The Brunel Lifestyle Physical Activity Questionnaire a4 If you add together each session of pre-planned physical activity that you engage in during a normal week, how much time would you estimate that you spend in total?
The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Elderly Japanese (PAQ-EJ) 1 Over 7 typical days, how often did you take a walk or ride a bicycle on errands such as going to or from a store or taking children to school?
Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) A1 In a USUAL WEEK, do you cycle in or around your new neighbourhood or new local area to get to or from somewhere (such as cycling to a shop or to public transport) or for recreation, health or fitness (including cycling with your dog)?
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 13 Do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness or recreational (leisure) activities that causes a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, volleyball) for at least 10 minutes continuously?
Background Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and relaxation of office workers, on need for recovery. Individual work performance was a secondary outcome measure of the trial. In total, 39 hypotheses were formulated concerning correlations between changes on the IWPQ scales and changes on similar constructs (e.g., presenteeism) and distinct constructs (e.g., need for recovery) used in the trial. Results 260 Participants completed the IWPQ at both baseline and 12 months of follow-up. For the IWPQ scales, 23%, 15%, and 38%, respectively, of the hypotheses could be confirmed. In general, the correlations between change scores were weaker than expected. Nevertheless, at least 85% of the correlations were in the expected direction. Conclusions Based on results of the current study, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Several reasons may account for the weaker than expected correlations. Future research on the IWPQ’s responsiveness should be conducted, preferably in other populations and intervention studies, where greater changes over time can be expected. PMID:24885593
Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Clarke, Mike; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Pratap, Sarah; Wentz, Reinhard; Kwan, Irene
Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258?315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review. What is already known on this topicPostal questionnaires are widely used in the collection of data in epidemiological studies and health researchNon-response to postal questionnaires reduces the effective sample size and can introduce biasWhat this study addsThis systematic review includes more randomised controlled trials than any previously published review or meta-analysis no questionnaire responseThe review has identified effective ways to increase response to postal questionnairesThe review will be updated regularly in the Cochrane Library PMID:12016181
Mayeske, George W.; And Others
This report analyzes questionnaire item responses from the teacher questionnaire administered as part of the Educational Opportunities Survey (EOS). The analyses were conducted (1) to present the number and percent of teachers responding to each questionnaire item alternative, (2) to determine the number of teachers who failed to answer each…
van der Molen, Thys; Willemse, Brigitte WM; Schokker, Siebrig; ten Hacken, Nick HT; Postma, Dirkje S; Juniper, Elizabeth F
Background The new Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines advice to focus treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) on improvement of functional state, prevention of disease progression and minimization of symptoms. So far no validated questionnaires are available to measure symptom and functional state in daily clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). Methods Qualitative research with patients and clinicians was performed to generate possible items to evaluate clinical COPD control. Thereafter, an item reduction questionnaire was sent to 77 international experts. Sixty-seven experts responded and the 10 most important items, divided into 3 domains (symptoms, functional and mental state) were included in the CCQ (scale: 0 = best, 6 = worst). Results Cross-sectional data were collected from 119 subjects (57 COPD, GOLD stage I-III; 18 GOLD stage 0 and 44 (ex)smokers). Cronbach's ? was high (0.91). The CCQ scores in patients (GOLD 0-III) were significantly higher than in healthy (ex)smokers. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between the CCQ total score and domains of the SF-36 (? = 0.48 to ? = 0.69) and the SGRQ (? = 0.67 to ? = 0.72). In patients with COPD, the correlation between the CCQ and FEV1%pred was ? =-0.49. Test-retest reliability was determined in 20 subjects in a 2-week interval (Intra Class Coefficient = 0.94). Thirty-six smokers with and without COPD showed significant improvement in the CCQ after 2 months smoking cessation, indicating the responsiveness of the CCQ. Conclusion The CCQ is a self-administered questionnaire specially developed to measure clinical control in patients with COPD. Data support the validity, reliability and responsiveness of this short and easy to administer questionnaire. PMID:12773199
Burns, James A.
Members of the faculty and administration at Western Washington University (WWU) were surveyed in 1978 in an effort to discover trends that could affect the university by the year 2000. The response rate was 32 percent for faculty and 49 percent for administrators. The first section of the survey concerns general trends: economic (inflation,…
Felsten, G; Hill, V
We tested the hypotheses that the hostility and anger scales of the Buss and Perry (1992) [Buss, A. H. & Perry, M. (1992). The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459.] Aggression Questionnaire would predict anger in college students in response to mistreatment. We found low and high hostility groups did not differ in anger at baseline or after completing a task without provocation, but the high hostility group reported greater anger than the low group after the onset of provocation, which required all students to redo completed tasks because some students (confederates) were observed cheating. Hostility also influenced anxiety and depression, but only anger was greater as a result of the provocation in the high than in the low hostility group. The anger scale did not predict anger in response to provocation, but anger was higher in the high than the low anger group before the provocation. These findings support the construct validity of the Aggression Questionnaire hostility scale as a measure of suspicion, resentment and sensitivity to mistreatment. PMID:9922561
Moodie, Allan G.
The questionnaire for parents who previewed the drug education program for grades 4-7 in the Vancouver schools and responses to the questionnaire are presented. All questions except one involve rating aspects of the program on a scale--excellent, good, fair, poor. The last question asks for the respondent's comments. (For related documents, see TM…
Brown, Darine F.; Hartman, Bruce
Investigated issues associated with stimulating increased return rates to a mail questionnaire among school counselors. Results show that as the number of incentives received increased, the return rates increased in a linear fashion. The incentives did not introduce response error or affect the reliability of the Counselor Function Inventory.…
Jewell, Laura A.; Frazier, Donald T.
Provides summary results on a copy of the questionnaire completed by 91 physiology department chairmen. Also includes tables with data from past surveys for comparative purposes. Areas addressed include faculty, unfilled positions, training support, postdoctorates, salaries, space assigned to department (excluding lecture halls), and others. (JN)
Salomone, Paul R.; Miller, Glenn C.
In this experimental research several appeals to questionnaire respondents (professionalism, humor, importance, token compensation) were combined with stationery variations and threat of follow-up letters. Results were that no one combination of these three variables was most effective. Token compensation was recommended in combination with other…
Baranowski, Tom; Allen, Diane D.; Masse, Louise C.; Wilson, Mark
There has been some concern that participation in an intervention and exposure to a measurement instrument can change participants' interpretation of the items on a self-report questionnaire thereby distorting subsequent responses and biasing results. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using item response modeling can ascertain possible…
Norris, William D; Brims, Fraser J H
An anonymous survey to assess the attitudes to smoking of men serving on two Trident Nuclear submarines was conducted by questionnaire. A total of 244 questionnaires were completed, representing 87% of the two crews. Thirty-two percent of respondents declared themselves to be smokers, 69% were nonsmokers, and of these, 31% were ex-smokers. Attitudes of all respondents to an enforced ban of smoking on submarines indicated that 55% felt that it would be justifiable, 46% felt that it would be unfair, 42% felt that it was uncalled for, 46% thought that it would be illegal, and 47% thought that a ban was about time. The separate opinions of smokers and nonsmokers were polarized, whereas the overall results indicate indifferent attitudes of crew members. Further research into the atmospheric effects of environmental tobacco smoke on a submarine is required. PMID:12125854
Potter, Lori P; Mathias, Susan D; Raut, Monika; Kianifard, Farid; Tavakkol, Amir
Background This research was conducted to confirm the validity and reliability and to assess the responsiveness and clinical meaningfulness of the OnyCOE-t™, a questionnaire specifically designed to measure patient-reported outcomes (PRO) associated with toenail onychomycosis. Methods 504 patients with toenail onychomycosis randomized to receive 12 weeks of terbinafine 250 mg/day with or without target toenail debridement in the IRON-CLAD® trial completed the OnyCOE-t™ at baseline, weeks 6, 12, 24, and 48. The OnyCOE-t™ is composed of 6 multi-item scales and 1 single-item scale. These include a 7-item Toenail Symptom assessment, which comprises both Symptom Frequency and Symptom Bothersomeness scales; an 8-item Appearance Problems scale; a 7-item Physical Activities Problems scale; a 1-item Overall Problem scale; a 7-item Stigma scale; and a 3-item Treatment Satisfaction scale. In total, 33 toenail onychomycosis-specific items are included in the OnyCOE-t™. Clinical data, in particular the percent clearing of mycotic involvement in the target toenail, and OnyCOE-t™ responses were used to evaluate the questionnaire's reliability, validity, responsiveness, and the minimally clinical important difference (MCID). Results The OnyCOE-t™ was shown to be reliable and valid. Construct validity and known groups validity were acceptable. Internal consistency reliability of multi-item scales was demonstrated by Cronbach's alpha > .84. Responsiveness was good, with the Treatment Satisfaction, Symptom Frequency, Overall Problem, and Appearance Problem scales demonstrating the most responsiveness (Guyatt's statistic of 1.72, 1.31, 1.13, and 1.11, respectively). MCID was evaluated for three different clinical measures, and indicated that approximately an 8.5-point change (on a 0 to 100 scale) was clinically meaningful based on a 25% improvement in target nail clearing. Conclusion The OnyCOE-t™ questionnaire is a unique, toenail-specific PRO questionnaire that can be used with confidence in future studies of toenail onychomycosis. MCID was evaluated for three different clinical measures, and indicated that approximately a 7-point change (on a 0 to 100 scale) was clinically meaningful based on a 12.5% improvement in target nail clearing. PMID:16911778
Pere J. Ferrando; Urbano Lorenzo-Seva; Eliseo Chico
This article proposes procedures for simultaneously assessing and controlling acquiescence and social desirability in questionnaire items. The procedures are based on a semirestricted factor-analytic tridimensional model, and can be used with binary, graded-response, or more continuous items. We discuss procedures for fitting the model (item calibration) and for estimating the individual factor scores. We also show how the results can
Obata, Shugo; Hashizume, Kyoko; Wada, Kumiko; Minoshita, Seiko; Morita, Nobuaki; Nakatani, Yoji
The authors conducted questionnaire surveys utilizing model cases with the aim of investigating the current views of psychiatrists regarding criminal responsibility judgments in forensic psychiatric evaluations. Six model cases-injury by a person with acute schizophrenia, indecent assault by a person with chronic schizophrenia, attempted murder by a woman with depression, arson by an alcohol abuser, burglary by an amphetamine abuser, rape and indecent assault by a person with personality disorder-were presented to 345 psychiatrists, who were asked about criminal responsibility and appropriate treatment for each of the cases. One hundred eighty-five of the psychiatrists responded. In the case of acute schizophrenia with hallucination and delusion, the case of severe depression, and the personality disorder case, there was a high level of agreement between the evaluations of criminal responsibility made by the different respondents, but in the case of chronic schizophrenia, the case of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, and the case of amphetamine abuse, there were variations in the evaluation of criminal responsibility, with many respondents emphasizing the patient's symptoms and condition at the time of the offense, and relatively few emphasizing whether the disorder was endogenous. Regarding the form of treatment, many of the respondents recommended compulsory hospitalization for the case of acute schizophrenia with hallucination and delusion, while at the same time recommending treatment in a prison environment for the personality disorder case. In contrast, for the case of chronic schizophrenia and the case of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder, opinion was divided as to whether the subject should be handled with a medical or a judicial approach. Regarding treatment for the case of alcohol-induced psychotic disorder and the case of amphetamine abuse, there was a tendency to make a judgment based on the subject's condition at the point of psychiatric evaluation, which was not necessarily linked to the criminal responsibility. PMID:15981619
Edwards, P.; Cooper, R.; Roberts, I.; Frost, C.
Study objective: To quantify the increase in mailed questionnaire response attributable to a monetary incentive. Design: A systematic search for randomised controlled trials of monetary incentives and mailed questionnaire response was conducted. For each trial identified, logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for response per $0.01 incentive increase. Odds ratios were pooled in a series of random effect meta-analyses stratified by the minimum and maximum amounts offered. Piecewise logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for response per $0.01 increase given in each of five incentive ranges. Setting: Populations in several developed countries, predominantly the USA. Participants: 85 671 randomised participants from 88 trials. Main results: The pooled odds ratios for response per $0.01 incentive decreased monotonically as the maximum amount of incentive offered increased. The piecewise logistic regression model estimated that for incentive amounts up to $0.50, each additional $0.01 increased the odds of response by about 1% (pooled OR = 1.012, 95%CI 1.007 to 1.016). The effects on response above $0.50 were smaller and decreased monotonically in the ranges: $0.50–0.99, $1–1.99, $2–4.99, $5.00 and over, but remained statistically significant up to $5. Conclusions: This meta-analysis of the best available evidence shows that monetary incentives increase mailed questionnaire response. Researchers should include small amounts of money with mailed questionnaires rather than give no incentive at all. PMID:16234429
Mayeske, George W.; And Others
This report analyzes the reponses of students to questionnaires administered as part of the Educational Opportunities Survey (EOS). The purposes of these analyses were (1) to present the number and percent of students responding to each questionnaire item alternative, (2) to determine the number of students who failed to answer each question, (3)…
Response bias errors are studied by comparing questionnaire responses from waterfowl hunters using four large public hunting areas with actual hunting data from these areas during two hunting seasons. To the extent that the data permit, the sources of the error in the responses were studied and the contribution of each type to the total error was measured. Response bias errors, including both prestige and memory bias, were found to be very large as compared to non-response and sampling errors. Good fits were obtained with the seasonal kill distribution of the actual hunting data and the negative binomial distribution and a good fit was obtained with the distribution of total season hunting activity and the semi-logarithmic curve. A comparison of the actual seasonal distributions with the questionnaire response distributions revealed that the prestige and memory bias errors are both positive. The comparisons also revealed the tendency for memory bias errors to occur at digit frequencies divisible by five and for prestige bias errors to occur at frequencies which are multiples of the legal daily bag limit. A graphical adjustment of the response distributions was carried out by developing a smooth curve from those frequency classes not included in the predictable biased frequency classes referred to above. Group averages were used in constructing the curve, as suggested by Ezekiel . The efficiency of the technique described for reducing response bias errors in hunter questionnaire responses on seasonal waterfowl kill is high in large samples. The graphical method is not as efficient in removing response bias errors in hunter questionnaire responses on seasonal hunting activity where an average of 60 percent was removed.
G. E. Krassas; M. Segni; W. M. Wiersinga
Objective: Evaluation of the frequency of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and its management in chil- dren and adolescents up to 18 years old with Graves' hyperthyroidism. Study design: This was a questionnaire study (QS) among members of the European Thyroid Associ- ation and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology. Approximately 300 QS were sent to members with electronic addresses and 110
Vodafone response to European Commission Questionnaire on the Open Internet and Net Neutrality of the issues addressed in this questionnaire. We include relevant documents in Annexes to this response and mobile access markets? 1. No, we do not believe there is currently a `problem' with the openness
Background Minimising participant non-response in postal surveys helps to maximise the generalisability of the inferences made from the data collected. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of questionnaire length, personalisation and reminder type on postal survey response rate and quality and to compare the cost-effectiveness of the alternative survey strategies. Methods In a pilot study for a population study of travel behaviour, physical activity and the environment, 1000 participants sampled from the UK edited electoral register were randomly allocated using a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive one of four survey packs: a personally addressed long (24 page) questionnaire pack, a personally addressed short (15 page) questionnaire pack, a non-personally addressed long questionnaire pack or a non-personally addressed short questionnaire pack. Those who did not return a questionnaire were stratified by initial randomisation group and further randomised to receive either a full reminder pack or a reminder postcard. The effects of the survey design factors on response were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results An overall response rate of 17% was achieved. Participants who received the short version of the questionnaire were more likely to respond (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07). In those participants who received a reminder, personalisation of the survey pack and reminder also increased the odds of response (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.95). Item non-response was relatively low, but was significantly higher in the long questionnaire than the short (9.8% vs 5.8%; p = .04). The cost per additional usable questionnaire returned of issuing the reminder packs was £23.1 compared with £11.3 for the reminder postcards. Conclusions In contrast to some previous studies of shorter questionnaires, this trial found that shortening a relatively lengthy questionnaire significantly increased the response. Researchers should consider the trade off between the value of additional questions and a larger sample. If low response rates are expected, personalisation may be an important strategy to apply. Sending a full reminder pack to non-respondents appears a worthwhile, albeit more costly, strategy. PMID:21548947
Weijters, Bert; Geuens, Maggie; Schillewaert, Niels
The severity of bias in respondents' self-reports due to acquiescence response style (ARS) and extreme response style (ERS) depends strongly on how consistent these response styles are over the course of a questionnaire. In the literature, different alternative hypotheses on response style (in)consistency circulate. Therefore, nine alternative…
Mary McGrae McDermott; Michael H. Criqui; Philip Greenland; Alan Hirsch; Elizabeth A. Hahn; Martin Lipsky; Donna Brogan; Linda Odom; David Cella; Kendra Hanley; Judith Ockene; Shaheen Khan; William H. Pearce
This study investigated whether the opportunity to obtain Continuing Medical Education (CME) credit together with a five-dollar bill increased response rates and questionnaire completion rates in a physician survey involving mailed questionnaires. One thousand, three hundred and fourteen cardiologists, family practitioners, general internists (non-surgeons) and 264 vascular surgeons randomly identified from the American Medical Association database participated. After two, of
Rachel A Nakash; Jane L Hutton; Ellen C Jørstad-Stein; Simon Gates; Sarah E Lamb
BACKGROUND: Postal self-completion questionnaires offer one of the least expensive modes of collecting patient based outcomes in health care research. The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy of methods of increasing response to postal questionnaires in health care studies on patient populations. METHODS: The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CDSR, PsycINFO, NRR and ZETOC. Reference
Moodie, Allan G.
The questionnaire administered to persons who assisted with the drug education program in Vancouver in grades 4-7 and responses to the questionnaire are presented. Most questions involve rating aspects of the program on a scale--excellent, good, fair, poor. The last question asks for the respondent's comments. (For related documents, see TM 002…
Cowley, Allen W., Jr.; Brennan, Jane
Reported are the results of a survey concerning various aspects of departmental operations. Included are faculty characteristics, research grants, departmental budgets, teaching space, numbers of applicants, recruits and graduates, test scores of accepted students, and training support. (CW)
Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Terazawa, Koichi
The shortage of future forensic pathologists is a serious problem both in Japan and overseas. In Japan, however, factors such as government budget cuts and increasing the autopsy rates, make the condition even worse. In an attempt to improve this situation, we implemented a questionnaire survey to investigate the particular features necessary when selecting a career in forensic medicine. As a preliminary study, we sent the questionnaire along with an anonymous answer sheet to all forensic pathologists with a degree in medicine M.D., who were affiliated with universities in Hokkaido and the Tohoku district of Japan as of August 2011. Thirteen physicians in nine universities (response rate 77.8%) returned the answer sheet. Characteristics of participants are listed below: years of experience, board specialty and number of years as board certified specialists, percentage of work effort spent on autopsy practice, the time when they decided to work as a forensic pathologist, the time when to best recommend forensic pathologist as a career, and crucial factors in choosing the specialty of forensic medicine. As a result of this research, we've revealed the importance of undergraduate medical education or the effect on the role models. Furthermore, we've also extracted miscellaneous comments, such as standardization of minimum requirements. In our study, we' ve found some clues to increase future candidates in the field forensic medicine. However, we must collect further samples for our questionnaire survey to validate the study, and, as a future project, we must also address this problem at the congress of forensic medicine. PMID:23016267
Revis, J; Robieux, C; Ghio, A; Giovanni, A
In our society, based on communication, dysphonia becomes a handicap that could be responsible of work discrimination. Actually, several commercial services are provided by phone only, and voice quality is mandatory for the employees. This work aim was to determine the social picture relayed by dysphonia. Our hypothesis was that dysphonia sounds pejorative compared to normal voice. 40 voice samples (30 dysphonic and 10 normal) were presented randomly to a perceptual jury of 20 naïve listener. The task was for each of them to fill a questionnaire, designed specifically to describe the speaker's look and personality. 20 items were evaluated, divided into 4 categories: health, temperament, appearance, and way of life. The results showed significant differences between normal subjects and dysphonic patients. For instance, the pathological voices were depicted as more tired, introverted, sloppy than normal voices, and less trustable. No significant differences were found according to the severity of voice disorders. This work is presently continued. It allowed to validate our questionnaire and has offers great perspectives on patient's management and voice therapy. PMID:24494330
A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues' (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write 'what they would say next.' In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870
Sahlström, Leena; Virtanen, Terhi; Kyyrö, Jonna; Lyytikäinen, Tapani
Biosecurity is important in order to prevent disease transmission between animals on farms as well as from farm to farm. Personal biosecurity routines such as hand washing and the use of protective clothing and footwear are measures that should be used at all farms. Other measures are for example related to purchasing new animals to the farm. A questionnaire-based survey was undertaken to study the frequency of use of different biosecurity measures on cattle, pig and sheep farms in Finland. Information about which biosecurity measures are in use is needed for contingency planning of emerging diseases or when combating endemic diseases. Knowledge about the level of biosecurity of a farm is also needed in order to assess if and where improvement is needed. Information regarding biosecurity levels may benefit future animal disease risk assessments. A total of 2242 farmers responded to the questionnaire resulting in a response rate of 45%. The implementation frequencies of different biosecurity measures are reported. The results revealed differences between species: large pig farms had a better biosecurity level than small cattle farms. There were also differences between production types such as dairy farming versus beef cattle farming, but these were not as remarkable. Sheep farming in Finland is sparse and the large number of hobby farmers keeps the biosecurity level low on sheep farms. This might represent a risk for the entire sheep farming industry. The Finnish farmers were satisfied with their on-farm biosecurity. Eighty percent of the farmers report that they were satisfied even though the biosecurity level was not particularly high. The implementation of biosecurity measures could be further improved. Even though the disease situation in Finland is good today, one must be prepared for possible epidemics of threatening diseases. PMID:25147126
Baars, M. Y.; Müller, M. J.; Gallhofer, B.; Netter, P.
Since clinical and biochemical observations point to much overlap between depression and aggression, both characterised by intolerance to frustration, a questionnaire was developed to test if different patterns of depressive and aggressive reactions elicited by exposure to negative events and deprivation from expected positive ones in human and nonhuman conditions, respectively, would result in specific response patterns in depressive and aggressive persons. The questionnaire was tested for internal consistency in a pilot healthy sample and for correlations of responses with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression in 60 abstinent male alcoholics. Aggressive and depressive responses were highly correlated across all stimulus conditions, and not specifically but rather equally associated with the personality factors of Aggression and Depression, confirming the close association between these dimensions. PMID:21461367
John E. Farbry Jr.; James M. Fields; John A. Molino; Gwendolyn A. Demiranda
A preliminary draft questionnaire concerning community response to sonic booms was developed. Interviews were conducted in two communities that had experienced supersonic overflights of the SR-71 airplane for several years. Even though the overflights had ceased about 6 months prior to the interviews, people clearly remembered hearing sonic booms. A total of 22 people living in central Utah and 23
Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe
Perceived self-efficacy (SE) for eating fruit and vegetables (FV) is a key variable mediating FV change in interventions. This study applies item response modeling (IRM) to a fruit, juice and vegetable self-efficacy questionnaire (FVSEQ) previously validated with classical test theory (CTT) procedures. The 24-item (five-point Likert scale) FVSEQ…
Ballouard, Jean-Marie; Mullin, Stephen J.; Ajtic, Rastko; Brito, José Carlos; ElMouden, El Hassan; Erdogan, Mehmet; Feriche, Monica; Pleguezuelos, Juan M.; Prokop, Pavol; Sánchez, Aida; Santos, Xavier; Slimani, Tahar; Sterijovski, Bogoljub; Tomovic, Ljiljana; Usak, Muhammet; Zuffi, Marco; Bonnet, Xavier
Questionnaires are important tools for assessing attitudes regarding conservation issues. However, they are not easily comparable and their reliability has been insufficiently assessed. We examined factors influencing responses to open- and closed-ended questions about animal conservation to more than 600 schoolchildren (9 years old on average).…
Osanai, Hidekazu; Okada, Hitoshi
Readers may have various experiences while reading a narrative, such as imagining the world described in the narrative, empathizing with the protagonist, and thinking about the author of the narrative or the real world. Referred to as "reader response" in literary theory, these experiences are important topics in the study of a reader's interactions with a literary text. To investigate differences among individuals in the degree of openness to these experiences during narrative comprehension, we translated the Literary Response Questionnaire (LRQ) developed by Miall and Kuiken (1995) and selected 37 items from the original scale to develop a Japanese version (LRQ-J). This survey was administered to 497 undergraduate students. The results showed that all subscales of the LRQ-J had internal consistency. Respondents' scores showed significant correlations with fantasy proneness, imaginative involvement, imagery vividness, and ego-resiliency. The results suggest that the LRQ-J has sufficient reliability and validity. The psychological characteristics of experiences assessed by the LRQ-J are discussed. PMID:21735727
Watson, F; Tomson, M; Morris, A J; Taylor-Weetman, K; Wilson, K I
Aim To provide baseline data on dental issues affecting residents from the perspective of care home managers to inform oral health local needs assessments and commissioning decisions.Methods A pre-piloted postal questionnaire was sent to all identified managers of adult care homes (1,832) in the West Midlands between February and April 2011. Quantitative analysis was complemented by seeking the views of care home managers regarding training and experience of, and access to, dental services.Results The response rate to the study was 63.9% (1,170/1,832). There were 194 responding care homes who reported that residents had problems accessing dental services. Nearly double the proportion of nursing care homes and care homes with residents with elderly mental impairment (EMI) reported problems accessing dental services compared with care homes without nursing care and non-EMI care homes. Issues raised included patient safety concerns, reservations regarding expertise of dental staff, difficulties with transporting residents and waiting times for treatment.Conclusion The survey provided a snapshot of dental issues as reported by care home managers, these results should help inform both the dental profession and those who commission services about issues affecting the oral health of patients living in care homes. PMID:26450251
Farbry, John E., Jr.; Fields, James M.; Molino, John A.; Demiranda, Gwendolyn A.
A preliminary draft questionnaire concerning community response to sonic booms was developed. Interviews were conducted in two communities that had experienced supersonic overflights of the SR-71 airplane for several years. Even though the overflights had ceased about 6 months prior to the interviews, people clearly remembered hearing sonic booms. A total of 22 people living in central Utah and 23 people living along Idaho/Washington state border took part in these interviews. The draft questionnaire was constantly modified during the study in order to evaluate different versions. Questions were developed which related to annoyance, startle, sleep disturbance, building vibration, and building damage. Based on the data collected, a proposed community response survey response instrument was developed for application in a full-scale sonic boom study.
Farbry, John E., Jr.; Fields, James M.; Molino, John A.; Demiranda, Gwendolyn A.
A preliminary draft questionnaire concerning community response to sonic booms was developed. Interviews were conducted in two communities that had experienced supersonic overflights of the SR-71 airplane for several years. Even though the overflights had ceased about 6 months prior to the interviews, people clearly remembered hearing sonic booms. A total of 22 people living in central Utah and 23 people living along Idaho/Washington state border took part in these interviews. The draft questionnaire was constantly modified during the study in order to evaluate different versions. Questions were developed which related to annoyance, startle, sleep disturbance, building vibration, and building damage. Based on the data collected, a proposed community response survey response instrument was developed for application in a full-scale sonic boom study.
Baranowski, Tom; Allen, Diane D; Mâsse, Louise C; Wilson, Mark
There has been some concern that participation in an intervention and exposure to a measurement instrument can change participants' interpretation of the items on a self-report questionnaire thereby distorting subsequent responses and biasing results. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis using item response modeling can ascertain possible differences in item interpretation by testing for differences in item location between groups. The DIF for treatment versus control group differences at post-intervention assessment and the Time 1 and Time 2 differences in a control group were analyzed using data from a dietary change intervention trial for Boy Scouts. The measures included fruit and vegetable (FV) frequency of consumption, preferences and self-efficacy. Treatment-control group DIF at post-intervention assessment was detected in a higher percentage of items for FV frequency than for preference or self-efficacy. Time 1 to Time 2 differences in items for the control group were detected in one item for each of the three scales. Further research will need to clarify whether the obtained DIFs reflected true changes in frequency, preference or self-efficacy or some reinterpretation of items by participants following an intervention or merely after previous exposure to the measure. PMID:17060350
FRANCES E. THOMPSON; AMY F. SUBAR; CHARLES C. BROWN; ALBERT F. SMITH; CAROLYN O. SHARBAUGH; JARED B. JOBE; BETH MITTL; JAMES T. GIBSON; REGINA G. ZIEGLER
Objective To test whether changing a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on the basis of cognitive theory and testing results in greater accuracy. Accuracy was examined for 4 design issues: a) Grouping: asking about foods in a single vs multiple separate questions; b) different forms of a food: asking consumption frequency of each form of a food (eg, skim, 2%, whole
Tucker, Beatrice; Jones, Sue; Straker, Leon
This paper reports the use of an online student evaluation system, Course Experience on the Web (CEW), in a physiotherapy program to improve their Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) results. CEW comprises a course survey instrument modeled on the CEQ and a tailored unit survey instrument. Closure of the feedback loop is integral in the CEW…
Perrin Ross, Amy; Williamson, Alona; Smrtka, Jennifer; Flemming Tracy, Tracy; Easterling, Constance; Mutschler, Nicole
There is need for a brief but comprehensive objective assessment tool to help clinicians evaluate relapse symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their impact on daily functioning, as well as response to treatment. The 2-part Assessing Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis (ARMS) questionnaire was developed to achieve these aims. Part 1 consists of 7 questions that evaluate relapse symptoms, impact on activities of daily living (ADL), overall functioning, and response to treatment for previous relapses. Part 2 consists of 7 questions that evaluate treatment response in terms of symptom relief, functioning, and tolerability. The ARMS questionnaire has been evaluated in 103 patients with MS. The most commonly reported relapse symptoms were numbness/tingling (67%), fatigue (58%), and leg/foot weakness (55%). Over half of patients reported that ADL or overall functioning were affected very much (47%) or severely (11%) by relapses. Prescribed treatments for relapses included intravenous and/or oral corticosteroids (87%) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (13%). Nearly half of patients reported that their symptoms were very much (33%) or completely resolved (16%) following treatment. The most commonly reported adverse events were sleep disturbance (45%), mood changes (33%), weight gain (29%), and increased appetite (26%). Systematic assessment of relapses and response to relapse treatment may help clinicians to optimize outcomes for MS patients. PMID:23766909
Parthasarathy, Anuradha; And Others
The study examined how response rate to a mailed questionnaire was influenced by the socioeconomic status (SES) of respondents (high, middle, or low); amount of payment of a monetary incentive (none, $1, or $2); and time of payment (prepaid or promised on return of the completed questionnaire). Subjects were 125 adults in Cache County, Utah at…
Friesen, Melissa C.; Locke, Sarah J.; Tornow, Carina; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Koh, Dong-Hee; Stewart, Patricia A.; Purdue, Mark; Colt, Joanne S.
Objectives: Lifetime occupational history (OH) questionnaires often use open-ended questions to capture detailed information about study participants’ jobs. Exposure assessors use this information, along with responses to job- and industry-specific questionnaires, to assign exposure estimates on a job-by-job basis. An alternative approach is to use information from the OH responses and the job- and industry-specific questionnaires to develop programmable decision rules for assigning exposures. As a first step in this process, we developed a systematic approach to extract the free-text OH responses and convert them into standardized variables that represented exposure scenarios. Methods: Our study population comprised 2408 subjects, reporting 11991 jobs, from a case–control study of renal cell carcinoma. Each subject completed a lifetime OH questionnaire that included verbatim responses, for each job, to open-ended questions including job title, main tasks and activities (task), tools and equipment used (tools), and chemicals and materials handled (chemicals). Based on a review of the literature, we identified exposure scenarios (occupations, industries, tasks/tools/chemicals) expected to involve possible exposure to chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene (TCE) in particular, lead, and cadmium. We then used a SAS macro to review the information reported by study participants to identify jobs associated with each exposure scenario; this was done using previously coded standardized occupation and industry classification codes, and a priori lists of associated key words and phrases related to possibly exposed tasks, tools, and chemicals. Exposure variables representing the occupation, industry, and task/tool/chemicals exposure scenarios were added to the work history records of the study respondents. Our identification of possibly TCE-exposed scenarios in the OH responses was compared to an expert’s independently assigned probability ratings to evaluate whether we missed identifying possibly exposed jobs. Results: Our process added exposure variables for 52 occupation groups, 43 industry groups, and 46 task/tool/chemical scenarios to the data set of OH responses. Across all four agents, we identified possibly exposed task/tool/chemical exposure scenarios in 44–51% of the jobs in possibly exposed occupations. Possibly exposed task/tool/chemical exposure scenarios were found in a nontrivial 9–14% of the jobs not in possibly exposed occupations, suggesting that our process identified important information that would not be captured using occupation alone. Our extraction process was sensitive: for jobs where our extraction of OH responses identified no exposure scenarios and for which the sole source of information was the OH responses, only 0.1% were assessed as possibly exposed to TCE by the expert. Conclusions: Our systematic extraction of OH information found useful information in the task/chemicals/tools responses that was relatively easy to extract and that was not available from the occupational or industry information. The extracted variables can be used as inputs in the development of decision rules, especially for jobs where no additional information, such as job- and industry-specific questionnaires, is available. PMID:24590110
Magin, Parker; Dunbabin, Janet; Goode, Susan; Valderas, Jose M; Levi, Christopher; D’Souza, Mario; Marshall, Melanie; Barker, Daniel; Lasserson, Daniel
Background Consensus guidelines for transient ischaemic attack (TIA) recommend urgent investigation and management, but delays in management occur and are attributable to patient and health system factors. Aim To establish general practice patients’ anticipated responses to TIA symptoms, and associations of appropriate responses. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in Australian general practices. Method Consecutive patients attending general practices completed questionnaires that contained the Stroke Action Test (STAT) adapted for TIA about demographic, health system use, and stroke risk factors. STAT elicits appropriate or inappropriate anticipated responses to 28 symptom complexes. Anticipated actions in-hours and out-of-hours were elicited. Associations of independent variables with adapted-STAT scores were tested with multiple linear regression. Results There were 854 participants (response rate 76.9%). Urgent healthcare-seeking responses to transient neurological symptoms ranged from 96.8% for right-sided weakness with dysphasia to 59.1% for sudden dizziness. Associations of higher adapted-STAT scores were older age, Indigenous status, previous after-hours services use, self-perception of health as poor, and familiarity with a stroke public awareness campaign. A personal or family history of stroke, smoking status, and time of event (in-hours/out-of-hours) were not significantly associated with adapted-STAT scores. Conclusion Most general practice attendees expressed intentions to seek health care urgently for most symptoms suggestive of TIA, with highest levels of urgency observed in high stroke-risk scenarios. Intentions were not associated with a number of major risk factors for TIA and might be improved by further educational interventions, either targeted or at population level. PMID:25548313
Azouvi, Philippe; Vallat-Azouvi, Claire; Millox, Valérie; Darnoux, Emmanuelle; Ghout, Idir; Azerad, Sylvie; Ruet, Alexis; Bayen, Eleonore; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Aegerter, Philippe; Weiss, Jean-Jacques; Jourdan, Claire
The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX; Wilson, Pettigrew, & Teasdale, 1998 ) has been designed to assess executive dysfunctions in daily life. However, its relationships with cognitive testing, mood, and the ability to fulfil daily life demands, have not yet been systematically addressed. The objective of this study was to address these issues in a prospective four-year follow-up study of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (PariS-TBI study). One hundred and forty seven patients were included. The DEX (self-version) showed a good internal consistency. The total DEX score was significantly inversely correlated with years of education, but did not significantly correlate with any initial injury severity measure. The DEX was significantly and positively related to cognitive deficits, as assessed with the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale-Revised (NRS-R); with mood disorders, as assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); with dependency in elementary and extended activities of daily living; and with non-return to work. In multivariate analyses, cognitive and mood impairments were significantly and independently related to the total DEX score. These results suggest that the DEX is a multidetermined sensitive questionnaire to detect everyday life difficulties in patients with severe TBI at a chronic stage. PMID:25523796
International studies like PISA use context student or school questionnaires to collect data on student family background, attitudes and learning context. Questionnaire constructs are typically measured using dichotomous or Likert-type items. Scaling of questionnaire items in order to obtain measures of family background, student attitudes or…
Reidunsdatter, Randi J. [Department of Radiography, Faculty of Technology, Sor-Trondelag University College, Trondheim (Norway); Lund, Jo-Asmund [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Technology and Science, Trondheim (Norway); Department of Oncology, St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Fransson, Per; Widmark, Anders [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umea University Hospital, Umea (Sweden)
Purpose: Several treatment options are available for patients with prostate cancer. Applicable and valid self-assessment instruments for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and responsiveness of the intestinal part of the prostate cancer-specific questionnaire QUFW94. Methods and Materials: The content of the intestinal part of QUFW94 was examined by evaluation of experienced clinicians and reviewing the literature. The psychometric properties and responsiveness were assessed by analyzing HRQOL data from the randomized study Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 (SPCG)/Swedish Association for Urological Oncology 3 (SFUO). Subscales were constructed by means of exploratory factor analyses. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Responsiveness was investigated by comparing baseline scores with the 4-year posttreatment follow-up. Results: The content validity was found acceptable, but some amendments were proposed. The factor analyses revealed two symptom scales. The first scale comprised five items regarding general stool problems, frequency, incontinence, need to plan toilet visits, and daily activity. Cronbach's alpha at 0.83 indicated acceptable homogeneity. The second scale was less consistent with a Cronbach's alpha at 0.55. The overall responsiveness was found to be very satisfactory. Conclusion: Two scales were identified in the bowel dimension of the QUFW94; the first one had good internal consistency. The responsiveness was excellent, and some modifications are suggested to strengthen the content validity.
The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire that could measure preservice mathematics teachers' mathematics educational values. Development and validation of the questionnaire involved a sequential inquiry in which design principles were established from the existing literature and a pool of items was constructed then submitted to…
Ramada, José María
The objective of this paper is to examine the responsiveness of the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire (Spanish version) ( WRFQ-SpV) so that it could be used in evaluative studies. For this purpose a longitudinal survey was performed. Combinations of distributions-and anchor- based approaches were used. Five hypotheses were tested, examining validity of change scores. The consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments (COSMIN) guided the study design. One hundred and two participants (mean age, 47.3 years; SD=10.3 years) completed the WRFQ-SpV twice, within a mean interval of 3.7 ( SD=1.8) months. Four hypotheses were confirmed and one was rejected . It was verified that the WRFQ-SpV was able to detect (true) changes over time. In conclusion, suggestive evidence about the possible use if the WRFQ-SpV with evaluative purposes was provided. More research is needed to examine the instrument responsiveness for groups whose health is stable or deteriorates. PMID:24851276
Mavis, Brian; Sousa, Aron; Lipscomb, Wanda; Rappley, Marsha D
Although evidence of medical student mistreatment has accumulated for more than 20 years, only recently have professional organizations like the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and the American Medical Association truly acknowledged it as an issue. Since 1991, the AAMC's annual Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (GQ) has included questions about mistreatment. Responses to the GQ have become the major source of evidence of the prevalence and types of mistreatment. This article reviews national mistreatment data, using responses to the GQ from 2000 through 2012; examines how students' experiences have changed over time; and highlights the implications of this information for the broader medical education system. The authors discuss what mistreatment is, including the changing definitions from the GQ; the prevalence, types, and sources of mistreatment; and evidence of students reporting incidents. In addition, they discuss next steps, including better defining mistreatment, specifically public humiliation and belittling, taking into account students' subjective evaluations; understanding and addressing the influence of institutional culture and what institutions can learn from current approaches at other institutions; and developing better systems to report and respond to reports of mistreatment. They conclude with a discussion of how mistreatment currently is conceptualized within the medical education system and the implications of that conceptualization for eradicating mistreatment in the future. PMID:24667505
Background Pathologists are highly trained medical professionals who play an essential part in the diagnosis and therapy planning of malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Their work is associated with potential health hazards including injuries involving infectious human tissue, chemicals which are assumed to be carcinogenic or long periods of microscope and computer work. This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive assessment of the health situation of pathologists in Switzerland. Methods Pathologists in Switzerland were contacted via the Swiss Society of Pathologists and asked to answer an ethically approved, online anonymous questionnaire comprising 48 questions on occupational health problems, workplace characteristics and health behaviour. Results 163 pathologists participated in the study. Forty percent of pathologists reported musculoskeletal problems in the previous month. The overall prevalence was 76%. Almost 90% of pathologists had visual refraction errors, mainly myopia. 83% of pathologists had experienced occupational injuries, mostly cutting injuries, in their professional career; more than one fifth of participants reported cutting injuries in the last year. However, long lasting injuries and infectious diseases were rare. Depression and burnout affected every eighth pathologist. The prevalence of smoking was substantially below that of the general Swiss population. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that more care should be taken in technical and personal protective measures, ergonomic workplace optimisation and reduction of work overload and work inefficiencies. Despite the described health risks, Swiss pathologists were optimistic about their future and their working situation. The high rate of ametropia and psychological problems warrants further study. PMID:23216705
Billa, Gauri; Gabhane, Mukesh; Biswas, Swati
Objective. Understanding factors while selecting an analgesic and its usage pattern by Indian healthcare practitioners (HCPs). Methods. Questionnaire-based survey was conducted among six healthcare specialties. Results. Total 448 HCPs participated. Patient's age (72.8%, 74.4%, 87.5%, and 78.9%) and duration of therapy (70.8%, 66.2%, 69.6%, and 73.6%) were main attributes for selecting an opioid according to general practitioners (GPs), dentists, consulting physicians (CPs), and surgeons, respectively. Patient's age was important factor while selecting NSAID according to 77.60%, 66.91%, and 84.20% of GPs, dentists, surgeons, respectively. For mild pain, paracetamol was the choice according to 77%, 78.57% and 74% of GPs, CPs, and surgeons, respectively. For moderate pain, 77%, 87.50%, 68%, and 80.30% of GPs, CPs, surgeons and orthopedicians, respectively, preferred the use of paracetamol + tramadol combination. For moderate pain, NSAID + paracetamol and paracetamol+diclofenac were used by 68.94% and 47.73% of orthopedicians, respectively. Lack of pain clinic (38.8%) in city was commonly cited reason for not referring patients to pain clinics. Conclusion. Patient's age, duration of therapy, comorbid conditions, frequency of dosing, and severity of pain are important parameters while selecting analgesics. Paracetamol and its combinations are commonly used for mild and moderate pain, respectively. Pain clinics currently have limited presence in India.
Doody, Michele Morin; Sigurdson, Alice S; Kampa, Diane; Chimes, Kathleen; Alexander, Bruce H; Ron, Elaine; Tarone, Robert E; Linet, Martha S
In a follow-up study, only 64% of 126,628 US radiologic technologists completed a questionnaire during 1994-1997 after two mailings. The authors conducted a randomized trial of financial incentives and delivery methods to identify the least costly approach for increasing overall participation. They randomly selected nine samples of 300 nonresponders each to receive combinations of no, 1.00 US dollar, 2.00 US dollars, and 5.00 US dollars cash or check incentives delivered by first-class mail or Federal Express. Federal Express delivery did not achieve greater participation than first-class mail (23.2% vs. 23.7%). In analyses pooled across delivery methods, the response was significantly greater for the 2.00 US dollar bill (28.9%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 25.2, 32.7; p < 0.0001), 5.00 US dollars check (27.5%, 95% CI: 22.5, 33.0; p = 0.0001), 1.00 US dollar bill (24.6%, 95% CI: 21.2, 28.3; p = 0.0007), and 2.00 US dollars check (21.8%, 95% CI: 18.5, 25.3; p = 0.02) compared with no incentive (16.6%, 95% CI: 13.7, 19.9). The response increased significantly with increasing incentive amounts from 0.00 to 2.00 US dollars cash (p trend < 0.0001). The 2.00 US dollar bill achieved a 30% greater response than did a 2.00 US dollars check (p = 0.005). For incentives sent by first-class mail, the 5.00 US dollars check yielded 30% greater participation than did the 2.00 US dollars check (p = 0.07). A 1.00 US dollar bill, chosen instead of the 2.00 US dollars bill because of substantially lower overall cost and sent by first-class mail to the remaining 42,717 nonresponders, increased response from 64% to 72%. PMID:12672684
Marcus, Elena; Garety, Philippa; Weinman, John; Emsley, Richard; Dunn, Graham; Bebbington, Paul; Freeman, Daniel; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Fowler, David; Hardy, Amy; Waller, Helen; Jolley, Suzanne
Background and objectives Clinical responsiveness to cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp) varies. Recent research has demonstrated that illness perceptions predict active engagement in therapy, and, thereby, better outcomes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of a modification of the Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (M-IPQ) designed to predict response following CBTp. Methods Fifty-six participants with persistent, distressing delusions completed the M-IPQ; forty before a brief CBT intervention targeting persecutory ideation and sixteen before and after a control condition. Additional predictors of outcome (delusional conviction, symptom severity and belief inflexibility) were assessed at baseline. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at follow-up four to eight weeks later. Results The M-IPQ comprised two factors measuring problem duration and therapy-specific perceptions of Cure/Control. Associated subscales, formed by summing the relevant items for each factor, were reliable in their structure. The Cure/Control subscale was also reliable over time; showed convergent validity with other predictors of outcome; predicted therapy outcomes; and differentially predicted treatment effects. Limitations We measured outcome without an associated measure of engagement, in a small sample. Findings are consistent with hypothesis and existing research, but require replication in a larger, purposively recruited sample. Conclusions The Cure/Control subscale of the M-IPQ shows promise as a predictor of response to therapy. Specifically targeting these illness perceptions in the early stages of cognitive behavioural therapy may improve engagement and, consequently, outcomes. PMID:25011076
Edwards, Patrick W.; Donaldson, Mary Ann
A study of the construction and factor validity of the Response to Child Incest Questionnaire, a self-report instrument for assessing commonly reported symptoms of adult survivors of incest, is reported. The instrument's usefulness as a pre- and post-treatment measure and further research needs are discussed. (MSE)
Christopher Morris; Helen Doll; Neville Davies; Andrew Wainwright; Tim Theologis; Keith Willett; Ray Fitzpatrick
Purpose To evaluate how scores from the Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire change over time and with treatment using both distribution-based\\u000a and anchor-based approaches.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Eighty children aged 5–16 and their parent or carer completed questionnaires at orthopaedic or trauma outpatient clinics.\\u000a They were asked to complete and return a second set of questionnaires again within 2 weeks (retest), and then mailed a third
M. Jarke; K. Pohl; P. Haumer; K. Weidenhaupt; RWTH Aachen; E. Dubois; P. Heymans; FUNDP Namur; C. Rolland; C. Ben Achour; C. Cauvet; J. Ralyté; A. Sutcliffe; N. A. M. Maiden; S. Minocha
this paper, we report on our insights into today's industrial practice gained during 15 sitevisits at industrial systems development projects and from a questionnaire disseminated to alarger number of organizations. These efforts have been carried out as part of the long termresearch ESPRIT project CREWS (Cooperative Requirements Engineering With Scenarios).Our survey showed that usage of scenarios is widely adopted in
Bell, Teresa R.
This article reports on a study of teacher perceptions concerning teaching behaviors and attitudes that contribute to effective foreign language teaching and learning. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire to which 457 postsecondary foreign language teachers of French, German, and Spanish who are members of ACTFL responded. Based on…
Brandenburg, Dale C.
