJECTS--Over 1700 patients aged 16-86 with one of four conditions--low back pain, menorrhagia, suspected peptic ulcer, or varicose veins--and a comparison sample of 900 members of the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The eight scales within the SF36 health profile. RESULTS--The response rate exceeded 75% in the patient population (1310 respondents). The SF36 satisfied rigorous psychometric criteria for validity and internal consistency. Clinical validity was shown by the distinctive profiles generated for each condition, each of which differed from that in the general population in a predictable manner. Furthermore, SF36 scores were lower in referred patients than in patients not referred and were closely related to general practitioners' perceptions of severity. CONCLUSIONS--These results provide support for the SF36 as a potential measure of patient outcome within the NHS. The SF36 seems acceptable to patients, internally consistent, and a valid measure of the health status of a wide range of patients. Before it can be used in the new health service, however, its sensitivity to changes in health status over time must also be tested.
Garratt, A M; Ruta, D A; Abdalla, M I; Buckingham, J K; Russell, I T
Prior epidemiologic research revealing cardioprotective effects of alcohol intake has systematically neglected lifetime exposure to alcohol, which may cause serious bias in conclusions regarding drinking and heart disease risk. Departing from use of an earlier interview schedule, the authors of the present 1996-2001 cohort study developed a self-administered Lifetime Drinking History questionnaire (LDH-q). A total of 16,211 Dutch men and women older than age 45 years participated by completing the baseline questionnaire. A random sample of 3,255 men and women was used to determine the reliability and validity of the LDH-q. Test-retest reliability was assessed by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient and kappa scores. Correlations between lifetime and current intake scores were used to assess discriminant and convergent validity. Both reliability and validity appeared to be reasonably high compared with results obtained by using interview formats to measure lifetime alcohol intake. Reliability of the LDH-q was higher for men than for women, probably because of the more frequent and regular drinking of men. Indices of validity were similar for men (0.75) and women (0.70). Results show that the LDH-q can be a useful instrument in large-scale cohort studies. PMID:15051591
Friesema, I H M; Veenstra, M Y; Zwietering, P J; Knottnerus, J A; Garretsen, H F L; Lemmens, P H H M
Introduction HIV/AIDS-related stigma affects the access and utilisation of health services. Although HIV/AIDS-related stigma in the health services has been studied, little work has attended to the relationship between professional development and stigmatising attitudes. Hence, in this study, we will extend earlier research by examining the relationship between the stage of professional development and the kinds of stigmatising attitudes held about people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods and analysis A serial cross-sectional design will be combined with a two-point in time longitudinal design to measure the levels of stigma among healthcare students from each year of undergraduate and graduate courses in Malaysia and Australia. In the absence of suitable measures, we will carry out a sequential mixed methods design to develop such a tool. The questionnaire data will be analysed using mixed effects linear models to manage the repeated measures. Ethics and dissemination We have received ethical approval from the Monash MBBS executive committee as well as the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee. We will keep the data in a locked filing cabinet in the Monash University (Sunway campus) premises for 5?years, after which the information will be shredded and disposed of in secure bins, and digital recordings will be erased in accordance with Monash University's regulations. Only the principal investigator and the researcher will have access to the filing cabinet. We aim to present and publish the results of this study in national and international conferences and peer-reviewed journals, respectively.
Ahmadi, Keivan; Reidpath, Daniel D; Allotey, Pascale; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad
Student perceptions and attitudes about their educational experiences have been found to make an important contribution to the retention of students in undergraduate science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) programs. The present study describes the continuing development of the Freshman Engineering Attitude Survey (FEAS) and the Engineering Perception Test (EPT) Instruments. The FEAS was designed to measure engineering freshman attitudes
A head attitudesmeasurement system based on 3-axis micro-accelerometer and 3-axis micro-magnetoresistive sensor is designed and developed using for thermal imager setup of night- driving vehicle. The three attitude angles, i.e. pitch, roll and yaw, of driver's head are estimated relative to the driving vehicle in real time. In this system, the 3-axis micro-accelerometer detects the gravity field and the
All organisms must be capable of differentiating hostile from hospitable stimuli to survive. Typically, this evaluative discrimination is conceptualized as being bipolar (hostile-hospitable). This conceptualization is certainly evident in the area of attitudes, where the ubiquitous bipolar attitudemeasure, by gauging the net affective predisposition toward a stimulus, treats positive and negative evaluative processes as equivalent, reciprocally activated, and interchangeable. Contrary to conceptualizations of this evaluative process as bipolar, recent evidence suggests that distinguishable motivational systems underlie assessments of the positive and negative significance of a stimulus. Thus, a stimulus may vary in terms of the strength of positive evaluative activation and the strength of negative evaluative activation it evokes. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus reflects attitude neutrality or indifference, whereas high activation of positive and negative evaluative processes reflects attitude ambivalence. As such, attitudes can be represented more completely within a bivariate space than along a bipolar continuum. Evidence is reviewed showing that the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying many attitudes are distinguishable (stochastically and functionally independent), are characterized by distinct activation functions (positivity offset and negativity bias principles), are related differentially to attitude ambivalence (corollary of ambivalence asymmetries), have distinguishable antecedents (heteroscedacity principle), and tend to gravitate from a bivariate toward a bipolar structure when the underlying beliefs are the target of deliberation or a guide for behavior (principle of motivational certainty). The implications for society phenomena such as political elections and democratic structures are discussed. PMID:15647126
At present, no single attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) measure completely and comprehensively captures all ADHD diagnostic criteria (Anastopoulos, 2001). This represents a notable limitation in the assessment of attention problems and suggests the need for research that reconciles differences in information across measures purporting to measure the same or similar constructs. For example, by analyzing differences in measures in relation to a third construct, the third construct can provide an illuminative backdrop against which to view and ultimately reconcile differences between measures of the same attention problem construct. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to draw on a dispositional trait framework to illustrate differences in the ADHD construct assessed by 2 widely used attention problem measures. Parents of 346 children (51% girls) ranging in age from 7 to 12 years (M = 9.92 years, SD = 0.83 years) completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001), a structured clinical interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000), and dispositional trait questionnaires about their child. Both low Conscientiousness/Effortful Control and high Neuroticism/Negative Affect showed strong, unique associations with the CBCL Attention Problem score, whereas only low Conscientiousness/Effortful Control showed a strong, unique association with DSM-IV-TR ADHD symptoms assessed by clinical interview. These discriminant dispositional trait correlates help us understand the nature of the attention problem construct as assessed by each measure, with important implications for the practice of cross-measure integration in both research and applied settings. PMID:23730832
Herzhoff, Kathrin; Tackett, Jennifer L; Martel, Michelle M
Objective: Measuring self-efficacy during rehabilitation provides an important insight into understanding recovery post stroke. A Rasch analysis of the Stroke Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) was undertaken to establish its use as a clinically meaningful and scientifically rigorous measure. Methods: One hundred and eighteen stroke patients completed the SSEQ with the help of an interviewer. Participants were recruited from local acute stroke units and community stroke rehabilitation teams. Data were analysed with confirmatory factor analysis conducted using AMOS and Rasch analysis conducted using RUMM2030 software. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis and Rasch analyses demonstrated the presence of two separate scales that measure stroke survivors' self-efficacy with: i) self-management and ii) functional activities. Guided by Rasch analyses, the response categories of these two scales were collapsed from an 11-point to a 4-point scale. Modified scales met the expectations of the Rasch model. Items satisfied the Rasch requirements (overall and individual item fit, local response independence, differential item functioning, unidimensionality). Furthermore, the two subscales showed evidence of good construct validity. Conclusions: The new SSEQ has good psychometric properties and is a clinically useful assessment of self-efficacy after stroke. The scale measures stroke survivors' self-efficacy with self-management and activities as two unidimensional constructs. It is recommended for use in clinical and research interventions, and in evaluating stroke self-management interventions. PMID:24658341
Background The growing body of data on prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) usage means there is a need to standardize measurement on an international level. An international team has published a questionnaire (I-CAM-Q), but no validation has yet been provided. The aim of the present study was to provide a German measurement instrument for CAM usage (I-CAM-G) which closely resembles the original English version, and to assess it’s performance in two potential samples for measuring CAM usage. Methods The English I-CAM-Q questionnaire was translated into German, and adapted slightly. The resulting I-CAM-G questionnaire was then pre-tested on 16 healthy volunteers, and 12 cognitive interviews were carried out. The questionnaire was employed in a sample of breast cancer patients (N?=?92, paper and pencil), and a sample from the general population (N?=?210, internet survey). Descriptive analyses of items and missing data, as well as results from the cognitive interviews, are presented in this paper. Results The translated questionnaire had to be adapted to be consistent with the German health care system. All items were comprehensible, whereby some items were unambiguous (e.g. CAM use yes/no, helpfulness), while others gave rise to ambiguous answers (e.g. reasons for CAM use), or high rates of missing data (e.g. number of times the CAM modality had been used during the last 3 months). 78% of the breast cancer patients and up to 85% of a sample of the general population had used some form of CAM. Conclusions Following methodologically sound and comprehensive translation, adaptation and assessment processes using recognized translation procedures, cognitive interviews, and studying the performance of the questionnaire in two samples, we arrived at a German questionnaire for measuring CAM use which is comparable with the international (English) version. The questionnaire appropriately measures CAM use, with some items being more appropriate than others. We recommend the development of a short version.
We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure therapy may reflect change in either the automatic (the attitude representation itself) or controlled (skills and confidence at coping with the fear) responses to the phobic stimulus, or both. However, if the attitude representation remains negative following treatment, ROF should be more likely. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical sample of individuals with public speaking phobia using a single-session exposure therapy protocol previously shown to be efficacious but also associated with some ROF. Consistent with predictions, a post-treatment implicit measure of attitudes toward public speaking (the Personalized Implicit Association Test [PIAT]) predicted ROF at 1-month follow-up. These results suggest that change in the automatically activated attitude toward the phobic stimulus is an important goal of exposure therapy and that an implicit measure like the PIAT can provide a useful measure of such change by which to gauge the adequacy of exposure treatment and predict its long-term efficacy.
Vasey, Michael W.; Harbaugh, Casaundra N.; Buffington, Adam G.; Jones, Christopher R.; Fazio, Russell H.
We sought to advance understanding of the processes underlying the efficacy of exposure therapy and particularly the phenomenon of return of fear (ROF) following treatment by drawing on a social psychological view of phobias as attitudes. Specifically, a dual process theory of attitude-related behavior predicts that a positive response to exposure therapy may reflect change in either the automatic (the attitude representation itself) or controlled (skills and confidence at coping with the fear) responses to the phobic stimulus, or both. However, if the attitude representation remains negative following treatment, ROF should be more likely. We tested this hypothesis in a clinical sample of individuals with public speaking phobia using a single-session exposure therapy protocol previously shown to be efficacious but also associated with some ROF. Consistent with predictions, a post-treatment implicit measure of attitudes toward public speaking (the Personalized Implicit Association Test [PIAT]) predicted ROF at 1-month follow-up. These results suggest that change in the automatically activated attitude toward the phobic stimulus is an important goal of exposure therapy and that an implicit measure like the PIAT can provide a useful measure of such change by which to gauge the adequacy of exposure treatment and predict its long-term efficacy. PMID:23085186
Vasey, Michael W; Harbaugh, Casaundra N; Buffington, Adam G; Jones, Christopher R; Fazio, Russell H
The objective of this study was to validate the Karasek-Job Content Questionnaire in Vietnamese. A translation/back-translation of the questionnaire was performed prior to its administration to 344 health personnel in Vietnam. Several psychometric properties of the Vietnamese version of the Karasek-Job Content Questionnaire were assessed. A valid Vietnamese version of the Karasek-Job Content Questionnaire was produced, composed of five subscales based on the original theoretical model: Psychological demands, Social support at work, Decision latitude-Autonomy, Decision latitude-Authority, and Skill discretion. Internal consistency and reliability coefficients for each subscale of the questionnaire were satisfactory. The correlations with depression and work absence indicators were weak but statistically significant, as expected. The Vietnamese version of the Karasek-Job Content Questionnaire will help Vietnamese researchers and clinicians appropriately evaluate and document the job strain of workers in Vietnamese workplaces. PMID:24597435
OBJECTIVES--To test the acceptability, validity, and reliability of the short form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36) and to compare it with the Nottingham health profile. DESIGN--Postal survey using a questionnaire booklet together with a letter from the general practitioner. Non-respondents received two reminders at two week intervals. The SF-36 questionnaire was retested on a subsample of respondents two weeks after
J. E. Brazier; R. Harper; N. M. Jones; A. OCathain; K. J. Thomas; T. Usherwood; L. Westlake
Investigated the relationship between biofeedback and tension as measured by an electromyogram and the self-report Children's Personality Questionnaire (CPQ) in 37 intellectually gifted fourth through seventh graders. Results showed that indirect factors that measure tension on the CPQ were correlated significantly with biofeedback measures. (NRB)
It is recognized that existing neuropsychological measures of executive dysfunction lack adequate sensitivity and selectivity. While attempts have been made to develop improved measures, these have not yet been of great value to those who need to accurately identify executive deficits in a clinical setting. Several behavioral rating scales have been developed for this reason, including the 20-item Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX), which forms part of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) test battery. To investigate the ability of the DEX to identify executive dysfunction in an acute rehabilitation setting, the BADS was administered to 64 persons who had sustained traumatic brain injury. It was found to be almost as sensitive to executive dysfunction, as measured by the total score obtained on the BADS battery, as an extended 65-item version of the scale, when completed by either the occupational therapist or clinical neuropsychologist working with each patient. Family members and the patient themselves provided, as expected, less accurate information. Our results indicate that the DEX can be used with some confidence as a screening instrument to identify executive dysfunction in an acute rehabilitation setting, provided it is completed by professional personnel, trained to be sensitive to the cognitive and behavioral concomitants of this disorder. PMID:16209417
Attitudes of pharmacists and pharmacy students were measured by a 73-item questionnaire. Responses were obtained from 56 graduating seniors and 112 recent graduates of the School of Pharmacy of the University of Missouri at Kansas City. The two sets of responses enable comparison of the attitudes of graduating seniors after completion of a…
In response to numerous calls for a clarification of conceptual and methodological issues related to organizational commitment, the authors propose using advances in the conceptualization of attitudes. In applying this approach, we asked employees to complete semantic differential scales measuring organizational commitment as a global attitude toward the organization and to complete the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). With a sample
Harriette S. McCaul; Verlin B. Hinsz; Kevin D. McCaul
Background The primary aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a Greek-language instrument for measuring satisfaction with home care. The first empirical evidence about the level of satisfaction with these services in Greece is also provided. Methods The questionnaire resulted from literature search, on-site observation and cognitive interviews. It was applied in 2006 to a sample of 201 enrollees of five home care programs in the city of Thessaloniki and contains 31 items that measure satisfaction with individual service attributes and are expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The latter has been usually considered in practice as an interval scale, although it is in principle ordinal. We thus treated the variable as an ordinal one, but also employed the traditional approach in order to compare the findings. Our analysis was therefore based on ordinal measures such as the polychoric correlation, Kendall's Tau b coefficient and ordinal Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was followed by an assessment of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity. Results Analyses with ordinal and interval scale measures produced in essence very similar results and identified four multi-item scales. Three of these were found to be reliable and valid: socioeconomic change, staff skills and attitudes and service appropriateness. A fourth dimension -service planning- had lower internal consistency reliability and yet very satisfactory test-retest reliability, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects. The global satisfaction scale created was also quite reliable. Overall, participants were satisfied -yet not very satisfied- with home care services. More room for improvement seems to exist for the socio-economic and planning aspects of care and less for staff skills and attitudes and appropriateness of provided services. Conclusions The methods developed seem to be a promising tool for the measurement of home care satisfaction in Greece.
