Background During the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the negative effects that providing therapy may have on therapists. Of special interest is a phenomenon called secondary traumatization, which can arise while working with traumatized clients. To develop a simple screening tool for secondary traumatization, a quantitative assessment instrument was constructed using a data-driven approach based on qualitative interviews with affected trauma therapists as well as experienced supervisors in trauma therapy. Objective The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the newly developed Questionnaire for Secondary Traumatization (FST) acute and lifetime version and to determine the most appropriate scoring procedure. Method To this end, three independent samples of psychotherapists (n=371), trauma therapists in training (n=80), and refugee counselors (n=197) filled out an online questionnaire battery. Data structure was analyzed using factor analyses, cluster analyses, and reliability analyses. Results Factor analyses yielded a six-factor structure for both the acute and the lifetime version with only a small number of items loading on differing factors. Cluster analyses suggested a single scale structure of the questionnaire. The FST total score showed good internal consistencies across all three samples, while internal consistency of the six extracted factors was mixed. Conclusion With the FST, a reliable screening instrument for acute and lifetime secondary traumatization is now available which is free of charge and yields a sum score for quick evaluation. The six-factor structure needs to be verified with confirmatory factor analyses. PMID:24427450
Weitkamp, Katharina; Daniels, Judith K.; Klasen, Fionna
The structure of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (Lambert et al., 2001) was examined in a sample of 1,100 university counseling center clients using confirmatory factor analysis. Specifically, the relative fit of 1-factor, 3-factor orthogonal, 3-factor oblique, 4-factor hierarchical, and 4-factor bilevel models were examined. Although the 3-factor…
Bludworth, Jamie L.; Tracey, Terence J. G.; Glidden-Tracey, Cynthia
Valid and reliable instruments to measure monitoring attitudes of clinicians are scarce. The influence of sociodemographics and professional characteristics on monitoring attitudes is largely unknown. First, we investigated the factor structure and reliability of the Outcome Measurement Questionnaire among a sample of Flemish mental health professionals (n = 170). Next, we examined the relationship between clinicians' sociodemographic and professional characteristics and monitoring attitudes. Construct validity was determined using a confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency was ascertained using Cronbach's alpha. Mean level differences in monitoring attitudes related to clinicians' gender, work setting, level of education and psychotherapeutic training, were investigated using ANOVAs. The relationships between clinicians' age, clinical experience and attitudes were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A model with one general factor and a method factor referring to reverse-worded items best fitted our data. Internal consistency was good. Clinicians with psychotherapeutic training reported more favorable monitoring attitudes than those without such training. Compared to clinicians working in subsidized outpatient services, private practitioners and clinicians from inpatient mental health clinics had more positive attitudes. Results highlight the need for sustained and targeted training, with particular focus on transforming measurement data into meaningful clinical support tools. PMID:25315180
Smits, Dave F; Claes, Laurence; Stinckens, Nele; Smits, Dirk J M
OBJECTIVE--To assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the short form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire (a shortened version of a battery of 149 health status questions) as a measure of patient outcome in a broad sample of patients suffering from four common clinical conditions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire, followed up by two reminders at two week intervals. SETTING--Clinics and four
A M Garratt; D A Ruta; M I Abdalla; J K Buckingham; I T Russell
This study tested the appropriateness of Outcome Questionnaire-45 norms for Asian and Pacific Islander students. Both groups scored higher, based on participants' self-reported general functioning, than the norms and more frequently met criteria for clinical classification, a possible indication of greater distress. This article discusses findings…
Gregersen, Ann T.; Nebeker, R. Scott; Seely, Kenneth L.; Lambert, Michael J.
Sensitivity to change of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ; M. J. Lambert et al., 1996) items, subscales, and total score was evaluated for clients receiving personal counseling in university counseling center settings. OQ data collected for 248 university students who did not receive treatment and 5,553 students who received treatment from 527…
Vermeersch, David A.; Whipple, Jason L.; Lambert, Michael J.; Hawkins, Eric J.; Burchfield, Colin M.; Okiishi, John C.
The objective of this study was to pilot test a Nutrition Health Outcomes Questionnaire (NHOQ) designed to identify overweight/obese persons at risk for funcitonal decline and increased healthcare use. The NHOQ is a 14-item self-administered survey that queries body weight/weight change, dietary pr...
BackgroundThe Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire (CSOQ), a disease-specific outcomes instrument, has not been systematically compared with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) or the Neck Disability Index (NDI).
Richard L. Skolasky; Lee H. Riley; Todd J. Albert
The predominant definition of apoptosis considers that the elimination of the apoptosing cell is by heterolytic degradation following phagocytosis by an assisting scavenger (efferocytosis). However, an alternative and largely underestimated outcome of apoptosis is secondary necrosis, an autolytic process of cell disintegration with release of cell components that occurs when there is no intervention of scavengers and the full apoptotic program is completed. Secondary necrosis is the typical outcome of apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes but, importantly, it may also occur in multicellular animals and has been implicated in the genesis of important human pathologies. Secondary necrosis is a mode of cell elimination with specific molecular and morphological features and should be considered the natural outcome of the complete apoptotic program. PMID:20974143
Silva, Manuel T
The purposes of this study were to examine the readability of published patient-related outcome (PRO) questionnaires for persons with swallowing problems, and to compare the readability results to existing data about average reading levels of English-speaking adults living in the United States. A search was conducted to identify published PRO questionnaires related to swallowing problems that traditionally are completed by patients in a self-administered format. Reading grade levels were analyzed separately for four different swallowing-related PRO questionnaires using the Flesch Reading Ease, FOG, and FORCAST formulas as computed by a readability calculations software package. Descriptive statistics were also computed across the questionnaires. The results of this study demonstrate that all four PRO questionnaires exceeded the fifth- to sixth-grade reading levels recommended by health literacy experts regardless of the formula applied. In the demand for standardization of swallowing-related quality-of-life assessment tools, developers should consider readability as another testable construct, since poor readability may affect validity, reliability, and sensitivity. The swallowing clinician should consider the average reading level needed to understand a particular PRO questionnaire when administering it to a patient or his or her proxy. Developers of PRO questionnaires should consider the reading level of respondents and include information about this when reporting psychometric data. PMID:22038114
Zraick, Richard I; Atcherson, Samuel R; Ham, Bonnie K
We aimed to validate a cross-culturally adapted version of the Persian Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHOQ). We followed the Beaton's guideline to translate the questionnaire to Persian. We administered the final version to 223 patients among which 79 patients returned 3 days later to respond to the Persian MHOQ for the second time. In the first visit, respondents also filled the Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and rated the pain based on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Cronbach's alpha for the total MHOQ was 0.79 which showed good internal consistency. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the total MHOQ was 0.84 which demonstrated good reliability between test and retest. The absolute correlation coefficient between total MHOQ and the DASH was as high as 0.74. Persian version of the MHOQ proved to be a reliable and valid instrument to be implemented among Persian population with the hand and wrist disorders. PMID:25609271
Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Kachooei, Amir Reza
Investigated the reliability and validity of the methods used to measure primary versus secondary alcoholism and claimed childhood symptoms of hyperkinesis/minimal brain dysfunction (Hk/MBD) in three separate studies (N=45), (N=53), (N=38). Results supported the Primary/Secondary Classification Questionnaire and the Hk/MBD Childhood Symptoms…
De Obaldia, Ricardo; Parsons, Oscar A.
Background: A patient-based outcome measure with good measurement properties is urgently needed for use in clinical trials of foot surgery.\\u000a Methods: We evaluated an existing foot pain and disability questionnaire (the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Questionnaire)\\u000a for its suitability as an outcome measure in the context of hallux valgus corrective surgery. Interviews with patients led\\u000a to initial changes, resulting
Jill Dawson; Jane Coffey; Helen Doll; Grahame Lavis; Paul Cooke; Mark Herron; Crispin Jenkinson
Background The Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ) has been used to assess a variety of hand and upper extremity injuries and conditions for nearly 15 years. It has been included in several overviews of upper extremity outcomes measures, but it has not been systematically examined regarding its clinimetric properties during field trials. Methods We conducted a review of the MHQ in the English language literature from 1998 through March 2012. Data from clinical studies were abstracted and compiled. Results The MHQ has been used in 58 clinical studies and its clinimetric properties have been analyzed in an additional 18 publications. The MHQ compares favorably with other hand outcomes instruments in the areas of test-retest reliability, validity, and responsiveness. High internal consistency may indicate redundancy within the items in the MHQ. The strength of the MHQ is its multidimensional construct in measuring patient-rated outcomes in symptom, function, aesthetics, and satisfaction. Conclusions The MHQ has been applied across a variety of conditions affecting the hand and upper limb. Its psychometric properties have been tested through field trials in various clinical settings around the world. Level of Evidence Systematic Review; Level II PMID:23629117
Shauver, Melissa J.; Chung, Kevin C.
OBJECTIVE--To assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the short form 36 (SF 36) health survey questionnaire (a shortened version of a battery of 149 health status questions) as a measure of patient outcome in a broad sample of patients suffering from four common clinical conditions. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire, followed up by two reminders at two week intervals. SETTING--Clinics and four training practices in north east Scotland. SUBJECTS--Over 1700 patients aged 16-86 with one of four conditions--low back pain, menorrhagia, suspected peptic ulcer, or varicose veins--and a comparison sample of 900 members of the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The eight scales within the SF36 health profile. RESULTS--The response rate exceeded 75% in the patient population (1310 respondents). The SF36 satisfied rigorous psychometric criteria for validity and internal consistency. Clinical validity was shown by the distinctive profiles generated for each condition, each of which differed from that in the general population in a predictable manner. Furthermore, SF36 scores were lower in referred patients than in patients not referred and were closely related to general practitioners' perceptions of severity. CONCLUSIONS--These results provide support for the SF36 as a potential measure of patient outcome within the NHS. The SF36 seems acceptable to patients, internally consistent, and a valid measure of the health status of a wide range of patients. Before it can be used in the new health service, however, its sensitivity to changes in health status over time must also be tested. PMID:8518640
Garratt, A M; Ruta, D A; Abdalla, M I; Buckingham, J K; Russell, I T
NEW JERSEY'S SPECIAL REVIEW ASSESSMENT (SRA): AN EXAMINATION OF THE POST SECONDARY OUTCOMES.............................................................................................................................................8 HISTORY OF ASSESSMENT: HSPA AND SRA IN NEW JERSEY....................................... 10
This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of a new version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ), which measures an extended set of psychosocial factors at work by adding new scales/items to the current version of the BJSQ. Additional scales/items were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaires in several countries. Scales/items were field-tested and refined through a pilot internet survey. Finally, an 84-item questionnaire (141 items in total when combined with the current BJSQ) was developed. A nationally representative survey was administered to employees in Japan (n=1,633) to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Principal component analyses showed that the first factor explained 50% or greater proportion of the variance in most scales. A scale factor analysis and a correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided a piece of evidence that the New BJSQ scales are reliable and valid. Although more detailed content and construct validity should be examined in future study, the New BJSQ is a useful instrument to evaluate psychosocial work environment and positive mental health outcomes in the current workplace. PMID:24492763
INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; SHIMOMITSU, Teruichi; TSUTSUMI, Akizumi; HARATANI, Takashi; YOSHIKAWA, Toru; SHIMAZU, Akihito; ODAGIRI, Yuko
OBJECTIVES--To test the acceptability, validity, and reliability of the short form 36 health survey questionnaire (SF-36) and to compare it with the Nottingham health profile. DESIGN--Postal survey using a questionnaire booklet together with a letter from the general practitioner. Non-respondents received two reminders at two week intervals. The SF-36 questionnaire was retested on a subsample of respondents two weeks after
J. E. Brazier; R. Harper; N. M. Jones; A. OCathain; K. J. Thomas; T. Usherwood; L. Westlake
PURPOSE: To test the validity of the Impact of Visual Impairment (IVI) questionnaire in a cataract population. SETTING:FlindersEyeCentre,FlindersMedicalCentre,FlindersUniversity,Adelaide,SouthAustralia. METHODS: Cataract patients recruited from a hospital waiting list completed the IVI questionnaire. The scale was assessed for fit to the Rasch model. Unidimensionality, item and person fit to the model, response category performance, differential item functioning (whether different subgroups responded differently),
Konrad Pesudovs; Lynda E Caudle; Gwyneth Rees; Ecosse L Lamoureux
Using a social cognitive theory framework, we examined the effects of career outcome expectations (COE) and aspiration to enter a science, technology, or math (STM) career on post-secondary academic motivation. Data were collected online from a sample of 380 post-secondary students in Canada and the United States. Analysis of covariance revealed…
Domene, Jose F.; Socholotiuk, Krista D.; Woitowicz, Lyndsay A.
This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools in the State. This population was made up of 147 rural schools and 110 urban schools. It was also made up of 12 single sex…
Adeyemi, T. O.
BACKGROUND: Changes in self-concept are an important potential outcome for many interventions for people with long-term conditions. This study sought to identify and evaluate outcome questionnaires suitable for quantifying changes in self-concept in people with long-term conditions, in the context of treatment with acupuncture and Chinese medicine. METHODS: A literature search was followed by an evaluation of three questionnaires: The
The multidisciplinary cancer care delivery paradigm is being widely implemented to assure quality care, and involves utilizing the collaborative expertise of clinicians from various disciplines to enable complex treatment decision-making and appropriate and timely care. As the first step in facilitating multidisciplinary cancer care research, the NCI developed the Multidisciplinary Treatment Planning (MTP) questionnaire. The instrument facilitates data collection for examining various MTP structures and processes being implemented in cancer care organizations.
This study investigated the differential effectiveness of various treatment formats for 55 couples in which the woman reported secondary orgasmic dysfunction (defined as the inability of the woman to reach orgasm during intercourse, with or without clitoral stimulation, more than 50% of the time for the last 5 months). Couples received two 2-hr sessions of sexual reeducation and were then
Peter R. Kilmann; Katherine H. Mills; Charlene Caid; Edward Davidson; Bonnie Bella; Richard Milan; Gerald Drose; Joseph Boland; Diane Follingstad; Bonnie Montgomery; Richard Wanlass
This study reports research findings on assessment of the science classroom learning environment and its association with two student outcomes--attitudes toward science and national examination scores. Modified versions of the WIHIC and TOSRA questionnaires in the Indonesian language were administered to 1400 students and their teachers. This…
Wahyudi; Treagust, David F.
Background: Patients with acetabular fractures frequently develop osteoarthritis, femoral head osteonecrosis, or heterotopic ossification. Secondary total hip arthroplasty (THA) seems a possible salvage procedure, but little is known about its long-term outcome in these individuals. Patients and Methods: At our institution, 37 patients aged 20-74 years (median 44 years) underwent secondary THA 4-235 months after having sustained an acetabular fracture.
Michael R. Sarkar; Emanuel Billharz; Nikolaus Wachter; Lothar Kinzl; Mark Bischoff
Purpose Several international committees involved in establishing standards of care have recommended that patients undergoing surgery for bladder outlet obstruction should be assessed with patient reported outcomes (PRO). The Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) is an instrument designed to measure a patients interpretation of symptom changes following intervention. The objective of this study was to validate the PGI-I as a PRO assessment following surgery for bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Men undergoing photoselective vaporisation of the prostate were followed prospectively. Pre- and postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Quality of life (QoL) index, peak urinary flow (Qmax), and postvoid residual (PVR) assessments were done. The PGI-I was conducted and correlated at 3 months postoperatively to changes in IPSS, QoL, Qmax, and PVR. Results One hundred and sixty-six consecutive patients were included. Following surgery, IPSS and QoL improved by 11 and 2.4 points (P<0.0001). PGI-I was found to correlate with postoperative changes in IPSS and QoL (Pearson correlation, 0.47 and 0.58, respectively; P<0.0001). Conclusions This is the first study to validate the PGI-I as a PRO measure to surgery for BOO. This suggests a potential for the PGI-I to be used to assess surgical therapies for BPH and may be a valuable addition for measuring outcomes in clinical trials evaluating surgical interventions for BPH.
Hossack, Tania; Woo, Henry
Background Blepharospasm is a focal cranial dystonia, which could be idiopathic in origin or secondary to an underlying disorder that commonly impairs quality of life. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections have become the treatment of choice; however, a less favorable response to BoNT is expected in secondary blepharospasm. No studies have been conducted comparing outcomes between blepharospasm cohorts. We therefore aim to compare BoNT outcomes in primary and secondary blepharospasm subjects. Methods A retrospective review of 64 blepharospasm subjects receiving BoNT therapy was conducted. Demographics, BoNT treatment schedules, duration of BoNT therapy, and side effects were recorded. Outcome measures were duration of benefit, peak-dose benefit recorded with the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGIS), and related side effects. Results No difference was found between the two cohorts regarding duration of benefit from treatment (primary 9.47 weeks vs. secondary 9.63 weeks, p?=?0.88). Perceived peak-dose benefit was more commonly reported as “very much improved” in secondary patients, but this was not significant (p?=?0.13). Higher BoNT dosages were required in both groups over time, with a mean increase of 20.5% in primary and 26.5% in secondary blepharospasm. Ptosis (8%) and diplopia (6%) were the most common reported side effects. Mean follow-up in years was similar between groups, 3.6 years for primary vs. 2.4 years for secondary blepharospasm (p?=?0.17). Discussion BoNT injections were effective with comparable benefits seen in both primary and secondary blepharospasm populations. Clinicians should be aware of the similar benefit from BoNT reported in secondary blepharospasm patients. The average duration of benefit in this cohort was comparable with previous reports.
Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Giugni, Juan C.; Hastings, Erin; Shukla, Aparna Wagle; Malaty, Irene A.; Okun, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Ramon L.
This study reports the test-retest reliability of a 25-item occupational risk factor questionnaire that can be self-administered in clinical settings and used in outcome studies of low back pain or return to work programs. Subjects were 24 patients (workers on sick leave due to acute low back pain), 29 co-workers on active duty in the same jobs in a utility company, and 53 supervisors. Eighty-six subjects were re-tested within a mean interval of 7-10 days; one group of 20 supervisors was re-tested within 81 days. The questionnaire was self-administered during individual interviews. Reliability was estimated by the kappa statistic as the agreement on the scores within the raters in each group. The agreement ranged from 'slight' (0.15) to 'almost perfect' (0.93) when the re-test interval was less than 43 days. Patients and non-patients were consistent in their assessment of the job demands. rights reserved. PMID:11209830
Halpern, M; Hiebert, R; Nordin, M; Goldsheyder, D; Crane, M
Italy's poor performance in various indicators of educational achievement, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), has featured strongly in analyses of Italian education policy, and its progress towards the Lisbon objectives has been slow. With weak outcomes often linked to a highly stratified system of upper secondary…
Italy’s poor performance in various indicators of educational achievement, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), has featured strongly in analyses of Italian education policy, and its progress towards the Lisbon objectives has been slow. With weak outcomes often linked to a highly stratified system of upper secondary schooling, combining high levels of track differentiation with a comparatively
This article presents research on evaluating problem-based learning using GIS technology in a Singapore secondary school. A quasi-experimental research design was carried to test the PBL pedagogy (PBL-GIS) with an experimental group of students and compare their learning outcomes with a control group who were exposed to PBL but not GIS. The…
Liu, Yan; Bui, Elisabeth N.; Chang, Chew-Hung; Lossman, Hans G.
One of the main perceived advantages of using a case-cohort design compared with a nested case-control design in an epidemiologic study is the ability to evaluate with the same subcohort outcomes other than the primary outcome of interest. In this paper, we show that valid inferences about secondary outcomes can also be achieved in nested case-control studies by using the inclusion probability weighting method in combination with an approximate jackknife standard error that can be computed using existing software. Simulation studies demonstrate that when the sample size is sufficient, this approach yields valid type 1 error and coverage rates for the analysis of secondary outcomes in nested case-control designs. Interestingly, the statistical power of the nested case-control design was comparable with that of the case-cohort design when the primary and secondary outcomes were positively correlated. The proposed method is illustrated with the data from a cohort in Cardiovascular Health Study to study the association of C-reactive protein levels and the incidence of congestive heart failure. PMID:24919979
Kim, Ryung S; Kaplan, Robert C
Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed
Kathleen M. Allspaw
Objective?Collaboration between youths with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their adult caregivers may be central to effective management of T1D. This article includes analysis of cross-sectional associations between T1D outcomes (adherence, glycemic control, quality of life, family conflict, depression, and self-efficacy) and scores on the Collaborative Parent Involvement (CPI) Scale obtained from 309 youths with T1D about their primary and secondary caregivers.?Methods?MANCOVA, controlling for age, evaluated associations of diabetes outcomes with youths’ CPI scores for each caregiver.?Results?Diabetes outcomes were poor when both caregivers obtained CPI scores below the median. Diabetes outcomes were more strongly associated with CPI scores of primary, rather than secondary, caregivers. CPI scores at or above the median among primary caregivers were associated with more favorable status on multiple youth outcomes. When both caregivers obtained CPI scores at or above the median, children had significantly lower HbA1C and parents retained more responsibility for diabetes care.?Conclusions?Higher collaborative involvement, particularly among primary caregivers, was associated with favorable status along a variety of diabetes outcomes. Longitudinal studies could confirm if youth–parent collaboration is a justifiable intervention target. PMID:19112077
Nansel, Tonja R.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Chen, Rusan; Laffel, Lori; Anderson, Barbara J.; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill
Objective To investigate the causes for failed anterior cervical surgery and the outcomes of secondary laminoplasty. Methods Seventeen patients failed anterior multilevel cervical surgery and the following conservative treatments between Feb 2003 and May 2011 underwent secondary laminoplasty. Outcomes were evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Scale and visual analogue scale (VAS) before the secondary surgery, at 1 week, 2 months, 6 months, and the final visit. Cervical alignment, causes for revision and complications were also assessed. Results With a mean follow-up of 29.7±12.1 months, JOA score, recovery rate and excellent to good rate improved significantly at 2 months (p<0.05) and maintained thereafter (p>0.05). Mean VAS score decreased postoperatively (p<0.05). Lordotic angle maintained during the entire follow up (p>0.05). The causes for secondary surgery were inappropriate approach in 3 patients, insufficient decompression in 4 patients, adjacent degeneration in 2 patients, and disease progression in 8 patients. Complications included one case of C5 palsy, axial pain and cerebrospinal fluid leakage, respectively. Conclusion Laminoplasty has satisfactory results in failed multilevel anterior surgery, with a low incidence of complications.
Liu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Liang; Xu, Nan-Wei; Yang, Hui-Lin
Background: Bullying occurs in all schools. Measuring bullying in schools is complicated because both definitions of bullying and methods for measuring bullying vary. This study compared a brief 12-item Gatehouse Bullying Scale (GBS) with items drawn from the Peer Relations Questionnaire (PRQ), a well-established bullying questionnaire to measure…
Bond, Lyndal; Wolfe, Sarah; Tollit, Michelle; Butler, Helen; Patton, George
Animal protection organizations claim that dissection is pedagogically unsound and that it will cause students to lose respect for non-human animals. Science teacher organizations support curricula that teach respect for animal life and include dissection. Prior research compared dissection to dissection alternatives. Four of the six studies revealed no difference between groups on tests of cognitive outcomes. One study revealed that dissection was superior, and one revealed that the alternative was superior. No differences in attitudes toward science, dissection or school were found. Attitudes toward non-human animals were not measured. This study focused on the dissections of earthworms and frogs in middle and high school classrooms. Pre and post-tests of conceptual understanding revealed failing scores and no significant pre/post differences. Because these tests required critical thinking skills, and the dissection activities did not, it is difficult to determine if the poor performance on these tests indicates the inability of the students to think critically, and/or if it indicates the ineffectiveness of dissection. Further studies of dissections that focus on critical thinking would be necessary to make this distinction. Classroom observations, student written narratives, and student and adult interviews revealed mixed attitudes toward non-human animals. Student behaviors during dissection were similar to those behaviors exhibited during non-dissection activities. Most students and adults readily supported worm dissections while they expressed some trepidation about frog dissections. Students and adults universally expressed affection for their pets and opposed the use of their own pets for dissection/research. There was slight support for the use of dogs and cats for dissection/research, but only those students who expressed hate for cats said that they could dissect cats. None of the students or adults expressed a willingness to dissect dogs. Some students abandoned plans for life science careers because they did not want to do further dissections. Students and adults often expressed confliction about the use of animals for food and/or research. Students and adults employed psychological mechanisms including dissociation, conflict reduction and viewing animals as an "outgroup" to rationalize their support for the use of animals for food, dissection and research.
Allspaw, Kathleen M.
This prospective study assesses outco mes at 6 weeks and 7 months after radical ethmoid surgery in 65 patients with nasal polyposis using a new and detailed instrument, the DyNaChron questionnaire, which was filled in the day prior to surgery and at 6 weeks and 7 months after surgery at follow-up visits. Before surgery, the leading bothersome symptoms were olfactory disturbances (7.74 ± 2.81) and nasal obstruction (6.66 ± 2.28). After surgery (6th week and 7th month), there was a clear improvement of all symptoms including nasal obstruction, olfactory disturbances, anterior rhinorrhea, postnasal discharge, facial pain/headache and cough in comparison to baseline (p < 0.0001). Nasal obstruction was the most improved symptom (effect size of 2.24). At 7th post-operative month, the sense of smell continued to improve slightly. By contrast, the postnasal discharge score that was significantly improved at 6th post-operative week tended to worsen at 7 months (p = 0.0045). Before surgery, strong psychosocial impacts were observed in association with nasal obstruction and anterior rhinorrhea. The physical impacts of each symptom were proportionally correlated to the symptom score before and after surgery. The quality of life (QOL) related to each symptom was clearly better at 6 weeks and remained steady at 7 months after surgery. In conclusion, olfactory disorders and postnasal rhinorrhea were the main remaining symptoms after sinus surgery despite a global improvement of symptoms and quality of life. The earlier time point to stabilize QOL outcomes of endoscopic sinus surgery could be suggested at 6 weeks after surgery. PMID:24899410
Nguyen, Duc Trung; Guillemin, Francis; Arous, Fabien; Jankowski, Roger
This exploratory study examined the potential secondary outcome of an early augmented language intervention that incorporates speech-generating devices (SGD) on motor skill use for children with developmental delays. The data presented are from a longitudinal study by Romski and colleagues. Toddlers in the augmented language interventions were either required (Augmented Communication-Output; AC-O) or not required (Augmented Communication-Input; AC-I) to use the SGD to produce an augmented word. Three standardized assessments and five event-based coding schemes measured the participants' language abilities and motor skills. Toddlers in the AC-O intervention used more developmentally appropriate motor movements and became more accurate when using the SGD to communicate than toddlers in the AC-I intervention. AAC strategies, interventionist/parent support, motor learning opportunities, and physical feedback may all contribute to this secondary benefit of AAC interventions that use devices. PMID:25109299
Whitmore, Ani S; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose A
Progress in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is reflected most clearly in a continuously decreasing case fatality rate over the last decades. The purpose of the present review is to identify the relevant factors responsible for this progress and to outline future possibilities of improvement. Although data on intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke are less homogeneous, the respective data suggest that reduction of case fatalities could also be achieved with these types of stroke. Therefore, advances of general neurocritical care may be the common denominator responsible for the decreasing case fatality rates. Additionally, a change in practice with regard to treatment of elderly patients that is more active may also be a factor. Regarding SAH, the majority of unfavorable outcomes is still related to early or delayed cerebral injury. Therefore, efforts to pharmacologically prevent secondary neuronal damage are likely to play a certain role in achieving improvement in overall outcome. However, the data from previous randomized clinical trials conducted during the last three decades does not strongly support this. A clear benefit has only been proven for oral nimodipine, whereas other calcium antagonists and the rho-kinase inhibitors were not conclusively shown to have a significant effect on functional outcome, and all other tested substances disappointed in clinical trials. Regarding ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury, intensive clinical research has also been conducted during the last 30 years to improve outcome and to minimize secondary neuronal injury. For ischemic stroke, treatment focusing on reversal of the primary pathomechanism, such as thrombolysis, proved effective, but none of the pharmacological neuroprotective concepts resulted in any benefit. To date, decompressive hemicraniectomy has been the only effective effort focused at reducing secondary damage that resulted in a clear reduction of mortality. In the case of traumatic brain injury, none of the pharmacological or other efforts to limit secondary damage met our hopes. In summary, although limited, pharmacotherapy to limit delayed neuronal injury is more effective for SAH than for ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. The disappointing results of most trials addressing secondary damage force one to question the general concept of mechanisms of secondary damage that do not also have a positive side in the natural course of the disease. For example, in the case of SAH, the data from the Cooperative Study from the 1960s showed that vasospasm to some degree protects against rerupture of unsecured aneurysms. Thus, one could argue from an evolutionary standpoint that the purpose of vasospasm was not exclusively a detrimental or suicide pathomechanism, but an attempt to protect against life-threating aneurysm rerupture. Because of the above-discussed arguments, SAH may indeed differ from ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury with regard to the usefulness of blocking secondary mechanisms pharmacologically. Further efforts to limit vasospasm should therefore be made, and the most promising drugs, calcium antagonists, deserve further development. Because, with various drugs, systemic side effects counteracted the local beneficial effect, future efforts should focus on topical administration of drugs instead of systemic administration. Furthermore, efforts for a better understanding of the variations of the calcium channels and the interplay between the different types of calcium channels should be made. PMID:25366626
Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Beez, Thomas; Beseoglu, Kerim; Hänggi, Daniel; Kamp, Marcel A
AIM: To evaluate the incidence, surgery, mortality, and readmission of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) secondary to peptic ulcer disease (PUD). METHODS: Administrative databases identified all hospitalizations for UGIB secondary to PUD in Alberta, Canada from 2004 to 2010 (n = 7079) using the International Classification of Diseases Codes (ICD-10). A subset of the data was validated using endoscopy reports. Positive predictive value and sensitivity with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Incidence of UGIB secondary to PUD was calculated. Logistic regression was used to evaluate surgery, in-hospital mortality, and 30-d readmission to hospital with recurrent UGIB secondary to PUD. Co-variants accounted for in our logistic regression model included: age, sex, area of residence (i.e., urban vs rural), number of Charlson comorbidities, presence of perforated PUD, undergoing upper endoscopy, year of admission, and interventional radiological attempt at controlling bleeding. A subgroup analysis (n = 6356) compared outcomes of patients with gastric ulcers to those with duodenal ulcers. Adjusted estimates are presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95%CI. RESULTS: The positive predictive value and sensitivity of ICD-10 coding for UGIB secondary to PUD were 85.2% (95%CI: 80.2%-90.2%) and 77.1% (95%CI: 69.1%-85.2%), respectively. The annual incidence between 2004 and 2010 ranged from 35.4 to 41.2 per 100000. Overall risk of surgery, in-hospital mortality, and 30-d readmission to hospital for UGIB secondary to PUD were 4.3%, 8.5%, and 4.7%, respectively. Interventional radiology to control bleeding was performed in 0.6% of patients and 76% of these patients avoided surgical intervention. Thirty-day readmission significantly increased from 3.1% in 2004 to 5.2% in 2010 (OR = 1.07; 95%CI: 1.01-1.14). Rural residents (OR rural vs urban: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.83-3.01) and older individuals (OR ? 65 vs < 65: 1.57; 95%CI: 1.21-2.04) were at higher odds of being readmitted to hospital. Patients with duodenal ulcers had higher odds of dying (OR = 1.27; 95%CI: 1.05-1.53), requiring surgery (OR = 1.73; 95%CI: 1.34-2.23), and being readmitted to hospital (OR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.19-1.99) when compared to gastric ulcers. CONCLUSION: UGIB secondary to PUD, particularly duodenal ulcers, was associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early readmissions increased over time and occurred more commonly in rural areas. PMID:25516672
Quan, Samuel; Frolkis, Alexandra; Milne, Kaylee; Molodecky, Natalie; Yang, Hong; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G; Myers, Robert P; Ghosh, Subrata; Hilsden, Robert; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Kaplan, Gilaad G
Objective To appraise the immediate and long-term outcomes of bronchial arterial embolization for life-threatening hemoptysis secondary to tuberculosis. Methods 112 patients with life-threatening hemoptysis due to tuberculosis underwent bronchial artery embolization from January 2004 to February 2014. Life-threatening hemoptysis was defined as expectoration of at least 400 ml of blood in 24 hour. The median follow-up is 20 months, ranging from 2 to 52 months. Results The hemoptysis control rate was 86.6% at 14 days, 84.8% at 30 days, 78.6% at 240 days, 75.9% at 360 days, respectively. None of these characteristics, including gender, age and tuberculosis status, was significantly associated with immediate control of bleeding. Patients with active tuberculosis had a significantly longer recurrence-free duration than did patients with inactive tuberculosis (P?=?0.040), which was further confirmed by Cox regression hazards model (P?=?0.046). There was no spinal cord complication or mortality related to bronchial artery embolization. The most common complication was transient chest pain. Conclusion Bronchial arterial embolization is an effective and safe technique in the management of life-threatening hemoptysis secondary to tuberculosis. Active tuberculosis may be associated with a lower rate of recurrence of hemoptysis. PMID:25541693
Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Heping; Huang, Xinyu; Yan, Xiaoxing; Yang, Xiaohua
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) due to direct compression of the facial nerve by a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery is rare. Vessels are often non-compliant and tethered by critical brainstem perforators. We set out to determine surgical strategies and outcomes for this challenging disease. All patients undergoing surgery for HFS secondary to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia were reviewed. Hospital records, clinic notes and radiographic imaging were collected for outcome measures. Seventeen patients (eight males, nine females) were identified. Sixteen patients (94%) were treated with Teflon pledgets (DuPont, Wilmington, DE, USA) and one (6%) patient had a vascular sling placed around a severely diseased vertebral artery. All patients had significant reduction in symptoms and 82% of patients had complete resolution of symptoms (average follow-up: 41.4months). One patient suffered persistent facial nerve paresis and swallowing difficulty. Two other patients suffered a 1 point decrease in the House-Brackmann facial nerve grading scale. Four patients (23%) required re-operation (infection, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and two patients with delayed recurrence of HFS). Of the latter, one patient required repositioning of a Teflon pledget and another patient underwent a sling decompression. There were no perioperative strokes or death. Excellent relief of symptoms with acceptable preoperative morbidity can be achieved using Teflon pledgets alone in most cases. In recalcitrant cases, sling transposition can be used to further augment the decompression. Careful attention must be paid to prevent vascular kinking and preserve brainstem perforators. PMID:25510536
Zaidi, Hasan A; Awad, Al-Wala; Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Fusco, David; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F
Reviewed is research on instructional procedures used to teach science in secondary schools. This part, the first of a two part review, discusses studies emphasizing outcomes obtained from generalized instruction in a classroom or classroom-laboratory setting. Outcomes discussed include knowledge of science content and concepts, understanding the scientific enterprise, critical thinking, and attitude development. The review is summarized by ten conclusions arising from the implications of the research studies reviewed. An extensive bibliography of the field is included.
Ramsey, Gregor A.; Howe, Robert W.
This study used longitudinal youth outcome data in routine mental health services to test a system for identifying cases at risk for treatment failure. Participants were 2,715 youth (M age = 14) served in outpatient managed care and community mental health settings. Change trajectories were developed using multilevel modeling of archival data. Expected change trajectories served as the basis for a warning
Jennifer A. N. Cannon; Jared S. Warren; Philip L. Nelson; Gary M. Burlingame
Background Self-reported outcome instruments in health research have become increasingly important over the last decades. Occupational therapy interventions often focus on occupational balance. However, instruments to measure occupational balance are scarce. The aim of the study was therefore to develop a generic self-reported outcome instrument to assess occupational balance based on the experiences of patients and healthy people including an examination of its psychometric properties. Methods We conducted a qualitative analysis of the life stories of 90 people with and without chronic autoimmune diseases to identify components of occupational balance. Based on these components, the Occupational Balance-Questionnaire (OB-Quest) was developed. Construct validity and internal consistency of the OB-Quest were examined in quantitative data. We used Rasch analyses to determine overall fit of the items to the Rasch model, person separation index and potential differential item functioning. Dimensionality testing was conducted by the use of t-tests and Cronbach’s alpha. Results The following components emerged from the qualitative analyses: challenging and relaxing activities, activities with acknowledgement by the individual and by the sociocultural context, impact of health condition on activities, involvement in stressful activities and fewer stressing activities, rest and sleep, variety of activities, adaptation of activities according to changed living conditions and activities intended to care for oneself and for others. Based on these, the seven items of the questionnaire (OB-Quest) were developed. 251 people (132 with rheumatoid arthritis, 43 with systematic lupus erythematous and 76 healthy) filled in the OB-Quest. Dimensionality testing indicated multidimensionality of the questionnaire (t?=?0.58, and 1.66 after item reduction, non-significant). The item on the component rest and sleep showed differential item functioning (health condition and age). Person separation index was 0.51. Cronbach’s alpha changed from 0.38 to 0.57 after deleting two items. Conclusions This questionnaire includes new items addressing components of occupational balance meaningful to patients and healthy people which have not been measured so far. The reduction of two items of the OB-Quest showed improved internal consistency. The multidimensionality of the questionnaire indicates the need for a summary of several components into subscales. PMID:24708642
The aim of this study was to review the published literature addressing the question of whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) resulted in an improvement of quality of life (QoL), especially xerostomia-related QoL of all nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients as time progressed. A literature search of PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar was performed, only reports containing original data of the QoL scores after treated by IMRT were included. Two independent reviewers extracted information of study design, study population, interventions, outcome measures and conclusions for each article. The inclusion criteria were met by 14 articles covering outcomes based on the questionnaires treated by IMRT. Data from same questionnaires (European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and H&N35 questionnaires) were exacted and we analyzed four items (global health status, dry mouth and sticky saliva, swallowing, social eating and social contact), which have a close relationship with xerostomia-related QoL. Results indicated that a maximal deterioration of most QoL scales including global health status developed during treatment or at the end of the treatment course and then followed by a gradual recovery to 1 year, 1-2 years after IMRT, compared with their baseline level, some specific head and neck items, most in the EORTC QLQ H&N35, remained worse for the surviving patients. In conclusion, the published data reasonably support the benefits of IMRT in improving QoL, but xerostomia-related items still had a significantly negative effect in 2 years to impact a survivor's QoL. PMID:25231774
Bian, Xiuhua; Song, Tao; Wu, Shixiu
Since the 1960s, there have been continuing federal efforts to bring reform to scale in high-poverty elementary and secondary schools across the U.S. This paper traces the evolution of these efforts and discusses their impacts on achievement outcomes. Drawing on evidence from meta-analyses of the Title I evaluation literature and the Comprehensive…
Borman, Geoffrey D.