The 109-item College Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ) was designed to assess student attitudes toward a variety of activities occurring before classes begin at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The CDQ was administered to the 4,502 freshmen (58% of the total freshmen class) who attended the College Diagnostic Testing Session…
E. Boccoli; A. Federici; A. S. Melanie; E. Paola
Six-hundred and sixty-two nurse students (aged 25.2 ± 4.11 years; 153 were males) answered a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire about smoking habits and knowledges in a large urban Teaching School of Nursing. The overall response rate was 88%. Current smokers were 336 (51%), former smokers 80 (12%). Nurse students claimed to know the dangers of tobacco and nurse training seemed to
Hamilton, Elena; Carr, Alan; Cahill, Paul; Cassells, Ciara; Hartnett, Dan
The SCORE (Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation) is a 40-item questionnaire for completion by family members 12 years and older to assess outcome in systemic therapy. This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties of two short versions of the SCORE and their responsiveness to therapeutic change. Data were collected at 19 centers from 701 families at baseline and from 433 of these 3-5 months later. Results confirmed the three-factor structure (strengths, difficulties, and communication) of the 15- and 28-item versions of the SCORE. Both instruments had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. They also showed construct and criterion validity, correlating with measures of parent, child, and family adjustment, and discriminating between clinical and nonclinical cases. Total and factor scales of the SCORE-15 and -28 were responsive to change over 3-5 months of therapy. The SCORE-15 and SCORE-28 are brief psychometrically robust family assessment instruments which may be used to evaluate systemic therapy. PMID:25585671
Kim, Ji-Beom; Kim, Je Kyun; Seo, Sang Gyo; Lee, Dong Yeon
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Questionnaire (AFAQ) reflects patients' subjective disorder due to foot and ankle conditions. We evaluated the validity, reliability, and responsiveness of the Korean version of the AFAQ, after translation and transcultural adaptation of the original AFAQ into the Korean language. A total of 206 patients were enrolled, including 152 with chronic problems (experimental group) and 54 with acute problems (control group). We used the intraclass correlation coefficient to assess the test-retest reliability and Cronbach's ? to assess internal reliability. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the criterion validity by correlating the Korean AFAQ scores with those from other validated scales (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hallux-Metatarsophalangeal-Interphalangeal scale, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot scale, and visual analog scale for pain). To analyze discriminant validity, we evaluated the difference between the experimental and control groups using the Student t test. Of the 152 patients in the experimental group, 29 revisited our clinic postoperatively and repeated the Korean AFAQ. To analyze responsiveness, we used paired t tests to evaluate postoperative changes. In terms of test-retest reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.979 to 0.999. In terms of internal reliability, Cronbach's ? was 0.528 for the stiffness and swelling subscale and greater than 0.7 for all other subscales. In terms of criterion validity, Pearson's correlation coefficient ranged from 0.492 to 0.699. The probability of the null hypothesis for discriminant validity and responsiveness was statistically significant (p < .001 and p = .021, respectively). These results showed that the Korean version of the AFAQ had the same concept and intention as the original version and is reliable, valid, and responsive. PMID:25441847
Terlutter, Ralf; Röttl, Johanna
Background Consumers are increasingly accessing health-related information via mobile devices. Recently, several apps to rate and locate physicians have been released in the United States and Germany. However, knowledge about what kinds of variables explain usage of mobile physician-rating apps is still lacking. Objective This study analyzes factors influencing the adoption of and willingness to pay for mobile physician-rating apps. A structural equation model was developed based on the Technology Acceptance Model and the literature on health-related information searches and usage of mobile apps. Relationships in the model were analyzed for moderating effects of physician-rating website (PRW) usage. Methods A total of 1006 randomly selected German patients who had visited a general practitioner at least once in the 3 months before the beginning of the survey were randomly selected and surveyed. A total of 958 usable questionnaires were analyzed by partial least squares path modeling and moderator analyses. Results The suggested model yielded a high model fit. We found that perceived ease of use (PEOU) of the Internet to gain health-related information, the sociodemographic variables age and gender, and the psychographic variables digital literacy, feelings about the Internet and other Web-based applications in general, patients’ value of health-related knowledgeability, as well as the information-seeking behavior variables regarding the amount of daily private Internet use for health-related information, frequency of using apps for health-related information in the past, and attitude toward PRWs significantly affected the adoption of mobile physician-rating apps. The sociodemographic variable age, but not gender, and the psychographic variables feelings about the Internet and other Web-based applications in general and patients’ value of health-related knowledgeability, but not digital literacy, were significant predictors of willingness to pay. Frequency of using apps for health-related information in the past and attitude toward PRWs, but not the amount of daily Internet use for health-related information, were significant predictors of willingness to pay. The perceived usefulness of the Internet to gain health-related information and the amount of daily Internet use in general did not have any significant effect on both of the endogenous variables. The moderation analysis with the group comparisons for users and nonusers of PRWs revealed that the attitude toward PRWs had significantly more impact on the adoption and willingness to pay for mobile physician-rating apps in the nonuser group. Conclusions Important variables that contribute to the adoption of a mobile physician-rating app and the willingness to pay for it were identified. The results of this study are important for researchers because they can provide important insights about the variables that influence the acceptance of apps that allow for ratings of physicians. They are also useful for creators of mobile physician-rating apps because they can help tailor mobile physician-rating apps to the consumers’ characteristics and needs. PMID:24918859
Murayama, Kou; Zhou, Mingming; Nesbit, John C.
The psychometric properties of scores from the Achievement Goal Questionnaire were examined in samples of Japanese (N = 326) and Canadian (N = 307) postsecondary students. Previous research found evidence of a four-factor structure of achievement goals in U.S. samples. Using confirmatory factor-analytic techniques, the authors found strong…
Hilles, William C.; And Others
The process for completing four national questionnaires was analyzed following site visits and detailed documentation at each of six representative medical schools. A number of problems with the process were found that inhibited the provision of reliable data. Corrective action for institutions and sponsoring agencies are suggested. (Editor/LBH)
Harris, N. D. C.; Smith, B.
Undergraduate project work at the University of Bath, England, was investigated through a survey of students and project supervisors. The investigation as conducted for each of two academic years with two different respondent groups, and the first year questionnaire and a revised second-year version are appended. To facilitate reference to the…
Richards, L. G.; Jacobson, I. D.
A questionnaire was completed by 861 passengers on regularly-scheduled flights of four commuter airlines. Four types of aircraft were involved. Questions assessed major demographic variables, attitudes toward flying, frequency of flying, experience of airsickness, and passenger perceptions of detailed aspects of the physical environment. Passengers also rated their overall comfort level and their willingness to fly again. Passengers perceive motion, noise, and seat factors as the primary determinants of their comfort. Rated comfort is strongly related to willingness to fly again. Incidence of airsickness was low. Sex differences in reactions to aspects of the environment were found.
Ponce de León-Castañeda, M E; Ponce de León-Castañeda, R; Garduño-Navarro, M
A precodified questionnaire was applied to detect the needs of continuing medical education (CME) of 848 house officers; it covered personal background characteristics, identified needs as well as motivation and accessibility conditions to get involved in the process. After analyzing the data it was concluded that most of the physicians are interested in CME in order to avoid oblivion to keep, abreast of new scientific and technological advances and to increase self confidence. The detected needs were, in decreased order, as follows: pediatrics, general surgery, pediatric emergencies, orthopedics, traumatology and hospital administration. The most ashed areas wise therapeutics and pharmacology, diagnostic procedures and physiopathology. In relation to the teaching/learning activities they preferred courses, medical meetings and hospital sessions. Previously they had participated attending courses (79%), hospital sessions (54%), medical meeting (78%) and self study, mainly reading books and journals (98%). PMID:1959763
Poli, Florence; Auffret, Nicole; Beylot, Claire; Chivot, Martine; Faure, Michel; Moyse, Dominique; Pawin, Henri; Revuz, Jean; Dréno, Brigitte
Acne can have an important psychological impact. We surveyed 852 adolescents aged 12-25 years about their knowledge of acne and its treatment in a non-medical context. The study involved a questionnaire administered to callers to a youth telephone helpline in France. Callers were categorized into those who currently had acne, those who had had acne previously, and those who had never had acne. Most respondents (66.2%) had experienced acne symptoms, which were mild in 50.2% of cases and severe in 16% of cases. Often, acne had been long-lasting (>12 months in 49.6% of cases). Many thought that gender, excess weight, eating dairy products, and physical activity did not influence acne, and that frequent washing could improve acne. Eating chocolate and snacks, smoking cigarettes, sweating, not washing, touching/squeezing spots, eating fatty foods, using make-up, pollution, and menstruation were thought to worsen acne. The majority (80.8%) did not believe acne to be a disease, but rather a normal phase of adolescence, yet 69.3% agreed it should be treated. There was a preference for topical vs. systemic treatment. Many (38.6%) of the respondents with acne had not consulted a physician. Almost two-thirds of respondents wanted more information about acne. Providing more information about acne might increase the likelihood of them consulting a physician and getting better treatment for the condition. PMID:21611685
Joshua, Jisha K; Kakkar, Naveen
Oral anticoagulation therapy is affected by the drug used, intensity of anticoagulation, physician's experience, patient compliance, laboratory testing and patient education. Patient education is a key factor in optimal anticoagulation and safety in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy. This study was done to assess the knowledge of patients regarding oral anticoagulant therapy in the outpatient setting. This prospective study was done over 2 months in 101 patients on outpatient oral anticoagulant therapy. A 20-point questionnaire on various aspects of oral anticoagulation therapy was administered to assess their knowledge. The answers were graded on a scale of 0-1. Scores were then added up to quantify the knowledge status in each patient. Descriptive statistics and Student's t test was used to analyse the data. The mean knowledge score among patients was 9.4/18 (52.2 %). More than half (52.8 %) of the patients had a score of <9. More than half (54.4 %) of the patients had adequate knowledge-(>80 % score-5.5/7) about the critical (must know) questions regarding OAT. Patients with age ?60 years had lower mean scores compared to those <60 years of age (p = 0.028). Illiteracy was also associated (p < 0.0001) with poor scores. There are significant lacunae in the knowledge about oral anticoagulation among patients on outpatient treatment. Older age and illiteracy were associated with poor knowledge among patients. More emphasis needs to be given to the vital aspect of patient education to make this therapy safer for patients. PMID:25825572
Fetters, William B.; And Others
Three features of High School and Beyond (HS&B) provide rare opportunities for examining the quality of the responses of high school students to group-administered questionnaires: (1) many identical or similar items also were asked in questionnaires completed by about 6,500 of the students' parents; (2) high school transcripts containing…
Taylor, C. L.; Summerhill, W. R.
The effects of (1) format and color, and (2) severity of issue (freeze damage to citrus industry) on response rate of mail questionnaires is presented. Questionnaires were formatted in two different ways: a one page, legal size printed on both sides, and one sheet 11- by 17-inch size center-folded with items on three pages. Two colors were used:…
Moradi, Tahereh; Sidorchuk, Anna; Hallqvist, Johan
Sweden has a long history of conducting questionnaire-based Public Health Surveys (PHS) to monitor health determinants. As Sweden has become a multi-ethnic society a linguistically adapted instrument to collect data was first used in Stockholm PHS 2006 to overcome the barrier of lack of Swedish language proficiency, but more importantly to overcome the psychological barrier of being excluded. The questionnaire was translated into the six most spoken languages among Swedish immigrants, namely Arabic, English, Farsi, Finnish, Spanish, and Turkish. In spite of a decrease in participation rate (-2.9%, p < 0.0001) among native Swedes in PHS 2006 compared with PHS 2002, there was a substantial increase in participation rate among immigrants in PHS 2006 who received a translated questionnaire or were interviewed in their mother tongue. The increase in response rate varied from 2.1% among Finnish-speaking immigrants up to 12.4% among Turkish-speaking immigrants and was significant for Arabic-speaking (p < 0.0001), Farsi-speaking (p = 0.003), Spanish-speaking (p < 0.0001) and Turkish-speaking (p < 0.0001) immigrants. Various attempts to increase participation rate will be of importance to policy makers involved in the integration of the immigrant population, to healthcare professionals, and obviously to the public. PMID:20534633
Scheerhagen, Marisja; van Stel, Henk F.; Birnie, Erwin; Franx, Arie; Bonsel, Gouke J.
Background Maternity care is an integrated care process, which consists of different services, involves different professionals and covers different time windows. To measure performance of maternity care based on clients' experiences, we developed and validated a questionnaire. Methods and Findings We used the 8-domain WHO Responsiveness model, and previous materials to develop a self-report questionnaire. A dual study design was used for development and validation. Content validity of the ReproQ-version-0 was determined through structured interviews with 11 pregnant women (?28 weeks), 10 women who recently had given birth (?12 weeks), and 19 maternity care professionals. Structured interviews established the domain relevance to the women; all items were separately commented on. All Responsiveness domains were judged relevant, with Dignity and Communication ranking highest. Main missing topic was the assigned expertise of the health professional. After first adaptation, construct validity of the ReproQ-version-1 was determined through a web-based survey. Respondents were approached by maternity care organizations with different levels of integration of services of midwives and obstetricians. We sent questionnaires to 605 third trimester pregnant women (response 65%), and 810 women 6 weeks after delivery (response 55%). Construct validity was based on: response patterns; exploratory factor analysis; association of the overall score with a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), known group comparisons. Median overall ReproQ score was 3.70 (range 1–4) showing good responsiveness. The exploratory factor analysis supported the assumed domain structure and suggested several adaptations. Correlation of the VAS rating and overall ReproQ score (antepartum, postpartum) supported validity (r = 0.56; 0.59, p<0.001 Spearman's correlation coefficient). Pre-stated group comparisons confirmed the expected difference following a good vs. adverse birth outcome. Fully integrated organizations performed slightly better (median = 3.78) than less integrated organizations (median = 3.63; p<0.001). Participation rate of women with a low educational level and/or a non-western origin was low. Conclusions The ReproQ appears suitable for assessing quality of maternity care from the clients' perspective. Recruitment of disadvantaged groups requires additional non-digital approaches. PMID:25671310
Izumi, Taro; Hori, Satoko; Satoh, Hiroki; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi
Aggravation of asthmatic response (asthmatic attack, 2 cases) and adverse events (tremor, 1 case) due to a switch from a brand-name tulobuterol tape to a generic tape were recently reported. These changes disappeared after reformulation from generic to the brand-name tape. To investigate this issue, we conducted a questionnaire survey on changes of asthmatic response, adverse events and product usability due to a switch between tulobuterol tapes. We identified 44 cases (18 from doctors, 26 from pharmacists) in which changes of asthmatic response or adverse events had occurred due to a switch between tulobuterol tapes. Aggravation of asthmatic response had occurred in 30 cases and adverse events in 21 cases due to switch from brand-name tulobuterol tape to generic tape. As regards change of product usability, we obtained 96 relevant responses (18 from doctors, 78 cases pharmacists), and the major response was that generic tulobuterol tape peeled off the skin more easily than did the brand-name tape (60 cases). These results suggest that changes of asthmatic response, adverse events and product usability should be carefully monitored when switching tulobuterol tapes. PMID:22687698
Faust, Kyle A.; Faust, David; Baker, Aaron M.; Meyer, Joseph F.
Even when relatively infrequent, deviant response sets, such as defensive and careless responding, can have remarkably robust effects on individual and group data and thereby distort clinical evaluations and research outcomes. Given such potential adverse impacts and the widespread use of self-report measures when appraising addictions and…
Dresner, Bruce M.
Results of the 1979 Comparative Performance Study of the National Association of College and Business Officers are presented. The study is designed to aid administrators in evaluating the performance of their investment pools. The report covers comparative performance information and related investment performance statistics and other endowment…
Kissler-Patig, M.; Küpcü Yolda?, A.; Liske, J.
The European Extremely Large Telescope is in its detailed design phase until the end of 2010. During this period, the telescope design is being consolidated and instrument and operation concepts are being studied. The scientific users are feeding back requirements into the project in numerous ways. One of them, the Design Reference Science Plan, was an opportunity for the entire community to provide direct feedback to the project. Here, we summarise the first results from this study. The full report will appear in the first half of 2010.
Erler, M; Schiele, R; Löffler, A
Amalgam as a dental filling material shows excellent material property. It is fast, easy and economical to implement. Evidence for the release of mercury (Hg) from amalgam fillings was given in a number of studies. Mercury release from amalgam dental fillings is often claimed to be a possible cause of unspecific chronic symptoms such as chronic fatigue, headache and migraine. The present study explored relationships between the mercury release from amalgam fillings and the results of psychological questionnaires. The urine of 126 men and women in the age range of 16 to 76 years was examined. 45 participants did not present any amalgam restorations. The mercury released into the urine was measured by using cold-vapour AAS. The results of the study show that chronic mercury exposure, in the low concentration range, is not linked with chronic subjective symptoms. PMID:20052827
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
Summarized are responses to questionnaires prepared by the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) and mailed to state-level environmental agency administrators. Also included in this survey are state program directors responsible for administering the Clean Air Act; the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act; the Clean Water…
Wada, Keiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Haruyama, Yasuo; Taneichi, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Yumiko; Muto, Takashi
Background The proportion of Japanese workers experiencing intense worry or stress during working life is in excess of 60%, and the incidence of psychiatric disorders and suicide due to psychological burden from work duties is increasing. To confirm whether the stress response measured by the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) can identify risk for depression, a cohort study was conducted to evaluate whether the stress response measured by BJSQ was associated with the onset of depression. Methods A total of 1,810 participants aged 20–70 years in 2005 completed the stress response of the BJSQ and were followed-up until August, 2007 by examining sick pay records. Depression was defined by a description in sick pay records that included “depression” or “depressive symptoms” as a reason for sick leave according to a physician's medical certificate. The participants were divided into quartiles (Ql, Q2, Q3, and Q4) according to the total stress response score of BJSQ at baseline. Furthermore, the participants were divided into a higher score category (Q4) and a lower score category (Q1–Q3). Risk ratios of the stress response of the BJSQ for onset of depression were calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model. Results Among 1,810 participants, 14 developed depression during a mean of 1.8 years of follow-up. The risk ratio was 2.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–8.42, p for trend?=?0.002) when the higher stress response score category of BJSQ was compared with the low stress response score category for sick leave due to depression. After adjusting for gender, age, marital status, and having children, the risk ratios were similar to no adjustment. Conclusions These findings suggest that the stress response measured by the BJSQ can demonstrate risk for the onset of depression. PMID:23424656
Billings, Martha E.; Rosen, Carol L.; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis C.; Redline, Susan; Kapur, Vishesh K.
Study Objectives: Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQL) specific for sleep disorders have had limited psychometric evaluation in the context of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We investigated the psychometric properties of the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI). We evaluated the FOSQ and SAQLI construct and criterion validity, determined a minimally important difference, and assessed for associations of responsiveness to baseline subject characteristics and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence in a RCT population. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected in a multisite RCT of home versus laboratory-based diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (HomePAP trial). Participants: Individuals enrolled in the HomePAP trial (n = 335). Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: The FOSQ and SAQLI subscores demonstrated high reliability and criterion validity, correlating with Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Survey domains. Correlations were weaker with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both the FOSQ and SAQLI scores improved after 3 mo with CPAP therapy. Averaging 4 h or more of CPAP use was associated with an increase in the FOSQ beyond the minimally important difference. Baseline depressive symptoms and sleepiness predicted FOSQ and SAQLI responsiveness; demographic, objective obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and sleep habits were not predictive in linear regression. Conclusions: The Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index (SAQLI) are responsive to CPAP intervention, with the FOSQ being more sensitive to differences in CPAP adherence than the SAQLI. These instruments provide unique information about health outcomes beyond that provided by changes in physiological measures of OSA severity (apnea-hypopnea index). Clinical Trial Information: Portable Monitoring for Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Apnea (HomePAP) URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486. Citation: Billings ME, Rosen CL, Auckley D, Benca R, Foldvary-Schaefer N, Iber C, Zee PC, Redline S, Kapur VK. Psychometric performance and responsiveness of the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index in a randomized trial: the HomePAP study. SLEEP 2014;37(12):2017-2024. PMID:25325491
Zendjidjian, Xavier Y; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe; Loundou, Anderson; Parola, Nathalie; Faugère, Melanie; Boyer, Laurent
Background The aim of our study was to identify patient- and care-related factors that are associated with patients’ satisfaction with psychiatric hospital care, using a specific, self-administered questionnaire based exclusively on the patient’s point of view: the Satisfaction with Psychiatry Care Questionnaire-22 (SATISPSY-22). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the psychiatric departments of two French public university teaching hospitals. The data collected included sociodemographic information, clinical characteristics, care characteristics, and the SATISPSY-22. A multivariate analysis using multiple linear regressions was performed to determine the variables potentially associated with satisfaction levels. Results Two hundred seventy patients were enrolled in our study. Only one moderate association was found between satisfaction and sociodemographic characteristics: the personal experience dimension with age (?=0.15). Clinical improvement was moderately associated with higher global satisfaction (?=?0.15), higher satisfaction with quality of care (?=?0.19), and higher satisfaction with food (?=?0.18). Stronger associations with satisfaction were found for care characteristics, particularly the therapeutic alliance with all of the satisfaction dimensions (?, 0.20–0.43) except food, and for seclusion with global satisfaction (?=?0.33) and personal experience (?=?0.32). Patients with previous hospitalization also had a higher level of satisfaction with quality of care compared with patients who were admitted for the first time (?=?0.15). Conclusion This study has identified a number of potential determinants of satisfaction. The therapeutic relationship and seclusion were the most important features associated with a patient’s satisfaction. These factors might be amenable through intervention, which, in turn, might be expected to improve satisfaction, patients’ management, and health outcomes in psychiatric hospitals. PMID:25368515
Janssen, Inger Miriam; Gerhardus, Ansgar; von Gersdorff, Gero D; Baldamus, Conrad August; Schaller, Mathias; Barth, Claudia; Scheibler, Fueloep
Background Chronic kidney disease is an increasing health problem worldwide and in its final stage (stage V) can only be treated by renal replacement therapy, mostly hemodialysis. Hemodialysis has a major influence on the everyday life of patients and many patients report dissatisfaction with treatment. Little is known about which aspects of treatment are considered important by hemodialysis patients. The objective of this study was to rate the relative importance of different outcomes for hemodialysis patients and to analyze whether the relative importance differed among subgroups of patients. Patients and methods Within the framework of a yearly questionnaire which is distributed among patients receiving hemodialysis by the largest hemodialysis provider in Germany, we assessed the relative importance of 23 outcomes as rated on a discrete visual analog scale. Descriptive statistics were used to rank the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were performed using Mann–Whitney U or Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results Questionnaires of 4,518 hemodialysis patients were included in the analysis. The three most important outcomes were safety of treatment, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with care. Further important outcomes were hospital stays, accompanying symptoms, hemodialysis duration, and the improvement or preservation of a good emotional state. Age, profession, and education had the strongest influence on relevant differences of preferences for outcomes; no relevant influence of sex or comorbidity was observed. Conclusion Outcomes concerning the delivery or provision of care and aspects influencing quality of life are rated by patients to be at least as important as clinical outcomes. Many of the outcomes judged to be important by the patients are not regularly considered in research, evaluation studies, or quality programs. PMID:26170634
Perera, Harsha N
Notwithstanding the wide use of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF) as a brief assessment of trait emotional intelligence (TEI), the psychometric properties of this measure have not been systematically examined. This article reports on research conducted to evaluate the latent structure underlying TEIQue-SF item data and test the gender invariance of scores as critical initial steps in determining the psychometric robustness of the inventory. In doing so, the article demonstrates an application of exploratory structural equation modeling as an alternative to the more restrictive independent clusters model of confirmatory factor analysis for examining factorially complex personality data. On the basis of 476 responses to the TEIQue-SF, evidence was obtained for the multidimensionality of the inventory reflected in a retained correlated traits solution. Tests of gender invariance revealed equivalence of item factor loadings, intercepts, uniquenesses, correlated uniquenesses, and the factor variance-covariance matrix, but not latent means. Men were found to be moderately higher on self-control and sociability than women, whereas women scored marginally higher on emotionality than men. No significant gender differences were found on mean levels of well-being. The benefits of the multidimensionality of the TEIQue-SF, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25774661
Famorca, Leilani; Twilt, Marinka; Barra, Lillian; Bakowsky, Volodko; Benseler, Susanne; Cabral, David; Carette, Simon; Dhindsa, Navjot; Fifi-Mah, Aurore; Goulet, Michelle; Khalidi, Nader; Khraishi, Majed; McGeoch, Lucy; Milman, Nataliya; Pineau, Christian; Shojania, Kam; Taylor-Gjevre, Regina; Towheed, Tanveer; Trudeau, Judith; Yacyshyn, Elaine; Liang, Patrick; Pagnoux, Christian
Objectives : To study variations in Canadian clinical practice patterns for the management of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and identify points to consider for the development of national recommendations. Material and Methodology : A 30-item needs assessment questionnaire was sent to all members of the Canadian Vasculitis network (CanVasc), Canadian Rheumatology Association (CRA), Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) and Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN). Respondent characteristics, practice patterns, concerns and expectations were analyzed. Results : Among 132 physicians who followed at least 1 vasculitis patient and responded to the survey, 39% stated that they felt confident in their management of AAV. Several variations in practice were observed regarding diagnostic procedure, induction and maintenance treatments and use of biologics; some were due to logistic constraints (difficulties in access to some specific tests, drugs or care; lack of health care coverage for the costs). The top 5 topics for which recommendations are expected involve treatment for remission induction, maintenance, refractory disease, and relapse as well as biologics. Conclusion : Practice variations identified in this needs assessment survey will serve to formulate key questions for the development of CanVasc recommendations. PMID:25893028
Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.
Limited research exists regarding the role of teachers in screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study examined the use of the "Social Communication Questionnaire" (SCQ) and "Social Responsiveness Scale" (SRS) as completed by parents and teachers about school-age children from the Simons Simplex Collection. Using the…
Petry, Glenn H.
The problem of increasing questionnaire saturation experienced by colleges and universities is analyzed. Specific attention is focused upon attitudes toward questionnaires, reasons for nonresponse and factors that might improve the questionnaires, and, hopefully, the response rate. (LBH)
Sahlqvist, Shannon; Song, Yena; Bull, Fiona; Adams, Emma; Preston, John; Ogilvie, David
Additional File Overview of items included in the long and short versions of the questionnaires Section Topic Details Long Short Perceptions of the environment Perceptions of the neighbourhood environment Items based on the ALPHA... questionnaire  33 Likert scale items #1; Type of residence (4 items) #1; Distance to facilities (8 items) #1; Neighbourhood walking and cycling infrastructure (4 items) #1; Maintenance of infrastructure (3 items) #1; Neighbourhood safety (6 items...
Fischer, H Felix; Tritt, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Fliege, Herbert
A wide range of questionnaires for measuring depression are available. Item Response Theory models can help to evaluate the questionnaires exceeding the boundaries of Classical Test Theory and provide an opportunity to equate the questionnaires. In this study after checking for unidimensionality, a General Partial Credit Model was applied to data from two different depression scales [Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and ICD-10-Symptom Rating (ISR)] obtained in clinical settings from a consecutive sample, including 4517 observations from a total of 2999 inpatients and outpatients of a psychosomatic clinic. The precision of each questionnaire was compared and the model was used to transform scores based on the assumed underlying latent trait. Both instruments were constructed to measure the same construct and their estimates of depression severity are highly correlated. Our analysis showed that the predicted scores provided by the conversion tables are similar to the observed scores in a validation sample. The PHQ-9 and ISR depression scales measure depression severity across a broad range with similar precision. While the PHQ-9 shows advantages in measuring low or high depression severity, the ISR is more parsimonious and also suitable for clinical purposes. Furthermore, the equation tables derived in this study enhance the comparability of studies using either one of the instruments, but due to substantial statistical spread the comparison of individual scores is imprecise. PMID:22021205
Background Assessments of health-related quality of life and particularly utility values are important components of health economic analyses. Several instruments have been developed to measure utilities. However no consensus has emerged regarding the most appropriate instrument within a therapeutic area such as chronic pain. The study compared two instruments – EQ-5D and SF-6D – for their performance and validity in patients with chronic pain. Methods Pooled data from three randomised, controlled clinical trials with two active treatment groups were used. The included patients suffered from osteoarthritis knee pain or low back pain. Differences between the utility measures were compared in terms of mean values at baseline and endpoint, Bland–Altman analysis, correlation between the dimensions, construct validity, and responsiveness. Results The analysis included 1977 patients, most with severe pain on the Numeric Rating Scale. The EQ-5D showed a greater mean change from baseline to endpoint compared with the SF-6D (0.43 to 0.58 versus 0.59 to 0.64). Bland–Altman analysis suggested the difference between two measures depended on the health status of a patient. Spearmans rank correlation showed moderate correlation between EQ-5D and SF-6D dimensions. Construct validity showed both instruments could differentiate between patient subgroups with different severities of adverse events and analgesic efficacies but larger differences were detected with the EQ-5D. Similarly, when anchoring the measures to a disease-specific questionnaire – Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) – both questionnaires could differentiate between WOMAC severity levels but the EQ-5D showed greater differences. Responsiveness was also higher with the EQ-5D and for the subgroups in which improvements in health status were expected or when WOMAC severity level was reduced the improvements with EQ-5D were higher than with SF-6D. Conclusions This analysis showed that the mean EQ-5D scores were lower than mean SF-6D scores in patients with chronic pain. EQ-5D seemed to have higher construct validity and responsiveness in these patients. PMID:23815777
Matthias Augustin; Kerstin Wenninger; Ulrich Amon; Michael Joachim Schroth; Wolfgang Küster; Margret Chren; Jörg Kupfer; Uwe Gieler
Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has increasingly been recognized as an important aspect of a comprehensive clinical assessment in dermatology. Objective: The aim of the present study was to translate and validate one of the most frequently used and established skin disease-specific HRQOL questionnaires originally developed in English for the German language area: the Skindex-29. Methods: 295 in-patients with
Mansell, Ian; Bennett, Glynis; Torrance, Colin; Fairbairn, Gavin
This study explores the role of the lecturer in nursing and midwifery education in the supervision of students' essays, projects and assignments. Three methods were used within the study; semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and focus groups. The results from the semi-structured interviews were used to develop a questionnaire which was distributed to the population of lecturers in nursing and midwifery education (n=285) within Wales. This article reports some of the key findings of the questionnaire survey. Lecturers report a directive style of supervision with a considerable amount of time being invested in the supervision process. The production of guidelines for good supervision practice is recommended as a way of providing consistent and fair supervision for students. PMID:12384031
Karadeniz, Sirin; Buyukozturk, Sener; Akgun, Ozcan Erkan; Cakmak, Ebru Kilic; Demirel, Funda
This study gives results of the first phase of the 12-18 year old Turkish students' norm study of The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), which developed by Pintrich, Smith, Garcia & McKeachie (1993). The scale was administrated to 1114 students from 3 primary schools and 3 high schools in Ankara in Turkish language, science,…
Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek
Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…
Salomone, Paul R.; Miller, Glenn C., Jr.
In order to study procedures for increasing the return of mailed questionnaires, several types of cover letters were sent to groups of potential subjects. The three experimental variables were: (1) appeals to the potential respondent; (2) threat of a follow-up letter; and (3) stationery letterhead. Four types of appeals to the subject to…
Buri, J R
A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893
Kleinke, Chris L.
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
Winkler, Gábor; Hidvégi, Tibor; Vándorfi, Gy?z?; Balogh, Sándor; Jermendy, György
Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing, worldwide and also in Hungary. Timely diagnosis and early treatment could be aided by targeted screening. Recognizing this, the Hungarian Diabetes Association initiated a risk-stratified screening with the involvement of primary care physicians. Material/Methods In the first phase of screening, the FINDRISC questionnaire was completed, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for those with a score of ?12. Between September 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011, 70,432 non-diabetic adults, who visited their general practitioners for any reason, were involved in the screening. Of these, 68,476 questionnaires proved to be suitable for processing. Results From the questionnaires, 28,077 (41.0%) had a score of ?12. A valid OGTT was performed in 22,846 cases; of this group 3,217 subjects (14.1%) had elevated fasting glucose levels, 5,663 (24.8%) had impaired glucose tolerance, and 1,750 (7.6%) had manifest, previously undiagnosed, diabetes mellitus. Overall, from the valid OGTT group, 46.5% subjects had some degree of glucose intolerance. Conclusions Based on the FINDRISC questionnaire, the risk-stratified screening for diabetes mellitus proved to be simple and cost-effective method for the early detection of carbohydrate metabolism disorders. Using this method, the prevalence rate of previously undiagnosed abnormal glucose tolerance was high in adult patients cared for by general practitioners in Hungary. PMID:23344680
Shelley, AM; Brunton, P; Horner, K
Objectives Survey by questionnaire is a widely used research method in dental radiology. A major concern in reviews of questionnaires is non-response. The objectives of this study were to review questionnaire studies in dental radiology with regard to potential survey errors and to develop recommendations to assist future researchers. Methods A literature search with the software search package PubMed was used to obtain internet-based access to Medline through the website www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. A search of the English language peer-reviewed literature was conducted of all published studies, with no restriction on date. The search strategy found articles with dates from 1983 to 2010. The medical subject heading terms used were “questionnaire”, “dental radiology” and “dental radiography”. The reference sections of articles retrieved by this method were hand-searched in order to identify further relevant papers. Reviews, commentaries and relevant studies from the wider literature were also included. Results 53 questionnaire studies were identified in the dental literature that concerned dental radiography and included a report of response rate. These were all published between 1983 and 2010. In total, 87 articles are referred to in this review, including the 53 dental radiology studies. Other cited articles include reviews, commentaries and examples of studies outside dental radiology where they are germane to the arguments presented. Conclusions Non-response is only one of four broad areas of error to which questionnaire surveys are subject. This review considers coverage, sampling and measurement, as well as non-response. Recommendations are made to assist future research that uses questionnaire surveys. PMID:22517994
When natural disasters like hurricanes, floods and earthquakes occur, safe drinking water can be compromised, limited or unavailable. Under such situations, communities have emergency response plans. One of many options for providing safe drinking water during emergency situati...
Maij-de Meij, Annette M.; Kelderman, Henk; van der Flier, Henk
Mixture item response theory (IRT) models aid the interpretation of response behavior on personality tests and may provide possibilities for improving prediction. Heterogeneity in the population is modeled by identifying homogeneous subgroups that conform to different measurement models. In this study, mixture IRT models were applied to the…
Collective, not individual, leadership in schools has a greater impact on student achievement; when principals and teachers share leadership responsibilities, student achievement is higher; and schools having high student achievement also display a vision for student achievement and teacher growth. Those are just a few of the insights into school…
Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM) was...
Taylor, C. L.; And Others
The effects on response rate of familiarity with survey sender was investigated in a study involving the University of Florida's Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences faculty. The study was part of a mail survey of 3,467 citrus producers in 23 counties in Florida. Half (1,790) of the producers on the agricultural agent's mailing lists were…
Jafari, Peyman; Sharafi, Zahra; Bagheri, Zahra; Shalileh, Sara
Measurement equivalence is a necessary assumption for meaningful comparison of pediatric quality of life rated by children and parents. In this study, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is used to examine whether children and their parents respond consistently to the items in the KINDer Lebensqualitätsfragebogen (KINDL; in German, Children Quality of Life Questionnaire). Two DIF detection methods, graded response model (GRM) and ordinal logistic regression (OLR), were applied for comparability. The KINDL was completed by 1,086 school children and 1,061 of their parents. While the GRM revealed that 12 out of the 24 items were flagged with DIF, the OLR identified 14 out of the 24 items with DIF. Seven items with DIF and five items without DIF were common across the two methods, yielding a total agreement rate of 50 %. This study revealed that parent proxy-reports cannot be used as a substitute for a child's ratings in the KINDL. PMID:24043561
Resources made available by DCEG for use in developing study questionnaires. Includes questionnaires reviewed and approved by DCEG’s Technical Evaluation Committee, as well as non-reviewed questionnaire modules to be used as starting points for development.
Jordan, Pascal; Spiess, Martin
Maximum likelihood and Bayesian ability estimation in multidimensional item response models can lead to paradoxical results as proven by Hooker, Finkelman, and Schwartzman ("Psychometrika" 74(3): 419-442, 2009): Changing a correct response on one item into an incorrect response may produce a higher ability estimate in one dimension. Furthermore,…
California Health Interview Survey 2005 A05_C7 The next questions are about physical activities or exercise you may do in your free time for at least 10 minutes, other than walking. First, think about activities that take moderate physical effort, such as bicycling, swimming, dancing, and gardening. During the last 7 days, did you do any moderate physical activities in your free time for at least 10 minutes, other than walking?
Allied Dunbar Survey of Activity and Health 18a During the time from when you left school up to the present, have you, at any time, walked for 2 miles or more on a regular basis, for a period of at least 2 years?
Lotzin, Annett; Kriston, Levente; Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Leichsenring, Irina; Ramsauer, Brigitte; Schäfer, Ingo
To date no instrument for the assessment of parenting styles is available in the German -language area that has been validated in patients with addictive disorders. Therefore the aim of this study was the confirmatory evaluation of the factor structure of the Questionnaire on Parental Attitudes and Rearing Practices (FEPS) in 186 alcohol dependent patients. The model as proposed by the test developers with the 4 factors Care, Autonomy, Low Punishment, and Low Material Reinforcement showed acceptable fit when residual correlations were allowed (mother: ?(2)/df=1,92, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,79; father: ?(2)/df=1,75, RMSEA=0,07, TLI=0,82). All factors showed sufficient factor reliabilities as well as good to very good internal consistencies. Factor loadings, discriminations and difficulties of the indicators could be regarded as good, with the exception of 2 items. These results indicate the factorial validity of the FEPS in patients with alcohol dependence. PMID:23446826
Partsch, Carl-Joachim; Schnabel, Dirk; Ehtisham, Sarah; Johnstone, Helen C; Zabransky, Markus; Kiess, Wieland
Background SurePal™ is a reusable self-injection system that has been developed to support daily administration of Omnitrope® (Sandoz, Kundl, Austria). A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate acceptability of, and preference for, SurePal™ in pediatric patients who were prescribed treatment with Omnitrope® within routine clinical care. Methods This multicenter, observational study was incorporated into the ongoing non-interventional PATRO (PAtients TReated with Omnitrope®) Children study. Patients (or caregivers) were provided with a questionnaire that included five main topics; attractiveness of the device, training received, using SurePal™, the low drug wastage system, and experience versus other devices used previously (where applicable). Questions were scored on a 5-point scale, with ?2 being the worst possible outcome (eg, very hard/very poor) and 2 being the best possible outcome (eg, very easy/excellent). Results A total of 186 patients were included in this study (Germany, n=154; UK, n=32). The attractiveness of SurePal™ was rated as excellent/good by 87.1% of patients. Overall, 86.5% of patients found that using their SurePal™ was very easy/easy. Almost all patients (96.2%) found that preparing their SurePal™ for injection was very easy/easy, and 89.2% found that injecting with SurePal™ was very easy/easy. 85.5% of patients recorded that the dose memory function was helpful, and 87.6% that taking their SurePal™ apart after an injection was very easy/easy. Of the 88 patients who recorded that they had used the low drug waste feature, 89.8% found the feature to be helpful. Among pre-treated patients (n=42), 81% recorded that SurePal™ was much better/better than their previously used device. Conclusion This questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey in pediatric patients confirms the ease of use and patient preference for SurePal™, a reusable self-injection system that has been developed to support daily administration of Omnitrope®.
In addition to the subject objective, the relationship of specified personality variables (i.e., trait anxiety, locus of control, response tendency towards threat, and denial) to behavioral and psychological responses to the threat of nuclear war were assessed. The quantitative questionnaire, titled the Nuclear Reaction Scale, was composed of items selected from issues discussed in the psychological literature on the threat of nuclear war. These issues included: psychic numbing, cognitive reality, perceptions of likelihood and survival, nuclear illusions, and attention to the threat of nuclear war. A standardization sample of 360 college students was administered the Nuclear Reaction Scale, Trait Anxiety Scale, Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Facilitation-Inhibition Scale, and Haan Denial Scale. Three additional subsamples, identified as Military, Nuclear Freeze, and Church, were given the Nuclear Reaction Scale to assess the validity of the scale. A factor analysis of the Nuclear Reaction Scale indicated a nine-factor solution that described issues such as concern perceptions, likelihood, survivability, and control over the threat of nuclear war. A number of strong relationships existed between computed factors on the Nuclear Reaction Scale. Demographic comparisons found significant differences related to sex and political affiliation.
Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat
Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment.
Krahé, Charlotte; Paloyelis, Yannis; Sambo, Chiara F; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
Social support can have beneficial effects on psychological and physiological well-being. During acute bodily pain, however, the effects of social support on pain are mixed. This variability may be due to the multifaceted nature of both pain and social support, as well as individual differences. In this paper, we present the development, psychometric assessment, and initial validation of the first self-report measure designed to address this variability in the general population; the Responses and Attitudes to Support during Pain questionnaire (RASP). The RASP includes questions on social support from the romantic partner as well as healthcare professionals (HCPs) and addresses different types of social support and pain responses. The development and validation of the RASP comprised four studies. In Study 1, a preliminary RASP version was completed by 179 healthy individuals regarding any type of acute pain. In Study 2, the reduced RASP was completed by 256 women with experiences of menstrual pain. Principal component analysis indicated a 22-item solution with five underlying dimensions reflecting General Partner Support, Emotional Support from HCPs, Anxiety in the Context of HCPs, Pain Behaviors during Partner Support, and Distraction by the Partner. Construct validity was assessed using a measure of adult attachment style. The RASP showed good validity and test-retest reliability. In Study 3, the 5-factor model received initial support through confirmatory factor analysis in a new sample of 120 individuals with recent musculoskeletal pain. Study 4 provided additional validation of the RASP in a sample of 180 individuals responding in reference to acute back pain. Overall, the RASP is a valid and reliable measure for assessing individual differences in attitudes and responses to social support in relation to acute pain. PMID:25285083
Krahé, Charlotte; Paloyelis, Yannis; Sambo, Chiara F.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
Social support can have beneficial effects on psychological and physiological well-being. During acute bodily pain, however, the effects of social support on pain are mixed. This variability may be due to the multifaceted nature of both pain and social support, as well as individual differences. In this paper, we present the development, psychometric assessment, and initial validation of the first self-report measure designed to address this variability in the general population; the Responses and Attitudes to Support during Pain questionnaire (RASP). The RASP includes questions on social support from the romantic partner as well as healthcare professionals (HCPs) and addresses different types of social support and pain responses. The development and validation of the RASP comprised four studies. In Study 1, a preliminary RASP version was completed by 179 healthy individuals regarding any type of acute pain. In Study 2, the reduced RASP was completed by 256 women with experiences of menstrual pain. Principal component analysis indicated a 22-item solution with five underlying dimensions reflecting General Partner Support, Emotional Support from HCPs, Anxiety in the Context of HCPs, Pain Behaviors during Partner Support, and Distraction by the Partner. Construct validity was assessed using a measure of adult attachment style. The RASP showed good validity and test-retest reliability. In Study 3, the 5-factor model received initial support through confirmatory factor analysis in a new sample of 120 individuals with recent musculoskeletal pain. Study 4 provided additional validation of the RASP in a sample of 180 individuals responding in reference to acute back pain. Overall, the RASP is a valid and reliable measure for assessing individual differences in attitudes and responses to social support in relation to acute pain. PMID:25285083
Machado, Helena; Silva, Susana
The creation and expansion of forensic DNA databases might involve potential threats to the protection of a range of human rights. At the same time, such databases have social benefits. Based on data collected through an online questionnaire applied to 628 individuals in Portugal, this paper aims to analyze the citizens' willingness to donate voluntarily a sample for profiling and inclusion in the National Forensic DNA Database and the views underpinning such a decision. Nearly one-quarter of the respondents would indicate 'no', and this negative response increased significantly with age and education. The overriding willingness to accept the inclusion of the individual genetic profile indicates an acknowledgement of the investigative potential of forensic DNA technologies and a relegation of civil liberties and human rights to the background, owing to the perceived benefits of protecting both society and the individual from crime. This rationale is mostly expressed by the idea that all citizens should contribute to the expansion of the National Forensic DNA Database for reasons that range from the more abstract assumption that donating a sample for profiling would be helpful in fighting crime to the more concrete suggestion that everyone (criminals and non-criminals) should be in the database. The concerns with the risks of accepting the donation of a sample for genetic profiling and inclusion in the National Forensic DNA Database are mostly related to lack of control and insufficient or unclear regulations concerning safeguarding individuals' data and supervising the access and uses of genetic data. By providing an empirically-grounded understanding of the attitudes regarding willingness to donate voluntary a sample for profiling and inclusion in a National Forensic DNA Database, this study also considers the citizens' perceived benefits and risks of operating forensic DNA databases. These collective views might be useful for the formation of international common ethical standards for the development and governance of DNA databases in a framework in which the citizens' perspectives are taken into consideration. PMID:24315600
Rosalie Brown; Paul Barrett; Brownlow Hill
There is a curious reticence amongst test publishers concerning the possible distortion of item responses within samples of individuals who stand to gain or lose some reward, depending upon their responses to a questionnaire. If the distortion is hypothesised as resulting in changed scores on a set of questionnaire scales, then it is understandable that this effect is not of
Numeroso, Filippo; Benatti, Mario; Pizzigoni, Caterina; Sartori, Elisabetta; Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco
BACKGROUND: A poor communication with immigrants can lead to inappropriate use of healthcare services, greater risk of misdiagnosis, and lower compliance with treatment. As precise information about communication between emergency physicians (EPs) and immigrants is lacking, we analyzed difficulties in communicating with immigrants in the emergency department (ED) and their possible associations with demographic data, geographical origin and clinical characteristics. METHODS: In an ED with approximately 85 000 visits per year, a multiple-choice questionnaire was given to the EPs 4 months after discharge of each immigrant in 2011. RESULTS: Linguistic comprehension was optimal or partial in the majority of patients. Significant barriers were noted in nearly one fourth of patients, for only half of them compatriots who were able to translate. Linguistic barriers were mainly found in older and sicker patients; they were also frequently seen in patients coming from western Africa and southern Europe. Non-linguistic barriers were perceived by EPs in a minority of patients, more frequently in the elderly and frequent attenders. Factors independently associated with a poor final comprehension led to linguistic barriers, non-linguistic obstacles, the absence of intermediaries, and the presence of patient’s fear and hostility. The latter probably is a consequence, not the cause, of a poor comprehension. CONCLUSION: Linguistic and non-linguistic barriers, although quite infrequent, are the main factors that compromise communication with immigrants in the ED, with negative effects especially on elderly and more seriously ill patients as well as on physician satisfaction and appropriateness in using services. PMID:26056541
Muttersprachiger Dialekt im fremdsprachlichen Unterricht. Ergebnisse und Implikationen einer Umfrageaktion (The Native Dialect in Foreign Language Teaching. Results and Implications of a Questionnaire)
James, Allan R.
A questionnaire given to students and teachers of English in grades 9, 10, 12 and first-semester university students revealed that 70 percent rated most difficult the difference between English /s/ and /z/, and in fact all voiced-unvoiced consonant contrasts. Twenty-two percent mentioned intonation. Swabian dialect interference was considered.…
Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Puente, Giovanni Del; Natta, Werner Maria
The number of immigrants in Italy has doubled every 10 years from 1972 and Genoa hosts two large communities of immigrants from South America and Africa. We investigated differences in the somatic perception between immigrants and Italians and between South Americans and Africans living in the city of Genoa. During a 7 month period, an anonymous questionnaire asking for sociodemographic information and the Modified Somatic Perception Questionnaire (MSPQ) were administered to all immigrants accessing an outpatient clinic or the general practitioners offices. MSPQ mean scores were significantly higher in immigrant patients than in Italian patients, after adjusting for sex and age differences. We found no differences between South Americans and Africans in MSPQ score. The tendency to express discomfort through physical symptoms appears to be related to being a foreigner who arrived in Italy through a migratory trip and also to being a person who comes from a cultural context that is very different from the one of developed countries. PMID:24966706
Orcesi, Simona; Ariaudo, Giada; Mercuri, Eugenio; Beghi, Ettore; Rezzani, Cristiana; Balottin, Umberto
Improvement of quality of life in neuromuscular disorders is a primary objective, both in management of affected children and in the context of therapeutic trials. Quality of life is a subjective concept and it is crucial to gather information directly from patients. We created the SOLE Questionnaire for NMDs, a new instrument designed to investigate quality of life in children with neuromuscular disorders, and tested it in a study population of 78 patients and in 81 healthy children aged 5 to 13 years. The SOLE Questionnaire, characterized by a visual and neutral approach, was well received, practical, rapid to administer, and able to discriminate between patients and controls. We also confirmed the presence of disagreement about children's quality of life between children and their parents. We suggest that our new approach could help to improve understanding of quality of life in children with neuromuscular disorders. PMID:24352162
The Primary Practices Questionnaire (PPQ): The Development and Validation of an Instrument Measuring Teachers' Perceptions of Their Implementation of "Developmentally Appropriate" Responsive Practices in the Primary Grades
Connelly, Kimberly A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a newly developed survey instrument, the "Primary Practices Questionnaire" ("PPQ"), designed to measure first, second, and third grade teachers' perceived use of developmentally appropriate practices. The initial item pool was reviewed for content…
Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Educational Research Center.
The 116-item parent questionnaire is designed for parents of elementary school children. It is intended to be used with the child's mother, or the person acting as the child's mother. The questionnaire consists of a section devoted to demographic variables and scales measuring 14 parent variables: (1) parent's achievement aspirations for the…
This data set includes responses for 459 descriptive questionnaires. The Descriptive Questionnaire was used to enumerate individuals within a household for sampling purposes (basis for selection of sample individual), to identify general characteristics of the living quarters and...