Results are presented for an experimental study of the response of inertial and optical wind-tunnel model attitudemeasurement systems in a wind-off simulated dynamic environment. This study is part of an ongoing activity at the NASA Langley Research Center to develop high accuracy, advanced model attitudemeasurement systems that can be used in a dynamic wind-tunnel environment. This activity was prompted by the inertial model attitude sensor response observed during high levels of model vibration which results in a model attitudemeasurement bias error. Significant bias errors in model attitudemeasurement were found for the measurement using the inertial device during wind-off dynamic testing of a model system. The amount of bias present during wind-tunnel tests will depend on the amplitudes of the model dynamic response and the modal characteristics of the model system. Correction models are presented that predict the vibration-induced bias errors to a high degree of accuracy for the vibration modes characterized in the simulated dynamic environment. The optical system results were uncorrupted by model vibration in the laboratory setup.
Buehrle, R. D.; Young, C. P., Jr.; Burner, A. W.; Tripp, J. S.; Tcheng, P.; Finley, T. D.; Popernack, T. G., Jr.
Disability accompanying occupational low back pain (LBP) can include a wide range of incapacitating symptoms which, for the practitioner, can be time-consuming and difficult to identify systematically. A questionnaire designed for case-finding and assessment could assist in both the early recognition of disability and in planning management. A suitable questionnaire for clinical use could not be found in the literature.
A. C. Harper; D. A. Harper; L. J. Lambert; N. H. de Klerk; H. B. Andrews; F. M. Ross; L. J. Straker; S. K. Lo
BACKGROUND: Critical needs for treatment trials in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) include assessing response to treatment, evaluating symptom severity, and translation of symptom questionnaires into multiple languages. We evaluated the previously validated Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) for internal consistency, reliability, responsiveness to change during treatment and the concordance between RDQ and specialty physician assessment of symptom severity, after translation into
Michael Shaw; John Dent; Timothy Beebe; Ola Junghard; Ingela Wiklund; Tore Lind; Folke Johnsson
Self-reported sun exposure is commonly used in research, but how well this represents actual sun exposure is poorly understood. From February to July 2011, a volunteer sample (n = 47) of older adults (?45 years) in Canberra, Australia, answered brief questions on time outdoors (weekdays and weekends) and natural skin color. They subsequently maintained a sun diary and wore an ultraviolet radiation (UVR) digital dosimeter for 7 days. Melanin density was estimated using reflectance spectrophotometry; lifetime sun damage was assessed using silicone casts of the back of the hand; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was assayed. Questionnaire-reported time outdoors correlated significantly with diary-recorded time outdoors (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46, 0.80; P < 0.001) and UVR dosimeter dose (r(s ) = 0.46; 95% CI 0.18, 0.68; P = 0.003), but not 25(OH)D concentration (r(s) = 0.24; 95% CI -0.05, 0.50; P = 0.10). Questionnaire-reported untanned skin color correlated significantly with measured melanin density at the inner upper arm (r(s) = 0.49; 95% CI 0.24, 0.68; P < 0.001). In a multiple linear regression model, statistically significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentration were self-reported frequency of physical activity, skin color and recent osteoporosis treatment (R(2) = 0.54). In this study, brief questionnaire items provided valid rankings of sun exposure and skin color, and enabled the development of a predictive model for 25(OH)D concentration. PMID:22891914
Cargill, Jessica; Lucas, Robyn M; Gies, Peter; King, Kerryn; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Allen, Martin W; Banks, Emily
Obtaining precise attitude information is essential for aircraft navigation and control. This paper presents the results of the attitude determination using an in-house designed low-cost MEMS-based flight information measurement unit. This study proposes a quaternion-based extended Kalman filter to integrate the traditional quaternion and gravitational force decomposition methods for attitude determination algorithm. The proposed extended Kalman filter utilizes the evolution of the four elements in the quaternion method for attitude determination as the dynamic model, with the four elements as the states of the filter. The attitude angles obtained from the gravity computations and from the electronic magnetic sensors are regarded as the measurement of the filter. The immeasurable gravity accelerations are deduced from the outputs of the three axes accelerometers, the relative accelerations, and the accelerations due to body rotation. The constraint of the four elements of the quaternion method is treated as a perfect measurement and is integrated into the filter computation. Approximations of the time-varying noise variances of the measured signals are discussed and presented with details through Taylor series expansions. The algorithm is intuitive, easy to implement, and reliable for long-term high dynamic maneuvers. Moreover, a set of flight test data is utilized to demonstrate the success and practicality of the proposed algorithm and the filter design.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To develop a single-administration instrument yielding equivalent measures of sleep to those obtained from a formal (2-week) sleep diary. DESIGN & SETTING: A single-administration Sleep riming Questionnaire (STQ) is described (and reproduced in the Appendix). Test-retest reliability was examined in 40 subjects who were given the STQ on two occasions separated by less than 1 year. Convergent validity was measured both by comparing STO-derived measures with objective measures derived from wrist actigraphy (n=23) and by comparing STQ-derived measures with other subjective measures derived from a detailed 2-week sleep diary in two nonoverlapping samples (n=101, 93). Correlations of STQ measures with age and momingness-eveningness (chronotype) were also examined. SUBJECTS: The analyses used sample sizes of 40, 23, 101, and 93 (both genders, overall age range 20y-89y). Most subjects were healthy volunteers; some Study 4 subjects were patients (enrolled in research protocols). RESULTS: Test-retest reliability for the STQ was demonstrated for estimates of bedtime (r = 0.705, p < 0.001) and waketime (r = 0.826, p < 0.001). Convergent validity using wrist actigraphy was demonstrated by correlations of 0.592 (p < 0.005) for bedtime, and of 0.769 (p < 0.001) for waketime. Diary studies indicated STQ bedtime and waketime data to be highly correlated (at about 0.8) with those obtained from a formal 2-week sleep diary. The STQ also provided data on estimated sleep latency and wake after sleep onset (WASO), which correlated reliably (at about 0.7) with average nightly ratings of these variables from a 2-week sleep diary. Mean estimated values of sleep latency and WASO from the two instruments were within 1 minute of each other. ST-derived bedtimes and waketimes correlated with both age and chronotype in the expected direction (older subjects earlier, morning types earlier). CONCLUSION: The STQ may be a reliable valid measure of sleep timing that could provide a time-efficient alternative to traditional sleep diaries.
Monk, Timothy H.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Kennedy, Kathy S.; Pods, Jaime M.; DeGrazia, Jean M.; Miewald, Jean M.
Background: Chronic cough is a common condition which has a significant impact on quality of life. Assessment and management are hampered by the absence of well validated outcome measures. The development and validation of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ), a self-completed health related quality of life measure of chronic cough, is presented.Methods: Patients with chronic cough were recruited from outpatient
S S Birring; B Prudon; A J Carr; S J Singh; M D L Morgan; I D Pavord
Background: The nine-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) is well validated and widely used as a brief diagnostic and severity measure, but its validity as an outcome measure for depression has not yet been established. Therefore, we investigated the sensitivity to change of the PHQ-9 in three groups of patients whose depression status either improved, remained unchanged,
Bernd Löwe; Kurt Kroenke; Wolfgang Herzog; Kerstin Gräfe
Accurate measurement of physical activity is fundamentally important in epidemiological research of physical activity behavior. A widely used telephone-based physical activity questionnaire was compared with other methods of administration and objective measures (pedometers and accelerometers) among 80 adults (43 women). The telephone…
Mackay, Lisa M.; Schofield, Grant M.; Schluter, Philip J.
This paper evaluates two measurement instruments with regard to their ability to measure children's and young people's attitudes toward animals. The instruments are the Fireman Test (in which children are asked to identify those few animals and/or material possessions which a fireman should try to save during a fire) and the Good Ideas and Bad…
In this study, we examined the reliability and validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; Vandiver, B. J., Cross Jr., W. E., Fhagen-Smith, P. E., Worrell, F. C., Swim, J. K., & Caldwell, L. D. (2000). The Cross Racial Identity Scale. Unpublished scale; Worrell, F. C., Vandiver, B. J., & Cross Jr., W. E., (2004). The Cross Racial Identity Scale: Technical manual (2nd ed.). Berkeley, CA: Author) scores in 143 middle and high school students. Exploratory factor analyses provided support for the six-factor structure of the CRIS, reliability estimates for the scores were in the moderate to high range, and subscale intercorrelations were low. Multicultural Inclusive scores were significantly correlated with age with high school students reporting significantly higher multicultural attitudes than middle school students. The authors concluded that the CRIS is appropriate for use with adolescent populations. PMID:16472856
In an ALS Clinic, use of the Pathological Laughter and Crying Scale of Robinson et al. [Robinson RG, Parikh RM, Lipsey JR, Starkstein SE, Price TR. Pathological laughter and crying following stroke: validation of a measurement scale and double-blind treatment study. American Journal of Psychiatry 1993;150(2):286-293] revealed several problems: reliance on self-rating, insufficient period of assessment, inadequate exploration of 'appropriateness of emotion', lack of an item for abnormal smiling, amusement rather than happiness being the cause of laughter in ALS, and a frequency-based rating system. The necessary modifications produced a new Emotional Lability Questionnaire (ELQ) that was tested in 43 ALS patients and 43 healthy controls. The self-rated version of the ELQ was administered as a structured interview to each participant, and the independent-relationship between subscales of the ELQ for both versions, thus confirming its internal validity. Greater emotional lability appeared associated with pseudobulbar symptoms. The question why 14 patients rated themselves as severely labile in the crying domain alone and four in the laughter domain alone, required further study. PMID:10540003
Newsom-Davis, I C; Abrahams, S; Goldstein, L H; Leigh, P N
There is a lack of validated and reliable instruments on perception of the food environment, in particular for rural environments. We estimated the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire assessing perceptions of the food environment. A total of 101 primary food shoppers in South Carolina were interviewed by phone to assess their perceptions of the food environment and presence of different food outlet types in their neighborhood. The survey was repeated approximately one month after the initial administration. The intra-class correlation (ICC) and Phi coefficient are reported as measures of reliability. The majority of questions on perceptions of the neighborhood food environment appear highly reliable (ICCs range from 0.55 to 0.71), including the 3-item scale on healthy food availability (ICC 0.71). Compared to participants in rural areas, those in urban areas demonstrated better reliability for questions on opportunities to purchase fast food and perceived presence of a supercenter. More research is needed to evaluate potential rural-urban differences in reliability.
Background Previous studies have suggested that interviewer-administered questionnaires can under-estimate the prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation when compared with self-administered ones. We report here on differences in prevalence of reporting mental health between four questionnaire delivery modes. Methods Mental health was assessed using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), a locally validated 14-item indigenous measure for common mental affective disorders. A representative sample of 1495 rural Zimbabwean adolescents (median age 18) was randomly allocated to one of four questionnaire delivery modes: self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), SAQ with audio (AASI), interviewer-administered questionnaire (IAQ), and audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI). Results Prevalence of common affective disorders varied between QDM (52.3%, 48.6%, 41.5%, and 63.6% for SAQ, AASI, IAQ, and ACASI respectively (p<0.001)). Fewer participants failed to complete SSQ using IAQ and ACASI than other methods (1.6% vs. 12.3%; p<0.001). Qualitative data suggested that respondents found it difficult answering questions honestly in front of an interviewer. Limitations Direction of accuracy cannot be ascertained due to lack of objective or clinical assessments of affective disorders. Conclusions Estimates of prevalence of psychosomatics symptoms and suicidal ideation varied according to mode of interview. As each mode’s direction of accuracy remains unresolved evaluations of interventions continue to be hampered.