In this study, the author examines the extent to which an interactive engagement approach can reduce the gender gap in senior secondary school (SSS) (age 16-18 years) students' learning outcomes in quantum physics. One hundred and twenty one (male = 65; female = 56) SSS 3 students participated in this study. They were randomly selected from two…
Adegoke, Benson Adesina
Background Mobile phones are increasingly used in health systems in developing countries and innovative technical solutions have great potential to overcome barriers of access to reproductive and child health care. However, despite widespread support for the use of mobile health technologies, evidence for its role in health care is sparse. Objective We aimed to evaluate the association between a mobile phone intervention and perinatal mortality in a resource-limited setting. Methods This study was a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, controlled trial with primary health care facilities in Zanzibar as the unit of randomization. At their first antenatal care visit, 2550 pregnant women (1311 interventions and 1239 controls) who attended antenatal care at selected primary health care facilities were included in this study and followed until 42 days after delivery. Twenty-four primary health care facilities in six districts were randomized to either mobile phone intervention or standard care. The intervention consisted of a mobile phone text message and voucher component. Secondary outcome measures included stillbirth, perinatal mortality, and death of a child within 42 days after birth as a proxy of neonatal mortality. Results Within the first 42 days of life, 2482 children were born alive, 54 were stillborn, and 36 died. The overall perinatal mortality rate in the study was 27 per 1000 total births. The rate was lower in the intervention clusters, 19 per 1000 births, than in the control clusters, 36 per 1000 births. The intervention was associated with a significant reduction in perinatal mortality with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.50 (95% CI 0.27-0.93). Other secondary outcomes showed an insignificant reduction in stillbirth (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.34-1.24) and an insignificant reduction in death within the first 42 days of life (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.36-1.74). Conclusions Mobile phone applications may contribute to improved health of the newborn and should be considered by policy makers in resource-limited settings. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01821222; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01821222 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NqxnxYn0). PMID:25098184
Rasch, Vibeke; Hemed, Maryam; Boas, Ida Marie; Said, Azzah; Said, Khadija; Makundu, Mkoko Hassan; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun
Objective To investigate the clinical effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in patients with secondary lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. Methods In a prospective clinical trial, ESWT was performed consecutively 4 times over two weeks in 7 patients who were diagnosed with stage 3 secondary lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. Each patient was treated with four sessions of ESWT (0.056-0.068 mJ/mm2, 2,000 impulses). The parameters were the circumference of the arm, thickness of the skin and volume of the arm. We measured these parameters with baseline values before ESWT and repeated the evaluation after each ESWT treatment. Subjective data on skin thickness, edema and sensory impairment were obtained using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Results The mean volume of the affected arm after four consecutive ESWT was significantly reduced from 2,332 to 2,144 mL (p<0.05). The circumference and thickness of the skin fold of the affected arm were significantly decreased after the fourth ESWT (p<0.05). The three VAS scores were significantly improved after the fourth ESWT. Almost all patients were satisfied with this treatment and felt softer texture in their affected arm after treatment. Conclusion ESWT is an effective modality in the treatment of stage 3 lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. ESWT reduced the circumference and the thickness of arms with lymphedema and satisfied almost all patients with lymphedema. Therefore, this treatment provides clinically favorable outcome to patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. PMID:23705118
Objectives. Considering the influence of different motor and nonmotor features of Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to evaluate the psychosocial functioning of the patients. For this purpose, the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-psychosocial questionnaire (SCOPA-PS) has been previously designed. The aim of our study was to assess the cross-cultural validation and psychometric properties of the Persian version of the SCOPA-PS. Methods. One hundred and ten nondemented idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients were consecutively recruited from an outpatient referral movement disorder clinic. Eligible patients filled up a number of questionnaires including the Persian version of SCOPA-PS during the face-to-face interview session and clinical examination to measure disease severity, nonmotor psychiatric symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Results. The highest and lowest correlation coefficients of internal consistency were reported for item 7 on “asking for help” (r = 0.765) and item 5 on “sexual problems” (r = 0.553). Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of the entire scale was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.83–0.90). The Hoehn and Yahr stage (r = 0.34, P < 0.001), Schwab and England ADL scale (r = ?0.55, P < 0.001), anxiety (r = 0.64, P < 0.001), depression (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), and fatigue (r = 0.35, P < 0.001) were significantly correlated with the total score of the SCOPA-PS questionnaire. Conclusions. The Persian version of SCOPA-PS is a highly reliable and valid scale to measure psychosocial functioning in IPD patients with different sex, age-group, and educational level, which could be applied in future researches. Disease severity scales, depression, anxiety, fatigue, and different domains of HRQoL were all associated with psychosocial functioning in PD patients. PMID:24804096
Farhadi, Farzaneh; Hadizadeh, Hasti; Delbari, Ahmad; Lökk, Johan
Purpose The patient-centered approach to health care does not seem to be sufficiently developed in the Italian context, and is still characterized by the biomedical model. In addition, there is a lack of validated outcome measures to assess outpatient experience as an aspect common to a variety of settings. The current study aimed to evaluate the factorial validity, reliability, and invariance across sex of the Health Services OutPatient Experience (HSOPE) questionnaire, a short ten-item measure of patient-centeredness for Italian adult outpatients. The rationale for unidimensionality of the measure was that it could cover global patient experience as a process common to patients with a variety of diseases and irrespective of the phase of treatment course. Patients and methods The HSOPE was compiled by 1,532 adult outpatients (51% females, mean age 59.22 years, standard deviation 16.26) receiving care in ten facilities at the Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital of Siena, Italy. The sample represented all the age cohorts. Twelve percent were young adults, 57% were adults, and 32% were older adults. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate factor structure. Reliability was evaluated as internal consistency using Cronbach’s ?. Factor invariance was assessed through multigroup analyses. Results Both exploratory and confirmatory analyses suggested a clearly defined unidimensional structure of the measure, with all the ten items having salient loadings on a single factor. Internal consistency was excellent (?=0.95). Indices of model fit supported a single-factor structure for both male and female outpatient groups. Young adult outpatients had significantly lower scores on perceived patient-centeredness relative to older adults. No significant difference emerged on patient-centeredness between male and female outpatients. Conclusion The HSOPE questionnaire seemed to be a tool with high acceptability and excellent psychometric properties to measure patient-centeredness as a unidimensional construct. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25228826
Coluccia, Anna; Ferretti, Fabio; Pozza, Andrea
Background Several instruments have been developed to assess psychosocial workload. We compared two of these instruments, the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) with regard to congruent validity and internal validity. Methods This analysis is based on a population-based sample of the baseline examination of 2,783 employees from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). About half of the participants completed the ERI questionnaire (n?=?1,342), the other half completed the COPSOQ (n?=?1,441). First, the two samples were compared and descriptive analyses were carried out calculating mean values for both instruments in general, then separately for age, gender and main occupational groups. Second, we analyzed the relationship between ERI and COPSOQ scales on the workplace situation and on the workplace outcomes: job satisfaction, general health, burnout, satisfaction with life, by applying stepwise logistic regression analysis. Results and discussion For the majority of occupations, high effort as reflected by the ERI corresponded with high demands as reflected by the COPSOQ. Comparably, high reward (according to ERI) yielded a good agreement with high “influence and development” (according to COPSOQ). However, we could also find differences between ERI and COPSOQ concerning the intensity of psychosocial workload in some occupations (e.g., physicians/pharmacists or warehouse managers/warehousemen/transport workers). These differences point to differing theoretical concepts of ERI and COPSOQ. When the ability of ERI and COPSOQ was examined to determine the associations with health and work outcomes, burnout could be better predicted by the COPSOQ; this might be due to the fact that COPSOQ comprises the constructs “work-privacy conflict” and “emotional demand”, which are closely related to burnout. However, methodological differences between these instruments limit their direct comparability. Conclusions The ERI and COPSOQ instrument yielded similar results for most occupational groups. The slightly stronger association between psychosocial workload as assessed by COPSOQ and burnout might be explained by its broader approach. The ability of the ERI and COPSOQ instrument to reflect relevant risk factors for clinically manifest disorders (e.g., coronary heart disease) will be derived from subsequent prospective analyses of the GHS with the follow-up data. PMID:23734632
The ProMES questionnaire was developed to assess individuals' experiences as they relate to the implementation of the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System. The questionnaire, which resulted in a total of 30 subscales that assess...
Decuir, Arlette Desha
A new "health-status" questionnaire, the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), was examined to determine whether it offered measurement advantages over the traditional American Rheumatism Association (ARA) functional scale or patient self-ratings of function. Seventy-nine outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) administered the SIP to themselves and provided self-ratings on a 7-point functional scale. Clinicians independently rated patients on the ARA functional scale, and repeated measures were obtained over a 6-month period. Scores on the SIP or its subscales showed stronger correlations than the other scales with hematocrit, sedimentation rate, grip strength, morning stiffness, duration of RA, anatomic stage, work status, and psychiatric status. Validity of the SIP appeared to be maintained with repeated administrations, and the SIP was more reliable than either of the other scales. These findings, as well as the comprehensiveness and feasibility of the self-administered SIP, suggest that this (and perhaps similar health status instruments) may be a useful supplement to more traditional measures of chronic disease outcome. PMID:6827872
Deyo, R A; Inui, T S; Leininger, J D; Overman, S S
Depression is common in older people and symptoms of depression are known to substantially increase during hospitalization. There is little known about predictors of depressive symptoms in older adults or impact of common interventions during hospitalization. This study aimed to describe the magnitude of depressive symptoms, shift of depressive symptoms and the impact of the symptoms of depression among older hospital patients during hospital admission and identify whether exposure to falls prevention education affected symptoms of depression. Participants (n=1206) were older adults admitted within two Australian hospitals, the majority of participants completed the Geriatric Depression Scale - Short Form (GDS) at admission (n=1168). Participants' mean age was 74.7 (±SD 11) years and 47% (n=551) were male. At admission 53% (619 out of 1168) of participants had symptoms of clinical depression and symptoms remained at the same level at discharge for 55% (543 out of 987). Those exposed to the low intensity education program had higher GDS scores at discharge than those in the control group (low intensity vs control n=652, adjusted regression coefficient (95% CI)=0.24 (0.02, 0.45), p=0.03). The only factor other than admission level of depression that affected depressive symptoms change was if the participant was worried about falling. Older patients frequently present with symptoms of clinical depression on admission to hospital. Future research should consider these factors, whether these are modifiable and whether treatment may influence outcomes. PMID:25442784
Haines, Terry P; Williams, Cylie M; Hill, Anne-Marie; McPhail, Steven M; Hill, D; Brauer, Sandy G; Hoffmann, Tammy C; Etherton-Beer, Chris
Benchmarks for multidimensional recovery after burn injury in young adults: the development, validation, and testing of the American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children young adult burn outcome questionnaire.
Although data exist on burn survival, there are little data on long-term burn recovery. Patient-centered health outcomes are useful in monitoring and predicting recovery and evaluating treatments. An outcome questionnaire for young adult burn survivors was developed and tested. This 5-year (2003-2008) prospective, controlled, multicenter study included burned and nonburned adults ages 19 to 30 years. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaires were completed at initial contact, 10 days, and 6 and 12 months. Factor analysis established construct validity. Reliability assessments used Cronbach ? and test-retest. Recovery patterns were investigated using generalized linear models, with generalized estimating equations using mixed models and random effects. Burned (n = 153) and nonburned subjects (n = 112) completed 620 questionnaires (47 items). Time from injury to first questionnaire administration was 157 ± 36 days (mean ± SEM). Factor analysis included 15 factors: Physical Function, Fine Motor Function, Pain, Itch, Social Function Limited by Physical Function, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Sexual Function, Emotion, Family Function, Family Concern, Satisfaction With Symptom Relief, Satisfaction With Role, Work Reintegration, and Religion. Cronbach ? ranged from 0.72 to 0.92, with 11 scales >0.8. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.29 to 0.94, suggesting changes in underlying health status after burns. Recovery curves in five domains, Itch, Perceived Appearance, Social Function Limited by Appearance, Family Concern, and Satisfaction with Symptom Relief, remained below the reference group at 24 months. The Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for multidimensional functional outcomes assessment. Recovery in some domains was incomplete. PMID:23511284
Ryan, Colleen M; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin; Li, Nien-Chen; Hinson, Michelle; Bauk, Helena; Peck, Michael; Meyer, Walter J; Palmieri, Tina; Pidcock, Frank S; Reilly, Debra; Tompkins, Ronald G
Background: A conversation currently exists regarding secondary curriculum (e.g. academics, functional) for students with moderate/severe intellectual disability (ID) without a large research base connecting curriculum to outcomes. Method: This study represented a secondary analysis of the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) data to…
Bouck, E. C.
Prior research has suggested that almost half of rape victims are treated by law enforcement in ways that they experience as upsetting (termed secondary victimization). However, it remains unknown why some victims have negative experiences with law enforcement and others do not. The purpose of this study is to explore victims' experiences with secondary victimization by detectives, comparing how these experiences vary in cases that were ultimately prosecuted by the criminal justice system to those that were not prosecuted. A total of 20 rape victims are interviewed within one county. The study uses grounded theory qualitative analysis, which showed that participants whose cases were eventually prosecuted described the detectives' treatment toward them considerably different than participants with nonprosecuted cases. The study findings further show that victims with cases that were not prosecuted primarily described their detectives as engaging in secondary victimization behaviors and that victims with cases that were ultimately prosecuted primarily described their detectives as responding compassionately toward them. PMID:20237390
Purpose Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in cancer care, although it is not well reported in surgical uro-oncology. Radical cystectomy (RC) with lymph-node dissection is the standard treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer and high-risk noninvasive bladder cancer. A wide range of impairments are reported postsurgery. The aims were to evaluate whether a standardized pre- and postoperative physical exercise program and enhanced mobilization can impact on HRQoL and inpatient satisfaction in RC, as defined by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Materials and methods Patients were randomized to fast-track RC and intervention (nI=50) or fast-track standard treatment (nS=57). HRQoL and inpatient satisfaction was measured using valid questionnaires: EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (QLQ-C30) combined with the disease-specific EORTC BLS24 (baseline), and EORTC BLM30 (follow-up), and IN-PATSAT32 inpatient-satisfaction survey at discharge. Efficacy was defined as the differences in HRQoL-scores between treatment groups at the 4-month follow-up. Results The intervention group significantly improved HRQoL scores in dyspnea (P?0.05), constipation (P<0.02), and abdominal flatulence (P?0.05) compared to the standard group. In contrast, the standard group reported significantly reduced symptoms in sleeping pattern (P?0.04) and clinically relevant differences in role function, body function, and fatigue. The intervention did not compromise inpatient satisfaction. Conclusion We found no overall impact on global HRQoL due to a physical rehabilitation program. However, pre- and postoperative physical rehabilitation can significantly and positively impact on HRQoL aspects related to bowel management and respiratory function (dyspnea) without compromising inpatient satisfaction. These results highlight the role of multimodal rehabilitation, including physical exercises in fast-track RC. PMID:25075194
Jensen, Bente Thoft; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard; Laustsen, Sussie; Petersen, Annemette Krintel; Søndergaard, Ingrid; Borre, Michael
Prior research has suggested that almost half of rape victims are treated by law enforcement in ways that they experience as upsetting (termed "secondary victimization"). However, it remains unknown why some victims have negative experiences with law enforcement and others do not. The purpose of this study is to explore victims' experiences with…
While it seems many music educators share an enthusiasm for music festivals, others do not. Discrepancies seem to be rooted in the perceived educational outcomes in terms of musical knowledge gained, motivation, competition, psychological impact and social considerations. Advocates believe competitive festivals provide a ‘superlative’ motivational factor and elevate performance quality beyond what could otherwise be achieved. Students and directors
Peter Gouzouasis; Alan Henderson
While it seems many music educators share an enthusiasm for music festivals, others do not. Discrepancies seem to be rooted in the perceived educational outcomes in terms of musical knowledge gained, motivation, competition, psychological impact and social considerations. Advocates believe competitive festivals provide a "superlative" motivational…
Gouzouasis, Peter; Henderson, Alan
Premise: Healthcare professionals need updated information about what is the range of “normal” variation of menstrual cycle features to support young girls and their parents in managing reproductive health, and to detect diseases early. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to provide an updated picture of age at menarche and main menstrual cycle characteristics and complaints in an Italian population-based sample of 3,783 adolescents attending secondary school. Girls filled in a self-administered anonymous questionnaire including questions about demography, anthropometry, smoking and drinking habits, use of contraceptive, socioeconomic status, age at menarche, menstrual pattern, and physical/psychological menstrual complaints. Mean age at menarche and prevalence of polymenorrhea (cycle length < 21 days), oligomenorrhea (cycle length > 35 days), irregularity, dysmenorrhea, and of physical/psychological complaints were computed. Factors associated with age at menarche and menstrual disturbances were explored by using multiple logistic models. Results: The girls’ mean age was 17.1 years (SD 1.4 years) and the mean age at menarche was 12.4 years (SD 1.3 years); menarche occurred with two monthly peaks of frequency in July–September and in December–January (P < 0.0001). Age at menarche was significantly associated with geographic genetics (as expressed by parents’ birth area), mother's menarcheal age, BMI, family size, and age at data collection. The prevalence of polymenorrhea was about 2.5%, oligomenorrhea was declared by 3.7%, irregular length by 8.3%, while long bleeding (>6 days) was shown in 19.6% of girls. Gynecological age was significantly associated with cycle length (P < 0.0001) with long cycles becoming more regular within the fourth year after menarche, while frequency of polymenorrhea stabilized after the second gynecological year. Oligomenorrhea and irregularity were both significantly associated with long menstrual bleeding (adjusted OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.55-3.60, and adjusted OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.95-3.44, respectively). Conclusions: The findings of the study support the levelling-off of secular trend in menarche anticipation in Italy and confirm the timing in menstrual cycle regularization. The study provides updated epidemiological data on frequency of menstrual abnormalities to help reproductive health professionals in managing adolescent gynecology. PMID:25538883
De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Bernasconi, Sergio; Bianchin, Luigi; Bona, Gianni; Bozzola, Mauro; Buzi, Fabio; De Sanctis, Carlo; Rigon, Franco; Tatò, Luciano; Tonini, Giorgio; Perissinotto, Egle
Between 1999 and 2005, 10 264 patients who had undergone total hip replacement (THR) for subcapital fracture of the hip were compared with 76 520 in whom THR had been performed for other reasons. All the cases were identified through the Swedish Hip Arthroplasty Register. The THRs performed as primary treatment for fracture were also compared with those done after failure of internal fixation. After seven years the rate of revision was higher in THR after fracture (4.4% vs 2.9%). Dislocation and periprosthetic fracture were the most common causes of revision. The risk was higher in men than in women. The type of femoral component and the surgical approach influenced the risk. After correction for gender, type of component and the surgical approach the revision rates were similar in the primary and secondary fracture THR groups. Total hip replacement is therefore a safe method for both the primary and secondary management of fracture of the hip. PMID:19407291
Leonardsson, O; Rogmark, C; Kärrholm, J; Akesson, K; Garellick, G
Cereal crops such as wheat, rice and barley underpin the staple diet for human consumption globally. A multitude of threats to stable and secure yields of these crops exist including from losses caused by pathogens, particularly fungal. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to resist pathogens including programmed cell death responses, the release of pathogenicity-related proteins and oxidative bursts. Another such mechanism is the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites toxic to potential pathogens. Several classes of these compounds have been identified and their anti-fungal properties demonstrated. However the lack of suitable analytical techniques has hampered the progress of identifying and exploiting more of these novel metabolites. In this review, we summarise the role of the secondary metabolites in cereal crop diseases and briefly touch on the analytical techniques that hold the key to unlocking their potential in reducing yield losses. PMID:24957244
Du Fall, Lauren A.; Solomon, Peter S.
In patients with chronic renal failure, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a common problem requiring surgical parathyroidectomy (PTX) if medical treatment with active vitamin D and calcimimetics fails. To minimize the risk for recurrence, we perform total PTX (tPTX) without autotransplantation. From October 1997 to January 2004, 46 patients (31 men and 15 women) underwent tPTX without autotransplantation (median age 51
Sylvia Stracke; Frieder Keller; Gerald Steinbach; Doris Henne-Bruns; Peter Wuerl
Objective Collaboration between youths with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their adult caregivers may be central to effective management of T1D. This article includes analysis of cross-sectional associations between T1D outcomes (adherence, glycemic control, quality of life, family conflict, depression, and self-efficacy) and scores on the Collaborative Parent Involvement (CPI) Scale obtained from 309 youths with T1D about their primary
Tim Wysocki; Tonja R. Nansel; Grayson N. Holmbeck; Rusan Chen; Lori Laffel; Barbara J. Anderson; Jill Weissberg-Benchell
This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the Spanish version of the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ) using a sample of 2,022 (51.1% boys) Spanish students from grades 7 to 10. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the correlated three-factor structure of the AGTQ in this sample: Learning…
Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Castejon, Juan L.; Valle, Antonio; Delgado, Beatriz; Marzo, Juan C.
Objective: To determine the frequency and characteristics of dengue fever (DF) in patients of acute febrile illness presenting at a secondary care hospital. Methodology: The observational cross sectional study was carried out from May to October 2010 in Remedial Centre Karachi and included patients above the age of 12 years who presented with acute febrile illness. The WHO classification and case definitions were used to classify the disease as Dengue Fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Clinical, hematological and biochemical findings were recorded serially until discharge. Results: During the study period, 90 (34.75%) presented with typical features of DF, 28 (31.11%) were dengue proven, seven (7.7%) proved to be of malaria in which malarial parasites were found positive in the peripheral blood, while the remaining 55 (61.11%) patients were dengue probable. Age of the patients ranged from 13 to 76 years. Fever was the most common clinical presentation (100%) followed by vomiting 50 (55.56%), body ache 31 (34.44%) abdominal pain 17 (18.89%) and headache 9 (10%). Maculopapular rash was seen in 4(4.44%) patients. Laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia, leucopenia and raised alanine aminotransferase levels. Eighty one patients (90%) improved clinically and hematologically and were discharged in stable condition. Conclusion: Fever and thrombocytopenia were the most common presentation of dengue fever (DF). The overall mortality of DF is low, if treated appropriately. Awareness of health care professionals and public regarding preventive strategies is essential to fight against this disease. PMID:24353520
Hasan, Syed Riazul; Riaz, Musarrat; Jafri, Farhat Ali
Impact of parathyroidectomy on cardiovascular outcomes and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. A retrospective study of 50 cases prior to the calcimimetics era
Background In chronic hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, pathological modifications of bone and mineral metabolism increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Parathyroidectomy, reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events, may improve outcomes; however, its effects on long-term survival are still subject of active research. We compared, in hemodialysis patients, the results of parathyroidectomy, in terms of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality, with those present in patients following medical treatment only, prior to the diffusion of calcimimetics. Methods From January 2004 to December 2006, 30 hemodialysis patients, affected by severe and unresponsive secondary hyperparathyroidism, underwent parathyroidectomy - 15 total parathyroidectomy and 15 total parathyroidectomy + subcutaneous autoimplantation. During a 5-year follow-up, patients did not receive a renal transplantation and were evaluated for biochemical modifications and major cardiovascular events - death, cardiovascular accidents, myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease. Results were compared with those obtained in a control group of 20 hemodialysis patients, affected by secondary hyperparathyroidism, and refusing surgical treatment, and following medical treatment only. Results The groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, dialysis vintage, and comorbidities. Postoperative cardiovascular events were observed in 18/30 - 54% - surgical patients and in 4/20 - 20%- medical patients, with a mortality rate respectively of 23.3% in the surgical group vs. 15% in the control group. Parathyroidectomy was not associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular morbidity and survival rate was unaffected by surgical treatment. Conclusions In secondary hyperparathyroidism hemodialysis patients affected by severe cardiovascular disease, surgery did not modify cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, in secondary hyperparathyroidism hemodialysis patients, resistant to medical treatment, only an early indication to calcimimetics, or surgery, in the initial stage of chronic kidney disease - mineral bone disorders, may offer a higher long-term survival. Further studies will be useful to clarify the role of secondary hyperparathyroidism in determining unfavorable cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in hemodialysis population. PMID:24268127
This study examined secondary outcomes of a randomized clinical trial that evaluated an individual cognitive-behavioral (ICBT), family-based cognitive-behavioral (FCBT), and family-based education, support and attention (FESA) treatment for anxious youth. Participants (161) were between 7 and 14 years (M=10.27) of age and had a principal diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, and\\/or generalized anxiety disorder. Hierarchical linear modeling examined
Cynthia Suveg; Jennifer L. Hudson; Gene Brewer; Ellen Flannery-Schroeder; Elizabeth Gosch; Philip C. Kendall
To evaluate clinical outcomes of autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBCST) between opticospinal multiple\\u000a sclerosis (OSMS) and conventional multiple sclerosis (CMS) during disease progressive stage in a Chinese population. Thirty-six\\u000a secondary progressive MS patients, among whom 21 were with OSMS and 15 with CMS, underwent APBSCT and were followed up for\\u000a an average of 48.92 months (range, 10–91 months). Peripheral blood
Juan Xu; Bing-Xin Ji; Li Su; Hui-Qing Dong; Wan-Ling Sun; Sui-Gui Wan; Ya-Ou Liu; Pu Zhang; Cong-Yan Liu
Can the painDETECT Questionnaire score and MRI help predict treatment outcome in rheumatoid arthritis: protocol for the Frederiksberg hospital's Rheumatoid Arthritis, pain assessment and Medical Evaluation (FRAME-cohort) study
Introduction Pain in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered to be of inflammatory origin. Despite better control of inflammation, some patients still report pain as a significant concern, even when being in clinical remission. This suggests that RA may prompt central sensitisation—one aspect of chronic pain. In contrast, other patients report good treatment response, although imaging shows signs of inflammation, which could indicate a possible enhancement of descending pain inhibitory mechanisms. When assessing disease activity in patients with central sensitisation, the commonly used disease activity scores (eg, DAS28-CRP (C reactive protein)) will yield constant high total scores due to high tender joint count and global health assessments, whereas MRI provides an isolated estimate of inflammation. The objective of this study is, in patients with RA initiating anti-inflammatory treatment, to explore the prognostic value of a screening questionnaire for central sensitisation, hand inflammation assessed by conventional MRI, and the interaction between them regarding treatment outcome evaluated by clinical status (DAS28-CRP). For the purpose of further exploratory analyses, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is performed. Method and analysis The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ), originally developed to screen for a neuropathic pain component, is applied to indicate the presence of central sensitisation. Adults diagnosed with RA are included when either (A) initiating disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment, or (B) initiating or switching to biological therapy. We anticipate that 100 patients will be enrolled, tested and reassessed after 4?months of treatment. Data collection includes Clinical data, conventional MRI, DCE-MRI, blood samples and patient-reported outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This study aims at supporting rheumatologists to define strategies to reach optimal treatment outcomes in patients with RA based on chronic pain prognostics. The study has been approved by The Capital region of Denmark's Ethics Committee; identification number H-3-2013-049. The results will be published in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID:25394817
Rifbjerg-Madsen, Signe; Christensen, Anton Wulf; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Bartels, Else Marie; Locht, Henning; Amris, Kirstine
Introduction. In Netherlands, the obstetric care system is divided into primary and secondary care by risk level of the pregnancy. We assessed the incidence of preterm birth according to level of care and the association between level of care at time of labor onset and delivery and adverse perinatal outcome. Methods. Singleton pregnancies recorded in Netherlands Perinatal Registry between 1999 and 2007, with spontaneous birth between 25+0 and 36+6 weeks, were included. Three groups were compared: (1) labor onset and delivery in primary care; (2) labor onset in primary care and delivery in secondary care; (3) labor onset and delivery in secondary care. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the risk of perinatal mortality and Apgar score ?4. Results. Of all preterm deliveries, 42% had labor onset and 7.9% had also delivery in primary care. Women with labor onset between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks who were referred before delivery to secondary care had the lowest risk of perinatal mortality (aOR 0.49 (0.30–0.79)). Risk of perinatal mortality (aOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.20–2.27) and low Apgar score (aOR 1.95; 95% CI 1.53–2.48) were significantly increased in preterm home delivery. Conclusion. Referral before delivery is associated with improved perinatal outcome in the occurrence of preterm labor onset in primary care. PMID:25610468
van der Ven, A. J.; Schaaf, J. M.; van Os, M. A.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Haak, M. C.; Pajkrt, E.; Mol, B. W. J.
Purpose: To examine associations between social relationships and school engagement in early secondary school and mental health, substance use, and educational achievement 2- 4 years later. Methods: School-based longitudinal study of secondary school students, surveyed at school in Year 8 (13-14-years-old) and Year 10 (16-years-old), and 1-year post-secondary school. A total of 2678 Year 8 students (74%) participated in the
Lyndal Bond; Helen Butler; G. Dip; John Carlin; Sara Glover; Glenn Bowes; George Patton
Objective To identify, on the basis of past performance, those hospitals that demonstrate good outcomes in sufficient numbers to make it likely that they will provide adequate quality of care in the future, using a combined measure of volume and outcome (CM-V&O). To compare this CM-V&O with measures using outcome-only (O-O) or volume-only (V-O), and verify 2010-quality of care assessment on 2011 data. Design Secondary analysis of clinical audit data. Setting The Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit database of 2010 and 2011, the Netherlands. Participants 8911 patients (test population, treated in 2010) and 9212 patients (verification population, treated in 2011) who underwent a resection of primary colorectal cancer in 89 Dutch hospitals. Main Outcome Measures Outcome was measured by Observed/Expected (O/E) postoperative mortality and morbidity. CM-V&O states 2 criteria; 1) outcome is not significantly worse than average, and 2) outcome is significantly better than substandard, with ‘substandard care’ being defined as an unacceptably high O/E threshold for mortality and/or morbidity (which we set at 2 and 1.5 respectively). Results Average mortality and morbidity in 2010 were 4.1 and 24.3% respectively. 84 (94%) hospitals performed ‘not worse than average’ for mortality, but only 21 (24%) of those were able to prove they were also ‘better than substandard’ (O/E<2). For morbidity, 42 hospitals (47%) met the CM-V&O. Morbidity in 2011 was significantly lower in these hospitals (19.8 vs. 22.8% p<0.01). No relationship was found between hospitals' 2010 performance on O-O en V-O, and the quality of their care in 2011. Conclusion CM-V&O for morbidity can be used to identify hospitals that provide adequate quality and is associated with better outcomes in the subsequent year. PMID:24558418
Kolfschoten, Nikki E.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Wouters, Michel W. J. M.; Eddes, Eric-Hans; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Stijnen, Theo; Kievit, Job
Background Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and relaxation of office workers, on need for recovery. Individual work performance was a secondary outcome measure of the trial. In total, 39 hypotheses were formulated concerning correlations between changes on the IWPQ scales and changes on similar constructs (e.g., presenteeism) and distinct constructs (e.g., need for recovery) used in the trial. Results 260 Participants completed the IWPQ at both baseline and 12 months of follow-up. For the IWPQ scales, 23%, 15%, and 38%, respectively, of the hypotheses could be confirmed. In general, the correlations between change scores were weaker than expected. Nevertheless, at least 85% of the correlations were in the expected direction. Conclusions Based on results of the current study, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Several reasons may account for the weaker than expected correlations. Future research on the IWPQ’s responsiveness should be conducted, preferably in other populations and intervention studies, where greater changes over time can be expected. PMID:24885593
This paper summarizes two companion studies that were designed to investigate the impacts of an inquiry teaching method on Earth science students' achievement and attitudes towards Earth science in secondary schools. Subjects were 557 students (9th grade) enrolled in 14 Earth science classes. Two Earth science units, including topics of astronomy…
Mao, Song-Ling; Chang, Chun-Yen
Outcomes of Total Parathyroidectomy with Autotransplantation versus Subtotal Parathyroidectomy with Routine Addition of Thymectomy to both Groups: Single Center Experience of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common acquired disorder seen in chronic renal failure. It may result in potentially serious complications including metabolic bone diseases, severe atherosclerosis and undesirable cardiovascular events. Parathyroidectomy is required in about 20% of patients after 3–10 years of dialysis and in up to 40% after 20 years. Aims: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who had undergone total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation and thymectomy or subtotal parathyroidectomy with thymectomy by the same surgical team during the study period. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Clinical data of 50 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery for secondary hyperparathyroidism between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two subgroups of total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation or subtotal parathyroidectomy. Thymectomy was routinely performed for both groups. Short term outcome parameters included intact parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels. Bone pain, bone fractures, persistent or recurrent disease were included in long term outcome parameters. Results: The mean duration of dialysis was eight years. The mean ionized calcium levels dropped significantly in the total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation group (p=0.016). No serious postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative intravenous calcium supplementation was required in four patients in the total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation group (total PTX+AT) and in three patients in the subtotal parathyroidectomy group (subtotal PTX). Postoperatively, all patients received oral calcium carbonate and calcitriol. The length of average hospital stay was 5 (3–10) days. Including nine patients who underwent successful renal transplantation pre-operative bone symptoms, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and an increased alkaline phosphatase levels were improved or resolved in all patients. After a mean follow-up of 65 months, three patients (6%) had persistent and one (2%) had recurrent disease. Conclusion: Total parathroidectomy with autotransplantation is a beneficial and safe surgical procedure for patients on chronic dialysis with otherwise uncontrollable secondary hyperparathroidism and even in patients who have undergone renal transplantation after parathyroidectomy. Careful cervical exploration and routine thymectomy should be considered as a routine part of the surgical approach regardless of the preferred technique. PMID:25207173
Sakman, Gürhan; Parsak, Cem Kaan; Balal, Mustafa; Seydaoglu, Gül?ah; Eray, ?smail Cem; Sar?ta?, Gökhan; Demircan, Orhan
Introduction of the Uppsala Traumatic Brain Injury register for regular surveillance of patient characteristics and neurointensive care management including secondary insult quantification and clinical outcome
Background To improve neurointensive care (NIC) and outcome for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients it is crucial to define and monitor indexes of the quality of patient care. With this purpose we established the web-based Uppsala TBI register in 2008. In this study we will describe and analyze the data collected during the first three years of this project. Methods Data from the medical charts were organized in three columns containing: 1) Admission data; 2) Data from the NIC period including neurosurgery, type of monitoring, treatment, complications, neurological condition at discharge, and the amount of secondary insults; 3) Outcome six months after injury. Indexes of the quality of care implemented include: 1) Index of improvement; 2) Index of change; 3) The percentages of ‘Talk and die' and ‘Talk and deteriorate' patients. Results Altogether 314 patients were included 2008–2010: 66 women and 248 men aged 0–86 years. Automatic reports showed that the proportion of patients improving during NIC varied between 80% and 60%. The percentage of deteriorated patients was less than 10%. The percentage of Talk and die/Talk and deteriorate cases was <1%. The mean Glasgow Coma Score (Motor) improved from 5.04 to 5.68 during the NIC unit stay. The occurrences of secondary insults were less than 5% of good monitoring time for intracranial pressure (ICP) >25 mmHg, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) <50 mmHg, and systolic blood pressure <100 mmHg. Favorable outcome was achieved by 64% of adults. Conclusion The Uppsala TBI register enables the routine monitoring of NIC quality indexes. PMID:23837596
Nyholm, Lena; Howells, Tim; Enblad, Per
Background The cost to the NHS of missed or inappropriate hospital appointments is considerable. Alternative methods of appointment scheduling might be more flexible to patients’ needs without jeopardising health and service quality. The objective was to systematically review evidence of patient initiated clinics in secondary care on patient reported outcomes among patients with chronic/recurrent conditions. Methods Seven databases were searched from inception to June 2013. Hand searching of included studies references was also conducted. Studies comparing the effects of patient initiated clinics with traditional consultant led clinics in secondary care for patients with long term chronic or recurrent diseases on health related quality of life and/or patient satisfaction were included. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Results were synthesised narratively. Results Seven studies were included in the review, these covered a total of 1,655 participants across three conditions: breast cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Quality of reporting was variable. Results showed no significant differences between the intervention and control groups for psychological and health related quality of life outcomes indicating no evidence of harm. Some patients reported significantly more satisfaction using patient-initiated clinics than usual care (p 0.001). Conclusions The results show potential for patient initiated clinics to result in greater patient and clinician satisfaction. The patient-consultant relationship appeared to play an important part in patient satisfaction and should be considered an important area of future research as should the presence or absence of a guidebook to aid self-management. Patient initiated clinics fit the models of care suggested by policy makers and so further research into long term outcomes for patients and service use in this area of practice is both relevant and timely. PMID:24289832
Background Reported ethnic discrimination is higher among indigenous and minority adult populations. There is a paucity of nationally representative prevalence studies of ethnic discrimination among adolescents. Experiencing ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. NZ has a diverse ethnic population. There are health inequalities among young people from M?ori and Pacific ethnic groups. Methods 9107 randomly selected secondary school students participated in a nationally representative cross-sectional health and wellbeing survey conducted in 2007. The prevalence of ethnic discrimination by health professionals, by police, and ethnicity-related bullying were analysed. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between ethnic discrimination and six health/wellbeing outcomes: self-rated health status, depressive symptoms in the last 12 months, cigarette smoking, binge alcohol use, feeling safe in ones neighbourhood, and self-rated school achievement. Results There were significant ethnic differences in the prevalences of ethnic discrimination. Students who experienced ethnic discrimination were less likely to report excellent/very good/good self-rated general health (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39, 0.65), feel safe in their neighbourhood (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.40, 0.58), and more likely to report an episode of binge drinking in the previous 4 weeks (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.45, 2.17). For all these outcomes the odds ratios for the group who were 'unsure' if they had experienced ethnic discrimination were similar to those of the 'yes' group. Ethnicity stratified associations between ethnic discrimination and the depression, cigarette smoking, and self-rated school achievement are reported. Within each ethnic group participants reporting ethnic discrimination were more likely to have adverse outcomes for these three variables. For all three outcomes the direction and size of the association between experience of ethnic discrimination and the outcome were similar across all ethnic groups. Conclusions Ethnic discrimination is more commonly reported by Indigenous and minority group students. Both experiencing and being 'unsure' about experiencing ethnic discrimination are associated with a range of adverse health/wellbeing outcomes. Our findings highlight the progress yet to be made to ensure that rights to be free from ethnic discrimination are met for young people living in New Zealand. PMID:22257643
Evaluation of Patient Satisfaction Using the EORTC IN-PATSAT32 Questionnaire and Surgical Outcome in Single-Port Surgery for Benign Adnexal Disease: Observational Comparison with Traditional Laparoscopy
Laparoscopic surgery has been demonstrated as a valid approach in almost all gynaecologic procedures including malignant diseases. Benefits of the minimally invasive approach over traditional open surgery have been well demonstrated in terms of minimal perioperative morbidity and reduced postoperative pain and hospital stay duration, with consequent quick postoperative recovery (Medeiros et al. (2009)). Single-port surgery resurfaced in gynaecology surgery in recent years and renewed interest among other surgeons and within the industry to develop this field (Podolsky et al. (2009)). Patient satisfaction is emerging as an increasingly important measure of quality which represents a complex entity that is dependent on patient demographics, comorbidities, disease, and, to a large extent, patient expectations (Tomlinson and Ko (2006)). It can be broadly thought to refer to all relevant experiences and processes associated with health care delivery (Jackson et al. (2001)). In this study we aim to compare single-port surgery (SPS) with conventional laparoscopy in terms of patient satisfaction using the EORTC IN-PATSAT32 questionnaire. We also evaluate the main surgical outcomes of both minimally invasive approaches. PMID:24371418
Buda, Alessandro; Passoni, Paolo; Bargossi, Lorena; Baldo, Romina; Milani, Rodolfo
Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…
Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.