D. Osoba; B. Zee; J. Pater; D. Warr; L. Kaizer; J. Latreille
The QLQ-C30, a health-related quality of life questionnaire developed for use in patients with cancer, has been previously validated in patients with lung cancer and head and neck cancer. In this study, further validation was carried out for 535 patients, including patients with breast cancer (n=143) and ovarian cancer (n=111) for whom there is no previously published validation, as well
Lewis, B J; Smith, M B; Ing, H; Andrews, H R; Machrafi, R; Tomi, L; Matthews, T J; Veloce, L; Shurshakov, V; Tchernykh, I; Khoshooniy, N
A passive neutron-bubble dosemeter (BD), developed by Bubble Technology Industries, has been used for space applications. Both the bubble detector-personal neutron dosemeter and bubble detector spectrometer have been studied at ground-based facilities in order to characterise their response due to neutrons, heavy ion particles and protons. This technology was first used during the Canadian-Russian collaboration aboard the Russian satellite BION-9, and subsequently on other space missions, including later BION satellites, the space transportation system, Russian MIR space station and International Space Station. This paper provides an overview of the experiments that have been performed for both ground-based and space studies in an effort to characterise the response of these detectors to various particle types in low earth orbit and presents results from the various space investigations. PMID:21890528
Rayhan, Rakib U.; Zheng, Yin; Uddin, Ebsan; Timbol, Christian; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; Baraniuk, James N.
Aim Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Material and Methods Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a “Cloud” database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel) which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. Results This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient's progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Conclusions Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data. PMID:24415903
Kuperman, Gilad J.; Teich, Jonathan M.; Tanasijevic, Milenko J.; Ma'Luf, Nell; Rittenberg, Eve; Jha, Ashish; Fiskio, Julie; Winkelman, James; Bates, David W.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of an automatic alerting system on the time until treatment is ordered for patients with critical laboratory results. Design: Prospective randomized controlled trial. Intervention: A computer system to detect critical conditions and automatically notify the responsible physician via the hospital's paging system. Patients: Medical and surgical inpatients at a large academic medical center. One two-month study period for each service. Main outcomes: Interval from when a critical result was available for review until an appropriate treatment was ordered. Secondary outcomes were the time until the critical condition resolved and the frequency of adverse events. Methods: The alerting system looked for 12 conditions involving laboratory results and medications. For intervention patients, the covering physician was automatically notified about the presence of the results. For control patients, no automatic notification was made. Chart review was performed to determine the outcomes. Results: After exclusions, 192 alerting situations (94 interventions, 98 controls) were analyzed. The intervention group had a 38 percent shorter median time interval (1.0 hours vs. 1.6 hours, P = 0.003; mean, 4.1 vs. 4.6 hours, P = 0.003) until an appropriate treatment was ordered. The time until the alerting condition resolved was less in the intervention group (median, 8.4 hours vs. 8.9 hours, P = 0.11; mean, 14.4 hours vs. 20.2 hours, P = 0.11), although these results did not achieve statistical significance. The impact of the intervention was more pronounced for alerts that did not meet the laboratory's critical reporting criteria. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the number of adverse events. Conclusion: An automatic alerting system reduced the time until an appropriate treatment was ordered for patients who had critical laboratory results. Information technologies that facilitate the transmission of important patient data can potentially improve the quality of care. PMID:10579608
Ondenge, K; McLellan-Lemal, E; Awuonda, E; Angira, F; Mills, L A; Thomas, T
Communicating findings to study participants and their communities is a practice that often gets overlooked or receives low prioritization by research investigators, but is crucially important. The purpose of this study was to describe the process and community response to the dissemination of results from the Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS), specifically in terms of (1) community research knowledge and expectations and (2) impressions of result dissemination efforts. A qualitative evaluation was completed for 10 result dissemination events using focus group discussions (FGDs) (n?=?10; total number of participants?=?98). An inductive, thematic qualitative data analysis was completed in NVivo 8.0. Overall, FGD participants expressed great appreciation for being given information on the study results. Participants had a good understanding of what research entails and had specific expectations for the process, including that the community receive information about the study, not only at the end of the study but also at regular intervals throughout the study's conduct. They also wanted to receive the communications from a credible source, the principal investigator preferably. Other expectations centered on better community and research interactions and development and the use of community collaborators. Impressions of KiBS result dissemination events were positive, but suggestions for the future included having the event in a larger area, inviting more people, having more written materials, and putting the information in an entertaining format such as skits or movies. Sharing study findings with local community members is essential and beneficial to the researchers' long-term engagement with communities and importantly, the successful implementation of study findings when appropriate. It is imperative that dissemination of results be embedded as an integral part of research project planning and development. PMID:26029283
This paper presents four questionnaire surveys administered in educational research. Each of the questionnaires is followed by a brief research report with an abstract and summary statistics. The first survey, "Guam Undergraduate Women Questionnaire," explores the status aspiration and gender awareness of undergraduate women in Guam. Responses of…
Fanelli, Marie T.; Abernethy, Marilyn M.
Describes a questionnaire assessing nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of older adults. The questionnaire consists of six sections: demographic and personal information, food resources, food consumption patterns, dietary practices related to health, activity patterns, and nutritional knowledge. Study results demonstrating the…
develop and select cost-effective green building products. The data gathered from this questionnaire-cycle assessment is its comprehensive, multi- dimensional scope. Many green building to develop environmental profiles for building products. The goal is to help manufacturers and designers
Lenore B. Behar
In summary, the Preschool Behavior Questionnaire was developed as a screening instrument for use by preschool teachers, providing norms for children, ages 3–6. During the 34-month period since its publication in late 1974, the scale has been used to a considerable extent in the screening of young children. Those who have used the scale evaluate it highly. However, the variations
California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.
In order to determine the extent to which the California community colleges share and borrow facilities, a questionnaire was sent to each California community college in January 1974. Sixty-six (96 percent) of the 69 districts responded. Analysis of the data revealed that the typical campus shared 7.5 facilities and borrowed 5.6. More than 37…
) for your blood pressure or heart condition? 7. Do you know of any other reason why you should not do in the last 3 months 2. Taking medication for high blood pressure 3. Hernia or other condition that may THURSDAY FRIDAY SATURDAY SUNDAY #12;Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (American College of Sports
Ishii, Hitoshi; Shimatsu, Akira; Okimura, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hizuka, Naomi; Kaji, Hidesuke; Hanew, Kunihiko; Oki, Yutaka; Yamashiro, Sayuri; Takano, Koji; Chihara, Kazuo
Objective To develop and validate the Adult Hypopituitarism Questionnaire (AHQ) as a disease-specific, self-administered questionnaire for evaluation of quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with hypopituitarism. Methods We developed and validated this new questionnaire, using a standardized procedure which included item development, pilot-testing and psychometric validation. Of the patients who participated in psychometric validation, those whose clinical conditions were judged to be stable were asked to answer the survey questionnaire twice, in order to assess test-retest reliability. Results Content validity of the initial questionnaire was evaluated via two pilot tests. After these tests, we made minor revisions and finalized the initial version of the questionnaire. The questionnaire was constructed with two domains, one psycho-social and the other physical. For psychometric assessment, analyses were performed on the responses of 192 adult patients with various types of hypopituitarism. The intraclass correlations of the respective domains were 0.91 and 0.95, and the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.96 and 0.95, indicating adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency for each domain. For known-group validity, patients with hypopituitarism due to hypothalamic disorder showed significantly lower scores in 11 out of 13 sub-domains compared to those who had hypopituitarism due to pituitary disorder. Regarding construct validity, the domain structure was found to be almost the same as that initially hypothesized. Exploratory factor analysis (n?=?228) demonstrated that each domain consisted of six and seven sub-domains. Conclusion The AHQ showed good reliability and validity for evaluating QOL in adult patients with hypopituitarism. PMID:22984490
Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon
Validating questionnaires for social pharmacy research with smaller sample sizes can be unnecessarily time-consuming and costly, a solution to this is cognitive interviewing with 2 interviews per iteration. This paper shows how cognitive interviewing with pairs of interviews per iteration of the questionnaire can be used to identify overt and covert issues with comprehension, retrieval, judgment and response experienced by respondents when attempting to answer a question or navigate around the questionnaire. When used during questionnaire development in small scale social pharmacy research studies cognitive interviewing can reduce both respondent burden and response error and should result in more reliable survey results. The process of cognitive interviewing is illustrated by a case study from the development of the Perspectives on Progesterone questionnaire. PMID:23871225
Vaitkus, Janina; Stroka, Kimberly; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim
During periods of infection and disease, the immune system induces the release of TNF-?, an inflammatory cytokine, from a variety of cell types, such as macrophages. TNF-?, while circulating in the vasculature, binds to the apical surface of endothelial cells and causes a wide range of biological and mechanical changes to the endothelium. While the biological changes have been widely studied, the biomechanical aspects have been largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the biomechanical changes of the endothelium as a function of TNF-? treatment. First, we studied the traction forces applied by the endothelium, an effect that is much less studied than others. Through the use of traction force microscopy, we found that TNF-? causes an increase in traction forces applied by the endothelial cells as compared to non-treated cells. Then, we investigated cell morphology, cell mechanics, migration, and cytoskeletal dynamics. We found that in addition to increasing applied traction forces, TNF-? causes an increase in cell area and aspect ratio on average, as well as a shift in the organization of F-actin filaments within the cell. Combining these findings together, our results show that an inflammatory response heavily impacts the morphology, cell mechanics, migration, cytoskeletal dynamics, and applied traction forces of endothelial cells.
Pavlovi?, Slavica; Vlastelica, Mirela
The aim of this study is to develop a questionnaire that can observe empathy in group psychoanalytic psychotherapy and examine the structure of its factors. A questionnaire comprised of 160 items in five-point Likert-type scale was developed through analysis of communication and interaction related to empathizing during group sessions. The questionnaire was applied on 256 patients from 40 therapy groups in 9 cities in Croatia. All 20 group analysts are trained in the Institute for Group Analysis in Zagreb. The patients were selected based on group analysis criteria. After item discrimination and principal component analysis limited to five factors were assessed, 80 items were isolated, 20 of which made a control scale for socially desirable responses. Two parallel questionnaire forms were developed: Group-Analysis-Empathy 1 (GA-Em1) and Group-Analysis-Empathy 2 (GA-Em2). A new, reliable and valid questionnaire for empathy observation employable in group psychotherapy was designed. The following factors were isolated by means of factor analysis: 1. Emotional disclosure and sensibility; 2. Containing and metabolizing; 3. Immersion; 4. Resonance and responsiveness; 5. Insight. A new questionnaire on empathy in group-analytical psychotherapy can measure the capacity for emotional communication among group members and between the group and the group analyst - conductor. PMID:18982775
Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M
Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807. PMID:24662446
Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Aranceta, Javier; Salvador, Gemma; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio
Food Frequency Questionnaires are dietary assessment tools widely used in epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between dietary intake and disease or risk factors since the early '90s. The three main components of these questionnaires are the list of foods, frequency of consumption and the portion size consumed. The food list should reflect the food habits of the study population at the time the data is collected. The frequency of consumption may be asked by open ended questions or by presenting frequency categories. Qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaires do not ask about the consumed portions; semi-quantitative include standard portions and quantitative questionnaires ask respondents to estimate the portion size consumed either in household measures or grams. The latter implies a greater participant burden. Some versions include only close-ended questions in a standardized format, while others add an open section with questions about some specific food habits and practices and admit additions to the food list for foods and beverages consumed which are not included. The method can be self-administered, on paper or web-based, or interview administered either face-to-face or by telephone. Due to the standard format, especially closed-ended versions, and method of administration, FFQs are highly cost-effective thus encouraging its widespread use in large scale epidemiological cohort studies and also in other study designs. Coding and processing data collected is also less costly and requires less nutrition expertise compared to other dietary intake assessment methods. However, the main limitations are systematic errors and biases in estimates. Important efforts are being developed to improve the quality of the information. It has been recommended the use of FFQs with other methods thus enabling the adjustments required. PMID:25719771
Lacasse, Y; Bureau, M; Series, F
Background: A short, standardised, self-administered quality of life questionnaire would be a useful addition to the outcome measures in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) research. A study was therefore undertaken to validate a new OSA specific self-administered questionnaire (the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire, QSQ) for use in clinical trials. Methods: This study followed a description of health related quality of life in patients with OSA. Construct validity and responsiveness were tested by comparing the baseline and changes in domain scores (daytime sleepiness, diurnal symptoms, nocturnal symptoms, emotions, social interactions) with those of questionnaires measuring related constructs (SF-36, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, SCL-90, and Functional Outcomes in Sleep Questionnaire). Results: Sixty patients (48 men) of mean (SD) age 55 (10) years participated in the study. In the analysis of the discriminative function of the questionnaire, moderate to high correlations were found between the scores in each domain of the QSQ and the corresponding questionnaires. In the analysis of its evaluative function significant differences were found in score changes between patients who were treated and those who were not, and moderate to high correlations were seen between changes in scores in the QSQ and changes in the corresponding questionnaires. Most of these correlations met the a priori predictions made regarding their magnitude. Conclusion: The QSQ is a valid measure of health related quality of life in patients with OSA and is sensitive to treatment induced changes. PMID:15170032
Barger, Laura K.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Drake, Christopher L.; O'Brien, Conor S.; Ng, Kim T.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.
Study Objective: At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population. Design: Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD. Setting: 18 sleep clinics in the USA. Patients or Participants: 311 shift workers. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82). Conclusions: This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD. Citation: Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1693–1703. PMID:23204612
Background Laryngeal hypersensitivity may be an important component of the common disorders of laryngeal motor dysfunction including chronic refractory cough, pdoxical vocal fold movement (vocal cord dysfunction), muscle tension dysphonia, and globus pharyngeus. Patients with these conditions frequently report sensory disturbances, and an emerging concept of the ‘irritable larynx’ suggests common features of a sensory neuropathic dysfunction as a part of these disorders. The aim of this study was to develop a Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire for patients with laryngeal dysfunction syndromes in order to measure the laryngeal sensory disturbance occurring in these conditions. Methods The 97 participants included 82 patients referred to speech pathology for behavioural management of laryngeal dysfunction and 15 healthy controls. The participants completed a 21 item self administered questionnaire regarding symptoms of abnormal laryngeal sensation. Factor analysis was conducted to examine correlations between items. Discriminant analysis and responsiveness to change were evaluated. Results The final questionnaire comprised 14 items across three domains: obstruction, pain/thermal, and irritation. The questionnaire demonstrated significant discriminant validity with a mean difference between the patients with laryngeal disorders and healthy controls of 5.5. The clinical groups with laryngeal hypersensitivity had similar abnormal scores. Furthermore the Newcastle Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire (LHQ) showed improvement following behavioural speech pathology intervention with a mean reduction in LHQ score of 2.3. Conclusion The Newcastle Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire is a simple, non-invasive tool to measure laryngeal pesthesia in patients with laryngeal conditions such as chronic cough, pdoxical vocal fold movement (vocal cord dysfunction), muscle tension dysphonia, and globus pharyngeus. It can successfully differentiate patients from healthy controls and measure change following intervention. It is a promising tool for use in clinical research and practice. PMID:24552215
Daniel R. Zalles
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
Prasad-Gaur, Archna; And Others
Responsive Systems Consultation (RSC) is an approach for enhancing children's developmental outcomes and involves a psychological or educational consultant working jointly with a child's parents and teachers. The impact of the RSC on parent and teacher consultees' attitudes toward home-school collaboration and their evaluation of the consultation…
Spreng, R. Nathan; McKinnon, Margaret C.; Mar, Raymond A.; Levine, Brian
In order to formulate a parsimonious tool to assess empathy, we used factor analysis on a combination of self-report measures to examine consensus and developed a brief self-report measure of this common factor. The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire (TEQ) represents empathy as a primarily emotional process. In three studies, the TEQ demonstrated strong convergent validity, correlating positively with behavioral measures of social decoding, self-report measures of empathy, and negatively with a measure of Autism symptomatology. Moreover, it exhibited good internal consistency and high test-retest reliability. The TEQ is a brief, reliable, and valid instrument for the assessment of empathy. PMID:19085285
Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polegre, A. M.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
This paper characterizes the effective beams, the effective beam window functions and the associated errors for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) detectors. The effective beam is theangular response including the effect of the optics, detectors, data processing and the scan strategy. The window function is the representation of this beam in the harmonic domain which is required to recover an unbiased measurement of the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum. The HFI is a scanning instrument and its effective beams are the convolution of: a) the optical response of the telescope and feeds; b) the processing of the time-ordered data and deconvolution of the bolometric and electronic transfer function; and c) the merging of several surveys to produce maps. The time response transfer functions are measured using observations of Jupiter and Saturn and by minimizing survey difference residuals. The scanning beam is the post-deconvolution angular response of the instrument, and is characterized with observations of Mars. The main beam solid angles are determined to better than 0.5% at each HFI frequency band. Observations of Jupiter and Saturn limit near sidelobes (within 5°) to about 0.1% of the total solid angle. Time response residuals remain as long tails in the scanning beams, but contribute less than 0.1% of the total solid angle. The bias and uncertainty in the beam products are estimated using ensembles of simulated planet observations that include the impact of instrumental noise and known systematic effects. The correlation structure of these ensembles is well-described by five error eigenmodes that are sub-dominant to sample variance and instrumental noise in the harmonic domain. A suite of consistency tests provide confidence that the error model represents a sufficient description of the data. The total error in the effective beam window functions is below 1% at 100 GHz up to multipole ? ~ 1500, and below 0.5% at 143 and 217 GHz up to ? ~ 2000.
Background To develop a Consumer Quality Index (CQI) Cancer Care questionnaire for measuring experiences with hospital care of patients with different types of cancer. Methods We derived quality aspects from focus group discussions, existing questionnaires and literature. We developed an experience questionnaire and sent it to 1,498 Dutch cancer patients. Another questionnaire measuring the importance of the quality aspects was sent to 600 cancer patients. Data were psychometrically analysed. Results The response to the experience questionnaire was 50 percent. Psychometric analysis revealed 12 reliable scales. Patients rated rapid and adequate referral, rapid start of the treatment after diagnosis, enough information and confidence in the healthcare professionals as most important themes. Hospitals received high scores for skills and cooperation of healthcare professionals and a patient-centered approach by doctors; and low scores for psychosocial guidance and information at completion of the treatment. Conclusions The CQI Cancer Care questionnaire is a valuable tool for the evaluation of the quality of cancer care from the patient’s perspective. Large scale implementation is necessary to determine the discriminatory powers of the questionnaire and may enable healthcare providers to improve the quality of cancer care. Preliminary results indicate that hospitals could improve their psychosocial guidance and information provision. PMID:23617741
Dalen, Lindy H.; Stanton, Neville A.; Roberts, Antony D.
A personality questionnaire administered to 86 subjects contained varying amounts of information regarding job title, job description, and person specification. Participants answered once honestly and faked answers once. All groups produced similar profiles but were unable to fake responses to match the ideal profile for the job. (SK)
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The Michigan Questionnaire Documentation System (MQDS) is a powerful tool used to help create questionnaire documentation, with or without summary statistics, and other documentation based on the Blaise data model for a study. MQDS works by: 1...
van Wijk, Arjen J; Hoogstraten, Johan
Anxiety, fear and pain play an important role in the context of dental treatment and patients' well-being. The Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ)-III is a recently developed self-report questionnaire measuring pain-related fear of a variety of painful stimuli. The present study was undertaken in order to develop a dental equivalent of the FPQ-III, called the Fear of Dental Pain questionnaire (FDP), to determine standard psychometric characteristics and to assess the instruments' validity. Four experienced dentists generated the initial pool of items and two methodologists constructed the initial questionnaire. Two studies were performed. In the study one, a sample of psychology freshmen (n = 309) was taken in order to analyse response patterns. In study two, a sample (n = 176) of patients, dental students and the general population was examined. Results from both studies were used to determine reliability and validity. High internal consistency (0.93) with satisfactory test-retest reliability (0.75) was obtained. Factor analysis revealed a strong one-dimensional factor underlying almost all items. Finally, the proposed FDP version was related to a measure of dental fear and a general measure of fear of pain. All a priori hypotheses were confirmed, thereby providing evidence for the validity of the FDP. The FPD may prove to be a clinically useful tool in the dental setting, and a potentially important covariate in dental pain perception research. PMID:12558803
Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L
Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (?=?0.08, 95% CI ?0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (? for interaction=?0.75, 95% CI ?1.16 to ?0.33, p=4×10?4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990
This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items concerning walking and biking from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires (PAQs). The purpose of this database is to provide easy access to a large number of items assessing duration and frequency of walking and bicycling in the non-disabled adult population. We also briefly review the results of validation studies identified for some of the PAQs.
Response of the middle atmosphere to CO2 doubling: results from the Canadian Middle AtmosphereLandress, C. and Shepherd, T. G. (2007) Response of the middle atmosphere to CO2 doubling: results from;Response of the Middle Atmosphere to CO2 Doubling: Results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model V. I
Altschuler, Andrea; Picchi, Teresa; Nelson, Melissa; Rogers, John D.; Hart, Jan; Sternfeld, Barbara
Purpose To determine if respondents share researchers’ understandings of concepts and questions frequently used in the assessment of usual physical activity behavior. Methods As part of On the Move, a study aimed at reducing measurement error in self-reported physical activity (PA), we conducted cognitive interviews with 19 men and 21 women, ages 45-65, regarding their responses to the PA questionnaires used in two large, population-based studies, LACE (Life After Cancer Epidemiology) and CMH (California Men’s Health Study). One questionnaire asks about the frequency, duration, and perceived intensity of a range of specific activities in several different domains over the past 12 months. The second questionnaire asks about frequency and duration of specific, mostly recreational activities, grouped by intensity (i.e., moderate or vigorous) over the past 3 months. We used verbal probing techniques to allow respondents to describe their thought processes as they completed the questionnaires. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, and the transcripts were then analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Results Cognitive interviews demonstrated that a sizable number of respondents understood “intensity” in terms of emotional or psychological intensity, rather than physical effort. As a result, the perceived intensity with which a participant reported doing a specific activity often bore little relationship to the MET value of that activity. Additionally, participants often counted the same activity more than once, overestimated work-related PA, and understood activities that were grouped together in a single category to be definitive lists rather than examples. Conclusion Cognitive interviews revealed significant gaps between respondents’ interpretations of some physical activity questions and researchers’ assumptions about what those questions were intended to measure. Some sources of measurement error in self-reported PA may be minimized by additional research that focuses on the cognitive processes required to respond to PA questionnaires. PMID:19127192
Gibbons, Elizabeth; Hewitson, Paul; Morley, David; Jenkinson, Crispin; Fitzpatrick, Ray
Background This report presents evidence regarding the development and validation of a new questionnaire, the Outcomes and Experiences Questionnaire (OEQ). The rationale for the questionnaire is to bring together into one short instrument questions about two distinct domains – patients’ reports of the outcomes of their care and how they experience care. Methods The OEQ was developed from literature reviews, iterative drafting and discussion within the research group and cognitive testing with a sample of patients who had a hospital experience. Two validation studies were carried out with an eleven item OEQ. The goals of the studies were to examine response rates and to test specific hypotheses of how OEQ should relate to other variables normally collected in the two studies. In the first study, the OEQ was added to the follow-up questionnaires for patients (n=490) receiving surgery for hip or knee replacement or varicose vein procedures participating in the national Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) program permitting the analysis of the OEQ against change scores for the measures obtained before and after surgery. In the second study the OEQ was included in a sample of patients (n=586) who had been selected to receive the National Health Service (NHS) inpatient survey from three contrasting hospital trusts. Results Results from study one provided consistent and substantial evidence of construct validity of OEQ particularly for those receiving hip or knee replacement. The OEQ sub-scales behaved differently and as predicted against other PROMs variables. Again hypotheses of how the two sub-scales regarding outcomes and experiences would relate to the existing domains of patient experience in the inpatient survey were broadly confirmed in study two. Conclusion The report provides encouraging evidence of the OEQ’s capacity to assess distinct reports from patients about outcomes and experiences of care within a single short questionnaire. PMID:26213480
Background Quality improvement initiatives have expanded recently within the healthcare sector. Studies have shown that less than 40% of these initiatives are successful, indicating the need for an instrument that can measure the progress and results of quality improvement initiatives and answer questions about how quality initiatives are conducted. The aim of the present study was to develop and test an instrument to measure improvement process and outcome in Swedish healthcare. Methods A questionnaire, founded on the Minnesota Innovation Survey (MIS), was developed in several steps. Items were merged and answer alternatives were revised. Employees participating in a county council improvement program received the web-based questionnaire. Data was analysed by descriptive statistics and correlation analysis. The questionnaire psychometric properties were investigated and an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. Results The Swedish Improvement Measurement Questionnaire consists of 27 items. The Improvement Effectiveness Outcome dimension consists of three items and has a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.67. The Internal Improvement Processes dimension consists of eight sub-dimensions with a total of 24 items. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the complete dimension was 0.72. Three significant item correlations were found. A large involvement in the improvement initiative was shown and the majority of the respondents were satisfied with their work. Conclusions The psychometric property tests suggest initial support for the questionnaire to study and evaluate quality improvement initiatives in Swedish healthcare settings. The overall satisfaction with the quality improvement initiative correlates positively to the awareness of individual responsibilities. PMID:23391160
Harm reduction measures and injecting inside prison versus mandatory drugs testing: results of a cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey. The European Commission Network on HIV Infection and Hepatitis in Prison.
Bird, A. G.; Gore, S. M.; Hutchinson, S. J.; Lewis, S. C.; Cameron, S.; Burns, S.
OBJECTIVES: (a) To determine both the frequency of injecting inside prison and use of sterilising tablets to clean needles in the previous four weeks; (b) to assess the efficiency of random mandatory drugs testing at detecting prisoners who inject heroin inside prison; (c) to determine the percentage of prisoners who had been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. DESIGN: Cross sectional willing anonymous salivary HIV surveillance linked to a self completion risk factor questionnaire. SETTING: Lowmoss prison, Glasgow, and Aberdeen prison on 11 and 30 October 1996. SUBJECTS: 293 (94%) of all 312 inmates at Lowmoss and 146 (93%) of all 157 at Aberdeen, resulting in 286 and 143 valid questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of injecting inside prison in the previous four weeks by injector inmates who had been in prison for at least four weeks. RESULTS: 116 (41%) Lowmoss and 53 (37%) Aberdeen prisoners had a history of injecting drug use but only 4% of inmates (17/395; 95% confidence interval 2% to 6%) had ever been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. 42 Lowmoss prisoners (estimated 207 injections and 258 uses of sterilising tablets) and 31 Aberdeen prisoners (229 injections, 221 uses) had injected inside prison in the previous four weeks. The prisons together held 112 injector inmates who had been in prison for more than four weeks, of whom 57 (51%; 42% to 60%) had injected in prison in the past four weeks; their estimated mean number of injections was 6.0 (SD 5.7). Prisoners injecting heroin six times in four weeks will test positive in random mandatory drugs testing on at most 18 days out of 28. CONCLUSIONS: Sterilising tablets and hepatitis B vaccination should be offered to all prisoners. Random mandatory drugs testing seriously underestimates injector inmates' harm reduction needs. PMID:9233321
Michalopoulos, Lynn T. M.; Murray, Laura K.; Kane, Jeremy C.; Skavenski van Wyk, Stephanie; Chomba, Elwyn; Cohen, Judith; Imasiku, Mwiya; Semrau, Katherine; Unick, Jay; Bolton, Paul A.
Purpose The aim of the current study is to test the validity and reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among traumatized girls in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods The Shame Questionnaire was validated through both classical test and item response theory methods. Internal reliability, criterion validity and construct validity were examined among a sample of 325 female children living in Zambia. Sub-analyses were conducted to examine differences in construct validity among girls who reported sexual abuse and girls who did not. Results All girls in the sample were sexually abused, but only 61.5% endorsed or reported that sexual abuse had occurred. Internal consistency was very good among the sample with alpha = .87. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a significant difference of mean Shame Questionnaire scores between girls who experienced 0–1 trauma events and more than one traumatic event, with higher mean Shame Questionnaire scores among girls who had more than one traumatic event (p = .004 for 0–1 compared to 2 and 3 events and p = .016 for 0–1 compared to 4+ events). Girls who reported a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse had a significantly higher mean Shame Questionnaire score than girls who did not report a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse (p<.0001). There was no significant difference in mean Shame Questionnaire score between girls who reported a sexual abuse history and girls who did not. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model of the Shame Questionnaire, with an experience of shame dimension and an active outcomes of shame dimension. Item response theory analysis indicated adequate overall item fit. Results also indicate potential differences in construct validity between girls who did and did not endorse sexual abuse. Conclusions This study suggests the general utility of the Shame Questionnaire among Zambian girls and demonstrates the need for more psychometric studies in low and middle income countries. PMID:25879658
Erik Schokkaert; Kurt Devooght; Bart Capeau; Sara Lelli
We present the results of a questionnaire study in Belgium, Burkina Faso and Indonesia focusing on the problem of the just allocation of an indivisible good. The formal axioms proposed in social choice theory are helpful in structuring the response patterns. Interindividual differences can be interpreted in a meaningful way in terms of basic intuitions about desert, efficiency and compensation.
Pearson, Deborah A.; Lachar, David
Obtained responses to Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and revised Personality Inventory for Children (PIC-R) for 88 elementary-age boys. Used CBCL and PIC-R scales to predict three domain scales and Adaptive Behavior Composite from Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. Results suggest that behavioral questionnaires can be used to efficiently identify…
Dyer, Robert; And Others
A literature review and bibliography on questionnaire construction are presented. The broad definition of questionnaire includes scales, structured interview forms, survey forms, and similar paper and pencil instruments used to elicit responses and collect information. A comprehensive literature search of journal articles, books, and reports in…
This data set includes responses for 326 baseline questionnaires. The Baseline Questionnaire was used to provide more detailed information on the characteristics of the sample individual and housing, and on the usual frequency of activities over a longer time frame (i.e., last mo...
Owen, Jane; Yarrow, David; Appleby, Alex
This document is a questionnaire designed for work-based learning providers. It is a diagnostic benchmarking tool developed to give organizations a snapshot of their current state. Following a brief introduction, there are instructions for filling in the questionnaire, which includes both open-ended response and scoring according to a…
Oliveira, Indiara S.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Manzoni, Ana C. T.; Cabral, Cristina M. N.
BACKGROUND: There are several questionnaires available to assess quality of life in breast cancer, however the choice of the best questionnaire often does not take into account the adequacy of these questionnaires' measurement properties. OBJECTIVE: To test the measurement properties of two generic quality of life questionnaires and one quality of life questionnaire specific for women with breast cancer. METHOD: We assessed 106 women after surgery for breast cancer. The assessment included application of the SF-36, WHOQOL-bref, and FACT-B+4 questionnaires as well as the Global Perceived Effect and Pain Numerical Rating scales. The participants were interviewed on three occasions to investigate internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness. RESULTS: Most of the instruments' domains showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha varying from 0.66 to 0.91). Reliability varied from poor to substantial (ICC2,1 between 0.39 and 0.87) and agreement varied from negative to very good. The SF-36 presented doubtful agreement and showed floor and ceiling effects in three domains. The domains of the generic questionnaires presented moderate to good correlation with the FACT-B+4 (Pearson varying from 0.31 to 0.69). The internal responsiveness varied from small to large (ES varying from -0.26 to 0.98) and external responsiveness was found in only some of the instruments' domains. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the measurement properties tested for the WHOQOL-bref and FACT-B+4 were adequate as was their ability to assess quality of life in women with breast cancer. The SF-36 showed inadequacy in agreement and floor and ceiling effects and should not be used in women with breast cancer. PMID:25075998
Gates, R. M.
Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.
Lodge, L H
An anonymous, self administered health questionnaire survey of the habits and attitudes of servicemen in the 3 Services was conducted. The overall response rate was 75%. This paper reports the results of questions on smoking. The Army had the greatest percentage of smokers, smoked most heavily and had the worst attitude to smoking of the 3 Services. The RAF had the best results in these fields. There was a higher percentage of smoker, who smoke more heavily in Germany/seadraft than UK/shoredraft. There was a rank gradient in percentage smokers, with the lowest ranks smoking the most. A sizeable proportion of the smoking population wish to give up, have tried to do so and feel their Medical Officer should be interested in their smoking habits. A reduction in prevalence of cigarette smoking to less than 30% within 5 years is recommended as a Tri-service Health Policy Goal, with the Army, Tri-Service 16-20 year olds and Private-Corporal rank equivalents and recruits, as specific target groups for intervention. The health promotion strategy should include concerted anti-smoking advice from Medical Officers. PMID:1875323
Jelke Bethlehem; Anco Hundepool
Summary More and more, National Statistical Institutes (NSI's), research institutes, and commercial marketing research organisations are using computer-assisted interview systems for collecting survey data. The paper questionnaire is replaced by a computer program that guides the respondent through the questionnaire and checks the answers on the spot. The growing possibilities of computer hardware and software have made it possible to
This data set includes responses for 249 technician walk-through questionnaires. The Technician Questionnaire was used to identify and inventory the presence of pollutant sources and document physical characteristics of the building (technician completed to minimize burden on stu...
Eaden, J.; Mayberry, M.; Mayberry, J.
We present a working review of survey methods based on market research technology. The structure of questionnaires, their distribution and analysis, are considered, together with techniques for increasing response rates.???Keywords: questionnaires; research methods PMID:10474722
Safer, Vildan Binay; Yavuzer, Gunes; Demir, Sibel Ozbudak; Yanikoglu, Inci; Guneri, Fulya Demircioglu
[Purpose] Currently, there are a limited number of amputee-specific instruments for measuring prosthesis-related quality of life with good psychometric properties in Turkey. This study translated the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire to Turkish and analyzed as well as discussed its construct validity and internal consistency. [Subjects and Methods] The Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire was adapted for use in Turkish by forward/backward translation. The final Turkish version of this questionnaire was administered to 90 unilateral amputee patients. Second evaluation was possible in 83 participants within a median 28 day time period. [Results] Point estimates for the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.69 to 0.89 for all 9 Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire scales, indicating good correlation. Overall Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 to 0.92, except for the perceived response subscale of 0.39. The ambulation subscale was correlated with the physical functioning subscales of Short Form-36 (SF-36) (r=0.48). The social burden subscale score of the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire was correlated with social functioning subscales of SF-36 (r= 0.63). [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for implementation in the Turkish unilateral amputee population. PMID:26180296
Safer, Vildan Binay; Yavuzer, Gunes; Demir, Sibel Ozbudak; Yanikoglu, Inci; Guneri, Fulya Demircioglu
[Purpose] Currently, there are a limited number of amputee-specific instruments for measuring prosthesis-related quality of life with good psychometric properties in Turkey. This study translated the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire to Turkish and analyzed as well as discussed its construct validity and internal consistency. [Subjects and Methods] The Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire was adapted for use in Turkish by forward/backward translation. The final Turkish version of this questionnaire was administered to 90 unilateral amputee patients. Second evaluation was possible in 83 participants within a median 28 day time period. [Results] Point estimates for the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.69 to 0.89 for all 9 Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire scales, indicating good correlation. Overall Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranged from 0.64 to 0.92, except for the perceived response subscale of 0.39. The ambulation subscale was correlated with the physical functioning subscales of Short Form-36 (SF-36) (r=0.48). The social burden subscale score of the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire was correlated with social functioning subscales of SF-36 (r= 0.63). [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for implementation in the Turkish unilateral amputee population. PMID:26180296
Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen Posted: November 4, 2013 NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody ...
Crescioni, Mabel; Messer, Dawn H.; Warholak, Terri L.; Miller, Joseph M.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Harvey, Erin M.
Purpose To evaluate and refine a newly developed instrument, the Student Refractive Error and Eyeglasses Questionnaire (SREEQ), designed to measure the impact of uncorrected and corrected refractive error on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in school-aged children. Methods. A 38 statement instrument consisting of two parts was developed: Part A relates to perceptions regarding uncorrected vision and Part B relates to perceptions regarding corrected vision and includes other statements regarding VRQoL with spectacle correction. The SREEQ was administered to 200 Native American 6th through 12th grade students known to have previously worn and who currently require eyeglasses. Rasch analysis was conducted to evaluate the functioning of the SREEQ. Statements on Part A and Part B were analyzed to examine the dimensionality and constructs of the questionnaire, how well the items functioned, and the appropriateness of the response scale used. Results Rasch analysis suggested two items be eliminated and the measurement scale for matching items be reduced from a 4-point response scale to a 3-point response scale. With these modifications, categorical data were converted to interval level data, to conduct an item and person analysis. A shortened version of the SREEQ was constructed with these modifications, the SREEQ-R, which included the statements that were able to capture changes in VRQoL associated with spectacle wear for those with significant refractive error in our study population. Conclusions While the SREEQ Part B appears to be a have less than optimal reliability to assess the impact of spectacle correction on VRQoL in our student population, it is also able to detect statistically significant differences from pretest to posttest on both the group and individual levels to show that the instrument can assess the impact that glasses have on VRQoL. Further modifications to the questionnaire, such as those included in the SREEQ-R, could enhance its functionality. PMID:24811844
Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the “Revised Faces Pain Scale” (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. Results The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years. PMID:23758965
Kunugimoto, Noriko; Yamasaki, Katsuyuki
Conscious defensiveness has been found to mediate the relationship between hostility and coronary artery disease. In order to investigate the influence in Japan, the Conscious Defensiveness Questionnaire (CDQ) was developed and its validity and reliability were assessed in the present studies. The first study with college students (N = 419) was conducted to construct the CDQ as a 16-item questionnaire based on two preliminary researches. Factor analysis indicated that the 16 items in the CDQ conform to one factor structure, and the CDQ showed adequate factorial validity as well as high internal consistency. In the second study, the results of test-retest with college students (N = 225) revealed satisfactory stability of the CDQ over a 6- to 7-week period, and furthermore it showed construct validity in the relationships with peer ratings and nominations for college and graduate students (N = 191). Thus the present studies established the CDQ as a standardized questionnaire to measure conscious defensiveness. PMID:12516182
Coluci, Marina Zambon Orpinelli; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa
The objectives of this study were to develop a questionnaire that evaluates the perception of nursing workers to job factors that may contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. Internationally recommended methodology was followed: construction of domains, items and the instrument as a whole, content validity, and pre-test. Psychometric properties were evaluated among 370 nursing workers. Construct validity was analyzed by the factorial analysis, known-groups technique, and convergent validity. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency and stability. Results indicated satisfactory fit indices during confirmatory factor analysis, significant difference (p < 0.01) between the responses of nursing and office workers, and moderate correlations between the new questionnaire and Numeric Pain Scale, SF-36 and WRFQ. Cronbach's alpha was close to 0.90 and ICC values ranged from 0.64 to 0.76. Therefore, results indicated that the new questionnaire had good psychometric properties for use in studies involving nursing workers. PMID:24931478
Tepper, Bennett J.; Percy, Paul M.
Two studies with 290 college students and 95 business managers investigated the latent structure of items from the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Results support models in which transformational and transactional leadership items load on separate factors and suggest that charismatic and inspirational leadership scales converge for…
Aiken, Lewis R.
A general FORTRAN computer program for analyzing categorical or frequency data obtained from questionnaires is described. A variety of descriptive statistics, chi square, Kendall's tau and Cramer's statistic are provided. (Author/JKS)
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Population-level reinforcement learning resulting in smooth best response dynamics David S. Leslie dynamics of evolutionary game theory. In contrast, we describe a population-level model which is characterised by the smooth best response dynamics, a system which is intrinsic to the theory of adaptive
de Guzman, L. I. & A. M. Frake. PRELIMINARY RESULTS ON THE REMOVAL RESPONSE OF RUSSIAN HONEY AGAINST BROOD INFESTED WITH SMALL HIVE BEETLES - Removal response of Russian (n = 9) and Italian (n = 9) honey bees against brood infested with small hive beetles (SHB) was compared. SHB-infested brood wer...
A Comparison of a Sub-Population of Santa Monica College Students to Other Community College Students in the Southern California Area: An Analysis of the Results from the Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire.
Ackermann, Susan P.
Drawing from a nationwide pilot test of the Community College Student Experiences Questionnaire (CCSEQ), a study was conducted to compare Santa Monica College (SMC) students (N=106) with students attending nine other Southern California community colleges (N=498). The CCSEQ was designed to provide information on the relationship between students'…
Wessels, Hester; van Diest, Paul J; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Haaring, Cees; van der Pol, Carmen C; Witkamp, Arjen J; van den Bosch, Maurice A; Verkooijen, Helena M
Background Electronic applications are increasingly being used in hospitals for numerous purposes. Objective Our aim was to assess differences in the characteristics of patients who choose paper versus electronic questionnaires and to evaluate the data quality of both approaches. Methods Between October 2012 and June 2013, 136 patients participated in a study on diagnosis-induced stress and anxiety. Patients were asked to fill out questionnaires at six different moments during the diagnostic phase. They were given the opportunity to fill out the questionnaires on paper or electronically (a combination of tablet and Web-based questionnaires). Demographic characteristics and completeness of returned data were compared between groups. Results Nearly two-thirds of patients (88/136, 64.7%) chose to fill out the questionnaires on paper, and just over a third (48/136, 35.3%) preferred the electronic option. Patients choosing electronic questionnaires were significantly younger (mean 47.3 years vs mean 53.5 in the paper group, P=.01) and higher educated (P=.004). There was significantly more missing information (ie, at least one question not answered) in the paper group during the diagnostic day compared to the electronic group (using a tablet) (28/88 vs 1/48, P<.001). However, in the week after the diagnostic day, missing information was significantly higher in the electronic group (Web-based questionnaires) compared to the paper group (41/48 vs 38/88, P<.001). Conclusions Younger patients and patients with a higher level of education have a preference towards filling out questionnaires electronically. In the hospital, a tablet is an excellent medium for patients to fill out questionnaires with very little missing information. However, for filling out questionnaires at home, paper questionnaires resulted in a better response than Web-based questionnaires. PMID:25364951
Edwards, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, Regina M.
Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate alternative factor structures, based on previous exploratory factor analyses and coping dimensions derived from the theory of R. Lazarus, for the Ways of Coping Questionnaire (S. Folkman and R. Lazarus, 1988). Results from responses of 654 college graduates provide little support for the factor…
...FR-5376-N-66] Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD...Proposal: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form. OMB Approval Number: 2501-0018. Form Numbers:...
Cunningham, George B.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Physical Activity Class Satisfaction Questionnaire (PACSQ). In Study 1, qualitative data were collected from 16 students. The results, coupled with a review of the relevant literature, helped to construct the various dimensions of satisfaction. In Study 2, a quantitative questionnaire was developed and…
Harris, Lois R.; Brown, Gavin T. L.
Structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are often used in mixed method studies to generate confirmatory results despite differences in methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation. A review of 19 questionnaire-interview comparison studies found that consensus and consistency statistics were generally weak between…
Posserud, Britt; Lundervold, Astri J.; Steijnen, Maaike C.; Verhoeven, Sophie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Gillberg, Christopher
The present study investigated the factor structure of parent and teacher Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) in a population of 7-9 years old children. For validation purposes, factors derived were correlated with results on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). A three-factor solution was identified on both parent and…
IRNIZA, Rasdi; EMILIA, Zainal Abidin; MUHAMMAD SALILUDDIN, Suhainizam; NIZAM ISHA, Ahmad Shahrul
Background: Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to measure police-specific stressors. The present study was the first to have translated the PSQ to Malay. This study aims to test the reliability, construct validity, and component structure of the Malay-version PSQ. Methods: A set of survey consisted of the Malay-version PSQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Global Stress Questionnaire (GSQ) and General Self-rated Health (GSRH) were distributed to 300 traffic police officers in Kuala Lumpur and all traffic police officers in a few districts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan. Results: The response rate was 65.5% (N = 262). The reported Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.93 for Operational PSQ (PSQ-Op) and 0.94 for Organisational PSQ (PSQ-Org). Findings indicated that the PSQ had positive construct validity with the GSRH, GSQ, and GHQ. After excluding four factors related to lifestyles, all police-specific stressors were highly loaded (0.50) in one component. Conclusion: It is confirmed that the Malay-version PSQ, excluding the four factors related to lifestyle, was uni-dimensional, reliable, and a valid questionnaire. This study proffers a potentially better instrument for assessing the stressors among Malaysian police. PMID:25977621
Przybyszowski, Marek; Bochenek, Gra?yna
The achievement and the maintenance of asthma control is currently considered the main goal of asthma treatment. Recent guidelines recommend regular assessment of asthma control and indicate questionnaires as important tools that can facilitate its evaluation. Questionnaires relate to GINA or NAEPP guidelines. Questionnaires constitute complex numerical or categorical scales and consist of several to over a dozen questions relating to the patient's symptoms of asthma, limitations in daily activities and usage of rescue medications within a period of time. Each questionnaire is characterized by the features that affect its reliability and usefulness. In the following paper we discuss most of the questionnaires which assess asthma control. We focus on the items they include and present the results of studies that prove the effectiveness of individual questionnaires in assessment of asthma control. Attention was drawn to the patient groups to which the questionnaires are addressed. We list the features of the questionnaire which should be considered before choosing a test, so that it satisfies both the doctor's and the patient's needs. The role of questionnaires as the easy-to-use tools is growing steadily. Unfortunately, not all are available in Polish language. Conducting appropriate validation studies may allow to use many of them in Polish conditions. PMID:26050984
The objective of this paper is to discuss the survey as a research method based on three questionnaire surveys developed and administered in educational settings: (1) a survey exploring the status aspiration and gender awareness of undergraduate women completed by 62 respondents; (2) a survey of computer-assisted instruction completed by 111…
Cassel, Russell N.
This questionnaire is intended for use as one aspect in accrediting the "Student Personnel Services" which an institution of higher learning provides for students. Areas in question include personal development, health fostering, vocational preparation, effective personalized learning, economic viability, transpersonal offerings, and satisfactory…
Najarkolaei, Fatemeh Rahmati; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami; Jafari, Mohammad Reza
Background: This study was designed to assess the validity and reliability of the designed sexual, behavioral abstinence, and avoidance of high-risk situation questionnaire (SBAHAQ), with an aim to construct an appropriate development tool in the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive–analytic study was conducted among female undergraduate students of Tehran University, who were selected through cluster random sampling. After reviewing the questionnaires and investigating face and content validity, internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS 16 Software, respectively. Results: The sample consisted of 348 female university students with a mean age of 20.69 ± 1.63 years. The content validity ratio (CVR) coefficient was 0.85 and the reliability of each section of the questionnaire was as follows: Perceived benefit (PB; 0.87), behavioral intention (BI; 0.77), and self-efficacy (SE; 0.85) (Cronbach's alpha totally was 0.83). Explanatory factor analysis showed three factors, including SE, PB, and BI, with the total variance of 61% and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) index of 88%. These factors were also confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis [adjusted goodness of fitness index (AGFI) = 0.939, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.039]. Conclusion: This study showed the designed questionnaire provided adequate construct validity and reliability, and could be adequately used to measure sexual abstinence and avoidance of high-risk situations among female students. PMID:24741650
Gupta, R C; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Sanjay
In the present paper a newer application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been developed i.e., predicting response-function results of electrical-mechanical system through ANN. This method is specially useful to complex systems for which it is not possible to find the response-function because of complexity of the system. The proposed approach suggests that how even without knowing the response-function, the response-function results can be predicted with the use of ANN to the system. The steps used are: (i) Depending on the system, the ANN-architecture and the input & output parameters are decided, (ii) Training & test data are generated from simplified circuits and through tactic-superposition of it for complex circuits, (iii) Training the ANN with training data through many cycles and (iv) Test-data are used for predicting the response-function results. It is found that the proposed novel method for response prediction works satisfactorily. Thus this method could be used specially for complex...
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676
Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Golinelli, Daniela; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Cohen, Deborah A.
We determined the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a brief park use questionnaire. From five US locations, 232 adults completed a brief survey four times and wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor for three weeks. We assessed validity for park visits during the past week and during a usual week by examining agreement between frequency and duration of park visits reported in the questionnaire to the GPS monitor results. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to measure agreement. For past week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.62–0.65 and 0.62–0.67, respectively. For usual week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.40–0.50 and 0.50–0.53, respectively. Usual park visit frequency reliability was 0.78–0.88 (percent agreement 69%–82%) and usual park visit duration was 0.75–0.84 (percent agreement 64%–73%). These results suggest that the questionnaire to assess usual and past week park use had acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:23853386
Liu, Yi-Wen; Neely, Stephen T.
Responses to acoustic stimuli in the cochlea are known to be nonlinear. Many existing models of cochlear mechanics were built upon three basic assumptions: traveling-wave amplification is provided by active mechanisms in the outer hair cells (OHCs). Second, as the stimulus level increases, the gain decreases due to saturation nonlinearity in the OHCs. Finally, the saturation non-linearity is "instantaneous"; its input-output relation does not possess memory. These assumptions were recently challenged by reports that basilar-membrane (BM) responses to noise can be predicted well by level-dependent Wiener filters and are thus quasi-linear. It was argued that the quasi-linear responses could not result from instantaneous nonlinearity. In this paper, we present a model of cochlear mechanics which has instantaneous OHC saturation nonlinearity but produces quasi-linear responses to noise. Correlation coefficients were consistently greater than 0.9 between simulated noise responses and the responses predicted by equivalent Wiener filters. Further, Gaussianity in the acoustic stimuli was preserved on the BM. We conclude that the results support the common understandings and assumptions of cochlear mechanics.