Langhaug, Lisa F; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pascoe, Sophie; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M
A multidimensional measure of sexual prejudice was developed to assess the increasing complexity of heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a valid and reliable 7-factor measure that assessed: 1) traditional heterosexism; 2) tendency to deny anti-gay discrimination continues; 3) aversion toward gay men; 4) aversion to lesbians; 5) judgments regarding the value of the gay and lesbian movement; 6) resistance to heteronormative expectations; and 7) endorsement of positive beliefs about gay people. A modern heterosexism theory was supported and queer/liberationist notions of anti-heteronormativity and positive beliefs were found to be related to pro-homosexual attitudes. PMID:19197647
BackgroundNeuromuscular disorders (NMDs) can lead to specific manual disabilities due to hand muscle weakness and atrophy, myotonia or loss of sensory function. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the ABILHAND questionnaire in children and adults with NMDs using the Rasch model.MethodsThis questionnaire contained specific manual activities for children and for adults, as well as common manual
Laure Vandervelde; Peter Y K Van den Bergh; Massimo Penta; Jean-Louis Thonnard
A study was conducted to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments, and to examine associations between these factors and students' attitudes. A measure of students' environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument was influenced by the four…
The results from the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) pinhole camera were reanalyzed to include the effects of corotation of the atmosphere with the Earth as well as satellite oscillation. Previous results from the instrument showed that the satellite had stable attitude offsets in yaw of 8.0 deg and 1.0 deg in pitch; these offsets are unchanged by the present analysis. The primary impact zone of oxygen, i.e., the directly exposed spot on a silver detector, had a ratio of major to minor axes equal to 1.05, which was interpreted as being caused by a small oscillation of plus or minus 0.35 degrees (with precision plus or minus 0.15 degrees). The present analysis shows that the observed effect can largely be accounted for by atmospheric corotation, but that an additional oscillation in yaw of the order of a degree cannot be excluded. The sensitivity of the pinhole camera to satellite oscillations is shown to decrease nonlinearly with decreasing magnitude of the oscillation and to vary inversely with the gas temperature.
Peters, Palmer N.; Whitehouse, Paul N.; Gregory, John C.
Assessment of asthma control in preschool children is important for therapeutic decisions. Aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of TRACK questionnaire scores for subsequent clinical parameters and to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the TRACK questionnaire. We enrolled 100 children with asthma aged 4 years or younger in this cohort study. We recorded sociodemographic characteristics and clinical severity parameters. A pediatric allergist filled in the asthma severity scale and the caregiver of the child filled in the TRACK questionnaire. We called in the children again at the end of one month and recorded the same parameters and administered TRACK again. Uncontrolled asthma was defined as a TRACK score below 80. According to the TRACK score, 65% of the children had controlled asthma initially while at the end of the study 64.1% had controlled asthma. At the beginning of the study, all clinical parameters were worse in children with uncontrolled asthma according to TRACK score. Similarly, other objective clinical parameters during the following one month period were worse in children with initial uncontrolled asthma. Cronbach's alpha score for the TRACK questionnaire was 0.84. Turkish TRACK questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool that is predictive of short term asthma prognosis. PMID:24991460
Yilmaz, Ozge; Turkeli, Ahmet; Sahin, Sebnem; Yuksel, Hasan
Assessment of asthma control in preschool children is important for therapeutic decisions. Aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of TRACK questionnaire scores for subsequent clinical parameters and to investigate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the TRACK questionnaire. We enrolled 100 children with asthma aged 4 years or younger in this cohort study. We recorded sociodemographic characteristics and clinical severity parameters. A pediatric allergist filled in the asthma severity scale and the caregiver of the child filled in the TRACK questionnaire. We called in the children again at the end of one month and recorded the same parameters and administered TRACK again. Uncontrolled asthma was defined as a TRACK score below 80. According to the TRACK score, 65% of the children had controlled asthma initially while at the end of the study 64.1% had controlled asthma. At the beginning of the study, all clinical parameters were worse in children with uncontrolled asthma according to TRACK score. Similarly, other objective clinical parameters during the following one month period were worse in children with initial uncontrolled asthma. Cronbach's alpha score for the TRACK questionnaire was 0.84. Turkish TRACK questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool that is predictive of short term asthma prognosis.
Recent theories in social psychology suggest that explicitly measuredattitudes are particularly valuable for the prediction of deliberate, controlled behaviour. In contrast, implicitly measuredattitudes are assumed to be more important for the prediction of less controlled, more impulsive behaviour. Yet, conclusive evidence for the differential predictive validity of both measures is scarce. We hypothesized that limitations of different control resources would lead to functionally equivalent effects. In Study 1, cognitive capacity moderated the predictive validity of both explicit and implicit attitudemeasures in a choice task. Self-regulatory resources led to similar patterns for eating (Study 2) and drinking behaviour (Study 3). In addition to the predictive validity of implicit and explicit attitudemeasures, in Study 3 we more closely investigated the relative contributions of explicitly measuredattitudes and general restraint standards as two distinct, but complementing constructs that are dependent on control resources. PMID:17880753
This study assessed the validity of questionnaire-based measures for the identification of rural households with hunger and food insecurity. Data used were from a 1993 survey of 193 households with women and children living at home in a rural county. Two interviews provided data on demographics, factors contributing to food insecurity, coping strategies, fruit and vegetable consumption, disordered eating behaviors,
Edward A. Frongillo; Barbara S. Rauschenbach; Christine M. Olson; Anne Kendall; Ana G. Colmenares
Introduction: This study describes Effat University students' perceptions of their classroom climate and their motivation to study English, and investigates the validity and reliability of an Arabic questionnaire for measuring student perceptions and motivation. Method: To this end, 137 female students participated in the cross-cultural validation…
The purpose of the present investigation was to develop and validate an objective self-report instrument, the Multidimensional Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ), designed to measure psychological tendencies associated with sexual relationships. Results indicated that the MSQ subscales had high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and were largely independent of social desirability tendencies. Other results indicated that women and men responded in unique ways
William E. Snell; Terri D. Fisher; Andrew S. Walters
Two studies were conducted to investigate the vulnerability of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) to deception and self-presentation biases. The SAQ is a self-report measure used to predict recidivism and guide institutional and program assignments. In the first study, comparisons were made between 429 volunteer offenders who completed the SAQ…
BACKGROUND: A primary aim of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study is to examine the association between total physical activity levels (comprising occupational, household and recreational activity) and the incidence of cancer. We examined the validity and long-term repeatability of total physical activity measurements estimated from the past-year recall EPIC questionnaire, using accelerometers as an
Anne E Cust; Ben J Smith; Josephine Chau; Hidde P van der Ploeg; Christine M Friedenreich; Bruce K Armstrong; Adrian Bauman
The aim of this project was to develop and validate a Service Needs Questionnaire (SNQ) on the service needs of families with children with developmental disabilities. The SNQ and a measure of parenting stress were administered to 105 parents of children diagnosed with learning/behaviour problems and 233 parents of children attending primary…
Few studies have examined whether nicotine dependence self-report questionnaires can predict specific behaviors and symptoms at specific points in time. The present study used data from a randomized clinical trial (N = 608; M. E. Piper et al., 2007) to assess the construct validity of scales and items from 3 nicotine dependence measures: the…
Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.
Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a mobility questionnaire (MobQues) that was developed to measure parent-reported mobility limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The parents of 439 children with CP (256 males and 183 females; age range 2-18y; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels…
Van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.; Roorda, Leo D.; Verschuren, Olaf; Dallmeijer, Annet J.
Instruments were used to measure the confidence, attitudes, and self?image of 34 final year initial student teachers in Turkey in relation to chemistry education. Nineteen items were used to measure the students’ level of confidence in teaching chemistry. Two main concepts, ‘chemistry as a high school subject’ and ‘chemistry in modern society’ were used to elicit attitudes towards chemistry. Three
In the self-propelled weapon, it is analyzed quantitatively that the measuring error of the bodywork's attitude influences the firing control system in calculating the shooting factors. Its content includes two issues: the transform error made by the measuring error of the bodywork's attitude, and its influences on the firing control system to calculate the shooting factors when the coordinates are
The problem was to construct, validate, and test a Q-sort instrument consisting of 56 statements measuringattitude changes of individual participants toward the seven educational conditions of the Indiana Plan for Adult Education in the Church. The Q-sort was structured to represent conditions of the plan at two levels with four replications…
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to develop an instrument that has scores that are valid and reliable for measuring students' attitudes toward fitness testing. Method: The method involved the following steps: (a) an elicitation study, (b) item development, (c) a pilot study, and (d) a validation study. The pilot study included…
The impact of biotechnologies on peoples' everyday lives continuously increases. Measuring young peoples' attitudes toward biotechnologies is therefore very important and its results are useful not only for science curriculum developers and policy makers, but also for producers and distributors of genetically modified products. Despite of…
Erdogan, Mehmet; Ozel, Murat; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
Recent estimates of Shaken Baby Syndrome awareness suggest that approximately half of all American adults have not heard of the often devastating risks of shaking an infant. Using a sample of 288 undergraduate students, we developed a measure of attitudes around infant care practices. A total of 264 community participants completed a revised survey. Between-group comparisons, exploratory factor analyses, and
The Preschool Racial AttitudeMeasure (PRAM) and the Comfortable Interpersonal Distance Scale (CID) were concurrently administered in counterbalanced order to 60 black and white five and six-year olds to establish whether a relationship existed between assessed racial bias and the interpersonal distance ascribed to figures by race. No relationship…
The results of reconstruction of uncontrolled attitude motion of the Foton M-2 satellite using measurements with the accelerometer TAS-3 are presented. The attitude motion of this satellite has been previously determined by the measurement data of the Earth’s magnetic field and the angular velocity. The TAS-3 data for this purpose are used for the first time. These data contain a well-pronounced additional component which made impossible their direct employment for the reconstruction of the attitude motion and whose origin was unknown several years ago. Later it has become known that the additional component is caused by the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field. The disclosure of this fact allowed us to take into account a necessary correction in processing of TAS-3 data and to use them for the reconstruction of the attitude motion of Foton M-2. Here, a modified method of processing TAS-3 data is described, as well as results of its testing and employing. The testing consisted in the direct comparison of the motion reconstructed by the new method with the motion constructed by the magnetic measurements. The new method allowed us to find the actual motion of Foton M-2 in the period June 9, 2005-June 14, 2005, when no magnetic measurements were carried out.
Beuselinck, T.; van Bavinchove, C.; Sazonov, V. V.; Chebukov, S. Yu.
This investigation examines the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) procedures to develop and validate scales to measure environmental responsibility, character development and leadership, and attitudes toward school for environmental education programs servicing middle school children. The scales represent outcomes commonly of interest to…
Powell, Robert Baxter; Stern, Marc J.; Krohn, Brian D.; Ardoin, Nicole
We present the development of indices using baseline data from the Evaluation Survey for the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). The indices are designed to measure two primary attitude constructs that relate to smoking behavior: beliefs about smoking as a public health problem (SPHP); and norms and values concerning smoking (NVS). Two general approaches to index con- struction,
S. Martin Taylor; Nancy A. Ross; Charles H. Goldsmith; Mark P. Zanna; Michael Lock
Despite the current legislation requiring sex education as part of the school curriculum in Portugal, great obstacles to its implementation remain. Furthermore, sex education is far from being systematically administered. Thus, the main interest in our project was to validate a scale that measures teachers' attitudes towards sex education. There…
de Almeida Reis, Maria Helena; Vilar, Duarte Goncalo Rei
The primary purpose of this study was to develop and field test the ExCEL survey instrument, intended to measure faculty attitudes toward and perceptions about students with disabilities at four-year colleges and universities. A secondary purpose was to examine how demographic characteristics of the sample and prior disability-focused training…
Attitudes and beliefs towards psychotropic medication were evaluated among psychiatric outpatients, patients receiving buprenorphine treatment for substance abuse, and a group who reported never having used psychotropic medications (non-users). The Drug Attitude Inventory scale and the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire General were used to assess attitudes and beliefs of 49 participants. Non-users exhibited more negative attitudes and beliefs toward psychotropic medication than both psychiatric groups. PMID:22662401
Fife, Stephanie A; Ketzenberger, Kay E; Olson, James N
Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…
Background Accurate measurement of the components of physical activity during pregnancy can aid in our understanding of the dose response relationships between physical activity and corresponding perinatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a one-week recall questionnaire to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity during pregnancy. Methods To assess concurrent-related validity, 177 pregnant women (median 18 weeks' gestation, interquartile range (IQR) 15 -23) kept a structured diary and wore an accelerometer (Actigraph) for one week. At the conclusion of the week, they completed the Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) physical activity questionnaire over the telephone. To assess evidence for test-retest reliability, 109 pregnant women (median 19 weeks' gestation, IQR 18-27) completed the questionnaire twice over the telephone, within 48 hours apart, recalling the same two time periods. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess evidence for validity and reliability, respectively. Results Comparison of the questionnaire to the structured diary was moderate to substantial (SCC 0.47 to 0.69) for several measures of moderate or vigorous physical activity using either perceived or absolute intensity. Comparison of moderate to vigorous physical activity from the questionnaire (absolute intensity using MET-hours/week) to the accelerometer ranged from 0.12 to 0.23 using SCC for absolute intensity (MET-hours/week) and 0.28 to 0.34 using relative intensity (hours/week) (n = 177). Test-retest reliability was moderate to almost perfect for moderate to vigorous physical activity, with the ICC ranging from 0.56 to 0.82 for both perceived and absolute intensities. Conclusions The PIN3 one-week recall questionnaire assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity in the past week with evidence for reliability and validity.
Background Research has identified stigmatization as a major threat to successful treatment of individuals with mental illness. As a consequence several anti-stigma campaigns have been carried out. The results have been discouraging and the field suffers from lack of evidence about interventions that work. There are few reports on psychometric data for instruments used to assess stigma, which thus complicates research efforts. The aim of the present study was to investigate test-retest reliability of the Swedish versions of the questionnaires: FABI and "Changing Minds" and to examine the internal consistency of the two instruments. Method Two instruments, fear and behavioural intentions (FABI) and "Changing Minds", used in earlier studies on public attitudes towards persons with mental illness were translated into Swedish and completed by 51 nursing students on two occasions, with an interval of three weeks. Test-retest reliability was calculated by using weighted kappa coefficient and internal consistency using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results Both instruments attain at best moderate test-retest reliability. For the Changing Minds questionnaire almost one fifth (17.9%) of the items present poor test-retest reliability and the alpha coefficient for the subscales ranges between 0.19 - 0.46. All of the items in the FABI reach a fair or a moderate agreement between the test and retest, and the questionnaire displays a high internal consistency, alpha 0.80. Conclusions There is a need for development of psychometrically tested instruments within this field of research.
The Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R model) was used as the theoretical basis of a tailormade questionnaire to measure the psychosocial work environment and personal resources of recently graduated veterinary professionals. According to the JD-R model, two broad categories of work characteristics that determine employee wellbeing can be distinguished: job demands and job resources. Recently, the JD-R model has been expanded by integrating personal resource measures into the model. Three semistructured group interviews with veterinarians active in different work domains were conducted to identify relevant job demands, job resources and personal resources. These demands and resources were organised in themes (constructs). For measurement purposes, a set of questions ('a priori scale') was selected from the literature for each theme. The full set of a priori scales was included in a questionnaire that was administered to 1760 veterinary professionals. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis were conducted to arrive at the final set of validated scales (final scales). 860 veterinarians (73 per cent females) participated. The final set of scales consisted of seven job demands scales (32 items), nine job resources scales (41 items), and six personal resources scales (26 items) which were considered to represent the most relevant potential predictors of work-related wellbeing in this occupational group. The procedure resulted in a tailormade questionnaire: the Veterinary Job Demands and Resources Questionnaire (Vet-DRQ). The use of valid theory and validated scales enhances opportunities for comparative national and international research. PMID:24306198
Mastenbroek, N J J M; Demerouti, E; van Beukelen, P; Muijtjens, A M M; Scherpbier, A J J A; Jaarsma, A D C
The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire on mastery motivation (task and effort) for use with Chinese preschool children in Hong Kong. A parent version and a teacher version were developed and evaluated. Participants included 457 children (230 boys and 227 girls) aged four and five years old, their preschool teachers and their…
This article proposes procedures for simultaneously assessing and controlling acquiescence and social desirability in questionnaire items. The procedures are based on a semi-restricted factor-analytic tridimensional model, and can be used with binary, graded-response, or more continuous items. We discuss procedures for fitting the model (item…
Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Chico, Eliseo
Objectives: To design a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess perceived attributes of technology-based health education innovations. Methods: College students in 12 personal health courses reviewed a prototype eHealth intervention using a 30-item instrument based upon diffusion theory's perceived attributes of an innovation. Results:…
The "Boston College Questionnaire about the Undergraduate Experience" (BCQ)" arose from a growing need to gather reliable evidence about the impact of the undergraduate experience on students who attend Catholic colleges and universities in the United States. Although abundant sources of data exist that tell us who our students are when they…
Fleming, James J.; Overstreet, Dawn V.; Chappe, Stephanie L.
Clinical observation, systematic research and popular anecdote indicate that, when confronted by death, people change the criteria by which they evaluate their lives. Questionnaires used routinely to assess quality of life in people with poor-prognosis cancer tend to be symptom-based and do not assess factors which become important when confronted by fatal illness, such as the meaning of life and
This article compares stylised (questionnaire-based) estimates and diary-based estimates of housework time collected from the same respondents. Data come from the Home On-line Study (1999-2001), a British national household survey that contains both types of estimates (sample size = 632 men and 666 women). It shows that the gap between the two…
Describes Quality of Student Life Questionnaire (QSLQ), which may be of particular use to family therapists attempting to understand perceptions of adolescents within family constellations. Notes that QSLQ is comprised of four factors (Satisfaction, Well-Being, Social Belonging, and Empowerment/Control). Calls QSLQ reliable, unobstrusive, and…
Objectives To develop a questionnaire to measure the additional social costs of food allergies (FAs). Data Source and Study Setting People with FAs and sampled members of the general population (with and without FAs) in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in 2006. Study Design (1) Literature review. (2) Focus group to identify key costs of FAs and seek views on the questionnaires. (3) Pilot survey to test the questionnaires in cases and controls. Data Collection Twenty-eight participants in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands with clinically or self-diagnosed FAs took part in one of five focus groups. A case–control postal survey was conducted in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands (with 125 FA cases and 62 controls). Principal Findings Methods exist to measure social costs in chronic illness, but not FAs. Focus groups found features of FAs likely to impact costs of living. Pilot results suggest higher costs of living and health care costs, and well-being in FAs. Conclusion The questionnaire is proposed for use in wider European and other comparative studies of FAs.
A study concerning the development and validation of an instrument intended to measure Goal II of quality education is presented. This goal is that quality education should help every child acquire understanding and appreciation of persons belonging to social, cultural and ethnic groups different from his own. The rationale for measurement…
A series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted to evaluate a multi-camera videogrammetric system designed to measure model attitude in hypersonic facilities. The technique utilizes processed video data and photogrammetric principles for point tracking to compute model position including pitch, roll and yaw. A discussion of the constraints encountered during the design, and a review of the measurement results obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 31-Inch Mach 10 tunnel are presented.
We compared the intake of 12 micronutrients as reported on a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire with corresponding biochemical indicators of nutrient status in a sample of 57 males and 82 females aged 40-83 y. Age-, sex- and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from near zero for thiamin, vitamin A, and zinc to 0.63 for folate. Cor- relation coefficients between intake and
Paul F Jacques; James A Sadowski; David Rush; Walter C Willett
BACKGROUND: Instruments to detect changes in attitudes towards people with disabilities are important for evaluation of training programs and for research. While we were interested in instruments specific for medical students, we aimed to systematically review the medical literature for validated survey instruments used to measureattitudes of healthcare students and professionals towards patients with physical disability. METHODS: We electronically
Wai Yim Lam; Sameer K Gunukula; Denise McGuigan; New Isaiah; Andrew B Symons; Elie A Akl
This paper investigated the reliability and construct validity of a 30-item scale in measuring the attitudes of teachers in Australia toward the integration of handicapped children into regular schools. The Attitude Toward Mainstreaming Scale, which was designed by Larrivee and Cook (1979), has been used in evaluation studies in the United Sates…
This study focuses on the confirmatory factor analysis for testing validity and reliability of Traditional Knowledge Attitude Scale (TKAS) to measure university students' attitudes. The items in the TKAS were developed initially from the responses to two open-ended items by 30 university students and literature review on traditional…
This paper describes and discusses the development and empirical properties of the 24-item Likert-type Katz–Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism. The scale is designed to facilitate inter-faith comparisons within the psychology of religion alongside the well-established Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. Data are provided from a sample of 618 Hebrew-speaking undergraduate students attending Bar-Ilan University. The findings confirm the
A questionnaire to measureattitudes toward gifted programs was given to 113 teachers, 23 administrators, and 91 parents. Seven areas were investigated: definition, characteristics, identification, educational needs, funding priority, teacher characteristics, and current provisions. Among findings were the following: parents, as a group, were less…
After head injuries, particularly mild or moderate ones, a range of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) are often reported by patients. Such symptoms may significantly affect patients' psychosocial functioning. To date, no measure of the severity of PCS has been developed. This study presents the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) as such a measure, derived from published material, and investigates its reliability. The RPQ's reliability was investigated under two experimental conditions. Study 1 examined its test-retest reliability when used as a self-report questionnaire at 7-10 days after injury. Forty-one head-injured patients completed an RPQ at 7-10 days following their head injury and again approximately 24 h later. Study 2 examined the questionnaire's inter-rater reliability when used as a measure administered by two separate investigators. Forty-six head-injured patients had an RPQ administered by an investigator at 6 months after injury. A second investigator readministered the questionnaire approximately 7 days later. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated for ratings on the total symptom scores, and for individual items. High reliability was found for the total PCS scores under both experimental conditions (Rs = + 0.91 in study 1 and Rs = + 0.87 in study 2). Good reliability was also found for individual PCS items generally, although with some variation between different symptoms. The results are discussed in relation to the major difficulties involved when looking for appropriate experimental criteria against which measures of PCS can be validated. PMID:8551320
King, N S; Crawford, S; Wenden, F J; Moss, N E; Wade, D T
Abstract\\u000aPURPOSE: To construct and test the reliability and validity of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC) questionnairemeasuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).\\u000aMETHODS: Structured development and psychometric testing of a parent satisfaction-with-care instrument with the results of two cohorts of parents (n = 2,046) from eight PICUs in the Netherlands.\\u000aRESULTS:
J. M. Latour; Goudoever van J. B; H. J. Duivenvoorden; M. J. I. J. Albers; Dam van N. A. M; E. Dullaart; Heerde van M; Neef de M; C. W. M. Verlaat; Vught van E. M; J. A. Hazelzet
In non-clinical (working) populations it is important to differentiate between general distress, on the one hand, and psychiatric symptoms—depression, anxiety and somatization—on the other hand. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a new instrument that measures these four symptom dimensions (Terluin, 1996). This study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the 4DSQ in a working population. A postal stress
Berend Terluin; Willem Van Rhenen; Wilmar B. Schaufeli; Marten De Haan
This work discusses the working principle and mechanical details of a new scanning transducer for angle measurement between IR modulated emitters placed in known positions. The system can be used for position estimation of AGVs inside structured environments. Position is computed by triangulation. The advantage of the proposed transducer is that, having approximately the same accuracy of the commonly widespread laser system, it makes us of active targets, which allow a further degree of freedom: height for target installation. In other words, coplanarity between targets and plane of scanning is no longer required. Consequently, target visibility may be achieved even in the case of bulky machinery placed inside the factory environment. Repeatability error in angle estimation is +/- 47 arcseconds, which means that positional accuracy in a square 10 m room is +/- 2 mm.
Attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV) against women are widely surveyed, but attitudes about women's recourse after exposure to IPV are understudied, despite their importance for intervention. Designed through qualitative research and administered in a probability sample of 1,054 married men and women 18 to 50 years in My Hao District, Vietnam, the ATT-RECOURSE scale measures men's and women's attitudes about a wife's recourse after exposure to physical IPV. Data were initially collected for nine items. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with one random split-half sample (N 1 = 526) revealed a one-factor model with significant loadings (0.316-0.686) for six items capturing a wife's silence, informal recourse, and formal recourse. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the other random split-half sample (N 2 = 528) showed adequate fit for the six-item model and significant factor loadings of similar magnitude to the EFA results (0.412-0.669). For the six items retained, men consistently favored recourse more often than did women (52.4%-66.0% of men vs. 41.9%-55.2% of women). Tests for uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender revealed one item with significant uniform DIF, and adjusting for this revealed an even larger gap in men's and women's attitudes, with men favoring recourse, on average, more than women. The six-item ATT-RECOURSE scale is reliable across independent samples and exhibits little uniform DIF by gender, supporting its use in surveys of men and women. Further methodological research is discussed. Research is needed in Vietnam about why women report less favorable attitudes than men regarding women's recourse after physical IPV. PMID:24368681
Yount, Kathryn M; VanderEnde, Kristin; Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Minh, Tran Hung; Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Anh, Hoang Tu
Patient advocacy is an inherent component of professional nursing ethics; in other words, nurses' enough knowledge would be essential to gain a positive attitude towards nursing advocacy. Using a descriptive-analytic design, this study aimed to assess the correlation between nurses' perception and attitudes towards patient advocacy, amongst 385 nurses in Kerman, Iran; hence, a three-part questionnaire was applied: part I, a demographic data sheet, part II, attitudemeasuring instrument, and part III, perception measuring instrument in nursing advocacy. The results implied that fairly positive attitudes and perception were found amongst the participants, and nurses' attitudes, in general, were positively correlated to their perception toward nursing advocacy. This means that with an improvement in perception, the attitude would also improve. In addition to our findings, it seems that these nurses needed more advocacy educational programs and support from responsible employers. PMID:23326680
Objective To further establish the psychometric properties of the Parent Supervision Attributes Profile Questionnaire (PSAPQ), a questionnairemeasure of parent supervision that is relevant to understanding risk of unintentional injury among children 2 through 5 years of age. Methods To assess test?retest reliability, parents completed the PSAPQ twice, with a one month interval. Internal consistency estimates for the PSAPQ were also computed. Confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the data to assess the four factor structure of the instrument by assessing the convergent and divergent validity of the subscales and their respective items. Results Test?retest reliability and internal consistency scores were good, exceeding 0.70 for all subscales. Factor analyses confirmed the hypothesized model—namely that the 29 item questionnaire comprised four unique factors: protectiveness, supervision beliefs, risk tolerance, and fate influences on child safety. Conclusions Previous tests comparing the PSAPQ with indices of actual supervision and children's injury history scores revealed good criterion validity. The present assessment of the PSAPQ revealed good reliability (test?retest reliability, internal consistency) and established the convergent and divergent validity of the four factors. Thus, the PSAPQ has proven to have strong psychometric properties, making it a unique and useful measure for researchers interested in studying links between supervision and young children's risks of unintentional injury.