Pseudoamniotic band syndrome (PABS) is an iatrogenic complication that causes entanglement of fetal parts in a constrictive sheet of detached or ruptured amniotic membrane after an invasive procedure, namely amniocentesis, amnioreduction or septostomy in twins. The incidence and risk factors for PABS after fetoscopy-guided laser have not been documented [Winer et al.: Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:393.e1-393.e5]. We report a case of monochorionic biamniotic twin pregnancy submitted to selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome at 16 weeks of gestation. The procedure was complicated by the death of one of the fetuses at 24 weeks of gestation. Moreover, the surviving twin was diagnosed postnatally with pseudoamniotic band syndrome, presenting with affected limbs. The newborn was submitted to surgical correction of these lesions with a successful outcome and was discharged on day 15. PMID:22441504
Rodrigues, Andreia; Araújo, Cláudia; Carvalho, Rui; Melo, Maria Antonieta; Pinto, Luísa; da Graça, Luís Mendes
Case mix, outcomes and comparison of risk prediction models for admissions to adult, general and specialist critical care units for head injury: a secondary analysis of the ICNARC Case Mix Programme Database
INTRODUCTION: This report describes the case mix and outcome (mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay) for admissions to ICU for head injury and evaluates the predictive ability of five risk adjustment models. METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre (ICNARC) Case Mix Programme, a high quality
Jonathan A Hyam; Catherine A Welch; David A Harrison; David K Menon
Using secondary analysis of a large database from a Statewide Systemic Initiative, we examined the effects of several types of environments on student outcomes. Over 3 years, nearly 7,000 students in 392 classes in 200 different schools responded to a questionnaire that assesses class, home, and peer environments as well as student attitudes. Students also completed an achievement measure that,
Barry J. Fraser; Jane Butler Kahle
Five questionnaires based on Ronald Edmonds' work on "effective schools" were developed for elementary and secondary students, teachers, principals, and parents. They were designed to assess the perceptions of each group on the five areas identified by Edmonds as distinguishing effective and ineffective schools for students from low-income…
Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.
Objective: Compare a questionnaire based on the HEADSS approach (QBH-16) and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in the screening of mental disorder in adolescents with behavioral problems. Methods: Adolescents from both genders 12-17 years-old presenting behavioral problems without a previous diagnosis of mental disorder were referred from…
Hagel, Lilian Day; Mainieri, Alberto Scolfano; Zeni, Cristian Patrick; Wagner, Mario Bernardes
This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…
Haagen, C. Hess
This study evaluates primary and secondary clinical outcome measures in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) with regard to their contribution towards discrimination of disease severity. The nine components of the composite Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Neuropathy Score and six additional secondary clinical outcome measures were assessed in 479 adult patients with genetically proven CMT1A and 126 healthy controls. Using hierarchical clustering, we identified four significant clusters of patients according to clinical severity. We then tested the impact of each of the CMTNS components and of the secondary clinical parameters with regard to their power to differentiate these four clusters. The CMTNS components ulnar sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), pin sensibility, vibration and strength of arms did not increase the discriminant value of the remaining five CMTNS components (Ulnar compound motor action potential [CMAP], leg motor symptoms, arm motor symptoms, leg strength and sensory symptoms). However, three of the six additional clinical outcome measures - the 10m-timed walking test (T10MW), 9 hole-peg test (9HPT), and foot dorsal flexion dynamometry - further improved discrimination between severely and mildly affected patients. From these findings, we identified three different composite measures as score hypotheses and compared their discriminant power with that of the CMTNS. A composite of eight components CMAP, Motor symptoms legs, Motor symptoms arms, Strength of Legs, Sensory symptoms), displayed the strongest power to discriminate between the clusters. As a conclusion, five items from the CMTNS and three secondary clinical outcome measures improve the clinical assessment of patients with CMT1A significantly and are beneficial for upcoming clinical and therapeutic trials. PMID:25085517
Mannil, Manoj; Solari, Alessandra; Leha, Andreas; Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Berciano, José; Schlotter-Weigel, Beate; Walter, Maggie C; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Schnizer, Tuuli J; Schenone, Angelo; Seeman, Pavel; Kadian, Chandini; Schreiber, Olivia; Angarita, Natalia G; Fabrizi, Gian Maria; Gemignani, Franco; Padua, Luca; Santoro, Lucio; Quattrone, Aldo; Vita, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Daniela; Young, Peter; Laurà, Matilde; Haberlová, Jana; Mazanec, Radim; Paulus, Walter; Beissbarth, Tim; Shy, Michael E; Reilly, Mary M; Pareyson, Davide; Sereda, Michael W
There is both a theoretical and clinical need to develop a questionnaire that assesses a range of addictive behaviours. The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) is a 16-scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, relationships dominant and submissive, and compulsive helping dominant and submissive. Clinical cut-off
George Christo; Susan L Jones; Samantha Haylett; Geoffrey M Stephenson; Robert M. H Lefever; Robin Lefever
...common evaluation method is the cognitive interview, in which a questionnaire...interviews. When possible, cognitive interviews are conducted in...intended mode of administration. Cognitive interviewing provides useful...outcomes of questionnaire development, contracting for...
Background An earlier report indicated that callers to a telephone counseling service benefited from the addition of an evidence-based Web intervention for depression. It is not known whether the Web intervention would also lower alcohol use and stigma, or improve quality of life and knowledge of depression and its treatments. Objective To report the secondary outcomes of a trial of a Web-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for depression, including hazardous alcohol use, quality of life, stigma, depression literacy, and CBT literacy. Methods We recruited a sample of 155 callers to Lifeline, a national telephone counseling service in Australia, who met the criteria for moderate to high psychological distress. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: (1) Web CBT plus weekly telephone tracking, (2) Web CBT only, (3) weekly telephone tracking only, and (4) neither Web CBT nor telephone tracking. Participants were assessed at preintervention, postintervention, and 6 and 12 months postintervention. Results At postintervention, participants who completed the Web intervention either with or without telephone support had lower levels of hazardous alcohol use (without tracking: P = .008, effect size = 0.23; with tracking: P = .003, effect size = 0.26), improved quality of life (without tracking: P = .001, effect size = 0.81; with tracking: P = .009, effect size = 0.63), and improved CBT literacy (without tracking: P = .01, effect size = 0.71; with tracking: P < .001, effect size = 0.80) compared with those who did not receive the Web intervention or telephone support. Results for quality of life and CBT literacy were maintained at 6- and 12-month’s follow-up, but differences in hazardous alcohol use were not significantly different between conditions at 6 and 12 months. Although omnibus tests for depression literacy and stigma were nonsignificant, contrasts revealed that those in the Web-only condition showed significantly lower levels of stigma than participants in the control condition at postintervention. This was true for participants in the Web-only and Web plus tracking conditions at 6 months. Similarly, those in the Web-only and Web plus tracking conditions had significantly higher depression literacy at postintervention, and this was maintained in the Web-only condition at 6-months’ follow-up. No significant differences were found in depression literacy and stigma between conditions at 12 months. Conclusions Evidence-based Web interventions for depression can be effective not only in reducing depression symptoms but also in improving other health outcomes, including quality of life, hazardous alcohol use, and knowledge about effective strategies for depression self-management. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 93903959; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN93903959/ (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/65y61nSsH) PMID:22738715
Christensen, Helen; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Mackinnon, Andrew
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
Kleinke, Chris L.
Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... In addition to having no menstrual periods, other symptoms can ... gain or weight loss Discharge from the breast ( galactorrhea ) or ...
This module provides a strategy for determining whether a written questionnaire is an appropriate means of gathering data to meet the goals of an evaluation. The authors define which conditions are suitable for using questionnaires.
Daniel R. Zalles
BackgroundIndividuals with comorbid substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder may differentially benefit from integrated trauma-focused interventions based on specific presenting characteristics such as substance use type and PTSD severity. The current study is a secondary analysis of a NIDA Clinical Trials Network study exploring the effectiveness of two interventions for women with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders.
Denise A. Hien; Aimee N. C. Campbell; Lesia M. Ruglass; Mei-Chen Hu; Therese Killeen
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
Beliefs held about personal goals are termed goal dimensions. When applied to academic goals, goal dimensions represent a form of academic motivation. The purpose of this research was to examine if a model of goal dimensions developed by Ingledew, Wray, Markland, and Hardy (2005) in a business setting with adults could be applied to explain academic outcomes and psychological distress
The purpose of this article is to offer tips in designing quality questionnaires and on avoiding common errors. Some of the more prevalent problems in questionnaire development are identified and suggestions of ways to avoid them are offered.
Multidisciplinary care, which incorporates Multidisciplinary Treatment Planning (MTP), is increasingly being adopted within oncology care settings with the intent of enhancing the quality of care delivered to patients. However, what is not known is its impact on improving patient outcomes and the quality of care being delivered. A targeted review of the literature was conducted to examine the organization and operation of the Multidisciplinary Care (MDC) team structure1. Findings revealed that a variety of implementation models exist within the health care system.
What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease associated with rapid loss of function and radiographic damage. Treatment is targeted to achieve low disease activity/remission, as measured by various pooled indices comprised of laboratory measures, patient-derived, and physician-derived measures. Outside clinical trials, it can be difficult to obtain all these components at the time of the visit to provide immediate guidance. Subsequently, several pooled indices of patient reported outcomes (PROs) have been developed and shown to be equally and sometimes more effective as traditional assessor- and laboratory-derived measures in detecting treatment group and predicting long-term outcomes. With growing use of electronic medical record (EMR) and technology, many of these PROs can now be obtained remotely and directly incorporated into EMR to facilitate target to treat approach. Remotely collecting PROs through the internet allows better data capture, easier incorporation into EMR, and more frequent monitoring of patient's disease activity in between clinic visits for quicker assessment of adverse events and therapeutic efficacy. Adapting remotely collected PROs into clinical trials, clinical care, and long-term database has the potential for restructuring medical care while reducing costs and improving quality of care to achieve disease remission. PMID:25365110
Sargious, A; Lee, S J
With the use of computers, paper questionnaires are being replaced by electronic questionnaires. The formats of traditional paper questionnaires have been found to effect a subject's rating. Consequently, the transition from paper to electronic format can subtly change results. The research presented begins to determine how electronic questionnaire formats change subjective ratings. For formats where subjects used a flow chart to arrive at their rating, starting at the worst and middle ratings of the flow charts were the most accurate but subjects took slightly more time to arrive at their answers. Except for the electronic paper format, starting at the worst rating was the most preferred. The paper and electronic paper versions had the worst accuracy. Therefore, for flowchart type of questionnaires, flowcharts should start at the worst rating and work their way up to better ratings.
Trujillo, Anna C.
In 1965, the cleft palate team at Children's Memorial Hospital embarked on a new surgical-orthodontic protocol in the habilitation of newborn complete cleft lip and palate cases. It brought the orthodontic effort into focus at birth and in planned sequence to correspond with the surgical procedures of lip closure, maxillary alveolar stabilization by means of an autogenous graft of the authors' design, and complete palate closure, all within the first year of life. The purpose of this investigation is threefold: first, to review the authors' previous publications and assess growth, secondary surgical need, and lateral incisor status of teeth adjacent to the cleft in a series of patients who have all followed a precise, early surgical/orthodontic protocol; second, to compare these cases with other collaborative studies wherein this protocol was not used; and third, to report on an additional 82 cases with regard to secondary surgical need and the status of teeth adjacent to the cleft. Methods of assessment have included cephalometric radiography, periapical and occlusal dental radiography, computer-assisted tomography, plaster cast analysis, and intraoral and extraoral photography. The authors have demonstrated, along with other collaborative studies, that there is growth as good as other similar samples wherein there was no primary osteoplasty. In addition, the authors found their incidence of orthognathic surgery to be 18.29 percent; pharyngoplasty, 3.65 percent; and oronasal fistulas requiring surgical closure, 29.27 percent. In the case of unilateral complete clefts, 53.13 percent of those lateral incisors present adjacent to the cleft area were usable, and in bilateral cases, 57.77 percent were usable. The authors remain convinced after more than 35 years of following this successful protocol that early maxillary orthopedics and their technique of primary osteoplasty in planned sequence with lip and palate closure can produce a more favorable alignment of maxillary growth potential and, with comprehensive orthodontic treatment, can lead to teeth in a better overall occlusion than if these procedures had not been undertaken. PMID:12496560
Rosenstein, Sheldon W; Grasseschi, Mitchell; Dado, Diane V
Reflective thinking is often stated as a learning outcome of baccalaureate nursing education, and as a characteristic of a competent professional; however, no consistent method exists to assess the extent to which students engage in reflective thinking. To address this need, Kember and Leung developed and tested a self-report questionnaire based…
Lethbridge, Kristen; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Laschinger, Heather K. S.; Fernando, Rajulton
The aim of this study was to determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of the Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire in 78 tennis playing subjects who had chronic, unilateral, MRI-confirmed lateral elbow tendinopathy and who concomitantly participated in an outcome study. The PRTEE results were compared with results of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS); the Disabilities of the Arm,
Joy C. MacDermid; T OVEREND
The Short Form-36 (SF-36) health questionnaire has been put forward as a general measure of outcome in health care and has been evaluated in several recent studies in the UK. We report its use in three groups of patients after spinal operations and have compared it with the Oswestry and Low Back Pain disability scales. There was a significant correlation
Michael Grevitt; Rabi Khazim; John Webb; Robert Mulholland; John Shepperd
This publication summarizes the responses of reading teachers to a questionnaire about teaching reading in the secondary school. The information is divided into six sections. The first section lists components of a secondary reading program, describes current and proposed model secondary reading programs, and lists prospective secondary teachers'…
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.
Objective. When selecting a questionnaire, researchers and clinicians need to know whether or not a questionnaire covers the relevant outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the content of questionnaires that have been used to assess functioning in patients with hand osteoarthritis (OA) based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Method. Questionnaires
Tanja Stamm; Szilvia Geyh; Alarcos Cieza; Klaus Machold; Barbara Kollerits; Margreet Kloppenburg; Josef Smolen; Gerold Stucki
Objectives The Manchester–Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) is a validated 16-item, patient-reported outcome measure for evaluating outcomes of foot or ankle surgery. The original development of the instrument identified three domains. This present study examined whether the three domains could legitimately be summed to provide a single summary index score. Methods The MOXFQ and Short-Form (SF)-36 were administered to 671 patients before surgery of the foot or ankle. Data from the three domains of the MOXFQ (pain, walking/standing and social interaction) were subjected to higher order factor analysis. Reliability and validity of the summary index score was assessed. Results The mean age of the participants was 52.8 years (sd 15.68; 18 to 89). Higher order principle components factor analysis produced one factor, accounting for 74.7% of the variance. The newly derived single index score was found to be internally reliable (? = 0.93) and valid, achieving at least moderate correlations (r ? 0.5, p < 0.001) with related (pain/function) domains of the SF-36. Conclusions Analyses indicated that data from the MOXFQ can be presented in summary form. The MOXFQ summary index score (MOXFQ-Index) provides an overall indication of the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery. Furthermore, the single index reduces the number of statistical comparisons, and hence the role of chance, when exploring MOXFQ data. PMID:23673374
Morley, D.; Jenkinson, C.; Doll, H.; Lavis, G.; Sharp, R.; Cooke, P.; Dawson, J.
The success of replantation surgery is not judged by survival of the replanted part, but by the functional outcome attained. Hence, primary repair of all injured structures is the preferred aim. At times, constraints induced by the ischemia time and nature of injury preclude primary repair. In such situations, secondary procedures are inevitable. Secondary procedures are also frequently required to improve the function and appearance of the replanted extremity. The incidence of secondary procedures will vary with the level of replantation and the type of patient population. Secondary procedures are difficult because they carry risk of injury to the vital neurovascular structures that now lay at nonanatomical locations. Nevertheless, when indicated and performed with caution they could significantly raise the functional status of the individuals. PMID:24872769
Sabapathy, S. Raja; Bhardwaj, Praveen
The questionnaire is the instrument used for recording performance data on the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system at a nuclear facility. The performance information provides a basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the MPC&A system. The goal for the questionnaire is to provide an accurate representation of the performance of the MPC&A system as it currently exists in the facility. Performance grades for all basic MPC&A functions should realistically reflect the actual level of performance at the time the survey is conducted. The questionnaire was developed after testing and benchmarking the material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) in the United States. The benchmarking exercise at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) proved extremely valuable for improving the content and quality of the early versions of the questionnaire. Members of the INL benchmark team identified many areas of the questionnaire where questions should be clarified and areas where additional questions should be incorporated. The questionnaire addresses all elements of the MC&A system. Specific parts pertain to the foundation for the facility's overall MPC&A system, and other parts pertain to the specific functions of the operational MPC&A system. The questionnaire includes performance metrics for each of the basic functions or tasks performed in the operational MPC&A system. All of those basic functions or tasks are represented as basic events in the MPC&A fault tree. Performance metrics are to be used during completion of the questionnaire to report what is actually being done in relation to what should be done in the performance of MPC&A functions.
Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL
This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the TIMSS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the TIMSS 2011 background variables. Background questionnaire adaptations…
Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.
Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8?years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8)?years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a method by which participants can convey their personal experiences. These could be nested qualitative studies. Trial registration number ISRCTN77108101807. PMID:24662446
Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M
Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258?315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires. Main outcome measure The proportion of completed or partially completed questionnaires returned. Results The odds of response were more than doubled when a monetary incentive was used (odds ratio 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.79 to 2.27) and almost doubled when incentives were not conditional on response (1.71; 1.29 to 2.26). Response was more likely when short questionnaires were used (1.86; 1.55 to 2.24). Personalised questionnaires and letters increased response (1.16; 1.06 to 1.28), as did the use of coloured ink (1.39; 1.16 to 1.67). The odds of response were more than doubled when the questionnaires were sent by recorded delivery (2.21; 1.51 to 3.25) and increased when stamped return envelopes were used (1.26; 1.13 to 1.41) and questionnaires were sent by first class post (1.12; 1.02 to 1.23). Contacting participants before sending questionnaires increased response (1.54; 1.24 to 1.92), as did follow up contact (1.44; 1.22 to 1.70) and providing non-respondents with a second copy of the questionnaire (1.41; 1.02 to 1.94). Questionnaires designed to be of more interest to participants were more likely to be returned (2.44; 1.99 to 3.01), but questionnaires containing questions of a sensitive nature were less likely to be returned (0.92; 0.87 to 0.98). Questionnaires originating from universities were more likely to be returned than were questionnaires from other sources, such as commercial organisations (1.31; 1.11 to 1.54). Conclusions Health researchers using postal questionnaires can improve the quality of their research by using the strategies shown to be effective in this systematic review. What is already known on this topicPostal questionnaires are widely used in the collection of data in epidemiological studies and health researchNon-response to postal questionnaires reduces the effective sample size and can introduce biasWhat this study addsThis systematic review includes more randomised controlled trials than any previously published review or meta-analysis no questionnaire responseThe review has identified effective ways to increase response to postal questionnairesThe review will be updated regularly in the Cochrane Library PMID:12016181
Edwards, Phil; Roberts, Ian; Clarke, Mike; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Pratap, Sarah; Wentz, Reinhard; Kwan, Irene
A random sample of 1,109 secondary schools in the 13 southern states was chosen for this questionnaire survey. Each school received a principal's questionnaire and a speech teacher's questionnaire. A total of 889 usable questionnaires (40%) was returned. Results from the survey indicate the extent and nature of speech courses, teacher…
Capps, Randall; Brady, Robert
Close to recommended caloric and protein intake by enteral nutrition is associated with better clinical outcome of critically ill septic patients: secondary analysis of a large international nutrition database
Introduction Current international sepsis guidelines recommend low-dose enteral nutrition (EN) for the first week. This contradicts other nutrition guidelines for heterogenous groups of ICU patients. Data on the optimal dose of EN in septic patients are lacking. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of energy and protein amount given by EN on clinical outcomes in a large cohort of critically ill septic patients. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of pooled data collected prospectively from international nutrition studies. Eligible patients had a diagnosis of sepsis and/or pneumonia and were admitted to the ICU for ?3 days, mechanically ventilated within 48 hours of ICU admission and only receiving EN. Patients receiving parenteral nutrition were excluded. Data were collected from ICU admission up to a maximum of 12 days. Regression models were used to examine the impact of calorie and protein intake on 60-day mortality and ventilator-free days. Results Of the 13,630 patients included in the dataset, 2,270 met the study inclusion criteria. Patients received a mean amount of 1,057 kcal/d (14.5 kcal/kg/day) and 49 g protein/day (0.7 g/kg/d) by EN alone. Patients were mechanically ventilated for a median of 8.4 days and 60-day mortality was 30.5%. An increase of 1,000 kcal was associated with reduced 60-day mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48 to 0.77, P <0.001) and more ventilator-free days (2.81 days, 95% CI 0.53 to 5.08, P?=?0.02) as was an increase of 30 g protein per day (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.87, P <0.001 and 1.92 days, 95% CI 0.58 to 3.27, P?=?0.005, respectively). Conclusions In critically ill septic patients, a calorie and protein delivery closer to recommended amounts by EN in the early phase of ICU stay was associated with a more favorable outcome. PMID:24506888
Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) A1 In a USUAL WEEK, do you cycle in or around your new neighbourhood or new local area to get to or from somewhere (such as cycling to a shop or to public transport) or for recreation, health or fitness (including cycling with your dog)?
The Physician Survey of Practices on Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight Control -- Adult Questionnaire is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute in collaboration with the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The Preschool Parent's Questionnaire (PPQ) was administered, in English and Spanish, to 120 parents (95 Black, 25 Mexican) of preschool children enrolled in child care programs, to ascertain the parents' attitudes regarding four basic issues: (1) parent's relationship to the child care program, (2) parent's attitudes toward teachers, (3) parent's…
Smith, Rutha L.
Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 13 Do you do any moderate-intensity sports, fitness or recreational (leisure) activities that causes a small increase in breathing or heart rate such as brisk walking, cycling, swimming, volleyball) for at least 10 minutes continuously?
The association between loneliness and excessive internet use among secondary school students was examined. One hundred and sixty seven secondary school students were administered a questionnaire for some demographic questions and UCLA for determining their loneliness levels. The results showed that the secondary school students who reported…
Abstract Purpose . Develop and demonstrate preliminary validation of a brief questionnaire aimed at assessing social cognitive determinants of physical activity (PA) in a college population. Design . Quantitative and observational. Setting . A midsized northeastern university. Subjects . Convenience sample of 827 male and female college students age 18 to 24 years. Measures . International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a PA stage-of-change algorithm. Analysis . A sequential process of survey development, including item generation and data reduction analyses by factor analysis, was followed with the goal of creating a parsimonious questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used for confirmatory factor analysis and construct validation was confirmed against self-reported PA and stage of change. Validation analyses were replicated in a second, independent sample of 1032 college students. Results . Fifteen items reflecting PA self-regulation, outcome expectations, and personal barriers explained 65% of the questionnaire data and explained 28.6% and 39.5% of the variance in total PA and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, respectively. Scale scores were distinguishable across the stages of change. Findings were similar when the Cognitive Behavioral Physical Activity Questionnaire (CBPAQ) was tested in a similar and independent sample of college students (40%; R(2) moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA = .40; p < .001). Conclusion . The CBPAQ successfully explains and predicts PA behavior in a college population, warranting its incorporation into future studies aiming at understanding and improving on PA behavior in college students. PMID:25162324
Schembre, Susan M; Durand, Casey P; Blissmer, Bryan J; Greene, Geoffrey W
Thousands of men and women have begun their recovery from alcoholism through the support of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its well-known "12-Step" program. The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale to measure alcoholics' levels of agreement with the first three of AA's 12 Steps and to test the relationship between sobriety and belief in these three steps. Using both factor analysis and Rasch analysis, two versions of a "Steps Questionnaire" were developed. A 96-member subset of the original subject pool was assessed quarterly for 1 year following inpatient treatment to determine the predictive validity of the questionnaire. The results of this study suggested that agreement with AA's first three steps can be measured and that agreement with AA's first step correlates with number of sober days posttreatment. The dichotomization of Steps Questionnaire scores into total agreement versus partial agreement with Step 1, and from this the reduction of uncertainty in the prediction of abstention over a lengthy follow-up period, provides support for AA's contention that total surrender to one's powerlessness over alcohol is part of the process of achieving abstention. PMID:1875709
Gilbert, F S
Objective: The goal of the Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis Visual Outcomes Committee is to define the best functional outcome measures for future neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-associated optic pathway glioma (OPG) clinical trials. Methods: The committee considered the components of vision, other ophthalmologic parameters affected by OPG, potential biomarkers of visual function, and quality of life measures to arrive at consensus-based, evidence-driven recommendations for objective and measurable functional endpoints for OPG trials. Results: Visual acuity (VA) assessments using consistent quantitative testing methods are recommended as the main functional outcome measure for NF1-OPG clinical trials. Teller acuity cards are recommended for use as the primary VA endpoint, and HOTV as a secondary endpoint once subjects are old enough to complete it. The optic disc should be assessed for pallor, as this appears to be a contributory variable that may affect the interpretation of VA change over time. Given the importance of capturing patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials, evaluating visual quality of life using the Children's Visual Function Questionnaire as a secondary endpoint is also proposed. Conclusions: The use of these key functional endpoints will be essential for evaluating the efficacy of future OPG clinical trials. PMID:24249802
Avery, Robert A.; Allen, Jeffrey C.; Ardern-Holmes, Simone L.; Bilaniuk, Larissa T.; Ferner, Rosalie E.; Gutmann, David H.; Listernick, Robert; Martin, Staci; Ullrich, Nicole J.; Liu, Grant T.
Secondary rhinoplasty is very usual. Some patients are not satisfied by the previous surgery because the result is poor with obvious defaults but, sometimes, the result is good but the patient expects perfection. These two different situations will not lead to the same answer from the surgeon. Techniques of secondary rhinoplasty are the same than primary, but are often more difficult to perform because of scar tissue, retraction and loss of lining. The authors analyse the more frequent deformities in secondary rhinoplasty and the way they fix them. PMID:25213488
Duron, J-B; Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Aiach, G
Describes the elements required for a well-designed questionnaire, including appearance, question writing, organization, and cover letter. A checklist for effective questionnaire design is provided, as well as seven references. (BK)
The effects of the nondominant or secondary ventricle on the Fontan circulation are not known. The present study used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relations between secondary ventricular size and global cardiac performance. The Fontan cross-sectional study collected data from 7 centers participating in the Pediatric Heart Network. Subjects with complete cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data and an identifiable secondary ventricle were included in the analysis. Relationships between body surface area–adjusted parameters of the secondary ventricle (mass, end-diastolic volume, mass/volume ratio, and stroke volume) and the following measures were assessed. These measures included the percentage of predicted peak oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold, ejection fraction of the main ventricular chamber, echocardiographic diastolic function grade, serum B-type natriuretic peptide, primary ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and parent-reported physical functioning summary score on the Child Health Questionnaire. Of the 546 enrolled subjects, 123 (age 12.1 ± 3.3 years, 56% male) had undergone cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and 38 had achieved maximal aerobic capacity. A larger secondary ventricular end-diastolic volume, lower mass/volume ratio, and greater secondary/total ventricular stroke volume ratio were associated with a greater exercise capacity. No significant relationships were found between the measures of the secondary ventricle and the other outcomes. In conclusion, in children after the Fontan operation, a larger and less hypertrophied secondary ventricle with a greater contribution to stroke volume was associated with a better exercise capacity. PMID:21094369
Prakash, Ashwin; Travison, Thomas G.; Fogel, Mark A.; Hurwitz, Lynne M.; Powell, Andrew J.; Printz, Beth F.; Puchalski, Michael D.; Shirali, Girish S.; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Geva, Tal
Objective: To develop a dietary questionnaire on food habits, eating behaviour and nutrition knowledge of adolescents and to examine its reliability.Design: A cross-sectional baseline survey. The questionnaire was self-administered to study participants twice with 7 days between each administration.Setting: A school community in Pavia, Italy.Subjects: A group of students (n=72, aged 14–17 y, both sexes) studying in a secondary school
G Turconi; M Celsa; C Rezzani; G Biino; M A Sartirana; C Roggi
This comprehensive guide leads the user step-by-step through questionnaire creation. Topics include preliminary considerations, writing the questionnaire items, issues that may come up when giving the questionnaire, statistical considerations, and references for further reading. This resource is intended for novice and professional evaluators.
BACKGROUND: Achilles tendinopathy is the predominant overuse injury in runners. To further investigate this overload injury in transverse and longitudinal studies a valid, responsive and reliable outcome measure is demanded. Most questionnaires have been developed for English-speaking populations. This is also true for the VISA-A score, so far representing the only valid, reliable, and disease specific questionnaire for Achilles tendinopathy.
Heinz Lohrer; Tanja Nauck
Background The number of patients with one or more chronic diseases is rising. In several standards of care there is a focus on enhancing self-management. We applied the concept of personalization on self-management support and developed a self-management screening questionnaire (SeMaS). The main research objective is to assess the effectiveness of the SeMaS questionnaire and subsequent personalized self-management on patients’ self-management behaviors. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial will be set up in 15 general practices in the Netherlands. The practices are all group practices, and member of one care group. The practices will be assigned to the control or intervention arms by stratified randomization. The strata are determined by the participation of the practice nurses in a course for behavioral change, and the nurse’s workload. Patients can be included if they are over 18 years of age, have at least one chronic condition and have a checkup appointment with the practice nurse in the inclusion period. The intervention consists of screening patients with the SeMaS questionnaire, producing a graphic profile with the abilities or barriers for self-management. Patients will receive tailored feedback. Practice nurses are trained in using the profile to enhance self-management of the patient and provide personalized self-management support. The use of individual care plans and self-management interventions is stimulated. In the control arm patients will receive care as usual. Patients of both trial arms will be asked to fill in the SeMaS questionnaire and additional questionnaires at inclusion and after 6 months. The primary outcome is the difference in the level of patient activation (PAM-13) between baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes include patient measures for lifestyle factors (exercise, diet, smoking), and process measures from medical record data analysis. Discussion This manuscript presents the protocol for a cluster randomized clinical trial of personalized self-management support using the SeMaS questionnaire in chronically ill patients in primary care. By carrying out this study, scientific evidence is built for the effectiveness of personalized self-management support. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register: NTR3960. PMID:24134956
Dyslipidemias rank among the most important preventabile factors of atherogenesis and its progression. This topic is increasingly being discussed as e.g. more than 50% of Slovak population die on atherosclerotic complications. According to etiology we distinguish primary dyslipidemias with strictly genetic background and secondary ones with origin in other disease or pathological state. Secondary dyslipidemias accompany various diseases, from common (endocrinopathies, renal diseases etc) to rare ones (thesaurismosis etc.) and represents one of symptoms of these diseases. Apart from particular clinical follow up of diagnosed dysipidemias, basic screening and secondary causes as well as treatment due to updated guidelines is recuired. In this review we present the most frequent dyslipidemias of clinical practice. PMID:22486289
Vargová, V; Pytliak, M; Mechírová, V
Background: Rehabilitation programs for criminal offenders target primary outcomes such as effects on criminogenic needs and secondary outcomes of reducing recidivism. Most evaluation studies focus only on one type of outcome. This study evaluated outcomes on both primary and secondary targets of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation (R&R) program for…
Berman, Anne H.