D'Alonzo, Karen T
As more Spanish speaking immigrants participate in and become the focus of research studies, questions arise about the appropriateness of existing research tools. Questionnaires have often been adapted from English language instruments and tested among college-educated Hispanic-Americans. Little has been written regarding the testing and evaluation of research tools among less educated Latino immigrants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and revise a battery of Spanish-language questionnaires for an intervention among immigrant Hispanic women. A three-step process was used to evaluate, adapt and test Spanish versions of the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey, an abbreviated version of the Hispanic Stress Inventory-Immigrant version and the Latina Values Scale. The revised tools demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. The adaptations improved the readability of the tools, resulting in a higher response rate, less missing data and fewer extreme responses. Psychometric limitations to the adaptation of Likert scales are discussed. PMID:22030592
Becker, Edmund R; Potter, Sharyn J
Drawing on stakeholder theory and Weber's distinction between formal and substantive rationality, we posit that: (1) for-profit organizations manage stakeholders in ways that result in the organization being more efficient and less socially responsible than organizations that are not as profit oriented, and (2) organizations with major corporate relationships that are not local manage stakeholders in a manner that results in the organization being more efficient and less socially responsible than organizations without such arrangements. We test these hypotheses with 1994 data on 4,705 of the nation's short-term general hospitals using two measures of hospital efficiency and four measures of social responsibility. Results confirm that for-profit hospitals and hospitals lacking local ties are managing stakeholder relationships in ways that increases the efficiency of these hospitals but decreases their social responsiveness. We conclude by speculating that organizational efficiency and social responsibility may be inversely related and then summarize some of the academic, managerial, and policy implications, with emphasis on the implications for stakeholder theory. PMID:12199493
Lammert, Craig; Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Larson, Joseph J.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.
Background Primary Biliary Cirrhosis is a cholestatic liver disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of bile ducts. Its pathogenesis is largely unknown, although complex interactions between environment and genetic predisposition are proposed. Aims Identify disease risk factors using a detailed patient questionnaire and compare study findings to 3 published reports. Methods Questionnaire data were prospectively collected from 522 cases and 616 controls of the Mayo Clinic Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Genetic Epidemiology Registry. Case and control responses were compared using logistic regression, adjusting for recruitment age, sex, and education level. Results Cases reported ever regularly smoking cigarettes more frequently than controls (P < 0.001). History of urinary tract infection (UTI) was similar between groups; however, cases reported multiple UTIs more commonly than controls (P < 0.001). Frequency of other autoimmune disease was higher in cases than controls (P < 0.001). As well, prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among first-degree relatives was higher in case families than control families (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our study confirms prior reported risk factors associated with disease risk. Given the potential importance of gene and environment interactions, further examination of environmental risk factors considering genetic background may provide new insight into primary biliary cirrhosis pathogenesis. PMID:23490343
Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian
The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 43:540–555, 2013a). The current analyses focus on children’s attachment related outcomes. Results revealed that children who were randomly assigned to FPI showed bigger increases in attachment-related behaviors, compared to children assigned to the control condition. Significant treatment effects of FPI were found for both an observational measure of attachment-related behaviors elicited during a brief separation-reunion episode and a questionnaire measure evaluating parental perceptions of child attachment. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24488157
Goldfield, Gary S; Epstein, Leonard H; Davidson, Martin; Saad, Frances
The traditional method of measuring the relative reinforcing value of food provides subjects a choice of food and non-food alternatives, and defines the relative reinforcing value of food based on the allocation of responses for the two alternatives as the schedules of reinforcement for the alternatives change. Greater allocation of responses for one alternative versus another reflects the relative reinforcing value of the alternatives. This method was designed for laboratory use, but methods are needed to extend measurement of reinforcing value to applied research environments. Two experiments were conducted to assess the validity of a questionnaire measure of the relative reinforcing value of food in normal weight university samples. Study 1 (n=39) assessed the relationship between the relative reinforcing value of snack food versus fruits and vegetables (condition 1) or enjoyable sedentary behaviors (condition 2) as measured by the questionnaire and standardized computerized concurrent schedules criterion. A significant relationship (Pearson r=0.49, p<0.01; Guttman's MU2=0.69) across the two conditions between the two methods of measuring food reinforcement was observed. Experiment 2 (n=10) utilized a within-subject counterbalanced design to manipulate food deprivation and hunger levels to determine if food deprivation increased the reinforcing value of snack food as measured by the questionnaire to provide an index of validity of the questionnaire. Results showed that food deprivation increased the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Results from both studies suggest that the questionnaire has good validity, and may represent an efficient and reliable method of assessing the relative reinforcing value of food. PMID:15854874
Ringwalt, Chris; Vincus, Amy A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Hanley, Sean; Bowling, J. Michael; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Rohrbach, Louise A.
Background: Little is known about the context in which school-based suspicionless random drug testing (SRDT) occurs. The primary purpose of the current study was to describe school districts' responses to students' first positive result in districts with SRDT programs. Methods: Data were collected in spring 2005 from 1612 drug prevention…
Kichaev, Gleb; Mendoza, Janess M; Amante, Dinah; Smith, Trevor R F; McCoy, Jay R; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Broderick, Kate E
In vivo electroporation (EP) has been shown to be a highly efficient non-viral method for enhancing DNA vaccine delivery and immunogenicity, when the site of immunization is the skin or muscle of animals and humans. However, the route of entry for many microbial pathogens is via the mucosal surfaces of the human body. We have previously reported on minimally invasive, surface and contactless EP devices for enhanced DNA delivery to dermal tissue. Robust antibody responses were induced following vaccine delivery in several tested animal models using these devices. Here, we investigated extending the modality of the surface device to efficiently deliver DNA vaccines to mucosal tissue. Initially, we demonstrated reporter gene expression in the epithelial layer of buccal mucosa in a guinea pig model. There was minimal tissue damage in guinea pig mucosal tissue resulting from EP. Delivery of a DNA vaccine encoding influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza H1N1 elicited robust and sustained systemic IgG antibody responses following EP-enhanced delivery in the mucosa. Upon further analysis, IgA antibody responses were detected in vaginal washes and sustained cellular immune responses were detected in animals immunized at the oral mucosa with the surface EP device. This data confirms that DNA delivery and EP targeting mucosal tissue directly results in both robust and sustainable humoral as well as cellular immune responses without tissue damage. These responses are seen both in the mucosa and systemically in the blood. Direct DNA vaccine delivery enhanced by EP in mucosa may have important clinical applications for delivery of prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against diseases such as HIV, HPV and pneumonia that enter at mucosal sites and require both cellular and humoral immune responses for protection. PMID:23954979
Background There is some evidence that quality of life measured by long disease-specific questionnaires may predict exacerbations in asthma and COPD, however brief quality of life tools, such as the Airways Questionnaire 20 (AQ20) or the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), have not yet been evaluated as predictors of hospital exacerbations. Objectives To determine the ability of brief specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires (AQ20 and CCQ) to predict emergency department visits (ED) and hospitalizations in patients with asthma and COPD, and to compare them to longer disease-specific questionnaires, such as the St George´s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Methods We conducted a two-year prospective cohort study of 208 adult patients (108 asthma, 100 COPD). Baseline sociodemographic, clinical, functional and psychological variables were assessed. All patients completed the AQ20 and the SGRQ. COPD patients also completed the CCQ and the CRQ, while asthmatic patients completed the AQLQ. We registered all exacerbations that required ED or hospitalizations in the follow-up period. Differences between groups (zero ED visits or hospitalizations versus???1 ED visits or hospitalizations) were tested with Pearson´s X2 or Fisher´s exact test for categorical variables, ANOVA for normally distributed continuous variables, and Mann–Whitney U test for non-normally distributed variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the predictive ability of each HRQoL questionnaire. Results In the first year of follow-up, the AQ20 scores predicted both ED visits (OR: 1.19; p?=?.004; AUC 0.723) and hospitalizations (OR: 1.21; p?=?.04; AUC 0.759) for asthma patients, and the CCQ emerged as independent predictor of ED visits in COPD patients (OR: 1.06; p?=?.036; AUC 0.651), after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables. Among the longer disease-specific questionnaires, only the AQLQ emerged as predictor of ED visits in asthma patients (OR: 0.9; p?=?.002; AUC 0.727). In the second year of follow-up, none of HRQoL questionnaires predicted exacerbations. Conclusions AQ20 predicts exacerbations in asthma and CCQ predicts ED visits in COPD in the first year of follow-up. Their predictive ability is similar to or even higher than that of longer disease-specific questionnaires. PMID:23706146
Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Vadaparampil, Susan; Abrahamsen, Martha; Vamos, Cheryl A.; Kolar, Stephanie; Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica Hesch; Giuliano, Anna
Objective To develop and perform psychometric testing on an instrument designed to assess cognitive/ emotional responses among men receiving HPV testing. Methods Men enrolled in an HPV natural history study (N=139) completed a computer-assisted survey instrument based on Leventhal’s parallel processing/common-sense model. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Mplus. Results Reliability analyses resulted in Cronbach ? of 0.72 (knowledge), 0.86 (perceived threat), 0.83 (self-efficacy), and 0.55 (response efficacy). A revised measurement model exhibited evidence of construct validity, as indicated by acceptable model fit statistics. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the only validated instrument assessing men’s reactions to an HPV test result. PMID:19320621
Abstract—Questionnaires are,commonly used in market surveys, polling and academic research. However, there are some problems in the use of questionnaires for survey purposes. Volunteers had to answer too many questions on the questionnaires. As a result, some volunteers would refuse to complete the questionnaire while others might sloppily do so. This phenomenon results in a huge difference between the expected
Boulton, Katie Alyce; Vogelnest, Linda Jean; Vogelnest, Larry
Limited published data are available on dermatophytosis in zoo macropods, despite anecdotal reports of disease occurrence and recurrent mob outbreaks. The aim of this questionnaire study was to analyze data from Australian and international zoos to evaluate estimated disease prevalence in zoos housing macropods, affected macropod species, causative organisms, predisposing factors, clinical presentations, diagnostics, treatments, and disease risk management. Two questionnaires (initial detailed and subsequent brief) were distributed via email to zoo veterinarians, with an estimated response rate of 23%. The overall estimated disease prevalence from responding zoos was 28%, with 73% of responding Australian zoos and 14% of responding non-Australian zoos reporting disease. The first cases of confirmed and suspected dermatophytosis in several macropod species and in association with Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. nodulare are reported, with young red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) appearing predisposed. Diagnosis was most commonly based on fungal culture or presumptively on typical clinical signs of minimally/nonpruritic alopecia, crusting, and scaling distributed most frequently on the tail, pinnae, and hind limbs. Both disease resolution without treatment and resolution after an average of 1 to 2 mo of treatment were reported. PMID:24063082
Misterska, Ewa; G?owacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy
Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of the absolute stability factor was 0.82 and 0.88. Overall, the Polish versions of the BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity Questionnaires are characterized by high values of internal consistency factor and absolute stability factor. Following the process of adaptation, the authors obtained a tool that is instrumental in clinical evaluations and complies with methodological criteria. PMID:19669802
Sendir, Merdiye; Acaroglu, Rengin
This study was conducted for the purpose of testing the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Clinical Stress Questionnaire, which was developed to examine the stress that nursing students experience in their first clinical experiences that are threatening or challenging. The study sample was comprised of 80 first-year nursing students who had their first clinical practice experience. Internal consistency of the total questionnaire was Cronbach's alpha=0.70 and the factor analysis supported the original construct. Based on these results the Turkish version of the Clinical Stress Questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable instrument. PMID:18164787
...Standards Questionnaire(s); Complaint Intake Form AGENCY: Office of Labor Relations...Labor Standards Questionnaire; Complaint Intake Form. OMB Approval Number: 2501-0018...4731, Federal Labor Standard Complaint Intake form, will be used by HUD and...
Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Marhefka, Stephanie L.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Kolar, Stephanie; Ebbert-Syfrett, Judith; Vamos, Cheryl A.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Giuliano, Anna R.
Background HPV infection has been associated with a wide range of psychosocial responses among women; however, few studies have examined emotional responses among men. Purpose To examine psychosocial differences among self-reported HPV-positive and HPV-negative Florida men who were tested for HPV. Method Men (n=536) in a natural history study of HPV completed a cross-sectional psychosocial survey between 2007 and 2010. Results Most participants were White, non-Hispanic, unmarried and had some college education. HPV knowledge was high, with no statistically significant differences between groups. Significantly higher negative emotional responses and perceived threat scores were found among HPV-positive men (p<0.05). The majority of men (91%) reported they were very likely or likely to get the HPV vaccine if it became available for men, but identified barriers as factors to consider. HPV-negative men were significantly more likely to tell a sex partner their test results than HPV-positive men. Conclusions Men experienced a range of negative emotions after receiving HPV test results, but most disclosed their test result to their sexual partner and reported high intentions to receive the HPV vaccine in the future. Findings should be considered when implementing health-related interventions among men to assist in decreasing psychosocial sequalae associated with HPV. PMID:23026036
Smith, Stephen P.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Wardle, Jane
Background. Dogs are compelling models in which to study obesity since the condition shares many characteristics between humans and dogs. Differences in eating behaviour are recognised to contribute to obesity susceptibility in other species but this has not been systematically studied in dogs. Aim. To develop and validate an owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and owner or dog related factors which can alter the development of obesity. Further, to then test variation in food-motivation in dogs and its association with obesity and owner management. Methods. Owner interviews, a literature review and existing human appetite scales were used to identify relevant topics and generate items for the questionnaire. Following a pilot phase, a 75 item online questionnaire was distributed via social media. Responses from 302 dog/owner dyads were analysed and factor structure and descriptive statistics calculated. Results were compared with descriptions of dog behaviour and management from a subset of respondents during semi-structured interviews. The optimum questions were disseminated as a 34 item final questionnaire completed by 213 owners, with a subset of respondents repeating the questionnaire 3 weeks later to assess test–retest reliability. Results. Analysis of responses to the final questionnaire relating to 213 dog/owner dyads showed a coherent factor structure and good test–retest reliability. There were three dog factors (food responsiveness and satiety, lack of selectivity, Interest in food), four owner factors (owner motivation to control dog weight, owner intervention to control dog weight, restriction of human food, exercise taken) and two dog health factors (signs of gastrointestinal disease, current poor health). Eating behaviour differed between individuals and between breed groups. High scores on dog factors (high food-motivation) and low scores on owner factors (less rigorous control of diet/exercise) were associated with obesity. Owners of more highly food-motivated dogs exerted more control over their dogs’ food intake than those of less food-motivated dogs. Conclusions. The DORA questionnaire is a reliable and informative owner-reported measure of canine eating behaviour and health and management factors which can be associated with obesity development. The tool will be applicable to study of the canine obesity model and to clinical veterinarians. Results revealed eating behaviour to be similarly associated with obesity as exercise and owners giving titbits.
Gross, James J.
Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) Gross & John 9/03 The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire is designed to assess individual differences in the habitual use of two emotion regulation strategies differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well
Oh, Woon Yong; Lee, Ji Woong; Lee, Chong Eon; Ko, Moon Seok; Jeong, Jae Hong
In this study, a structured survey questionnaire was used to determine consumers' preferences and behavior with regard to horse meat at a horse meat restaurant located in Jeju, Korea, from October 1 to December 24, 2005. The questionnaire employed in this study consisted of 20 questions designed to characterize six general attributes: horse meat sensory property, physical appearance, health condition, origin, price, and other attributes. Of the 1370 questionnaires distributed, 1126 completed questionnaires were retained based on the completeness of the answers, representing an 82.2% response rate. Two issues were investigated that might facilitate the search for ways to improve horse meat production and marketing programs in Korea. The first step was to determine certain important factors, called principal components, which enabled the researchers to understand the needs of horse meat consumers via principal component analysis. The second step was to define consumer segments with regard to their preferences for horse meat, which was accomplished via cluster analysis. The results of the current study showed that health condition, price, origin, and leanness were the most critical physical attributes affecting the preferences of horse meat consumers. Four segments of consumers, with different demands for horse meat attributes, were identified: origin-sensitive consumers, price-sensitive consumers, quality and safety-sensitive consumers, and non-specific consumers. Significant differences existed among segments of consumers in terms of age, nature of work, frequency of consumption, and general level of acceptability of horse meat. PMID:20163664
Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A
Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (?=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068
Surveys and questionnaires are often used in nursing research to elicit the views of large groups of people to develop the nursing knowledge base. This article provides an overview of survey and questionnaire use in nursing research, clarifies the place of the questionnaire as a data collection tool in quantitative research design and provides information and advice about best practice in the development of quantitative surveys and questionnaires. PMID:26080989
Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.
Being able to accurately determine the response of an electrical system which is excited by a high altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) requires a knowledge of the time history of the incident EMP field strength, as well as its angle of incidence and polarization. A commonly used, unclassified, description of this environment is provided by the ''Bell Laboratory waveform.'' Recent studies have shown, however, that this EMP waveform tends to overestimate the response of an above-ground transmission line by more than an order of magnitude. As a result, other unclassified high altitude EMP environments have been developed. This presentation discusses the development of two alternate unclassified EMP environment descriptions: one arising from a simple radiating dipole moment model, and the other resulting from curve-fitting the calculated fields from a computer code named CHAP. For both of these EMP models, the electric field at two earth observation points are compared. These fields are then coupled to an above-ground line and the resulting open-circuit voltage responses are compared. Using the CHAP EMP environment, a limited parametric study of the peak positive and negative open-circuit voltage is then performed and surface plots of these peak voltages are presented. 8 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.
Cude, Brenda J.
Results from 348 (of 986) questionnaires determined consumer response to equal access--the choice of a primary long distance carrier. A model suggests that those consumers who seek information in decision making acquire it through search or experience. (JOW)
Welch, Wayne W.; And Others
This was developed in collaboration with the White Bear Lake Senior High School Evaluation Committee to evaluate the school's flexible module scheduling program. It includes a questionnaire about the school and its program and a questionnaire form for interviews in the community. Part I of the high school questionnaire has 25 questions about the…
This comprehensive guide leads the user step-by-step through questionnaire creation. Topics include preliminary considerations, writing the questionnaire items, issues that may come up when giving the questionnaire, statistical considerations, and references for further reading. This resource is intended for novice and professional evaluators.
Background To successfully implement the recommendations of critical care nutrition guidelines, one potential approach is to identify barriers to providing optimal enteral nutrition (EN) in the intensive care unit (ICU), and then address these barriers systematically. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess barriers to enterally feeding critically ill patients and to conduct preliminary validity testing of the new instrument. Methods The content of the questionnaire was guided by a published conceptual framework, literature review, and consultation with experts. The questionnaire was pre-tested on a convenience sample of 32 critical care practitioners, and then field tested with 186 critical care providers working at 5 hospitals in North America. The revised questionnaire was pilot tested at another ICU (n?=?43). Finally, the questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of ICU nurses twice, two weeks apart, to determine test retest reliability (n?=?17). Descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlations (ICC), and kappa coefficients were conducted to assess validity and reliability. Results We developed a questionnaire with 26 potential barriers to delivery of EN asking respondents to rate their importance as barriers in their ICU. Face and content validity of the questionnaire was established through literature review and expert input. The factor analysis indicated a five-factor solution and accounted for 72% of the variance in barriers: guideline recommendations and implementation strategies, delivery of EN to the patient, critical care provider attitudes and behavior, dietitian support, and ICU resources. Overall, the indices of internal reliability for the derived factor subscales and the overall instrument were acceptable (subscale Cronbach alphas range 0.84 – 0.89). However, the test retest reliability was variable and below acceptable thresholds for the majority of items (ICC’s range ?0.13 to 0.70). The within group agreement, an indices reflecting the reliability of aggregating individual responses to the ICU level was also variable (ICC’s range 0.0 to 0.82). Conclusions We developed a questionnaire to identify barriers to enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Additional studies are planned to further revise and evaluate the reliability and validity of the instrument. PMID:24305039
Riebl, Shaun K; Paone, Allyson C; Hedrick, Valisa E; Zoellner, Jamie M; Estabrooks, Paul A
Background Brief, valid, and reliable dietary and physical activity assessment tools are needed, and interactive computerized assessments (ie, those with visual cues, pictures, sounds, and voiceovers) can reduce administration and scoring burdens commonly encountered with paper-based assessments. Objective The purpose of this pilot investigation was to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of interactive multimedia (IMM) versions (ie, IMM-1 and IMM-2) compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) and Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat); a secondary purpose was to evaluate results across two education attainment levels. Methods Adults 21 years or older (n=60) were recruited to complete three laboratory sessions, separated by three to seven days in a randomly assigned sequence, with the following assessments–demographic information, two IMM and one paper-based (PP) version of the BEVQ-15 and L-Cat, health literacy, and an IMM usability survey. Results Responses across beverage categories from the IMM-1 and PP versions (validity; r=.34-.98) and the IMM-1 and IMM-2 administrations (reliability; r=.61-.94) (all P<.001) were significantly correlated. Paired t tests revealed significant differences in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) grams and kcal (P=.02 and P=.01, respectively) and total beverage kcal (P=.03), on IMM-1 and IMM-2; however, comparative validity was demonstrated between IMM-2 and the PP version suggesting familiarization with the IMM tool may influence participant responses (mean differences: SSB 63 grams, SEM 87; P=.52; SSB 21 kcal, SEM 33; P=.48; total beverage 65 kcal, SEM 49; P=.19). Overall mean scores between the PP and both IMM versions of the L-Cat were different (both P<.001); however, responses on all versions were correlated (P<.001). Differences between education categories were noted at each L-Cat administration (IMM-1: P=.008; IMM-2: P=.001; PP: P=.002). Major and minor themes from user feedback suggest that the IMM questionnaires were easy to complete, and relevant to participants' typical beverage choices and physical activity habits. Conclusions In general, less educated participants consumed more total beverage and SSB energy, and reported less engagement in physical activity. The IMM BEVQ-15 appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess habitual beverage intake, although software familiarization may increase response accuracy. The IMM-L-Cat can be considered reliable and may have permitted respondents to more freely disclose actual physical activity levels versus the paper-administered tool. Future larger-scale investigations are warranted to confirm these possibilities. PMID:24148226
Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Hargreaves, James R.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Hayes, Richard J.; Cowan, Frances M.
Background Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM) influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting. Methods This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode); a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i) ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii) ability to afford essential items; and iii) food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds. Results 96% (n?=?1483) of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode. Conclusion These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position. PMID:24073230
Current preventive strategies and management of Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in solid organ transplantation in Europe. Results of the ESGICH Questionnaire-based Cross-sectional Survey.
San-Juan, R; Manuel, O; Hirsch, H H; Fernández-Ruiz, M; López-Medrano, F; Comoli, P; Caillard, S; Grossi, P; Aguado, J M
There is limited clinical evidence on the utility of the monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia in the pre-emptive management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. We investigated current preventive measures against EBV-related PTLD through a web-based questionnaire sent to 669 SOT programmes in 35 European countries. This study was performed on behalf of the ESGICH study group from the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. A total of 71 SOT programmes from 15 European countries participated in the study. EBV serostatus of the recipient is routinely obtained in 69/71 centres (97%) and 64 (90%) have access to EBV DNAemia assays. EBV monitoring is routinely used in 85.9% of the programmes and 77.4% reported performing pre-emptive treatment for patients with significant EBV DNAemia levels. Pre-emptive treatment for EBV DNAemia included reduction of immunosuppression in 50.9%, switch to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in 30.9%, and use of rituximab in 14.5% of programmes. Imaging by whole-body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used in 60.9% of centres to rule out PTLD and complemented computer tomography is used in 50%. In 10.9% of centres, FDG-PET is included in the first-line diagnostic workup in patients with high-risk EBV DNAemia. Despite the lack of definitive evidence, EBV load measurements are frequently used in Europe to guide diagnostic workup and pre-emptive reduction of immunosuppression. We need prospective and controlled studies to define the impact of EBV monitoring in reducing the risk of PTLD in SOT recipients. PMID:25686696
Muto, Cosy; Maruta, Shuichiro; Noyori, Kazumasa; Yanaida, Masashi
In this paper, a trial to educate electronics for both elementary pupils and junior-high students is reported. A “making your own radio” workshop for elementary kids features a paper-craft resonator made of toilet paper cores and an empty box of tissue papers as well as solder-less main radio circuit. For elder elementary and junior-high pupils, a workshop making a bat detector (an ultra-sonic receiver) is provided to help their summer vacation research. Both workshops are planned to enlarge students wishing to knock the door of electronics. Also, we report questionnaires results for those workshops and follow up research results for bat detector workshop. Those results show that both children and parents long for good experiences on science/electronics materials and these experiences are important for future human resources in scientific fields including analog electronics.
Fokkema, Marjolein; Smits, Niels; Finkelman, Matthew D; Kelderman, Henk; Cuijpers, Pim
Minimizing the respondent burden and maximizing the classification accuracy of tests is essential for efficacious screening for common mental health disorders. In previous studies, curtailment of tests has been shown to reduce average test length considerably, without loss of accuracy. In the current study, we simulate Deterministic (DC) and Stochastic (SC) Curtailment for three self-report questionnaires for common mental health disorders, to study the potential gains in efficiency that can be obtained in screening for these disorders. The curtailment algorithms were applied in an existing dataset of item scores of 502 help-seeking participants. Results indicate that DC reduces test length by up to 37%, and SC reduces test length by up to 46%, with only very slight decreases in diagnostic accuracy. Compared to an item response theory based adaptive test with similar test length, SC provided better diagnostic accuracy. Consequently, curtailment may be useful in improving the efficiency of mental health self-report questionnaires. PMID:24315031
Mohamed, O; Freundlich, R E; Dakik, H K; Grober, E D; Najari, B; Lipshultz, L I; Khera, M
Androgen deficiency is a pervasive problem in the older male population and is thought to be responsible for many symptoms once considered to be the result of normal aging. Numerous methods have been proposed to facilitate the detection of men at risk for androgen deficiency. In this article, we propose a novel screening tool, the quantitative Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (qADAM) questionnaire and report its successful use in quantifying the severity of androgen deficiency in a group of older men. Fifty-seven males scheduled to undergo radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer completed the qADAM as well as the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite hormonal/sexual (EPICh/EPICs) questionnaires. Thirty-four men also had serum testosterone levels measured for comparison. The qADAM showed statistically significant correlation to the SHIM (P=0.001), EPICh (P=0.016), EPICs (P= <0.001), and serum testosterone (P=0.046). The qADAM represents a viable alternative to existing questionnaires used to detect androgen deficiency and to assess response to treatment. PMID:19657348
Hurley, Kristen M; Pepper, M Reese; Candelaria, Margo; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E; Latta, Laura; Hager, Erin R; Black, Maureen M
This paper describes the development and validation of a 27-item caregiver-reported questionnaire on toddler feeding. The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers' responses to concerns about their children's dietary intake, appetite, size, and behaviors rather than relying exclusively on caregiver actions. Content validity included review by an expert panel (n = 7) and testing in a pilot sample (n = 105) of low-income mothers of toddlers. Construct validity and reliability were assessed among a second sample of low-income mothers of predominately African-American (70%) toddlers aged 12-32 mo (n = 297) participating in the baseline evaluation of a toddler overweight prevention study. Internal consistency (Cronbach's ?: 0.64-0.87) and test-retest (0.57-0.88) reliability were acceptable for most constructs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 theoretically derived constructs of feeding: responsive, forceful/pressuring, restrictive, indulgent, and uninvolved (root mean square error of approximation = 0.047, comparative fit index = 0.90, standardized root mean square residual = 0.06). Statistically significant (P < 0.05) convergent validity results further validated the scale, confirming established relations between feeding behaviors, toddler overweight status, perceived toddler fussiness, and maternal mental health. The Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire adds to the field by providing a brief instrument that can be administered in 5 min to examine how caregiver-reported feeding behaviors relate to toddler health and behavior. PMID:24068792
Oyewumi, Moses O; Kumar, Amit; Cui, Zhengrong
The development of novel immune adjuvants is emerging as a significant area of vaccine delivery based on the continued necessity to amplify immune responses to a wide array of new antigens that are poorly immunogenic. This article specifically focuses on the application of nanoparticles and microparticles as vaccine adjuvants. Many investigators are in agreement that the size of the particles is crucial to their adjuvant activities. However, reports on correlating the size of particle-based adjuvants and the resultant immune responses have been conflicting, with investigators on both sides of the fence with impressive data in support of the effectiveness of particles with small sizes (submicron) over those with larger sizes (micron) and vice versa, while other investigators reported data that showed submicron- and micron-sized particles are effective to the same degree as immune adjuvants. We have generated a list of biological, immunological and, more importantly, vaccine formulation parameters that may have contributed to the inconsistency from different studies and made recommendations on future studies attempting to correlate the size of particulate adjuvants and the immune responses induced. The information gathered could lead to strategies to optimize the performance of nano-microparticles as immune adjuvants. PMID:20822351
Grimm, Anna; Hulse, Lynn; Preiss, Marek; Schmidt, Silke
In the European multi-centre study BeSeCu (Behaviour, Security, Culture), interviews were conducted in seven countries to explore survivors' emotional, behavioural, and cognitive responses during disasters. Interviews, either in groups or one-to-one, were convened according to type of event: collapse of a building; earthquake; fire; flood; and terror attack. The content analysis of interviews resulted in a theoretical framework, describing the course of the events, behavioural responses, and the emotional and cognitive processing of survivors. While the environmental cues and the ability to recognise what was happening varied in different disasters, survivors' responses tended to be more universal across events, and most often were adaptive and non-selfish. Several peri-traumatic factors related to current levels of post-traumatic stress were identified, while memory quantity did not differ as a function of event type or post-traumatic stress. Time since the event had a minor effect on recall. Based on the findings, several suggestions for emergency training are made. PMID:24325239
Kuijpers, Taco W.; Bende, Richard J.; Baars, Paul A.; Grummels, Annette; Derks, Ingrid A.M.; Dolman, Koert M.; Beaumont, Tim; Tedder, Thomas F.; van Noesel, Carel J.M.; Eldering, Eric; van Lier, René A.W.
CD20 was the first B cell differentiation antigen identified, and CD20-specific mAbs are commonly used for the treatment of B cell malignancies and autoantibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. Despite this the role of CD20 in human B cell physiology has remained elusive. We describe here a juvenile patient with CD20 deficiency due to a homozygous mutation in a splice junction of the CD20 gene (also known as MS4A1) that results in “cryptic” splicing and nonfunctional mRNA species. Analysis of this patient has led us to conclude that CD20 has a central role in the generation of T cell–independent (TI) antibody responses. Key evidence to support this conclusion was provided by the observation that although antigen-independent B cells developed normally in the absence of CD20 expression, antibody formation, particularly after vaccination with TI antigens, was strongly impaired in the patient. Consistent with this, TI antipolysaccharide B cell responses were severely impeded in CD20-deficient mice. Our study therefore identifies what we believe to be a novel type of humoral immunodeficiency caused by CD20 deficiency and characterized by normal development of antigen-independent B cells, along with a reduced capacity to mount proper antibody responses. PMID:20038800
Marsh, Herbert W.; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Stocking, Vicki B.
Reanalyzed data from the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQII) from an earlier study of 376 gifted students, and a new study of 837 gifted students to explore alternative approaches to missing data and data normalization. Results strongly support the construct validity of responses to the SDQII by gifted adolescents. (SLD)
Tove, Dragesund; Målfrid, Råheim; Liv Inger, Strand
The purpose of present study was to investigate important measurement properties of the Body Awareness Rating Questionnaire (BARQ) subscales: Function; Mood; Feelings; and Awareness. Samples of 50 patients with prolonged musculoskeletal pain and psychosomatic disorders, and 50 gender and age-matched healthy persons participated in the study. Relative (ICC 2,1) and absolute reliability (S(w)) were calculated. Construct validity was examined by testing hypothesis using Pearson (r) or Spearman rank (r(s)) correlation. Discriminate ability was examined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the area under the curve (aROC) being the measure of discriminative validity. All patients reported more or less improvement after treatment, using the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) as an external indicator of important change. Responsiveness to important change was therefore examined by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), relating change scores of BARQ subscales to the PGIC categories. Relative and absolute reliability values were within recommended limits for all four subscales. Construct and discriminate validity was indicated for Function, Feelings and Awareness, but not for Mood. Responsiveness was indicated for the subscales Function and Awareness, but not for Feelings and Mood. Further research is needed to complement the subscales of BARQ, found with appropriate measurement properties. PMID:22288720
Schilling, Lisa M; Kozak, Katarzyna; Lundahl, Kristy; Dellavalle, Robert P
Although critical analysis of survey research is limited when reviewers and readers cannot view a study's questionnaire, access to novel questionnaires used in published research has not been systematically examined. The authors identified publications reporting the results of novel questionnaires in three medical journals (JAMA, The New England Journal of Medicine, and The Lancet) in January 2000-May 2003 and searched portable document format (PDF) versions of the studies for the complete questionnaire or a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) providing access to the questionnaire. When the questionnaire was not provided in the publication or a published URL, the authors requested it from the corresponding author in writing up to three times over a 6-week period. Of 93 publications with novel questionnaires, four printed the questionnaire in the article and three provided online access. Corresponding authors failed to provide questionnaires for 37 of 81 (46%) studies. Novel questionnaires used in published research are frequently not available to readers or researchers. Policies that improve access to novel questionnaires will allow better assessment of study results, reduce duplicated efforts, and improve authorship attribution for questionnaire design. PMID:17041128
Burke, Kylie; Moore, Susan
This paper describes development and validation of the Parental Psychological Flexibility (PPF) Questionnaire, a parent-report measure designed to assess psychological flexibility among parents of pre-adolescents and adolescents (aged 10-18 years). Psychological flexibility within parenting refers to parents' accepting negative thoughts, emotions and urges about one's child and still acting in ways that are consistent with effective parenting. Exploratory factor analysis (n = 178 parents) of a 43-item draft measure, resulted in a 30-item, 3-factor structure. Three subscales were created, consistent with the psychological flexibility literature: acceptance, cognitive defusion and committed action. A second sample of parents (n = 192) was then used to confirm the factor structure and reliability and validity of the PPF. Results supported the 3-factor structure, reduced the number of items to 19 and demonstrated that the PPF subscales have adequate reliability and validity and are thus suitable for researching psychological flexibility among parents of pre-adolescents and adolescents. PMID:25236325
Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Haji Ahmadi, Maryam; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed kamran; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Yadollahi, Sohrab
Background: Learning in a clinical environment is an inseparable part of a training program in medical education. To evaluate the quality of training in a clinical environment, a comprehensive questionnaire which is adjusted for local purposes is essential. This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of Activities Coaching Context (ACC)-questionnaire from the perspective of residents and students in a clinical learning environment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 65 residents and students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. The Content Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the judgment of a panel of ten experts in medical education. The construct validity of the questionnaire was determined by factor analysis. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS16. Results: The ratio and index of content validity calculated by experts’ view were quite acceptable (0.31 and 0.7, respectively). Construct validity was examined by factor analysis which confirmed seven first order factors. Cronbach’s Alfa coefficient revealed a high degree of internal consistency (0.932). The reliability of the questionnaire was measured by test - retest (0.9). Conclusions: The ACC questionnaire appeared to be a valid, reliable and also appropriate tool to evaluate the educational quality of a clinical learning environment. PMID:25405107
Oluka, Obiageli Crystal; Nie, Shaofa; Sun, Yi
Objective This review is aimed at assessing the quality of questionnaires and their development process based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) change model. Methods A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of TPB-based questionnaire development was conducted in relevant databases between 2002 and 2012 using selected search terms. Ten of 1,034 screened abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using two different appraisal tools: one for the overall methodological quality of each study and the other developed for the appraisal of the questionnaire content and development process. Both appraisal tools consisted of items regarding the likelihood of bias in each study and were eventually combined to give the overall quality score for each included study. Results 8 of the 10 included studies showed low risk of bias in the overall quality assessment of each study, while 9 of the studies were of high quality based on the quality appraisal of questionnaire content and development process. Conclusion Quality appraisal of the questionnaires in the 10 reviewed studies was successfully conducted, highlighting the top problem areas (including: sample size estimation; inclusion of direct and indirect measures; and inclusion of questions on demographics) in the development of TPB-based questionnaires and the need for researchers to provide a more detailed account of their development process. PMID:24722323
Verbeek, J; de Boer, A G; van der Weide, W E; Piirainen, H; Anema, J; van Amstel, R J; Hartog, F
Aims: To develop a questionnaire that measures specific aspects of patient satisfaction with occupational health physicians. Methods: General patient satisfaction questionnaires, a literature survey, and interviews with patients were used. An initial questionnaire was distributed among sick listed patients (n = 432) of occupational physicians (n = 90) from different occupational health services. To reduce items and to develop scales exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis was used. A linear regression model was used to predict satisfaction ratings from the scales of the questionnaire. Results: Questions about independence of the occupational physician were difficult to ask unambiguously. The factor analysis revealed five relevant factors which were named "being taken seriously as a patient", "attitude towards occupational health services", "trust and confidentiality", "expectations", and "comfort and access". All scales could be reduced to a maximum of five items without reducing the scale reliability too much. In the regression analysis, 71% of the variance of satisfaction ratings was explained by the first four scales and most by the first scale. "Comfort and access" did not contribute significantly to the model. Conclusions: A short questionnaire was developed to measure different aspects of patient satisfaction specific for occupational health. Whether the questionnaire can effectively lead to quality improvement in occupational health services should be investigated. PMID:15657194
Mavrinac, Martina; Brumini, Gordana; Bili?-Zulle, Lidija; Petrove?ki, Mladen
Aim To develop and test the psychometric characteristics of a questionnaire measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. Methods Participants were 227 undergraduates and graduate students from three Croatian universities, with a median age of 21 years (range 18 to 48). Research was conducted from March to June 2009. For the purpose of construction of the first version of the questionnaire, 67 statements (items) were developed. The statements were based on the relevant literature and were developed following rules and recommendations for questionnaire writing, and 36 items were chosen for final validation. Factor analysis was used to find out the factor structure of the questionnaire and to measure construct validity. Results The final version of the questionnaire consisted of 29 items divided into a three-factor structure: factor I – positive attitude toward plagiarism (12 items); factor II – negative attitude toward plagiarism (7 items); and factor III – subjective norms toward plagiarism (10 items). Cronbach ? was calculated to confirm the reliability of the scale: factor I – ??=?0.83; factor II – ??=?0.79; and factor III – ??=?0.85. Correlations between factors were: -0.37 between I and II, -0.41 between I and III, and +0.31 between II and III. Conclusion Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire was developed, with good psychometric characteristics. It will be used in future research as a standardized tool for measuring attitudes toward plagiarism. PMID:20564761
Gagnon-Moisan, F.; Reginatto, M.; Zimbal, A.
The Compact Neutron Spectrometer (CNS) is a Joint European Torus (JET) Enhancement Project, designed for fusion diagnostics in different plasma scenarios. The CNS is based on a liquid scintillator (BC501A) which allows good discrimination between neutron and gamma radiation. Neutron spectrometry with a BC501A spectrometer requires the use of a reliable, fully characterized detector. The determination of the response matrix was carried out at the Ion Accelerator Facility (PIAF) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). This facility provides several monoenergetic beams (2.5, 8, 10, 12 and 14 MeV) and a white field (Emax ~ 17 MeV), which allows for a full characterization of the spectrometer in the region of interest (from ~ 1.5 MeV to ~ 17 MeV). The energy of the incoming neutrons was determined by the time of flight method (TOF), with time resolution in the order of 1 ns. To check the response matrix, the measured pulse height spectra were unfolded with the code MAXED and the resulting energy distributions were compared with those obtained from TOF. The CNS project required modification of the PTB BC501A spectrometer design, to replace an analog data acquisition system (NIM modules) with a digital system developed by the Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente (ENEA). Results for the new digital system were evaluated using new software developed specifically for this project.
BiléN, Sven G.; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Bonifazi, Carlo; Melchioni, Enrico
The electrical transient response of an electrodynamic tether system in low earth orbit has been investigated experimentally and by computer simulation. Our experimental results come from the first Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) mission flown on the space shuttle in 1992. During this mission a tethered satellite was deployed to a distance of 267 m above the shuttle using a conducting, insulated cable. It is shown by computer simulation that the electrical transient response of the system is due to a combination of both the tether electrical circuit and the interaction of the tether system with the space plasma. In general, ground measurements showed that the TSS-1 electrical circuit is approximately second order and underdamped. However, it was found that on-orbit transient decay as well as the symmetry of transient oscillations could be dramatically altered, following closely with ionospheric plasma density variations. Combined electrical circuit and plasma interaction modeling shows that these differences can be explained by accounting for ion and electron current collection capabilities of the tether end connections with the space plasma. These results have implications for the use of electrodynamic tethers for high current switched applications including direct generation of low-frequency electromagnetic signals and high electrical power generation as well as detection of natural electric field transient signatures.
Kalff, J C; Schraut, W H; Simmons, R L; Bauer, A J
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to ileus after abdominal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The common supposition is that more invasive operations are associated with a more extensive ileus. The cellular mechanisms of postsurgical ileus remain elusive, and few studies have addressed the mechanisms. METHODS: Rats were subjected to incremental degrees of surgical manipulation: laparotomy, eventration, "running," and compression of the bowel. On postsurgical days 1 and 7, muscularis infiltrates were characterized immunohistochemically. Circular muscle activity was assessed using mechanical and intracellular recording techniques in vitro. RESULTS: Surgical manipulation caused an increase in resident phagocytes that stained for the activation marker lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1). Incremental degrees of manipulation also caused a progressive increase in neutrophil infiltration and a decrease in bethanechol-stimulated contractions. Compression also caused an increase in other leukocytes: macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the degree of gut paralysis to cholinergic stimulation is directly proportional to the degree of trauma, the activation of resident gut muscularis phagocytes, and the extent of cellular infiltration. Therefore, postsurgical ileus may be a result of an inflammatory response to minimal trauma in which the resident macrophages, activated by physical forces, set an inflammatory response into motion, leading to muscle dysfunction. Images Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 7. PMID:9833803
Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of supplemental genistein (an isoflavonoid) on performance, lymphoid organs' development, and cellular and humoral immune responses in broiler chicks. A total of 675-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to the five replicate pens (15 chicks each) of nine experimental diets. Dietary treatments included a negative (not-supplemented) control diet, two positive control groups (virginiamycin or zinc-bacitracin, 20 mg/kg), and diets containing 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of genistein. The cutaneous basophil hypersensivity (CBH) test was measured at day 10 of age after toe web injection with phytohemagglutinin-P. In addition, sera samples were collected after different antigen inoculations to investigate antibody responses. At day 28 of age, three randomly selected birds from each pen were euthanized to evaluate the relative weights of lymphoid organs. Results showed that dietary supplementation of both antibiotics increased (P<0.01) feed intake during 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, daily weight gain was influenced (P<0.01) by dietary treatments throughout the trial, so that the birds fed on antibiotics and 20 to 80 mg/kg genistein diets revealed the greater weight gains compared with other experimental groups. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio assigned to the birds fed on diets containing antibiotics and moderate levels (40 to 80 mg/kg) of genistein. Although the relative weights of thymus (P<0.05) and bursa of Fabricius (P<0.01) were greater in birds fed on genistein-supplemented diets compared with antibiotics-supplemented birds, the spleen weight was not affected by experimental diets. Similarly, CBH response and antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bronchitis disease viruses were markedly (P<0.05) greater in chicks fed on diets supplemented with 20 to 80 mg/kg of genistein. Interestingly, the higher dosages of genistein suppressed CBH and antibody responses to the levels seen by control and antibiotics chicks. Dietary inclusion of genistein increased (P<0.05) lymphocytes and subsequently reduced (P<0.01) heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. The present findings indicate that dietary genistein supplementation at the levels of 20 to 80 mg/kg not only improves growth performance, but also could beneficially affect immunological responses in broiler chicks. PMID:25998982
Morean, Meghan E.; de Wit, Harriet; King, Andrea C.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Rueger, Sandra Y.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.
Rationale The Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) is widely used in studies of acute subjective response (SR) to a variety of substances, but the format of the DEQ varies widely across studies, and details of its psychometric properties are lacking. Thus, the field would benefit from demonstrating the reliability and validity of the DEQ for use across multiple substances. Objective The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of several variations of DEQ items, which assessed the extent to which participants (1) feel any substance effect(s), (2) feel high, (3) like the effects, (4) dislike the effects, and (5) want more of the substance using 100mm Visual Analog Scales. Methods DEQ data from three placebo-controlled studies were analyzed to examine SR to amphetamine, nicotine, and alcohol. We evaluated the internal structure of the DEQ for use with each substance as well as relationships between scale items, measures of similar constructs, and substance-related behaviors. Results Results provided preliminary psychometric support for items assessing each DEQ construct (FEEL, HIGH, DISLIKE, LIKE, and MORE). Conclusions Based on the study results, we identify several common limitations of extant variants of the DEQ and recommend an improved version of the measure. The simplicity and brevity of the DEQ combined with its promising psychometric properties support its use in future SR research across a variety of substances. PMID:23271193
In a sample of 140 adult nonsmokers recruited in New Mexico in 1966, the authors assessed the reliability of questionnaire response on lifetime exposure to tobacco smoke in the home. hey also compared urinary cotinine levels with questionnaire reports of environmental tobacco smo...
This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 444 follow-up questionnaires. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) ac...
This data set includes responses for 249 follow-up questionnaires collected during the first week-long monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) activities during the sampling period to explain ...
This data set includes responses for 163 food follow-up questionnaires. The food diary follow-up questionnaire was used to identify how the dietary patterns observed for study participants who had submitted duplicate diet samples and completed the associated food diary related to...
Onushkin, Victor G.; And Others
The questionnaire of the project "Planning the Development of Universities" was designed with the help of experts from all the continents of the world and covered most aspects of university activity. The sample group consisted of 107 universities of which 80 were from 50 different countries. This analysis of questionnaire responses includes a…
Stader, Sandra R.; Licht, Barbara G.
The responses of 194 fifth graders to a questionnaire assessing causal attributions, academic expectancies, and self-evaluation of smartness varied as a function of whether the questionnaire was administered individually or in a group. Children expressed lower and less accurate predictions in the individual condition than in the group condition.…
Gumpel, J. M.; Mason, A. M. S.
A self-administered questionnaire designed for prerecording the routine clinical information required from outpatients has been found to be acceptable to them. Such a questionnaire should greatly ease the collection and recording of basic clinical information and offer the doctor more effective use of his time. With the questionnaire more information was recorded and therefore available in the case notes than at a conventional doctor-patient consultation. No administrative problems occurred in its distribution, use, and return. PMID:4832238
Eswaran, H. T.; Kavita, M. B.; Tripaty, T. B.; Shivakumar
Background: J??har?gni (metabolic fire) is of the prime importance in the maintenance of health as well as causation of diseases. Food which is consumed by the person shares the major responsibility for being healthy or manifestation of diseases. The relation between food and health is mediated by J??har?gni (the metabolic agent in Ayurveda). There are four different states of J??har?gni viz, Mand?gni (mild or weak state of metabolic fire), Vi?am?gni (irregular state of metabolic fire), T?k?n?gni (sharp or intense state of metabolic fire), and Sam?gni (Normal state of metabolic fire). Sam?gni (Normal state of metabolic fire) is said to be the normal State and maintains the health of an individual. All the other states are considered as abnormal. Objectives: To frame and validate a Questionnaire to assess the state of J??har?gni. Materials and Methods: A qualitative research that involved interview method and cluster sampling method. A total of 500 volunteers of either gender in two groups viz., apparently healthy and unhealthy were assessed for their J??har?gni. Questionnaire was framed with 64 items. A total of 14 questions under Vi?am?gni (irregular state of metabolic fire), 13 under T?ksh??gni, 13 under Mand?gni and 24 questions under Sam?gni were framed. The questionnaire was in optional format with 5 item likert's scale pattern and the validation was done by Cronbach's Alpha for internal consistency. Result: The internal consistency of the questionnaire using Cronbach's Alpha was 0.916. The internal consistency of Vi?am?gni domain was 0.909; Teekshnagni domain was 0.873; Mand?gni domain was 0.894; and Sam?gni domain was 0.876. Conclusion: The internal consistency of the questionnaire was 0.909 which is indicative of the excellent internal consistency of questionnaire. The lacuna of tool to assess state of J??har?gni in Ayurveda is filled by this questionnaire.