Weight gain and appetite regulation are complex interplays between internal and external cues. Our aim was to investigate the association of eating behaviors with ghrelin taking into account lifestyle. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in a sample of first-year university students at the Université de Sherbrooke. We collected medical history, anthropometric measurements, vital signs, fitness index, and fasting blood samples. Questionnaires included a lifestyle questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) estimating dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. We recruited 308 participants aged 20.7±3.2 years and a mean BMI of 23.3±3.4 kg/m(2). Hunger score was significantly associated with ghrelin levels (r=0.11, P<0.05). In women, this association was independent of age, BMI, dietary and lifestyle factors (P=0.02). The association between ghrelin level and hunger score was observable in leaner individuals (r=0.28, p<0.0001) but not in heavier individuals (r=-0.08, p=0.34; stratified by BMI < vs > 22.6 kg/m(2)). Restraint (R) and disinhibition (D) were not associated with ghrelin levels. The three eating behaviors demonstrated expected correlations with lifestyle supporting the validity of the TFEQ in this cohort. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ghrelin, a biological marker, is associated with self-reported perception of hunger, independently of anthropometric measures and lifestyle. PMID:21536060
The Parent Supervision Attributes Profile Questionnaire (PSAPQ), developed to measure aspects of caregiver supervision and protectiveness and previously applied within playgrounds and in the home, was modified for implementation in a beach setting. To assess the test-retest reliability of the PSAPQ beach modification (PSAPQ-BEACH), 20 caregivers completed the PSAPQ-BEACH twice, over a mean interval of 18 days (range 10-24). The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the PSAPQ-BEACH scores were compared to those of the PSAPQ. All scores on the PSAPQ-BEACH were higher than the PSAPQ, providing evidence that the questionnaire remains reliable after its adaptation to beach settings. PMID:21302168
Petrass, Lauren A; Blitvich, Jennifer D; Finch, Caroline F
Purpose: Simple scales with greater sensitivity than Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading to detect acute gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy, could be clinically useful. Methods and Materials: Do questionnaires used in benign gastrointestinal diseases detect toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy? The patient-completed Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBDQ) and Vaizey Incontinence questionnaires were compared prospectively at baseline and at Week 5 to physician-completed RTOG grading. Results: A total of 107 patients, median age 63 years, were recruited. After 5 weeks of treatment, patients with gynecologic and gastrointestinal cancer were more symptomatic than urologic patients (p 0.012; p = 0.014). Overall, 94% had altered bowel habits, 80% loose stool, 74% frequency, 65% difficult gas, 60% pain, >48% distress, 44% tenesmus, >40% restrictions in daily activity, 39% urgency, 37% fecal incontinence, and 40% required antidiarrheal medication. The median RTOG score was 1 (range, 0-2), median IBDQ score 204.5 (range, 74-224), and median Vaizey score 5 (range, 0-20). Chemotherapy preceding radiotherapy increased fecal incontinence (p 0.002). RTOG scores stabilized after 3 weeks, IBDQ scores peaked at Week 4, and Vaizey scores worsened throughout treatment. IBDQ and Vaizey scores distinguished between groups with different RTOG scores. Conclusion: The IBDQ and Vaizey questionnaires are reliable and sensitive, offering greater insight into the severity and range of symptoms compared with RTOG grading.
Khalid, Usman [Department of Medicine, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom); McGough, Camilla [Department of Medicine, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom); Hackett, Claire [Department of Medicine, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom); Blake, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom); Harrington, Kevin J. [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom); Khoo, Vincent S. [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom); Tait, Diana [Department of Radiotherapy, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom); Norman, Andrew R. [Department of Computing, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom); Andreyev, H. Jervoise N. [Department of Medicine, Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Surrey (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In recent years, psychological studies have increasingly come to support the so-called "Big Five" or "Five-factor Model" (FFM) of human personality. However, the vast majority of research in this field has been undertaken in Western contexts, thus raising the question of how applicable the Big Five is to Asian populations. Moreover, nearly all research into the Big Five has relied on traditional techniques of statistical analysis (e.g., factor analysis, correlation) to validate their results, despite the limitations of such methods. This study examined instrument validation of a widely-used Big Five instrument (the Factor Markers questionnaire) given to a Japanese population (n = 283) by using the Rasch rating scale model (Andrich, 1978). Rasch principal components analysis of the item residuals indicated the possible existence of additional factors within the Intellect/Imagination and Agreeableness factors, as well as additional item fit problems within each hypothesized construct. PMID:23234830
An Attitude Toward Blindness Questionnaire (ATBQ) was developed to assess individual progress through a Veterans Administration blind rehabilitation program. The instrument is also meant to measureattitudes toward blindness for blind persons, rehabilitation workers, and a "naive" group without contact with the blind. A method of assessing model…
This study examined the role of Hispanic students' friendships with White non-Hispanics (n-Hs) and African Americans (AAs) in predicting implicit and explicit prejudices toward these groups. Participants (N = 73) completed implicit and explicit attitudemeasures and a friendship questionnaire. Friendships were associated with implicit attitudes…
Aberson, Christopher L.; Porter, Michael K.; Gaffney, Amber M.
Athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI) appear to have relatively modest energy requirements despite demanding training regimes. Virtually nothing is known about the factors which influence the energy intake of those with a SCI including food related attitudes and behaviours. Using a cross-sectional observational design, three aspects of eating attitudes were measured using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) along
This exploratory study examines a subset of mobile phone use, the compulsive use of short message service (SMS) text messaging. A measure of SMS use, the SMS Problem Use Diagnostic Questionnaire (SMS-PUDQ), was developed and found to possess acceptable reliability and validity when compared to other measures such as self-reports of time spent using SMS and scores on a survey of problem mobile phone use. Implications for the field of addiction research, technological and behavioral addictions in particular, are discussed, and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:18085975
OBJECTIVE To conduct a cross-cultural adaptation of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire into Brazilian-Portuguese and to assess its measurement properties. INTRODUCTION This instrument is an outcome measure with 10 domains with scores ranging from 0–100, worst to best, respectively. The translated instrument will improve the examinations and foot care of rheumatoid arthritis patients. METHODS The questions were translated, back-translated, evaluated by a multidisciplinary committee and pre-tested (n = 40 rheumatoid arthritis subjects). The new version was submitted to a field test (n = 65) to evaluate measurement properties such as test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. The Health Assessment Questionnaire, Numeric Rating Scale for foot pain and Sharp/van der Heijde scores for foot X-rays were used to test the construct validity. RESULTS The cross-cultural adaptation was completed with minor wording adaptations from the original instrument. The evaluation of measurement properties showed high reliability with low variation coefficients between interviews. The ?-Cronbach coefficients varied from 0.468 to 0.855, while correlation to the Health Assessment Questionnaire and Numeric Rating Scale was statistically significant for five out of eight domains. DISCUSSION Intra- and inter-observer correlations showed high reliability. Internal consistency coefficients were high for all domains, revealing higher values for less subjective domains. As for construct validity, each domain revealed correlations with a specific group of parameters according to what the domains intended to measure. CONCLUSION The FHSQ was cross-culturally adapted, generating a reliable, consistent, and valid instrument that is useful for evaluating foot health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Ferreira, Ana F. B.; Laurindo, Ieda M. M.; Rodrigues, Priscilla T.; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Kowalski, Sergio C.; Tanaka, Clarice
Background Addiction treatment programs are increasingly working to address prevalent and comorbid tobacco dependence in their service populations. However at present there are few published measurement tools, with known psychometric properties, that can be used to assess client-level constructs related to tobacco dependence in addiction treatment settings. Following on previous work that developed a staff-level survey instrument, this report describes the development and measurement characteristics of the Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes and Services (S-KAS) for use with clients in addiction treatment settings. Method 250 clients enrolled in residential drug abuse treatment programs were surveyed. Summary statistics were used to characterize both the participants and their responses, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the underlying factor structure. Results Examination of the rotated factor pattern indicated that the latent structure was formed by one Knowledge factor, one Attitude factor, and two “service” factors reflecting Program Services and Clinician Services related to tobacco dependence. Standardized Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the four scales were, respectively, .57, .75, .82 and .82. Conclusions The proposed scales have reasonably good psychometric characteristics, although the knowledge scale leaves room for improvement, and will allow researchers to quantify client knowledge, attitudes and services regarding tobacco dependence treatment. Researchers, program administrators, and clinicians may find the S-KAS useful in changing organizational culture and clinical practices related to tobacco addiction, help in program evaluation studies, and in tracking and improving client motivation.
Guydish, Joseph; Tajima, Barbara; Chan, Mable; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Ziedonis, Douglas
Reported is a summary of the responses of 363 college science and engineering students to a questionnaire designed to determine their attitude towards physics. The majority of students found physics moderately interesting.
Modalities of questionnaire administration may affect data quality, particularly when conducting Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Surveys (BBSS) of uniformed personnel. We aimed to examine differences in administration, reporting and data quality across several common modalities of administration for BBSS endeavors. Prior to a large-scale BBSS endeavor with the uniformed services of Peru, we pilot tested three modes of questionnaire administration among personnel engaged in internal combat: face-to-face interview (FFI), self-administered paper-based interview (SAPI), and audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Individuals who took the survey using ACASI were less likely to have missing data on measures of sexual risk and alcohol abuse and were more likely to report sexual risk behaviours and symptoms of alcohol abuse; however, more individuals took the survey using SAPI given inadequate time to devote to sitting through an entire FFI or ACASI. Sexually transmitted infections did not vary significantly across modes of questionnaire administration. While more logistically complicated for BBSS efforts in resource-constrained settings, we recommend the use of ACASI in collecting BBSS data from uniformed personnel if conditions are permissible. PMID:23970774
The Nova Scotia Environmental Health Centre is a treatment facility for individuals with chronic environmental conditions such as multiple chemical sensitivity, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, chronic respiratory conditions and in some cases chronic pain. The premise of care is to provide a patient-centred multidisciplinary care approach leading to self-management strategies. In order to measure the outcome of the treatment in these complex problems, with overlapping diagnoses, symptoms in many body systems and suspected environmental triggers, a detailed symptoms questionnaire was developed specifically for this patient population and validated. Results from a pilot study in which an abbreviated symptoms questionnaire based on the top reported symptoms captured in previous research was used to measure the efficacy of a multidisciplinary care approach in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity are presented in this paper. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent, type and patterns of changes over time in the top reported symptoms with treatment measured using the abbreviated symptoms questionnaire. A total of 183 active and 109 discharged patients participated in the study where the health status was measured at different time periods of follow up since the commencement of treatment at the Centre. The findings from this study were successful in generating an initial picture of the nature and type of changes in these symptoms. For instance, symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, sinus conditions and tiredness showed early improvement, within the first 6 months of being in treatment, while others, such as fatigue, hoarseness or loss of voice, took longer while others showed inconsistent changes warranting further enquiry. A controlled longitudinal study is planned to confirm the findings of the pilot study.
The Maintenance Resource Management–Technical Operations Questionnaire (MRM\\/TOQ) is a brief survey questionnaire instrument developed to measure the attitudes and intentions of participants in airline maintenance communication and safety training workshops. This present paper describes the test of the effectiveness of the MRM\\/TOQ for its intended purpose as an evaluative measure. The test included samples of both maintenance management and aviation
The research on work and retirement attitudes is discrepant; some studies report a positive relationship between work attitudes and retirement attitudes, while other investigations find a negative or no relationship. Anticipated work changes and work and retirement attitudes were examined to determine patterns of withdrawal from occupational roles…
Background 'Caring for Country' is defined as Indigenous participation in interrelated activities with the objective of promoting ecological and human health. Ecological services on Indigenous-owned lands are belatedly attracting some institutional investment. However, the health outcomes associated with Indigenous participation in 'caring for country' activities have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to pilot and validate a questionnairemeasuring caring for country as an Indigenous health determinant and to relate it to an external reference, obesity. Methods Purposively sampled participants were 301 Indigenous adults aged 15 to 54 years, recruited during a cross-sectional program of preventive health checks in a remote Australian community. Questionnaire validation was undertaken with psychometric tests of internal consistency, reliability, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory one-factor congeneric modelling. Accurate item weightings were derived from the model and used to create a single weighted composite score for caring for country. Multiple linear regression modelling was used to test associations between the caring for country score and body mass index adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results The questionnaire demonstrated adequate internal consistency, test-retest validity and proxy-respondent validity. Exploratory factor analysis of the 'caring for country' items produced a single factor solution that was confirmed via one-factor congeneric modelling. A significant and substantial association between greater participation in caring for country activities and lower body mass index was demonstrated. Adjusting for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours, an inter-quartile range rise in caring for country scores was associated with 6.1 Kg and 5.3 Kg less body weight for non-pregnant women and men respectively. Conclusion This study indicates preliminary support for the validity of the caring for country concept and a questionnaire designed to measure it. This study also highlights the importance of investigating Indigenous-asserted health promotion activities. Further studies in similar populations are merited to test the generalisability of this questionnaire and to explore associations with other important Indigenous health outcomes.
Burgess, Christopher P; Berry, Helen L; Gunthorpe, Wendy; Bailie, Ross S
High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relatively little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses. We then focus on the measurement of
Peter Hoonakker; Pascale Carayon; Ayse P. Gurses; Roger Brown; Adjhaporn Khunlertkit; Kerry McGuire; James M. Walker
A series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted to evaluate a multi-camera videogrammetric system designed to measure model attitude in hypersonic facilities. The technique utilizes processed video data and applies photogrammetric principles for point tracking to compute model position including pitch, roll and yaw variables. A discussion of the constraints encountered during the design, development, and testing process, including lighting, vibration, operational range and optical access is included. Initial measurement results from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 31-Inch Mach 10 tunnel are presented.
A series of wind tunnel tests have been conducted to evaluate a multi-camera videogrammetric system designed to measure model attitude in hypersonic facilities. The technique utilizes processed video data and applies photogrammetric principles for point tracking to compute model position including pitch, roll and yaw variables. A discussion of the constraints encountered during the design, development, and testing process, including lighting, vibration, operational range and optical access is included. Initial measurement results from the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 31-Inch Mach 10 tunnel are presented.
Purpose: This study was conducted to translate and validate the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire in the Malay language. The psychometric properties in terms of construct and concurrent validity of the Malay version of BPI were evaluated. The internal consistency and test-retest stability were also evaluated. Methodology: The original version of BPI was translated into a Malay version by the standard procedure and piloted among 35 cancer patients with pain. A total of 113 (95.0%) agreed to participate in this study out of 119 eligible patients with an age ranging from 18 to 76 years. They were interviewed between August and November 2004 for the main study to evaluate the psychometric properties of Malay version of BPI. Results: The pain intensity items demonstrated high loading with a factor whereas the pain interference items were loaded on the other factor in factor analysis. Two factors explained 62% of the variance. With Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS), pain intensity scale had a moderate negative (Pearson’s) correlation (r=?0.520, p<0.001) and pain interference scale had a good negative correlation (r=?0.732, p<0.001), showing an appropriate concurrent validity. The coefficient alpha of both scales demonstrated a good internal consistency of the items. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest stability was 0.61 for the pain intensity scale and 0.88 for the pain interference scale. Conclusion: Overall, the Malay version of the BPI is a reliable and valid instrument for cancer pain assessment and it is comparable with the original version of the BPI in terms of structure and psychometric properties.