Background Respiratory symptoms are commonly used to assess the impact of patient-centered interventions. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to propose which measurements of asthma symptoms should be used as a standardized measure in future clinical research studies. Methods Asthma symptom instruments were classified as daily diaries (prospectively recording symptoms between research visits) or retrospective questionnaires (completed at research visits). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and a search for articles that cited key studies describing development of instruments. We classified outcome instruments as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Four instruments (3 daily diaries, 1 for adults and 2 for children; and 1 retrospective questionnaire for adults) were identified. Minimal clinically important differences have not been established for these instruments, and validation studies were only conducted in a limited number of patient populations. Validity of existing instruments may not be generalizable across racial-ethnic or other subgroups. Conclusions An evaluation of symptoms should be a core asthma outcome measure in clinical research. However, available instruments have limitations that preclude selection of a core instrument. The working group participants propose validation studies in diverse populations, comparisons of diaries versus retrospective questionnaires, and evaluations of symptom assessment alone versus composite scores of asthma control. PMID:22386505
Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Elward, Kurtis S.; Kattan, Meyer; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Mitchell, Herman; Sutherland, E. Rand; Minnicozzi, Michael
The authors investigated secondary conditions in people with developmental disabilities in terms of (a) the average number of conditions experienced and overall health and independence, (b) their degree and nature, and (c) gender differences. Information was obtained by a questionnaire completed by the caregivers for 659 people with developmental…
Koritsas, Stella; Iacono, Teresa
Although there is a library in every secondary school in New Zealand, very little is known about the variables that affect the student use and perceptions of the library. This research combines questionnaires and focus groups involving Year 12 and 13 students to give a picture of school library use in Christchurch. Students were asked about where…
Kershaw, Kathryn Lee
The Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Registry (SKAR) has recorded knee arthroplasties prospectively in Sweden since 1975. The only outcome measure available to date has been revision status. While questionnaires on health outcome may function as more comprehensive endpoints, it is unclear which are the most appropriate. We tested various outcome questionnaires in order to determine which is the best for patients who have had knee arthroplasty as applied in a cross-sectional, discriminative, postal survey. Four general health questionnaires (NHP, SF-12, SF-36 and SIP) and three disease/site-specific questionnaires (Lequesne, Oxford-12, and WOMAC) were tested on 3600 patients randomly selected from the SKAR. Differences were found between questionnaires in response rate, time required for completion, the need for assistance, the efficiency of completion, the validity of the content and the reliability. The mean overall ranks for each questionnaire were generated. The SF-12 ranked the best for the general health, and the Oxford-12 for the disease/site-specific questionnaires. These two questionnaires could therefore be recommended as the most appropriate for use with a large knee arthroplasty database in a cross-sectional population. PMID:11341416
Dunbar, M J; Robertsson, O; Ryd, L; Lidgren, L
Secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is a clinical disorder that results from hypothalamic or hypophyseal damage or from\\u000a prolonged administration of supraphysiological doses of glucocorticoids. Since glucocorticoids are widely used for a variety\\u000a of diseases, the prevalence of SAI is by far exceeding that of primary adrenal insufficiency. Although the presentation of\\u000a adrenal insufficiency may be insidious and difficult to recognize,
Giuseppe Reimondo; Silvia Bovio; Barbara Allasino; Massimo Terzolo; Alberto Angeli
Questionnaires are widely used instruments to monitor gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. However, few of these questionnaires have been formally evaluated. We sought to evaluate our GI symptoms questionnaire in terms of clarity and reproducibility. Primary care patients referred for open access Helicobacter pylori urea breath testing reported GI symptoms (type+severity) and demographic information by written questionnaire. In an interview, patients gave a personal description of the meaning of the GI symptoms on the questionnaire. Patients' descriptions of GI symptoms were compared with current definitions. Symptom severity scores were compared before and after, interview versus questionnaire. Of the 45 patients included, 19 (42%) described all symptoms correctly, whereas 17 (38%) described one symptom incorrectly. None of the patients made more than three mistakes. Regurgitation was the most common incorrectly described symptom (16 patients [36%]), whereas the other individual symptoms were well explained. Symptom severities before the interview, after the interview and reported by questionnaire (mean value+/-SEM) were 2.1 +/- 0.2, 2.1 +/- 0.2, and 1.5 +/- 0.2 points on a 7-point Likert scale (0-6), respectively. Mean severity reported by interview (95% CI) was 1.4 (1.3-1.5) times higher than reported by questionnaire (P < .05). In conclusion, the GI symptom questionnaire is understandable and has good reproducibility for measuring the presence of GI symptoms, although symptom severity is consistently rated higher when reported by interview. PMID:16927133
Bovenschen, H J; Janssen, M J R; van Oijen, M G H; Laheij, R J F; van Rossum, L G M; Jansen, J B M J
The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire to produce an equivalent Korean version. A total of 53 patients completed the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire pre-operatively and 3 months after open carpal tunnel release. All 53 also completed the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively. Reliability was measured by determining the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and paired t-tests, and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Pearson correlation analysis was carried out on the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores and the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores to assess construct validity. Responsiveness was evaluated using effect sizes and standardized response means. The reliability of the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was good. The scores in the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand strongly correlated with the scores in the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Standardized response mean and effect size were both large for the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. The study shows that the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is a reliable, valid and responsive instrument for measuring outcomes in carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:25005562
Kim, J K; Lim, H M
There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against standards of feasibility and psychometric credibility in relation to use for practice and policy. PMID:24834111
Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda
The objective of this study was to establish the association between substance abuse and the sociodemographic characteristics of secondary school students. All the students of 17 randomly stratified public secondary schools in Nairobi were required to complete self-administered sociodemographic and the School Toolkit questionnaires in a…
Ndetei, David M.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Mutiso, Victoria; Ongecha-Owuor, Francisca A.; Kokonya, Donald A.
This study examines secondary school students' perceptions of inhibiting factors in seeking counselling. Responses to a questionnaire completed by 1346 secondary school students were analysed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Exploratory factor analysis highlighted that within 21 pre-defined inhibiting factors, items loaded strongly on…
Chan, Stephanie; Quinn, Philip
Can Social Support Protect Bullied Adolescents from Adverse Outcomes? A Prospective Study on the Effects of Bullying on the Educational Achievement and Mental Health of Adolescents at Secondary Schools in East London
This paper investigates the extent to which social support can have a buffering effect against the potentially adverse consequences of bullying on school achievement and mental health. It uses a representative multiethnic sample of adolescents attending East London secondary schools in three boroughs. Bullied adolescents were less likely to…
Rothon, Catherine; Head, Jenny; Klineberg, Emily; Stansfeld, Stephen
The primary purpose of this study was to obtain estimates of the human attribute requirements of the job elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). A secondary purpose was to explore the reliability of job-related ratings as a function of the number of raters. A taxonomy of 76 human attributes was used and ratings of the relevance of…
Marquardt, Lloyd D.; McCormick, Ernest J.
The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2003 cohort Wave 7 (2009) data set. [For the related frequency tables, see ED512163.
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010
The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This technical paper contains the questionnaire for the LSAY 2006 cohort Wave 4 (2009) data set. [For the "Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY): 2006…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010
The Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (LSAY) program studies the progress of several groups of young Australians as they move from school into post-secondary education and work. This series of documents provides supporting information for the LSAY data set of the 2006 cohort at wave 6 (2011). The document presents the questionnaire for LSAY…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012
This supplement describes national adaptations made to the international version of the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background questionnaires. This information provides users with a guide to evaluate the availability of internationally comparable data for use in secondary analyses involving the PIRLS/prePIRLS 2011 background variables. Background…
Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate resident and facility attributes associated with long-term care health outcomes in nursing homes. DATA SOURCES: Quarterly Management Minutes Questionnaire (MMQ) survey data for Medicaid case-mix reimbursement of nursing homes in Massachusetts from 1991 to 1994, for specification of outcomes and resident attributes. Facility attributes are specified from cost report data. STUDY DESIGN: Multivariate logistic and "state-dependence" regression models are estimated for survival, ADL functional status, incontinence status, and mental status outcomes from longitudinal residence histories of Medicaid residents spanning 3 to 36 months in length. Outcomes are specified to be a function of resident demographic and diagnostic attributes and facility-level operating and nurse staffing attributes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The estimated parameters for resident demographic and diagnostic attributes showed a great deal of construct validity with respect to clinical expectations regarding risk factors for adverse outcomes. Few facility attributes were associated with outcomes generally, and none was significantly associated with all four outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of uniform associations between facility attributes and the various long-term care health outcomes studied suggests that strong facility performance on one health outcome may coexist with much weaker performance on other outcomes. This has implications for the aggregation of individual facility performance measures on multiple outcomes and the development of overall outcome performance measures. PMID:9776939
Porell, F; Caro, F G; Silva, A; Monane, M
Given the potential benefits of understanding how climate may influence individuals' motivational outcomes, there exists a need for instrumentation measuring exercise setting climates. The purpose of this study was to validate further the psychometric properties of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (Huddleston, Fry &…
Brown, Theresa C.; Fry, Mary D.; Little, Todd D.
Objective: To assess reproducibility of a School-Based Nutrition Monitoring (SBNM) questionnaire for fourth-grade students. Design: Test-retest. Setting: Fourth-grade elementary school classrooms. Participants: Multiethnic fourth-grade students from 2 area school districts (N = 322). Main Outcome Measures: Reproducibility coefficients with time…
Penkilo, Monica; George, Goldy Chacko; Hoelscher, Deanna M.
The purpose of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess student attitudes towards school by describing the factors that affect these attitudes. For this purpose, a sample of 362 (11-13 years-old) elementary-school students was used. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out. The questionnaire consists of…
This short document guides the user through the stages of creating and implementing an effective questionnaire. The types of questions and how they should be worded are addressed, and many good examples of the different types of questions that could go into a questionnaire are presented. This resource is intended for novice evaluators.
Describes a questionnaire assessing nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of older adults. The questionnaire consists of six sections: demographic and personal information, food resources, food consumption patterns, dietary practices related to health, activity patterns, and nutritional knowledge. Study results demonstrating the…
Fanelli, Marie T.; Abernethy, Marilyn M.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE (1) TO DEVELOP A GENERAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR LIFE HISTORY ITEMS, (2) TO DETERMINE TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY ESTIMATES, AND (3) TO ESTIMATE RESISTANCE TO EXAMINEE FAKING, FOR REPRESENTATIVE BIOGRAPHICAL QUESTIONNAIRES. TWO 100-ITEM QUESTIONNAIRES WERE CONSTRUCTED THROUGH RANDOM ASSIGNMENT BY CONTENT AREA OF 200…
STARRY, ALLAN R.
Studied the use of the student evaluation questionnaire as a means of teacher evaluation through the views of two university lecturers. Findings suggest that the use of student evaluation questionnaires as a means of summative and comparative appraisal has several negative implications for lecturers' understandings of teaching and their…
OBJECTIVE : Macroglossia is a common feature of Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS). Tongue reduction surgery (TRS) is advocated to overcome, or reduce, the secondary effects of macroglossia. Macroglossia may affect a child's cosmetic appearance, feeding, and drooling function. However, no study has systematically reported on feeding, drooling, or psychosocial outcomes preoperatively and postoperatively in this group. This study aimed to describe the presurgical and postsurgical psychosocial, feeding, and drooling outcomes of children with macroglossia associated with BWS and to determine the effect of TRS on these areas. DESIGN : Clinical cohort study. PARTICIPANTS : Ten consecutively admitted children with BWS (age at surgery from 9 months to 4 years, 9 months [4;9]; mean, 2;7) were assessed preoperatively, 3 months postoperatively, and at long-term follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES : A parental report questionnaire, the Brodsky drooling scale, and a feeding rating scale. RESULTS : Parents reported that macroglossia had a negative impact cosmetically that was ameliorated following surgery. Macroglossia caused a range of feeding difficulties presurgically by preventing lip seal and bolus manipulation during the oral preparatory phase. Excessive drooling was present in all cases presurgically. This resolved partially across the group postsurgically, with almost complete recovery at longer-term follow-up assessment. CONCLUSIONS : Presurgically, children show a common profile of feeding and drooling impairment with negative effects on cosmetic appearance. Our preliminary results demonstrate that TRS has a positive impact on these features with good outcomes for children with BWS. PMID:21905916
Shipster, C; Morgan, A; Dunaway, D
Background Therapists who work with trauma clients are impacted both positively and negatively. However, most studies have tended to focus on the negative impact of the work, the quantitative evidence has been inconsistent, and the research has primarily been conducted outside the United Kingdom. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and identify predictor variables for, compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in a group of UK therapists (N=253) working with adult trauma clients. Method An online questionnaire was developed which used The Professional Quality of Life Scale (Version 5) to assess compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress and collect demographics and other pertinent information. Results Whilst the majority of therapists scored within the average range for compassion satisfaction and burnout, 70% of scores indicated that therapists were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress. Maturity, time spent engaging in research and development activities, a higher perceived supportiveness of management, and supervision predicted higher potential for compassion satisfaction. Youth and a lower perceived supportiveness of management predicted higher risk of burnout. A higher risk of secondary traumatic stress was predicted in therapists engaging in more individual supervision and self-care activities, as well as those who had a personal trauma history. Conclusions UK therapists working with trauma clients are at high risk of being negatively impacted by their work, obtaining scores which suggest a risk of developing secondary traumatic stress. Of particular note was that exposure to trauma stories did not significantly predict secondary traumatic stress scores as suggested by theory. However, the negative impact of working with trauma clients was balanced by the potential for a positive outcome from trauma work as a majority indicated an average potential for compassion satisfaction. PMID:24386550
Sodeke-Gregson, Ekundayo A.; Holttum, Sue; Billings, Jo
Background Missing data may bias the results of clinical trials and other studies. This study describes the response rate, questionnaire responses and financial costs associated with offering participants from a multilingual population the option to complete questionnaires over the telephone. Methods Design: Before and after study of two methods of questionnaire completion. Participants and Setting: Seven hundred and sixty five pregnant women from 25 general practices in two UK inner city Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) taking part in a cluster randomised controlled trial of offering antenatal sickle cell and thalassaemia screening in primary care. Two hundred and four participants did not speak English. Sixty one women were offered postal questionnaire completion only and 714 women were offered a choice of telephone or postal questionnaire completion. Outcome measures: (i) Proportion of completed questionnaires, (ii) attitude and knowledge responses obtained from a questionnaire assessing informed choice. Results The response rate from women offered postal completion was 26% compared with 67% for women offered a choice of telephone or postal completion (41% difference 95% CI Diff 30 to 52). For non-English speakers offered a choice of completion methods the response rate was 56% compared with 71% for English speakers (95% CI Diff 7 to 23). No difference was found for knowledge by completion method, but telephone completion was associated with more positive attitude classifications than postal completion (87 vs 96%, 95% CI diff 0.006 to 15). Compared with postal administration the additional costs associated with telephone administration were £3.90 per questionnaire for English speakers and £71.60 per questionnaire for non English speakers. Conclusion Studies requiring data to be collected by questionnaire may obtain higher response rates from both English and non-English speakers when a choice of telephone or postal administration (and where necessary, an interpreter)is offered compared to offering postal administration only. This approach will, however, incur additional research costs and uncertainty remains about the equivalence of responses obtained from the two methods. PMID:18237377
Dormandy, Elizabeth; Brown, Katrina; Reid, Erin P; Marteau, Theresa M
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common, treatable movement disorder that often remains undiagnosed despite clinically manifest symptoms. Screening for parkinsonism could lead to improved detection and earlier treatment, and facilitate research studies of PD prevalence. In order to determine the feasibility of screening, this study evaluated the validity of previously developed screening questionnaires. We systematically searched online databases PubMed and EMBASE for English-language studies published between 1980 and 2009. In each database a “Parkinson(s) disease” or “parkinsonism” term was combined with a screening term (“screening instrument,” screening questionnaire,” “screen” or “prevalence survey”) and a validity term (“validation,” “sensitivity” and “specificity”). Included studies reported the psychometric properties of at least one self-report questionnaire for parkinsonism. Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. From these studies, 9 screening questionnaires were identified. Sensitivity and specificity estimates varied widely. Sensitivity estimates were as high as 100% when questionnaires were tested among previously diagnosed PD patients and included a high number of parkinsonism-specific items, but were as low as 48% when tested among early cases in a community-based sample. Specificity estimates were lower, ranging from 22–100%. An older sample, presence of multiple co-morbid conditions and lower literacy led to lower specificity estimates. Higher specificity estimates were seen when the screening questionnaires were administered by a physician. Screening questionnaires can detect symptomatic parkinsonism. However, the performance of these questionnaires varied based on the individual items, study sample, and method of administration. The performance of screening questionnaires in the detection of early or mild parkinsonism was modest. PMID:21930414
Dahodwala, Nabila; Siderowf, Andrew; Baumgarten, Mona; Abrams, Aaron; Karlawish, Jason
Potential health effects of agricultural pesticide use include reproductive outcomes. For the Ontario Farm Family Health Study, the authors sampled Ontario farms from the 1986 Canadian Census of Agriculture, identified farm couples, and obtained questionnaire data concerning farm activities, reproductive health experience, and chemical applications. Male farm activities in the period from 3 months before conception through the month of
David A. Savitz; Tye Arbuckle; Diane Kaczor; Kathryn M. Curtis
Despite an extensive literature on how to frame learning outcomes, to date, limited attention has been given to understanding whether and how students actually use them. This study employed a questionnaire survey and focus groups with students in three disciplines at the University of Leicester to explore students' perceptions and use of…
Brooks, Sara; Dobbins, Kerry; Scott, Jon J. A.; Rawlinson, Mark; Norman, Robert I.
&T to a friend or colleague? Yes No Please explain. _____ 14. What most helped you achieve your goals at Missouri1 EXIT INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE Â FACULTY AND STAFF Missouri University of Science and Technology
Missouri-Rolla, University of
Wareham NJ, Jakes RW, Rennie KL et al. Validity and repeatability of a simple index derived from the short physical activity questionnaire used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
A study of 118 secondary school principals in Oregon was conducted to examine the relationship of transformational leadership to secondary school principals' leadership performance. This study measured the transformational leadership of secondary school principals in Oregon using the "Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (5X-Short)" (Avolio &…
Breaker, Jason Lee
This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items concerning walking and biking from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires (PAQs). The purpose of this database is to provide easy access to a large number of items assessing duration and frequency of walking and bicycling in the non-disabled adult population. We also briefly review the results of validation studies identified for some of the PAQs.
Objective To assess the impact of a quality improvement project that used a multifaceted educational intervention on how to improve clinician's knowledge, confidence and awareness of acute kidney injury (AKI). Setting 2 large acute teaching hospitals in England, serving a combined population of over 1.5 million people. Participants All secondary care clinicians working in the clinical areas were targeted, with a specific focus on clinicians working in acute admission areas. Interventions A multifaceted educational intervention consisting of traditional didactic lectures, case-based teaching in small groups and an interactive web-based learning resource. Outcome measures We assessed clinicians’ knowledge of AKI and their self-reported clinical behaviour using an interactive questionnaire before and after the educational intervention. Secondary outcome measures included clinical audit of patient notes before and after the intervention. Results 26% of clinicians reported that they were aware of local AKI guidelines in the preintervention questionnaire compared to 64% in the follow-up questionnaire (?²=60.2, p<0.001). There was an improvement in the number of clinicians reporting satisfactory practice when diagnosing AKI, 50% vs 68% (?²=12.1, p<0.001) and investigating patients with AKI, 48% vs 64% (?²=9.5, p=0.002). Clinical audit makers showed a trend towards better clinical practice. Conclusions This quality improvement project utilising a multifaceted educational intervention improved awareness of AKI as demonstrated by changes in the clinician's self-reported management of patients with AKI. Elements of the project have been sustained beyond the project period, and demonstrate the power of quality improvement projects to help initiate changes in practice. Our findings are limited by confounding factors and highlight the need to carry out formal randomised studies to determine the impact of educational initiatives in the clinical setting. PMID:24650804
Xu, Gang; Baines, Richard; Westacott, Rachel; Selby, Nick; Carr, Susan
Aim: The purpose of this article is to review modification and outcome of secondary rhinoplasty along with Abbé flap for correction of secondary bilateral cleft lip deformity. Materials and Methods: A total of thirteen patients of secondary bilateral cleft lip-nose deformity having tight upper lip, lack of acceptable philtral column, Cupid's bow definition, irregular lip scars, and associated nasal deformity were selected. All the patients received Abbé flap and simultaneous nasal correction. All cases were treated during a period of three years. Mean patient age at the time of the operation was 21 years, and ranged from 16 to 27 years. The average follow-up period was three years. Results: Assessment of results was based on comparing preoperative and postoperative clinical photographs done by surgeon and patient relatives and patient satisfaction questionnaires. The columellar lengthening and upper lip vermillion correction achieved was satisfactory. There were no perioperative complications such as airway obstruction, bleeding, infection, wound disruption, or flap necrosis. PMID:24987200
Mokal, Nitin J.; Juneja, Manpreet
Background Postal self-completion questionnaires offer one of the least expensive modes of collecting patient based outcomes in health care research. The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy of methods of increasing response to postal questionnaires in health care studies on patient populations. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, CDSR, PsycINFO, NRR and ZETOC. Reference lists of relevant reviews and relevant journals were hand searched. Inclusion criteria were randomised trials of strategies to improve questionnaire response in health care research on patient populations. Response rate was defined as the percentage of questionnaires returned after all follow-up efforts. Study quality was assessed by two independent reviewers. The Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios. Results Thirteen studies reporting fifteen trials were included. Implementation of reminder letters and telephone contact had the most significant effect on response rates (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence interval 2.30 to 5.97 p = <0.00001). Shorter questionnaires also improved response rates to a lesser degree (odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 1.54). No evidence was found that incentives, re-ordering of questions or including an information brochure with the questionnaire confer any additional advantage. Conclusion Implementing repeat mailing strategies and/or telephone reminders may improve response to postal questionnaires in health care research. Making the questionnaire shorter may also improve response rates. There is a lack of evidence to suggest that incentives are useful. In the context of health care research all strategies to improve response to postal questionnaires require further evaluation. PMID:16504090
Nakash, Rachel A; Hutton, Jane L; Jørstad-Stein, Ellen C; Gates, Simon; Lamb, Sarah E
Current measures for major depressive disorder focus primarily on the assessment of depressive symptoms, while often omitting other common features. However, the presence of comorbid features in the anxiety spectrum influences outcome and may effect treatment. More comprehensive measures of depression are needed that include the assessment of symptoms in the anxiety-depression spectrum. This study examines the reliability and validity of the Symptoms of Depression Questionnaire (SDQ), which assesses irritability, anger attacks, and anxiety symptoms together with the commonly considered symptoms of depression. Analysis of the factor structure of the SDQ identified 5 subscales, including one in the anxiety-depression spectrum, with adequate internal consistency and concurrent validity. The SDQ may be a valuable new tool to better characterize depression and identify and administer more targeted interventions. PMID:25275853
Pedrelli, Paola; Blais, Mark A; Alpert, Jonathan E; Shelton, Richard C; Walker, Rosemary S W; Fava, Maurizio
We describe the development and psychometric characteristics of a new version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; Seligman, Abramson, Semmell, & Von Baeyer, 1979)--a version called the Attributional Style Questionnaire for Adolescents (ASQ-A)--using 3 samples (Ns = 547, 438, and 240) of Spanish secondary school students. In Study 1, the initial pool of 87 items was reduced to 54. Study 2 further analyzed the 54 scale items and revealed that the Internality, Stability, and Globality subscale scores had good reliability, good factorial construct validity, and satisfactory associations with maladaptive mood ratings. In Study 3, the regression analyses showed good and specific predictive validities of ASQ-A subscales for the attributions that the adolescents made about a particular real-life stressful situation. Study 4 showed that over an 8-month period the changes in the Stability and Globality subscales depended on the intensity of stressful life events experienced in this period. Overall, the studies revealed that the new ASQ-A served as an appropriate instrument to assess attributional style in adolescents. PMID:20822260
Rodríguez-Naranjo, Carmen; Caño, Antonio
A previous randomized, controlled trial of tai chi showed improvements in objectively measured balance and other motor-related outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study evaluated whether patient-reported outcomes could be improved through exercise interventions and whether improvements were associated with clinical outcomes and exercise adherence. In a secondary analysis of the tai chi trial, patient-reported and clinical outcomes and exercise adherence measures were compared between tai chi and resistance training and between tai chi and stretching exercise. Patient-reported outcome measures were perceptions of health-related benefits resulting from participation, assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) and Vitality Plus Scale (VPS). Clinical outcome measures included motor symptoms, assessed by a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale–Motor Examination (UPDRS-ME) and a 50-foot speed walk. Information on continuing exercise after the structured interventions were terminated was obtained at a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Tai chi participants reported significantly better improvement in the PDQ-8 (?5.77 points, P = 0.014) than did resistance training participants and in PDQ-8 (?9.56 points, P < 0.001) and VPS (2.80 points, P = 0.003) than did stretching participants. For tai chi, patient-reported improvement in the PDQ-8 and VPS was significantly correlated with their clinical outcomes of UPDRS-ME and a 50-foot walk, but these correlations were not statistically different from those shown for resistance training or stretching. However, patient-reported outcomes from tai chi training were associated with greater probability of continued exercise behavior than were either clinical outcomes or patient-reported outcomes from resistance training or stretching. Tai chi improved patient-reported perceptions of health-related benefits, which were found to be associated with a greater probability of exercise adherence. The findings indicate the potential of patient perceptions to drive exercise behavior after structured exercise programs are completed and the value of strengthening such perceptions in any behavioral intervention. PMID:24375468
Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Stock, Ronald; Chou, Li-Shan
A previous randomized, controlled trial of tai chi showed improvements in objectively measured balance and other motor-related outcomes in patients with Parkinson's disease. This study evaluated whether patient-reported outcomes could be improved through exercise interventions and whether improvements were associated with clinical outcomes and exercise adherence. In a secondary analysis of the tai chi trial, patient-reported and clinical outcomes and exercise adherence measures were compared between tai chi and resistance training and between tai chi and stretching exercise. Patient-reported outcome measures were perceptions of health-related benefits resulting from participation, assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) and Vitality Plus Scale (VPS). Clinical outcome measures included motor symptoms, assessed by a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Examination (UPDRS-ME) and a 50-foot speed walk. Information on continuing exercise after the structured interventions were terminated was obtained at a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Tai chi participants reported significantly better improvement in the PDQ-8 (-5.77 points, P?=?0.014) than did resistance training participants and in PDQ-8 (-9.56 points, P?0.001) and VPS (2.80 points, P?=?0.003) than did stretching participants. For tai chi, patient-reported improvement in the PDQ-8 and VPS was significantly correlated with their clinical outcomes of UPDRS-ME and a 50-foot walk, but these correlations were not statistically different from those shown for resistance training or stretching. However, patient-reported outcomes from tai chi training were associated with greater probability of continued exercise behavior than were either clinical outcomes or patient-reported outcomes from resistance training or stretching. Tai chi improved patient-reported perceptions of health-related benefits, which were found to be associated with a greater probability of exercise adherence. The findings indicate the potential of patient perceptions to drive exercise behavior after structured exercise programs are completed and the value of strengthening such perceptions in any behavioral intervention. PMID:24375468
Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Kathleen; Stock, Ronald; Chou, Li-Shan
Harvard University Respiratory Protection Program Medical Evaluation Questionnaire Medical No Instructions: All employees must be medically evaluated prior to use of respiratory protection. Employees may University Respiratory Protection Program Medical Evaluation Questionnaire Medical Evaluation Questionnaire
"Upper" lumbar disc herniations (LDH) are different from the "lower" and possess increased chance of neural compromise and cauda equina syndrome that necessitates operative management despite of contradictory surgical outcome. We underwent the study to assess the clinical and functional outcome of symptomatic upper LDH surgery from July 2003 to June 2012 in BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The records of 123 patients (age range, 30-69 years), 56 men and 67 women (mean 52 years) having upper lumbar discectomy were reviewed. The surgical time, intra-operative blood loss, self evaluated back pain and thigh and/or groin pain status [using Visual Analogue Score (VAS)] and the disability status [using Oswestry disability (ODI) questionnaire] was analyzed. Radiological stability (using Posner's criteria), functional outcome [using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score] and overall outcome (using MacNab`s criteria), was calculated. Chi-squared test and z-test using SPSS revealed mean operative time and mean blood loss had no significant (p>0.05) difference. Pain, sensory, motor and reflex status as well as VAS, ODI and all the components of JOA questionnaire had significant (p<0.05) improvement. In spite of intra-operative complications in 20.32% cases, overall satisfactory outcome was achieved in 83.74% cases. The postoperative complications (08.13%) could be managed conservatively. However, carefully decided surgical alternatives resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcome in upper LDH surgery. PMID:25481595
Awwal, M A; Ahsan, M K; Sakeb, N
Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the “Revised Faces Pain Scale” (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. Results The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years. PMID:23758965
Investigators compared counseling outcomes among nonpaid graduate-level trainees and professional staff at a college counseling center. Counseling outcomes for 331 college student participants were measured using the Outcome Questionnaire 45.2 (OQ45.2), employing a pretest--posttest design. The two groups of service providers did not differ…
Ilagan, Guy; Vinson, Mike; Sharp, Julia L.; Havice, Pamela; Ilagan, Jill
situations Inspired students to set and achieve goals which really challenged them. Asked students to share to real life situations. (M) Inspired students to set and achieve goals which really challenged them. (MFRINQ End-of-year Questionnaire FRINQ End-of-year Questionnaire Dear Student, In order to help us
Describes the development of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire, companion measures for assessing aspects of fear of fear (panic attacks) in agoraphobics. The instruments were administered to 175 agoraphobics (mean age 37.64 yrs) and 43 controls (mean age 36.13 yrs) who were similar in sex and marital status to experimental Ss. Results show that the instruments
Dianne L. Chambless; G. Craig Caputo; Priscilla Bright; Richard Gallagher
In the current information age, there is a growing use of and reliance on the Internet. One area of concern for educators is the communication of information using an electronic questionnaire interface. Therefore, it seems pertinent to look at the issue of dissemination of Internet questionnaire information and the integrity of this process.…
Background Many patients with chronic illness are limited in their physical activities. This systematic review evaluates the content and format of patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires that measure physical activity in elderly and chronically ill populations. Methods Questionnaires were identified by a systematic literature search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO & CINAHL), hand searches (reference sections and PROQOLID database) and expert input. A qualitative analysis was conducted to assess the content and format of the questionnaires and a Venn diagram was produced to illustrate this. Each stage of the review process was conducted by at least two independent reviewers. Results 104 questionnaires fulfilled our criteria. From these, 182 physical activity domains and 1965 items were extracted. Initial qualitative analysis of the domains found 11 categories. Further synthesis of the domains found 4 broad categories: 'physical activity related to general activities and mobility', 'physical activity related to activities of daily living', 'physical activity related to work, social or leisure time activities', and '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity'. The Venn diagram showed that no questionnaires covered all 4 categories and that the '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity' category was often not combined with the other categories. Conclusions A large number of questionnaires with a broad range of physical activity content were identified. Although the content could be broadly organised, there was no consensus on the content and format of physical activity PRO questionnaires in elderly and chronically ill populations. Nevertheless, this systematic review will help investigators to select a physical activity PRO questionnaire that best serves their research question and context. PMID:22414164
TICS modelling : Conception of questionnaire Sylvie Damy Associate professor in Computer Science Techniques Â 16 Route de Gray- F-25030 BesanÃ§on cedex Introduction Within the framework of the action "TICS. The modelling of the "Territorial Intelligence Community Systems", or TICS is useful to transcribe
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
This questionnaire assesses attitudes toward potential drug education programs and drug use practices in college students. The 87 items (multiple choice or free response) pertain to the history and extent of usage of 27 different drugs, including two non-existent drugs which may be utilized as a validity check; attitude toward the content, format,…
Francis, John Bruce; Patch, David J.
A deterministic questionnaire method for zygosity determination is developed for use in epidemiological studies of adult twins. It is based on the answers of both members of a twin pair to two questions on similarity and confusion in childhood. The algorithm of the method is used to determine the zygosity status of a twin pair at two different levels of
Seppo Sarna; Jaakko Kaprio; Pertti Sistonen; Markku Koskenvuo
A diagnostic evaluation for a person with suspected Alzheimer's disease is usually initiated by family members whose concerns go beyond strictly medical issues. To determine precisely what questions families want answered, a 15-point questionnaire was developed at a multi-disciplinary geriatric assessment clinic. Caregivers were asked to rate each…
Simonton, Linda J.; Haugland, S. M.
-Q (Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire) YES NO 1. Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor? 2. Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity? 3. In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were
The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.
Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users. PMID:24469338
Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold
INSURANCE & CLAIMS MANAGEMENT SPECIAL EVENTS QUESTIONNAIRE TODAY'S DATE: / / 1. TITLE OF EVENT: 2. IS THERE AN ADMISSION CHARGE? YES NO IF YES, AMOUNT OF ADMISSION? 17. SPONSOR INSURED BY: 18. ADDRESS OF INSURER: INSURANCE & CLAIMS MGT. WILL DETERMINE INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS AND MAY REQUIRE CERTIFICATES OF INSURANCE
Conducted 3 studies with 125, 67, and 118 male undergraduates to investigate the possibility of constructing a new questionnaire to measure the achievement motive. Study I started with an initial item pool whose content ranged over 10 aspects thought to be characteristic of an individual who is highly motivated to achieve. Items embodying all except 1 aspect were included in
Hubert J. Hermans
ENERGY EXCEPTION REQUEST Energy Exception Request Questionnaire rev AA.01 2013/04/02 GUIDELINES which exceed the normal schedule by completing this Energy Exception Request and submitting it to the Office of Energy Management. Energy Management will prepare a cost analysis and return
DRUG STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE PROGRAM DIRECTOR:______________________________________ DATE and/or efficacy of a drug? A. If yes, is the testing, study, evaluation or research primarily for use in pharmaceutical pre-market clearance applications to the Food and Drug Administration? 2. Is drug administered
Software, such as Cardiff's TELEform Information Capture System, is available to create and print a scannable version of the Diet History Questionnaire form. To create booklets, you may still need to hire a professional printer. Using TELEform, you will be able to scan the instrument with an imaging scanner (contact Cardiff for specifications).
This paper examines the results of a questionnaire on reading ability in English by Japanese college students, which was formerly analyzed using raw scores, from the viewpoint of Rasch measured scores. In the Rasch analysis, the basic requirements for measuring are the following: (1) reduction of experience to one dimensional abstraction; (2)…
Resource Purpose: This information acquired via the questionnaire is used to support development of the effluent guidelines for the Iron and Steel Point Source Category (40CFR Part 420). One of the statutory decision criteria for the adoption of a best available treatment t...
Clinical hyperacusis consists of a marked intolerance to ordinary environmental sounds, while hearing thresholds are quite often normal. Hyperacusis appears to be a subjective phenomenon, which is not easily defined or quantified by objective measurements. In order to create a tool suitable to quantify and evaluate various hyperacusis symptoms, a questionnaire screening several aspects of auditory symptomatology has been constructed.
S. Khalfa; S. Dubal; E. Veuillet; F. Perez-Diaz; R. Jouvent; L. Collet
The psychometric properties of the Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) are evaluated using a clinical sample of children with selective mutism (SM). The study shows that SMQ is useful in determining the severity of a child's nonspeaking behaviors, the scope of these behaviors and necessary follow up assessment.
Letamendi, Andrea M.; Chavira, Denise A.; Hitchcock, Carla A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Shipon-Blum, Elisa; Stein, Murray B.
This questionnaire assesses drug use practices in high school drop-outs. The 79 items (multiple choice or apply/not apply) are concerned with demographic data and use, use history, reasons for use/nonuse, attitudes toward drugs, availability of drugs, and drug information with respect to narcotics, amphetamines, LSD, Marijuana, and barbiturates.…
Governor's Citizen Advisory Committee on Drugs, Salt Lake City, UT.
PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE Has your child had swim lessons before? Yes No Is your child com- fortable in the water? Parent/child or level 1 class No Level 1 class Yes Does your child put their face in the water? No Level 2 class Yes Can your child swim underwater, swim Front crawl, and back crawl? No Level 3 class Yes
Purpose Patient-orientated outcome questionnaires are essential to evaluate treatment success. To compare different treatments, hospitals,\\u000a and surgeons, standardised questionnaires are required. The present study examined the validity and responsiveness of the\\u000a Core Outcome Measurement Index for neck pain (COMI-neck), a short, multidimensional outcome instrument.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Questionnaires were completed by patients with degenerative problems of the cervical spine undergoing cervical disc arthroplasty\\u000a before
C. D. Fankhauser; U. Mutter; E. Aghayev; A. F. Mannion
Abstract Background Some domains of the questionnaires used to measure symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in patients with advanced cancer seem to measure similar dimensions or constructs, so it would be useful for clinicians to demonstrate the interchangeability of equivalent domains of the questionnaires in measuring the same constructs. Objective This study investigated the reliability and concurrent validity of the Palliative Outcome Scale (POS), the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL), and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), used to measure symptom control in patients with advanced cancer. Design This was an evaluative study. Setting/Subjects Subjects were patients with advanced cancer attended by Spanish primary care physicians. Measurements Secondary analysis was performed of 117 outpatients who completed the POS, BPI, and RSCL at two different times, with an interval of 7 to 10 days. Bland and Altman analyses and plot, repeatability coefficient, as well as Spearman correlations were carried out. Results There were 117 included patients. Mean age was 69.4 (11.5) years, gender was 60% male, 37.6% completed only elementary school, diagnoses were mainly digestive and lung cancer, with a low functional rate and presence of oncologic pain. First and second questionnaire rounds showed significant correlations and agreement. Agreement was shown between pain intensity of BPI and pain and physical scales of RSCL, and between physical symptoms of RSCL and of POS, with significant correlations in equivalent dimensions. Conclusion BPI, POS, and RSCL have shown adequate reliability and moderate concurrent validity among them. PMID:23808642
Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Agra-Varela, Yolanda
The current demand for educational excellence is an outgrowth of recent national reports criticizing secondary education. This push for academic excellence also affects vocational education outcomes. A growing consensus seems to be emerging that at the secondary level (1) vocational education should be integrated with academic education, (2)…
Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR. Education and Work Program.
Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers…
Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Edmonds, Meaghan; Reutebuch, Colleen Klein
Solar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting Questionnaire As someone who is familiar with solar energy issues, we hope that you will tak
Page 1 Solar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting QuestionnaireSolar Resource and Forecasting Questionnaire As someone who is familiar with solar energy issues, we hope that you will take a few moments to answer this short survey
Islam, M. Saif
Use these links to learn more about primary and secondary sources. 1. Explore the links below to learn about primary and secondary sources. When you have finished, you should be able to: Tell the difference between primary and secondary sources. Give at least three examples of primary sources and three examples of secondary sources. Explain why primary sources are important in research. Examples of Primary Sources Examples of Primary and Secondary Sources on the Same Topic Genres/Formats of Primary Sources 2. ...
Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates
BACKGROUND: In the past only physiological and clinical outcomes have been used to assess the effect of asthma interventions and the effect of the intervention on the lives of the patients has not been determined. The objective of this study was to assess health related impairment of quality of life in adult asthmatic patients and to develop a questionnaire for
E F Juniper; G H Guyatt; R S Epstein; P J Ferrie; R Jaeschke; T K Hiller
BACKGROUND: We aimed at assessing the degree of measurement error in essential fatty acid intakes from a food frequency questionnaire and the impact of correcting for such an error on precision and bias of odds ratios in logistic models. To assess these impacts, and for illustrative purposes, alternative approaches and methods were used with the binary outcome of cognitive decline
May A Beydoun; Jay S Kaufman; Joseph Ibrahim; Jessie A Satia; Gerardo Heiss
In 1928, the Library of Virginia inherited a mass of materials from the Virginia War History Commission, which had spent the previous eight years gathering information on Virginia's participation in World War I. Included in this material were over 14,900 four-page questionnaires from a survey of WWI veterans in Virginia. The Library of Virginia has digitized these survey forms and created a free, fully-searchable database. Users have three search options: by word or phrase, combination, and expert/boolean. Search returns offer basic information on each individual, and users must follow the link at the bottom of the page to download the digitized images (in .tif format) of the questionnaire forms. In some cases, respondents submitted photos or additional pages with their forms and these are included in the database.
Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women) with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women) with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, ?-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 67.3%. Conclusions We successfully developed a simple self-administered questionnaire to screen for cervical myelopathy. PMID:21092213
A new measure of coping, the Pain Coping Questionnaire (PCQ), is presented and validated in two studies of children and adolescents. Factor analyses of data from healthy children and adolescents supported eight hypothesized subscales (information seeking, problem solving, seeking social support, positive self-statements, behavioral distraction, cognitive distraction, externalizing, internalizing\\/catastrophizing) and three higher-order scales (approach, problem-focused avoidance, emotion-focused avoidance). The subscales
Graham J Reid; Cheryl A Gilbert; Patrick J McGrath
We determined the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a brief park use questionnaire. From five US locations, 232 adults completed a brief survey four times and wore a global positioning system (GPS) monitor for three weeks. We assessed validity for park visits during the past week and during a usual week by examining agreement between frequency and duration of park visits reported in the questionnaire to the GPS monitor results. Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC) were used to measure agreement. For past week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.62–0.65 and 0.62–0.67, respectively. For usual week park visit frequency and duration, the SCC were 0.40–0.50 and 0.50–0.53, respectively. Usual park visit frequency reliability was 0.78–0.88 (percent agreement 69%–82%) and usual park visit duration was 0.75–0.84 (percent agreement 64%–73%). These results suggest that the questionnaire to assess usual and past week park use had acceptable validity and reliability. PMID:23853386
Evenson, Kelly R.; Wen, Fang; Golinelli, Daniela; Rodríguez, Daniel A.; Cohen, Deborah A.
A survey of 89 post secondary youth with intellectual impairments exiting a college based school-to-work program tracked school and post school experiences to identify significant correlates and predictors of post school outcomes. The three significant predictors were self-determination training, course taking patterns, and home care skills…
Farnham, Lindsey Beth
A sample of 112 secondary school teachers were sent a questionnaire addressing the following topics: (1) teacher's educational background; (2) classes taught; (3) texts and media being used; (4) awareness of professional organizations; (5) suggestions for curriculum development; and (6) willingness of teachers to participate in improving…
Munski, Douglas C.
This article deals with a study on interior design standards in the secondary FCS curriculum. This study assessed the importance FCS teachers placed on content standards in the interior design curriculum to help determine the amount of time and emphasis to place on the units within the courses. A cover letter and questionnaire were sent…
Katz, Shana H.; Smith, Bettye P.
Project PROBE, supported by USOE, conducted in fall 1967 a survey of social studies teachers and teaching in cooperation with the Catskill Area School Study Council. In the Project's service area, including all or part of 5 counties in upstate New York, questionnaires were mailed to one-third of the elementary teachers and to all of the secondary…
Catskill Area School Study Council, Oneonta, NY.
Understanding preservice teachers' memories of their education may aid towards articulating high-impact teaching practices. This study describes 246 preservice teachers' perceptions of their secondary science education experiences through a questionnaire and 28-item survey. ANOVA was statistically significant about participants' memories of…
Hudson, Peter; Usak, Muhammet; Fancovicova, Jana; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol
The aim of this study was to assess the self-evaluations of Finnish secondary school students' (N?=?549) interreligious sensitivity. The data were collected from 12-16-year-old young people with a 15-item Interreligious Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (IRRSSQ). The IRRSSQ is based on Abu-Nimer's Developmental Model of Interreligious…
Holm, Kristiina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi
The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…
Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas
A Texas study examined the attitudes of 379 secondary agriscience students about environmental issues (76% response rate). The Spring 1993 survey questionnaire was developed from a literature review. A Likert-type scale was used for response measurement in sections 1-4; Section 5 consisted of statements related to personal and demographic…
Parker, Tina Farris; Herring, Don R.
The relationships between stress and psychological distress were investigated among a cohort of trainee secondary school teachers in England. Specifically, the study examined the structure of a Teacher Stress Scale and its relationship to mental health as measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Three factors were identified:…
Chaplain, Roland P.
Questionnaires assessed anticipation and actual enjoyment of various adventure activites by 60 New Zealand secondary schools students before and after a school-sponsored adventure week. White water rafting was rated most preferred on both occasions. Pre- and posttour comparisons showed a significant increase in enjoyment ranking for horse trekking…
Hastie, Peter A.
Investigated approaches of 549 students to learning in Finnish general upper secondary school through the Learning Process Questionnaire (J. Biggs, 1987). Finds significant differences between students' approaches to learning in the different form levels. Approaches to learning were also related to gender and mathematics and English grades. (SLD)
Eklund-Myrskog, Gunilla; Wenestam, Claes-Goran
The purpose of this study was to compare secondary agricultural educators' perceptions of the benefits and problems associated with teaching agricultural education and being involved in other part-time employment activities. The sample consisted of 107 agricultural educators nonrandomly selected from three states. Sixty-nine usable questionnaires…
Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Scarbrough, Connie; Gartin, Stacy A.; Boone, Deborah A.
This study investigates the application of new educational technologies in geography classes. The research involved 126 students from vocational secondary schools in Serbia taking geography as a compulsory subject. We developed and applied a questionnaire for this research. The results indicate that out of several ICTs available, the majority of…
Komlenovic, Djurdjica; Manic, Emilija; Malinic, Dusica
Motivation research has shown significant relations of students' mastery goal orientation and perceived competence to educational outcomes, but has not simultaneously scrutinized their relative influences on various educational outcomes. In the present investigation, a sample of Australian students from 6 secondary schools in Western Sydney…
Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Kaur, Gurvinder
This study tested the hypothesis that aggressive children attach more value to rewarding outcomes of aggression and less to negative outcomes than do nonaggressive children. Sex differences in outcome values were also examined. (PCB)
Boldizar, Janet P.; And Others
PURPOSE This study was designed to evaluate rectocele repair using collagen mesh.METHODS 32 female patients underwent surgical repair using collagen mesh. Outcome was assessed in 29 patients and preoperative assessment included standardized questionnaire, clinical examination, and defecography. At the six-month follow-up, patients answered a standardized questionnaire and underwent clinical examination. At the 12-month follow-up, patients answered a standardized questionnaire, underwent clinical examination,
Daniel Altman; Jan Zetterström; Annika López; Bo Anzén; Christian Falconer; Fredrik Hjern; Anders Mellgren
BACKGROUND: To assist clinicians and researchers in choosing outcome measures for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending routine outpatient clinics, a comparative assessment was undertaken of four questionnaires designed to reflect the patients' perception of their physical and emotional health in terms of their feasibility, validity, reliability, and responsiveness to health change. METHODS: Two condition specific questionnaires, the St
R. Harper; J. E. Brazier; J. C. Waterhouse; S. J. Walters; N. M. Jones; P. Howard
Background: This study was designed to assess the validity and reliability of the designed sexual, behavioral abstinence, and avoidance of high-risk situation questionnaire (SBAHAQ), with an aim to construct an appropriate development tool in the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A descriptive–analytic study was conducted among female undergraduate students of Tehran University, who were selected through cluster random sampling. After reviewing the questionnaires and investigating face and content validity, internal consistency of the questionnaire was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using SPSS and AMOS 16 Software, respectively. Results: The sample consisted of 348 female university students with a mean age of 20.69 ± 1.63 years. The content validity ratio (CVR) coefficient was 0.85 and the reliability of each section of the questionnaire was as follows: Perceived benefit (PB; 0.87), behavioral intention (BI; 0.77), and self-efficacy (SE; 0.85) (Cronbach's alpha totally was 0.83). Explanatory factor analysis showed three factors, including SE, PB, and BI, with the total variance of 61% and Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin (KMO) index of 88%. These factors were also confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis [adjusted goodness of fitness index (AGFI) = 0.939, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.039]. Conclusion: This study showed the designed questionnaire provided adequate construct validity and reliability, and could be adequately used to measure sexual abstinence and avoidance of high-risk situations among female students. PMID:24741650
Najarkolaei, Fatemeh Rahmati; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Fesharaki, Mohammad Gholami; Jafari, Mohammad Reza
This project sought to evaluate regional students' perceptions of their readiness to learn, assessment processes, engagement, extent to which their learning is personalised and to relate these to academic efficacy, academic achievement, and student well-being. It also examined teachers' perceptions of students' readiness to learn,…
Waldrip, Bruce; Cox, Peter; Deed, Craig; Dorman, Jeffrey; Edwards, Debra; Farrelly, Cathleen; Keeffe, Mary; Lovejoy, Valeria; Mow, Lucy; Prain, Vaughan; Sellings, Peter; Yager, Zali
...discharge cause the following within or beyond the ZID: [40 CFR 125.62(c)(3)] —Mass mortality of fishes or invertebrates due to oxygen depletion, high concentrations of toxics, or other conditions? —An increased incidence of disease...
...discharge cause the following within or beyond the ZID: [40 CFR 125.62(c)(3)] —Mass mortality of fishes or invertebrates due to oxygen depletion, high concentrations of toxics, or other conditions? —An increased incidence of disease...
...discharge cause the following within or beyond the ZID: [40 CFR 125.62(c)(3)] —Mass mortality of fishes or invertebrates due to oxygen depletion, high concentrations of toxics, or other conditions? —An increased incidence of disease...
This paper presents the results of a study investigating the short- and long-term effects of secondary schools upon student academic success and development. A questionnaire was administered to a randomly selected sample of 15% of Cypriot students who graduated in June 2004 and June 2005 from secondary schools. A good response rate (i.e., 66%) was…
This study investigates the psychosocial environments of secondary schools from science teachers' perspectives, as well as associated variables. Using a sample of 900 secondary science teachers from 52 schools in Taiwan, the results attest to the validity and reliability of the instrument, the Science Teacher School Environment Questionnaire, and…
Huang, Shwu-yong L.
Aims: The current research assessed the rate of substance use among Iranian secondary school students. Participants: 470 boy secondary school students selected randomly and were assessed. Measurements: A confidential questionnaire based on DSM-IV and a prior study was distributed, completed by the students and collected in the same sessions in…
Ahmadi, Jamshid; Alishahi, Mohammadjavad; Alavi, Maryam
This study used the results of a questionnaire survey of 230 secondary school teachers to analyze the factors constituting job satisfaction and its effects on teacher attrition and work enthusiasm. The results show that (a) the structure of secondary school teacher job satisfaction is made up of ten components and is consistent with the model put…
Based on the measuring instruments used by scholars in China and abroad, we devised a questionnaire to study occupational stress of 500 secondary and elementary school teachers in Tacheng municipality in Xinjiang and examined its negative effects on teachers. They found that the occupational stress of secondary and elementary school teachers are…
Pei, Wang; Guoli, Zhang
This study examines the difficulties biology teachers face when teaching cell division in the secondary schools of the central part of the Erzurum province in Turkey. During this research, a questionnaire was distributed to a total of 36 secondary school biology teachers. Findings of the study indicate biology teachers perceive cell division as…
Oztap, Haydar; Ozay, Esra; Oztap, Fulya
The purpose of this study was to establish the usage of research and theory in the teaching of English language in secondary schools in Botswana. Altogether 100 questionnaires were administered in 19 secondary schools. The results of this study indicate that teachers rarely ever refer to language research in their teaching. Less value was also…
The aim of this study was to analyze the exploratory and confirmatory structure, as well as other psychometric properties, of the Cuestionario de Problemas de Convivencia Escolar (CPCE; in Spanish, the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems [QSMP]), using a sample of Spanish adolescents. The instrument was administered to 60 secondary education teachers (53.4% females and 46.6% males) between the ages of 28 and 54 years (M= 41.2, SD= 11.5), who evaluated a total of 857 adolescent students. The first-order exploratory factor analysis identified 7 factors, explaining a total variance of 62%. A second-order factor analysis yielded three dimensions that explain 84% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed in order to reduce the number of factors obtained in the exploratory analysis as well as the number of items. Lastly, we present the results of reliability, internal consistency, and validity indices. These results and their implications for future research and for the practice of educational guidance and intervention are discussed in the conclusions. PMID:22420365
de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Roda, María Dolores; Trianes Torres, María Victoria
Background Perinatal mortality and morbidity in the Netherlands is relatively high compared to other European countries. Our country has a unique system with an independent primary care providing care to low-risk pregnancies and a secondary/tertiary care responsible for high-risk pregnancies. About 65% of pregnant women in the Netherlands will be referred from primary to secondary care implicating multiple medical handovers. Dutch audits concluded that in the entire obstetric collaborative network process parameters could be improved. Studies have shown that obstetric team training improves perinatal outcome and that simulation-based obstetric team training implementing crew resource management (CRM) improves team performance. In addition, deliberate practice (DP) improves medical skills. The aim of this study is to analyse whether transmural multiprofessional simulation-based obstetric team training improves perinatal outcome. Methods/Design The study will be implemented in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands with an annual delivery rate of over 9,000. In this area secondary care is provided by four hospitals. Each hospital with referring primary care practices will form a cluster (study group). Within each cluster, teams will be formed of different care providers representing the obstetric collaborative network. CRM and elements of DP will be implemented in the training. To analyse the quality of care as perceived by patients, the Pregnancy and Childbirth Questionnaire (PCQ) will be used. Furthermore, self-reported collaboration between care providers will be assessed. Team performance will be measured by the Clinical Teamwork Scale (CTS). We employ a stepped-wedge trial design with a sequential roll-out of the trainings for the different study groups. Primary outcome will be perinatal mortality and/or admission to a NICU. Secondary outcome will be team performance, quality of care as perceived by patients, and collaboration among care providers. Conclusion The effect of transmural multiprofessional simulation-based obstetric team training on perinatal outcome has never been studied. We hypothesise that this training will improve perinatal outcome, team performance, and quality of care as perceived by patients and care providers. Trial registration The Netherlands National Trial Register, http://www.trialregister.nl/NTR4576, registered June 1, 2014 PMID:25145317
In this secondary data analytic study we examined whether the relationship between changes in coping and treatment outcome differed between women enrolled in either the Women's Recovery Group (N=29), a new manualized group treatment for women with substance use disorders, or Group Drug Counseling (N=7), an empirically supported mixed-gender group treatment. We examined subscales of the Ways of Coping questionnaire and found that while changes in coping did not differ significantly across treatment groups, the association of changes in coping with substance abuse outcome was related to treatment condition. Increases in problem focused coping were associated with decreased drinking days in WRG, but paradoxically with increased drinking days in GDC. For both groups, increases in wishful thinking were associated with increases in substance use, and increases in social support coping associated with decreases in use, but these associations were greater GDC. Our results highlight the importance of examining the impact of treatment modality on coping, as well as contextual factors that may help to explain the specific pattern of results. PMID:20958851
Kuper, Laura E.; Gallop, Robert; Greenfield, Shelly F.
Background The empirical basis for this work is derived from previous research completed in our laboratory and published in 2005 and 2007. The previous work suggested that self-report hearing aid outcomes can be viewed as device-oriented or wearer-oriented. Further, compared to wearer-oriented outcomes, device-oriented outcomes were more independent of personality variables. Purpose To develop a device-oriented questionnaire to measure self-report hearing aid outcomes. Research Design A descriptive study in which 140 potential questionnaire items were evaluated and a questionnaire was devised. Study Sample A total of 306 adult hearing aid wearers participated. One hundred and eighty-nine were clinical patients and 117 were subjects in hearing aid field trials. Data Collection and Analysis Some items and some subjects were removed due to insufficient responses. The final data set included 295 subjects and 66 items. Response data were subjected to exploratory principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation. Six components, explaining 64% of the variance, were retained. Item statistics were examined. Results Six subscales were identified. Long and short forms of the questionnaire were developed. There are two equivalent versions of the short form. Conclusions The DOSO questionnaire is suitable for quantifying subjective hearing aid outcomes in both research and clinical settings. The DOSO is especially suited for comparing outcomes with different hearing aids. Future research is needed to cross-validate the results, determine retest consistency, and to explore the extent to which data from the DOSO is independent of personality. PMID:25380119
Cox, Robyn M.; Alexander, Genevieve C.; Xu, Jingjing
The design and use of questionnaires in course and faculty evaluation are discussed and the literature reviewed. Problems of questionnaire construction and interpretation of results are described and a questionnaire developed at the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Waterloo is given as an example. (Author/MSE)
McBean, Edward A.; Al-Nassri, Sabah
Objective To identify methods to increase response to postal questionnaires. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of any method to influence response to postal questionnaires. Studies reviewed 292 randomised controlled trials including 258 315 participants Intervention reviewed 75 strategies for influencing response to postal questionnaires.
Phil Edwards; Ian Roberts; Mike Clarke; Carolyn DiGuiseppi; Sarah Pratap; Reinhard Wentz; Irene Kwan
LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify a method for gathering and reporting medical nutrition therapy outcomes data which are important to health care payorsIn order to prove the value of nutrition services to health care payors, outcomes of the nutrition intervention must be documented. To achieve reproducible outcomes, standard care practices must be followed by the dietitians providing the nutrition Intervention. Many
D. Israel; C. Ireton-Jones; B. Garritson; J. Kruse
This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…
Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao
Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycaemia. The number of patients with diabetes is expected to exceed 592 million in 2035. The growing number of diabetics is a great burden for the Danish healthcare system. The Danish government desires a modern and efficient healthcare system with a high patient security and a coherent continuity of care. To achieve these outcomes medical record-keeping, paper questionnaires and notes must be digitized. The current system enforces that the diabetics fill out questionnaires in paper form after which the healthcare personnel enter the same information in the electronic health record. In this study, an online questionnaire was designed and the usability was evaluated using the following parameters: learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors, and satisfaction. The parameters were evaluated by using the discount usability engineering method. 5 double specialists and 6 patients diagnosed with diabetes provided the data of the study. The results indicated that simple and obvious figures were preferred in the online questionnaire, as well as error preventing in the form of validation fields. This study inspire to further development in the digitizing process. PMID:25160322
Schaarup, Clara; Hejlesen, Ole K
A questionnaire designed to measure oral health-related quality of life (OHRQOL) in adults and children was assessed for its\\u000a factorial structure and reliability using data from the Second International Collaborative Study on Oral Health Outcomes in\\u000a New Zealand, Poland and Germany. Principal component analysis with orthogonal and oblique rotation was applied. The three-factor\\u000a structure hypothesized for the children's questionnaire (self-reported
Hadissa Tapsoba; Jean-Pierre Deschamps; Marie-Hélène Leclercq
: Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (1997). Revealing feelings: Facets of emotional expressivity in self include: Gross, J.J. (2000). The Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire. In J. Maltby, C.A. Lewis, & A Mellen Press. Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. (1998). Mapping the domain of expressivity: Multi-method evidence
Gross, James J.
Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Brace and Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire-Deformity are relatively new tools aimed at facilitating the evaluation of long-term results of therapy in persons with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing conservative treatment. To use these tools properly in Poland, they must be translated into Polish and adapted to the Polish cultural settings. The process of cultural adaptation of the questionnaires was compliant with the guidelines of International Quality of Life Assessment (IQOLA) Project. In the first stage, two independent translators converted the originals into Polish. Stage two, consisted of a comparison of the originals and two translated versions. During that stage, the team of two translators and authors of the project identified differences in those translations and created a combination of the two. In the third stage, two independent translators, who were native speakers of German, translated the adjusted version of the Polish translation into the language of the original document. At the last stage, a commission composed of: specialists in orthopedics, translators, a statistician and a psychologist reviewed all translations and drafted a pre-final version of the questionnaires. Thirty-five adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis who were treated with Cheneau brace were subjected to the questionnaire assessment. All patients were treated in an out-patient setting by a specialist in orthopedics at the Chair and Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology. Median age of patients was 14.8 SD 1.5, median value of the Cobb's angle was 27.8 degrees SD 7.4. 48.6% of patients had thoracic scoliosis, 31.4% had thoracolumbar scoliosis, and 20% patients had lumbar scoliosis. Median results obtained by means of the Polish version of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity questionnaires were 17.9 SD 5.0 and 11.3 SD 4.7, respectively. Internal consistency of BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity was at the level of 0.80 and 0.87, whereas the value of the absolute stability factor was 0.82 and 0.88. Overall, the Polish versions of the BSSQ-Brace and BSSQ-Deformity Questionnaires are characterized by high values of internal consistency factor and absolute stability factor. Following the process of adaptation, the authors obtained a tool that is instrumental in clinical evaluations and complies with methodological criteria. PMID:19669802
Misterska, Ewa; G?owacki, Maciej; Harasymczuk, Jerzy
Many questionnaires attempt to assess the quality of life of individuals who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision), but few apply to those who are undergoing visual rehabilitation and hence are difficult to adapt as an outcome measure Massof & Rubin, 2001). The Reading Behavior Inventory (RBI) was developed as a…
Goodrich, Gregory L.; Kirby, Jennine; Wood, Jennifer; Peters, Laura
Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…
Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.
Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire used to assess the level of general knowledge about cervical cancer, its primary and secondary prevention, and to identify sources of information about the disease among schoolgirls and female students. Methods The questionnaire development process was divided into four phases: generation of issues; construction of a provisional questionnaire; testing of the provisional questionnaire for acceptability and relevance; field-testing, which aimed at ensuring reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Field-testing included 305 respondents of high school female Caucasian students, who filled out the final version of the questionnaire. Results After phase 1, a list of 65 issues concerning knowledge about cervical cancer and its prevention was generated. Of 305, 155 were schoolgirls (mean age±SD, 17.8±0.5) and 150 were female students (mean age±SD, 21.7±1.8). The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the whole questionnaire was 0.71 (range for specific questionnaire sections, 0.60 to 0.81). Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.89 to 0.94. Conclusion The Cervical-Cancer-Knowledge-Prevention-64 has been successfully developed to measure the level of knowledge about cervical cancer. The results confirm the validity, reliability and applicability of the created questionnaire. PMID:24761210
Jaglarz, Katarzyna; Kamzol, Wojciech; Puskulluoglu, Miros?awa; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof
To address calls for context-specific measurement of social support, this article reports the development of the Athletes' Received Support Questionnaire (ARSQ) and demonstrates initial evidence for its validity. Across four studies there was support for a four-dimensional structure reflecting emotional, esteem, informational, and tangible received support. There was also support for unidimensional and higher-order models. Further, Study 3 provided some support for convergent validity, with significant correlations between the corresponding dimensions of the ARSQ and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors. Study 4 provided evidence for the nomological validity of the ARSQ. Emotional and esteem support significantly predicted self-confidence and positive affect, and tangible support significantly moderated the relationship between stress and negative affect. Collectively, these results provide initial evidence for the validity of the ARSQ, and offer researchers flexibility to adopt either a multidimensional or aggregated approach to measuring received support. PMID:24686955
Freeman, Paul; Coffee, Pete; Moll, Tjerk; Rees, Tim; Sammy, Nadine
Background Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately. Methods From a database of patient interviews (n = 177) from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation. Results The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format, in which each line was anchored by the positive and negative extremes relevant to the experiential domain. Because of frequent informant allusions to response set shifts from before to after CAM therapies, we chose a retrospective pretest format. Items cover physical, emotional, cognitive, social, spiritual, and whole person domains. Conclusions This paper reports the success of a novel approach to the development of outcome instruments, in which items are extracted from patients' words instead of being distilled from pre-existing theory. The resulting instrument, focused on measuring shifts in patients' perceptions of health and well-being along pre-specified axes, is undergoing continued testing, and is available for use by cooperating investigators. PMID:22206345
By reviewing research contents of patient-reported outcome (PRO) and discussing Chinese medicine (CM) theories related to chronic liver disease (CLD), we have followed international PRO questionnaire development specification, combined CM theories such as uniformed spirit and body, correspondence between human and the universe, yin in property and yang in function of Gan, and seven emotions, and constructed theoretical structure of PRO questionnaire of treating CLD, including four major areas as physiology, psychology, independence, and society and nature. Of them, the physiological field contained six aspects such as blood deficiency, yin deficiency, bleeding, disorder of qi movement, improper transformation and transportation of Pi-Wei, and abnormal biliary excretion. The psychological field contained two aspects: Gan-related emotions and general disease related emotions. The independence field contained two aspects: daily life and study and work. The field of society and nature contains three aspects: social relations, social environment, and natural adaptability. PMID:25566635
Wang, Li; Zhang, Hua; Yuan, Wei-An; Wang, Yi-Xing; Tang, Jie; Cui, Chen; Zeng, Jin; Miao, Ping; Jiang, Jian
In this AMEE Guide, we consider the design and development of self-administered surveys, commonly called questionnaires. Questionnaires are widely employed in medical education research. Unfortunately, the processes used to develop such questionnaires vary in quality and lack consistent, rigorous standards. Consequently, the quality of the questionnaires used in medical education research is highly variable. To address this problem, this AMEE Guide presents a systematic, seven-step process for designing high-quality questionnaires, with particular emphasis on developing survey scales. These seven steps do not address all aspects of survey design, nor do they represent the only way to develop a high-quality questionnaire. Instead, these steps synthesize multiple survey design techniques and organize them into a cohesive process for questionnaire developers of all levels. Addressing each of these steps systematically will improve the probabilities that survey designers will accurately measure what they intend to measure. PMID:24661014
La Rochelle, Jeffrey S.; Dezee, Kent J.; Gehlbach, Hunter
OBJECTIVES: To consider whether the Barthel Index alone provides sufficient information about the long term outcome of stroke. DESIGN: Cross sectional follow up study with a structured interview questionnaire and measures of impairment, disability, handicap, and general health. The scales used were the hospital anxiety and depression scale, mini mental state examination, Barthel index, modified Rankin scale, London handicap scale,
P R Wilkinson; C D Wolfe; F G Warburton; A G Rudd; R S Howard; R W Ross-Russell; R Beech
Objective Cardiovascular risk factors increase risk for stroke recurrence. Secondary prevention of stroke may be affected not only by established risk factors, but also socioeconomic status. This study evaluates relationships between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular and behavioral factors. Design Cross-section study. Setting Public Health and Education Institute, Peking University. Participants Outpatients (n = 2354) with a past diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Intervention(s) The investigation consisted of a questionnaire regarding patients' socioeconomic and living status, and a clinical examination at the research center. Main outcome measure(s) Control rates of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Results With regard to hypertension patients, 67.0% were aware of having hypertension, 63.6% were treated and 53.9% had controlled hypertension; for patients with hypercholesterolemia, 46.7% were aware of having hypercholesterolemia, 38.6% were treated and 3.8% had controlled hypercholesterolemia; for patients with diabetes mellitus, 28.0% were aware of having diabetes mellitus, 25.7% were treated and 3.5% had controlled diabetes mellitus. After multivariate analysis, education was the strongest associated factor for controls of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. After adjustment for sex and age, strong and graduated relationships were noted between the level of education and control of risk factors, with the odds ratios increasing at every increment. Conclusion Education exerts the most important effect on the control of established cardiovascular risk factors; Successful intervention to reduce these risk factors will have to be addressed, not just with regard to specific risk factors, but also with the societal conditions that lead to the adoption and maintenance of high-risk behaviors. PMID:21622716
Liu, Qun; Wang, Mingsheng; Guo, Jingcheng; Li, Jingxing; Li, Cuifen; Qian, Minhui
Binge eating disorder is often associated with obesity. It has many psychosocial and somatic consequences and affects obesity treatment outcome. Binge eating has been observed in very young populations. Studies have shown that complications associated with binge eating disorder can appear in children, even when all the criteria included in the definition of the disorder for adults are not met. Therefore, provisional criteria have been proposed to investigate binge eating disorder among children and adolescents. There is an urgent need to enhance the screening of binge eating disorder in the young population, first in order to document the disorder and second to allow for tailored treatment of these populations. Currently, there is no scale in French to detect this type of disorder among children or adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire in French, which could be used as a screening tool for binge eating disorder among adolescents. We have developed a self-administered questionnaire, based on a previous questionnaire and provisional criteria proposed in the English-speaking world. In the present study, we assessed how the target population understood the expressions used in the questionnaire and refined terminology according to the results. Nineteen adolescents aged 11-18 years (normal weight or with obesity) were interviewed about their understanding of the questionnaire, using a structured individual interview. After completing the questions on their own, because the goal was to end up with a self-administered tool, they were asked to explain their own understanding of each question and to reformulate the terms used. The results highlighted that some words or sentences were misunderstood by adolescents, and we developed more adequate formulations as a consequence. Some terms used in their figurative sense had to be modified. Respondents found it difficult to assess duration and frequency of their behavior and suggested changing the open-ended answers to categories. Over the course of answering the questionnaire, they tended to forget the context and related their answers to their general eating behavior. Therefore, the context (binging) was repeated in each question of the modified version. A self-administered questionnaire can be effective in detecting problematic eating behaviors among adolescents and is a good first step before a diagnosis clarification by a professional. Our results show the importance of development and evaluation with the target population. The discriminant validity of the questionnaire will be evaluated by comparison with an assessment by a professional in a further study. PMID:23932877
Carrard, I; Kruseman, M; Di Capua, D; Suringar, V; Chamay Weber, C
Background The SRS-22 is a valid instrument for the assessment of the health related quality of life of patients with Idiopathic scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire was developed in USA and has been widely used in the English speaking countries. Recently it has been translated and validated in many other languages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire. Methods Following the steps of cross – cultural adaptation the adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire and a validated Greek version of the SF-36 questionnaire were mailed to 68 patients treated surgically for Idiopathic Scoliosis. 51 out of the 68 patients returned the 1st set of questionnaires, while a second set was emailed to 30 randomly selected patients of the first time responders. 20 out of the 30 patients returned the 2nd set. The mean age at the time of operation was16,2 years and the mean age at the time of evaluation was 21,2 years. Descriptive statistics for content analysis were calculated. Reliability assessment was determined by estimating Cronbach's ? and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) respectively. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36 questionnaire using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). Results The calculated Cronbach's ? of internal consistency for three of the corresponding domains (pain 0.85; mental health 0.87; self image 0.83) were very satisfactory and for two domains (function/activity 0.72 and satisfaction 0.67) were good. The ICC of all domains of SRS-22 questionnaire was high (ICC>0.70), demonstrating very satisfactory or excellent test/retest reproducibility. Considering concurrent validity all correlations were found to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level among related domains and generally demonstrated high correlation coefficient. Conclusion The adapted Greek version of the SRS-22 questionnaire is valid and reliable and can be used for the assessment of the outcome of the treatment of the Greek speaking patients with idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:19607720
Antonarakos, Petros D; Katranitsa, Labrini; Angelis, Lefteris; Paganas, Aristofanis; Koen, Errikos M; Christodoulou, Evangelos A; Christodoulou, Anastasios G
We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.
BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.