Sabia, Séverine; Cogranne, Pol; van Hees, Vincent T.; Bell, Joshua A.; Elbaz, Alexis; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana
Objective Physical activity is critically important for successful aging, but its effect on adiposity markers at older ages is unclear as much of the evidence comes from self-reported data on physical activity. We assessed the associations of questionnaire-assessed and accelerometer-assessed physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults. Design/Setting/Participants This was a cross-sectional study on 3940 participants (age range 60-83 years) of the Whitehall II study who completed a 20-item physical activity questionnaire and wore a wrist-mounted accelerometer for 9 days in 2012 and 2013. Measurements Total physical activity was estimated using metabolic equivalent hours/week for the questionnaire and mean acceleration for the accelerometer. Time spent in moderate-and-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was also assessed by questionnaire and accelerometer. Adiposity assessment included body mass index, waist circumference, and fat mass index. Fat mass index was calculated as fat mass/height² (kg/m²), with fat mass estimated using bioimpedance. Results Greater total physical activity was associated with lower adiposity for all adiposity markers in a dose-response manner. In men, the strength of this association was 2.4 to 2.8 times stronger with the accelerometer than with questionnaire data. In women, it was 1.9 to 2.3 times stronger. For MVPA, questionnaire data in men suggested no further benefit for adiposity markers past 1 hour/week of activity. This was not the case for accelerometer-assessed MVPA where, for example, compared with men undertaking <1 hour/week of accelerometer-assessed MVPA, waist circumference was 3.06 (95% confidence interval 2.06–4.06) cm lower in those performing MVPA 1–2.5 hours/week, 4.69 (3.47–5.91) cm lower in those undertaking 2.5–4 hours/week, and 7.11 (5.93–8.29) cm lower in those performing ?4 hours/week. Conclusions The association of physical activity with adiposity markers in older adults was stronger when physical activity was assessed by accelerometer compared with questionnaire, suggesting that physical activity might be more important for adiposity than previously estimated. PMID:25752539
...false Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect âSignificant Responseâ or âNo Opinionâ. 709.25 Section...25 Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect “Significant Response” or “No Opinion”. DOE or...
...false Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect âSignificant Responseâ or âNo Opinionâ. 709.25 Section...25 Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect “Significant Response” or “No Opinion”. DOE or...
...false Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect âSignificant Responseâ or âNo Opinionâ. 709.25 Section...25 Limits on use of polygraph examination results that reflect “Significant Response” or “No Opinion”. DOE or...
Luco, N.; Bazzurro, P.
Limitations of the existing earthquake ground motion database lead to scaling of records to obtain seismograms consistent with a ground motion target for structural design and evaluation. In the engineering seismology community, acceptable limits for 'legitimate' scaling vary from one (no scaling allowed) to 10 or more. The concerns expressed by detractors of scaling are mostly based on the knowledge of, for example, differences in ground motion characteristics for different earthquake magnitude-distance (Mw-Rclose) scenarios, and much less on their effects on structures. At the other end of the spectrum, proponents have demonstrated that scaling is not only legitimate but also useful for assessing structural response statistics for Mw-Rclose scenarios. Their studies, however, have not investigated more recent purposes of scaling and have not always drawn conclusions for a wide spectrum of structural vibration periods and strengths. This article investigates whether scaling of records randomly selected from an Mw-Rclose bin (or range) to a target fundamental-mode spectral acceleration (Sa) level introduces bias in the expected nonlinear structural drift response of both single-degree-of-freedom oscillators and one multi-degree-of-freedom building. The bias is quantified relative to unscaled records from the target Mw-Rclose bin that are 'naturally' at the target Sa level. We consider scaling of records from the target Mw-Rclose bin and from other Mw-Rclose bins. The results demonstrate that scaling can indeed introduce a bias that, for the most part, ca be explained by differences between the elastic response spectra of the scaled versus unscaled records. Copyright ?? 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Baker, Chris A R; Swainson, Louise; Lin, Din L; Wong, Samson; Hartigan-O'Connor, Dennis J; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Tarantal, Alice F; McCune, Joseph M
HIV disease progression appears to be driven by increased immune activation. Given observations that fetal exposure to infectious pathogens in utero can result in reduced immune responses, or tolerance, to those pathogens postnatally, we hypothesized that fetal exposure to HIV may render the fetus tolerant to the virus, thus reducing damage caused by immune activation during infection later in life. To test this hypothesis, fetal rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were injected with the attenuated virus SIVmac1A11 in utero and challenged with pathogenic SIVmac239 1 year after birth. SIVmac1A11-injected animals had significantly reduced plasma RNA viral loads (P < 0.02) up to 35 weeks after infection. Generalized estimating equations analysis was performed to identify immunologic and clinical measurements associated with plasma RNA viral load. A positive association with plasma RNA viral load was observed with the proportion of CD8(+) T cells expressing the transcription factor, FoxP3, and the proportion of CD4(+) T cells producing the lymphoproliferative cytokine, IL-2. In contrast, an inverse relationship was found with the frequencies of circulating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells displaying intermediate expression of the proliferation marker, Ki-67. Animals exposed to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in utero appeared to have enhanced SIV-specific immune responses, a lower proportion of CD8(+) T cells expressing the exhaustion marker PD-1, and more circulating TH17 cells than controls. Although the development of tolerance was not demonstrated, these data suggest that rhesus monkeys exposed to SIVmac1A11 in utero had distinct immune responses associated with the control of viral replication after postnatal challenge. PMID:26268312
Background No consistent relationship exists between pre-treatment expectations and therapeutic benefit from various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in clinical trials. However, many different expectancy measures have been used in those studies, with no validated questionnaires clearly focused on CAM and pain. We undertook cognitive interviews as part of a process to develop and validate such a questionnaire. Methods We reviewed questions about expectations of benefits of acupuncture, chiropractic, massage, or yoga for pain. Components of the questions – verbs, nouns, response options, terms and phrases describing back pain – were identified. Using seven different cognitive interview scripts, we conducted 39 interviews to evaluate how individuals with chronic low back pain understood these individual components in the context of expectancy questions for a therapy they had not yet received. Chosen items were those with the greatest agreement and least confusion among participants, and were closest to the meanings intended by the investigators. Results The questionnaire drafted for psychometric evaluation had 18 items covering various domains of expectancy. “Back pain” was the most consistently interpreted descriptor for this condition. The most understandable response options were 0-10 scales, a structure used throughout the questionnaire, with 0 always indicating no change, and 10 anchored with an absolute descriptor such as “complete relief”. The use of words to describe midpoints was found to be confusing. The word “expect” held different and shifting meanings for participants. Thus paired items comparing “hope” and “realistically expect” were chosen to evaluate 5 different aspects of treatment expectations (back pain; back dysfunction and global effects; impact of back pain on specific areas of life; sleep, mood, and energy; coping). “Impact of back pain” on various areas of life was found to be a consistently meaningful concept, and more global than “interference”. Conclusions Cognitive interviews identified wordings with considerable agreement among both participants and investigators. Some items widely used in clinical studies had different meanings to participants than investigators, or were confusing to participants. The final 18-item questionnaire is undergoing psychometric evaluation with goals of streamlining as well as identifying best items for use when questionnaire length is constrained. PMID:24460709
Trabulsi, Jillian; Yao, Manjiang; Bevans, Katherine B.; DeRusso, Patricia A.
Objective. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Infant Gastrointestinal Symptom Questionnaire (IGSQ), a tool to assess feeding tolerance in infants. Methods. Qualitative methods were used to develop IGSQ content across 5 symptom clusters, yielding a 13-item index of parent-reported infant digestion and elimination behaviors over the prior 7 days. Classical psychometric methods evaluated factor structure, interrater and retest reliability, and validity in 4 prospective studies of 836 infants. Results. Interrater and retest reliability were acceptable to good. IGSQ Index score was highly correlated (r = 0.89) with daily parent reports. IGSQ scores were significantly different between infants whose parents planned to switch formulas because of perceived feeding problems and those without parental concerns. Conclusions. The IGSQ is a practical, reliable, and valid method for assessment of infant gastrointestinal-related behaviors. Its use in clinical studies can provide empirical evidence to advance parent education regarding both normal and clinically meaningful feeding-related behaviors. PMID:25758425
We carried out questionnaire survey about technical education for graduates residing in Oita prefecture. As a result, we understood that they want to attend technical educations also after graduation. But their duties are too busy, so they cannot attend. A lecture that they want is CAD, and they hope that the lecture is under five times and for holding on Saturday or weekday night, and the expense is equal to or less than 30,000 yen. We understood that the place that they want to attend is their old school. Although authors and persons concerned with school has been showing many information of engineer education in HP, about 80% of all graduates did not know it. In a free opinion, they say that engineer education is inevitable but personnel trainings or humanities as a person are also demanded.
Olderbak, Sally; Sassenrath, Claudia; Keller, Johannes; Wilhelm, Oliver
Empathy refers to the thoughts and feelings of one individual in response to the observed (emotional) experiences of another individual. Empathy, however, can occur toward persons experiencing a variety of emotions, raising the question of whether or not empathy can be emotion specific. This paper discusses theoretical and empirical support for the emotion specificity of empathy. We present a new measure, the Emotion Specific Empathy questionnaire, which assesses affective and cognitive empathy for the six basic emotions. This paper presents the measure's psychometric qualities and demonstrates, through a series of models, the discriminant validity between emotion specific empathies suggesting empathy is emotion specific. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:25071632
Objectives Measurement of treatment satisfaction in diabetes is important as it has been shown to be associated with positive outcomes, reduced disease cost and better health. The aim of this study was to assess the construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Greek version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ). Methods A sample of type II diabetes patients (N = 172) completed the DTSQ status version, the SF-36 health survey and also provided data regarding treatment method, clinical and socio-demographic status. Instrument structure, reliability (Cronbach's a) and construct validity (convergent, discriminative, concurrent and known-groups) were assessed. Results The DTSQ measurement properties were confirmed in the Greek version with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Scale reliability was high (Cronbach's a = 0.92). Item-scale internal consistency and discriminant validity were also good, exceeding the designated success criteria. Significant correlations were observed between DTSQ items/overall score and SF-36 scales/component scores, which were hypothesized to measure similar dimensions. Known groups' comparisons yielded consistent support of the construct validity of the instrument. Conclusions The instrument was well-accepted by the patients and its psychometric properties were similar to those reported in validation studies of other language versions. Further research, incorporating a longitudinal study design, is required for examining test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instrument, which were not addressed in this study. Overall, the present results confirm that the DTSQ status version is a reasonable choice for measuring diabetes treatment satisfaction in Greece. PMID:22296783
Ding, Kele; Olds, R. Scott; Thombs, Dennis L.
This retrospective case study assessed the influence of item non-response error on subsequent response to questionnaire items assessing adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. Post-hoc analyses were conducted on survey results obtained from 4,371 7th to 12th grade students in Ohio in 2005. A skip pattern design in a conventional questionnaire…
Richardson, John T. E.
Questionnaire surveys have found a strong relationship between students' perceptions of their courses and their approaches to studying, but this might result from the operation of response biases. Responses to the Course Experience Questionnaire and the Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory from 2137 students taking seven courses by distance…
Anderson, Hazel P; Ward, Jamie
Questionnaires have been developed for categorising grapheme-colour synaesthetes into two sub-types based on phenomenology: associators and projectors. The general approach has been to assume a priori the existence of two sub-types on a single dimension (with endpoints as projector and associator) rather than explore, in a data-driven fashion, other possible models. We collected responses from 175 grapheme-colour synaesthetes on two questionnaires, the Illustrated Synaesthetic Experience Questionnaire (Skelton, Ludwig, & Mohr, 2009) and Rouw and Scholte's (2007) Projector-Associator Questionnaire. After Principle Component Analysis both questionnaires were comprised of two factors which coincide with the projector/associator distinction. This suggests that projectors and associators are not opposites of each other, but separate dimensions of experience (e.g. some synaesthetes claim to be both, others claim to be neither). The revised questionnaires provide a useful tool for researchers and insights into the phenomenology of synaesthesia. PMID:25703387
City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.
In order to obtain an updated profile of the student population of the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), day and evening students were surveyed. Of the 15,297 students surveyed during registration for day classes, 9,295 (62.8%) responded; and unduplicated responses were obtained from 7,044 (65.7%) of the 10,718 students registered for evening…
Gothwal, Vijaya K.; Bagga, Deepak K.; Bharani, Seelam; Sumalini, Rebecca; Reddy, Shailaja P.
Background Depression and anxiety are two common normal responses to a chronic disease such as glaucoma. This study analysed the measurement properties of the depression screening instrument - Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) using Rasch analysis to determine if it can be used as a measure. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, the PHQ-9 was administered to primary glaucoma adults attending a glaucoma clinic of a tertiary eye care centre, South India. All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation. Patient demographics and sub-type of glaucoma were abstracted from the medical record. Rasch analysis was used to investigate the following properties of the PHQ-9: behaviour of the response categories, measurement precision (assessed using person separation reliability, PSR; minimum recommended value 0.80), unidimensionality (assessed using item fit [0.7–1.3] and principal components analysis of residuals), and targeting. Results 198 patients (mean age ± standard deviation ?=?59.83±12.34 years; 67% male) were included. The native PHQ-9 did not fit the Rasch model. The response categories showed disordered thresholds which became ordered after category reorganization. Measurement precision was below acceptable limits (0.62) and targeting was sub-optimal (?1.27 logits). Four items misfit that were deleted iteratively following which a set of five items fit the Rasch model. However measurement precision failed to improve and targeting worsened further (?1.62 logits). Conclusions The PHQ-9, in its present form, provides suboptimal assessment of depression in patients with glaucoma in India. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new depression instrument for our glaucoma population. A superior strategy would be to use the item bank for depression but this will also need to be validated in glaucoma patients before deciding its utility. PMID:24999659
Richardson, M T; Leon, A S; Jacobs, D R; Ainsworth, B E; Serfass, R
The accuracy of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity (LTPA) Questionnaire (a 1-year survey of non-occupational activity used in MRFIT) was studied in 78 men and women, age 20-59 years, by comparing survey results to the following measures obtained over a year's duration: six 48-hour physical activity records; fourteen 48-hour Caltrac accelerometer readings (Caltrac); 14 administrations of a 4-week version of the LTPA Questionnaire (FWH); 3 VO2peak determinations and percent body fat (% BF). The LTPA Questionnaire demonstrated: weak to moderate associations with % BF (r = -0.24) and with VO2peak (r = 0.47); a weak association with Caltrac readings expressed as MET.minutes.day-1 (r = 0.23); strong associations with corresponding activities reported on the FWH; and moderate associations with total and heavy activities reported in the physical activity record, but no associations with moderate and light activities. Furthermore, several types of LTPA were found to be either under-represented or not currently included in the Minnesota LTPA Questionnaire. It is concluded that although validation results were found to be quite good, several possible refinements were identified, which should improve the accuracy of the Minnesota LTPA Questionnaire in assessing habitual physical activity. PMID:8138837
Martindale, Russell J J; Collins, Dave; Douglas, Carl; Whike, Ally
It is clear that high class expertise and effective practice exists within many talent development environments across the world. However, there is also a general consensus that widespread evidence-based policy and practice is lacking. As such, it is crucial to develop solutions which can facilitate effective dissemination of knowledge and promotion of evidence-based talent development systems. While the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire (Martindale et al., 2010 ) provides a method through which this could be facilitated, its ecological validity has remained untested. As such, this study aimed to investigate the real world applicability of the questionnaire through discriminant function analysis. Athletes across ten distinct regional squads and academies were identified and separated into two broad levels, 'higher quality' (n = 48) and 'lower quality' (n = 51) environments, based on their process quality and productivity. Results revealed that the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was able to discriminate with 77.8% accuracy. Furthermore, in addition to the questionnaire as a whole, two individual features, 'quality preparation' (P < 0.01) and 'understanding the athlete' (P < 0.01), were found to be significant discriminators. In conclusion, the results indicate robust structural properties and sound ecological validity, allowing the questionnaire to be used with more confidence in applied and research settings. PMID:22917218
Giesler, Marianne; Forster, Johannes; Biller, Silke; Fabry, Götz
Introduction: While preparing a graduate survey for medical education in 2008 we realized that no instrument existed that would be suitable to evaluate whether the learning outcomes outlined in the Medical Licensure Act (ÄAppO) would be met. Therefore we developed the Freiburg Questionnaire to Assess Competencies in Medicine (Freiburger Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Kompetenzen in der Medizin, FKM)1 which has been revised and extended several times since then. Currently the FKM includes 45 items which are assigned to nine domains that correspond to the CanMEDS roles: medical expertise, communication, team-work, health and prevention, management, professionalism, learning, scholarship, and personal competencies. Methods: In order to test the reliability and validity of the questionnaire we have repeatedly surveyed medical students and residents since May 2008. In this article we report on the results of a cross-sectional study with 698 medical students from the preclinical and clinical years. In addition, we report the results of a survey of 514 residents who were up to two years into their residency. Results and conclusions: In summary, results show that the scales of the FKM are reliable (Cronbach’s ? between .68 and .97). Significant differences in means between selected groups of students support the measure’s construct validity. Furthermore, there is evidence that the FKM might be used as a screening tool e.g. in graduate surveys to identify weaknesses in the medical education curriculum. PMID:21818241
STARRY, ALLAN R.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO DEVELOP A GENERAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR LIFE HISTORY ITEMS, (2) TO DETERMINE TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY ESTIMATES, AND (3) TO ESTIMATE RESISTANCE TO EXAMINEE FAKING, FOR REPRESENTATIVE BIOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRES. TWO 100-ITEM QUESTIONNAIRES WERE CONSTRUCTED THROUGH RANDOM ASSIGNMENT BY CONTENT AREA OF 200…
The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…
New Mexico, University of
Name of Audit Self-Assessment Questionnaire Audit Number Self-Assessment Questionnaire BD-2 1 of 8 from you so that Internal Audit can effectively determine the correct level and areas of focus of their activity in the upcoming audit of your area. Your input is important and appreciated. Please return
Guerrero-Vargas, Natalí N; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Fuentes, Rebeca; García, Joselyn; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Basualdo, María Del Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Markus, Regina P; Buijs, Ruud M
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives circadian rhythms in behavioral and physiological variables, including the inflammatory response. Shift work is known to disturb circadian rhythms and is associated with increased susceptibility to develop disease. In rodents, circadian disruption due to shifted light schedules (jet lag) induced increased innate immune responses. To gain more insight into the influence of circadian disruption on the immune response, we characterized the inflammatory response in a model of rodent shift work and demonstrated that circadian disruption affected the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) both in vivo and in vitro. Since food consumption is a main disturbing element in the shift work schedule, we also evaluated the inflammatory response to LPS in a group of rats that had no access to food during their working hours. Our results demonstrated that the shift work schedule decreased basal TNF-? levels in the liver but not in the circulation. Despite this, we observed that shift work induced increased cytokine response after LPS stimulation in comparison to control rats. Also, Kupffer cells (liver macrophages) isolated from shift work rats produced more TNF-? in response to in vitro LPS stimulation, suggesting important effects of circadian desynchronization on the functionality of this cell type. Importantly, the effects of shift work on the inflammatory response to LPS were prevented when food was not available during the working schedule. Together, these results show that dissociating behavior and food intake from the synchronizing drive of the SCN severely disturbs the immune response. PMID:26017928
Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Jordán, Antonio; Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema
Soil microbial response after fire is controlled by numerous variables which conclude with a mosaic of results depending on organic carbon alterations or pH fire-induced changes. This fact has complicated the studies focused on post-fire microbial response, compiling high variability of opposite result in the bibliography. Soil laboratory heating cannot emulate a real wildfire effect on soil but lead us the possibility to control several variables and it is a valid tool to clarify the relative weight of different factors controlling microbial response after soil heating. In this preliminary study different heated treatments were applied to unaltered forest soil samples, obtaining 4 different heating treatments to simulate a range of fire intensities: unaltered-control (UH), and soil heated at 300, 450 and 500 °C. In order to isolate possible nutrient availability or pH heating-induced changes, different culture media were prepared using soil:water extract from each heating treatments and adding different supplements to obtain the total of 11 different culture media: unheated soil without supplements (UH-N-), unheated soil with nutrient supplement (UH-N+), soil heated at 300 °C without supplements (300-N-), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement (300-N+), soil heated at 300 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (300-N+pH); soil heated at 450 °C without supplements (450-N-), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement (450-N+), soil heated at 450 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (450-N+); soil heated at 500 °C without supplements (500-N-), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement (500-N+), soil heated at 500 °C with nutrient supplement and pH-buffered (500-N+). Each media was inoculated with different dilutions of a microbial suspension from the original unaltered soil, and the abundance of viable and cultivable microorganisms were measured by plate count method. In addition, the analysis of heating-induced soil organic matter alteration by mean of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) technique was applied to soil samples and soil:water extract in order to obtain a deeper understanding of soil organic matter-microorganisms interaction after fire. Heating effect on soil:water extract media was evident since the number CFU in those media prepared by mean of heated soil was lower than those counted in media prepared with unaltered soil and inoculated with the same dilution. Nutrient addition appear to promote microbial proliferation in unaltered and 300 °C treatments, while nutrient and pH compensation appear to attenuate heating effect in samples heated at 300 and 450 °C. While, media prepared with soil:water extract form soil heated at 500°C showed similar CFU abundance in all supplement treatments. Soil organic matter analyses evidences difference in the pyrogram obtained from each heating treatment sample, with a marked diminution of peaks with increased temperature. This preliminary study shows us the importance of soil organic matter fire-induced alterations in soil microbial response after soil heating process beyond the C content diminution or changes in C availability.
Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo
Dams and water management for hydropower production, agriculture and other human activities alter the natural flow regime of rivers. The new river hydrograph components depend on the type of impoundment and the policy of regulation but such a different flow regime will likely affect the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define sustainable flow releases is to quantify hydrological effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem response. A considerable lack of knowledge still affects the link hydrology-ecology and inadequate flow rules (e.g., minimal or residual flows) are consequently still widespread: further research in this direction is urgently required. We present an experiment, which aims to investigate the effects of different water stage regimes on riparian vegetation (salix Viminalis cuttings) development in a temperate region (Switzerland). This work describes the installation setup, together with the first results concerning the first of the two scheduled seasons of campaign. Sixty Salix cuttings were planted in non-cohesive sandy-gravel sediment within 1 meter tall plastic pots installed outside in the EPFL campus. After grouping them in three batteries, the water level within them has been varying following three river regimes simulated by adjusting the water level within the pots by means of an automatic hydraulic system. The three water level regimes reproduce a natural flow regime, a minimum residual flow policy, which only conserves peaks during flooding conditions, and an artificial regime conserving only low frequencies (e.g., seasonality) of the natural dynamic. The natural flow regime of the first battery has been applied for two months to the entire system; the three regimes above said started in June 2012. This triggered a plant response transitory regime, which we monitored by measuring plant growth, soil and atmospheric variables. Particularly, measures concern with branches development leaves photosynthesis and fluorescence, together with pictures of each plant. Sap flow was measured for thirty cuttings using a time resolution of thirty minutes, whereas psychrometers measuring the water potential were sampling data every fifteen minutes. Soil moisture and meteo data have also been collected as essential drivers of plant response: these data as well as sap flow measurements can be later compared to a similar field installation along Thur River (Switzerland). After the first season of measurement, in 2012, part of the cuttings have been carefully removed and further analyzed as far as the below ground biomass is concerned. Strong differences in terms of stress and growth performances were observed in correspondence of the transitional phase, following the alterations of the natural flow regime. A later adjustment in the roots distribution allowed survivors to re-sprout and to withstand new conditions.
Pirotta, Enrico; Milor, Rachael; Quick, Nicola; Moretti, David; Di Marzio, Nancy; Tyack, Peter; Boyd, Ian; Hastie, Gordon
Some beaked whale species are susceptible to the detrimental effects of anthropogenic noise. Most studies have concentrated on the effects of military sonar, but other forms of acoustic disturbance (e.g. shipping noise) may disrupt behavior. An experiment involving the exposure of target whale groups to intense vessel-generated noise tested how these exposures influenced the foraging behavior of Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) in the Tongue of the Ocean (Bahamas). A military array of bottom-mounted hydrophones was used to measure the response based upon changes in the spatial and temporal pattern of vocalizations. The archived acoustic data were used to compute metrics of the echolocation-based foraging behavior for 16 targeted groups, 10 groups further away on the range, and 26 non-exposed groups. The duration of foraging bouts was not significantly affected by the exposure. Changes in the hydrophone over which the group was most frequently detected occurred as the animals moved around within a foraging bout, and their number was significantly less the closer the whales were to the sound source. Non-exposed groups also had significantly more changes in the primary hydrophone than exposed groups irrespective of distance. Our results suggested that broadband ship noise caused a significant change in beaked whale behavior up to at least 5.2 kilometers away from the vessel. The observed change could potentially correspond to a restriction in the movement of groups, a period of more directional travel, a reduction in the number of individuals clicking within the group, or a response to changes in prey movement. PMID:22880022
Dijkstra, P.; Dalder, J.; Blankinship, J.; Selmants, P. C.; Schwartz, E.; Koch, G. W.; Hart, S.; Hungate, B. A.
C use efficiency (CUE) is one of the least understood aspects of soil C cycling, has a very large effect on soil respiration and C sequestration, and decreases with elevated temperature. CUE is directly related to substrate partitioning over energy production and biosynthesis. The production of energy and metabolic precursors occurs in well-known processes such as glycolysis and Krebs cycle. We have developed a new stable isotope approach using position-specific 13C-labeled metabolic tracers to measure these fundamental metabolic processes in intact soil communities (1). We use this new approach, combined with models of soil metabolic flux patterns, to analyze the response of microbial energy production, biosynthesis, and CUE to temperature. The method consists of adding small but precise amounts of position-specific 13C -labeled metabolic tracers to parallel soil incubations, in this case 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose. The measurement of CO2 released from the labeled tracers is used to calculate the C flux rates through various metabolic pathways. A simplified metabolic model consisting of 23 reactions is iteratively solved using results of the metabolic tracer experiments and information on microbial precursor demand under different temperatures. This new method enables direct study of fundamental aspects of microbial energy production, C use efficiency, and soil organic matter formation in response to temperature. (1) Dijkstra P, Blankinship JC, Selmants PC, Hart SC, Koch GW, Schwarz E and Hungate BA. Probing metabolic flux patterns of soil microbial communities using parallel position-specific tracer labeling. Soil Biology and Biochemistry (accepted)
Lortie, Dominic; Johnson, Sonia; St-Amant, Nadereh; Larivière, Dominic; Tremblay, Germain; Richoz, Danielle; Romiguière, Christophe; Frenette, Etienne; Brown, Jason
The Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks of Québec (Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs du Québec-MDDEP) held a 3-d provincial nuclear emergency response exercise in September 2008 that saw participation from Canadian provincial and federal departments. Nuclear emergency exercises are regularly held in Québec, given the presence of the Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant situated in Bécancour on the St. Lawrence River. The significance of this exercise is that it marks the first exercise held in Canada where environmental samples spiked with relevant radioisotopes were analyzed during the exercise, both on-site and remotely, and where the results of those analyses had a direct impact on the decisions made during the exercise. Following the exercise, samples were sent to two other laboratories that are part of the Canadian National Nuclear Laboratory Network for analysis, providing the first intercomparison exercise for the Network. The results of the analysis of the air and drinking water samples, as well as the lessons learned during the exercise, are presented and discussed in this article. PMID:22470003
Tomoyasu, N; Kenney, N J
The role of palatability, novelty, and food aversion in determining changes of food choice after ablation of the area postrema and caudal-medial aspect of the nucleus of the solitary tract (AP/cmNTS) is examined through a series of studies utilizing 24-h, two-food choice tests. On test days, the food that the animal has ingested since the time of lesioning or sham surgery is presented along with a novel food that varies in palatability. The results indicate that postlesion diet history is the major determinant of food choice by lesioned rats. Lesioned rats consistently take less of their familiar postlesion food than diet-matched controls, suggesting that the lesioned rats have developed an aversion to that food. Over-ingestion of the novel food may occur, but this outcome is not reliable. No indication that the animals' response to food palatability is affected by AP/cmNTS ablation was found. Learned aversion to a food ingested after AP/cmNTS ablation may account not only for changes of food preference after the lesion but also may be involved in the hypophagia and weight loss resulting from the ablation. PMID:2589533
The nonlinear elastic response of suspensions of rigid inclusions in rubber: I--An exact result Polyconvexity Eikonal equation a b s t r a c t A solution is constructed for the problem of the overall elastic response of ideal (Gaussian or, equivalently, Neo-Hookean) rubber reinforced by a dilute isotropic
Sikkes, Sietske A M; Knol, Dirk L; van den Berg, Mark T; de Lange-de Klerk, Elly S M; Scheltens, Philip; Klein, Martin; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J
A decline in everyday cognitive functioning is important for diagnosing dementia. Informant questionnaires, such as the informant questionnaire on cognitive decline in the elderly (IQCODE), are used to measure this. Previously, conflicting results on the IQCODEs ability to discriminate between Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitively healthy elderly were found. We aim to investigate whether specific groups of items are more useful than others in discriminating between these patient groups. Informants of 180 AD, 59 MCI, and 89 patients with subjective memory complaints (SMC) completed the IQCODE. To investigate the grouping of questionnaire items, we used a two-dimensional graded response model (GRM).The association between IQCODE, age, gender, education, and diagnosis was modeled using structural equation modeling. The GRM with two groups of items fitted better than the unidimensional model. However, the high correlation between the dimensions (r=.90) suggested unidimensionality. The structural model showed that the IQCODE was able to differentiate between all patient groups. The IQCODE can be considered as unidimensional and as a useful addition to diagnostic screening in a memory clinic setting, as it was able to distinguish between AD, MCI, and SMC and was not influenced by gender or education. PMID:22882809
Caton, Sue; Starling, Samantha; Burton, Mark; Azmi, Sabiha; Chapman, Melanie
This article reports the results of a postal questionnaire survey carried out to explore the responsiveness and appropriateness of services for people with learning disabilities from minority ethnic communities in the North West of England. Twenty-one learning disability service commissioners or service providers completed the questionnaire.…
Schembre, Susan M; Durand, Casey P; Blissmer, Bryan J; Greene, Geoffrey W
Purpose . Develop and demonstrate preliminary validation of a brief questionnaire aimed at assessing social cognitive determinants of physical activity (PA) in a college population. Design . Quantitative and observational. Setting . A midsized northeastern university. Subjects . Convenience sample of 827 male and female college students age 18 to 24 years. Measures . International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a PA stage-of-change algorithm. Analysis . A sequential process of survey development, including item generation and data reduction analyses by factor analysis, was followed with the goal of creating a parsimonious questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used for confirmatory factor analysis and construct validation was confirmed against self-reported PA and stage of change. Validation analyses were replicated in a second, independent sample of 1032 college students. Results . Fifteen items reflecting PA self-regulation, outcome expectations, and personal barriers explained 65% of the questionnaire data and explained 28.6% and 39.5% of the variance in total PA and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, respectively. Scale scores were distinguishable across the stages of change. Findings were similar when the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire (CBPAQ) was tested in a similar and independent sample of college students (40%; R (2) moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA = .40; p < .001). Conclusion . The CBPAQ successfully explains and predicts PA behavior in a college population, warranting its incorporation into future studies aiming at understanding and improving on PA behavior in college students. PMID:25162324
Background The Living with Pulmonary Hypertension questionnaire (LPH) was adapted from the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire for use in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Study objectives were to confirm the face and content validity, to assess the structure and psychometric properties, and provide guidance for the interpretation of the LPH. Methods A qualitative interview study was conducted with PAH patients in the US (n=12), Germany (n=14) and France (n=12) to evaluate the face and content validity of the LPH. Psychometric validation was performed using blinded data from a double blind, Phase III, clinical trial (n=196). Validation analyses were performed on baseline and week 12 (visit 6/last visit) data and included evaluation of: item response distributions, quality of completion, construct validity, reliability, clinical validity and responsiveness. Analyses to provide an estimation of the Minimal Important Difference (MID) for the LPH scores were performed. Results Cognitive debriefing interviews with 38 PAH patients indicated that the most commonly reported PAH symptoms and impacts are covered by LPH items. Patients found the LPH questionnaire relevant and comprehensive to their experience. Some suggestions were made to enhance the face validity of the LPH. The content validity of the questionnaire was supported. Results of the psychometric validation analyses (n=190) indicated that the LPH Emotional and Physical scores met the criteria for convergent and discriminant validity; for the total score all but two items met the test for item convergent validity. Internal consistency reliability was demonstrated by Cronbach’s alpha values of >0.70 for all LPH scores. The LPH Physical and Total scores discriminated between World Health Organisation (WHO) Functional classes and 6 Minute walk test distances, indicating clinical validity and were also responsive to change in clinical severity, as measured by change in WHO functional class and Borg CR 10 Scale. Further investigation is required to confirm the responsiveness of the Emotional score. Estimation of MID using distribution-based methods indicated a change of 3 points for the sub-scales and 7 for the total score to be clinically meaningful. Conclusion The LPH is a valid and reliable instrument that meets FDA criteria. PMID:24088389
Pawelczyk, James A.; Raven, Peter B.
As manned space travel has steadily increased in duration and sophistication, the answer to a simple, relevant question remains elusive. Does endurance exercise training - high intensity rhythmic activity, performed regularly for extended periods of time - alter the disposition to, or severity of, postflight orthostatic hypotension? Research results continue to provide different views; however, data are difficult to compare because of the following factors that vary between investigations: the type of orthostatic stress imposed (+Gz, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), head-up tilt); pretest perturbations used (exercise, heat exposure, head-down tilting, bed rest, water immersion, hypohydration, pharmacologically-induced diuresis); the length of the training program used in longitudinal investigations (days versus weeks versus months); the criteria used to define fitness; and the criteria used to define orthostatic tolerance. Generally, research results indicate that individuals engaged in aerobic exercise activities for a period of years have been reported to have reduced orthostatic tolerance compared to untrained control subjects, while the results of shorter term longitudinal studies remain equivocal. Such conclusions suggest that chronic athletic training programs reduce orthostatic tolerance, whereas relatively brief (days to weeks) training programs do not affect orthostatic tolerance to any significant degree (increase or decrease). A primary objective was established to identify the alterations in blood pressure control that contribute to training-induced orthostatic hypotension (TIOH). Although any aspect of blood pressure regulation is suspect, current research has been focused on the baroreceptor system. Reductions in carotid baroreflex responsiveness have been documented in exercise-trained rabbits, reportedly due to an inhibitory influence from cardiac afferent, presumably vagal, nerve fibers that is abolished with intrapericardiac denervation. The purpose of this investigation was to attempt to determine if similar relationships existed in men with varied levels of fitness, using maximal aerobic power, VO2 max, as the marker of fitness.
Krabbenhoft, D. P.; St. Louis, V. L.; Harris, R.; Graydon, J. A.; Tate, M. T.
The METAALICUS project is a whole-ecosystem experiment specifically designed to quantify the magnitude and timing of the watershed response to a change in mercury (Hg) loading. A decade ago, when the US and many other countries began to consider Hg-specific emission regulations, many doubted the effectiveness of such actions since terrestrial soils and aquatic sediments were already ubiquitously contaminated, and would potentially sustain mercury loading to aquatic indefinitely. To address this question, a multi-national team of scientists was formed to devise a whole-ecosystem, Hg-dosing study, whereby Hg would be deliberately added to an entire watershed - The Mercury Experiment to Assess Atmospheric Loadings in Canada and the US (METAALICUS) project, conducted at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario, Canada. Whole-ecosystem manipulation studies have a distinct advantage over small-scale (lab scale) studies, in that all the ecosystem components, natural processes and complexities within watersheds are accounted for. This paper focuses on the terrestrial (upland forest and wetland) aspects of METAALICUS project, with particular emphasis on assessing the long-term response to a change in Hg loading. A very unique aspect of the METAALICUS project called for the use of three different stable isotopes to be applied to the lake, forests and wetland, respectively. This experimental approach not only allowed for the direct observation of responses (time and space) to changes in loading, but also provides never before realized resolution of pathways and processes of mercury in a watershed. Mercury additions to the terrestrial components of the watershed were initiated in 2001 and continued through 2006, at a rate of about 5x measured current atmospheric deposition. Since this time, METAALICUS has become a mercury reduction experiment, and thus we have been monitoring of the response to a Hg load cessation. During the loading phase of the project, the majority of the terrestrially applied Hg isotopes were distributed approximately equally among three major compartments: soils, plants (tree canopy and ground vegetation), and losses to emissions from soil and plant surfaces. Much less (about 1%) isotope was measured in runoff that flowed into the downstream lake. With each successive annual dose the isotope pool in soils steadily increased, while the forest canopy and emission fluxes pools had comparatively low carryover from year to year. Within two years of loading cessation, isotope concentrations in canopy and emission fluxes were negligible and about half of the total isotope load was found in soils. Isotope concentrations in runoff gradually increased during the loading phase, and continued to increase for 1-2 years after loading ceased, suggesting significant translocation from compartments above the forest floor. Three years subsequent to cessation, isotope concentrations in soils have remained steady, and generally reflect the Hg abundance of the overall soil pool. Models calibrated to these results will be very useful for scenario testing to evaluate long-term recovery of lakes with significant watershed Hg contributions.
Conijn, Judith M; Emons, Wilco H M; De Jong, Kim; Sijtsma, Klaas
We applied item response theory based person-fit analysis (PFA) to data of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) to investigate the prevalence and causes of aberrant responding in a sample of Dutch clinical outpatients. The [Formula: see text] person-fit statistic was used to detect misfitting item-score patterns and the standardized residual statistic for identifying the source of the misfit in the item-score patterns identified as misfitting. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict person misfit from clinical diagnosis, OQ-45 total score, and Global Assessment of Functioning code. The [Formula: see text] statistic classified 12.6% of the item-score patterns as misfitting. Person misfit was positively related to the severity of psychological distress. Furthermore, patients with psychotic disorders, somatoform disorders, or substance-related disorders more likely showed misfit than the baseline group of patients with mood and anxiety disorders. The results suggest that general outcome measures such as the OQ-45 are not equally appropriate for patients with different disorders. Our study emphasizes the importance of person-misfit detection in clinical practice. PMID:25520211
Top, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Ali; Karabulut, Erdem; Otieno, Ochieng George; Saylam, Melahat; Bak?r, Sevgi; Top, Sümbül
Using of EMR in health services and organizations is steadily increasing for quality improvement, cost effectiveness and performance development. However, no validated national and international instruments (scale, questionnaire, index, and inventory) have assessed the effectiveness, satisfaction, health care savings, patient safety and cost minimization of electronic medical and health systems from the viewpoint and perceptions of nurses in Turkish health services. The perceptions of health care professionals especially physicians and nurses can contribute important information that may predict their acceptance of EMR and desired mode of use for EMR, evaluation performance of EMR thus guiding EMR implementation in hospitals. This article is a report of validation of the instrument to measure nurses' views on the use, quality and user satisfaction with EMR in Turkish health system. Items in the questionnaire were designed and obtained following O.G. Otieno, H. Toyama, M. Asonuma, M. Kanai-Pak, K. Naitoh's questionnaire about Use, Quality and User Satisfaction with EMR systems. Reliability and validity were examined and investigated in terms of responses from 487 nurses from one education hospital in Ankara, Turkey. This study was planned and conducted at a university hospital. The validation process was based on construct validity in this study. The response rate was 74.92%. Cronbach's alphas of three factors (use, quality and satisfaction of EMR) ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. Goodness-of-fit indices from the confirmatory factor analysis showed a reasonable model fit. Results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that ?2 statistic indicated significant result (p?0.001) and model fit was acceptable according to relative ?2 statistic (?2/df?=?2.8?5). Further validation of the instrument could yield positive results in health systems in the different countries. Also further validation and reliability studies could be planned on physicians and other health professionals. PMID:25957164
Background Accurate measurement of the components of physical activity during pregnancy can aid in our understanding of the dose response relationships between physical activity and corresponding perinatal outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a one-week recall questionnaire to assess moderate to vigorous physical activity during pregnancy. Methods To assess concurrent-related validity, 177 pregnant women (median 18 weeks' gestation, interquartile range (IQR) 15 -23) kept a structured diary and wore an accelerometer (Actigraph) for one week. At the conclusion of the week, they completed the Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) physical activity questionnaire over the telephone. To assess evidence for test-retest reliability, 109 pregnant women (median 19 weeks' gestation, IQR 18-27) completed the questionnaire twice over the telephone, within 48 hours apart, recalling the same two time periods. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess evidence for validity and reliability, respectively. Results Comparison of the questionnaire to the structured diary was moderate to substantial (SCC 0.47 to 0.69) for several measures of moderate or vigorous physical activity using either perceived or absolute intensity. Comparison of moderate to vigorous physical activity from the questionnaire (absolute intensity using MET-hours/week) to the accelerometer ranged from 0.12 to 0.23 using SCC for absolute intensity (MET-hours/week) and 0.28 to 0.34 using relative intensity (hours/week) (n = 177). Test-retest reliability was moderate to almost perfect for moderate to vigorous physical activity, with the ICC ranging from 0.56 to 0.82 for both perceived and absolute intensities. Conclusions The PIN3 one-week recall questionnaire assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity in the past week with evidence for reliability and validity. PMID:20302668
Lajunen, Timo; Parker, Dianne; Summala, Heikki
The aim of the present study was to investigate if the original factorial structure of the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) was replicated in Finland and The Netherlands. A postal questionnaire survey of drivers was carried out in Britain, Finland and The Netherlands. Exploratory factor analysis together with target (Procrustes) rotation and factorial agreement indexes were calculated to investigate the applicability of Finnish and Dutch versions of DBQ. Results of the factor comparisons showed that the DBQ four-factor structures found in Finland and The Netherlands were congruent but not perfect with the target structure found in Britain. Reliabilities of the scales were around the same level as in the British data. In addition to the four first-order factors, two second-order factors (deliberate violations and unintentional errors) were found in all three countries which supports the original structure by Reason et al. Issues related to cross-cultural use of traffic behaviour questionnaires are discussed. PMID:14642877
Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Valaitis, Ruta K; Schofield, Ruth; Underwood, Jane; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Baumann, Andrea; Kolotylo, Camille
Learning needs assessment is an important stage of every educational process that aims to inform changes in practice and policy for continuing professional development. Professional competencies have been widely used as a basis for the development of learning needs assessment. The Canadian Community Health Nursing Standards of Practices (CCHN Standards) were released in 2003. However, it is not known whether community health nurses (CHNs) have the educational background to enable them to meet these standards. This article reports on the development of a learning needs assessment questionnaire for CHNs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the consistency of factors underpinning the CCHN Standards. Also, validity and reliability of the questionnaire were evaluated using appropriate techniques. This process resulted in a valid and reliable CHN learning needs assessment questionnaire to measure learning needs of large groups of practitioners, where other forms of measurement cannot be feasibly conducted. PMID:20702683
Alhalaiqa, Fadwa; Masa'Deh, Rami; Batiha, Abdul-Monim; Deane, Katherine
To assess the validity and reliability of the Arabic version of the Beliefs About Medication Questionnaire, a cross-sectional design was used and the data were collected from 605 patients with chronic diseases. The study was conducted between July 2013 and December 2013. The results showed that the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (.71) was satisfactory. There was a significant strong positive correlation between test-retest for the same group subsample, with a correlation coefficient range of .45 to .78. There were no statistically significant differences between retest subgroups and remaining samples in the questionnaire subscales. The percentage of missing value was around 0.03, which confirmed the feasibility of the Arabic version of the questionnaire. These findings suggested that having a culturally acceptable, valid and reliable instrument to identify patients' beliefs toward medication in Jordan will play an important role in tailoring appropriate intervention to enhance patient compliance with their prescribed medication. PMID:25106809
Horneck, G; Eschweiler, U; Reitz, G; Wehner, J; Willimek, R; Strauch, K
Spores of different strains of Bacillus subtilis and the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19 were exposed to selected conditions of space (space vacuum and/or defined wavebands and intensities of solar ultraviolet radiation) in the experiment ER 161 "Exobiological Unit" of the Exobiology Radiation Assembly (ERA) on board of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). After the approximately 11 months lasting mission, their responses were studied in terms of survival, mutagenesis in the his (B. subtilis) or lac locus (pUC19), induction of DNA strand breaks, efficiency of DNA repair systems, and the role of external protective agents. The data were compared with those of a simultaneously running ground control experiment. The survival of spores treated with the vacuum of space, however shielded against solar radiation, is substantially increased, if they are exposed in multilayers and/or in the presence of glucose as protective, whereas all spores in "artificial meteorites", i.e. embedded in clays or simulated Martian soil, are killed. Vacuum treatment leads to an increase of mutation frequency in spores, but not in plasmid DNA. Extraterrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation is mutagenic, induces strand breaks in the DNA and reduces survival substantially; however, even at the highest fluences, i.e. 3 x 10(8) J m-2, a small but significant fraction of spores survives the insolation. Action spectroscopy confirms results of previous space experiments of a synergistic action of space vacuum and solar UV radiation with DNA being the critical target. PMID:11542695
Horneck, G.; Eschweiler, U.; Reitz, G.; Wehner, J.; Willimek, R.; Strauch, K.
Spores of different strains of Bacillus subtilis and the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19 were exposed to selected conditions of space (space vacuum and/or defined wavebands and intensities of solar ultraviolet radiation) in the experiment ER 161 ``Exobiological Unit'' of the Exobiology Radiation Assembly (ERA) on board of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). After the approximately 11 months lasting mission, their responses were studied in terms of survival, mutagenesis in the his (B. subtilis) or lac locus (pUC19), induction of DNA strand breaks, efficiency of DNA repair systems, and the role of external protective agents. The data were compared with those of a simultaneously running ground control experiment. The survival of spores treated with the vacuum of space, however shielded against solar radiation, is substantially increased, if they are exposed in multilayers and/or in the presence of glucose as protective, whereas all spores in ``artificial meteorites'', i.e. embedded in clays or simulated Martian soil, are killed. Vacuum treatment leads to an increase of mutation frequency in spores, but not in plasmid DNA. Extraterrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation is mutagenic, induces strand breaks in the DNA and reduces survival substantially; however, even at the highest fluences, i.e. 3 x 10^8 Jm^-2, a small but significant fraction of spores survives the insolation. Action spectroscopy confirms results of previous space experiments of a synergistic action of space vacuum and solar UV radiation with DNA being the critical target.
Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Craig, James R.; Balow, Nancy; Childers, Robert D.
The Continuous School Improvement Questionnaire (CSIQ) developed by the AEL helps a school staff gauge its performance on six dimensions related to continuous school improvement. Each member of the staff responds to the CSIQ individually. Although results might be used at the district or regional level, the most widely intended unit for applying…
Netemeyer, Richard G.; Williamson, Donald A.; Burton, Scot; Biswas, Dipayan; Jindal, Supriya; Landreth, Stacy; Mills, Gregory; Primeaux, Sonya
Derived shortened versions of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) (S. Hollon and P. Kendall, 1980) using samples of 434 and 419 adults. Cross-validation with samples of 163 and 91 adults showed support for the shortened versions. Overall, results suggest that these short forms are useful in measuring cognitions associated with depression.…
Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn
The goal of the current study was to establish the factor validity of the Questionnaire Assessing School Physical Activity Environment (Robertson-Wilson, Levesque, & Holden, 2007) using confirmatory factor analysis procedures. Another goal was to establish internal reliability and test-retest reliability. The confirmatory factor analysis results…
Craig, Carlton D.; Sprang, Ginny
Objective: The present study provides psychometric data for the Trauma Practices Questionnaire (TPQ). Method: A nationally randomized sample of 2,400 surveys was sent to self-identified trauma treatment specialists, and 711 (29.6%) were returned. Results: An exploratory factor analysis (N = 319) conducted on a randomly split sample (RSS) revealed…
Newsham, G.R.; Tiller, D.K.
Custom software to automatically administer questionnaires on computer screens was installed on computers in four open-plan offices. Five questions related to thermal comfort were presented twice per day for three months. Results indicate that this new method of subjective data collection was successful and efficient: the participants had few complaints about the method of questionnaire delivery, and a substantial literature review demonstrates that the results are comparable with results from other field studies of thermal comfort conducted using different methods. Participants responded to the questionnaire 29% of the occasions on which it could have been presented and took an average of 45 seconds to answer the five questions. Overall, the number of thermal sensation votes indicating thermal acceptability were as predicted by the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard and by the comfort theory on which this standard was based. However, the results indicate a greater sensitivity to temperatures away from the neutral temperature than theory predicts. Only 11% of the variance in thermal sensation vote was explained by indoor air temperature. Approximately 15% of the people modified their clothing in the hour prior to the appearance of the questionnaire, suggesting that clothing modification may be an important mechanism for achieving thermal comfort.
Kopp, Jason P.; Zinn, Tracy E.; Finney, Sara J.; Jurich, Daniel P.