Oral-health-related quality of life measures that exist are designed for adults. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the CPQ11-14, a self-report measure of the impact of oral and oro-facial conditions on 11-to 14-year-old children. An item pool was generated with the use of a literature review and interviews with health professionals, parents, and child patients. The 36 items rated
A. Jokovic; D. Locker; M. Stephens; D. Kenny; B. Tompson; G. Guyatt
This article describes the development and field test of an instrument, the Views on Science and Education Questionnaire, designed to measure participants' concepts of the nature of science (NOS) and relevant teaching attitudes. The questionnaire includes 15 questions, each followed by several items representing different philosophical positions. Participants rank each item on a five-point scale. The items were empirically based
In the United States, rising healthcare costs have led to discussion about bending the cost curve. To understand the true burden of disease and its treatment, costs of care including those incurred by patients and their families must be comprehensively assessed using psychometrically sound instruments. The Resource Utilization Questionnaire (RUQ) is a 21 item self-report questionnaire first developed to measure the costs incurred by families of infants who had required intensive care during the newborn period. The purpose of this article is to describe the conceptualization of resource utilization and costs and other methodological issues in conducting economic analyses, the process of adapting the RUQ for use in children and families with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and the psychometric evaluation to establish content and criterion validity of the instrument. The finalized modified RUQ for T1DM (mRUQ-T1DM) contained 25 items reflecting direct (5 items) and non-direct (3 items) healthcare, patient/family time (8 items), and patient/family productivity (9 items) costs using a 3 month recall. The mRUQ-T1DM validly measures cost incurred by children and families with T1DM and is easily completed by parents. Furthermore, the mRUQ-T1DM may be adapted for use in other populations using a similar process.
Smaldone, Arlene; Tsimicalis, Argerie; Stone, Patricia W.
Background Spirometry is commonly accepted as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COPD, but the reality remains that quality assured spirometry is not or cannot be provided universally around the globe. Adding PEF measurement to a screening questionnaire may rule out airflow limitation compatible with COPD rationalizing spirometry testing. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a sample of individuals 40–80 yrs. old in Dubai, UAE. They were invited to answer a short socio-demographic questionnaire including a report on current, past history of smoking, and had PEF measured, then they conducted spirometry to identify airflow limitation compatible with COPD. Results Overall, 525 (91.0%) participants performed PEF and spirometry (68% male, with a mean age of 59 years, 17% UAE Nationals), 24% reported smoking of different sorts. Overall, 68 participants (12.9%, 95% C.I. 10.3% to 16.1%) had airflow limitation compatible with COPD. PEFR alone identified 141participants with airflow limitation compatible with COPD, with specificity of 80% and sensitivity of 73.5%. Conclusions PEFR could be an easy, cheap, and non-biased tool to assist with the case-finding of COPD before confirmation with spirometry.
Circadian rhythms, cyclic fluctuations in many physiological and psychological functions, are thought to influence adjustment to shiftwork. A widely acknowledged individual difference in circadian rhythms, commonly called morningness, indicates preferences associated with morning or evening activities. Various self-report instruments have been developed to measure morningness, although little measurement data have been published for these scales. Because morningness scales are being used to select workers for night shiftwork, psychometric evaluations of these scales are needed. Psychometric assessments of undergraduate responses (N = 501) on three widely used scales indicate internal (interitem) measurement deficiencies in all three. Therefore, a 13-item scale was developed that distills the best items from two of these scales. Relationships between the new composite scale and external criteria are comparable with or stronger than similar relationships between the published scales and external criteria. PMID:2793773
The content of spontaneously activated racial stereotypes among White Americans and the relation of this to more explicit measures of stereotyping and prejudice were investigated. Using a semantic priming paradigm, a prime was presented outside of conscious awareness (BLACK or WHITE), followed by a target stimulus requiring a word-nonword decision. The target stimuli included attributes that varied in valence and
Bernd Wittenbrink; Charles M. Judd; Bernadette Park
The content of spontaneously activated racial stereotypes among White Americans and the relation of this to more explicit measures of stereotyping and prejudice were investigated. Using a semantic priming paradigm, a prime was presented outside of conscious awareness (BLACK or WHITE), followed by a target stimulus requiring a word–nonword decision. The target stimuli included attributes that varied in valence and
Bernd Wittenbrink; Charles M. Judd; Bernadette Park
Experiential avoidance (EA) has been conceptualized as the tendency to avoid negative internal experiences and is an important concept in numerous conceptualizations of psychopathology as well as theories of psychotherapy. Existing measures of EA have either been narrowly defined or demonstrated unsatisfactory internal consistency and/or evidence…
Gamez, Wakiza; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman; Ruggero, Camilo; Watson, David
The dynamics of Cubesats carrying a drag balance instrument (DBI) for in situ atmosphere density measurements is analyzed. Atmospheric drag force is measured by the displacement of two light plates exposed to the incoming particle flow. This system is well suited for a distributed sensor network in orbit, to get simultaneous in situ local (non orbit averaged) measurements in multiple positions and orbit heights, contributing to the development and validation of global atmosphere models. The implementation of the DBI leads to orbit normal pointing spinning two body system. The use of a spin-magnetic attitude control system is suggested, based only on magnetometer readings, contributing to making the system simple, inexpensive, and reliable. It is shown, by an averaging technique, that this system provides for orbit normal spin axis pointing. The effect of the coupling between the attitude dynamics and the DBI is evaluated, analyzing its frequency content and showing that no frequency components arise, affecting the DBI performance. The analysis is confirmed by Monte Carlo numerical simulation results.
Trainees in a Title XX project were taught skills in working with parents. To measure training effectiveness, a questionnairemeasuring parent attitudes toward the center and the caregivers was given to parents of center children, before and after the training. The parents indicated on the second questionnaire that they were less satisfied with…
Background: The clients of Female Sex Workers (FSWs) have been represented from different socio-demographic backgrounds and their risk behaviour depends upon their learning skills and attitudes and its impacts on practice. Objective: The general objective of this study was to find the socio-demographic characteristics, background, knowledge, behaviour, and the attitude on STIs, HIV and AIDS of the clients of female sex workers. Material and Methods: This questionnaire based, cross sectional study was conducted on 109 clients of FSWs during the time period from January 2010 to July 2010 in Pokhara (submetropolitan city of the Kaski district), Nepal. The locations were the Baglung Bus Park, Lakeside and Mahendrapool. Result: Among the 109 respondents, the mininum and the maximum age were 18 and 50 years. According to the religion-wise distribution, 77.1% of the respondents were Hindus, 10.1% were Buddhists, 8.3% were Christians, 1% were Muslims and 3.7% were from other religions. 67.9% of the respondents were tested for HIV at least once, whereas nearly one third (32.1%) of the respondents were never tested for HIV. 49.5% of the respondents answered that there was no difference between HIV and AIDS. Among the respondents, 89.9% respondents knew how to be safe from STIs and the HIV infections and 99.1% knew about HIV and AIDS. Conclusion: HIV and AIDS is a cross cutting issue in the present situation rather than a health issue. One of the most at risk groups is the clients of female workers who frequently have risk behaviours like having sex with female sex workers. The sexual behaviour among these clients depends upon their attitude, knowledge and perception, which also influence several internal and external factors. In our study, the clients of the female sex workers had some extent of knowledge about the condom, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. They were made aware on these by different organizations who were working in the field of HIV and AIDS, but still they intended to practise unsafe sex with the female sex workers.
Rana, Manu S; Nepali, Bobin; Sathian, Brijesh; Aryal, Ram Prasad; Thapalia, Madav; Bhatta, Dharm R.
This article describes the development, reliability, and factor structure of a finely differentiated (18 dimensions) parent-report measure of temperament in 1.5- to 3-year-old children, using a cross-sectional sample (N=317) and a longitudinal sample of primary (N=104) and secondary (N=61) caregivers. Adequate internal consistency was demonstrated for all scales and moderate inter-rater reliability was evident for most scales. Longitudinal stability correlations
Samuel P. Putnam; Maria A. Gartstein; Mary K. Rothbart
Background Social psychology research on doping and outcome based evaluation of primary anti-doping prevention and intervention programmes have been dominated by self-reports. Having confidence in the validity and reliability of such data is vital. Methodology/Principal Findings The sample of 82 athletes from 30 sports (52.4% female, mean age: 21.48±2.86 years) was split into quasi-experimental groups based on i) self-admitted previous experience with prohibited performance enhancing drugs (PED) and ii) the presence of at least one prohibited PED in hair covering up to 6 months prior to data collection. Participants responded to questionnaires assessing a range of social cognitive determinants of doping via self-reports; and completed a modified version of the Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) assessing implicit attitudes to doping relative to the acceptable nutritional supplements (NS). Social projection regarding NS was used as control. PEDs were detected in hair samples from 10 athletes (12% prevalence), none of whom admitted doping use. This group of ‘deniers’ was characterised by a dissociation between explicit (verbal declarations) and implicit (BIAT) responding, while convergence was observed in the ‘clean’ athlete group. This dissociation, if replicated, may act as a cognitive marker of the denier group, with promising applications of the combined explicit-implicit cognitive protocol as a proxy in lieu of biochemical detection methods in social science research. Overall, discrepancies in the relationship between declared doping-related opinion and implicit doping attitudes were observed between the groups, with control measures remaining unaffected. Questionnaire responses showed a pattern consistent with self-reported doping use. Conclusions/Significance Following our preliminary work, this study provides further evidence that both self-reports on behaviour and social cognitive measures could be affected by some form of response bias. This can question the validity of self-reports, with reliability remaining unaffected. Triangulation of various assessment methods is recommended.
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on AIDS or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnairemeasuring their knowledge of AIDS, attitudes toward AIDS, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudesmeasures were slight. In particular, there was little effect on social attitudes. The showing of one educational movie on AIDS (particularly the movie that was used in this experiment) appears to be insufficient to educate students on this issue. PMID:2723257
Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most commonly observed stress-related conditions following combat exposure and its effective prevention is a high health-care priority. Reports of peritraumatic reactions have been shown to be highly associated with PTSD among combat exposed service members. However, existing instruments measuring peritraumatic symptoms were not specifically developed to assess combat-related peritraumatic stress and each demonstrates a different peritraumatic focus. We therefore developed the Peritraumatic Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ), a new military-specific rating scale focused upon the wide range of symptoms suggestive of combat-related peritraumatic distress in actively deployed Service Members. This study describes the development of the PBQ and reports on the psychometric properties of its self-rated version (PBQ-SR). Methods 688 Marine infantry service members were retrospectively assessed by the PBQ-SR within the scope of the Marine Resiliency Study after their deployment to war zone. Participants have been additionally assessed by a variety of questionnaires, as well as clinical interviews both pre and post-deployment. Results The PBQ-SR demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, as well as high correlation with trait dissociation prior to deployment. Component analysis suggested a latent bi-dimensional structure separating a peritraumatic emotional distress and physical awareness factor. The PBQ-SR total score showed high correlation to general anxiety, depression, poorer general health and posttraumatic symptoms after deployment and remained a significant predictor of PTSD severity, after controlling for those measures. The suggested screening cut-off score of 12 points demonstrated satisfactory predictive power. Conclusions This study confirms the ability of the PBQ-SR to unify the underlying peritraumatic symptom dimensions and reliably assess combat-related peritraumatic reaction as a general construct. The PBQ-SR demonstrated promise as a potential standard screening measure in military clinical practice, while It’s predictive power should be established in prospective studies.
Background Augmenting validated paper versions of existing outcome measures with an equivalent online version may offer substantial research advantages (cost, rapidity and reliability). However, equivalence of online and paper questionnaires cannot be assumed, nor can acceptability to respondents. The aim was to test whether online and written versions of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), a standard measure of functional disability in back pain, are equivalent at both group and individual levels to establish whether they can be used interchangeably. Methods This is a within-participants equivalence study. 167 participants with back pain fully completed both the paper and online versions of the RMDQ in random order. Participants were recruited from a chiropractic clinic and patient support groups in Southern England. Limits of equivalence were pre-defined as 0.5 RMDQ points, the Bland-Altman range was calculated, and participants' comments were examined using content analysis. Results The mean score difference was 0.03 (SD = 1.43), with the 95% Confidence Interval falling entirely within our limits of equivalence (-0.19 to 0.25). The Bland-Altman range was -2.77 to 2.83 RMDQ points. Participants identified unique advantages and disadvantages associated with each version of the RMDQ. Conclusions The group and individual level data suggest that online and paper versions of the RMDQ are equivalent and can be used interchangeably. The Bland-Altman range appears to reflect the known measurement properties of the RMDQ. Furthermore, participants' comments confirmed the potential value to be had from offering them the choice of completing the RMDQ online or on paper.
The present study aimed to: (1) examine Chinese children's attitudes toward mental retardation, (2) investigate cross-cultural similarities or differences in these attitudes, and (3) extend the use of Western-attitudequestionnaires to Chinese samples. The present study included 489 Chinese children (265 boys and 224 girls), aged from 4 to 15 years. Results showed that Chinese children demonstrated favorable attitudes toward
Catherine So-kum Tang; Cindy Davis; Anize Wu; Christopher Oliver
Background: Measurement of disability in rheumatoid arthritis is often used to support treatment decisions and outcome assessments, but is used without reference to the impact of disability on individual patients. Objective: To develop and validate a scale to measure individual values for functions, which is used to weight the level of an individual patient's functional loss and thus calculate the personal impact of disability. Methods: In four linked studies, first the phraseology for values was explored to develop a stem question for the value scale couched in terms patients understand (face validity). Then short and long versions of the value scale were compared (content validity) and tests of internal consistency and short term reliability undertaken (criterion validity). Finally, the value scale was examined for long term reliability and agreement with expected variables (criterion and construct validity), after which personal impact scores were calculated and their construct validity examined. Results: Patients understand the concept of values, and a positively phrased stem question was developed for the value scale, for which a short version was reasonably equivalent to a long version. The value scale was reliable over one week (96% changed by <1 point) with positive interitem correlation. Reasonable six and 12 month reliability was shown (52% changed by <0.5 points), and the value scale was independent of disability and clinical, psychological, personality, and social support variables. Personal impact scores were then calculated by using the value scores to weight disability scores. Impact scores varied widely between patients of similar disability. Personal impact for disability showed convergent validity with dissatisfaction with disability, perceived increase in disability, increased disease activity, worse psychological status, low social support, and time trade off for disability. It discriminated between patients with low and high dissatisfaction with disability, life satisfaction, depression, pain, and helplessness. Conclusion: This individualised personal impact scale should lend meaning to disability scores, improving the interpretation of clinical and research data.