Long term outcomes after liver transplantation are major determinants of quality of life and of the value of this heroic treatment. As short term outcomes are excellent, our community is turning to take a harder look at long term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review these outcomes, and highlight proposed treatments, as well as pressing topics needing to be studied. A systemic review of the English literature was carried in PubMed, covering all papers addressing long term outcomes in pediatric liver transplant from 2000-2013. Late outcomes after pediatric liver transplant affect the liver graft in the form of chronic liver dysfunction. The causes include rejection particularly humoral rejection, but also de novo autoimmune hepatitis, and recurrent disease. The metabolic syndrome is a major factor in long term cardiovascular complication risk. Secondary infections, kidney dysfunction and malignancy remain a reality of those patients. There is growing evidence of late cognitive and executive function delays affecting daily life productivity as well as likely adherence. Finally, despite a good health status, quality of life measures are comparable to those of children with chronic diseases. Long term outcomes are the new frontier in pediatric liver transplantation. Much is needed to improve graft survival, but also to avoid systemic morbidities from long term immunosuppression. Quality of life is a new inclusive measure that will require interventions and innovative approaches respectful not only on the patients but also of their social circle. PMID:24511516
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between transformational leadership of government secondary school principals and teachers' job satisfaction. A random sample of 320 teachers responded to a three-part instrument (the transformational leadership questionnaire, the teachers' job satisfaction questionnaire and a…
Tesfaw, Tadele Akalu
Acceptance, a third wave cognitive-behavioral concept originally developed for chronic pain patients, was applied to acceptance of chronic illness in an HIV\\/AIDS population. This study examined the internal reliability of two scales of the chronic illness acceptance questionnaire (CIAQ) called activities engagement (AE), and illness willingness (IW), their relationships with functional outcomes, and their ability to predict functional outcomes after
Thomas P. Guck; Mark D. Goodman; Courtney J. Dobleman; Helen O. Fasanya; Mary B. Tadros
Various approaches have been proposed to denote treatment outcome, such as the effect size of the pre-to-posttest change, percentage improvement, statistically reliable change, and clinical significant change. The aim of the study is to compare these approaches and evaluate their aptitude to differentiate among child and adolescent mental healthcare providers regarding their treatment outcome. Comparing outcomes according to continuous and categorical outcome indicators using real-life data of seven mental healthcare providers, three using the Child Behavior Checklist and four using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as primary outcome measure. Within each dataset consistent differences were found between providers and the various methods led to comparable rankings of providers. Statistical considerations designate continuous outcomes as the optimal choice. Change scores have more statistical power and allow for a ranking of providers at first glance. Expressing providers' performance in proportions of recovered, changed, unchanged, or deteriorated patients has supplementary value, as it denotes outcome in a manner more easily interpreted and appreciated by clinicians, managerial staff, and, last but not least, by patients or their parents. PMID:25183369
de Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rogmans, Bente; Robbers, Sylvana; van Geffen, Marieke; van Aggelen-Gerrits, Marleen; Houben, Huub
Objective To develop and psychometrically evaluate an audio digitised tool for assessment of comprehension of informed consent among low-literacy Gambian research participants. Setting We conducted this study in the Gambia where a high illiteracy rate and absence of standardised writing formats of local languages pose major challenges for research participants to comprehend consent information. We developed a 34-item questionnaire to assess participants’ comprehension of key elements of informed consent. The questionnaire was face validated and content validated by experienced researchers. To bypass the challenge of a lack of standardised writing formats, we audiorecorded the questionnaire in three major Gambian languages: Mandinka, Wolof and Fula. The questionnaire was further developed into an audio computer-assisted interview format. Participants The digitised questionnaire was administered to 250 participants enrolled in two clinical trials in the urban and rural areas of the Gambia. One week after first administration, the questionnaire was readministered to half of the participants who were randomly selected. Participants were eligible if enrolled in the parent trials and could speak any of the three major Gambian languages. Outcome measure The primary outcome measure was reliability and validity of the questionnaire. Results Item reduction by factor analysis showed that 21 of the question items have strong factor loadings. These were retained along with five other items which were fundamental components of informed consent. The 26-item questionnaire has high internal consistency with a Cronbach's ? of 0.73–0.79 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94 (95% CI 0.923 to 0.954). Hypotheses testing also showed that the questionnaire has a positive correlation with a similar questionnaire and discriminates between participants with and without education. Conclusions We have developed a reliable and valid measure of comprehension of informed consent information for the Gambian context, which might be easily adapted to similar settings. This is a major step towards engendering comprehension of informed consent information among low-literacy participants. PMID:24961716
Afolabi, Muhammed O; Bojang, Kalifa; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Ota, Martin O C; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Larson, Heidi J; McGrath, Nuala; Chandramohan, Daniel
Background Brief, valid, and reliable dietary and physical activity assessment tools are needed, and interactive computerized assessments (ie, those with visual cues, pictures, sounds, and voiceovers) can reduce administration and scoring burdens commonly encountered with paper-based assessments. Objective The purpose of this pilot investigation was to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of interactive multimedia (IMM) versions (ie, IMM-1 and IMM-2) compared to validated paper-administered (PP) versions of the beverage intake questionnaire (BEVQ-15) and Stanford Leisure-Time Activity Categorical Item (L-Cat); a secondary purpose was to evaluate results across two education attainment levels. Methods Adults 21 years or older (n=60) were recruited to complete three laboratory sessions, separated by three to seven days in a randomly assigned sequence, with the following assessments–demographic information, two IMM and one paper-based (PP) version of the BEVQ-15 and L-Cat, health literacy, and an IMM usability survey. Results Responses across beverage categories from the IMM-1 and PP versions (validity; r=.34-.98) and the IMM-1 and IMM-2 administrations (reliability; r=.61-.94) (all P<.001) were significantly correlated. Paired t tests revealed significant differences in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) grams and kcal (P=.02 and P=.01, respectively) and total beverage kcal (P=.03), on IMM-1 and IMM-2; however, comparative validity was demonstrated between IMM-2 and the PP version suggesting familiarization with the IMM tool may influence participant responses (mean differences: SSB 63 grams, SEM 87; P=.52; SSB 21 kcal, SEM 33; P=.48; total beverage 65 kcal, SEM 49; P=.19). Overall mean scores between the PP and both IMM versions of the L-Cat were different (both P<.001); however, responses on all versions were correlated (P<.001). Differences between education categories were noted at each L-Cat administration (IMM-1: P=.008; IMM-2: P=.001; PP: P=.002). Major and minor themes from user feedback suggest that the IMM questionnaires were easy to complete, and relevant to participants' typical beverage choices and physical activity habits. Conclusions In general, less educated participants consumed more total beverage and SSB energy, and reported less engagement in physical activity. The IMM BEVQ-15 appears to be a valid and reliable measure to assess habitual beverage intake, although software familiarization may increase response accuracy. The IMM-L-Cat can be considered reliable and may have permitted respondents to more freely disclose actual physical activity levels versus the paper-administered tool. Future larger-scale investigations are warranted to confirm these possibilities. PMID:24148226
Riebl, Shaun K; Paone, Allyson C; Hedrick, Valisa E; Zoellner, Jamie M; Estabrooks, Paul A
Background Patient-reported outcomes are measured in many epidemiologic studies using self- or interviewer-administered questionnaires. While in some studies differences between these administration formats were observed, other studies did not show statistically significant differences important to patients. Since the evidence about the effect of administration format is inconsistent and mainly available from cross-sectional studies our aim was to assess the effects of different administration formats on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes in participants with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications of AIDS. Methods We included participants enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS (LSOCA) who completed the Medical Outcome Study [MOS] -HIV questionnaire, the EuroQol, the Feeling Thermometer and the Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ) 25 every six months thereafter using self- or interviewer-administration. A large print questionnaire was available for participants with visual impairment. Considering all measurements over time and adjusting for patient and study site characteristics we used linear models to compare HRQL scores (all scores from 0-100) between administration formats. We defined adjusted differences of ?0.2 standard deviations [SD]) to be quantitatively meaningful. Results We included 2,261 participants (80.6% males) with a median of 43.1 years of age at enrolment who provided data on 23,420 study visits. The self-administered MOS-HIV, Feeling Thermometer and EuroQol were used in 70% of all visits and the VFQ-25 in 80%. For eight domains of the MOS-HIV differences between the interviewer- and self- administered format were < 0.1 SD. Differences in scores were highest for the social and role function domains but the adjusted differences were still < 0.2 SD. There was no quantitatively meaningful difference between administration formats for EuroQol, Feeling Thermometer and VFQ-25 domain scores. For ocular pain (VFQ-25), we found a statistically significant difference of 3.5 (95% CI 0.2, 6.8), which did, however, not exceed 0.2 SD. For all instruments scores were similar for the large and standard print formats with all adjusted differences < 0.2 SD. Conclusions Our large study provides evidence that administration formats do not have a meaningful effect on repeated measurements of patient-reported outcomes. As a consequence, longitudinal studies may not need to consider the effect of different administration formats in their analyses. PMID:21554737
The aim of this systematic review was to review the quality of the translation and the measurement properties from questionnaires that assess injuries of the knee. We included questionnaires that were developed in foreign language and have been translated and validated into Portuguese. The databases used were CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, PUBMED and SCIELO and the final search resulted in a total of 868 studies included, from which 16 were eligible. Most included questionnaires presented all steps expected in a translation process; however there were some deficiencies in measurement properties among the questionnaires. The VISA-P Brazil was the best questionnaire when analyzing translation process and measurement properties tested. It was the only questionnaire that tested all measurement properties investigated and presented adequate values for all of them. KOS-ADLS was the best questionnaire translated to Portuguese from Portugal. Among all, the VISA-P Brazil is the best questionnaire to be used with Brazilian Portuguese speakers when the condition is related to patellar tendinopathy and the LEFS is the best questionnaire for other general conditions of the knee. For Portuguese from Portugal, the best questionnaire is the KOS-ADLS, and like the LEFS it does not target any specific injury. PMID:24453685
Nunes, Guilherme; de Castro, Lisaura Veiga; Wageck, Bruna; Kume, Vanessa; Chiesa, Gabriela Sulzbach; de Noronha, Marcos
The current Finnish version of AORN's Perioperative Nursing Data Set consists of nursing diagnoses and interventions but not outcomes. During the early Finnish validation phase, researchers determined that almost half of the outcomes listed in the AORN version were impossible to measure in Finland. We conducted this study to determine the applicability of the nursing outcomes identified in the Perioperative Nursing Data Set, 2nd ed Rev, and to test the use of the outcomes by exploring the relevance of the outcome indicators for eight selected outcomes. We collected the data by using two surveys with structured questionnaires that were provided to an expert panel of nurses and physicians. Panel members found that most of the outcomes were acceptable for use in Finnish perioperative care; however, further validation of the outcome indicators is needed to develop tools to support nurses in their attempts to reach desirable nursing-sensitive outcomes for patients. PMID:23890565
Lamberg, Eija; Salanterä, Sanna; Junttila, Kristiina
Objectives The UK's Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme uses the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001, J. Gen. Intern. Med., 16, 606) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7; Spitzer et al., 2006, Arch. Intern. Med., 166, 1092) to assess patients' symptoms of depression and anxiety respectively. Data are typically collected via telephone or face-to-face; however, no study has statistically investigated whether the questionnaires' items operate equivalently across these modes of data collection. This study aimed to address this omission. Methods & Results Questionnaire data from patients registered with an IAPT service in London (N = 23,672) were examined. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that unidimensional factor structures adequately matched observed face-to-face and telephone data for the PHQ-9 and GAD-7. Invariance analyses revealed that while the PHQ-9 had equivalent factor loadings and latent means across data collection methods, the GAD-7 had equivalent factor loadings but unequal latent means. In support of the scales' convergent validity, positive associations between scores on the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 emerged. Conclusions With the exception of the GAD-7's latent means, the questionnaires' factor loadings and latent means were equivalent. This suggests that clinicians may meaningfully compare PHQ-9 data collected face-to-face and by telephone; however, such comparisons with the GAD-7 should be done with caution. Practitioner points The PHQ-9 and GAD-7's factor loadings were equivalent across data collection methods. Only the PHQ-9's latent means were equivalent across data collection methods. Clinicians may be confident collecting PHQ-9 data by telephone and face-to-face and, then, comparing such data. Caution is recommended when determining clinical effectiveness using telephone and face-to-face GAD-7 data. More psychometric research is warranted. PMID:24117915
Ryan, Travis A; Bailey, Alastair; Fearon, Pasco; King, John
Background Utilization indices exist to measure quantity of prenatal care, but currently there is no published instrument to assess quality of prenatal care. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ). Methods Data for this instrument development study were collected in five Canadian cities. Items for the QPCQ were generated through interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 health care providers and a review of prenatal care guidelines, followed by assessment of content validity and rating of importance of items. The preliminary 100-item QPCQ was administered to 422 postpartum women to conduct item reduction using exploratory factor analysis. The final 46-item version of the QPCQ was then administered to another 422 postpartum women to establish its construct validity, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results Exploratory factor analysis reduced the QPCQ to 46 items, factored into 6 subscales, which subsequently were validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was also demonstrated using a hypothesis testing approach; there was a significant positive association between women’s ratings of the quality of prenatal care and their satisfaction with care (r?=?0.81). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r?=?0.63) between the “Support and Respect” subscale of the QPCQ and the “Respectfulness/Emotional Support” subscale of the Prenatal Interpersonal Processes of Care instrument. The overall QPCQ had acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha?=?0.96), as did each of the subscales. The test-retest reliability result (Intra-class correlation coefficient?=?0.88) indicated stability of the instrument on repeat administration approximately one week later. Temporal stability testing confirmed that women’s ratings of their quality of prenatal care did not change as a result of giving birth or between the early postpartum period and 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Conclusion The QPCQ is a valid and reliable instrument that will be useful in future research as an outcome measure to compare quality of care across geographic regions, populations, and service delivery models, and to assess the relationship between quality of care and maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:24894497
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Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) preferentially affects females at childbearing age. For this reason patients and treating physicians were frequently confronted with questions concerning family planning, pregnancy and birth. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the expertise about pregnancy related topics in multiple sclerosis of neurologists in private practice. Methods We developed a survey with 16 multiple choice questions about pregnancy related topics and sent it to neurologists in private practice in Berlin, Germany. Results 56 completed questionnaires were sent back. 54% of all questions were answered correctly, 21% of the questions were answered with “I don’t know”. Correct answers were more often given by physicians who treat more than 400 MS patients per year (p?=?0.001). Further positive associations were found for assumed relevance of the topic (p?=?0.002) and the degree of counseling (p<0.001). Conclusion To provide a comprehensive counseling, MS patients with desire for children should be counseled by physicians with a lot of experience in MS treatment. PMID:24901447
Borisow, Nadja; Paul, Friedemann; Ohlraun, Stephanie; Pach, Daniel; Fischer, Felix; Dörr, Jan
Paranoia in methamphetamine (MA) users is not well characterized or understood. To investigate this phenomenon, we created the Methamphetamine Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), and tested its reliability and validity in assessing MA-induced paranoia. We administered the MEQ to 274 MA-dependent subjects. Of the total subjects, 45% (123) first experienced paranoia with MA use; 55% did not. Obtaining or using a weapon while paranoid was common (37% and 11% of subjects with MA-induced paranoia, respectively). Test-retest and inter-rater reliability for MA-induced paranoia showed substantial agreement (kappa = .77, p < .05 and kappa = .80, p < .05, respectively). First episodes of paranoia occurred more often with intravenous use of MA, and subsequent episodes at higher doses. There was modest correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) paranoid ideation scale (rho = .27, p < .05). As expected, there was a poor correlation between paranoia on the MEQ and the BSI depression scale (rho = .14, p = .07). The MEQ provides useful information on drug use variables that contribute to paranoia commonly associated with MA use. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-14). PMID:20163388
Leamon, Martin H; Flower, Keith; Salo, Ruth E; Nordahl, Thomas E; Kranzler, Henry R; Galloway, Gantt P
A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.
Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)
Background Many women without preexisting stress urinary incontinence (SUI) who undergo vaginal surgery to correct pelvic organ prolapse will develop symptoms of SUI. A concomitant prophylactic anti-incontinence procedure may prevent SUI symptom development in women undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery. Purpose To present the rationale, design and methodology of a randomized controlled surgical trial (RCT), the Outcomes Following Vaginal Prolapse Repair and Mid Urethral Sling (OPUS) Trial. The primary aims of this RCT are to determine (1) whether the prevalence of post-operative urinary incontinence (UI) differs between stress continent women receiving vaginal prolapse repair with concomitant tension-free vaginal tape (TVT®; a sling procedure commonly used to treat SUI) and those with only sham incisions at 3 months post surgery (2) whether it is more cost-effective to place a TVT prophylactically than to treat the SUI symptoms postoperatively as they occur over a 12 month period after the index surgery.. The study also incorporates a patient preference trial (PPT). Methods Primary outcome, defined as signs (positive cough stress test), symptoms (per validated questionnaire) and/or need for treatment of SUI and its associated cost, at 3 and 12 months post-operatively. Secondary outcomes consist of group differences in lower urinary tract and prolapse symptoms, health related quality of life, measures of vaginal anatomy, and surgical complications. Limitations Given the invasive nature of surgical intervention trials, some individuals may be reluctant to agree with random assignment, potentially impacting result generalizability. To evaluate the magnitude and direction of non-participation bias, the PPT will enroll a sample of those who decline participation in the RCT but are otherwise eligible. Conclusion This sham-controlled RCT will provide important information for patients and surgeons regarding both the short- and long-term optimal treatment approach for stress continent women undergoing a vaginal surgery for prolapse. Non-participation bias will be estimated. PMID:19342469
Wei, John T.; Nygaard, Ingrid; Richter, Holly E.; Brown, Morton B; Barber, Matthew D.; Xu, Xiao; Kenton, Kim; Nager, Charles W.; Schaffer, Joseph; Visco, Anthony; Weber, Anne
Objective The internet is a valuable resource for accessing health information and support. We are developing an instrument to assess the effects of websites with experiential and factual health information. This study aimed to inform an item pool for the proposed questionnaire. Methods Items were informed through a review of relevant literature and secondary qualitative analysis of 99 narrative interviews relating to patient and carer experiences of health. Statements relating to identified themes were re-cast as questionnaire items and shown for review to an expert panel. Cognitive debrief interviews (n = 21) were used to assess items for face and content validity. Results Eighty-two generic items were identified following secondary qualitative analysis and expert review. Cognitive interviewing confirmed the questionnaire instructions, 62 items and the response options were acceptable to patients and carers. Conclusion Using a clear conceptual basis to inform item generation, 62 items have been identified as suitable to undergo further psychometric testing. Practice implications The final questionnaire will initially be used in a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of online patient's experiences. This will inform recommendations on the best way to present patients’ experiences within health information websites. PMID:23598293
Kelly, Laura; Jenkinson, Crispin; Ziebland, Sue
NCI developed a new instrument called the NHANES Food Frequency Questionnaire (formerly called Food Propensity Questionnaire) and supported its application in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). This instrument collects much of the same information as a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), but without asking about portion size. The resulting data can be employed in the NCI usual dietary intakes model as covariates. By not asking about portion size, the NHANES FFQ requires less respondent burden than other FFQs.
Purpose: To assess the test-retest reliability of the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) questionnaire.Methods: A sample of 4619 male and female high school students from white, black, Hispanic, and other racial\\/ethnic groups completed the YRBS questionnaire on two occasions approximately two weeks apart. The questionnaire assesses a broad range of health risk behaviors. This study used a protocol that
Nancy D Brener; Laura Kann; Tim McManus; Steven A Kinchen; Elizabeth C Sundberg; James G Ross
Background There is some evidence that quality of life measured by long disease-specific questionnaires may predict exacerbations in asthma and COPD, however brief quality of life tools, such as the Airways Questionnaire 20 (AQ20) or the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), have not yet been evaluated as predictors of hospital exacerbations. Objectives To determine the ability of brief specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaires (AQ20 and CCQ) to predict emergency department visits (ED) and hospitalizations in patients with asthma and COPD, and to compare them to longer disease-specific questionnaires, such as the St George´s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). Methods We conducted a two-year prospective cohort study of 208 adult patients (108 asthma, 100 COPD). Baseline sociodemographic, clinical, functional and psychological variables were assessed. All patients completed the AQ20 and the SGRQ. COPD patients also completed the CCQ and the CRQ, while asthmatic patients completed the AQLQ. We registered all exacerbations that required ED or hospitalizations in the follow-up period. Differences between groups (zero ED visits or hospitalizations versus???1 ED visits or hospitalizations) were tested with Pearson´s X2 or Fisher´s exact test for categorical variables, ANOVA for normally distributed continuous variables, and Mann–Whitney U test for non-normally distributed variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the predictive ability of each HRQoL questionnaire. Results In the first year of follow-up, the AQ20 scores predicted both ED visits (OR: 1.19; p?=?.004; AUC 0.723) and hospitalizations (OR: 1.21; p?=?.04; AUC 0.759) for asthma patients, and the CCQ emerged as independent predictor of ED visits in COPD patients (OR: 1.06; p?=?.036; AUC 0.651), after adjusting for sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables. Among the longer disease-specific questionnaires, only the AQLQ emerged as predictor of ED visits in asthma patients (OR: 0.9; p?=?.002; AUC 0.727). In the second year of follow-up, none of HRQoL questionnaires predicted exacerbations. Conclusions AQ20 predicts exacerbations in asthma and CCQ predicts ED visits in COPD in the first year of follow-up. Their predictive ability is similar to or even higher than that of longer disease-specific questionnaires. PMID:23706146
Relation between self report energy expenditure from the Zutphen Physical Activity Questionnaire score, and 7-day objective physical activity (PA) measurements from accelerometers and pedometers (Pearson correlation).
The VARK Questionnaire "How Do I Learn Best?" is a very useful free learning styles survey tool. This questionnaire can help students better understand how they learn and how to best study depending upon their preferred learning style: visual, aural, kinesthetic, read-write or multimodal. After taking the questionnaire, the participant will receive a personal learning profile with learning and study hints specifically geared to their learning style. It also can help instructors find out how their students learn and the best ways to teach them. There is also a version of the questionnaire available for athletes or for younger people.
As part of an effort to monitor the transformation of classrooms within Limpopo Province, South Africa, an instrument was developed to assess students perceptions of their learning environments. The developed questionnaire, the Outcomes-Based Learning Environment Questionnaire (OBLEQ), was designed to measure the impact of the Curriculum 2005…
Seopa, Mampone A.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.
The purpose of this study was to examine factors that relate to successful adult outcomes for 28 individuals with visual impairment ages 23-30. The primary dependent variable was current employment. Independent living and completion of postsecondary educational program were secondary, related outcome measures. A secondary goal of this research was…
Lawson, Holly Michelle
The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life GAD (Stanley et al., 2014) which provided an opportunity to examine predictors of outcome among those who received CBT. Participants were 150 older adults who were randomized to receive 10 sessions of CBT. Completer analyses found that homework completion, number of sessions attended, lower worry severity, lower depression severity, and recruitment site predicted 6-month worry outcome on the PSWQ-A, whereas homework completion, credibility of the therapy, lower anxiety severity, and site predicted 6-month anxiety outcome on the STAI-T. In intent-to-treat multivariate analyses, however, only initial worry and anxiety severity, site, and number of sessions completed predicted treatment outcome. These results are largely consistent with predictors of outcome in younger adults and suggest that lower initial symptom severity and variables consistent with greater engagement in treatment predict outcome. PMID:25445074
Hundt, Natalie E; Amspoker, Amber B; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Cully, Jeffrey A; Rhoades, Howard; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A
The Schools Health Education Unit supports and promotes effective health education in primary and secondary schools. The services it provides promote cooperation between teachers, parents, children, governors, and health-care professionals. A school deciding to use the Health Related Behaviour Questionnaire, developed by the Schools Health…
This study analyzed Texas secondary agricultural education teachers' (n = 232) attitudes toward diversity inclusion in Texas secondary agricultural education programs. Using a web-based questionnaire, the researcher employed a nonproportional stratified random sampling technique. Researchers used descriptive statistics to report demographic and…
LaVergne, Douglas D.; Larke, Alvin, Jr.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Jones, Wash A.
This study investigates the availability and utilization of school library resources by Secondary School (High School) Students. Eight Selected Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria were chosen based on their performance in external examinations and geographic locations. In carrying out the research, questionnaires were administered to both…
Owate, C. N.; Iroha, Okpa
The study examined the extent of availability of safety instruments in science laboratories in secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The researcher used 45 secondary schools and 180 science teachers and laboratory attendants for the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted. 11-item four-point scale structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The data collected were analysed using mean and
Celestine N. Nwele
The PIRLS 2011 international database includes data for all questionnaires administered as part of the PIRLS 2011 assessment. This supplement contains the international version of the PIRLS 2011 background questionnaires and curriculum questionnaires in the following 5 sections: (1) Student Questionnaire; (2) Home Questionnaire (Learning to Read…
Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Drucker, Kathleen T., Ed.
This study was aimed to investigate the test-retest reliability and validity of a short version of the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ) whose scales have one item selected from a standard version. Based on the results from an anonymous web-based questionnaire of occupational health staffs and personnel/labor staffs, we selected higher-priority scales from the standard version. After selecting one item with highest item-total correlation coefficient from each scale, a 23-item questionnaire was developed. A nationally representative survey was administered to Japanese employees (n=1,633) to examine test-retest reliability and validity. Most scales (or items) showed modest but adequate levels of test-retest reliability (r>0.50). Furthermore, job demands and job resources scales (or items) were associated with mental and physical stress reactions while job resources scales (or items) were also associated with positive outcomes. These findings provided a piece of evidence that the short version of the New BJSQ is reliable and valid. PMID:24975108
INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; SHIMOMITSU, Teruichi; TSUTSUMI, Akizumi; HARATANI, Takashi; YOSHIKAWA, Toru; SHIMAZU, Akihito; ODAGIRI, Yuko
Background: Questionnaires are important tools used to gain information about health and level of function in different domains. Aims and Methods: To determine the degree of agreement between questionnaires, administered to parents and teachers, and ophthalmic and psychological examinations in a cohort of 309 low birth weight children (<1701 g) at age 10–13 years. Results: A total of 90.9% of cases showed agreement between the question on distance vision and clinical assessment, and agreement for the near vision question was 83%. However, the correlation on an individual basis was only fair (kappa = 0.46, distance vision) to poor (kappa = 0.2, near vision). The overall agreement for the questions on cognitive ability was better than the correlation, whereas the questions on reading and mathematical ability showed low agreement and low correlation. Conclusion: Questionnaire assessment of vision and cognitive ability is more suitable for studying the outcome of a large population than for identifying deficits in individuals. PMID:15321859
O'Connor, A; Stephenson, T; Johnson, A; Wright, S; Tobin, M; Ratib, S; Fielder, A
The occurrence of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms attributed either to food allergy or intolerance has significantly increased. Nevertheless, an accurate and detailed case history, a systematic evaluation and the outcomes of specific allergy tests to identify the offending foods, including "in vivo" and "in vitro" allergy tests, are often negative for food allergy and may indicate a lactose intolerance, which is a recurrent condition affecting about 50% of adults. The aims of our study were the following: (1) What is the real incidence of the food hypersensitivity and the primary lactose intolerance in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, initially referred to allergy or food intolerance? (2) Does lactose intolerance affect the quality of life and compliance to the therapy program? We investigated 262 consecutive patients, 72 men and 190 women. An accurate and detailed history and clinical examination were completed to investigate the offending foods. The evaluation in each patient included: allergy tests, lactose H2 breath test (LHBT) and the HRQoL questionnaire. Five years after the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, a questionnaire on the persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms after lactose ingestion and the diet compliance was distributed. Our results demonstrate an high prevalence of lactose intolerance, more frequent in women; in these patients, bloating and diarrhea are the most reported symptoms. We observe only a significant positive correlation between adverse drug reaction (ADR) and LHBT+ patients, but not an augmented prevalence of food allergy and a negative impact on the HRQoL questionnaire of lactose intolerance. PMID:21614464
Erminia, Ridolo; Ilaria, Baiardini; Tiziana, Meschi; Silvia, Peveri; Antonio, Nouvenne; Pierpaolo, Dall'Aglio; Loris, Borghi
Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are disease specific questionnaires that are being increasingly used in clinical practice and research. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), is a widely used PROM in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. A validated WOMAC was used by us, and significant challenges were faced in administering it as several questions did not have a cultural connect. Functionally equivalent items in the Indian context had then to be used to complete the score. With greater emphasis today on the use of patient-reported outcome measures, and with data from multi-centric studies being pooled, cross-cultural adaptation becomes very important if the pooled data are to be really relevant. In India, with several languages being spoken, and a significant proportion of the population being illiterate, the physician and/ or the impartial witness must provide considerable explanation without attempting to influence the response. The key to the effective and correct use of PROMs thus lies not just in translation, but also in a stepwise validation of the questionnaire, and modification in the context of the country where it is used. Scores like WOMAC are often primary efficacy endpoints in clinical trials; are gaining greater importance to support label claims; have ethical implications, and directly impact regulatory decision making and thus, eventually, evidence-based practice. PMID:23439195
Gogtay, N J; Thatte, U M; Dasgupta, B; Deshpande, S
This patent describes a pumping system for fluid products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and chemicals, and including a pump for pumping such products from a storage tank through a primary pipeline to a product dispenser. The improvement consists of a secondary containment system for the pipeline between the storage tank and the product dispenser and including a secondary pipe system surrounding the primary pipeline. The secondary pipe system includes telescoping pipe sections of different diameters, which are installed around the primary pipeline and which are, prior to final installation, movable between intermediate and final positions, for enabling completion, testing and inspection of the primary pipeline prior to final completion of the secondary containment system.
To facilitate "personalizing" and individualizing secondary school curriculum, the author presents eight conceptual aspects of individualization and discusses the relationship of these concepts to program design and implementation of an individual learning program. (HMD)
Bailey, William J.
Secondary or therapy related myelodysplastic syndrome may develop following treatment with alkylating agents and radiotherapy. The condition may also follow high dose therapy for malignant lymphomas. We describe two patients who developed secondary myelodysplasia. The first is a 76-year old female with a low grade lymphoma who developed pancytopenia with monosomy 7. Secondary myelodysplasia was diagnosed 24 months after treatment with chlorambucil (total dose of 900 mg) and 12 months after treatment with trophosphamide (total dose of 24 g). The second patient was a 48-year old male who underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation for a relapsed low grade lymphoma. Following autografting he had persistent anemia and trombocytopenia. Secondary myelodysplastic syndrome with complex karyotype was diagnosed 54 months after high dose therapy. He died nine months later of bone marrow failure. PMID:9441464
Shammas, F V; Heikkilä, R
Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors originating in cartilage. Chondrosarcoma is the third most common malignant bone tumor after multiple myeloma and osteosarcoma. About 75% of chondrosarcomas are primary lesions. The remaining 25% belong to special categories such as histologic variants and secondary forms. A secondary chondrosarcoma is one that appears in a pre-existing benign chondral lesion; the different types of secondary chondrosarcomas include solitary osteochondroma, multiple osteochondromatosis, enchondroma, the different types of enchondromatosis, and primary synovial chondromatosis. The incidence of this malignant transformation varies widely in function of the type of lesion. In this article, we discuss and illustrate the different types of secondary chondrosarcomas, placing special emphasis on the imaging findings that should alert to these lesions and give radiologists a key role in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of these patients. PMID:25002353
Lozano Martínez, G A; Llauger Rosselló, J
Extinctions beget further extinctions when species lose obligate mutualists, predators, prey, or hosts. Here, we develop a conceptual model of species and community attributes affecting secondary extinction likelihood, incorporating mechanisms that buffer organisms against partner loss. Specialized interactors, including 'cryptic specialists' with diverse but nonredundant partner assemblages, incur elevated risk. Risk is also higher for species that cannot either evolve new traits following partner loss or obtain novel partners in communities reorganizing under changing environmental conditions. Partner loss occurs alongside other anthropogenic impacts; multiple stressors can circumvent ecological buffers, enhancing secondary extinction risk. Stressors can also offset each other, reducing secondary extinction risk, a hitherto unappreciated phenomenon. This synthesis suggests improved conservation planning tactics and critical directions for research on secondary extinctions. PMID:25445878
Brodie, Jedediah F; Aslan, Clare E; Rogers, Haldre S; Redford, Kent H; Maron, John L; Bronstein, Judith L; Groves, Craig R
Phages are credited with having been first described in what we now, officially, are commemorating as the 100(th) anniversary of their discovery. Those one-hundred years of phage history have not been lacking in excitement, controversy, and occasional convolution. One such complication is the concept of secondary infection, which can take on multiple forms with myriad consequences. The terms secondary infection and secondary adsorption, for example, can be used almost synonymously to describe virion interaction with already phage-infected bacteria, and which can result in what are described as superinfection exclusion or superinfection immunity. The phrase secondary infection also may be used equivalently to superinfection or coinfection, with each of these terms borrowed from medical microbiology, and can result in genetic exchange between phages, phage-on-phage parasitism, and various partial reductions in phage productivity that have been termed mutual exclusion, partial exclusion, or the depressor effect. Alternatively, and drawing from epidemiology, secondary infection has been used to describe phage population growth as that can occur during active phage therapy as well as upon phage contamination of industrial ferments. Here primary infections represent initial bacterial population exposure to phages while consequent phage replication can lead to additional, that is, secondary infections of what otherwise are not yet phage-infected bacteria. Here I explore the varying meanings and resultant ambiguity that has been associated with the term secondary infection. I suggest in particular that secondary infection, as distinctly different phenomena, can in multiple ways influence the success of phage-mediated biocontrol of bacteria, also known as, phage therapy. PMID:25595214
Abedon, Stephen T
This document is a questionnaire designed for work-based learning providers. It is a diagnostic benchmarking tool developed to give organizations a snapshot of their current state. Following a brief introduction, there are instructions for filling in the questionnaire, which includes both open-ended response and scoring according to a…
Owen, Jane; Yarrow, David; Appleby, Alex
To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…
Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.
The purpose of this manuscript was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Environmental Restriction Questionnaire (ERQ) a parent-reported questionnaire for measuring perceived environmental restrictions for young children participation. Reliability and homogeneity were tested by Cronbach's alpha and inter-item correlations.…
Rosenberg, Limor; Ratzon, Nava Z.; Jarus, Tal; Bart, Orit
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) assesses the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the U.S. It collects detailed information about food, nutrient, and supplement intake and other dietary behaviors. Before the 2009-10 administration, the NHANES collected this information exclusively through 24-hour recalls, food frequency questionnaires, and survey questionnaires.
The performance of multiple imputation in questionnaire data has been studied in various simulation studies. However, in practice, questionnaire data are usually more complex than simulated data. For example, items may be counterindicative or may have unacceptably low factor loadings on every subscale, or completely missing subscales may…
Van Ginkel, Joost R.
...information requested by the questionnaire is for use by the Commission...of forms: 2013 USITC Survey Regarding Outstanding...Frequency of use: survey, single data gathering...effect at the time of the survey (6) Estimated number...Information obtained from the questionnaire that qualifies as...
Page SJ, Shawaryn MA, Cernich AN, Linacre JM. Scaling of the revised Oswestry low back pain questionnaire. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1579-84. Objective: To evaluate the measurement properties of the Revised Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (RODQ) by using rating scale analyses. Design: Calibration of item responses by using a data set. Setting: Four outpatient therapy clinics in the northeastern United States.
Stephen J. Page; Marla A. Shawaryn; Alison N. Cernich; John M. Linacre
The psychometric properties of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire-Preschool Revision (APQ-PR) were explored in a sample of hyperactive-inattentive preschool children (N = 47) and nonimpaired controls (N = 113). A subset of parents completed the questionnaire on 2 occasions, approximately 1 year apart. Factor analysis revealed a 3-factor solution,…
Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Marks, David J.; Policaro, Katia L.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Psychotic disorders due to a known medical illness or substance use are collectively termed secondary psychoses. In this paper, we first review the historic evolution of the concept of secondary versus primary psychosis and how this distinction supplanted the earlier misleading classification of psychoses into organic and functional. We then outline the clinical features and approach to the diagnosis of secondary psychotic disorders. Features such as atypical presentation, temporal relation to detectable medical cause, evidence of direct physiological causal relationship to the etiological agent, and the absence of evidence of a primary psychotic illness that may better explain the presentation suggest consideration of a secondary psychosis. Finally, we discuss how careful studies of secondary psychotic disorders can help elucidate the pathophysiology of primary, or idiopathic, psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. We illustrate this issue through a discussion of three secondary psychotic disorders — psychoses associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, velocardiofacial syndrome, and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis — that can, respectively, provide neuroanatomical, genetic, and neurochemical models of schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:23471787
Keshavan, Matcheri S; Kaneko, Yoshio
Background. Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources). We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects. Methods. For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA) were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes. Results. Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3–84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems. Conclusion. Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources. PMID:20041025
Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.; Brown, G. E.; Sridhar, M. K. C.
AIM: To assess adherence rates to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and determine factors associated with adherence. METHODS: The questionnaire study was conducted in the liver clinics at Concord Repatriation General Hospital. All patients who were currently taking one or more NUCs were asked to complete a structured, self-administered 32-item questionnaire. Adherence was measured using visual analogue scales. The patient’s treating clinician was also asked to assess their patient’s adherence via a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients completed the questionnaire. Sixty six percent of the patients (n = 49) reported optimal adherence whilst 25 (33.8%) graded their adherence to NUCs as suboptimal. Thirty four (43%) patients reported to have omitted taking their NUCs sometime in the past. Recent non-adherence was uncommon. Amongst the patients who reported skipping medications, the most common reason cited was ”forgetfulness“ (n = 27, 56.25%). Other common reasons included: ran out of medications (n = 5, 10.42%), being too busy (n = 4, 8.33%) and due to a change in daily routine (n = 5, 10.42%). Patients who reported low adherence to other prescription pills were also more likely to miss taking NUCs (P = 0.04). Patients who were under the care of a language-discordant clinician were also more likely to report suboptimal adherence to NUCs (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Adherence rates were much less than that expected by the physician and has potential adverse affect on long term outcome. Communication and education appear central and strategies need to be implemented to improve ongoing adherence. PMID:22400085
Giang, Leesa; Selinger, Christian P; Lee, Alice Unah
This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of two parenting measures: the Parent Behavior Importance Questionnaire-Revised (PBIQ-R) and Parent Behavior Frequency Questionnaire-Revised (PBFQ-R). These self-report parenting behavior assessment measures may be utilized as pre- and post-parent education program measures, with parents as well as…
Mowder, Barbara A.; Shamah, Renee
Mediastinal infections usually originate from postoperative complications or in a descending manner from a cervical infectious process; few reports have emerged describing an ascending trajectory. A 56-year-old woman with a Huang class 1 left emphysematous pyelonephritis was referred due to a progression of an ascending necrotizing mediastinitis. A left posterolateral thoracotomy was performed, drainage and thorough lavage were carried out with a successful outcome. We believe this is the first reported case of ascending necrotizing mediastinitis secondary to an emphysematous renal infection. PMID:24887856
Dajer-Fadel, Walid Leonardo; Pichardo-González, Martha; Estrada-Ramos, Sandra; Palafox, Damián; Navarro-Reynoso, Francisco Pascual; Argüero-Sánchez, Rubén
Easily utilized questionnaires estimating dietary calcium intake would be a valuable asset to promoting skeletal health and a helpful research tool. Two calcium questionnaires, one online and one printed, were each compared to dietary calcium intake measured by a three-day diet record. Women completed the questionnaires in a randomized order and kept a 3-day food record at home, returning it by mail. The ethnicity of the 140 study participants was 102 Caucasian, 12 African American, 16 Asian, and 10 Latin women. The average age was 49 ± 15 years (mean ± SD) with a range of 22.7 to 89.9 years. Measures utilized included an online calcium quiz, a printed calcium food frequency questionnaire and one three-day diet record. Data analysis was conducted using Pearson correlation coefficients. Sub-analyses were conducted by ethnicity. The correlation between each questionnaire and the daily calcium intake from the diet records was 0.37, p<0.001. Among the ethnic subgroups, the correlations were highest for African American women, followed by Caucasian women. There was also a trend toward higher correlations in younger women. These simple calcium assessment tools, taking less than five minutes to complete, have correlation values with diet records similar to more complex food frequency questionnaires reported in the literature. These questionnaires may provide valuable tools to estimate calcium intake in research, clinical and community settings. PMID:19559142
Robertson, Trina P.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.