Validity evidence was gathered for the Academic Entitlement Questionnaire (AEQ). After reviewing entitlement literature, items were written to cover the breadth of academic entitlement. Results provide evidence for the substantive, structural, and external aspects of validity of the AEQ. Implications for research and use of the AEQ are discussed.…
Fung, Eliza N; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Allentoff, Alban; Ji, Qin C
Bioanalytical analysis of toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic samples is an integral part of small molecule drugs development and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been the technique of choice. One important consideration is the matrix effect, in which ionization of the analytes of interest is affected by the presence of co-eluting interfering components present in the sample matrix. Hemolysis, which results in additional endogenous components being released from the lysed red blood cells, may cause additional matrix interferences. The effects of the degree of hemolysis on the accuracy and precision of the method and the reported sample concentrations from hemolyzed study samples have drawn increasing attention in recent years, especially in cases where the sample concentrations are critical for pharmacokinetic calculation. Currently, there is no established procedure to objectively assess the risk of reporting potentially inaccurate bioanalytical results from hemolyzed study samples. In this work, we evaluated the effect of different degrees of hemolysis on the internal standard peak area, accuracy, and precision of the analyses of BMS-906024 and its metabolite, BMS-911557, in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. In addition, we proposed the strategy of using the peak area of the stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIL-IS) from the LC-MS/MS measurement as the surrogate marker for risk assessment. Samples with peak areas outside of the pre-defined acceptance criteria, e.g., less than 50% or more than 150% of the average IS response in study samples, plasma standards, and QC samples when SIL-IS is used, are flagged out for further investigation. PMID:25975617
Colonies of nesting wading birds and seabirds were studied at coastal sites in Virginia and North Carolina to determine distances at which birds flushed in response to human intrusion. There were few statistically significant relationships between flushing distances and colony size. Similarly, there were few differences between responses during incubation compared to post-hatching periods.
Background Despite the large number of parenting questionnaires, considerable disagreement exists about how to best assess parenting. Most of the instruments only assess limited aspects of parenting. To overcome this shortcoming, the “Comprehensive General Parenting Questionnaire” (CGPQ) was systematically developed. Such a measure is frequently requested in the area of childhood overweight. Methods First, an item bank of existing parenting measures was created assessing five key parenting constructs that have been identified across multiple theoretical approaches to parenting (Nurturance, Overprotection, Coercive control, Behavioral control, and Structure). Caregivers of 5- to 13-year-olds were asked to complete the online survey in the Netherlands (N?=?821), Belgium (N?=?435) and the United States (N?=?241). In addition, a questionnaire regarding personality characteristics (“Big Five”) of the caregiver was administered and parents were asked to report about their child’s height and weight. Factor analyses and Item-Response Modeling (IRM) techniques were used to assess the underlying parenting constructs and for item reduction. Correlation analyses were performed to assess the relations between general parenting and personality of the caregivers, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) indicators, to establish criterion validity. Multivariate linear regressions were performed to examine the associations of SES indicators and parenting with child BMI z-scores. Additionally, we assessed whether scores on the parenting constructs and child BMI z-scores differed depending on SES indicators. Results The reduced questionnaire (62 items) revealed acceptable fit of our parenting model and acceptable IRM item fit statistics. Caregiver personality was related as hypothesized with the GCPQ parenting constructs. While correcting for SES, overprotection was positively related to child BMI. The negative relationship between structure and BMI was borderline significant. Parents with a high level of education were less likely to use overly forms of controlling parenting (i.e., coercive control and overprotection) and more likely to have children with lower BMI. Based on several author review meetings and cognitive interviews the questionnaire was further modified to an 85-item questionnaire. Conclusions The GCPQ may facilitate research exploring how parenting influences children’s weight-related behaviors. The contextual influence of general parenting is likely to be more profound than its direct relationship with weight status. PMID:24512450
Background Changes in self-concept are an important potential outcome for many interventions for people with long-term conditions. This study sought to identify and evaluate outcome questionnaires suitable for quantifying changes in self-concept in people with long-term conditions, in the context of treatment with acupuncture and Chinese medicine. Methods A literature search was followed by an evaluation of three questionnaires: The Wellbeing Questionnaire W-BQ12, the Patient Enablement Instrument (PEI), and the Arizona Integrative Outcome Scale (AIOS). A convenience sample of 23 people completed the questionnaires on two occasions and were interviewed about their experience and their questionnaire responses. All acupuncturists were interviewed. Results Changes in self-concept were common and emerged over time. The three questionnaires had different strengths and weaknesses in relation to measuring changes in self-concept. The generic AIOS had face validity and was sensitive to changes in self-concept over time, but it lacked specificity. The PEI was sensitive and specific in measuring these changes but had lower acceptability. The sensitivity of the W-BQ12 was affected by initial high scores (ceiling effect) and a shorter timescale but was acceptable and is suitable for repeated administration. The PEI and W-BQ12 questionnaires worked well in combination. Conclusion Changes in self-concept are important outcomes of complex interventions for people with long-term illness and their measurement requires carefully evaluated tools and long-term follow-up. The literature review and the analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the questionnaires is a resource for other researchers. The W-BQ12 and the PEI both proved useful for this population and a larger quantitative study is planned. PMID:16539737
Background While there are numerous instruments for capturing the symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients, there is a lack of questionnaires capable of measuring in detail FMS patients’ participation and social functioning. It was our aim to develop and methodologically test a new patient questionnaire specific to FMS measuring these concepts (the “Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire” FPQ). Methods We first conducted a qualitative prestudy (focus groups, N?=?38) to identify which impairments FMS patients experience in daily life because of their illness. To analyze the data we developed a coding system that contained 10 supercategories and a total of 105 subcategories. Items for the FPQ were developed from the subcategories. The psychometric analysis was done on a sample of N?=?256 FMS patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation in Germany. Results The final version of the FPQ contained 27 items and three scales (participation in social life FPQ-S, 11 items; participation in daily life FPQ-D, 11 items, participation in work-life FPQ-W 5 items). The FPQ displays good distribution properties, all the scales are unidimensional, and the scales fit to the Rasch model. Cronbach’s Alpha range from 0.85 to 0.94. We noted indications of construct validity in that the FPQ correlates as expected with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (physical scale), Pain Disability Index and scales from the PROMIS® item banks for satisfaction with participation. The FPQ scales generally reveal greater responsiveness than other instruments. By linking FPQ items to the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) we demonstrate content validity. Conclusions The FPQ captures participation and social functioning in FMS patients. As its psychometric properties are good, it can be recommended for use in evaluation studies and clinical trials. PMID:23914807
Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Yip, Sallis O.; Wedderburn, Terri S.; Martin, Deanna K.; Li, Fang-Yong; Choi, Jennifer N.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Fried, Terri R.
Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a vulvovaginal symptoms questionnaire (VSQ) to study symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods We developed questionnaire focused on vulvovaginal symptoms based on modifications to the Skindex-16, a validated questionnaire to measure the impact of skin disease. We then recruited postmenopausal women seeking routine gynecologic care to test the psychometric properties of the VSQ. Test-retest reliability was assessed 2 to 4 weeks after their initial recruitment and measured utilizing intra-class coefficients. Four distinct a priori scales of the VSQ were developed: symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual-impact. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the four a priori scales by evaluating the goodness-of-fit of a final confirmatory factor analysis model. The internal consistency of the scales was assessed through the calculation of Cronbach’s ? coefficient. Results The VSQ is a 21-item written questionnaire with four scales, symptoms, emotions, life-impact, and sexual impact. One hundred twenty postmenopausal women participated in the psychometric validation of the VSQ. The test-retest reliability the four scales measured by intra-class coefficients were 0.75, 0.60, 0.55, and 0.65 for symptoms, emotions, life-impact and sexual-impact. The goodness-of –fit of the confirmatory factor response model was confirmed. Cronbach’s ? coefficients were 0.76, 0.87, 0.83, and 0.82 for the scales. Conclusion The VSQ is a reliable and internal consistent instrument to measure vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. PMID:23481118
Wienand, Ulrich; Cinotti, Renata; Nicoli, Augusta; Bisagni, Miriam
Background By means of the ICONAS project, the Healthcare Agency of an Italian Region developed, and used a standardised questionnaire to quantify the organisational climate. The aims of the project were (a) to investigate whether the healthcare institutions were interested in measuring climate, (b) to estimate the range of applicability and reliability of the instrument, (c) to analyse the dimensions of climate among healthcare personnel, (d) to assess the differences among employees with different contractual positions. Methods The anonymous questionnaire containing 50 items, each with a scale from 1 to 10, was offered to the healthcare organisations, to be compiled during ad hoc meetings. The data were sent to the central project coordinator. The differences between highly specialised staff (mostly physicians) and other employees were assessed after descriptive statistical analysis of the single items. Both Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis were used. Results Ten healthcare organisations agreed to partecipate. The questionnaire was completed by 8691 employees out of 13202. The mean value of organisational climate was 4.79 (range 1–10). There were significant differences among single items and between the 2 groups of employees. Multivariate methods showed: (a) one principal component explained > 40% of the variance, (b) 7 factors summarised the data. Conclusion Italian healthcare institutions are interested in assessing organisational phenomena, especially after the reforms of the nineties. The instrument was found to be applicable and suitable for measuring organisational climate. Administration of the questionnaire leads to an acceptable response rate. Climate can be discribed by means of 7 underlying dimensions. PMID:17519007
Miami, University of
Data Request Questionnaire: Name of Requestor: _________________________________ Circle One:_________________________ Telephone: __________________________ Email: _____________________________ What data variables and level?___________________________________________________________________ Describe how will you use the data? By signing this document, you agree to follow the Data Policy outlined
Graham, Erin Collins
The purpose of the studies presented was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ). The author designed the 21-item self-report inventory to assess cognitions, behaviors, and feelings related...
Web Developer, TBD Job Description Questionnaire (JDQ) Professional Staff Instructions What Below to Certify Approval or Disapproval: Approval Disapproval ( ) ( ) TBD, Web Developer Position Title: Web Developer Employee Name: TBD Phone: Supervisor Name & Title: TBD, Production Team
The release of cytokines by T cells defines a significant part of their functional activity in vivo, and their ability to produce multiple cytokines has been associated with beneficial immune responses. To date, time-integrated ...
Ehrhard, R.; Hamilton, G.
recovery mechanisms put in place by the CPUC is discussed, including California’s experience with revenue decoupling, public purpose funds, and avoided cost calculations. Next, the role as energy efficiency (EE) and demand response (DR) program...
Haltigan, John D; Leerkes, Esther M; Burney, Regan V; O'Brien, Marion; Supple, Andrew J; Calkins, Susan D
The current project reports on an initial investigation into the factor structure of the Infant Crying Questionnaire (ICQ), a measure designed to assess parental beliefs about infant crying, in a sample of 259 primiparous mothers. Exploratory factor analyses yielded evidence for a five-factor structure to the ICQ, with two factors that may be conceptually viewed as infant-oriented beliefs regarding infant crying (Attachment/Comfort and Crying as Communication) and three factors conceptually reflecting parent-oriented beliefs regarding infant crying (Minimization, Directive Control, and Spoiling). Each of the scales demonstrated strong internal consistency and was associated with concurrent measures of mothers' causal attributions about emotional responses to infant crying. Predictive validity to observed maternal sensitivity at 6 months and mother-reported infant behavioral problems at one year was demonstrated. The importance of a questionnaire method to assess parents' beliefs regarding infant crying in developmental research is discussed and future methodological directions are outlined. PMID:23007097
Corney, R H; Clare, A W
The construction and testing of a short self-report questionnaire identifying social problems, difficulties and dissatisfactions is described. The questionnaire covers housing, occupation, finance, social and leisure activities, child/parent and martial relationships, relationships with relatives, friends, neighbours and workmates, and legal problems. The results of the administration of the questionnaire in a number of settings are provided and discussed, and a final version is included in the Appendix. PMID:4048322
Horner, Aidan J.; Henson, Richard N.
Stimulus repetition often leads to facilitated processing, resulting in neural decreases (repetition suppression) and faster RTs (repetition priming). Such repetition-related effects have been attributed to the facilitation of repeated cognitive processes and/or the retrieval of previously encoded stimulus-response (S-R) bindings. Although…
Bilinsky, Igor P; Smith, Larry R
This feature contains forward-looking statements subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected. Forward-looking statements include statements about the company's focus, collaborative partners, product candidates, and developmental status. Risks and uncertainties include whether any product candidates will be shown to be safe and efficacious in clinical trials, the timing of clinical trials, whether Vical or its collaborative partners will seek or gain approval to market any product candidates, the dependence of the company on its collaborative partners, and additional risks set forth in the company's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. These forward-looking statements represent the company's judgment as of the date of this release. The company disclaims, however, any intent or obligation to update these forward-looking statements. PMID:25469422
Gross, Sarah; Reck, Corinna; Thiel-Bonney, Consolata; Cierpka, Manfred
The Questionnaire for Crying, Feeding and Sleeping of an infant, constructed based on theory and factor analysis, is assessed for internal consistency, inter-correlations, and its relation to a behaviour diary. A clinical and a non-clinical sample are compared. The sample of in total 704 infants younger than one year consists of different subsamples. To test the differences between a clinical and a non-clinical sample assessed with the questionnaire, data of 134 infants brought to the outpatient unit for parents with their infants and toddlers and a matched sample are used. The principal components analysis results in three well-interpretable scales correlating with each other, which all show a high internal consistency. The connections to the diary records and the differences between the means of the clinical and the non-clinical sample are found in the expected directions. The results of the Questionnaire for Crying, Feeding and Sleeping, including the criterion of Wessel, are consistent with the behaviour diary as well as the clinical diagnostics. The Questionnaire for Crying, Feeding and Sleeping shows validity according to these criteria and can therefore be used in research and clinical practise for the assessment of problems concerning crying, feeding and sleeping in the first year of life. PMID:23802351
Foulkes, Lucy; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Neumann, Craig S.
Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measure of individual differences in the value of different social rewards. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run on an initial set of 75 items (N = 305). Based on this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then conducted on a second sample (N = 505) with a refined 23-item scale. This analysis was used to test a six-factor structure, which resulted in good model fit (CFI = 0.96, RSMEA = 0.07). The factors represent six subscales of social reward defined as follows: Admiration; Negative Social Potency; Passivity; Prosocial Interactions; Sexual Reward; and Sociability. All subscales demonstrated good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Each subscale also showed a distinct pattern of associations with external correlates measuring personality traits, attitudes, and goals, thus demonstrating construct validity. Taken together, the findings suggest that the SRQ is a reliable, valid measure that can be used to assess individual differences in the value experienced from different social rewards. PMID:24653711
Borisow, Nadja; Paul, Friedemann; Ohlraun, Stephanie; Pach, Daniel; Fischer, Felix; Dörr, Jan
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) preferentially affects females at childbearing age. For this reason patients and treating physicians were frequently confronted with questions concerning family planning, pregnancy and birth. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expertise about pregnancy related topics in multiple sclerosis of neurologists in private practice. Methods We developed a survey with 16 multiple choice questions about pregnancy related topics and sent it to neurologists in private practice in Berlin, Germany. Results 56 completed questionnaires were sent back. 54% of all questions were answered correctly, 21% of the questions were answered with “I don’t know”. Correct answers were more often given by physicians who treat more than 400 MS patients per year (p?=?0.001). Further positive associations were found for assumed relevance of the topic (p?=?0.002) and the degree of counseling (p<0.001). Conclusion To provide a comprehensive counseling, MS patients with desire for children should be counseled by physicians with a lot of experience in MS treatment. PMID:24901447
Background Evaluation is a challenging but necessary part of the development cycle of clinical information systems like the electronic medical records (EMR) system. It is believed that such evaluations should include multiple perspectives, be comparative and employ both qualitative and quantitative methods. Self-administered questionnaires are frequently used as a quantitative evaluation method in medical informatics, but very few validated questionnaires address clinical use of EMR systems. Methods We have developed a task-oriented questionnaire for evaluating EMR systems from the clinician's perspective. The key feature of the questionnaire is a list of 24 general clinical tasks. It is applicable to physicians of most specialties and covers essential parts of their information-oriented work. The task list appears in two separate sections, about EMR use and task performance using the EMR, respectively. By combining these sections, the evaluator may estimate the potential impact of the EMR system on health care delivery. The results may also be compared across time, site or vendor. This paper describes the development, performance and validation of the questionnaire. Its performance is shown in two demonstration studies (n = 219 and 80). Its content is validated in an interview study (n = 10), and its reliability is investigated in a test-retest study (n = 37) and a scaling study (n = 31). Results In the interviews, the physicians found the general clinical tasks in the questionnaire relevant and comprehensible. The tasks were interpreted concordant to their definitions. However, the physicians found questions about tasks not explicitly or only partially supported by the EMR systems difficult to answer. The two demonstration studies provided unambiguous results and low percentages of missing responses. In addition, criterion validity was demonstrated for a majority of task-oriented questions. Their test-retest reliability was generally high, and the non-standard scale was found symmetric and ordinal. Conclusion This questionnaire is relevant for clinical work and EMR systems, provides reliable and interpretable results, and may be used as part of any evaluation effort involving the clinician's perspective of an EMR system. PMID:15018620
Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results- tion and climate change are illustrated using six dynamic global vegetation models that explicitly are driven by the IPCC IS92a scenario of rising CO2 (Wigley et al. 1991), and by climate changes resulting
Hurley, Kristen M.; Pepper, M. Reese; Candelaria, Margo; Wang, Yan; Caulfield, Laura E.; Latta, Laura; Hager, Erin R.; Black, Maureen M.
This paper describes the development and validation of a 27-item caregiver-reported questionnaire on toddler feeding. The development of the Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire was based on a theory of interactive feeding that incorporates caregivers’ responses to concerns about their children’s dietary intake, appetite, size, and behaviors rather than relying exclusively on caregiver actions. Content validity included review by an expert panel (n = 7) and testing in a pilot sample (n = 105) of low-income mothers of toddlers. Construct validity and reliability were assessed among a second sample of low-income mothers of predominately African-American (70%) toddlers aged 12–32 mo (n = 297) participating in the baseline evaluation of a toddler overweight prevention study. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s ?: 0.64–0.87) and test-retest (0.57–0.88) reliability were acceptable for most constructs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed 5 theoretically derived constructs of feeding: responsive, forceful/pressuring, restrictive, indulgent, and uninvolved (root mean square error of approximation = 0.047, comparative fit index = 0.90, standardized root mean square residual = 0.06). Statistically significant (P < 0.05) convergent validity results further validated the scale, confirming established relations between feeding behaviors, toddler overweight status, perceived toddler fussiness, and maternal mental health. The Toddler Feeding Behavior Questionnaire adds to the field by providing a brief instrument that can be administered in 5 min to examine how caregiver-reported feeding behaviors relate to toddler health and behavior. PMID:24068792
Watson, Michael; Benford, Penny; Coupland, Carol; Clacy, Rose; Hindmarch, Paul; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Deave, Toity; Kendrick, Denise
Objective To measure the validity of safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards reported on a questionnaire by parents/carers with children aged under 5 years participating in a series of home safety case-control studies. Methods The questionnaire measured safety behaviours, safety equipment use and hazards being used as exposures in five case-control studies. Responses to questions were compared with observations made during a home visit. The researchers making observations were blind to questionnaire responses. Results In total, 162 families participated in the study. Overall agreement between reported and observed values of the safety practices ranged from 48.5% to 97.3%. Only 3 safety practices (stair gate at the top of stairs, stair gate at the bottom of stairs, stairs are carpeted) had substantial agreement based on the ? statistic (k=0.65, 0.72, 0.74, respectively). Sensitivity was high (?70%) for 19 of the 30 safety practices, and specificity was high (?70%) for 20 of the 30 practices. Overall for 24 safety practices, a higher proportion of respondents over-reported than under-reported safe practice (negative predictive value>positive predictive value). For six safety practices, a higher proportion of respondents under-reported than over-reported safe practice (negative predictive value
Pouchot, Jacques; Despujol, Carole; Malamut, Georgia; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Coste, Joël; Cellier, Christophe
Background and Objective Celiac disease (CD) is a common chronic autoimmune disorder. Both the manifestations of the disease and the burden of the compulsory life-long gluten-free diet (GFD) have been shown to be associated with impairment of health-related quality of life. The objectives of this study were to provide a cross-cultural adaptation of the specific quality of life “Celiac Disease Questionnaire” (CDQ) and to analyze its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods A cross-cultural French adaptation of the CDQ (F-CDQ) was obtained according to the revised international guidelines. The questionnaire was administered at baseline to 211 patients with biopsy proven CD followed-up in a single tertiary referral centre. The questionnaire was also administered after 7 days and 6 months. Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Cronbach's alpha and Bland and Altman graphical analysis), validity (factorial structure and Rasch analysis, convergent validity), and responsiveness (effect size) of the F-CDQ were studied. Results The reliability of the F-CDQ was excellent with ICC and Cronbach's alpha coefficients being between 0.79 and 0.94 for the four subscales and the total score. The factorial structure and the Rasch analysis showed that the four dimensions of the original instrument were retained. Correlations with external measures (a generic measure of quality of life, an anxiety and depression instrument, a self-assessed disease severity, and clinical manifestations) were all in the expected direction confirming the validity of the instrument. Responsiveness was studied and effect sizes ?0.20 were demonstrated for most of the subscales for patients who reported improvement or deterioration after 6 months. Conclusion The F-CDQ retains the psychometric properties of the original instrument and should be useful in cross-national surveys and to assess outcome in clinical trials involving patients with CD. PMID:24788794
Rener-Sitar, Ksenija; Petri?evi?, Nikola; ?elebi?, Asja; Marion, Ljubo
Aim To develop Croatian and Slovenian versions of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) Questionnaire. Methods The English original version of the OHIP questionnaire was translated into Croatian (OHIP-CRO14) and Slovenian (OHIP-SVN14) language by a forward-backward translation method. The psychometric properties of the OHIP-CRO14 and OHIP-SVN14 were tested. Concurrent validity was tested on 623 subjects (193 Croatian and 430 Slovenian), test-retest reliability on 115 subjects (55 Croatian and 60 Slovenian), internal consistency on 678 subjects (218 Croatian and 460 Slovenian), and responsiveness on 51 patients (21 Croatian and 30 Slovenian) in demand of treatment (toothache). Results Concurrent validity was confirmed by the association between the OHIP summary scores and self-reported oral health (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.40 to 0.60, P<0.001). Test-retest reliability showed high intraclass correlation (correlation coefficients, 0.79-0.94). Internal consistency showed high Cronbach ? (0.77-0.91). Responsiveness was confirmed by a significant difference between the mean OHIP score at baseline and follow-up (P<0.001 for both Croatian and Slovenian patients) and high effect size in Croatian and Slovenian patients in demand of treatment (3.00 and 0.57, respectively). Conclusion Psychometric properties of OHIP-CRO14 and OHIP-SVN14 render these instruments suitable for the assessment of Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Croatia and Slovenia. PMID:18717001
Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila
Demand response (DR) is an emerging research field and an effective tool that improves grid reliability and prevents the price of electricity from rising, especially in deregulated markets. This paper introduces the definition of DR and Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). It describes the Auto-DR technology utilized at a commercial building in the summer of 2006 and the methodologies to evaluate associated demand savings. On the basis of field tests in a large office building, Auto-DR is proven to be a reliable and credible resource that ensures a stable and economical operation of the power grid.
Background Belarus is an Eastern European country, which has been little studied ethnobotanically. The aim of the study was to compare largely unpublished 19th century sources with more contemporary data on the use of wild food plants. Methods The information on 19th century uses is based on twelve, mainly unpublished, responses to Józef Rostafi?ski’s questionnaire from 1883, and the newly discovered materials of the ethnographer Micha? Federowski, who structured his data according to Rostafi?ski’s questionnaire and documented it with voucher specimens. Rostafi?ski’s questionnaire was concerned mainly with Polish territories, but for historical reasons this also encompassed a large part of Belarus, and we analyzed only the twelve responses (out of the few hundred Rostafi?ski obtained), which concerned the present Belarus. These data were compared with a few 20th century ethnographic sources, and our own 40 interviews and questionnaires from Belarus. Results and discussion 58 taxa of wild food plants used in the 19th century were identified. Some of them are still used in modern Belarus, others are probably completely forgotten. In the 19th century several species of wild greens were widely used for making soups. Apart from Rumex, other wild greens are now either forgotten or rarely used. The list of species used in the 20th and 21st century encompasses 67 taxa. Nearly half of them were mentioned by Rostafi?ski’s respondents. The list of fruit species has not changed much, although in the 19th century fruits were mainly eaten raw, or with dairy or floury dishes, and now apart from being eaten raw, they are incorporated in sweet dishes like jams or cakes. Modern comparative data also contain several alien species, some of which have escaped from cultivation and are gathered from a semi-wild state, as well as children's snacks, which were probably collected in the 19th century but were not recorded back then. Conclusion The responses to Rostafi?ski from 1883 present extremely valuable historical material as the use of wild food plants in Belarus has since undergone drastic changes, similar to those, which have taken place in other Eastern European countries. PMID:23557012
Jambon, B; Le Gal, M; Pilate, C
A questionnaire was devised to assess changes in the quality of life of insomniac patients when treated by a hypnotic. The questionnaire was validated in two groups of patients (60 non-insomniac and 52 insomniac patients). The results of this study confirmed the relevance of the questionnaire and its power to distinguish between the two groups of patients. A second study carried out simultaneously in 58 insomniac patients receiving treatment showed the internal reliability of the questionnaire and its reproducibility after 3 to 5 days. PMID:19698401
James J. Cusick; Gary Ma
Incident Management is a key element of supporting any system. For Internet-based applications this function requires integration of staff, process, and tools to manage responses to integrated system events including carrier network outages or performance impacts, hosted server and infrastructure failures, application errors, and mis-configurations. A detailed description of the origin of the Incident Management approach at Wolters Kluwer is
Yasushi Uematsu; Keisuke Watanabe; Akihiro Sasaki; Motohiko Yamada; Takeshi Hongo
The design wind load for the structural frame of a circular flat roof has been investigated, based on a statistical analysis of the dynamic response to turbulent wind forces. The roof structure is supposed to act like an elastic plate under wind loading. Wind pressures were measured simultaneously at some hundred points on the roof of the model building in
Pearsol, James A.
This paper describes evaluation planning for the Cancer Education Program (CEP) at Ohio State University (OSU). The three-year OSU CEP project was designed as a multidisciplinary cancer education program. A responsive method, which trades off some measurement precision in order to increase the usefulness of the findings, was employed in the…
Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.
Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)
Drago?, D; Ojog, DG; T?n?sescu, MD
Objective. To further evaluate the adequacy of the items in our questionnaire aimed at unraveling the possible correlations between psychological features and internal disorders. This paper is dedicated to the items exploring the individual’s interaction with other people. Method. The items are divided into several subdomains. For each subdomain, we have calculated the correlations between the items of the respective subdomain (inner associations) and with the items in other subdomains (outer associations) by means of chi square test or Fisher exact test as dictated by statistical reasons. We examined the answers from our first 10192 respondents. Results and conclusions. Many inter-item correlations are the consequence of higher or lesser degrees of synonymy. Those within a given subdomain confirm the adequate allocation of items. Those bridging different subdomains may point either to incorrect assignments, or to semantic inclusion relations. Other results are not explicable by semantic similarity, and probably reveal psychological subtleties, such as: most individuals have a sense of undeservedness when badly treated by other people; those easily hurt by insults and humiliations have a propensity to timidity and/or emotivity; the subjects who shun conflicts are more prone to persistent thoughts, brooding people are more sensitive and more prone to conflicts, injustice-indignant people frequently get into conflict although they declare to be bothered by dissent etc. But at the heart of all the PFs in the Interaction-with-other-people domain there seems to be the sense of being undervalued, which should probably be the key issue to be addressed by any therapeutic interventions for diseases psychoemotionally determined by disturbed interpersonal relationships. Abbreviations: PF = psychological feature; Chisq = chi-square; OdRa = odds ratio; OdRaCL = odds ratio confidence limits; ErrProb = probability of error PMID:22514567
Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.
The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.
The Technician Walkthrough questionnaire data set contains information about each household as determined during a walkthrough by trained technicians. The information is from 403 technician walkthrough questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The questionnaire includes...
The Baseline Questionnaire data set provides information about the household using the primary resident (IRN 01) and other residents who chose to participate. The information is from 1106 Baseline Questionnaires for 534 households. The Baseline Questionnaire was administered to...
Muhammad Sohail; Abdur Rashid Khan
In this paper we present the process of Knowledge Elicitation through a structured questionnaire technique. This is an effort to depict a problem domain as Investigation of factors affecting taskforce productivity. The problem has to be solved using the expert system technology. This problem is the very first step how to acquire knowledge from the domain experts. Knowledge Elicitation is one of the difficult tasks in knowledge base formation which is a key component of expert system. The questionnaire was distributed among 105 different domain experts of Public and Private Organizations (i.e. Education Institutions, Industries and Research etc) in Pakistan. A total 61 responses from these experts were received. All the experts were well qualified, highly experienced and has been remained the members for selection committees a number of times for different posts. Facts acquired were analyzed from which knowledge was extracted and elicited. A standard shape was given to the questionnaire for further research as a knowledge learning tool. This tool may be used as a standard document for selection and promotion of employees.
The short scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQR-S; H. J. Eysenck & S. B. G. Eysenck, 1992) is a 48-item personality questionnaire primarily designed to measure an individual's level of extraversion (vs. introversion) and neuroticism. Although L. J. Francis, L. B. Brown, and R. Philipchalk (1992) created the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQR-A), an even briefer version of the EPQR-S, the reliability coefficients of some of the measures have been less than satisfactory (S. Forrest, C. A. Lewis, & M. Shevlin, 2000). Because brevity and reliability are both extremely important, the author of the present study created a briefer version of the EPQR-S, more reliable than the EPQR-A, by making slight alterations in the item content as well as the response format of the EPQR-S. Two hundred and sixty eight participants completed the original EPQR-S and the 24-item newly revised briefer version of the EPQR-S (EPQ-BV) twice. The findings revealed that the EPQ-BV has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. A principal component analysis revealed a solution with factor loadings that accurately reflected the primary measures of the EPQR-S. These findings are discussed in relation to the psychometric properties of the EPQR-A and the original version of the EPQR-S. PMID:16419443
Hamon, A; Mesbah, M
In this paper we present two different statistical approaches to evaluate the psychometric properties of a quality of life questionnaire. First the study of the factorial structure is briefly exposed. Then we present the unidimensional classical models. They are based on the linear relationship between the observed score and the true score. The definition of the reliability was first addressed in this classical framework. Its estimation with the Cronbach alpha coefficient is one important feature of the evaluation of an instrument. More recently, modern response theory gives a better statistical framework to deal with unidimensional latent traits. These models describe the probability of positive answer to an item as a function of the actual value of the latent trait and an item parameter. We expose the principles of the Rasch model: hypothesis, estimations methods and fit tests. Finally practical applications to the validation process of a questionnaire are explored with data from a study of a short French version of the SIP questionnaire. PMID:10673591
Dieringer, Nicholas J; Kukkamma, Lisa; Somes, Grant W; Shorr, Ronald I
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing of pharmaceuticals is controversial, yet effective. Little is known relating patterns of medication use to patient responsiveness to DTC. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected in national telephone survey on knowledge of and attitudes toward DTC advertisements. The survey of 1081 U.S. adults (response rate = 65%) was conducted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Responsiveness to DTC was defined as an affirmative response to the item: "Has an advertisement for a prescription drug ever caused you to ask a doctor about a medical condition or illness of your own that you had not talked to a doctor about before?" Patients reported number of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines taken as well as demographic and personal health information. RESULTS: Of 771 respondents who met study criteria, 195 (25%) were responsive to DTC. Only 7% respondents taking no prescription were responsive, whereas 45% of respondents taking 5 or more prescription medications were responsive. This trend remained significant (p trend .0009) even when controlling for age, gender, race, educational attainment, income, self-reported health status, and whether respondents "liked" DTC advertising. There was no relationship between the number of OTC medications taken and the propensity to discuss health-related problems in response to DTC advertisements (p = .4). CONCLUSION: There is a strong cross-sectional relationship between the number of prescription, but not OTC, drugs used and responsiveness to DTC advertising. Although this relationship could be explained by physician compliance with patient requests for medications, it is also plausible that DTC advertisements have a particular appeal to patients prone to taking multiple medications. Outpatients motivated to discuss medical conditions based on their exposure to DTC advertising may require a careful medication history to evaluate for therapeutic duplication or overmedication. PMID:21942938
Nimish Vakil; Karin Björck; Hans Denison; Katarina Halling; Maria Karlsson; Jean Paty; Debra G Silberg; Anna Rydén
OBJECTIVES:We aimed to develop and validate the Reflux Symptom Questionnaire electronic Diary (RESQ-eD) for use in clinical trials in patients with a partial response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, using methods that meet US Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory standards.METHODS:Patient interviews were performed to elicit new items and evaluate existing items from the Reflux Disease Questionnaire. The instrument's
Graeme Hawthorne; Joanne Mouthaan; David Forbes; Raymond W. Novaco
Background Anger is a key long-term outcome from trauma exposure, regardless of trauma type, and it is implicated as a moderator of response\\u000a to treatment. It therefore seems important that anger is assessed in both epidemiological studies of trauma sequelae and in\\u000a intervention evaluation research. This study explored the measurement properties of a recently investigated anger scale, the\\u000a Dimensions of Anger
Y. Uematsu; M. Yamada; A. Sasaki
The design wind load for a flat roof structure has been investigated based on a statistical analysis of the dynamic response to turbulent wind forces. The subject of this study is a flat long-span roof which covers a low-rise square building with a span\\/height ratio of 3 to 6. The roof structure is supposed to act like an elastic plate
Martin, Cecilia; Navarro, Víctor M.; Simavli, Serap; Vong, Linh; Carroll, Rona S.; Lowell, Bradford B.
The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin plays a critical role in the central transmission of energy balance to modulate reproductive function. However, the neurocircuitry underlying this interaction remains elusive, in part due to incomplete knowledge of first-order leptin-responsive neurons. To address this gap, we explored the contribution of predominantly inhibitory (GABAergic) neurons versus excitatory (glutamatergic) neurons in the female mouse by selective ablation of the leptin receptor in each neuronal population: Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox and Vglut2-Cre;Leprlox/lox mice, respectively. Female Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox but not Vglut2-Cre;Leprlox/lox mice were obese. Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox mice had delayed or absent vaginal opening, persistent diestrus, and atrophic reproductive tracts with absent corpora lutea. In contrast, Vglut2-Cre;Leprlox/lox females exhibited reproductive maturation and function comparable to Leprlox/lox control mice. Intracerebroventricular administration of kisspeptin-10 to Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox female mice elicited robust gonadotropin responses, suggesting normal gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal and gonadotrope function. However, adult ovariectomized Vgat-Cre;Leprlox/lox mice displayed significantly reduced levels of Kiss1 (but not Tac2) mRNA in the arcuate nucleus, and a reduced compensatory luteinizing hormone increase compared with control animals. Estradiol replacement after ovariectomy inhibited gonadotropin release to a similar extent in both groups. These animals also exhibited a compromised positive feedback response to sex steroids, as shown by significantly lower Kiss1 mRNA levels in the AVPV, compared with Leprlox/lox mice. We conclude that leptin-responsive GABAergic neurons, but not glutamatergic neurons, act as metabolic sensors to regulate fertility, at least in part through modulatory effects on kisspeptin neurons. PMID:24760864
This article presents the author's response to the reviews of his book, "The Good Life of Teaching: An Ethics of Professional Practice." He begins by highlighting some of the main concerns of his book. He then offers a brief response, doing his best to address the main criticisms of his argument and noting where the four reviewers (Charlene…
Casa, André Della; Schildknecht, Cornelia Vonlanthen; Winkler-Metzke, Christa; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph
The present contribution presents psychometric findings of a newly developed questionnaire on paternal engagement after parental separation based on a sample of 225 separated or divorced fathers living in the German part of Switzerland. Factor analyses led to the following five dimensions: educational responsibility, cognitive and social support, quality of the emotional relationship, temporal availability, and leisure activities. Internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's Alpha) ranged from .86 to .91. The dimensions reflect significant differences of paternal engagement regarding child custody, living arrangements of the mother, and parental cooperation. These findings clearly indicate that paternal engagement after separation should be considered in a differentiated multidimensional way. PMID:21140584
...responsible for any loss resulting from the conversion of a bearer corpus missing callable... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY CONVERSION OF BEARER CORPORA AND DETACHED BEARER...responsible for any loss resulting from the conversion of a bearer corpus missing...
...responsible for any loss resulting from the conversion of a bearer corpus missing callable... REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY CONVERSION OF BEARER CORPORA AND DETACHED BEARER...responsible for any loss resulting from the conversion of a bearer corpus missing...
Kamtsios, Spiridon; Karagiannopoulou, Evangelia
The purpose of the research was to develop a questionnaire to measure dimensions of academic hardiness in late elementary school children. Questionnaires were distributed to 1474 children. After a set of exploratory factor analyses in studies 1 and 2, the confirmatory factor analysis results provided support for the 9-factor solution which…
Elisabetta D'Agata; Carles Pérez Testor; Manuel Rigo
BACKGROUND: As a result of scientific and medical professionals gaining interest in Stress and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL), the aim of our research is, thus, to validate into Spanish the German questionnaire Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ) (mit Korsett), for adolescents wearing braces. METHODS: The methodology used adheres to literature on trans-cultural adaptation by doing a translation and
Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.
This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…
Thomas, Ruth G.; Bruning, Charles R.
Investigated the stabilities and construct validities of the Career Salience Questionnaire (CS) and the Central Life Interests Questionnaire (CLI) after minor modifications. Results indicated the modified CS and CLI are reliable for experimental use and that the CS and CLI tap different aspects of an "importance of work" construct. (RC)
Background A father’s experience of the birth of his first child is important not only for his birth-giving partner but also for the father himself, his relationship with the mother and the newborn. No validated questionnaire assessing first-time fathers' experiences during childbirth is currently available. Hence, the aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess first-time fathers’ experiences of childbirth. Method Domains and items were initially derived from interviews with first-time fathers, and supplemented by a literature search and a focus group interview with midwives. The comprehensibility, comprehension and relevance of the items were evaluated by four paternity research experts and a preliminary questionnaire was pilot tested in eight first-time fathers. A revised questionnaire was completed by 200 first-time fathers (response rate?=?81%) Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed and multitrait scaling analysis was used to test scaling assumptions. External validity was assessed by means of known-groups analysis. Results Factor analysis yielded four factors comprising 22 items and accounting 48% of the variance. The domains found were Worry, Information, Emotional support and Acceptance. Multitrait analysis confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the domains; however, Cronbach’s alpha did not meet conventional reliability standards in two domains. The questionnaire was sensitive to differences between groups of fathers hypothesized to differ on important socio demographic or clinical variables. Conclusions The questionnaire adequately measures important dimensions of first-time fathers’ childbirth experience and may be used to assess aspects of fathers’ experiences during childbirth. To obtain the FTFQ and permission for its use, please contact the corresponding author. PMID:22594834
Nabak, Andrea C.; Johnson, Rachael Erin; Keuler, Nicholas S.; Hansen, Karen E.
Objective Our objective was to determine whether a questionnaire can identify subjects with vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). Design Subjects completed the vitamin D and sun (VIDSUN) questionnaire and we measured their serum 25(OH)D levels. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire to identify VDI (25(OH)D level <50 nmol/L). Setting Clinical Research Unit, University of Wisconsin-Madison Subjects Postmenopausal women Results We recruited 609 postmenopausal women with a mean ± SD age of 61 ± 6 years, of whom 113 (19%) had VDI. Subjects with VDI were more likely to be Black (17% vs. 2%, p<0.001), heavier (BMI 33±7 kg/m2 vs. 29±7 kg/m2, p<0.001) and less likely to tan in the past year (49% vs. 72%, p<0.001), use sunscreen (57% vs. 72%, p<0.001) or report sun exposure in the last three months. They consumed less vitamin D from supplements (86±210 vs. 188±344 IU/day, p=0.003). In logistic regression models, Black race, BMI, suntan within one year, sun exposure in the past three months, sunscreen use and supplemental vitamin D intake were the most useful questions to identify VDI. From these six items, a composite score ?2.25 demonstrated ?89% sensitivity but ?35% specificity for VDI. Conclusion The VIDSUN questionnaire provides an initial tool to identify postmenopausal women at high or low risk of VDI. Existing studies suggest that inclusion of physical activity and triglyceride levels might improve the performance of the VIDSUN questionnaire. PMID:23870503
Toupin April, Karine; Moher, David; Stinson, Jennifer; Byrne, Ani; White, Meghan; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciarán M.; Rader, Tamara; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter
Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children, but estimates of that use vary widely partly due to the range of questionnaires used to assess CAM use. However, no studies have attempted to appraise measurement properties of these questionnaires. The aim of this systematic review was to critically appraise and summarize measurement properties of questionnaires of CAM use in pediatrics. Study design A search strategy was implemented in major electronic databases in March 2011 and conference websites, scientific journals and experts were consulted. Studies were included if they mentioned a questionnaire assessing the prevalence of CAM use in pediatrics. Members of the team independently rated the methodological quality of the studies (using the COSMIN checklist) and measurement properties of the questionnaires (using the Terwee and Cohen criteria). Results A total of 96 CAM questionnaires were found in 104 publications. The COSMIN checklist showed that no studies reported adequate methodological quality. The Terwee criteria showed that all included CAM questionnaires had indeterminate measurement properties. According to the Cohen score, none were considered to be a well-established assessment, two approached the level of a well-established assessment, seven were promising assessments and the remainder (n?=?87) did not reach the score’s minimum standards. Conclusion None of the identified CAM questionnaires have been thoroughly validated. This systematic review highlights the need for proper validation of CAM questionnaires in pediatrics, which may in turn lead to improved research and knowledge translation about CAM in clinical practice. PMID:22768098
Speyer, Renée; Cordier, Reinie; Kertscher, Berit; Heijnen, Bas J
Introduction. Questionnaires on Functional Health Status (FHS) are part of the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the psychometric properties of English-language FHS questionnaires in adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Methods. A systematic search was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and Embase. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were determined based on the COSMIN taxonomy of measurement properties and definitions for health-related patient-reported outcomes and the COSMIN checklist using preset psychometric criteria. Results. Three questionnaires were included: the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL), and the Self-report Symptom Inventory. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ) proved to be identical to the Modified Self-report Symptom Inventory. All FHS questionnaires obtained poor overall methodological quality scores for most measurement properties. Conclusions. The retrieved FHS questionnaires need psychometric reevaluation; if the overall methodological quality shows satisfactory improvement on most measurement properties, the use of the questionnaires in daily clinic and research can be justified. However, in case of insufficient validity and/or reliability scores, new FHS questionnaires need to be developed using and reporting on preestablished psychometric criteria as recommended in literature. PMID:24877095
Stewart, Chris; Kirisci, Levent; Long, Abigail L; Giancola, Peter R
Neglect poses a significant risk for children throughout their development and is often linked with serious consequences that reach into adulthood. The Child Neglect Questionnaire (CNQ) fills existing gaps by incorporating multiple perspectives from both parents and the child, as well as measuring the complex phenomenon of neglect multidimensionally. Furthermore, this measure addresses the need for an instrument specifically developed for late childhood (ages 10-12), as much of the extant evidence and corresponding measures focus on young children and their mothers. A panel of three psychologists, using Cicchetti's model of child neglect as a theoretical guide, began by selecting items from an existing database. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory demonstrated the unidimensionality of physical, emotional, educational, and supervision neglect as well as a second-order construct of child neglect. Analyses controlling for risk status due to father's substance use disorder, socioeconomic status, and child's ethnicity demonstrated that father's and mother's (parental) neglect, particularly in the child's versions, had sound concurrent and predictive validity. Concurrently, at age 10-12, the child's version of both parents' neglect correlated with their parenting behaviors evaluated by other available measures. Prospectively, from 10-12 years of age to 11-13 years of age, parental neglect predicted child's drug use frequency with coexisting psychological dysregulation, psychiatric symptoms, antisocial behavior, non-normative sexual behavior, involvement with deviant peers and leisure activities thus demonstrating sound predictive validity. Also, internal consistency and inter-rater reliability were excellent. The CNQ, particularly the child's version, may thus be useful for detecting children at high risk for parental neglect. PMID:25535250
Freeman, Elizabeth W; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L
Free-ranging African elephants are highly social animals that live in a society where age, size, kinship, and disposition all contribute to social rank. Although captive elephant herds are small and largely comprises of unrelated females, dominance hierarchies are common. The goal of this study was to delineate how the behavior of captive female African elephants varies with respect to age and social rank based on a combination of keeper questionnaires and behavioral observations. "Body movements" and "trunk to" behaviors of 33 nonpregnant female African elephants housed at 14 North American zoos were recorded over 8 hr. Keepers at each facility also rated each elephant based on a series of questions about interactions with herdmates. The assessment of social rank based on observations correlated strongly with ranks assigned by keepers via the questionnaires. Observations and questionnaire responses indicated that body weight of the female, and to a lesser extent age, were significantly related to rates and types of "body movements" and that these demographic factors dictate the captive elephant hierarchy, similar to that observed in the wild. Many of the observed "body movements," such as back away, displace, push, and present, were correlated with keeper questionnaire responses about elephant interactions. However, none of the "trunk to" behaviors were related to age, size, or questionnaire responses even though they occurred frequently. In conclusion, we demonstrated that short-term behavioral observations and keeper questionnaires provided similar behavioral profiles for female African elephants housed in North American zoos. PMID:19434684
Nyström, Sofia N; Bourges, Dorothée; Garry, Sarah; Ross, Ellen M; van Driel, Ian R; Gleeson, Paul A
Depletion of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) in adults results in chronic inflammation and autoimmune disease. However, the impact of transient Treg-cell depletion on self-reactive responses is poorly defined. Here, we studied the effect of transient depletion of Treg cells on CD4(+) T-cell responses to endogenous self-antigens. Short-term ablation of Treg cells in mice resulted in rapid activation of CD4(+) T cells, increased percentage of IFN-?(+) and Th17 cells in lymphoid organs, and development of autoimmune gastritis. To track self-reactive responses, we analyzed the activation of naïve gastric-specific CD4(+) T cells. There was a dramatic increase in proliferation and acquisition of effector function of gastric-specific T cells in the stomach draining LNs of Treg-cell-depleted mice, compared with untreated mice, either during Treg-cell depletion or after Treg-cell reconstitution. Moreover, the hyperproliferation of gastric-specific T cells in the Treg-cell-ablated mice was predominantly antigen-dependent. Transient depletion of Treg cells resulted in a shift in the ratio of peripheral:thymic Treg cells in the reemerged Treg-cell population, indicating an altered composition of Treg cells. These findings indicate that transient Treg-cell depletion results in ongoing antigen-driven self-reactive T-cell responses and emphasize the continual requirement for an intact Treg-cell population. PMID:25231532
The response of an Eastern Amazonian rain forest to drought stress: results and modelling analyses ecosystem models of drought stress tested in Amazonia. Inclusion of deeper rooting should lead to lower soil drought or `throughfall exclusion' (TFE) experiment was established at a rain forest site
Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Fan, Xitao; Chiu, Yu-Jen; You, Wenyi
This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental study on the contribution of the Responsive Classroom ("RC") Approach to elementary school children's reading and math performance over one-, two-, and three-year periods. All children enrolled in six schools (3 intervention and 3 control schools in a single district) were the participants in…
Choi, Byeong Seon; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Ji Yoon
Background Although bone marrow (BM) or mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is frequently used as the source of hematopoietic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using cord blood (CB) is gradually gaining popularity in many countries. However, BM or PB is still preferred over CB in Korea. Therefore, we tried to assess the awareness of CB transplantation (CBT) among domestic HSCT physicians and develop strategies for boosting its utilization by administering questionnaires to some of these physicians. Methods A direct questionnaire survey was conducted using the "Audience Response System" among 301 members who attended the annual meeting of the Korean Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The data were analyzed for only 67 board certified physicians who were directly involved in HSCT activities. Results The poor outcomes resulting from insufficient experience in CBT was designated by the physicians as the main reason for the low domestic implementation of HSCT using CB. Other reasons identified in the survey were distrust in the quality and management of domestic CB and the high cost of obtaining CB. Conclusion Increasing the use of donated CB would foremost require increasing the inventory of donated CB containing a sufficient cell number for CBT and securing structured quality control of the CB banks. In addition, it would be necessary to minimize CB supply costs and continue to provide academic data, including CBT guidelines, so that clinicians could perform CBT with more confidence. PMID:25548755
DRUG STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PROGRAM DIRECTOR:______________________________________ DATE and/or efficacy of a drug? A. If yes, is the testing, study, evaluation or research primarily for use in pharmaceutical pre-market clearance applications to the Food and Drug Administration? 2. Is drug administered
Hang Li; Kenji Yamanishi
Surveys are an important part of marketing and customer relationship management, and open answers (i.e., answers to open questions) in particular may contain valuable information and provide an important basis for making business decisions. We have developed a text mining system that provides a new way for analyzing open answers in questionnaire data. The product is able to perform the
Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting l...
Resource Purpose: This information acquired via the questionnaire is used to support development of the effluent guidelines for the Iron and Steel Point Source Category (40CFR Part 420). One of the statutory decision criteria for the adoption of a best available treatment t...
The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.
Simonton, Linda J.; Haugland, S. M.