ObjectivesToday, the doping attitudes of athletes can either be measured by asking athletes directly or with the help of indirect attitudemeasurement procedures as for example the implicit association test (IAT). Using indirect measures may be helpful for example when psychological effects of doping prevention programs shall be evaluated. In the present study we have analyzed and compared measurement properties
This study reports on the development and cross-national utility of a Likert type scale measuringattitudes toward unauthorized migration into a foreign country in two samples from "migrant-sending" nations. In the first phase a pool of 86 attitude statements were administered to a sample of 505 undergraduate students in Bulgaria (22.5% male; M age = 23, SD = 4.8). Exploratory factor analysis resulted in six factors, and a reduction to 34 items. The results yielded an overall alpha of (0.92) and alpha for subscales ranging from 0.70 to 0.89. In the second phase the 34-item scale was administered in a survey of 180 undergraduates from Sofia University in Bulgaria (16.7% male, M age = 23, SD = 4.8), plus 150 undergraduates from Hanoi State University in Vietnam (14.7% male, M age = 19, SD = 1.8). Results yielded a 19-item scale with no gender differences, and satisfactory alpha coefficients for a Vietnamese and Bulgarian sample of 0.87 and 0.89 respectively. This scale, equally applicable in both samples, includes items that reflect salient topics of concept of attitudes towards unauthorized migration. An exploratory principal component analysis of the Bulgarian and Vietnamese version of the 19-item scale yielded three factors accounting for 54% and 47% of the variance respectively. A procrustes analysis indicates high conceptual equivalence in the two samples for factor 1 and 2, and moderate for factor 3. This study lends support to the idea that despite different cultural meanings there is a common meaning space in culturally diverse societies. PMID:18466192
VAN DER Veer, Kees; Ommundsen, Reidar; Krumov, Krum; VAN LE, Hao; Larsen, Knud S
Analyses of the effectiveness of substance abuse treatments across racial/ethnic groups should ensure that outcome measures have the same conceptual meaning (i.e., measurement equivalence) across groups. Because racial groups differ in perceptions and experiences of the therapeutic alliance, this study investigated measurement equivalence properties of the Revised Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAq-II) across racial groups. The sample included 138 African American and 133 non-Latino White participants, age 18-64 years, who participated in a randomized clinical trial investigating the effectiveness of Motivational Enhancement Therapy in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Results demonstrated configural invariance and two forms of metric invariance (weak and strong/scalar), suggesting that conceptualizations of therapeutic alliance and overall levels of endorsement of therapeutic alliance are comparable across racial groups. The groups indicated partial, strict metric nonequivalence. No studies to date reported measurement equivalence properties of the HAq-II. Findings support valid measurement and interpretation of HAq-II outcomes. PMID:23522849
Background The Me and My School Questionnaire (M&MS) is a self-report measure for children aged eight years and above that measures emotional difficulties and behavioural difficulties, and has been previously validated in a community sample. The present study aimed to assess its clinical sensitivity to justify its utility as a screening tool in schools. Methods Data were collected from service-users (n?=?91, 8–15 years) and accompanying parent/carer in outpatient mental health services in England. A matched community sample (N?=?91) were used to assess the measure’s ability to discriminate between low- and high-risk samples. Results Receiver operating curves (area under the curve, emotional difficulties?=?.79; behavioural difficulties?=?.78), mean comparisons (effect size, emotional difficulties d?=?1.17, behavioural difficulties?=?1.12) and proportions above clinical thresholds indicate that the measure satisfactorily discriminates between the samples. The scales have good internal reliability (emotional difficulties ??=?.84; behavioural difficulties ??=?.82) and cross-informant agreement with parent-reported symptoms is comparable to existing measures (r?=?.30). Conclusion The findings of this study indicate that the M&MS sufficiently discriminates between high-risk (clinic) and low-risk (community) samples, has good internal reliability, compares favourably with existing self-report measures of mental health and has comparable levels of agreement between parent-report and self-report to other measures. Alongside existing validation of the M&MS, these findings justify the measures use as a self-report screening tool for mental health problems in community settings for children aged as young as 8 years.
Background A mission statement (MS) sets out the long-term goals of an institution and is supposed to be suited for studying learning environments. Yet, hardly any study has tested this issue so far. The aim of the present study was the development and psychometric evaluation of an MS-Questionnaire (MSQ) focusing on explicit competencies. We investigated to what extent the MSQ captures the construct of learning environment and how well a faculty is following - in its perception - a competency orientation in a competency-based curriculum. Methods A questionnaire was derived from the MS “teaching” (Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf) which was based on (inter-) nationally accepted goals and recommendations for a competency based medical education. The MSQ was administered together with the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) to 1119 students and 258 teachers. Cronbach’s alpha was used to analyze the internal consistency of the items. Explorative factor analyses were performed to analyze homogeneity of the items within subscales and factorial validity of the MSQ. Item discrimination was assessed by means of part-whole corrected discrimination indices, and convergent validity was analyzed with respect to DREEM. Demographic variations of the respondents were used to analyze the inter-group variations in their responses. Results Students and teachers perceived the MS implementation as “moderate” and on average, students differed significantly in their perception of the MS. They thought implementation of the MS was less successful than faculty did. Women had a more positive perception of educational climate than their male colleagues and clinical students perceived the implementation of the MS on all dimensions significantly worse than preclinical students. The psychometric properties of the MSQ were very satisfactory: Item discrimination was high. Similarly to DREEM, the MSQ was highly reliable among students (? = 0.92) and teachers (? = 0.93). In both groups, the MSQ correlated highly positively with DREEM (r = 0.79 and 0.80, p < 0.001 each). Factor analyses did not reproduce the three areas of the MS perfectly. The subscales, however, could be identified as such both among teachers and students. Conclusions The perceived implementation of faculty-specific goals can be measured in an institution to some considerable extent by means of a questionnaire developed on the basis of the institution’s MS. Our MSQ provides a reliable instrument to measure the learning climate with a strong focus on competencies which are increasingly considered crucial in medical education. The questionnaire thus offers additional information beyond the DREEM. Our site-specific results imply that our own faculty is not yet fully living up to its competency-based MS. In general, the MSQ might prove useful for faculty development to the increasing number of faculties seeking to measure their perceived competency orientation in a competency-based curriculum.
Purpose To construct and test the reliability and validity of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC) questionnaire\\u000a measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Structured development and psychometric testing of a parent satisfaction-with-care instrument with the results of two cohorts\\u000a of parents (n = 2,046) from eight PICUs in the Netherlands.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results In the first cohort, 667\\/1,055 (63%)
Jos M. Latour; Johannes B. van Goudoever; Hugo J. Duivenvoorden; Marcel J. I. J. Albers; Nicolette A. M. van Dam; Eugenie Dullaart; Marc van Heerde; Marjorie de Neef; Carin W. M. Verlaat; Elise M. van Vught; Jan A. Hazelzet
Home characteristic questions are used in epidemiological studies and clinical settings to assess potentially harmful exposures in the home. The objective of this study was to determine whether questionnaire-reported home characteristics can predict directly measured pollutants. Sixty home inspections were conducted on a subsample of the 2006 population-based Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire. Indoor/outdoor air and settled dust samples were analyzed. Mean Fel d 1 was higher (p < 0.0001) in homes with a cat (450.58 ?g/g) versus without (22.28 ?g/g). Mean indoor NO2 was higher (p = 0.003) in homes with gas stoves (14.98 ppb) versus without (8.31 ppb). Self-reported musty odours predicted higher glucan levels (10554.37 ?g/g versus 6308.58 ?g/g, p = 0.0077). Der f 1 was predicted by the home’s age, but not by reports of carpets, and was higher in homes with mean relative humidity > 50% (61.30 ?g/g, versus 6.24 ?g/g, p = 0.002). Self-reported presence of a cat, a gas stove, musty odours, mice, and the home’s age and indoor relative humidity over 50% predicted measured indoor levels of cat allergens, NO2, fungal glucan, mouse allergens and dust mite allergens, respectively. These results are helpful for understanding the significance of indoor exposures ascertained by self-reporting in large epidemiological studies and also in the clinical setting.
Loo, C.K. Jennifer; Foty, Richard G.; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Miller, J. David; Evans, Greg; Stieb, David M.; Dell, Sharon D.
Proponents of the disease concept of alcoholism have argued that its dissemination among the general public will promote humanitarian attitudes toward alcoholics. This claim was subjected to empirical scrutiny. A quota sample of 200 members of the general public completed a questionnaire designed to measure beliefs about alcoholism and attitudes toward alcoholics. As predicted, the majority of respondents endorsed a disease formulation. However, examination of the data using correlational and factor analytic techniques indicated that two humanitarian views--expressing sympathetic attitudes toward alcoholics and regarding them as deserving of public funds--were largely independent of endorsing a disease view. PMID:3429071
Affective engineering uses mathematical models to convert the information obtained from persons' attitude to physical elements into an ergonomic design. However, applications in the domain have not in many cases met measurement assumptions. This paper proposes a novel approach based on Rasch measurement theory to overcome the problem. The research demonstrates that if data fit the model, further variables can be added to a scale. An empirical study was designed to determine the range of compliance where consumers could obtain an impression of a moisturizer cream when touching some product containers. Persons, variables and stimulus objects were parameterised independently on a linear continuum. The results showed that a calibrated scale preserves comparability although incorporating further variables.
Psychopathic personality traits are associated with a variety of sexually coercive behaviors. The current study introduced a new measure of attitudes toward sexually predatory tactics and used the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy as a framework for understanding the association between psychopathy and sexual coercion. The new measure, in which respondents rate the behaviors of men employing various sexually coercive tactics, had a two-component structure and was associated with other measures of problematic sexual behaviors. For the vignettes describing manipulative behaviors, men who were bolder, meaner, and more disinhibited rated these behaviors as more acceptable and as behaviors they would be more likely to enact. There was also an interaction between boldness and disinhibition: At higher levels of boldness, disinhibition became a stronger predictor of positive attitudes toward these behaviors. Only disinhibition was related to reporting more positive attitudes toward vignettes describing more extreme and potentially criminal predatory behaviors. PMID:23786267
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess students' culturally sensitive environments and to examine the associations between these factors and students' attitudes towards science. A measure of students' environment, namely, the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed. The instrument…
Stigma is a well-documented concern of people living with mental illness. Through the use of novel exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) methods, we aimed to elucidate the structure of stigma as measured by two stigma scales (the Depression Stigma Scale and the Social Distance Scale), to establish dimensions of stigma towards a range of disorders and to compare levels on these dimensions between disorders and respondent subgroups. We used data from two Australian national surveys, one of the general community aged 15+ and another of youths aged 15-25. Stigma responses were elicited using a range of mental illness vignettes: depression, schizophrenia, social phobia and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). ESEM revealed that the structure of stigmatizing attitudes in young people and adults is comparable in personally held attitudes and those perceived in others. Personal and perceived stigma formed distinct dimensions with each comprising "Weak-not-sick" and "Dangerous/unpredictable" components. The social distance dimension of stigma was separate from other components of stigma, supporting the appropriateness of the existing Social Distance Scale. Scales reflecting these dimensions had different patterns of association with respondent age and gender, and the type of mental disorder portrayed in the vignette. PMID:24550065
Yap, Marie B H; Mackinnon, Andrew; Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F
AN INSTRUMENT WAS DEVELOPED AND PILOT TESTED FOR MEASURING OCCUPATIONAL ATTITUDES OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARD COMPONENT DIMENSIONS OF NONPROFESSIONAL-LEVEL WORK INVOLVED IN OFFICE, RETAIL, HEALTH SERVICE, AND CONSTRUCTION VOCATIONS. THE DIMENSIONS MEASURED WERE TOOLS, MATERIALS, NATURE OF TASKS, PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS, AND PHYSICAL…
In lower-income settings, women more often than men justify intimate partner violence (IPV). Yet, the role of measurement invariance across gender is unstudied. We developed the ATT-IPV scale to measureattitudes about physical violence against wives in 1,055 married men and women ages 18-50 in My Hao district, Vietnam. Across 10 items about transgressions of the wife, women more often than men agreed that a man had good reason to hit his wife (3 % to 92 %; 0 % to 67 %). In random split-half samples, one-factor exploratory factor analysis (EFA) (N 1 = 527) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) (N 2 = 528) models for nine items with sufficient variability had significant loadings (0.575-0.883; 0.502-0.897) and good fit (RMSEA = 0.068, 0.048; CFI = 0.951, 0.978, TLI = 0.935, 0.970). Three items had significant uniform differential item functioning (DIF) by gender, and adjustment for DIF revealed that measurement noninvariance was partially masking men's lower propensity than women to justify IPV. A CFA model for the six items without DIF had excellent fit (RMSEA = 0.019, CFI = 0.994, TLI = 0.991) and an attitudinal gender gap similar to the DIF-adjusted nine-item model, suggesting that the six-item scale reliably measuresattitudes about IPV across gender. Researchers should validate the scale in urban Vietnam and elsewhere and decompose DIF-adjusted gender attitudinal gaps. PMID:24846070
Background and Purpose—Chronic hemiparetic patients often retain the ability to manage activities requiring both hands, either through the use of the affected arm or compensation with the unaffected limb. A measure of this overall ability was developed by adapting and validating the ABILHAND questionnaire through the Rasch measurement model. ABILHAND measures the patient's perceived difficulty in performing everyday manual activities.