= Primary outcome that is assessed (suggest 2-3 Primary Outcomes) S = Secondary outcome that is also and a report at the end of the semester. Undergraduate students work together in teams of 3 students. Primary (b) The students learn how to theoretically design a biosensor device to solve a critical analytical
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with mortality in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis treatment. We studied 515 male US veterans with chronic kidney disease, who were not yet on dialysis, to see what outcomes were associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in this population. Relationships between intact parathyroid hormone levels and all-cause mortality along with the composite of mortality or incidence of dialysis were
C P Kovesdy; S Ahmadzadeh; J E Anderson; K Kalantar-Zadeh
A major challenge confronting vocational educators is to justify programs in economic terms. The purpose of this study was to propose and implement a cost-benefit analysis model to determine the economic outcomes of secondary vocational education programs at the local level. For the study, a cost-benefit model for secondary vocational education…
Navaratnam, K. K.; And Others
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes. PMID:25152662
Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J; Jacob, Gitta A; Brändle, Laura S; Schulte-Vels, Thomas
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes. PMID:25152662
Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Jacob, Gitta A.; Brändle, Laura S.; Schulte-Vels, Thomas
Objective: To provide an overview of clinical outcomes assessment, discuss the classification of outcomes measures, present considerations for choosing outcomes scales, identify the importance of assessing clinical outcomes, and describe the critical link between the utilization of disablement models and clinical outcomes assessment. Background: Clinical outcomes are the end result of health care services. Clinical outcomes assessment is based on the conceptual framework of disablement models and serves as the measurement method for the collection of patient-oriented evidence, a concept central to evidence-based practice. Description: Clinical outcomes management refers to the use of outcomes measures in the course of routine clinical care and provides athletic trainers with a mechanism to assess treatment progress and to measure the end results of the services they provide. Outcomes measures can be classified as either clinician based or patient based. Clinician-based measures, such as range of motion and strength, are taken directly by clinicians. Patient-based measures solicit a patient's perception as to health status in the form of questionnaires and survey scales. Clinician-based measures may assist with patient evaluation, but patient-based measures should always be included in clinical assessment to identify what is important to the patient. Clinical and Research Advantages: Evidence-based athletic training practice depends on clinical outcomes research to provide the foundation of patient-oriented evidence. The widespread use of clinical outcomes assessment, based on the disablement model framework, will be necessary for athletic trainers to demonstrate the effectiveness of therapies and interventions, the provision of patient-centered care, and the development of evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:18668177
Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Snyder, Alison R; Parsons, John T; Curtis Bay, R; Michener, Lori A; Sauers, Eric L
ELEMENTS OF EDUCATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY ARE IDENTIFIED WHICH ARE INFLUENCED BY SIZE OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS. PRODUCTIVITY INCLUDES OUTCOMES SUCH AS ACADEMIC PROGRESS AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND EXCLUDES ECONOMIC OUTCOMES SUCH AS GAINS IN INCOME. RESEARCH IN THIS FIRST PHASE WAS DONE WITH THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF IOWA. DATA STORED WITH THE IOWA EDUCATIONAL…
WAKEFIELD, HOWARD E.; AND OTHERS
The Vienna RNA secondary structure server provides a web interface to the most frequently used functions of the Vienna RNA software package for the analysis of RNA secondary structures. It currently offers prediction of secondary structure from a single sequence, prediction of the consensus secondary structure for a set of aligned sequences, and the design of sequences that will fold
Ivo L. Hofacker
Accreditation criteria of programs require effective learning outcomes, assessment with documented procedures, tools, results, and actions to close the assessment loop with broad faculty involvement. This article describes a methodology for providing quantitative measurement of a course's learning outcomes. The methodology uses a linkage matrix…
Background: Various definitions of both group cohesion and working alliance are used in theories on group psychotherapy, making the study of their relative contribution to the treatment outcome difficult. In this study, two different, nonoverlapping questionnaires were used to explore the relationship between group cohesion, working alliance and treatment outcome in a time-limited, structured cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy aiming at
Peter van Andel; Rudolph A. M. Erdman; Petra A. Karsdorp; Ad Appels; Rutger W. Trijsburg
The validity and reliability of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) and the Session Rating Scale (SRS) were evaluated against existing longer measures, including the Outcome Questionnaire-45, Working Alliance Inventory, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, Quality of Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and General Self-efficacy Scale. The measures…
Campbell, Alistair; Hemsley, Samantha
Objective: To investigate whether 3 distinct patterns of reactions to chiropractic care predict early favorable treatment outcome in patients with persistent low back pain. Design and Setting: Multicenter, clinic-based prospective outcome study with standardized interview questionnaires conducted in private chiropractic practices in Sweden. Study Subjects: Previously compliant chiropractors were invited to participate in the study. A maximum of 20 consecutive
Iben Axén; Annika Rosenbaum; Robert Röbech; Thomas Wren; Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde
There is growing recognition in the treatment of back pain that patient perspectives are essential in judging the results of treatment. Improving the patient's "quality of life" is often the main goal of therapy. Thus, although clinical research in the past has focused on physiologic outcomes, such as range of motion, muscle strength, or neurologic deficits, increasing attention is being given to the rigorous measurement of symptoms, functional status, role function, satisfaction with treatment, and health care costs. In many cases, these so-called "soft" outcomes can be measured with a level of reproducibility similar to more conventional clinical data such as imaging test results. Because symptoms and functional outcomes are sometimes only loosely associated with physiologic phenomena, the former outcomes should be measured directly. Modern questionnaires for measuring patient quality of life combine the expertise of social scientists and clinicians and have demonstrated validity. Furthermore, they have some important advantages over simple ratings of "excellent, good, fair, and poor" outcomes, or work status alone. Several modern instruments for measuring health-related quality of life in patients with low back pain are reviewed briefly, describing their content and length. Wider use of these instruments would help to increase clinician familiarity with their meaning and avoid duplication of effort in questionnaire development. PMID:7801179
Deyo, R A; Andersson, G; Bombardier, C; Cherkin, D C; Keller, R B; Lee, C K; Liang, M H; Lipscomb, B; Shekelle, P; Spratt, K F
Research has shown that hospitals with better nurse staffing and work environments have better nurse outcomes-less burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intention to leave the job. Many studies, however, have not accounted for wage effects, which may confound findings. By using a secondary analysis with cross-sectional administrative data and a four-state survey of nurses, we investigated how wage, work environment, and staffing were associated with nurse outcomes. Logistic regression models, with and without wage, were used to estimate the effects of work environment and staffing on burnout, job dissatisfaction, and intent to leave. We discovered that wage was associated with job dissatisfaction and intent to leave but had little influence on burnout, while work environment and average patient-to-nurse ratio still have considerable effects on nurse outcomes. Wage is important for good nurse outcomes, but it does not diminish the significant influence of work environment and staffing on nurse outcomes. PMID:25121923
McHugh, Matthew D; Ma, Chenjuan
Psycholinguistics, discourse patterns, and English as a second language were addressed in creating a theoretical framework for examining language in relationships. The Language Relationship Questionnaire was designed to provide an inventory language and its roles in relationships. (Contains 1 figure.)
Eckstein, Daniel; Juarez-Torres, Rachel; Perez-Gabriel, Ana Maria
Instructional Design Consultant Team Manager, TBD Job Description Questionnaire (JDQ) Professional ( ) ( ) Instructional Design Consultant Team Manager ( ) ( ) Christine Bauer, Assistant Director ( ) ( ) Janet AtkinsonCampus Center, Extended Studies, Position Title: Instructional Design Consultant Team Manager Employee Name: TBD
LATEX ALLERGY SCREENING QUESTIONNAIRE Name:________________________ Job title:__________________ Work location:__________________ Are you aware of having an allergy to latex? YES NO If yes, please, Wheezing or Allergy like symptoms: Apples / Apricot / Avacado / Bananas / Carrots / Celery / Cherries
Leistikow, Bruce N.
This study analyses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire elaborated in England by Travers and Cooper in 1996. This Italian survey was completed by 863 teachers randomly drawn from a cross-section of Italian school levels. The construct validity of the questionnaire was verified by factor analysis and by measuring the internal consistency of the single scales. All dimensions measured by the Teacher Stress Questionnaire were compared for sample subgroups of all teacher levels. Several meaningful and reliable factors emerged from the factor analysis of the scales. The internal consistency of each scale (Cronbach's alpha) revealed satisfactory values. Teachers' age and school level were determining factors for all dimensions of stress explored. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire showed satisfactory psychometric properties and constitutes a useful and reliable measure to analyse stress in Italian schools. PMID:24597443
Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto
computers using Event Business Management System (EBMS). Â· Produces and sends contracts and event plansPARTI: JOB DESCRIPTION Weighted Job Questionnaire (WJQ) Custom Meeting, Event and Conference Services Current Position Classification: Department's Position Title: Event Planning Assistant Evaluating
School harassment, or bullying, is a term that for being so frequent already forms a part of our vocabulary. In the present work one presents a new instrument of evaluation of the violence that happens in the school centers. The Questionnaire of School Violence (CUVE) has been elaborated and, later, applied to a sample of 1637 teenagers of seven centers of Secondary Obligatory Education (public and compound). The CUVE evaluates in a trustworthy way five dimensions of the school violence: a) physical indirect violence on the part of the student body; b) verbal violence of the student body towards companions; c) physical direct violence between (among) pupils; d) verbal violence of the student body towards the professorship; and e) violence of the professorship towards the student body. PMID:17296104
Alvarez, Luis; Alvarez, David; González-Castro, Paloma; Núñez, José Carlos; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio
OBJECTIVE--To develop a valid and reliable outcome measure for patients with varicose veins. DESIGN--Postal questionnaire survey of patients with varicose veins. SETTING--Surgical outpatient departments and training general practices in Grampian region. SUBJECTS--373 patients, 287 of whom had just been referred to hospital for their varicose veins and 86 who had just consulted a general practitioner for this condition and, for
A M Garratt; L M Macdonald; D A Ruta; I T Russell; J K Buckingham; Z H Krukowski
The central goal of this study is to clarify to what degree former education and students’ personal characteristics (the ‘Big\\u000a Five personality characteristics’, personal orientations on learning and students’ study approach) may predict study outcome\\u000a (required credits and study continuance). Analysis of the data gathered through questionnaires of 1,471 Universities of Applied\\u000a Sciences students make clear that former Education did
Cyrille A. C. Van Bragt; Anouke W. E. A. Bakx; Theo C. M. Bergen; Marcel A. Croon
Information on chronic drug use at any time in the past was collected with a self-administered questionnaire as part of a prospective cohort study on diet, other life-style factors and cancer among subjects aged 55–69 years. The validity of the questionnaire information on drug use was evaluated among 207 subjects by comparing it to pharmacy records of dispensed drugs. The
Piet A. Van den Brandt; Hans Petri; Elisabeth Dorant; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Sacha Van de Crommert
Alcohol effect expectancies have important implications in our understanding drinking behavior and motivations for drinking. Several instruments have been developed to asses alcohol expectancies among various populations. Although co-occurrence of PTSD among those with alcohol use disorders is extremely common, there is no measure of PTSD-related alcohol expectancies. The Post-traumatic stress disorder-Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (P-AEQ) is a 27-item, self-report questionnaire
Sonya B. Norman; Robyn K. Inaba; Tom L. Smith; Sandra A. Brown
Background: Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common, poorly understood, parkinsonian symptom interfering with daily functioning and quality of life. Assessment of FOG is complex because of the episodic nature of this symptom, and the influence of mental and environmental factors on it.Objective: To design a self-reportable reliable questionnaire for FOG.Method: A questionnaire consisting of 16 items regarding gait and
N. Giladi; H. Shabtai; E. S. Simon; S. Biran; J. Tal; A. D. Korczyn
Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease that often causes disabling dyspnea. In IPF and other lung diseases, patient-reported outcomes (PROs)—questionnaires designed to gather information from the patient's perspective—can determine whether therapies affect dyspnea or other outcomes meaningful to patients. Before a PRO can be used confidently as an outcome measure in a longitudinal trial, studies must demonstrate the PRO's ability to capture change over time in the target population. Our goal in this study was to examine whether the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire does so in patients with IPF. Methods We used data from the Sildenafil Trial of Exercise Performance in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (STEP-IPF) to perform analyses that examined associations between UCSD scores and five external measures (anchors) at baseline and over time. Anchors included the Activity domain from St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ-A), the Physical Functioning domain from the SF-36 (SF36-PF), forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and distance walked during a timed walk test (6MWD). Linear regression models were used to examine relationships between UCSD scores and anchors over time. Results At baseline, UCSD scores were weakly correlated with percent predicted FVC (?0.21, p=0.005) and percent predicted DLCO (?0.20, p=0.008), moderately correlated with 6MWD (?0.39, p<0.0001) and strongly correlated with SGRQ-A (0.79, p<0.0001) and SF36-PF (?0.72, p<0.0001). Change over time in UCSD scores was associated with change in FVC (estimate=2.54, standard error [SE]=1.23, p=0.04), SGRQ-A (estimate=7.94, SE=1.11, p<0.0001), SF36-PF (estimate=6.00, SE=1.13, p<0.0001), and 6MWD (estimate=4.23, SE=1.18, p=0.0004) but not DLCO (estimate=0.33, SE=1.33, p=0.80). Conclusions These results support the validity of the UCSD to assess change in dyspnea over time in patients with IPF. PMID:22801586
Swigris, Jeffrey J.; Han, Meilan; Vij, Rekha; Noth, Imre; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Brown, Kevin K.; Fairclough, Diane
Developed for the purpose of providing teachers and administrators with objectives upon which a curriculum could be formed, this guide identifies standardized learner outcomes for secondary level science students. A philosophy of science education for Oklahoma schools is presented and student goals are specified. Objectives and descriptive…
Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.
One quarter of the 1958 British Birth cohort attended single-sex secondary schools. This paper asks whether sex-segregated schooling had any impact on the experience of gender differences in the labour market in mid-life. We examine outcomes at age 42, allowing for socio-economic origins and abilities measured in childhood. We find no net impact…
Sullivan, Alice; Joshi, Heather; Leonard, Diana
An important theme that emerges from all early historical accounts is that in addition to the decreased virulence of Treponema pallidum, the incidence of secondary syphilis has decreased drastically over the past three centuries. Even in the early 20th century, most syphilologists were of the opinion that the disease had undergone changes in its manifestations and that they were dealing with an attenuated form of the spirochete. Such opinions were based primarily on the observations that violent cutaneous reactions and fatalities associated with the secondary stage had become extremely rare. The rate of primary and secondary syphilis in the United States increased in 2002 for the second consecutive year. After a decade-long decline that led to an all-time low in 2000, the recent trend is attributable, to a large extent, by a increase in reported syphilis cases among men, particularly homosexual and bisexual men having sex with men. The present review addresses the clinical and diagnostic criteria for the recognition of secondary syphilis, the clinical course and manifestations of the disease if allowed to proceed past the primary stage of disease in untreated individuals, and the treatment for this stage of the disease. PMID:15653827
Baughn, Robert E.; Musher, Daniel M.
Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.
Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…
Heitor, Teresa V.
For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.
In'shakov, V; Skvortsov, V
The basic characteristics of sixty-nine secondary services in physics were analyzed in terms of sponsorship and distribution by: (1) country of origin, (2) language, (3) age, (4) frequency of publication, (5) subject and geographical coverage and (6) size. The eight major services, in terms of size, are identified. The use of the services by the…
Cooper, Marianne; Terry, Edward
Background: Learning in a clinical environment is an inseparable part of a training program in medical education. To evaluate the quality of training in a clinical environment, a comprehensive questionnaire which is adjusted for local purposes is essential. This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of Activities Coaching Context (ACC)-questionnaire from the perspective of residents and students in a clinical learning environment. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 65 residents and students of Semnan University of Medical Sciences. The Content Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the judgment of a panel of ten experts in medical education. The construct validity of the questionnaire was determined by factor analysis. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS16. Results: The ratio and index of content validity calculated by experts’ view were quite acceptable (0.31 and 0.7, respectively). Construct validity was examined by factor analysis which confirmed seven first order factors. Cronbach’s Alfa coefficient revealed a high degree of internal consistency (0.932). The reliability of the questionnaire was measured by test - retest (0.9). Conclusions: The ACC questionnaire appeared to be a valid, reliable and also appropriate tool to evaluate the educational quality of a clinical learning environment. PMID:25405107
Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Haji Ahmadi, Maryam; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed kamran; Bigdeli, Shoaleh; Yadollahi, Sohrab
A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated critical energy. A key assumption in these calculations is that above a certain critical energy, significant damage will be done. This is not true for all structures. Double-walled, bumpered structures are an example for which damage may be reduced as energy goes up. The critical energy assumption is probably conservative, however, in terms of secondary damage. To understand why the secondary impacts seem to, in general, contribute less than 10 percent of the flux above a given critical energy, consider the case of a meteoroid impact of a given energy on a fixed, large surface. This impact results in a variety of secondary particles, all of which have much less energy than the original impact. Conservation of energy prohibits any other situation. Thus if damage is linked to a critical energy of a particle, the primary flux will always deliver particles of much greater energy. Even if all the secondary particles impacted other Space Station structures, none would have a kinetic energy more than a fraction of the primary impact energy.
Introduction: Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often requires intervention with oral and injectable therapies. Across National Health Service (NHS) England, injectable therapies may be initiated in secondary, intermediate or primary care. We wished to understand resource utilization, pathways of care, clinical outcomes, and experience of patients with T2DM initiated on injectable therapies. Method: We conducted three service evaluations of initiation of injectable therapies (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) or basal insulin) for T2DM in primary, secondary and intermediate care. Evaluations included retrospective review of medical records and service administration; prospective evaluation of NHS staff time on each episode of patient contact during a 3-month initiation period; patient-experience survey for those attending for initiation. Data from each evaluation were analysed separately and results stratified by therapy type. Results: A total of 133 patients were included across all settings; 54 were basal-insulin initiations. After initiation, the mean HbA1c level fell for both types of therapies, and weight increased for patients on basal insulin yet fell for patients on GLP-1 RA. The mean cost of staff time per patient per initiation was: £43.81 for GLP-1 RA in primary care; £243.49 for GLP-1 RA and £473.63 for basal insulin in intermediate care; £518.99 for GLP-1 RA and £571.11 for basal insulin in secondary care. Patient-reported questionnaires were completed by 20 patients, suggesting that patients found it easy to speak to the diabetes team, had opportunities to discuss concerns, and felt that these concerns were addressed adequately. Conclusion: All three services achieved a reduction in HbA1c level after initiation. Patterns of weight gain with basal insulin and weight loss with GLP-1 RA were as expected. Primary care was less resource-intensive and costly, and was driven by lower staff costs and fewer clinic visits.
Brice, Richard; Shelley, Sharon; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Glah, Divina; Ashley, Donna; Hadi, Monica
Background Several conservative (i.e., nonpharmacologic, nonsurgical) treatments exist for secondary lymphedema. The optimal treatment is unknown. We examined the effectiveness of conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema, as well as harms related to these treatments. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials®, AMED, and CINAHL from 1990 to January 19, 2010. We obtained English- and non-English-language randomized controlled trials or observational studies (with comparison groups) that reported primary effectiveness data on conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema. For English-language studies, we extracted data in tabular form and summarized the tables descriptively. For non-English-language studies, we summarized the results descriptively and discussed similarities with the English-language studies. Results Thirty-six English-language and eight non-English-language studies were included in the review. Most of these studies involved upper-limb lymphedema secondary to breast cancer. Despite lymphedema's chronicity, lengths of follow-up in most studies were under 6 months. Many trial reports contained inadequate descriptions of randomization, blinding, and methods to assess harms. Most observational studies did not control for confounding. Many studies showed that active treatments reduced the size of lymphatic limbs, although extensive between-study heterogeneity in areas such as treatment comparisons and protocols, and outcome measures, prevented us from assessing whether any one treatment was superior. This heterogeneity also precluded us from statistically pooling results. Harms were rare (< 1% incidence) and mostly minor (e.g., headache, arm pain). Conclusions The literature contains no evidence to suggest the most effective treatment for secondary lymphedema. Harms are few and unlikely to cause major clinical problems. PMID:22216837
Choosing a secondary school represents an important step in the lives of students in Italy, in that it has a strong bearing on their ultimate educational achievement and labor force trajectory. In this paper, we analyze the effect of generational status and length of residence on the transition to secondary school among immigrants living in Italy. Using data from the ITAGEN2 follow-up, we analyze scholastic results from the middle school final exam and the choice of secondary school among the adolescents in Italy. Children of immigrants are more likely to have inferior outcomes on the middle school exam and to enroll in vocational and polytechnic schools. Our multivariate results indicate that, after controlling for the family’s human capital and other key background factors, immigrant students show greater propensity to choose a vocational path. Differences between immigrants and natives in secondary school tracks are also manifest when previous scholastic results are taken into account.
Barban, Nicola; White, Michael J
Background and Aim: Violence against women during pregnancy is linked to poor outcome of pregnancy, which is reported to have widespread in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical violence against women by an intimate partner during pregnancy, and to assess the impact of this physical violence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on the characteristics of pregnant women in urban areas and related violence. The modified standard World Health Organization Domestic Violence Questionnaire was used to classify pregnant women and domestic violence. A total of 1461 pregnant women were selected using cluster sampling. The association between sociodemographic with intimate partner violence (IPV) and IPV with pregnancy outcomes was determined using logistic regression. Results: Of these, 206 (14.1%) (confidence interval = 12.3-15.9) reported physical IPV during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio for IPV in illiterate women or those with primary level of education (0.001), secondary level education (0.003), and in low income households (0.0001) were significantly higher than in those women with university level education and in higher income households. After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, the women with a history of violence by partners had 1.9 fold risk of premature rupture of membranes, and a 2.9 fold risk of low birth weight compared to women who did not experience any violence from their partners. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that the prevalence of IPV was high among pregnant women. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the screening of pregnant women at Primary Health Centers to prevent physical abuse.
Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Abhari, Farrideh R.; Delavar, Mouloud A.; Charati, Jamshid Y.
Purpose of study: The modified Scoliosis Research Society (MSRS) outcomes instrument (SRS-22) had been validated as an outcomes tool for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. There is no validated disease-specific outcomes instrument for adult scoliosis. The purpose of this paper is to determine the reliability and validity of the modified Scoliosis Research Society questionnaire for adults with scoliosis.Methods used: Reliability of the
Sigurd Berven; Vedat Deviren; Sibel Demir-Deviren; Serena Hu; David Bradford
BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite for monitoring population health and for evaluating effective interventions. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts. The IPAQ has been modified to produce a New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ). The
Ralph Maddison; Cliona Ni Mhurchu; Yannan Jiang; Stephen Vander Hoorn; Anthony Rodgers; Carlene MM Lawes; Elaine Rush
We have developed and evaluated a self-administered questionnaire of knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for use in program evaluation. Formative work led to the development of the 62-item HIV-Knowledge Questionnaire (HIV-K-Q), which was administered to 409 women and 227 men. Item analyses resulted in the deletion of 17 items that were either too easy or did not correlate
Michael P. Carey; Dianne Morrison-Beedy; Blair T. Johnson
This study examined secondary school teachers' perceptions of their school-level environment and its influence on implementation of outcomes-based education (OBE). Participating schools were in South Africa's Limpopo Province (one of its poorest rural provinces) and were implementing Curriculum 2005, a new outcomes-based approach to teaching and…
Mailula, Esrom M.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.; Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.
This study explored relationships among school counseling practices, secondary school demographics, and student outcomes in the state of Rhode Island during a 2-year period. The results showed strong and consistent correlations between increased amounts of school counseling services and positive student outcomes. Schools with higher percentages of…
Dimmitt, Carey; Wilkerson, Belinda
The demand for quantitative assessment by external agencies and internal administrators can leave post-secondary instructors confused about the nature and purpose of learning outcomes and fearful that the demand is simply part of the increasing corporatization of the university system. This need not be the case. Writing learning outcomes has a…
Ascough, Richard S.
The SPHERE Study. Secondary prevention of heart disease in general practice: protocol of a randomised controlled trial of tailored practice and patient care plans with parallel qualitative, economic and policy analyses. [ISRCTN24081411
Background The aim of the SPHERE study is to design, implement and evaluate tailored practice and personal care plans to improve the process of care and objective clinical outcomes for patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) in general practice across two different health systems on the island of Ireland. CHD is a common cause of death and a significant cause of morbidity in Ireland. Secondary prevention has been recommended as a key strategy for reducing levels of CHD mortality and general practice has been highlighted as an ideal setting for secondary prevention initiatives. Current indications suggest that there is considerable room for improvement in the provision of secondary prevention for patients with established heart disease on the island of Ireland. The review literature recommends structured programmes with continued support and follow-up of patients; the provision of training, tailored to practice needs of access to evidence of effectiveness of secondary prevention; structured recall programmes that also take account of individual practice needs; and patient-centred consultations accompanied by attention to disease management guidelines. Methods SPHERE is a cluster randomised controlled trial, with practice-level randomisation to intervention and control groups, recruiting 960 patients from 48 practices in three study centres (Belfast, Dublin and Galway). Primary outcomes are blood pressure, total cholesterol, physical and mental health status (SF-12) and hospital re-admissions. The intervention takes place over two years and data is collected at baseline, one-year and two-year follow-up. Data is obtained from medical charts, consultations with practitioners, and patient postal questionnaires. The SPHERE intervention involves the implementation of a structured systematic programme of care for patients with CHD attending general practice. It is a multi-faceted intervention that has been developed to respond to barriers and solutions to optimal secondary prevention identified in preliminary qualitative research with practitioners and patients. General practitioners and practice nurses attend training sessions in facilitating behaviour change and medication prescribing guidelines for secondary prevention of CHD. Patients are invited to attend regular four-monthly consultations over two years, during which targets and goals for secondary prevention are set and reviewed. The analysis will be strengthened by economic, policy and qualitative components. PMID:16053525
Murphy, Andrew W; Cupples, Margaret E; Smith, Susan M; Byrne, Molly; Leathem, Claire; Byrne, Mary C
This paper examines the relationship between the inequality in workplace conditions and health-related outcomes in Japan. It analyzes the effect of changes in the work conditions and work arrangements on the subjective health, activity restriction, and depression symptoms, using the Japanese Life Course Panel Survey (JLPS). The 2007 JLPS consists of nationally representative sample of the youth (20 to 34?yr old) and the middle-aged (35 to 40?yr old). The original respondents were followed up in 2008, and 2,719 respondents for the youth panel and 1,246 for the middle-aged panel returned the questionnaires. The first major conclusion is that there are substantial changes in health conditions between the two waves even though the distributions of health-related outcomes are very similar at two time points. The second major conclusion is that the effects of work conditions depend on different health-related outcomes. Self-reported health and depression symptoms are affected by a variety of job-related factors. The atmosphere of helping each other and the control over the pace of work are two important factors which affect both depression and self-reported health. All these findings suggest that the workplace conditions and job characteristics have profound influence on the workers’ health. PMID:23955651
Concern about the spiraling cost of mental health care has increased the need for reliable data about the outcomes of such care. Treatment outcome studies, although difficult to design and carry out, are essential in demonstrating the efficacy of psychiatric treatment, rationalizing clinical decision making, and encouraging public support for the availability of appropriate, cost-effective care for the mentally ill. Ideally, outcome studies should focus not only on clinical symptomatology but also on patients' social, interpersonal, and occupational adjustment as well as on factors that, taken together, shape the quality of life. The authors discuss these issues and some of the impediments to collecting useful outcome data, including the complexity of the mental health service delivery system and problems related to patient selection, study design, and how treatment is defined. PMID:1959890
Mirin, S M; Namerow, M J
This study explores the centrality of information technology (IT) to Chinese students' experiences in music lessons. Students involved in this qualitative and quantitative study described the possibilities of using technology when learning music. From among the students of 15 Shanghai secondary schools, 1741 responded to a written questionnaire…
We report in this paper on a study of chemistry teachers' perceptions of their teaching in upper secondary schools in Sweden, regarding models of acids and bases, especially the Bronsted and the Arrhenius model. A questionnaire consisting of a Likert-type scale was developed, which focused on teachers' knowledge of different models, knowledge of…
Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan
Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of teachers who contribute to secondary school sexual health education in order to determine whether teachers are adequately prepared to implement present government education and public health policies. Design: Results were obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study.…
Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara
Modern biotechnology will have a large impact on society and requires informed decision-making and critical attitudes toward biotechnology among the public. This study aims to explore these attitudes in secondary education. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed according to the general tripartite theory of attitudes. A total of 574…
Klop, Tanja; Severiens, Sabine
This article investigates the activities of teacher unions in some Gauteng secondary schools in South Africa. The methods used in collecting data were questionnaires, interviews and a literature study of appropriate educational and labour law journals, books and newspapers. An interpretive paradigm was used in analysing the data. In this article,…
Mahlangu, Vimbi P.
The present study is the first to investigate the relationships between a multiple set of paranormal beliefs and the acceptance of evolution, creationism, and intelligent design, respectively, in Europe. Using a questionnaire, 2,129 students at secondary schools in Vienna (Austria) answered the 26 statements of the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale…
Eder, Erich; Turic, Katharina; Milasowszky, Norbert; Van Adzin, Katherine; Hergovich, Andreas
Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and…
Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.
This study of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and contract secondary school administrators creates a BIA administrator profile and examines differences between Indian and non-Indian administrators. Two different instruments were mailed to 54 administrators. The first, with a return rate of 44%, was a questionnaire relating to administrative…
Chance, Edward W.
During 1999-2000, the writer carried out a survey of six randomly selected Catholic secondary schools in England to examine the attitudes of stakeholder groups towards Citizenship and Personal, Social and Health Education. Questionnaires were completed by six governors, 12 parents, 139 pupils, 12 teachers and six school leaders, providing insight…
This paper examines the perceptions of Greek secondary education teachers on effectiveness in teaching. Through a structured questionnaire, 340 teachers reported their views on the tactics which are considered to contribute to effective teaching and on the behaviour and personal traits attributed to effective teachers. Descriptive and factor…
This survey, conducted in 1966 by the Washington Foreign Language Program, analyzes the possible effect of the secondary school principal on language programs directly or indirectly attributable to his foreign language background and attitudes. Some 369 questionnaires returned by the principals provided information concerning biographical data,…
The primary aim of this research study was to investigate and compare the attitudes and perceptions of secondary pupils, with and without Special Education Needs, towards studying together on the same campus. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from the use of the "On the Same Campus" questionnaire by surveying 216…
Tsang, Kwan Lan Vicky
The paper investigates the association between individual characteristics and teacher job satisfaction in secondary education in Cyprus. It focuses on two individual characteristics commonly linked to job satisfaction in the literature, namely, gender and years of experience. A short version of a questionnaire previously employed by Dinham and…
Menon, Maria Eliophotou; Athanasoula-Reppa, Anastasia
The self-efficacy beliefs of prospective teachers of secondary education in their physics classes are analysed, observing their perceived ability to successfully teach their students and to relate to the emotions they foresee in their future physics classes. To this end, a questionnaire was designed inquiring into the possible emotions they might…
Borrachero, Ana Belen; Brigido, Maria; Costillo, Emilio; Bermejo, M. Luisa; Melado, Vicente
This study investigated firstly the reliability and validity of an Indonesian version of the "Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction" (QTI). Second, perceptions of Indonesian secondary school teachers' interpersonal behaviour as perceived by students and teachers were studied with the QTI. Third, differences between students' and teachers'…
Maulana, R.; Opdenakker, M. C. J. L.; den Brok, P.; Bosker, R. J.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between EFL students strategic listening and their listening comprehension skills. Eighty secondary school students participated in this study. Participants' strategic listening was measured by a Strategic Listening Interview (SLI), a Strategic Listening Questionnaire (SLQ) and a…
Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq
The study used the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) questionnaire instrument developed by Hammer and Bennett (2001) to determine the level of intercultural sensitivity of Hong Kong secondary school teachers. Three hundred and eighty-six serving teachers were surveyed. Findings revealed that the majority of the teachers were operating in…
Yuen, Celeste Y. M.
In this paper, we focus on Finnish pre-service elementary teachers' (N = 269) and upper secondary students' (N = 1,434) understanding of division. In the questionnaire, we used the following non-standard division problem: "We know that 498:6 = 83. How could you conclude from this relationship (without using long-division algorithm) what 491:6 = ?…
Kaasila, Raimo; Pehkonen, Erkki; Hellinen, Anu
The Classroom Assessment Practices and Skills (CAPS) questionnaire was administered to a sample of 691 primary and secondary school teachers in Botswana, Southern Africa to survey their thoughts about classroom assessment and identify classroom assessment practices teachers perceive to be skilled and those that they used most. The study examined…
The aim of this study is to investigate students' conceptions about proof in mathematics and mathematics teaching. A five-point Likert-type questionnaire was administered in order to gather data. The sample of the study included 33 first-year secondary school mathematics students (at the same time student teachers). The data collected were…
This study reports cross-validation results for an Indonesian-language version of a modified form of the What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) questionnaire and its use in investigating the nature of science classroom learning environments in Indonesian lower secondary schools. Following administration of the WIHIC to approximately 1400…
Wahyudi; Treagust, David F.
This article reports on a study of the views of Scottish teachers concerning the delivery of arts subjects within the 5-14 curriculum. Data were gathered through focus group interviews with primary, secondary and primary head teachers, and a questionnaire survey of 232 teachers in 10 Scottish LEAs. Research issues included the balance of the…
Wilson, Graeme B.; MacDonald, Raymond A. R.; Byrne, Charles; Ewing, Sandra; Sheridan, Marion
This article reports on a study of the views of Scottish teachers concerning the delivery of arts subjects within the 5–14 curriculum. Data were gathered through focus group interviews with primary, secondary and primary head teachers, and a questionnaire survey of 232 teachers in 10 Scottish LEAs. Research issues included the balance of the curriculum; assessment; the specialist knowledge required
Graeme B. Wilson; Raymond A. R. MacDonald; Charles Byrne; Sandra Ewing; Marion Sheridan
This study examined the relationship between the leadership styles of secondary school principals, measured by the self-report "Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X short" (Bass & Avolio, 2000) and the school's dropout rates, as reported by the Texas Education Agency in the Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS) report…
This study examined the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of secondary schools students with regard to waste management. Few studies have captured waste management problems in Nigerian educational institutions, particularly the views of students. Using a structured, self-administered questionnaire, 650 students were surveyed from six…
Objective: A nationwide survey of teachers investigated the teaching of food hygiene in UK secondary schools. Previous studies have focused on effective strategies in consumer food hygiene training but there is little research focusing on school-based education. Design: The questionnaire was developed based on the results of in-depth interviews…
Egan, M. B.; Bielby, G.; Eves, A.; Lumbers, M. L.; Raats, M. M.; Adams, M. R.
Providing students with supplementary course materials such as audio podcasts, enhanced podcasts, video podcasts and other forms of lecture-capture video files after a lecture is now a common occurrence in many post-secondary courses. We used an online questionnaire to ask students how helpful enhanced podcasts were for a variety of course…
Holbrook, Jane; Dupont, Christine
The study assessed computer literacy of secondary school teachers in Ekiti State. Three hundred teachers (Male = 150; Female = 150) selected from 30 public schools in 15 out of 16 local government areas participated. The instrument for collecting data was a 25-item Self-Assessment of Computer Literacy questionnaire and each item was rated on a…
Oluwatayo, James Ayodele
OBJECTIVES--To determine the symptomatic and urodynamic outcome of elective prostatectomy and to establish whether the outcome is influenced or can be predicted by preoperative urodynamic measurements. DESIGN--Prospective non-randomised study with follow up at a mean of 11 months after operation. Most men were assessed jointly by a urologist and a general practitioner. SETTING--Department of urology in a teaching hospital serving
D. E. Neal; P. D. Ramsden; L. Sharples; A. Smith; P. H. Powell; R. A. Styles; R. J. Webb
Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...” of services must be reported IFSP supports family outcomes through… Services to assist families in meeting child needs Measurable results of child and family progress Services in the natural environment Family directed assessment of resources, priorities...
The goal of the present studies was to construct and validate a short form of the 50-item Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; T. H. Brandon & T. B. Baker, 1991), a measure of smoking outcome expectancies. In Study 1, a 21-item short form (S-SCQ) was derived from a sample of 107 young adults previously treated for substance abuse. In Study 2, the measure was cross-validated on 125 adolescents in treatment for substance abuse. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good model fit and factorial invariance for the 4 S-SCQ subscales across both samples. Validation analyses on each sample found that subscale scores generally correlated significantly with smoking-related variables. The present studies provide initial evidence for the utility of the S-SCQ when used with young adults and adolescents. PMID:12847776
Myers, Mark G.; McCarthy, Denis M.; MacPherson, Laura; Brown, Sandra A.