A diagnostic evaluation for a person with suspected Alzheimer's disease is usually initiated by family members whose concerns go beyond strictly medical issues. To determine precisely what questions families want answered, a 15-point questionnaire was developed at a multi-disciplinary geriatric assessment clinic. Caregivers were asked to rate each…
National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.
This publication contains the questionnaires used by the U.S. Bureau of the Census to conduct the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the Private School Universe Survey (PSS) for the National Center for Education Statistics. SASS is a mail survey of schools, teachers, principals, and school district administrators. The PSS is a data…
Duan, Wenjie; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Bai, Yu; Tang, Xiaoqing
Objectives: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ). The reliability, factor structure, construct validity, and temporal stability of the inventory were examined. Method: A university student sample ("n" = 878) and a working adult sample ("n" = 153) were recruited.…
Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd
The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…
Matthews, Kenneth M.; Brown, Carvin L.
The Student Achievement Diagnostic Questionnaire (SADQ) is described as measuring: (1) student self concept of ability in English, mathematics, science, and social studies; (2) student attitudes toward their teachers in each of the subjects; (3) student perception of the expectations these teachers have for student achievement in these subjects;…
Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.
The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…
Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.
The psychometric properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) are evaluated using a clinical sample of children with selective mutism (SM). The study shows that SMQ is useful in determining the severity of a child's nonspeaking behaviors, the scope of these behaviors and necessary follow up assessment.
activity? 6. Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs (i.e. water pills) for your blood pressure-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire) YES NO 1. Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor? 2. Do you feel pain
Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold
Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users. PMID:24469338
Immunization Screening Questionnaire Student Health Center If Patient is a Minor (17 years old diagnosed with cancer, leukemia, AIDS or other disease causing immune system problems or any neurological disorder, or were you born with immune system problems? Specify: 4. Are you allergic to the preservative
INDOOR AIR QUALITY QUESTIONNAIRE HUMAN RESOURCES FORM Risk and Compliance | One Washington Square THE AIR QUALITY ISSUE AND LOCATION Name: Date: Department: Phone No: Work Location: Suspected Air Quality, humidity, drafts, stagnant air, odors)? Is there a history of flooding or water damage? If so, please list
Zijlstra, Wobbe P.; Van Der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas
Classical methods for detecting outliers deal with continuous variables. These methods are not readily applicable to categorical data, such as incorrect/correct scores (0/1) and ordered rating scale scores (e.g., 0,..., 4) typical of multi-item tests and questionnaires. This study proposes two definitions of outlier scores suited for categorical…
Minnesota, University of
MINNESOTA STATE GRANT QUESTIONNAIRE RETURN FORM: BY MAIL TO: Office of Student Finance 20 Fraser of Minnesota is an equal opportunity employer and educator. This form is printed on paper made from no less for the Minnesota State Grant. Will you be receiving Wisconsin, South Dakota, North Dakota, or Michigan reciprocity
Minnesota, University of
MINNESOTA STATE GRANT QUESTIONNAIRE RETURN FORM: BY MAIL TO: Office of Student Finance 20 Fraser-625-9578. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity employer and educator. This form is printed on paper made are not eligible for the Minnesota State Grant. Will you be receiving Wisconsin, South Dakota, North Dakota
Parodi, S.; Taningher, M. (Universita di Genova (Italy)); Lutz, W.K. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Colacci, A.; Mazzullo, M.; Grilli, S. (Universita di Bologna (Italy))
Considering the very large industrial usage of benzene, studies in risk assessment aimed at the evaluation of carcinogenic risk at low levels of exposure are important. Animal data can offer indications about what could happen in humans and provide more diverse information than epidemiological data with respect to dose-response consideration. The authors have considered experiments investigating metabolism, short-term genotoxicity tests, DNA adduct formation, and carcinogenicity long-term tests. According to the different experiments, a saturation of benzene metabolism and benzene effects in terms of genotoxicity seems evident above 30 to 100 ppm. Below 30 to 60 ppm the initiating effect of benzene seems to be linear for a large interval of dosages, at least judging from DNA adduct formation. Potential lack of a promoting effect of benzene (below 10 ppm) could generate a sublinear response at nontoxic levels of exposure. This possibility was suggested by epidemiological data in humans and is not confirmed or excluded by their observations with animals.
Uehara, Takanori; Ikusaka, Masatomi; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ohta, Mitsuyasu; Noda, Kazutaka; Tsukamoto, Tomoko; Takada, Toshihiko; Miyahara, Masahito
Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy of diseases predicted from patient responses to a simple questionnaire completed prior to examination by doctors with different levels of ambulatory training in general medicine. Participants and methods Before patient examination, five trained physicians, four short-term-trained residents, and four untrained residents examined patient responses to a simple questionnaire and then indicated, in rank order according to their subjective confidence level, the diseases they predicted. Final diagnosis was subsequently determined from hospital records by mentor physicians 3 months after the first patient visit. Predicted diseases and final diagnoses were codified using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. A “correct” diagnosis was one where the predicted disease matched the final diagnosis code. Results A total of 148 patient questionnaires were evaluated. The Herfindahl index was 0.024, indicating a high degree of diversity in final diagnoses. The proportion of correct diagnoses was high in the trained group (96 of 148, 65%; residual analysis, 4.4) and low in the untrained group (56 of 148, 38%; residual analysis, ?3.6) (?2=22.27, P<0.001). In cases of correct diagnosis, the cumulative number of correct diagnoses showed almost no improvement, even when doctors in the three groups predicted ?4 diseases. Conclusion Doctors who completed ambulatory training in general medicine while treating a diverse range of diseases accurately predicted diagnosis in 65% of cases from limited written information provided by a simple patient questionnaire, which proved useful for diagnosis. The study also suggests that up to three differential diagnoses are appropriate for diagnostic prediction, while ?4 differential diagnoses barely improved the diagnostic accuracy, regardless of doctors’ competence in general medicine. If doctors can become able to predict the final diagnosis from limited information, the correct diagnostic outcome may improve and save further consultation hours. PMID:24353436
Foucaud, Simon; Michon, Guilhem; Morlier, Joseph; Gourinat, Yves
Inner ear is a remarkable multiphysical system and its modelling is a great challenge. The approach used in this paper aims to reproduce physic with a realistic description of the radial cross section of the cochlea. A 2D-section of the organ of Corti is fully described. Wavenumbers and corresponding modes of propagation are calculated taking into account passive structural responses. The study is extended to six cross sections of the organ of Corti and a large frequency bandwidth from 100 Hz to 3 kHz. Dispersion curves reveal the influence of fluid structure interactions with a dispersive behavior at high frequencies. Longitudinal mechanical coupling provides new interacting modes of propagation.
NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen. The results appeared in the November 2013 issue of Cancer Prevention Research.
ZIKMUND-FISHER, Brian J.; FAGERLIN, Angela; KEETON, Kristie; UBEL, Peter A.
Objective We tested whether adding interpretive labels (e.g., “negative test”) to prenatal genetic screening test results changes perceived risk and preferences for amniocentesis. Study Design Women (N=1,688) completed a hypothetical pregnancy scenario via the Internet. We randomized participants into two groups: high (12.5/1000) risk of fetal chromosomal problems or low (2/1000) risk. After prenatal screening, estimated risk was identical (5/1000) for all participants, but results were provided either alone or with interpretive labels. Results When receiving test results without labels, all participants react similarly. With labels, participants receiving “positive” or “abnormal” results reported higher perceived risk (p<0.001), greater worry (p<0.001), and greater interest in amniocentesis (57% vs. 37%, p<0.001) than those receiving “negative” or “normal” results. Conclusions Interpretive labels for test results can induce larger changes to women’s risk perceptions and behavioral intentions than numerical results alone do, creating decision momentum. This finding has broad clinical implications for patient-provider communication. PMID:17880902
Bedangadas Mohanty; for the STAR Collaboration
We report new STAR results on the consequences of highly energetic partons propagating through the medium formed in heavy ion collisions using correlations as an experimental probe. The recent results providing insights about color factor effects and path length dependence of parton energy loss, system size dependence of di-hadron fragmentation functions, conical emission and ridge formation in heavy ion collisions are presented.
Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp
Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677
Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp
Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1?/? mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1?/? mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1?/? callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677
Nahas, Gabriel G.
A pleasant sensory perception (PSP), the high of THC or of marihuana consumption, is a consistent functional response to this drug only manifested by man, and which occurs concurrently with an increased heart rate. However, it has not been possible to relate consistently magnitude and duration of these functional markers to THC plasma concentration, whatever the route of administration. A re-analysis of all the available clinical and experimental data reporting the pharmacokinetics and storage of THC in tissues in function of time, have indicated that the discrepancies between functional responses and plasma molecular THC concentration may be accounted for by the pharmacokinetics of THC. The instant uptake and unlimited storage of THC by neutral fat limits the molecular concentration of the drug present in the plasma to a level which does not exceed 6 x 10(14) molecules/ml. The physicochemical nature of the membrane lipid bilayer (of the blood-brain barrier) will restrict the access of THC into the bilayer receptors and its: reactive enzymes. The PSP and increased heart rate of marihuana is correlated with the molecular concentration of THC in the bilayer (blood-brain barrier) of the order of 10(12)-10(14) molecules/ml. This number in turn would be related to the number of functional THC receptor sites in the lipid bilayer. THC would exert its functional properties on PSP and heart rate through a molecular transmission to specific receptor site and bilipid layer physicochemical interations. Rapid uptake and slow release of THC in fat associated with a rate-limited uptake into brain may be a general philogenetic mechanism which would protect brain function from prolonged exposure to xenobiotics like THC and other fat soluble drugs. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:12404577
McKinley, R. K.; Manku-Scott, T.; Hastings, A. M.; French, D. P.; Baker, R.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable, valid measure of patient satisfaction with out of hours care suitable for large scale service evaluation. DESIGN: Focus group meetings and semistructured interviews with patients to identify issues of importance to patients and possible questionnaire items; interviews and two pilot studies to test and identify new questionnaire items; modification or removal of items to eliminate ambiguity and reduce non-response and skewed responses; questionnaire survey of out of hours care. SETTING: Greater Manchester and Leicester. SUBJECTS: 11 general practice patients participated in the focus groups and 28 in the semistructured interviews; 41 in the preliminary interviews; 41 and 378 in the postal pilots; and 1466 in the survey of out of hours care. RESULTS: A 32 item questionnaire was developed. Component analysis indicated seven scales (satisfaction with communication and management, doctor's attitude, continuity of care, delay until visit, access to out of hours care, initial contact person, telephone advice) related to overall satisfaction and containing issues identified as important to patients. Levels of reliability were satisfactory, Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient exceeding 0.60 for all scales. CONCLUSION: A reliable, valid measure of patient satisfaction has been developed, suitable for large scale evaluation of out of hours care. PMID:9022436
Caudill, Mitchell T; Spear, Eliza L; Varian-Ramos, Claire W; Cristol, Daniel A
Dietary mercury exposure is associated with suppressed immune responsiveness in birds. This study examined the immune-responsiveness of domestic zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) experimentally exposed to mercury through their diet. We used the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling test to assay the effect of two modes of mercury exposure. Some finches received exposure to mercury only after reaching sexual maturity, while others were maintained on a mercury-dosed diet throughout life, including development. Each bird received one of five dietary concentrations of methylmercury cysteine (0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 or 2.4 ppm). In contrast to a study on wild songbirds at a mercury-contaminated site, we detected no relationship between mercury level and immunological response to PHA, regardless of mode of exposure. This result represents the first major difference found by our laboratory between wild birds exposed to environmental mercury and captive birds experimentally exposed to mercury. PMID:25638440
Terry, Alvin V.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Beck, Wayne D.; Vandenhuerk, Leah; Sinha, Samantha; Bouchard, Kristy; Schade, Rose; Waller, Jennifer L.
Organophosphate (OP)-based chemicals are used worldwide for many purposes and they have likely saved millions of people from starvation and disease. However, due to their toxicity they can also pose a significant environmental risk. While considerable research has focused on the acute symptoms and long-term consequences of overtly toxic exposures to OPs, less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures to levels that are not associated with acute symptoms (subthreshold exposures). There is clinical evidence indicating that this type of OP exposure can lead to prolonged deficits in cognition; however only a few studies have addressed this issue prospectively in animal models. In this study, repeated subthreshold exposures to the OP nerve agent diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) were evaluated in a 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5C-SRTT), an animal model of sustained attention. Adult rats were trained to stably perform the 5C-SRTT and then injected subcutaneously with vehicle or DFP 0.5 mg/kg every other day for 30 days. Behavioral testing occurred daily during the DFP-exposure period and throughout a 45 day (OP-free) washout period. Compared to vehicle-treated controls, DFP-treated rats exhibited deficits in accuracy, increases in omissions and timeout responses during the OP exposure period, while no significant effects on premature responses, perseverative responses, or response latencies were noted. While the increase in timeout responses remained detectible during washout, all other DFP-related alterations in 5C-SRTT performance abated. When the demands of the task were increased by the presentation of variable intertrial intervals, premature responses were also elevated in DFP-treated rats during the washout period. These results indicate that repeated exposures to subthreshold doses of DFP lead to reversible impairments in sustained attention as well as persistent impairments of inhibitory response control in rats. PMID:24819591
Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Sharif, Tanveer; Chisholm, Kenneth; Pinto, Devanand M; Gujar, Shashi A; Lee, Patrick Wk
Dysregulation of Ras signaling is the major cause of various cancers. Aberrant Ras signaling, however, provides a favorable environment for many viruses, making them suitable candidates as cancer-killing therapeutic agents. Susceptibility of cancer cells to such viruses is mainly due to impaired type I interferon (IFN) response, often as a result of activated Ras/ERK signaling in these cells. In this study, we searched for cellular factors modulated by Ras signaling and their potential involvement in promoting viral oncolysis. We found that upon Ras transformation of NIH-3T3 cells, the N-terminus of Nogo-B (reticulon 4) was proteolytically cleaved. Interestingly, Nogo knockdown (KD) in non-transformed and Ras-transformed cells both enhanced virus-induced IFN response, suggesting that both cleaved and uncleaved Nogo can suppress IFN response. However, pharmacological blockade of Nogo cleavage in Ras-transformed cells significantly enhanced virus-induced IFN response, suggesting that cleaved Nogo contributes to enhanced IFN suppression in these cells. We further showed that IFN suppression associated with Ras-induced Nogo-B cleavage was distinct from but synergistic with that associated with an activated Ras/ERK pathway. Our study therefore reveals an important and novel role of Nogo-B and its cleavage in the suppression of anti-viral immune responses by oncogenic Ras transformation. PMID:25946643
... NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV ( ...
Lewis, Stephen P; Santor, Darcy A
Understanding the reasons for self-harm (SH) may be paramount for the identification and treatment of SH behavior. Presently, the psychometric properties for SH reason questionnaires are generally unknown or tested only in non-inpatient samples. Existing inpatient measures may have limited generalizability and do not examine SH apart from an explicit intent to die. The present study examined a newly developed, self-report measure of reason for self-harm. The Self-Harm Reasons Questionnaire (SHRQ) was administered to 143 undergraduate students. Results indicated that SH reasons covaried in meaningful and internally consistent ways, with subgroups of SH reasons correlating with hypothesized concomitants of SH, such as depressive symptoms. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention and the SHRQ offers a new, albeit preliminary, means by which to examine SH reasons in a non-inpatient sample. PMID:18355112
Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Dummett, Sarah; Dawson, Jill; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Morley, David
Purpose The Oxford Participation and Activities Questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure in development that is grounded on the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The study reported here aimed to inform and generate an item pool for the new measure, which is specifically designed for the assessment of participation and activity in patients experiencing a range of health conditions. Methods Items were informed through in-depth interviews conducted with 37 participants spanning a range of conditions. Interviews aimed to identify how their condition impacted their ability to participate in meaningful activities. Conditions included arthritis, cancer, chronic back pain, diabetes, motor neuron disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and spinal cord injury. Transcripts were analyzed using the framework method. Statements relating to ICF themes were recast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n=13) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results ICF themes relevant to activities and participation in everyday life were explored, and a total of 222 items formed the initial item pool. This item pool was refined by the research team and 28 generic items were mapped onto all nine chapters of the ICF construct, detailing activity and participation. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, items, and response options were acceptable to participants. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 28 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. A large-scale postal survey will follow in order to refine the instrument further and to assess its psychometric properties. The final instrument is intended for use in clinical trials and interventions targeted at maintaining or improving activity and participation. PMID:26056503
Guo, Tian; Smith, Jordan W; Leung, Yu-Fai; Seekamp, Erin; Moore, Roger L
This research examined the determinants of responsible hiking behavior through a lab-based experiment in which two managerial factors believed to influence individuals' behavior (the presentation of an educational message and the method of displaying degraded trail conditions) were varied across four experimental treatments in a 2 × 2 between subjects factorial design. The effect of trail degradation type (muddiness and erosion) and severity (moderate or severe) of trail degradation were also examined within each of the 4 treatment groups. Analyses revealed neither the educational message nor the method of displaying the image had a consistent and expected impact on individuals' behavioral intentions. In fact, participants who viewed the educational message were more likely to indicate they would hike off the trail. The effects of both trail degradation type and severity were consistent and significant with muddiness and more severe levels of degradation having a greater influence on individuals' intent to hike on the edge of or off the trail. The analyses also revealed both gender and hiking frequency had significant effects on behavioral intentions. Female participants were more likely to indicate they would turn around than males when they encountered degraded trail sections. Women were also less likely to indicate they would hike off the trail than men. Collectively, these findings highlight a variety of ways recreation resource managers can more efficiently inform recreationists about the impacts of off-trail hiking and prioritize trail management needs. PMID:25900602
Guo, Tian; Smith, Jordan W.; Leung, Yu-Fai; Seekamp, Erin; Moore, Roger L.
This research examined the determinants of responsible hiking behavior through a lab-based experiment in which two managerial factors believed to influence individuals' behavior (the presentation of an educational message and the method of displaying degraded trail conditions) were varied across four experimental treatments in a 2 × 2 between subjects factorial design. The effect of trail degradation type (muddiness and erosion) and severity (moderate or severe) of trail degradation were also examined within each of the 4 treatment groups. Analyses revealed neither the educational message nor the method of displaying the image had a consistent and expected impact on individuals' behavioral intentions. In fact, participants who viewed the educational message were more likely to indicate they would hike off the trail. The effects of both trail degradation type and severity were consistent and significant with muddiness and more severe levels of degradation having a greater influence on individuals' intent to hike on the edge of or off the trail. The analyses also revealed both gender and hiking frequency had significant effects on behavioral intentions. Female participants were more likely to indicate they would turn around than males when they encountered degraded trail sections. Women were also less likely to indicate they would hike off the trail than men. Collectively, these findings highlight a variety of ways recreation resource managers can more efficiently inform recreationists about the impacts of off-trail hiking and prioritize trail management needs.
Krauss, S; Veronig, A M; Baur, O; Lammer, H
For the period July 2003 to August 2010, the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) catalogue maintained by Richardson and Cane lists 106 Earth-directed events, which have been measured in-situ by plasma and field instruments onboard the ACE satellite. We present a statistical investigation of the Earth's thermospheric neutral density response by means of accelerometer measurements collected by the GRACE satellites, which are available for 104 ICMEs in the data set, and its relation to various geomagnetic indices and characteristic ICME parameters such as the impact speed, southward magnetic field strength (Bz). The majority of ICMEs causes a distinct density enhancement in the thermosphere, with up to a factor of eight compared to the pre-event level. We find high correlations between ICME Bz and thermospheric density enhancements (~0.9), while the correlation with the ICME impact speed is somewhat smaller (~0.7). The geomagnetic indices revealing the highest correlations are Dst and SYM-H (~0.9), the l...
Sioud, Mouldy; Mobergslien, Anne; Sæbøe-Larssen, Stein
Over the past decade, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising new form of cancer treatment with the potential to eradicate tumor metastasis. However, its curative potential is in general limited by the existence of negative feedback mechanisms that control dendritic cells (DCs) and T-cell activation. For clinically effective immunity, there is a need of inhibiting the expression of these immune suppressors. This could enhance the activation of DCs, T cells, and natural killer cells, and might be beneficial for cancer immunotherapy. Among the immune inhibitory molecules expressed by DCs is indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme that conveys immunosuppressive effects by degrading tryptophan, an essential amino acid required for T-cell proliferation and survival. Depletion of tryptophan by IDO-positive DCs induces T-cell apoptosis and the conversion of naïve CD4+ T cells into regulatory T cells that further suppress antitumor immunity. Herein, we describe a protocol for in vitro synthesis of small interfering RNA against IDO and other immunosuppressive factors such as interleukin-10 and programmed cell death-1 ligands in order to reverse immune suppression mediated by DCs. Vaccination with IDO-silenced DC vaccines enhanced immune responses and antitumor immunity in cancer patients. PMID:25319657
Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Rastogi, S C; Menne, T
Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch tests and 6-week graded use tests with 0.02, 0.1 and 0.8% cinnamic aldehyde in ethanol was studied in a group of cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive eczema patients. The minimum effect level demonstrated was 0.02% cinnamic aldehyde on patch testing and 0.1% cinnamic aldehyde on use testing, which are allowed usage concentrations in different kind of cosmetics. 72% (13/18) developed eczema in the use test performed with an alcoholic solution of cinnamic aldehyde on healthy upper arm skin. 6 of the 13 use-test-positive subjects (46%) reacted later than day 7, indicating that the standard exposure period of 7 days in use testing may not be sufficient, if low concentrations or volatile substances are used. A significant correlation between patch test sensitivity and the outcome of use testing was found (1,<0.001), which should be considered in designing future use test studies and advising patients. Detailed exposure information is needed to evaluate more fully the consequences of cinnamic aldehyde sensitivity. PMID:8833458
Sciarra, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Fedora; Cantucci, Barbara; Mazzarini, Francesco
Earthquakes can be associated with non-seismic phenomena which may manifest many weeks before and after the main shock. These phenomena are characterized by ground fractures and soil liquefactions at surface often coupled with degassing events, chemical alterations of water and soils, changes in temperature and/or waters level in the epicentral area. Further manifestations include radio disturbances and light emissions. On the other hand, anomalous behavior of animals has been reported to occur before environmental changes. The co-occurrence of several phenomena may be considered as a signal of subsurface changes, and their analysis may be used as possible forecast indicators for seismic events, landslides, damages in infrastructure (e.g., dam) and groundwaters contamination. In order to obtain an accurate statistical analysis of these factors, a pre-crisis large database over a prolonged period of time is a pre-requisite. To this end, we elaborated a questionnaire for the population to pick up signs about anomalous phenomena like as: animal behavior, geological manifestations, effect on vegetation, degassing, changes on aquifers, wells and springs. After the January 25, 2013, mainshock (ML 4.8) in the Garfagnana seismic district, the Bagni di Lucca Municipality was selected as pilot site for testing this questionnaire. The complexity, variety and extension of this territory (165 kmq) sound suitable for this project. Bagni di Lucca is located in the southern border of the Garfagnana seismogenic source, characterized by the carbonate Mesozoic sequences and the Tertiary terrigenous sedimentary deposits of the Tuscan Nappe. The questionnaire was published on Bagni di Lucca web site (https://docs.google.com/file/d/0Bzw3vOYX47XoTGltTVJRbkJuajA/edit) in collaboration with Municipal Commitee, Local Civil Protection and Local Red Cross, and sent by ordinary mail to the citizenry. It is possible to answer to the questionnaire, also anonymously, direct on line (https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1LVNVQFzMoJJfNxp2eSPAc4pcwj4_qIdbAnvbCWGyXy8/viewform?pli=1), calling the Local Civil Protection or Local Red Cross, and by mail. In a second time, an application for Smartphone and Tablets will be developed to allow a faster reply. The questionnaire, constituted by eleven questions and organized in four macro-themes (i.e. animal behavior, geological factors, vegetation anomalies and hydrogeological changes) has been published in June 2013 and will remain on-line for several years. Indeed, the social perception is not fully trustworthy during and soon after an earthquake. So far this is the first attempt to acquire data during quiescent times for comparison with post-seismic ones. This approach may provide clues to identify phenomena properly linked to the event. This questionnaire can be a useful tool to educate population not only about earthquake precursors but also to recognize the "Earth language". Submitted testimonies will be statistically analyzed evidencing the specific responses to the different phenomena in space and time. On the basis of obtained results the questionnaire project could be extended to national level.
Cataldo, R. L.
The preliminary results of simulated electric vehicle, chopper, speed controller discharge of a battery show energy output losses up to 25 percent compared to constant current discharges at the same average discharge current of 100 amperes. These energy losses are manifested as temperature rises during discharge, amounting to a two-fold increase for a 400-ampere pulse compared to the constant current case. Because of the potentially large energy inefficiency, the results suggest that electric vehicle battery/speed controller interaction must be carefully considered in vehicle design.
Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
Summary Objectives We surveyed the UK medical qualifiers of 1993. We asked closed questions about their careers; and invited them to give us comments, if they wished, about any aspect of their work. Our aim in this paper is to report on the topics that this senior cohort of UK-trained doctors who work in UK medicine raised with us. Design Questionnaire survey Participants 3479 contactable UK-trained medical graduates of 1993. Setting UK. Main outcome measures Comments made by doctors about their work, and their views about medical careers and training in the UK. Method Postal and email questionnaires. Results Response rate was 72% (2507); 2252 were working in UK medicine, 816 (36%) of whom provided comments. Positive comments outweighed negative in the areas of their own job satisfaction and satisfaction with their training. However, 23% of doctors who commented expressed dissatisfaction with aspects of junior doctors’ training, the impact of working time regulations, and with the requirement for doctors to make earlier career decisions than in the past about their choice of specialty. Some doctors were concerned about government health service policy; others were dissatisfied with the availability of family-friendly/part-time work, and we are concerned about attitudes to gender and work-life balance. Conclusions Though satisfied with their own training and their current position, many senior doctors felt that changes to working hours and postgraduate training had reduced the level of experience gained by newer graduates. They were also concerned about government policy interventions. PMID:25408920
Epstein, Leonard H; Dearing, Kelly K; Roba, Lora G
Behavioral choice theory and laboratory choice paradigms can provide a framework to understand the reinforcing efficacy or reinforcing value of food. Reinforcing efficacy is measured in the laboratory by assessing how much effort one will engage in to gain access to food as the amount of work progressively increases. However, this method to establish demand curves as estimates of reinforcer efficacy is time consuming and limits the number of reinforcers that can be tested. The general aim of this study was to compare the reinforcing efficacy of snack foods using a behavioral task that requires subjects to respond to gain access to portions of food (LAB task) with a questionnaire version of a purchasing task designed to determine demand curves (QUES task) in nonobese and obese adults (n=24). Results showed correlations between the maximal amount of money that individuals were willing to spend for food (QUES O(max)) and the maximal amount of responses made on the highest reinforcement schedule completed (LAB O(max)) (r=0.45, p<0.05), and between BMI and the LAB O(max) (r=0.43, p<0.05) and the QUES O(max) (r=0.52, p<0.05). The study suggests the questionnaire provides valid measures of reinforcing efficacy that can be used in place of or in conjunction with traditional laboratory paradigms to establish demand curves that describe the behavioral maintaining properties of food. PMID:20188288
In 1928, the Library of Virginia inherited a mass of materials from the Virginia War History Commission, which had spent the previous eight years gathering information on Virginia's participation in World War I. Included in this material were over 14,900 four-page questionnaires from a survey of WWI veterans in Virginia. The Library of Virginia has digitized these survey forms and created a free, fully-searchable database. Users have three search options: by word or phrase, combination, and expert/boolean. Search returns offer basic information on each individual, and users must follow the link at the bottom of the page to download the digitized images (in .tif format) of the questionnaire forms. In some cases, respondents submitted photos or additional pages with their forms and these are included in the database.
Kusch, M; Bode, U
A concept based on empirical data is needed for psychological support of children with cancer and their families. A number of concepts are already available, but a psychological assessment is needed, which controls the feasibility of these concepts. The psychosocial questionnaire is such an assessment, which transforms individual data into the practical psychosocial work during the entire course of cancer treatment. The diagnostical procedure includes aspects of coping with cancer, such as stress, protective and risk factors and health behavior. Data are collected before, during and after the intensive cancer treatment and in a follow-up after 6 or 12 months respectively. The questionnaire has four parts. Each contains a "handbook for parents", which informs the parent in detail on each part. Thus, we enforce the potential of each parent to help him-/herself. PMID:1438051
Bergen, Universitetet i
Oxygen and hydrogen ion abundance in the near-Earth magnetosphere: Statistical results investigate the oxygen-to-hydrogen ratio in the near-Earth magnetosphere from À10 RE , P. W. Daly, E. E. Grigorenko, L. M. Kistler, M. Fränz, and I. Dandouras (2012), Oxygen and hydrogen
Results from Orbit and Optics Improvement by Evaluating the Nonlinear Beam Position Monitor. Because the previous system of evaluating signals from beam position monitors (BPMs) was accurate only measurements. BACKGROUND CESR measures beam position and betatron phase with approximately one hundred beam
An analysis of results from the Regional Oxidant Modeling for Northeast Transport (ROMNET) study (U.S. EPA, 1991, EPA-450/4-91-002a) has investigated the chemical conditions under which air quality was predicted to improve with reductions in ROG and/or NOx emissions, or with chan...
Schull, William J.
Among the late effects of exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, none looms larger than radiation related malignancies. Indeed, the late effects of A-bomb radiation on mortality appear to be limited to an increase in malignant tumors. At present, it can be shown that cancers of the breast, colon, esophagus, lungs, stomach, thyroid, and urinary tract as well as leukemia and multiple myeloma increase in frequency with an increase in exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, nor cancers of the rectum, pancreas or uterus. Radiation induced malignancies other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risks tend to be higher for those of younger age at the time of bombing. Other late effects include radiation-related lenticular opacities, disturbances of growth among those survivors still growing at the time of exposure, and mental retardation and small head sizes among the in utero exposed. Chromosomal abnormalities too are more frequently encountered in the peripheral leucocytes of survivors, and this increase is functionally related to their exposure. Some uncertainty continues to surround both the quantity and quality of the radiation released by these two nuclear devices, particularly the Hiroshima bomb. A recent reassessment suggests that the gamma radiation estimates which have been used in the past may be too low at some distances and the neutron radiation estimates too high at all distances; moreover, the energies of the neutrons released now appear ``softer'' than previously conjectured. These uncertainties not sufficiently large, however, to compromise the reality of the increased frequency of malignancy, but make estimates of the dose response, particularly in terms of gamma and neutron exposures, tentative.
Patricia V. Roehling; Eva Gaumond
The validity and reliability of the Codependent Questionnaire (CdQ), a new measure of codependence, wis examined. In Study 1, using 48 undergraduate students, the CdQ total score displayed high levels of internal consistency (al ha = 36) and test-re-test reliability (r = 30). In Study 2 the CdQ 6 was administered to forty-two outpatient psychotherapy clients. Client CdQ scores correlated
Lengeler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel
New initiatives are aiming to reduce the global burden of schistosomiasis, mainly through the large-scale application of chemotherapy. To target chemotherapy effectively, rapid assessment procedures are needed for identifying high-risk communities that are foci for the disease. In this review, we examine the development and validation of simple school questionnaires for screening communities for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni rapidly and inexpensively. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, where 85% of the current schistosomiasis burden is concentrated. For more than a decade, the questionnaire approach has been validated in 10 countries, with 133 880 children interviewed in 1282 schools, and with 54 996 children examined for S. haematobium. The questionnaires were well accepted, highly reliable, and of low cost. The success of the questionnaires is explained by the fact that S. haematobium infections were easily perceived through the presence of blood in urine. Evidence from 48 258 children interviewed in 545 schools indicated that reported blood in stools and bloody diarrhoea are valuable indicators for community diagnosis of S. mansoni. However, the diagnostic performance of the questionnaires for S. mansoni was weaker than for S. haematobium, and although these results are encouraging, the questionnaires need additional validation. Recently, questionnaires were extended from community to individual diagnosis and showed considerable promise. Questionnaires are now available for promptly defining the magnitude of schistosomiasis in a large area, which will allow limited resources for morbidity control to be allocated optimally. PMID:11984610
Mucci, Nicola; Giorgi, Gabriele; Cupelli, Vincenzo; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Breso-Esteve, Edgar; Arcangeli, Giulio
The present study shows detailed information about the reliability and validity of the psychosocial risk scale included in the Stress Questionnaire (SQ) developed by our research group. The primary purpose of this work is to test the factor structure of the psychosocial risk scale through a first-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using a large pooled dataset obtained from a population of 2026 employees of 15 Italian medium-large companies. Data were collected by a team of researchers who examined demographic variables, work-related stress, workplace bullying, mental health and other constructs. In addition to these substantive issues, the survey was designed to better understand response bias. After the evaluation of the results we conclude that the psychosocial risk scale reported a satisfactory reliability and validity. In addition, it allowed a careful measurement of work related stress, considering both leader's and follower's perspectives. PMID:25305329
Billings, James C; Kimball, Thomas G; Shumway, Sterling T; Korinek, Alan W
Marriage and family therapists (MFTs), who are trained in systems theory and consult with complex and difficult systems (e.g., couples and families), are uniquely suited to both assess and intervene in broader organizational systems. However, MFTs are in need of more systemically designed assessment tools to guide and inform their interventions with organizational systems. This study examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Organizational Systems Questionnaire (OSQ). The OSQ is designed to use a systemic framework to measure the construct of organizational functioning. Participants were simultaneously administered the Abridged Job Description Index, Organizational Commitment Questionnaire, Stress in General, and Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire scales along with the OSQ. The OSQ demonstrated good construct validity, factor analysis indicates it is measuring one global factor of organizational functioning, reliability was strong (alpha = .91), and it showed high levels of internal consistency. The OSQ also demonstrated positive concurrent validity with acceptable levels of correlation with the other organizational measures. Overall, the OSQ was found to be a useful and psychometrically sound single-factor measure of organizational functioning. PMID:17437456
Crespo Da Silva, M. R. M.; Hodges, D. H.
The dynamic response and aeroelastic stability of rotating beams such as helicopter blades is investigated analytically. The Hamilton principle is used to formulate the equations of motion for extensional and inextensional beams with precone angles and variable pitch angles, taking higher-order nonlinearities into account. The derivation of the equations and their approximate solution by a Galerkin procedure are explained in detail, and numerical results of equilibrium solutions and stability analyses are presented graphically.
Leeb, B; Bird, H; Nesher, G; Andel, I; Hueber, W; Logar, D; Montecucco, C; Rovensky, J; Sautner, J; Sonnenblick, M
Objective: To develop response criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) for monitoring treatment and comparing alternative treatments regimens. Methods: 76 patients, mean (SD) age 68.7 (7.7) years, were enrolled. Corticosteroids, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the only drugs allowed during the observation period. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), ?2 globulin, serum iron, pain, physician's global assessment (PGA), morning stiffness (MST), muscle tenderness (MT), myalgia, and the elevation of upper limbs (EUL) were determined regularly. The daily corticosteroid and NSAID doses as the corticosteroid response time were recorded. To ensure evaluation of an adequate number of patients (n = 57) week 24 was chosen for final analysis. Results: ESR, CRP, ?2 globulin, pain, PGA, MST, myalgia, MT, and EUL showed significant improvement (p<0.0001) at week 24 compared with week 0. Multiple regression analysis showed that changes of ESR (p = 0.08), CRP (p = 0.41), ?2 globulin (p = 0.13), MST (p = 0.1), and MT (p = 0.07) were independent of pain, but myalgia (p<0.001) and EUL (p = 0.003) were pain dependent. Consequently, a core set of PMR response criteria, comprising ESR or CRP, pain, PGA, MST, and EUL was established. Assessment of treatment responses with this core set resulted in 90%, 70%, 50%, and 20% improvement in 31/57 (54%), 46/57 (81%), 51/57 (89%), and 54/57 (95%) of the patients, respectively. Conclusion: These PMR response criteria are a promising tool for better monitoring of disease activity and treatment in PMR. It is proposed that these criteria should be used in clinical trials in the near future to explore alternative treatment options for PMR. PMID:14644857
Background When evaluating hearing rehabilitation, it is reasonable to use self-report questionnaires as outcome measure. Questionnaires used in audiological research are developed and validated for the paper-and-pencil format. As computer and Internet use is increasing, standardized questionnaires used in the audiological context should be evaluated to determine the viability of the online administration format. The aim of this study was to compare administration of questionnaires online versus paper- and pencil of four standardised questionnaires used in hearing research and clinic. We included the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA), Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life (SADL), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Methods A cross-over design was used by randomly letting the participants complete the questionnaires either online or on paper. After 3 weeks the participants filled out the same questionnaires again but in the other format. A total of 65 hearing-aid users were recruited from a hearing clinic to participate on a voluntary basis and of these 53 completed both versions of the questionnaires. Results A significant main effect of format was found on the HHIE (p < 0.001), with participants reporting higher scores on the online format than in the paper format. There was no interaction effect. For the other questionnaires were no significant main or interaction effects of format. Significant correlations between the two ways of presenting the measures was found for all questionnaires (p<0.05). The results from reliability tests showed Cronbachs ?’s above .70 for all four questionnaires and differences in Cronbachs ? between administration formats were negligible. Conclusions For three of the four included questionnaires the participants’ scores remained consistent across administrations and formats. For the fourth included questionnaire (HHIE) a significant difference of format with a small effect size was found. The relevance of the difference in scores between the formats depends on which context the questionnaire is used in. On balance, it is recommended that the administration format remain stable across assessment points. PMID:23107440
Blome, Tanja; Ekici, Altug; Beer, Christian; Hagemann, Stefan
Permafrost or perennially frozen ground is an important part of the terrestrial cryosphere; roughly one quarter of Earth's land surface is underlain by permafrost. As it is a thermal phenomenon, its characteristics are highly dependent on climatic factors. The impact of the currently observed warming, which is projected to persist during the coming decades due to anthropogenic CO2 input, certainly has effects for the vast permafrost areas of the high northern latitudes. The quantification of these effects, however, is scientifically still an open question. This is partly due to the complexity of the system, where several feedbacks are interacting between land and atmosphere, sometimes counterbalancing each other. Moreover, until recently, many global circulation models (GCMs) lacked the sufficient representation of permafrost physics in their land surface schemes. In order to assess the response of permafrost to projected climate change for the 21st century, the land surface scheme of the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, JSBACH, has recently been equipped with the important physical processes for permafrost studies, and was driven globally with bias corrected climate data, thereby spanning a period from 1850 until 2100. The applied land surface scheme JSBACH now considers the effects of freezing and thawing of soil water for both energy and water cycles, thermal properties depending on soil water and ice contents, and soil moisture movement being influenced by the presence of soil ice. To address the uncertainty range arising through different greenhouse gas concentrations as well as through different climate realisations when using various climate models, combinations of two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and two GCMs were used as driving data. In order to focus only on the climatic impact on permafrost, effects due to feedbacks between climate and permafrost (namely via carbon fluxes between land and atmosphere) are excluded in the experiments. Differences between future time slices and today's climate are analysed. The effect in relevant variables, such as permafrost extent, depth of the Active Layer, ground temperature, and amount of soil carbon, is investigated. The experiments (as well as the development of JSBACH with respect to permafrost soil physics) are part of the European project PAGE21, where a focus is set on interactions between the changing climate and its impact on permafrost, especially for the 21st century.
Placella, S.; Herman, D.; Firestone, M.
The first rainfall following the hot, dry summer in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, known as wet-up, results in large pulses of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, two radiatively important gases. Nitrous oxide in general, is produced by nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Using laboratory simulations of wet-up, we monitored soil pools of ammonium and nitrate, gross rates of nitrogen mineralization and nitrification, effluxes of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, and gene expression of archaeal and bacterial amoA, a functional gene for nitrification and nirK, a functional gene for denitrification. Results from a California annual grassland soil show significant increases in the ammonium pool within one hour of water addition followed by a significant increase in the nitrate pool within three hours of water addition. Gross nitrogen mineralization and gross nitrification were very high with nitrogen mineralization being highest within three hours of wet-up. Ammonia-oxidizers were most active at nine hours after water addition. Nitrous oxide emissions followed the same pattern as nitrifiers, suggesting nitrification may play an important role in nitrous oxide emissions during wet-up.
Background The Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) is an assessment tool used to evaluate patients’ perspectives of their doctor’s communication and interpersonal skills. The present pilot study investigated whether the PSQ could be administered successfully in a hospice inpatient setting and if it is an acceptable tool for completion by patients and relatives in this context. Methods The study was conducted in two phases. A first phase was undertaken to establish the process of PSQ administration in a hospice inpatient ward. A second phase of questionnaire administration followed by semi-structured interviews explored inpatient experiences of the questionnaire process. Results Overall, 30 inpatients and one relative were invited to complete the PSQ across both phases of data collection, representing 53% of all inpatients at the time of data collection. The remaining 47% were deemed unsuitable to ask due to a diagnosis of dying (24%), confusion (17%), distress (3%) or lack of availability (2%). The average response rate across both phases of data collection was 87%. Qualitative interview data suggested that the PSQ was considered clear, easy to understand and not burdensome in terms of time or effort for this population. Conclusions The PSQ appears an acceptable tool to use in a hospice inpatient setting. Many patients welcomed the opportunity to be involved and give feedback. Using a greater proportion of relatives as an alternative source of feedback could be considered in future studies. PMID:24959100
A questionnaire was sent to 12 rail transit agencies outside of the US. Its purpose was to identify energy conservation programs and load management techniques now being applied on these systems. Nine responses were received. These responses are included in this section together with a copy of the questionnaire.
Nichol, K L; Korn, J E; Baum, P
As part of an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted, institution-wide influenza vaccination program, we mailed a self-administered postcard questionnaire to 500 randomly selected outpatients following both the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 immunization seasons. The postcard asked if the patients received influenza vaccine, where they were immunized, whether they had any high-risk medical illnesses, their age at their last birthday, and their name. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, following the 1988 survey, we selected a 25% systematic sample of respondents and compared survey responses with medical record documentation. Response rates for the surveys were 77.6% for the 1988 survey (two mailings) and 86.5% for the 1989 survey (three mailings). Ninety-four percent (n = 89) of charts selected for audit were successfully reviewed. Agreement between questionnaire responses and medical records was excellent, with greater than 90% agreement and kappas of .8 to .9 for classifying patients as high-risk and receipt of vaccine at the Department of Veterans' Affairs Medical Center. For other data, agreement ranged from 84% to 96% with kappas of .6 to .75. Responses to the 1989 survey also demonstrated the importance of sample frame definition and response wave on estimates of risk characteristics and vaccination rates. A self-administered postcard questionnaire is a valid tool for estimating outpatient risk characteristics and influenza vaccination rates. PMID:1756055
Slifka, Mark K.; Homann, Dirk; Tishon, Antoinette; Pagarigan, Robb; Oldstone, Michael B.A.
Among infectious agents, measles virus (MV) remains a scourge responsible for 1 million deaths per year and is a leading cause of childhood deaths in developing countries. Although MV infection itself is not commonly lethal, MV-induced suppression of the immune system results in a greatly increased susceptibility to opportunistic bacterial infections that are largely responsible for the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Despite its clinical importance, the underlying mechanisms of MV-induced immunosuppression remain unresolved. To begin to understand the basis of increased susceptibility to bacterial infections during MV infection, we inoculated transgenic mice expressing the MV receptor, CD46, with MV and Listeria monocytogenes. We found that MV-infected mice were more susceptible to infection with Listeria and that this corresponded with significantly decreased numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in the spleen and substantial defects in IFN-? production by CD4+ T cells. The reduction in CD11b+ macrophages and IFN-?–producing T cells was due to reduced proliferative expansion and not to enhanced apoptosis or to altered distribution of these cells between spleen, blood, and the lymphatic system. These results document that MV infection can suppress both innate and adaptive immune responses and lead to increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. PMID:12639986
Reentry analyses consisting of ablation response, thermal response and thermal stress response have been conducted on the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit for Galileo/VEEGA reentry conditions. Sequential ablation analyses of the LWRHU aeroshell, the fuel clad, and the fuel pellet have been conducted in reentry regimes where the aeroshell has been deemed to fail. The failure criterion for ablation is assumed to be recession corresponding to 50% of the wall thickness (the design criterion recommended in the DOE Overall Safety Manual). Although the analyses have been carried far beyond this limit (as presented and discussed herein), JHU/APL endorses the position that failure may occur at the time that this recession is achieved or at lower altitudes within the heat pulse considering the uncertainties in the aerodynamic, thermodynamic, and thermo-structural analyses and modeling. These uncertainties result mainly because of the high energies involved in the VEEGA reentries compared to orbital decay reentries. Risk evaluations should consider the fact that for shallow flight paths the unit may disassemble at high-altitude as a result of ablation or may remain intact until it impacts with a clad that had been molten. 80 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.
Zhao, Yue; Li, Xingde; Kong, Xiangjun
BACKGROUND Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (pRCT) followed by surgery has been widely practiced in locally advanced rectal cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and other cancers. However, the therapy also exerts some severe adverse effects and some of the patients show poor or no response. It is very important to develop biomarkers (e.g., gene polymorphisms) to identify patients who have a higher likelihood of responding to pRCT. Recently, a series of reports have investigated the association of the genetic polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genes with the tumor response to pRCT; however, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. MATERIAL AND METHODS A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching relevant studies about the association of MTHFR and EGFR polymorphisms with the tumor regression grade (TRG) in response to pRCT in databases of PubMed, EMBAS, Web of science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang database up to March 30, 2015. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association under 5 genetic models. RESULTS A total of 11 eligible articles were included in the present meta-analysis, of which 8 studies were performed in rectal cancer and 3 studies were performed in esophageal cancer. We finally included 8 included studies containing 839 cases for MTHFR C677T, 5 studies involving 634 cases for MTHFR A1298C, 3 studies containing 340 cases for EGFR G497A, and 4 studies containing 396 cases for EGFR CA repeat. The pooled analysis results indicated that MTHFR C677T might be correlated with the tumor response to pRCT under the recessive model (CC vs. CTTT) in overall analysis (OR=1.426(1.074-1.894), P=0.014), rectal cancer (OR=1.483(1.102-1.996), P=0.009), and TRG 1-2 vs. 3-5 group (OR=1.423(1.046-1.936), P=0.025), while other polymorphism including MTHFR A1298C, EGFR G497A, and EGFR CA repeat polymorphisms exerted significant association under all genetic models in overall analysis or subgroup analysis. CONCLUSIONS MTHFR C677T might be correlated with the tumor response to pRCT. Further well-designed, larger-scale epidemiological studies are needed to validate our results. PMID:26456456
Compton, Scott N.; Peris, Tara S.; Almirall, Daniel; Birmaher, Boris; Sherrill, Joel; Kendall, Phillip C.; March, John S.; Gosch, Elizabeth A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Rynn, Moira A.; Piacentini, John C.; McCracken, James T.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Suveg, Cynthia M.; Aschenbrand, Sasha G.; Sakolsky, Dara; Iyengar, Satish; Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie
Objective To examine predictors and moderators of treatment outcomes among 488 youth ages 7-17 years (50% female; 74% ? 12 years) with DSM-IV diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder who were randomly assigned to receive either cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), their combination (COMB), or medication management with pill placebo (PBO) in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Method Six classes of predictor and moderator variables (22 variables) were identified from the literature and examined using continuous (Pediatric Anxiety Ratings Scale; PARS) and categorical (Clinical Global Impression Scale-Improvement; CGI-I) outcome measures. Results Three baseline variables predicted better outcomes (independent of treatment condition) on the PARS, including low anxiety severity (as measured by parents and independent evaluators) and caregiver strain. No baseline variables were found to predict week 12 responder status (CGI-I). Participant's principal diagnosis moderated treatment outcomes, but only on the PARS. No baseline variables were found to moderate treatment outcomes on week 12 responder status (CGI-I). Discussion Overall, anxious children responded favorably to CAMS treatments. However, having more severe and impairing anxiety, greater caregiver strain, and a principal diagnosis of social phobia were associated with less favorable outcomes. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24417601
Comer, R W; Callan, R S; Blalock, J S; Turner, J E; Trombly, R M
A primary focus of dental education is to teach students the knowledge, skills, and values essential for practicing dentistry. However, the preparation of dentists to manage a business is frequently cited as inadequate. A survey was prepared to assess teachers' opinions of business instructional topics: challenges; desired training; employee benefits; learning resources; importance of business topics; and appropriateness of time allocations. The purpose of this project is to compare opinions of teachers of dental practice management with key management aspects reported for service businesses by the Small Business Development Center (SBDC). Practice management teachers from forty-eight (89 percent) schools responded to the survey. They indicated that several challenges confronting dentists are similar to other service businesses. Dentists, however, rank customer relations appreciably higher. In order of importance of teaching topics, the practice management teachers rank ethics and personnel management as a high priority and planning as a low priority. Awareness of the similarities and differences in the perceptions of practice management teachers and businesspeople may result in instructional improvements. PMID:11569602
Kantermann, Thomas; Sung, Haein; Burgess, Helen J
The dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) is the most reliable measure of central circadian timing in humans. However, it is not always possible to measure the DLMO because sample collection has to occur in the hours before usual sleep onset, it requires staff support and considerable participant effort, and it is relatively expensive. Questionnaires that ask people about the timing of their behavior, such as their sleep, may provide an easier and less expensive estimate of circadian timing. The objective of this analysis was to compare the MEQ score derived from the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the MSFsc derived from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) to the DLMO in the largest sample to date (N = 60). Our hypothesis was that MSFsc would correlate more highly with the DLMO than MEQ score. Our sample of 36 healthy controls and 24 patients with delayed sleep phase disorder ranged in age from 18 to 62 years. All participants slept at times of their own choosing for a week before the assessment of their DLMO. The DLMO correlated significantly with both the MEQ score (r = -0.70, p < 0.001) and MSFsc (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). A linear regression using MEQ, MSFsc, and age to predict the DLMO explained 60% of the DLMO variance. The strongest predictor of the DLMO was MSFsc (beta = 0.51, p = 0.001), followed by MEQ (beta = -0.41, p = 0.004), and age (beta = 0.26, p = 0.013). The beta values for MSFsc and MEQ score were not statistically different from each other. Nonetheless, around a 4-h range in the DLMO was observed at a given MEQ score and a given MSFsc, indicating that neither questionnaire should be exclusively used to time light or exogenous melatonin treatment, as this could result in the mistiming of these treatments relative to the DLMO, thereby potentially worsening circadian misalignment. PMID:26243627
Decuir, Arlette Desha
The ProMES questionnaire was developed to assess individuals' experiences as they relate to the implementation of the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System. The questionnaire, which resulted in a total of 30 subscales that assess...