Massimo Penta; Luigi Tesio; Carlyne Arnould; Arturo Zancan; Jean-Louis Thonnard
A prototype dual-axis electrolytic tilt sensor package for angular position measurements was built and evaluated in a laboratory environment. The objective was to investigate the use of this package for making wind tunnel wall attitudemeasurements for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The instrumentation may replace an existing, more costly, and less rugged servo accelerometer package (angle-of-attack package) currently in use. The dual-axis electrolytic tilt sensor package contains two commercial electrolytic tilt sensors thermally insulated with NTF foam, all housed within a stainless steel package. The package is actively heated and maintained at 160 F using foil heating elements. The laboratory evaluation consisted of a series of tests to characterize the linearity, repeatability, cross-axis interaction, lead wire effect, step response, thermal time constant, and rectification errors. Tests revealed that the total RMS errors for the x-axis sensor is 0.084 degree, and 0.182 degree for the y-axis sensor. The RMS errors are greater than the 0.01 degree specification required for NTF wall attitudemeasurements. It is therefore not a viable replacement for the angle-of-attack package in the NTF application. However, with some physical modifications, it can be used as an inexpensive 5-degree range dual-axis inclinometer with overall accuracy approaching 0.01 degree under less harsh environments. Also, the data obtained from the tests can be valuable for wind tunnel applications of most types of electrolytic tilt sensors.
This study investigated the relationships between demographic characteristics, motives and attitudes to studying, self-reported study behaviour and measures of outcome. Students taking courses by distance learning received a postal survey containing a short form of the Motivated Strategies and Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and the Revised…
This study investigated social beliefs about gender-appropriate reactions to trauma. Ninety-three men and 179 women completed vignette measures of attitudes toward victims, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, and the Trauma History Questionnaire. Participants evaluated male victims less favorably than female victims. Women responded more positively toward all victims than men. Participants regarded female crime victims more positively than their male
Homophobia and heterosexism in women's athletics have been studied extensively using a qualitative approach. Limited research from a quantitative approach has been conducted in the area and none with a sport-specific instrument. The purpose of the current study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to measure heterosexist attitudes in…
We aimed to further investigate the "hairlessness" norm that is the common practice of body hair removal among women. A sample of 198 undergraduate students (91 men, 107 women) completed questionnaires asking about attitudes toward women's body hair and the reasons women remove this hair, as well as a measure of disgust sensitivity. It was found…
The current study was motivated by a need for a self-report questionnaire that assesses a broad range of subthreshold autism traits, is brief and easily administered, and is relevant to the general population. An initial item pool was administered to 1,709 students. Structural validity analysis resulted in a 24-item questionnaire termed the…
Kanne, Stephen M.; Wang, Jennifer; Christ, Shawn E.
This study reports the development of The Hearing Parents' Perceptions of Health Professionals' Advice Questionnaire (HPP/HPQ). This questionnaire was designed to investigate the impact of the advice and information that parents receive from health professionals during the time when their child's hearing loss is identified and how parents, in…
This article describes the development and validation of the Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-Op) and the Organizational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-Org). In Study 1, a series of focus groups were used to elicit the most common stressors associated with policing. During this study, it became apparent that officers separated their stressors into two general categories: operational and organizational. In the
Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of setting in environmental education. It was found that students in both program types significantly increased their environmental knowledge as a result of the program, but only students in the school-based programs significantly improved their attitudes towards the environment. Analyzing by grade, seventh grade students scored significantly lower on all aspects of the test than the younger students, suggesting a detrimental effect of novel settings on learning in adolescents. Teacher survey data suggests that teachers place great importance on how the education program would fit in with their school-based curriculum, but did little to integrate the program into their classroom teaching. Observations of the programs revealed some logistical issues, and some concerns regarding the zoo instructors' use of curriculum materials. Analyzing the test data from a constructivist perspective revealed that students with high incoming environmental attitudes had significant increases in environmental knowledge. That is, students with positive attitudes towards the environment are predisposed to engage in learning about the environment. Some gender-specific findings are also discussed.
This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°. PMID:24859028
This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°.
Background Physical inactivity is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Recently, we showed that non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) assessed by the self-reported questionnaire is favorably associated with metabolic risks in patients with type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of the questionnaire by comparing with objectively measured daily physical activity (PA) by using the triaxial accelerometer. Methods Daily physical activity level (PAL) of 51 participants (24 men and 27 women) with type 2 diabetes was measured by the triaxial accelerometer. At the same time, we evaluated their NEAT score using our original questionnaire modified from a compendium of physical activities. Results The NEAT score was significantly and positively correlated with PAL measured by the triaxial accelerometer (r?=?0.604, P?0.001). PAL was also significantly and positively correlated with both the locomotive NEAT score and the non-locomotive NEAT score (r?=?0.444, P?=?0.001 and r?=?0.526, P?0.001, respectively). Conclusions The NEAT score measured by the self-reported questionnaire was highly correlated with PAL measured by the triaxial accelerometer. Our original NEAT questionnaire may be useful for evaluation of daily PAL in clinical practices.
Background Development of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome-specific outcome measures is needed for the evaluation of TCM syndrome-specific therapies. We constructed a Kidney Deficiency Syndrome Questionnaire (KDSQ) for the evaluation of the common TCM syndromes Kidney-Yin Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yin) and Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang) in middle-aged women with menopausal symptoms. Methods KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang were traditionally defined by expert opinion were validated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Content validity was tested by EFA on a sample of 236 women from a seminar and SEM on another sample of 321 women from a postal survey. Other psychometric properties were tested on 292 women from the seminar at baseline and two systematically selected sub-samples: 54 who reported no changes in discomforts 11–12?days after the baseline and 31 who reported changes in discomforts 67–74?days after the baseline. All participants completed the KDSQ, the Greene Climacteric Scale and the standard 12-item Short Form Health Survey. Results The EFA and SEM established the measurement models of KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang supporting content validity of the KDSQ. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach’s Alpha >0.70). Construct validity was supported by theoretically-derived levels of correlation with the established external measures. Test–retest reliability was strong (ICCagreement: KDS-Yin, 0.94; KDS-Yang, 0.93). The KDSQ was responsive to changes over time as tested by effect size and longitudinal validity. Conclusions The KDSQ was a valid and reliable measure for KDS-Yin and KDS-Yang in Hong Kong Chinese middle-aged women with menopausal symptoms.
The primary study aims were to create reliable measures of therapists' attitudes about and preferences to use Relationship Focused Interventions (RFIs), and investigate factors that influence them. Explicit and implicit measures of therapists' attitudes and preferences were administered to a national sample of mental health trainees and FAP…
The development and initial psychometric investigation of the Dating Attitudes Inventory (DAI) is reported. The DAI was created, to fill a gap in the literature and to measure specific masculine ideology and traditional gender attitudes that rationalize the abuse of women. Using a sample (n = 164) of male college students, a 20-item measure was…
Schwartz, Jonathan Peter; Kelley, Frances A.; Kohli, Nidhi
A survey was conducted of ten target study groups and subgroups for Klamath Falls, Oregon, and Susanville, California: local government, current and potential industry at the site, relocators to the site, current and potential financial community, regulators, and current and potential promoters and developers. The results of benchmark attitudinal measurement is presented separately for each target group. A literature review was conducted and Macro-environmental attitudes of a sample of local government and industry personnel at the sites were assessed. An assessment of capabilities was made which involved two measurements. The first was a measurement of a sample of promoters, developers, and industrial service companies active at the site to determine infrastructure capabilities required by industry for geothermal plants. The second measurement involved analyzing a sample of industry management in the area and defining their requirements for plant retrofit and expansion. Finally, the processes used by the study group to analyze information to reach commitment and regulatory decisions that significantly impact on geothermal energy projects at the site were identified and defined.
Alongside a family of instruments designed to measure the attitudinal dimension of religion within specific faith contexts (Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism), the Astley-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Theistic Faith was designed to assess the attitudinal dimension of religion within a multifaith context. Drawing on a sample of 4338…
Francis, Leslie J.; Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew
To measure the sex role attitudes of Army personnel, an initial set of 174 items was developed. These items were administered to 721 soldiers at three Army installations; the sample consisted of 540 men and 181 women--401 of these were officers and 320 were enlisted personnel. Factor analysis of these 174 items indicated one strong…
Research on outcomes from psychiatric disorders has highlighted the importance of expressed emotion (EE), but its cost-effective measurement remains a challenge. This article describes development of the Family Attitude Scale (FAS), a 30-item instrument that can be completed by any informant. Its psychometric characteristics are reported in parents of undergraduate students and in 70 families with a schizophrenic member. The
David J Kavanagh; Paul O'Halloran; Vijaya Manicavasagar; Dianne Clark; Olga Piatkowska; Chris Tennant; Alan Rosen
The Math and Me Survey was designed to measure elementary students' attitudes toward mathematics. The authors conducted content validation, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, reliability, and external validity analyses to improve it and to test its psychometric properties. The final Math and Me Survey…
Background: Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome measure in patients with AT. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Web of Science, and Cochrane Controlled trials to identify trials using VISA-A for patients with AT. This was followed by data mining and analysis of the obtained data. Results: Twenty-six clinical trials containing 1336 individuals were included. Overall mean VISA-A scores ranged from 24 (severe AT) to 100 (healthy). Mean VISA-A scores in patients with AT ranged from 24 to 96.6. Healthy subjects scored a minimum of 96. Only two groups of participants from two different studies had a post-VISA-A score as high as healthy individuals, indicating full recovery of the AT. Conclusions: A VISA-A score lower than 24 is rarely attained in AT. Only few patients with AT reach an equivalent VISA-A score compared to uninjured healthy subjects following treatment. The VISA-A is a reliable tool when assessing AT patients, providing a good assessment of the actual condition from very poor, (score around 24) to excellent (a score of 90), which based on this systematic review and previous studies could be considered full recovery from AT.
Accurate assessment of attitudes about intimate partner violence is important for evaluation of prevention and early intervention programs. Assessment of attitudes about cross-gender interactions is particularly susceptible to bias because it requires specifying the gender of the perpetrator and the victim. As it is likely that respondents will tend to identify with the same-gender actor, items and scales assessing attitudes about intimate partner violence may not have equivalent measurement properties for male and female respondents. This article examines data from 2,575 high school students who participated in a teen-dating violence intervention study. The majority of participants were Latino (91%), and the sample was nearly evenly split with respect to gender (51% female). Items from two scales (boy-on-girl violence, 4 items; girl-on-boy violence, 5 items) reflecting teens' attitudes about dating violence were calibrated with the graded item response theory (IRT) model and evaluated for differential item functioning (DIF) by gender. A total of three items, two from the girl-on-boy violence scale and one from the boy-on-girl violence scale, were identified as functioning differently for girls and boys. In all cases where DIF was detected, the item's attitudinal statement was easier to accept for the gender group that was portrayed as victim rather than perpetrator. For both scales, accounting for the identified DIF influenced inferences about the magnitude of mean differences in attitudes between boys and girls. These results support the use of IRT scores that account for DIF to minimize measurement error and improve inferences about gender differences in attitudes about dating violence. PMID:18701746
Edelen, Maria Orlando; McCaffrey, Daniel F; Marshall, Grant N; Jaycox, Lisa H
An instrument was developed to assess attitudes about science and administered to 505 fourth, fifth and sixth grade pupils. Attitudinal objectives found in the literature were selected and defined in behavioral terms by a panel of judges. Items for the Science Attitude Scale (SAS) were based on selected objectives and revised to appropriate…
Background: While current practices strive to include individuals with intellectual disabilities in community opportunities, stigmatizing attitudes held by the public can be a barrier to achieving true social inclusion. Methods: A sample of 625 community members completed the Social Distance Subscale of the Multidimensional Attitude Scale on…
Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Burge, Philip; Brown, Hilary K.; Arsenault, Elizabeth
In this article the authors present a confirmatory factor analysis of the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers (TAC) and the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Information Technology (TAT) scales by Christensen and Knezek (1996, 1998) using large samples from three states. The TAC was reduced from 98 items and nine factors to 35 items and eight factors,…
Shattuck, Dominick; Corbell, Kristen A.; Osbourne, Jason W.; Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Grable, Lisa Leonor
Approximately 900 employees in the day care centers in one Swedish commune answered a questionnairemeasuring child rearing attitudes and personnel's engagement and feelings concerning their work with the children. The child rearing attitudes were described as either "present-focused" or "future-focused." Of particular interest in this…
For the docking of spacecrafts a highly precise attitude and position control is necessary. This requires an adequate measurement of the relative position and attitude of the docking spacecrafts. Here is presented, how a rendezvous and docking sensor (RVS) consisting of a laser range finder (LRF) with a scanning mirror system and a set of retro reflectors can be used to measure the necessary data. The active part of the measurement system is mounted on the chaser. The passive part forms the target pattern and is a set of three or more retro reflectors mounted on the space station. A laser beam scans the field of view and detects the range and the line of sight of each retro reflector of the target successively (Fig. 1). The sequence of the LRF measurements of the moving chaser is processed in a special multi-model state observer (Fig. 2). In this way the results of the retro measurements are composed to the relative position and attitude between chaser and target. Because of the sequential measurement y of the single retro reflectors from the moving chaser, a precise determination of the attitude can only be performed, if all the state variables x* of position and attitude with the belonging velocities of the rigid chaser are estimated. The availability of the complete state vector also supports the application of state feedback control of the chaser motion. Fig. 1. Scanning laser radar with target pattern Fig. 2. Multi-model state observer for sequential retro measurements (right) The observer computes with increasing accuracy in time the 12 state variables of relative position and attitude (Euler angles or quaternions) with respect to the target as well as the translatory and rotatory velocities. It models a reduced discrete-time state equation system (k, ) of the chaser and the LRF measurements to the different retro reflectors. So for each retro reflector a partial model depending on its position in the target pattern exists (As, C). Information fusion to reduce the uncertainty of the state vector means, that each retro reflector measurement gives a specific contribution to determine the state variables and to increase their accuracy in the sequence. The dynamic behaviour of the observer, its stability, its approaching behaviour and its accuracy depend mainly on the set of observer feedback matrices H and the initial conditions of the state vector x*(0) to be estimated. The obtained algorithms are simulated under the conditions of a usual flight scenario and the results are discussed. A short observer transient time of 4 or 5 measurement cycles k can be reached.