Pitari, Giovanni; Aquila, Valentina; Kravitz, Ben; Robock, Alan; Watanabe, Shingo; Cionni, Irene; Luca, Natalia De; Genova, Glauco Di; Mancini, Eva; Tilmes, Simone
Geoengineering with stratospheric sulfate aerosols has been proposed as a means of temporarily cooling the planet, alleviating some of the side effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. However, one of the known side effects of stratospheric injections of sulfate aerosols under present-day conditions is a general decrease in ozone concentrations. Here we present the results from two general circulation models and two coupled chemistry-climate models within the experiments G3 and G4 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project. On average, the models simulate in G4 an increase in sulfate aerosol surface area density similar to conditions a year after the Mount Pinatubo eruption and a decrease in globally averaged ozone by 1.1-2.1 DU (Dobson unit, 1 DU = 0.001 atm cm) during the central decade of the experiment (2040-2049). Enhanced heterogeneous chemistry on sulfate aerosols leads to an ozone increase in low and middle latitudes, whereas enhanced heterogeneous reactions in polar regions and increased tropical upwelling lead to a reduction of stratospheric ozone. The increase in UV-B radiation at the surface due to ozone depletion is offset by the screening due to the aerosols in the tropics and midlatitudes, while in polar regions the UV-B radiation is increased by 5% on average, with 12% peak increases during springtime. The contribution of ozone changes to the tropopause radiative forcing during 2040-2049 is found to be less than -0.1 W m-2. After 2050, because of decreasing ClOx concentrations, the suppression of the NOx cycle becomes more important than destruction of ozone by ClOx, causing an increase in total stratospheric ozone.
Hager, Torben; Maroteaux, Grégoire; Pont, Paula du; Julsing, Joris; van Vliet, Rick; Stiedl, Oliver
Heterozygous (HZ) missense mutations in the gene encoding syntaxin binding protein 1 (Stxbp1 or Munc18-1), a presynaptic protein essential for neurotransmitter release, causes early infantile epileptic encephalopathy, abnormal brain structure and mental retardation in humans. Here we investigated whether the mouse model mimics symptoms of the human phenotype. The effects of the deletion of munc18-1 were studied in HZ and wild-type (WT) mice based on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV) as independent measures to expand previous behavioral results of enhanced anxiety and impaired emotional learning suggesting mild cognitive impairments. HR responses were assessed during novelty exposure, during the expression and extinction of conditioned tone-dependent fear and during the diurnal phase. Novelty exposure yielded no differences in activity patterns between the two genotypes, while maximum HR differed significantly (WT: 770 bpm; HZ: 790 bpm). Retention tests after both auditory delay and trace fear conditioning showed a delayed extinction of the conditioned HR response in HZ mice compared to WT mice. Since the HR versus HRV correlation and HR dynamics assessed by nonlinear methods revealed similar function in HZ and WT mice, the higher HR responses of munc18-1 HZ mice to different emotional challenges cannot be attributed to differences in autonomic nervous system function. Thus, in contrast to the adverse consequences of deletion of a single allele of munc18-1 in humans, C57BL/6J mice show enhanced anxiety responses based on HR adjustments that extend previous results on the behavioral level without support of cognitive impairment, epileptic seizures and autonomic dysregulation. PMID:24304718
Background To be able to design effective strategies to improve healthcare professionals’ implementation behaviors, a valid and reliable questionnaire is needed to assess potential implementation determinants. The present study describes the development of the Determinants of Implementation Behavior Questionnaire (DIBQ) and investigates the reliability and validity of this Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF)-based questionnaire. Methods The DIBQ was developed to measure the potential behavioral determinants of the 12-domain version of the TDF (Michie et al., 2005). We identified existing questionnaires including items assessing constructs within TDF domains and developed new items where needed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine whether the predefined structure of the TDF-based questionnaire was supported by the data. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency reliability of the questionnaire, and domains’ discriminant validity was investigated. Results We developed an initial questionnaire containing 100 items assessing 12 domains. Results obtained from confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha resulted in the final questionnaire consisting of 93 items assessing 18 domains, explaining 63.3% of the variance, and internal consistency reliability values ranging from .68 to .93. Domains demonstrated good discriminant validity, although the domains ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Skills’ and the domains ‘Skills’ and ‘Social/professional role and identity’ were highly correlated. Conclusions We have developed a valid and reliable questionnaire that can be used to assess potential determinants of healthcare professional implementation behavior following the theoretical domains of the TDF. The DIBQ can be used by researchers and practitioners who are interested in identifying determinants of implementation behaviors in order to be able to develop effective strategies to improve healthcare professionals’ implementation behaviors. Furthermore, the findings provide a novel validation of the TDF and indicate that the domain ‘Environmental context and resources’ might be divided into several environment-related domains. PMID:24641907
Prieto, Luis; Alonso, Jordi; Lamarca, Rosa
Background Although health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments may offer satisfactory results, their length often limits the extent to which they are actually applied in clinical practice. Efforts to develop short questionnaires have largely focused on reducing existing instruments. The approaches most frequently employed for this purpose rely on statistical procedures that are considered exponents of Classical Test Theory (CTT). Despite the popularity of CTT, two major conceptual limitations have been pointed out: the lack of an explicit ordered continuum of items that represent a unidimensional construct, and the lack of additivity of rating scale data. In contrast to the CTT approach, the Rasch model provides an alternative scaling methodology that enables the examination of the hierarchical structure, unidimensionality and additivity of HRQOL measures. METHODS: In order to empirically compare CTT and Rasch Analysis (RA) results, this paper presents the parallel reduction of a 38-item questionnaire, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), through the analysis of the responses of a sample of 9,419 individuals. Results CTT resulted in 20 items (4 dimensions) whereas RA in 22 items (2 dimensions). Both instruments showed similar characteristics under CTT requirements: item-total correlation ranged 0.45–0.75 for NHP20 and 0.46–0.68 for NHP22, while reliability ranged 0.82–0.93 and 0.87–94 respectively. Conclusions Despite the differences in content, NHP20 and NHP22 convergent scores also showed high degrees of association (0.78–0.95). Although the unidimensional view of health of the NHP20 and NHP22 composite scores was also confirmed by RA, NHP20 dimensions failed to meet the goodness-of fit criteria established by the Rasch model, precluding the interval-level of measurement of its scores. PMID:12952544
Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have multiple comorbid conditions. Obtaining comorbidity data from medical records is cumbersome. A self-report comorbidity questionnaire is a useful alternative. Our aim in this study was to examine the predictive value of a self-report comorbidity questionnaire in terms of survival in ESRD patients. Methods We studied a prospective cross-sectional cohort of 282 haemodialysis (HD) patients in a single centre. Participants were administered the self-report questionnaire during an HD session. Information on their comorbidities was subsequently obtained from an examination of the patient’s medical records. Levels of agreement between parameters derived from the questionnaire, and from the medical records, were examined. Participants were followed-up for 18 months to collect survival data. The influence on survival of comorbidity scores derived from the self-report data (the Composite Self-report Comorbidity Score [CSCS]) and from medical records data - the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] were compared. Results The level of agreement between the self-report items and those obtained from medical records was almost perfect with respect the presence of diabetes (Kappa score ? 0.97), substantial for heart disease and cancer (? 0.62 and ? 0.72 respectively), moderate for liver disease (? 0.51), only fair for lung disease, arthritis, cerebrovascular disease, and depression (? 0.34, 0.35, 0.34 and 0.29 respectively). The CSCS was strongly predictive of survival in regression models (Nagelkerke R2 value 0.202), with a predictive power similar to that of the CCI (Nagelkerke R2 value 0.211). The influences of these two parameters were additive in the models – suggesting that these parameters make different contributions to the assessment of comorbidity. Conclusion This self-report comorbidity questionnaire is a viable tool to collect comorbidity data and may have a role in the prediction of short-term survival in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis. Further work is required in this setting to refine the tool and define its role. PMID:25135668
Atger, F; Frasson, G; Loas, G; Guibourgé, S; Corcos, M; Perez Diaz, F; Speranza, M; Venisse, J-L; Lang, F; Stephan, Ph; Bizouard, P; Flament, M; Jeammet, Ph
Sidney Blatt, considering as being insufficient the categorical-symptomatic approach of depression, has worked out a theory of depression and psychopathology that integrates the contributions of psychoanalysis as well as cognitive and developmental psychology. Within a broad psychoanalytic framework, Blatt's formulation focus on the quality of interpersonal relationship, the nature of object representation and early life experiences. Personality development is viewed as the consequence of the interaction of 2 basic developmental tasks: the establishment of the capacity to form stable, enduring, mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships and the achievement of a differentiated, realistic, essentially positive identity. The relationship between these 2 developmental lines involves a complex dialectical process during which progress in each line is essential for progress in the other and which contributes to the development of both a sense of identity and the capacity for interpersonal relatedness. These developmental lines permit not only to define an during individual's primary personality configuration but also enable to identify cognitive structures that are inherent in various forms of psychopathology, including depression. Disruptions at different developmental stages create vulnerability to different subsequent psychological disturbances. Blatt characterised as anaclitic or dependent the axis concerned with interpersonal relationship and as introjective or self-critical the axis concerned with development of the sense of self and identity. Depressive Experience Questionnaire was developed by Blatt et al. to determine the validity of this model of psychopathology which emphazises continuities between normal and pathological forms of depression. The instrument was developed by Blatt et al. by assembling a pool of items describing experiences frequently reported by depressed individual. Sixty-six items were selected and administered to a large nonclinical sample (500 female and 160 male undergraduates). Principal component analysis within sex performed on the answers to DEQ confirmed his assumption in identifying two principal depressive dimensions. The first factor involved items that are primarily externally directed and refer to a disturbance of interpersonal relationships (anaclitism); the second factor consists of items that are more internally directed and reflect concerns about self-identity (self-criticism). A third factor emerged, assessing the good functioning of subject and confidence in his resources and capacities (efficacy). Scales derived from these factors have high internal consistency and substantial test-retest reliability. The solutions for men and women were highly congruent. Factor structure has been replicated in several nonclinical and clinical samples, supporting considerable evidence to the construct validity of the DEQ Dependency and Self-criticism scales. An adolescent form of DEQ (DEQ-A) has successively been developed. Factor analysis revealed three factors that were highly congruent in female and male students and with the three factors of the original DEQ. The reliability, internal consistency and validity of DEQ-A indicate that the DEQ-A closely parallels the DEQ, especially in the articulation of Dependency and Self-criticism as two factors in depression. These formulations and clinical observations about the importance of differentiating a depression focused on issues of self-criticism from issues of dependency are consistent with the formulations of others theorists which, from very different theoretical perspectives, posit 2 types of depression, one in which either perceived loss or rejection in social relationships is central and the other in which perceived failure in achievement, guilt or lack of control serves as the precipitant of depression. These 2 types of experiences have been characterized as dominant other and dominant goal , as anxiously attached and compulsively self-reliant and as sociotropic and autonomous . Our work presents the results of a validation study of b
Maskiell, K E; Heyworth, J S; McCaul, K A
The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a questionnaire to estimate water exposure through drinking, showering, bathing or swimming. Forty-seven pregnant women were recruited from antenatal or exercise classes and were randomly allocated into three groups. The first group completed the water exposure questionnaire one-week apart. The second group completed a three-day diary and then the questionnaire. The third group completed the questionnaire first followed by the diary. Agreement was assessed by the Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Kappa statistic. The questionnaire demonstrated good reliability (ICC 0.93 for water consumption and 0.91 for time spent showering). With regard to validity, average daily water consumption was estimated to be 8.1 glasses/day (2 litres) from the diary compared with 12.2 (3 litres) from the questionnaire. The ICCs comparing the diary and questionnaire responses were 0.31 for water consumption and 0.72 for showering. The water exposure questionnaire overestimated levels of exposure when compared with diary-reporting of consumption. While a water exposure questionnaire may be a less intrusive research instrument than a diary, further development is required to improve the validity of this instrument. PMID:16546807
Semenov, Alexey; Kuvshinov, Alexey
The global 3-D electrical conductivity distribution in the mantle (in the depth range between 400 and 1600 km) is imaged by inverting C-responses estimated on a global net of geomagnetic observatories. Very long time-series (up to 51 years; 1957-2007) of hourly means of three components of the geomagnetic field from 281 geomagnetic observatories are collected and analysed. Special attention is given to data processing in order to obtain unbiased C-responses with trustworthy estimates of experimental errors in the period range from 2.9 to 104.2 d. After careful inspection of the obtained C-responses the data from 119 observatories are chosen for the further analysis. Squared coherency is used as a main quality indicator to detect (and then to exclude from consideration) observatories with a large noise-to-signal ratio. During this analysis we found that—along with the C-responses from high-latitude observatories (geomagnetic latitudes higher than 58°)—the C-responses from all low-latitude observatories (geomagnetic latitudes below 11°) also have very low squared coherencies, and thus cannot be used for global induction studies. We found that the C-responses from the selected 119 mid-latitude observatories show a huge variability both in real and imaginary parts, and we investigated to what extent the ocean effect can explain such a scatter. By performing the systematic model calculations we conclude that: (1) the variability due to the ocean effect is substantial, especially at shorter periods, and it is seen for periods up to 40 d or so; (2) the imaginary part of the C-responses is to a larger extent influenced by the oceans; (3) two types of anomalous C-response behaviour associated with the ocean effect can be distinguished; (4) to accurately reproduce the ocean effect a lateral resolution of 1°× 1° of the conductance distribution is needed, and (5) the ocean effect alone does not explain the whole variability of the observed C-responses. We also detected that part of the variability in the real part of the C-responses is due to the auroral effect. In addition we discovered that the auroral effect in the C-responses reveals strong longitudinal variability, at least in the Northern Hemisphere. Europe appears to be the region with smallest degree of distortion compared with North America and northern Asia. We found that the imaginary part of the C-responses is weakly affected by the auroral source, thus confirming the fact that in the considered period range the electromagnetic (EM) induction from the auroral electrojet is small. Assuming weak dependence of the auroral signals on the Earth's conductivity at considered periods, and longitudinal variability of the auroral effect, we developed a scheme to correct the experimental C-responses for this effect. With these developments and findings in mind we performed a number of regularized 3-D inversions of our experimental data in order to detect robust features in the recovered 3-D conductivity images. Although differing in details, all our 3-D inversions reveal a substantial level of lateral heterogeneity in the mantle at the depths between 410 and 1600 km. Conductivity values vary laterally by more than one order of magnitude between resistive and conductive regions. The maximum lateral variations of the conductivity have been detected in the layer at depths between 670 and 900 km. By comparing our global 3-D results with the results of independent global and semi-global 3-D conductivity studies, we conclude that 3-D conductivity mantle models produced so far are preliminary as different groups obtain disparate results, thus complicating quantitative comparison with seismic tomography or/and geodynamic models. In spite of this, our 3-D EM study and most other 3-D EM studies reveal at least two robust features: reduced conductivity beneath southern Europe and northern Africa, and enhanced conductivity in northeastern China.
Grabczak, El?bieta M.; Arcimowicz, Magdalena; Domeracka-Ko?odziej, Anna; Domaga?a-Kulawik, Joanna; Krenke, Rafa?; Maskey-Warz?chowska, Marta; Tarchalska-Kry?ska, Bo?ena; Krasnod?bska, Paulina; Chazan, Ryszarda
Introduction Efficacy of chronic cough treatment is ambiguous. The aim of the study was to analyze chronic cough alleviation after specific treatment and the relationship between cough etiology and treatment efficacy. Material and methods A stepwise diagnostic approach was used to diagnose cough etiology in non-smoking adults with chronic cough. In all patients specific treatment was applied. Two different questionnaires – a visual analog scale and a 5-degree scale – were used to assess cough severity before and after 4-6 months of treatment. Results A significant correlation between pre-treatment and post-treatment results of both questionnaires was found (Spearman coefficient 0.43, p = 0.0003 and 0.73, p < 0.0001, respectively). Baseline questionnaire analysis revealed no differences in cough severity between patients with different cough causes or multiple cough causes. Although specific treatment resulted in a significant decrease of cough severity in the entire group, only partial improvement was noted. According to the visual analogue scale, a decrease of cough severity by at least 50% was achieved only in 54.4% of patients (37/68). Similarly, satisfactory improvement was noted in only 54.4% (37/68) of patients when using the 5-point scale. There were three sub-groups of patients, in whom no relevant decrease of cough severity was observed despite treatment: patients with 1. three coexisting cough causes, 2. non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, and 3. chronic idiopathic cough. Conclusions Cough severity does not depend on its etiology. Efficacy of chronic cough treatment in non-smoking patients is only moderate. PMID:25395948
Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S.; Cruz, J.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Moore, A. W.; Polet, J.; Liu, Z.; Agram, P. S.; Lundgren, P.
ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech coordinated project to automate InSAR and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. Geodetic imaging's unique ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution allows us to resolve the fault geometry and distribution of slip associated with earthquakes in high spatial & temporal detail. In certain cases, it can be complementary to seismic data, providing constraints on location, geometry, or magnitude that is difficult to determine with seismic data alone. In addition, remote sensing with SAR provides change detection and damage assessment capabilities for earthquakes, floods and other disasters that can image even at night or through clouds. We have built an end-to-end prototype geodetic imaging data system that forms the foundation for a hazard response and science analysis capability that integrates InSAR, high-rate GPS, seismology, and modeling to deliver monitoring, science, and situational awareness products. This prototype incorporates state-of-the-art InSAR and GPS analysis algorithms from technologists and scientists. The products have been designed and a feasibility study conducted in collaboration with USGS scientists in the earthquake and volcano science programs. We will present results that show the capabilities of this data system in terms of latency, data processing capacity, quality of automated products, and feasibility of use for analysis of large SAR and GPS data sets and for earthquake response activities.
Hayes, R P; Seftel, A; Rosen, R C; Althof, S; Shen, W; Shih, T; Sontag, A
The objective of this study was to perform psychometric testing of two new patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs), the Confidence in Performing Sexual Intercourse Questionnaire (CPSIQ) and the Difficulty in Performing Sexual Intercourse Questionnaire (DPSIQ). The new PROs were administered at non-drug, run-in, baseline and end point in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) participating in a randomized clinical trial of ED treatment (Study 1, n=291) and two times within 2 weeks to men with ED participating in a web-based survey (Study 2, n=71). Psychometric tests included factor analysis, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness. Analysis of data from Study 1 participants (74% ?65 years, 83% Caucasian and 75% with moderate ED) suggested one-factor solutions for both PROs with Cronbach's ? >0.88. CPSIQ and DPSIQ total scores discriminated between ED severity groups showed worsening after a 4-week non-drug, run-in period, and showed improvement after 12 weeks of ED treatment (all, P<0.05). Intraclass correlation coefficients calculated for the CPSIQ and DPSIQ, using data from Study 2 participants (82% ?65 years, 90% Caucasian and 66% with mild ED), were 0.56 and 0.83, respectively. The CPSIQ and DPSIQ show potential for augmenting existing treatment outcome measures used in the evaluation of ED treatment. PMID:24335748
Grubbs, Joseph R.; Tolleson-Rinehart, Sue; Huynh, Kyle; Davis, Richard M.
Purpose Dry eye disease (DED) is an ocular disease that affects 5% to 17% of the US population. Because of the negative effects of DED on patients’ quality of life (QOL), disease-specific questionnaires that assess QOL in patients with dry eyes are essential in the monitoring and management of this chronic ocular condition. This review provides clinicians and researchers with a summary of the current questionnaires available for assessing QOL in patients with dry eyes. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed in March 2013. Results There are only 2 validated, reliable dry eye questionnaires with QOL measures currently available for clinic use: the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life questionnaire (IDEEL). Multiple other dry eye questionnaires assess some degree of QOL, but they have either not been tested for validity and reliability or are limited in QOL measures they assess. Conclusions The OSDI and IDEEL are validated, reliable disease-specific questionnaires that assess QOL measures in patients with DED. Because of its extensive development process and multiple QOL measures, the IDEEL offers a more thorough assessment of the effect of DED on QOL for clinical trials, whereas the OSDI may be the more convenient option for clinical use as a result of its shorter completion time. Other questionnaires used to assess QOL in DED (eg, 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire and Texas Eye Research and Technology Center DEQ) are fairly limited in this assessment. Finally, because of the negative effects of DED on QOL, this review emphasizes the importance of including QOL measures in future questionnaires for the monitoring and management of DED. PMID:24326332
Eliot, John; Czarnolewski, Mark Y
The authors developed a 12-category, 116-item critical incident questionnaire of spatial behavior. The authors administered the Everyday Spatial Behavioral Questionnaire (ESBQ) to volunteer undergraduates (114 women, and 31 men) and tests of spatial ability to establish both the reliability and construct validity of the instrument. The authors found that Cronbach's alpha across the subscale scores was .92, and that 8 of the 12 subscales had alphas of .70 or greater. The authors found validity of the ESBQ through canonical correlation analysis. Specifically, spatial tests, gender, and age variables, jointly with the ESBQ subscales, identified 2 apparent continua of spatial skills. The authors labeled the first continuum movement through space (from moving a vehicle at one end of the continuum, to moving one's own body through space at the other end of the continuum). The authors labeled the second identified continuum drawing/perceiving perspective/path finding, and it appeared to represent a continuum of 3-dimensional visualization or redirection. Another suggested label was dimensional discernment. Thus, the ESBQ is a first step toward identifying new ways to think about and quantify people's spatial experience. PMID:17824404
Osman, A; Gutierrez, P M; Downs, W R; Kopper, B A; Barrios, F X; Haraburda, C M
Described are the development and initial psychometric properties (Ns = 50 and 188) of a self-report measure, the Student Worry Questionnaire-30, for use with college undergraduates. Exploratory principal components analyses (Ns = 388, 350, and 396) with oblimin rotation indicated six domains of worrisome thinking, financial-related concerns, significant others' well-being, social adequacy concerns, academic concerns, and general anxiety symptoms. The total score and scale scores showed internal consistency of .80 to .94. Also, test-retest reliability analyses (.75 to .80) support consistency of responses over 4 wk. Strong evidence for convergent validity) was indicated. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the fit of the 6-factor oblique model. Limitations of the present studies, and directions for research are discussed. PMID:11293042
Bergman, R Lindsey; Keller, Melody L; Piacentini, John; Bergman, Andrea J
Research on selective mutism (SM) has been limited by the absence of standardized, psychometrically sound assessment measures. The purpose of our investigation was to present two studies that examined the factor structure and initial reliability and validity of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ), a 17-item parent report measure of failure to speak related to SM. Study 1 (N = 589) utilized an Internet sample of parents of children ages 3 to 11 to demonstrate that the SMQ has a theoretically and clinically meaningful factor structure accounting for a significant portion of variance in responses with good internal consistency. Study 2 (N = 66) supported the validity of the SMQ in that scores discriminated clinic-referred children with SM from children with other anxiety disorders. Scores on the SMQ were correlated with measures of several theoretically and clinically important dimensions. PMID:18470781
Ellegård, Rada; Crisci, Elisa; Burgener, Adam; Sjöwall, Christopher; Birse, Kenzie; Westmacott, Garrett; Hinkula, Jorma; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Larsson, Marie
Immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in genital and rectal mucosa may be one of the first cells to come into contact with HIV-1 during sexual transmission of virus. HIV-1 activates the host complement system, which results in opsonization of virus by inactivated complement fragments, for example, iC3b. We investigated antiviral and inflammatory responses induced in human iDCs after exposure to free HIV-1 (F-HIV), complement-opsonized HIV-1 (C-HIV), and complement and Ab-opsonized HIV-1 (CI-HIV). F-HIV gave rise to a significantly higher expression of antiviral factors such as IFN-?, myxovirus resistance protein A, and IFN-stimulated genes, compared with C-HIV and CI-HIV. Additionally, F-HIV induced inflammatory factors such as IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?, whereas these responses were weakened or absent after C-HIV or CI-HIV exposure. The responses induced by F-HIV were TLR8-dependent with subsequent activation of IFN regulatory factor 1, p38, ERK, PI3K, and NF-?B pathways, whereas these responses were not induced by C-HIV, which instead induced activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and Lyn. This modulation of TLR8 signaling was mediated by complement receptor 3 and led to enhanced infection. The impact that viral hijacking of the complement system has on iDC function could be an important immune evasion mechanism used by HIV-1 to establish infection in the host. PMID:25252956
Socha, Alan; Sigler, Ellen A.
The "Revised Learning Process Questionnaire" has been part of the development of a conceptual understanding of how students learn and what motivates them to engage in particular tasks. We obtained responses from 329 student volunteers at a mid-sized public university in the southeast USA. We first investigated whether the psychometric properties…
Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Hobkirk, Andrea L.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Earleywine, Mitch
Mindfulness, a construct that entails moment-to-moment effort to be aware of present experiences and positive attitudinal features, has become integrated into the sciences. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), one popular measure of mindfulness, exhibits different responses to positively and negatively worded items in nonmeditating…
Dietrich, Hanno; Ehrlenspiel, Felix
Cognitive models postulate that respondents to a questionnaire follow a four-stage process when answering a question: comprehension, memory retrieval, decision, and response. Cognitive interviewing is a qualitative tool to gain insight into this process by means of letting respondents think aloud or asking them specific questions (Willis, 2005).…
This article presents an activity that makes use of a questionnaire similar to a Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) which elicit students' responses about their previous speaking experiences, their own definitions of anxiety and its causes, and their plans for future careers. This activity is aimed at helping students overcome…
Socha, Alan; Sigler, Ellen A.
The "Revised Learning Process Questionnaire" has been part of the development of a conceptual understanding of how students learn and what motivates them to engage in particular tasks. We obtained responses from 329 student volunteers at a mid-sized public university in the southeast United States. While looking at the psychometric properties of…
Meijer, Joost; Sleegers, Peter; Elshout-Mohr, Marianne; van Daalen-Kapteijns, Maartje; Meeus, Wil; Tempelaar, Dirk
Background: Interest in the role of metacognition has been steadily rising in most forms of education. This study focuses on the construction of a questionnaire for measuring metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive regulation and metacognitive responsiveness among students in higher education and the subsequent process of testing to determine its…
Dik, Bryan J.; Eldridge, Brandy M.; Steger, Michael F.; Duffy, Ryan D.
Research on work as a calling is limited by measurement concerns. In response, the authors introduce the multidimensional Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Brief Calling scale (BCS), instruments assessing presence of, and search for, a calling. Study 1 describes CVQ development using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis…
Muraki, Eiji; Engelhard, George, Jr.
Recent developments in dichotomous factor analysis based on multidimensional item response models (Bock and Aitkin, 1981; Muthen, 1978) provide an effective method for exploring the dimensionality of questionnaire items. Implemented in the TESTFACT program, this "full information" item factor analysis accounts not only for the pairwise joint…
Leyfer, Ovsanna; John, Angela E.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet; Mervis, Carolyn B.
To examine the factor structure of temperament in 5-10-year-olds with Williams syndrome, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the responses of parents of 192 children on the children's behavior questionnaire. Four factors were identified. Two corresponded to factors reported for typically developing children: effortful control and…
Allen, Rae M.; Abdulwadud, Omar A.; Jones, Michael P.; Abramson, Michael; Walters, Haydn
Using the responses of 115 adults attending an asthma educator training course, the Asthma General Knowledge Questionnaire for Adults (AGKQA) was found to be an acceptably valid and reliable measure for assessing knowledge related to the management of asthma by adults. (Author/MKA)
Englische Oberstufenlektuere in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage bei den Studienanfaengern der Anglistik im Wintersemester 1975-76 (Upper-Grade English Reading in North Rhine-Westphalia. Results of a Questionnaire Given to Beginners in English Philology in the Winter Semester 1975-76).
A questionnaire given to German university students of English revealed that their recollection of their upper-level high school English reading courses tended to be limited to a few works by a few authors. This is seen as regrettable, considering the wide variety of works available. (IFS/WGA)
The Descriptive Questionnaire data set provides demographic information about each of the households and indicates the primary respondent within each residence. The information is from 1225 Descriptive Questionnaires for 1225 households. The database contains only a portion of ...
The Descriptive Questionnaire data set contains demographic information about each of the households and indicates the primary respondent within each residence. The information is from 380 descriptive questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The data set contains only ...
The Technician Walk-through Questionnaire data set updates information about each household from the Descriptive Questionnaire and includes relevant information regarding dwelling arrangements, as well as interior and exterior residential characteristics. The information is from...
Remillard, Meegan L.; Mazor, Kathleen M.; Cutrona, Sarah L.; Gurwitz, Jerry H.; Tjia, Jennifer
Background/Objectives The use of internet-based questionnaires to collect information from older adults is not well established. This systematic literature review of studies using online questionnaires in older adult populations aims to 1. describe methodologic approaches to population targeting and sampling and 2. summarize limitations of Internet-based questionnaires in geriatric populations. Design, Setting, Participants We identified English language articles using search terms for geriatric, age 65 and over, Internet survey, online survey, Internet questionnaire, and online questionnaire in PubMed and EBSCO host between 1984 and July 2012. Inclusion criteria were: study population mean age ?65 years old and use of an online questionnaire for research. Review of 336 abstracts yielded 14 articles for full review by 2 investigators; 11 articles met inclusion criteria. Measurements Articles were extracted for study design and setting, patient characteristics, recruitment strategy, country, and study limitations. Results Eleven (11) articles were published after 2001. Studies had populations with a mean age of 65 to 78 years, included descriptive and analytical designs, and were conducted in the United States, Australia, and Japan. Recruiting methods varied widely from paper fliers and personal emails to use of consumer marketing panels. Investigator-reported study limitations included the use of small convenience samples and limited generalizability. Conclusion Online questionnaires are a feasible method of surveying older adults in some geographic regions and for some subsets of older adults, but limited Internet access constrains recruiting methods and often limits study generalizability. PMID:24635138
Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest that improvements and adaptations in translation are required for select items, especially within the perception of management scale. Following these revisions, psychometric properties should reassessed in a randomly selected sample and hospitals and departments prior to use in Swiss hospital settings. PMID:24016183
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide evidence for the validity and reliability of a questionnaire for assessing the implementation of problem-based learning (PBL). This questionnaire was developed to assess the quality of PBL implementation from the perspective of medical school graduates. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the questionnaire. The analysis was based on a survey of 225 graduates of a problem-based medical school in Indonesia. Results: The results showed that the confirmatory factor analysis model had a good fit to the data. Further, the values of the standardized loading estimates, the squared inter-construct correlations, the average variances extracted, and the composite reliabilities all provided evidence of construct validity. Conclusion: The PBL implementation questionnaire was found to be valid and reliable, making it suitable for evaluation purposes. PMID:26072901
Ammenwerth, Elske; Kaiser, Frieda; Wilhelmy, Immanuel; Höfer, Stefan
The use of modern information technology (IT) offers tremendous opportunities such as reducing clinical errors and supporting health care professionals in providing care. Evaluation of user satisfaction is often seen as a surrogate for the success of an information systems. We will present the evaluation of a report writing system at the Innsbruck University Medical Center based on a standardized, validated psychometric questionnaire. The results show high reliability and validity of the questionnaire. They also show some interesting differences in user satisfaction between departments, due to differences in working processes and preconditions. Psychometric questionnaires can be seen as a reliable and valid method to measure certain psychological constructs. Their development requires, however, methodological rigour and sufficient time. Psychometric questionnaires allow only a limited interaction between researcher and user, their results may be very dependant on the time of measurement, and their interpretation often needs external knowledge. Those limitations have to be taken into account when preparing evaluation studies. PMID:14664060
Background Demographic development is accompanied by an increasingly aging society. Concerning medical education, the treatment of older people as well as the scientific research and exploration of ageing aspects in the coming years need to be considered. Aim of the study was to ascertain medical students’ knowledge, interest, and attitudes regarding older patients and geriatric medicine. Methods Each participant completed a self-designed questionnaire. This questionnaire was based on three validated internationally recognised questionnaires (“Facts on Aging Quiz – FAQ”, “Expectations Regarding Aging – ERA” and the “Aging Semantic Differential – ASD”). The inquiry and survey were performed at the beginning of the summer term in 2012 at the University of Regensburg Medical School. Results A total of n?=?184/253 (72.7%) students participated in this survey. The results of the FAQ 25+ showed that respondents were able to answer an average of M?=?20.4 of 36 questions (56.7%) correctly (Median, Md?=?21; SD ±6.1). The personal attitudes and expectations of ageing averaged M?=?41.2 points on the Likert-scale that ranged from 0 to 100 (Md?=?40.4; SD ±13.7). Respondents’ attitudes towards the elderly (ASD 24) averaged M?=?3.5 points on the Likert-scale (range 1–7, Md 3.6, SD ±0.8). Conclusions In our investigation, medical students’ knowledge of ageing was comparable to previous surveys. Attitudes and expectations of ageing were more positive compared to previous studies. Overall, medical students expect markedly high cognitive capacities towards older people that can actively prevent cognitive impairment. However, medical students’ personal interest in medicine of ageing and older people seems to be rather slight. PMID:25062568
Lopez-Pamies, Oscar; Goudarzi, Taha; Nakamura, Toshio
A solution is constructed for the problem of the overall elastic response of ideal (Gaussian or, equivalently, Neo-Hookean) rubber reinforced by a dilute isotropic distribution of rigid particles under arbitrarily large deformations. The derivation makes use of a novel iterative homogenization technique in finite elasticity that allows to construct exact solutions for the homogenization problem of two-phase nonlinear elastic composites with particulate microstructures. The solution is fully explicit for axisymmetric loading, but is otherwise given in terms of an Eikonal partial differential equation in two variables for general loading conditions. In the limit of small deformations, it reduces to the classical Einstein-Smallwood result for dilute suspensions of rigid spherical particles. The solution is further confronted to 3D finite-element simulations for the large-deformation response of a rubber block containing a single rigid spherical inclusion of infinitesimal size. The two results are found to be in good agreement for all loading conditions. We conclude this work by devising a closed-form approximation to the constructed solution which is remarkably accurate and — as elaborated in Part II — proves particularly amenable as a fundamental building block to generate approximate solutions for suspensions with finite concentration of particles.
Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.; Roesch, Scott C.
Objective To evaluate the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire. Method Diagnostic interviews were administered via telephone to 102 parents of children identified with selective mutism (SM) and 43 parents of children without SM from varying U.S. geographic regions. Children were between the ages of 3 and 11 inclusive and comprised 58% girls and 42% boys. SM diagnoses were determined using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children - Parent Version (ADIS-C/P); SM severity was assessed using the 17-item Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ); and behavioral and affective symptoms were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to investigate the dimensionality of the SMQ and a modified parallel analysis procedure was used to confirm EFA results. Internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental validity were also examined. Results The EFA yielded a 13-item solution consisting of three factors: a) Social Situations Outside of School, b) School Situations, and c) Home and Family Situations. Internal consistency of SMQ factors and total scale ranged from moderate to high. Convergent and incremental validity were also well supported. Conclusions Measure structure findings are consistent with the 3-factor solution found in a previous psychometric evaluation of the SMQ. Results also suggest that the SMQ provides useful and unique information in the prediction of SM phenomenon beyond other child anxiety measures. PMID:18698268
The Follow-up questionnaire data set contains information concerning the activities within the household during the sampling week. The information is from 402 follow-up questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The Follow-up Questionnaire specifically addressed the time ...
The Baseline Questionnaire data set provides information about each household and its primary respondent. The information is from 380 baseline questionnaires for 80 households across 6 cycles. The Baseline Questionnaire was administered to the primary respondent during a face-t...
Harris, Sandra M.
This paper explains the process used to validate the construct validity of the Factors Influencing Pursuit of Higher Education Questionnaire. This questionnaire is a literature-based, researcher-developed instrument which gathers information on the factors thought to affect a person's decision to pursue higher education. The questionnaire includes…
Kember, David; Leung, Doris Y. P.
This article uses the case of designing a new course questionnaire to discuss the issues of validity, reliability and diagnostic power in good questionnaire design. Validity is often not well addressed in course questionnaire design as there are no straightforward tests that can be applied to an individual instrument. The authors propose the…
T. R. Zijlstra; E. Taal; Laar van de M. A. F. J; J. J. Rasker
Objectives. To validate a Dutch translation of the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ). Materials and methods. Data were taken from two randomized clinical trials on Spa treatment and venlafaxine in fibromyalgia (FM). Participants completed the Dutch FIQ and a set of validated questionnaires for general health (RAND-36), depression (Beck depression inventory, BDI), pain (McGill pain questionnaire, MPQ) and fatigue (checklist individual
Rasmussen, Sonja A; Redd, Stephen C
As the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other government agencies prepared for a possible H7N9 pandemic, many questions arose about the virus's expected burden and the effectiveness of key interventions. Public health decision makers need information to compare interventions so that efforts can be focused on interventions most likely to have the greatest impact on morbidity and mortality. To guide decision making, CDC's pandemic response leadership turned to experts in modeling for assistance. H7N9 modeling results provided a quantitative estimate of the impact of different interventions and emphasized the importance of key assumptions. In addition, these H7N9 modeling efforts highlighted the need for modelers to work closely with investigators collecting data so that model assumptions can be adjusted as new information becomes available and with decision makers to ensure that the results of modeling impact policy decisions. PMID:25878303
Pérez-Escamilla, Beatriz; Franco-Trigo, Lucía; Moullin, Joanna C; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; García-Corpas, José P
Background Low adherence to pharmacological treatments is one of the factors associated with poor blood pressure control. Questionnaires are an indirect measurement method that is both economic and easy to use. However, questionnaires should meet specific criteria, to minimize error and ensure reproducibility of results. Numerous studies have been conducted to design questionnaires that quantify adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether questionnaires fulfil the minimum requirements of validity and reliability. The aim of this study was to compile validated questionnaires measuring adherence to pharmacological antihypertensive treatments that had at least one measure of validity and one measure of reliability. Methods A literature search was undertaken in PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS]). References from included articles were hand-searched. The included papers were all that were published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish from the beginning of the database’s indexing until July 8, 2013, where a validation of a questionnaire (at least one demonstration of the validity and at least one of reliability) was performed to measure adherence to antihypertensive pharmacological treatments. Results A total of 234 potential papers were identified in the electronic database search; of these, 12 met the eligibility criteria. Within these 12 papers, six questionnaires were validated: the Morisky–Green–Levine; Brief Medication Questionnaire; Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale; Morisky Medication Adherence Scale; Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patients with Hypertension (TAQPH); and Martín–Bayarre–Grau. Questionnaire length ranged from four to 28 items. Internal consistency, assessed by Cronbach’s ?, varied from 0.43 to 0.889. Additional statistical techniques utilized to assess the psychometric properties of the questionnaires varied greatly across studies. Conclusion At this stage, none of the six questionnaires included could be considered a gold standard. However, this revision will assist health professionals in the selection of the most appropriate tool for their individual circumstances. PMID:25926723
Juan Bagó; Francisco J. S. Pérez-Grueso; Esther Les; Pablo Hernández; Ferran Pellisé
The responsiveness of an instrument measuring health-related quality of life is an important indication of its construct validity.\\u000a The SRS-22 Patient Questionnaire has become the most widely used patient-reported outcome instrument in the clinical evaluation\\u000a of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The responsiveness of the SRS-22 following surgical treatment in patients with idiopathic\\u000a scoliosis has not been fully assessed. The aim
Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr.
Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.
Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr.
Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.
Johnson, P.A.; McCall, K.R.; Meegan, G.D. Jr.
Experiments in rock show a large nonlinear elastic wave response, far greater than that of gases, liquids and most other solids. The large response is attributed to structural defects in rock including microcracks and grain boundaries. In the earth, a large nonlinear response may be responsible for significant spectral alteration at amplitudes and distances currently considered to be well within the linear elastic regime.
Background The General Practice Assessment Questionnaire (GPAQ) has been widely used to assess patient experience in general practice in the UK since 2004. In 2013, new regulations were introduced by the General Medical Council (GMC) requiring UK doctors to undertake periodic revalidation, which includes assessment of patient experience for individual doctors. We describe the development of a new version of GPAQ – GPAQ-R which addresses the GMC’s requirements for revalidation as well as additional NHS requirements for surveys that GPs may need to carry out in their own practices. Methods Questionnaires were given out by doctors or practice staff after routine consultations in line with the guidance given by the General Medical Council for surveys to be used for revalidation. Data analysis and practice reports were provided independently. Results Data were analysed for questionnaires from 7258 patients relating to 164 GPs in 29 general practices. Levels of missing data were generally low (typically 4.5-6%). The number of returned questionnaires required to achieve reliability of 0.7 were around 35 for individual doctor communication items and 29 for a composite score based on doctor communication items. This suggests that the responses to GPAQ-R had similar reliability to the GMC’s own questionnaire and we recommend 30 completed GPAQ-R questionnaires are sufficient for revalidation purposes. However, where an initial screen raises concern, the survey might be repeated with 50 completed questionnaires in order to increase reliability. Conclusions GPAQ-R is a development of a well-established patient experience questionnaire used in general practice in the UK since 2004. This new version can be recommended for use in order to meet the UK General Medical Council’s requirements for surveys to be used in revalidation of doctors. It also meets the needs of GPs to ask about patient experience relating to aspects of practice care that are not specific to individual general practitioners (e.g. receptionists, telephone access) which meet other survey requirements of the National Health Service in England. Use of GPAQ-R has the potential to reduce the number of surveys that GPs need to carry out in their practices to meet the various regulatory requirements which they face. PMID:24138508
Wise, Steven L.
The randomized response technique, constructed by Warner (1965), was designed to reduce the number of untruthful responses to sensitive questionnaire items. The present study investigated the effectiveness of this technique for groups differing in the tendency to give socially desirable responses to questionnaire items. A questionnaire concerning…
Martin, Gary L.; Newman, Ian M.
A sample of 38 ninth-grade students was tested with a randomized response questionnaire designed to ask respondents sensitive questions with the assurance that responses would remain anonymous. Results of the investigation indicate that this technique can be used effectively with ninth-grade students and with large groups of individuals to obtain…
Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria; Tavormina, Romina; Nemoianni, Eugenio; Tavormina, Giuseppe
Psychiatric patients often suffer for two reasons: due to the illness and due to the social stigma of mental illness, that increases the uneasiness and psychic pain of the person suffering from serious psychiatric disorder. This unwell person is often the object of stigma because he is "different" from others, and he also can be margenalised by society. In this study we intend to assess whether these margenalising attitudes might be also present among mental health professionals who have presented psychic problems in a previous period of their life, against sick persons suffering of the same illness even if he is a mental health professional. Two questionnaires have been developed, one for professionals and another for the patients, with the aim of identifying these marginalising attitudes. We intend that this study shall be a multicenter, observational and international study, promoted by the Mental Health Dept. of Naples (ASL Naples 3 South, Italy). PMID:26417789
Yuan, Lei; Chang, Hui; He, Da-Ren
The China High Education Publisher distributed ten thousands of questionnaires to university students for knowing their satisfaction degree on the published textbooks. We empirically investigate the statistical properties by using a network description. In the network the vertices are defined as textbooks, two vertices are connected by an edge when the students in a common specialty used them. A student specialty is defined as an act. The average satisfaction degree mark given by students on each textbook is defined as the vertex weight. Some statistical properties have been obtained. The degree distribution shows an exponential decay, while the act degree distribution shows a SPL function that indicates an interpolation between a power law and an exponential decay. Both the dependence of the clustering coefficient on the vertex degree and the cumulative vertex weight distribution show SPL functions. The assortativity shows a positive number, 0.14.
Der-Karabetian, Aghop; Berberian, Suzanne; Der-Boghossian, Adrineh
The purpose of this study was to report the development of a shorter revised version of the 57-item Armenian Ethnic Orientation Questionnaire. Data from two different independently conducted studies were presented. One of the studies used a convenient sample from Pasadena, California (n = 155) composed of Armenian adolescents (48% girls, 52% boys; with a mean age of 15.6 yr., SD = 1.2) who attended public schools. The second study used a convenient sample from Toronto, Ontario (n = 108) composed of community members at large (48% women, 52% men; with a mean age of 34.0 yr., SD = 15.3). A revision of 15 items rated on a 6-point scale showed good scale score reliability and construct validity. In both studies, scores on the revised version differentiated native-born from immigrant groups and were correlated with more ethnic behaviors and greater involvement. PMID:18175489
Noest, Stefan; Ludt, Sabine; Klingenberg, Anja; Glassen, Katharina; Heiss, Friederike; Ose, Dominik; Rochon, Justine; Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Wensing, Michel; Szecsenyi, Joachim
Objective The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a generic questionnaire to evaluate experiences and reported outcomes in patients who receive treatment across a range of healthcare sectors. Design Mixed-methods design including focus groups, pretests and field test. Setting The patient questionnaire was developed in the context of a nationwide program in Germany aimed at quality improvements across the healthcare sectors. Participants For the field test, 589 questionnaires were distributed to patients via 47 general practices. Main Measurements Descriptive item analyzes non-responder analysis and factor analysis (PCA). Retest coefficients (r) calculated by correlation of sum scores of PCA factors. Quality gaps were assessed by the proportion of responders choosing a response category defined as indicating shortcomings in quality of care. Results The conceptual phase showed good content validity. Four hundred and seventy-four patients who received a range of treatment across a range of sectors were included (response rate: 80.5%). Data analysis confirmed the construct, oriented to the patient care journey with a focus on transitions between healthcare sectors. Quality gaps were assessed for the topics ‘Indication’, including shared-decision-making (6 items, 24.5–62.9%) and ‘Discharge and Transition’ (10 items; 20.7–48.2%). Retest coefficients ranged from r = 0.671 until r = 0.855 and indicated good reliability. Low ratios of item-non-response (0.8–9.3%) confirmed a high acceptance by patients. Conclusions The number of patients with complex healthcare needs is increasing. Initiatives to expand quality assurance across organizational borders and healthcare sectors are therefore urgently needed. A validated questionnaire (called PEACS 1.0) is available to measure patients' experiences across healthcare sectors with a focus on quality improvement. PMID:24758750
Blazeby, Jane M.; Hall, Emma; Aaronson, Neil K.; Lloyd, Lisa; Waters, Rachel; Kelly, John D.; Fayers, Peter
Background Well-developed and well-tested patient-reported outcome measures for non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) are required. Objective To test and adapt the scale structure and explore the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire for NMIBC. Design, setting, and participants A total of 433 patients in the Bladder COX-2 Inhibition Trial (BOXIT) completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and NMIBC questionnaires. BOXIT is evaluating the addition of celecoxib to standard treatment in high- and intermediate-risk NMIBC. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Multitrait scaling investigated and adapted the questionnaire scale structure and evaluated the reliability and validity of the revised scales, as well as responsiveness to change. Results and limitations A total of 410 patients (94.7%) (79.3% men, 74.6% high risk) returned baseline forms, and the questionnaire response rate was 88.2%. Multitrait scaling confirmed six scales and five single items. Scales and items demonstrated significant differences between patients with good and poor performance status scores (p < 0.001). Men reported better sexual function than women (p < 0.001). Scale and single-item module scores were not highly correlated with QLQ-C30 scores (evidence of discriminant validity), and the module was responsive to changes in health over time. International and test–retest data are required. Conclusions This study demonstrates the evidence-driven adapted scale structure and psychometric data of the EORTC QLQ-NMIBC24 module to use in clinical trials of patients with high- or intermediate-risk bladder cancer. PMID:24612661