Secondary aortoesophageal fistula is the rarest type of aortopeptic fistula, characterized by communication between the reconstructed aorta and the esophagus. This condition has been reported to be uniformly fatal, even after prompt diagnosis and treatment. We report what may be the first case of a successfully managed secondary aortoesophageal fistula that occurred 14 months after repair of a Crawford type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. The entity was diagnosed with a combination of esophagogastroduodenoscopy and aortography. At exploration, a communication between the proximal anastomosis and the esophagus with otherwise minimal mediastinal contamination was encountered. The anastomosis was replaced with an interposition polytetrafluoroethylene graft, and the esophageal defect was debrided, primarily closed, and reinforced with adjacent old aneurysm wall. There were no postoperative complications, and the patient remains well 18 months after fistula repair. PMID:9240335
Pipinos, I I; Reddy, D J
The adaptive secondary mirror is a fundamental part in the LBT adaptive optics architecture. The thin, continuous mirror is controlled by 672 electromagnetic actuators (voice coil motors) with local position feedback (capacitive sensor) and allows to perform from tip-tilt to high order wavefront correction, but also chopping. The adaptive secondary is controlled by a DSP-based dedicated electronics. The control electronics does not only implement the mirror position control tasks, but does also realize the Real Time Reconstructor (RTR). The control system, while maintaining a similar architecture to the MMT adaptive secondary one, shows a substantial enhancement in terms of computational power, rising in the range of hundreds of Gigaflops. This allows to minimize the computational time required to apply the wavefront correction pattern from the wavefront sensor acquisition, even in case of high order reconstructor dynamics. The electronics is housed in compact cooled crates placed in the adaptive secondary hub. Apart from the power supply lines, it is connected to the other components of the adaptive control system just through a very high speed fiber optic link, capable of 2.9 Gigabit/s of actual data throughput. The control system has been designed according to modular concept, so that the number of channels can be easily increased or reduced for adapting the electronics to different correctors. A substantial effort has been dedicated to the flexibility and on-field configurability of system. In this frame, the same electronics (or part of it) can be easily adapted to become the building block for the data processing unit required for Multi-Conjugated Adaptive Optics
Biasi, Roberto; Andrighettoni, Mario; Veronese, Daniele; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Fini, Luca; Riccardi, Armando; Mantegazza, Paolo; Gallieni, Daniele
The object of the present invention is to make possible the repeated use for a long period of time of nonaqueous secondary battery that contains in the battery case a negative electrode of a carbonized organic substance, a positive electrode with Li(x)MO2 (where M is at least one of Co and Ni; x being 0.05 less than or = x
Takayuki Yamahira; Masanori Anzai
Background Registered nurses and nurse researchers often use questionnaires to measure patient outcomes. When questionnaires or other multiple item instruments have been developed using a relatively homogeneous sample, the suitability of even a psychometrically well-developed instrument for the new population comes into question. Bias or lack of equivalence can be introduced into instruments through differences in perceptions of the meaning of the measured items, constructs, or both, in the two groups. Objective To explain measurement invariance and illustrate how it can be tested using the English and Spanish versions of the Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Method A sample of 607 children from the Phoenix Children's Hospital Breathmobile was selected for this analysis. Ages were 6 to 18 years in age; 61.2% completed the PAQLQ in Spanish. Testing measurement invariance using multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, a series of hierarchical nested models, is demonstrated. In assessing the adequacy of the fit of each model at each stage, both ?2 tests and goodness-of-fit indexes were used. Results The test of measurement invariance for the one-factor model showed that the English and Spanish versions of the scale met the criteria for measurement invariance. The level of strict invariance (equal factor loadings, intercepts, and residual variances between groups) was achieved. Discussion Confirmatory factor analysis is used to evaluate the structural integrity of a measurement instrument; multiple confirmatory factor analyses are used to assess measurement invariance across different groups, and to stamp the data as valid or invalid. The PAQLQ, a widely used instrument having evidence to support reliability and validity was used separately in English- and Spanish-speaking groups. Traditional methods for evaluating measurement instruments have been less than thorough, and this paper demonstrates a well-developed approach allowing for confident comparisons between populations. PMID:22551991
Sousa, Karen H.; West, Stephen G.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Harris, Judy A.; Cook, Susanne W.
Background Intestinal failure is the outcome of a number of gastrointestinal diseases and characterized by significant reduction in functional gut mass. If not resolved patients often face long-term nutritional support. This study gathered information about how patients referred with intestinal failure are managed in specialised European centres. Methods A questionnaire was circulated in 7 European countries via representatives of the ESPEN-HAN working group to seek information about experience in treating patients with intestinal failure. We asked about clinical outcome, information about structure and organisation of the department, referral criteria, treatment procedures and guidelines. Results 17 centres in 6 European countries completed the questionnaire: UK, n = 6, France, n = 4, Spain, n = 3, Denmark, n = 2, Italy, n = 1, Poland, n = 1. The experience of the centres in treating patients was in the range 12–30 years. The total number of patients on HPN in all centres was 590. The number of patients referred to centres with intestinal failure during the period January to December 2000 was n = 882: UK, n = 375 (range 2–175), France, n = 308 (range 24–182), Italy and Spain, n = 43 (range 9–52), Denmark n = 51 (range 14–37), the centre in Poland included 53 patients. Comparing all centres the following distribution among patients (median % (range%)) with regard to the endpoints were reported: Oral nutrition 32% (23–50%), enteral/tube feeding 11% (4–23%), HPN 36% (15–57%), lost to follow up 10% (0–35%), dead 9% (5–18%). No patients had an intestinal transplant. Conclusion The study provides information about how patients with intestinal failure are managed across Europe and the data indicates that treatment practice varies between countries. PMID:17610741
Staun, Michael; Hebuterne, Xavier; Shaffer, Jon; Haderslev, Kent V; Bozzetti, Frederico; Pertkiewicz, Marek; Micklewright, Ann; Moreno, Jose; Thul, Paul; Pironi, Loris
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse on female sexual function and to assess correlations between the two using two current standardized questionnaires. Materials and Methods From October 2009 to September 2010, 143 patients with posterior compartment or combined vaginal prolapse were included. We assessed surgical outcomes according to anatomical change in the vagina and results of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function questionnaire (PISQ-12) both pre- and postoperatively. Results Among the 143 preoperative patients, 99 and 84 patients responded to the PISQ-12 and FSFI, respectively. The mean PISQ-12 score increased after surgery (p<0.001). Specifically, postoperative scores for questions 8 and 12 were higher than their respective preoperative scores (p<0.001). Postoperatively, mean FSFI score changed only slightly (p=0.76), and only the score for the satisfaction domain was improved (p=0.023). In regards to vaginal anatomy, vaginal length was significantly greater postoperatively (6.99±0.18 vs. 7.56±1.08, p<0.001), and postoperative vaginal caliber was narrowed to a two-finger width. Conclusion In this study, surgery for pelvic organ prolapse was shown to affect female sexual function. Moreover, menopause was associated with a change in postoperative sexual function. PMID:24339303
Kim, Soo Rim; Moon, Yeo Jung; Kim, Sei Kwang
Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs?=?.08, P?=?0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593
Background Although bone marrow (BM) or mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is frequently used as the source of hematopoietic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using cord blood (CB) is gradually gaining popularity in many countries. However, BM or PB is still preferred over CB in Korea. Therefore, we tried to assess the awareness of CB transplantation (CBT) among domestic HSCT physicians and develop strategies for boosting its utilization by administering questionnaires to some of these physicians. Methods A direct questionnaire survey was conducted using the "Audience Response System" among 301 members who attended the annual meeting of the Korean Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. The data were analyzed for only 67 board certified physicians who were directly involved in HSCT activities. Results The poor outcomes resulting from insufficient experience in CBT was designated by the physicians as the main reason for the low domestic implementation of HSCT using CB. Other reasons identified in the survey were distrust in the quality and management of domestic CB and the high cost of obtaining CB. Conclusion Increasing the use of donated CB would foremost require increasing the inventory of donated CB containing a sufficient cell number for CBT and securing structured quality control of the CB banks. In addition, it would be necessary to minimize CB supply costs and continue to provide academic data, including CBT guidelines, so that clinicians could perform CBT with more confidence. PMID:25548755
Choi, Byeong Seon; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Ji Yoon
Summary Objectives We surveyed the UK medical qualifiers of 1993. We asked closed questions about their careers; and invited them to give us comments, if they wished, about any aspect of their work. Our aim in this paper is to report on the topics that this senior cohort of UK-trained doctors who work in UK medicine raised with us. Design Questionnaire survey Participants 3479 contactable UK-trained medical graduates of 1993. Setting UK. Main outcome measures Comments made by doctors about their work, and their views about medical careers and training in the UK. Method Postal and email questionnaires. Results Response rate was 72% (2507); 2252 were working in UK medicine, 816 (36%) of whom provided comments. Positive comments outweighed negative in the areas of their own job satisfaction and satisfaction with their training. However, 23% of doctors who commented expressed dissatisfaction with aspects of junior doctors’ training, the impact of working time regulations, and with the requirement for doctors to make earlier career decisions than in the past about their choice of specialty. Some doctors were concerned about government health service policy; others were dissatisfied with the availability of family-friendly/part-time work, and we are concerned about attitudes to gender and work-life balance. Conclusions Though satisfied with their own training and their current position, many senior doctors felt that changes to working hours and postgraduate training had reduced the level of experience gained by newer graduates. They were also concerned about government policy interventions. PMID:25408920
Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
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Petroleum County Secondary Data Analysis July 23, 2012 1 Community Health Data, MT Dept American Diabetes Association (2012) Region 3 (South Central) Â Judith Basin, Fergus, Petroleum* #12; Petroleum County Secondary Data Analysis July 23, 2012 2 Socioeconomic Measures1
Maxwell, Bruce D.
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used as an international standardised instrument measuring child behaviour. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether behavioral symptoms measured by SDQ were elevated among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to the rest of the population, and to examine the predictive value of the SDQ for outcome of parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD. A secondary aim was to examine the extent of overlap in symptoms between children diagnosed with these two disorders, as measured by the SDQ subscales. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Birth Cohort (n?=?19,519), was conducted. Data were weighted to be representative of the UK population as a whole. ADHD or ASD identified by a medical doctor or health professional were reported by parents in 2008 and this was the case definition of diagnosis; (ADHD n?=?173, ASD n?=?209, excluding twins and triplets). Study children's ages ranged from 6.3–8.2 years; (mean 7.2 years). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD and teacher and parent-reported SDQ subscales. All SDQ subscales were strongly associated with both ASD and ADHD. There was substantial co-occurrence of behavioral difficulties between children diagnosed with ASD and those diagnosed with ADHD. After adjustment for other subscales, the final model for ADHD, contained hyperactivity/inattention and impact symptoms only and had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%; (AUC)?=?0.94 (95% CI, 0.90–0.97). The final model for ASD was composed of all subscales except the ‘peer problems’ scales, indicating of the complexity of behavioural difficulties that may accompany ASD. A threshold of 0.03 produced model sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 93% respectively; AUC?=?0.90 (95% CI, 0.86–0.95). The results support changes to DSM-5 removing exclusivity clauses. PMID:24312466
Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ford, Tamsin
This study evaluated survivorship and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing conversion of a hip arthrodesis to a total hip arthroplasty (THA) and compared them to 2 patient cohorts: primary THA and first-time revision THA. Patients completed 5 standardized outcome questionnaires. The study cohort was compared to matched groups of primary THA and first-time revision THA patients. Twenty-six patients were identified,
Corey J. Richards; Clive P. Duncan
Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%-95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities - inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified. PMID:24634588
Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A
Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified. PMID:24634588
Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A
Secondary Teacher Education Graduate Handbook 2014-2015 3 SECTION 2: INTERNSHIP RESOURCES Internship Forms 1Secondary Education Graduate Program Manual 2014-2015 The University of Vermont College it helpful. #12;UVM Secondary Teacher Education Graduate Handbook 2014-2015 2 University of Vermont College
Hayden, Nancy J.
As teacher educators who have had extensive experience working in the field?based secondary programs of two universities, the authors recognize the benefits, as well as the challenges, of forming partnerships with secondary educators to design and deliver collaboratively the teacher preparation program. In this article, experiences are shared and some of the major issues related to secondary teacher preparation that
Virginia Resta; Billy E. Askins; Leslie Huling
This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…
Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.
To develop and validate a specific questionnaire to assess burden on families of children with infantile haemangioma (IH): the Haemangioma Family Burden questionnaire (HFB). Items were generated from a literature review and a verbatim report from parents. Subsequently, a study was implemented at the Necker Hospital and the Pellegrin Children's Hospital for psychometric analysis. The HFB was refined via item reduction according to inter-question correlations, consensus among experts and exploratory factor analysis. A 20-item questionnaire, grouped into 5 dimensions, was obtained. Construct validity was demonstrated and HFB showed good internal coherence (Cronbach's ?: 0.93). The HFB was significantly correlated with the mental dimension of the Short-Form-12 (r?=?-0.75), and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (r?=?-0.61). HFB scores differed significantly according to the size and localization of the IH. A validated tool for assessing the burden on families of children with IH is now available. PMID:24676555
Boccara, Olivia; Méni, Cecile; Léauté-Labreze, Christine; Bodemer, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Dufresne, Hélène; Brauchoux, Sébastien; Taieb, Charles
Clinical experience shows that the individual significance of olfactory function varies between subjects. In order to estimate these individual differences we developed a questionnaire to study the subjective importance of the sense of smell. Questions were arranged within three subscales: association with olfactory sensations, application of the sense of smell, and the readiness to draw consequences from the olfactory perception. The questionnaire was shown to be time efficient, suitable for normosmic subjects and patients with hyposmia or anosmia. It exhibited a good internal reliability (Cronbach's Alpha = 0.77). First results in 123 subjects indicate that the subjective importance of the sense of smell stays at the same level throughout life-span despite of a decreased olfactory sensitivity. Furthermore, women reported a higher importance of olfaction. It is hoped that this questionnaire will contribute to clarify, for example, cross-cultural differences in the perception of odours. PMID:19626331
Croy, Ilona; Buschhüter, Dorothee; Seo, Han-Seok; Negoias, Simona; Hummel, Thomas
Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for depression. However, CBT is a complex therapy that requires highly trained and qualified practitioners, and its scalability is therefore limited by the costs of training and employing sufficient therapists to meet demand. Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychological treatment for depression that may be an effective alternative to CBT and, because it is simpler, might also be delivered by less highly trained and specialised mental health workers. Methods/Design COBRA is a two-arm, non-inferiority, patient-level randomised controlled trial, including clinical, economic, and process evaluations comparing CBT delivered by highly trained professional therapists to BA delivered by junior professional or para-professional mental health workers to establish whether the clinical effectiveness of BA is non-inferior to CBT and if BA is cost effective compared to CBT. Four hundred and forty patients with major depressive disorder will be recruited through screening in primary care. We will analyse for non-inferiority in per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations. Our primary outcome will be severity of depression symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) at 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcomes will be clinically significant change and severity of depression at 18 months, and anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (Short-Form Health Survey-36) at 12 and 18 months. Our economic evaluation will take the United Kingdom National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective to include costs of the interventions, health and social care services used, plus productivity losses. Cost-effectiveness will explored in terms of quality-adjusted life years using the EuroQol-5D measure of health-related quality of life. Discussion The clinical and economic outcomes of this trial will provide the evidence to help policy makers, clinicians and guideline developers decide on the merits of including BA as a first-line treatment of depression. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN27473954 PMID:24447460
Background Laryngeal hypersensitivity may be an important component of the common disorders of laryngeal motor dysfunction including chronic refractory cough, pdoxical vocal fold movement (vocal cord dysfunction), muscle tension dysphonia, and globus pharyngeus. Patients with these conditions frequently report sensory disturbances, and an emerging concept of the ‘irritable larynx’ suggests common features of a sensory neuropathic dysfunction as a part of these disorders. The aim of this study was to develop a Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire for patients with laryngeal dysfunction syndromes in order to measure the laryngeal sensory disturbance occurring in these conditions. Methods The 97 participants included 82 patients referred to speech pathology for behavioural management of laryngeal dysfunction and 15 healthy controls. The participants completed a 21 item self administered questionnaire regarding symptoms of abnormal laryngeal sensation. Factor analysis was conducted to examine correlations between items. Discriminant analysis and responsiveness to change were evaluated. Results The final questionnaire comprised 14 items across three domains: obstruction, pain/thermal, and irritation. The questionnaire demonstrated significant discriminant validity with a mean difference between the patients with laryngeal disorders and healthy controls of 5.5. The clinical groups with laryngeal hypersensitivity had similar abnormal scores. Furthermore the Newcastle Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire (LHQ) showed improvement following behavioural speech pathology intervention with a mean reduction in LHQ score of 2.3. Conclusion The Newcastle Laryngeal Hypersensitivity Questionnaire is a simple, non-invasive tool to measure laryngeal pesthesia in patients with laryngeal conditions such as chronic cough, pdoxical vocal fold movement (vocal cord dysfunction), muscle tension dysphonia, and globus pharyngeus. It can successfully differentiate patients from healthy controls and measure change following intervention. It is a promising tool for use in clinical research and practice. PMID:24552215
In Iran, road traffic injuries are the first cause of burden of disease and motorcyclists are the most vulnerable road users. Elliot and colleagues developed the “Motorcycle Rider Behavior Questionnaire” (MRBQ), on the basis of Reason’s “Driver Behavior Questionnaire” (DBQ) in 2007. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a Persian version of MRBQ. The 43-item MRBQ was adapted to Persian according to translation-back translation method. The questionnaire was significantly revised after assessment of content validity. In the revised version, 10 items of original MRBQ were deleted and 15 new items were added. The revised MRBQ was used in a survey of 518 motorcyclists. To assess the construct validity of MRBQ, we used Buss-Perry Aggression questionnaire concurrently on all of the subjects. After three weeks, we carried out the retest study on 119 out of 518 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 32.5 years (SD=8.8). All of the participants were male with mean of 9.3 years of motorcycle riding experience (SD=7.3). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed six subscales: “Speed Violations”, “Traffic Errors”, “Safety Violations”, “Traffic Violations”, “Stunts” and “Control Errors”, which accounted for 36.44% of total variance together. For each of these subscales, Cronbach’s Alpha was between 0.79 to 0.91. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient for six subscales and total questionnaire were from 0.73 to 0.91. There were significant correlations between MRBQ subscales and subscales of Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire. The results indicated that the 48-item Persian version of MRBQ is a suitable measure for studying motorcyclists’ behavior. PMID:22105387
Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Rahimi, Habibollah; Eftekhar, Mehrdad
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychometric properties of a cardiovascular extension of an existing utility-based quality of life questionnaire (Health Measurement Questionnaire). The new instrument has been named the Utility Based Quality of life--Heart questionnaire, or UBQ-H. DESIGN: Explored the test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the UBQ-H. PATIENTS: A sample of 322 patients attending cardiac outpatient clinics were recruited from two large metropolitan teaching hospitals. A second sample of 1112 patients taking part in the LIPID trial was also used to investigate the validity and responsiveness of the UBQ-H. RESULTS: Ninety per cent of all UBQ-H questionnaires were returned, and item completion rates were high (median of less than 1% missing or N/A answers). Cronbach's alpha measure of internal consistency for the scales ranged between 0.79- 0.91, and each item was also most strongly correlated with its hypothesised domain than alternative domains. The intra-class test- retest reliability of the UBQ-H scales ranged from 0.65 to 0.81 for patients with stable health. Results supported the construct validity of the UBQ-H. The UBQ-H was significantly correlated with other information on quality of life (for example, General Health Questionnaire) as anticipated. The instrument was able to distinguish between contrasted groups of patients (for example, with versus without symptoms of dyspnoea, prior myocardial infarction versus none, etc), and was responsive to changes in health associated with adverse events requiring hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: The modifications made to the Health Measurement Questionnaire has resulted in an assessment designed for cardiovascular patients that has proved to be both reliable and valid. PMID:10562879
Martin, A. J.; Glasziou, P. P.; Simes, R. J.
Study Objective: At least 15% of the full-time work force is shift workers. Working during the overnight hours, early morning start times, and variable or rotating schedules present a challenge to the circadian system, and these shifts are associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Shift work disorder (SWD), a primary (circadian rhythm) sleep disorder indicated by excessive daytime sleepiness and/or insomnia associated with a shiftwork schedule, is under-recognized by primary care physicians. We sought to develop and validate a questionnaire to screen for high risk of SWD in a shift working population. Design: Shift workers completed a 26-item questionnaire and were evaluated by a sleep specialist (physician) who diagnosed them as either positive or negative for SWD. The physician assessment of SWD was guided by a flow chart that operationalized the ICSD-2 criteria for SWD. Setting: 18 sleep clinics in the USA. Patients or Participants: 311 shift workers. Interventions: Not applicable. Measurements and Results: Responses to the items in the questionnaire were entered into a series of discrimination function analyses to determine the diagnostic value of the items and the fewest number of questions with the best predictive value. The function was then cross-validated. A final 4-item questionnaire has 89% positive predictive value and 62% negative predictive value (sensitivity = 0.74; specificity = 0.82). Conclusions: This Shiftwork Disorder Screening Questionnaire may be appropriate for use in primary care settings to aid in the diagnosis of SWD. Citation: Barger LK; Ogeil RP; Drake CL; O'Brien CS; Ng KT; Rajaratnam SMW. Validation of a questionnaire to screen for shift work disorder. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1693–1703. PMID:23204612
Barger, Laura K.; Ogeil, Rowan P.; Drake, Christopher L.; O'Brien, Conor S.; Ng, Kim T.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.
Objectives To determine the feasibility of collecting population-based patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in assessing quality of life (QoL) to inform the development of a national PROMs programme for cancer and to begin to describe outcomes in a UK cohort of survivors. Design Cross-sectional postal survey of cancer survivors using a population-based sampling approach. Setting English National Health Service. Participants 4992 breast, colorectal, prostate and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) survivors 1–5?years from diagnosis. Primary and secondary outcome measures Implementation issues, response rates, cancer-specific morbidities utilising items including the EQ5D, tumour-specific subscales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy and Social Difficulties Inventory. Results 3300 (66%) survivors returned completed questionnaires. The majority aged 85+ years did not respond and the response rates were lower for those from more deprived area. Response rates did not differ by gender, time since diagnosis or cancer type. The presence of one or more long-term conditions was associated with significantly lower QoL scores. Individuals from most deprived areas reported lower QoL scores and poorer outcomes on other measures, as did those self-reporting recurrent disease or uncertainty about disease status. QoL scores were comparable at all time points for all cancers except NHL. QoL scores were lower than those from the general population in Health Survey for England (2008) and General Practice Patient Survey (2012). 47% of patients reported fear of recurrence, while 20% reported moderate or severe difficulties with mobility or usual activities. Bowel and urinary problems were common among colorectal and prostate patients. Poor bowel and bladder control were significantly associated with lower QoL. Conclusions This method of assessing QoL of cancer survivors is feasible and acceptable to most survivors. Routine collection of national population-based PROMs will enable the identification of, and the support for, the specific needs of survivors while allowing for comparison of outcome by service provider. PMID:23578682
Glaser, Adam W; Fraser, Lorna K; Corner, Jessica; Feltbower, Richard; Morris, Eva J A; Hartwell, Greg; Richards, Mike
Objective To translate the English Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment for patellar tendinopathy (VISA-P) questionnaire into a Korean version and to determine the reliability and validity of the Korean version. Methods The English VISA-P questionnaire was translated into Korean according to the internationally recommended guidelines. Then, 28 adolescent elite volleyball athletes (average age, 16 years; range, 14 to 19 years) were asked to complete the questionnaire three times (before examination, after examination, and 1 week later) for reliability. They were evaluated through a physical examination and ultrasonography to diagnosis patellar tendinopathy. Results The internal consistency of the VISA-P questionnaire by Cronbach's alpha was 0.80 for the first, 0.78 for the second, and 0.79 for the third assessment. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the first and second assessments was 0.97. The ICC between the second and third assessments was 0.96. The mean VISA-P scores were 67.6±15.7 for the patellar tendinopathy group (n=23) and 92.6±8.6 for the normal group (n=5). There were significantly lower VISA-P scores in the patellar tendinopathy group compared to the normal group. Conclusion The translated Korean version VISA-P questionnaire has good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity. In addition, this study indicated that most adolescent elite volleyball athletes had patellar tendon problems. Therefore, the Korean version VISA-P is a useful self-administered outcome score of athletes with patellar tendinopathy. PMID:24236258
Park, Byung-Hyun; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee
This paper presents principles that should be considered in planning and interpreting studies of outcomes of interventions with children receiving mental health services. Principles to consider when planning outcome studies include recognizing that "outcome" refers to multiple rather than single domains and choosing outcome domains that coincide…
Salzer, Mark S.
Background In health technology assessment, decisions about reimbursement for new health technologies are largely based on effectiveness estimates. Sometimes, however, the target effectiveness estimates are not readily available. This may be because many alternative instruments measuring these outcomes are being used (and not all always reported) or an extended follow-up time of clinical trials is needed to evaluate long-term end points, leading to the limited data on the target clinical outcome. In the areas of highest priority in health care, decisions are required to be made on a short time scale. Therefore, alternative clinical outcomes, including surrogate end points, are increasingly being considered for use in evidence synthesis as part of economic evaluation. Objective To illustrate the potential effect of reduced uncertainty around the clinical outcome on the utility when estimating it from a multivariate meta-analysis. Methods Bayesian multivariate meta-analysis has been used to synthesize data on correlated outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis and to incorporate external data in the model in the form of informative prior distributions. Estimates of Health Assessment Questionnaire were then mapped onto the health-related quality-of-life measure EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire, and the effect was compared with mapping the Health Assessment Questionnaire obtained from the univariate approach. Results The use of multivariate meta-analysis can lead to reduced uncertainty around the effectiveness parameter and ultimately uncertainty around the utility. Conclusions By allowing all the relevant data to be incorporated in estimating clinical effectiveness outcomes, multivariate meta-analysis can improve the estimation of health utilities estimated through mapping methods. While reduced uncertainty may have an effect on decisions based on economic evaluation of new health technologies, the use of short-term surrogate end points can allow for early decisions. More research is needed to determine the circumstances under which uncertainty is reduced. PMID:24438724
Bujkiewicz, Sylwia; Thompson, John R.; Sutton, Alex J.; Cooper, Nicola J.; Harrison, Mark J.; Symmons, Deborah P.M.; Abrams, Keith R.
Effective training has been shown to improve perinatal care and outcome, decrease litigation claims and reduce midwifery sick leave. To be effective, training should be incentivised, in a realistic context, and delivered to inter-professional teams similar to those delivering actual care. Teamwork training is a useful addition, but it should be based on the characteristics of effective teamwork as derived from the study of frontline teams. Implementation of simulation and teamwork training is challenging, with constraints on staff time, facilities and finances. Local adoption and adaptation of effective programmes can help keep costs down, and make them locally relevant whilst maintaining effectiveness. Training programmes need to evolve continually in line with new evidence. To do this, it is vital to monitor outcomes and robustly evaluate programmes for their impact on patient care and outcome, not just on participants. PMID:23721770
Smith, Abi; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Crofts, Joanna; Draycott, Tim
Little data exists assessing the relationship between functional limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their participation in everyday activities. This prospective study evaluates the relationship between the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), a functional health-related quality of life instrument for children and their parents, and the School Function Assessment (SFA), a school-based functional assessment. One hundred and two children with CP (80.4% dipliegia; 10.8% hemiplegia; 3.9% triplegia; 2.0% quadriplegia; 2.9% unspecified; 60 males, 42 females, mean age 11 years 8 months (SD 3 y 3 mo, range 6-8 y), Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to IV (13.7% Level I 50% Level II 35.3% Level III 1% Level IV), had complete PODCI and SFA assessments. Significant relationships were noted among multiple PODCI subscales and subscales of the SFA, as well as among individual questions. PODCI predicted performance in all 31 subscales of the SFA when comorbidity subscales were included (r =0.35-0.64). The PODCI in-clinic questionnaire provides an accurate reflection of the child's actual participation in the community setting, as assessed by the SFA. PODCI can reliably be used to help ensure that outcomes assessed in the clinic setting reflect function within the community, and can be used to help with treatment planning, goal setting, and improved patient care. PMID:18754919
Gates, Philip E; Otsuka, Norman Y; Sanders, James O; McGee-Brown, Jeanie
The present study seeks to investigate the extent to which the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ-II) is successful in discriminating between experiential avoidance/psychological flexibility on the one hand and the supposed outcomes in terms of psychological well-being of having this trait on the other. This was done using exploratory factor analysis on an item pool containing the AAQ-II items, and items designed for the present study to measure distress and acceptance/non-acceptance, to see what factors are identified and on which factor(s) the AAQ-II items had the highest factor loadings. Interestingly, the analysis found the items of the AAQ-II to be more strongly related to items designed to measure distress than items designed to measure acceptance/nonacceptance with minimal references to functional outcomes. The results of the study are interpreted and discussed in relation to the widespread use of the AAQ in both clinical and scientific contexts and given the centrality of the measure in empirically validating the ACT model of psychopathology and treatment. PMID:25311291
Coping flexibility may be beneficial for the adjustment in the context of a progressive and unpredictable course of chronic rheumatic diseases. The aim of this study was to develop and initially validate a self-report measure that assesses coping flexibility. Study participants were 147 outpatients with chronic rheumatic diseases (73% women, mean age 59 (range 20-79) years). Principal axis factoring analysis with oblique rotation was applied and internal consistency was determined. To investigate the initial validity of the coping flexibility questionnaire (COFLEX), hypothesised correlations with psychological and physical adjustment outcomes, pain, and coping strategies were examined. Factor analysis yielded a two-factor model of coping flexibility with acceptable internal consistency: versatility, the capability of switching between assimilative and accommodative coping strategies according to personal goals and situational demands (? = .88) and reflective coping, the capability of generating and considering coping options, and appraising the suitability of a coping strategy in a given situation (? = .70). Versatility was correlated with adaptive ways of coping and psychological adjustment, but not with physical adjustment and pain. Reflective coping was correlated with both adaptive and maladaptive ways of coping, but it was not correlated with adjustment outcomes. In conclusion, the current study suggests acceptable internal consistency of the COFLEX. Preliminary evidence of the validity of the versatility dimension is indicated, while the validity of reflective coping could not be firmly established. The associations of versatility with favourable adjustment to the disease warrant future confirmatory and validity research in larger samples of patients with chronic rheumatic diseases. PMID:21660453
Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van Lankveld, Wim G J M; Eijsbouts, Agnes M M; van Helmond, Toon; Geenen, Rinie; van den Ende, Cornelia H M
Background: Studies have shown significant correlation between time to pregnancy (TTP) and pregnancy outcomes. But understanding of these mechanisms may not be facilitated. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between TTP and pregnancy outcome. Materials and Methods: This study was a case cohort study that was done in Shahid Beheshti Educational Hospital during 2006-2007. Women aged 18-35 years, who had only one pregnancy without using any contraception method before pregnancy and delivered their first child, were enrolled in this study. Thus, 801 women were selected and followed up for pregnancy outcome and TTP until the end of pregnancy. All the participants filled in a special questionnaire. Finally the collected data were entered into computer and analyzed by SPSS ver. 20 software. Results: The frequency distribution of TTP-based pregnancy outcome showed that TTP >48 weeks was higher in normal delivery than in abnormal delivery (5.6% vs. 19.4%). According to Chi-square test, the frequency distribution of pregnancy outcome was related to TTP (P < 0.001). Conclusion: According to the results of this study, there is a significant relationship between TTP and pregnancy outcome, and TTP may lead to unwanted complications such as ectopic pregnancy, preterm labor, and abortion. Thus, all women with a long time of contraception, especially in the rural areas, mast be controlled. PMID:25250289
Tehrani, Hatave Ghasemi; Allameh, Zahra Sadat; Mehrabi, Ali Koushki
Whereas reconstruction of the hypoplastic nose with rib grafting is common, the long-term outcomes of nasal growth and aesthetics are unknown. This study assessed nasal morphometrics, patient satisfaction, and the perception of nasal appearance by others up to 15 years after nasal reconstruction using cantilevered autogenous chondro-osseous rib grafting with rigid internal fixation in children. Records of all patients who received nasal rib grafts between 1983 and 1998 by one senior surgeon were reviewed. Patients in this study were operated on before their late teens and had greater than 1-year follow-up including serial photographic documentation. Nasal growth was determined by comparing anthropometric measurements preoperatively, perioperatively, and postoperatively. Patient satisfaction was determined through a questionnaire that addressed memory, donor-site morbidity, and nasal perception. Independent, blinded skilled observers who reviewed frontal and lateral photographs of the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative intervals assessed nasal aesthetics. Thirty-two patients who underwent 38 rib graft reconstructions of the nasal dorsum and tip at an average age of 8.8 years constitute the study population. Six patients underwent secondary augmentation. The average interval between initial nasal reconstruction and evaluation for this study was 7.9 years. Comparative anthropometric measurements before and after surgery documented increases in both tip projection (2.3 percent) and nasal length (3.0 percent) and a decrease in nasolabial angle (1.9 percent). Patient satisfaction interview response rate was 100 percent of those whom we were able to contact (28 of 32). The average age at interview was 17.2 years. Most patients recalled the operation and denied recollection of pain. Donor-site long-term morbidity was not an issue for 86 percent of patients. Sixty-four percent of patients remembered their preoperative nasal appearance and 89 percent of these preferred the postoperative change and were not concerned with nasal scars or texture. Almost two-thirds of the patients had fixation screws removed from the nasal dorsum because of skin erosion, easy palpability, or visibility. Although several patients expressed a desire to make minor additional changes to their nose, only one of these elected offered presurgical consultation and none have had such surgery. The postoperative nasal appearance compared with that preoperatively was rated as improved for 66.3 percent of responses, 26.5 percent as unchanged, and 7.2 percent as deteriorated. Cantilevered autogenous chondro-osseous rib graft reconstruction of the nasal dorsum is an effective means of reconstruction for the hypoplastic nose in childhood with respect to morphometric measurements, patient self-perception, and the assessment of nasal appearance by others. PMID:11743373
Gurley, J M; Pilgram, T; Perlyn, C A; Marsh, J L
Objective To compare the proportion of women with self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms at four months postpartum between mothers of singletons who conceived spontaneously and mothers who conceived with the aid of fertility treatment. Methods The sample used for this study was drawn from The “All Our Babies Study”, a community-based prospective cohort of 1654 pregnant women who received prenatal care in Calgary, Alberta. This analysis included women utilizing fertility treatment and a randomly selected 1:2 comparison group. The data was collected via three questionnaires, two of which were mailed to the participants during pregnancy and one at four months postpartum. Symptoms of depression and anxiety at four months postpartum were measured using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory. Secondary outcomes of parenting morale and perceived stress were also evaluated. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the population. Chi square tests and in cases of small cell sizes, Fisher Exact Tests were used to assess differences in postpartum mental health symptomatology between groups. Results Seventy-six participants (5.9%) conceived using a form of fertility treatment. At four months postpartum, no significant differences were observed in the proportions reporting excessive depression symptoms (2.6% vs. 5.3%, p?=?0.50), anxiety (8.1% vs. 16.9%, p?=?0.08) or high perceived stress scores (7.9% vs. 13.3%, p?=?0.23). Women who conceived with fertility treatment were less likely to score low on parenting morale compared to women who conceived spontaneously and this was particularly evident in primiparous women (12.5% vs. 33.8%, p?=?0.01). There were no group differences in proportions reporting low parenting morale in multiparous women. Conclusion This study suggests that at four months postpartum, the proportion of women who experience elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety or perceived stress do not differ between mothers who conceive using fertility treatment and those who conceive spontaneously. Parenting morale at four months postpartum is significantly lower in primiparous mothers conceiving spontaneously compared to those who conceive with fertility treatment. PMID:24581007
Burn injury affects all facets of life. Burn care has improved over time. Improved survival after burn injury has resulted in a shift in outcome measurement from inpatient morbidity and mortality to long-term functional and health-related quality-of-life measures. Integration of professionals from different disciplines has enabled burn centers to develop collaborative methods of assessing the quality of care delivered to patients with burns based on their ability to reintegrate into their normal physical, social, psychological, and functional activities. Burn outcomes will continue to develop on the foundation that has been built and will generate evidence-based best practices in the future. PMID:25085096
Palmieri, Tina L; Przkora, Rene; Meyer, Walter J; Carrougher, Gretchen J
SUMMARY. Outcomes management is important for quality assurance purposes. Issues of reliability and validity are central to determining appropriate outcomes tools. Outcomes can be used to measure progress in three critical areas of patient management: pain relief, physical capacity (impairment), and disability. Outcomes can be obtained inexpensively and in a time-efficient manner. This article reviews the most valuable outcomes tools for a small, private practice and how they can be implemented into patient care. Copyright 1997 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. PMID:11485356
Liebenson, C.; Yeomans, S.
Objective A review of the peri-operative risk associated with hepatic resection in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and identification of measures for the improvement of cardiometabolic disturbances and liver-related mortality. Background MetS and its hepatic manifestation non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with an increased operative mortality in spite of a significant improvement in peri-operative outcome after hepatic resection. Methods A review of the English literature on MetS, liver resection and steatosis was performed from 1980 to 2011 using the MEDLINE and PubMed databases. Results MetS is a predictor of NAFLD and patients with multiple metabolic risk factors may harbour non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) predictive of operative and cardiovascular mortality. Pre-operative diagnosis of unsuspected NASH with the selective use of a liver biopsy can modify the operative strategy by limiting the extent of hepatic resection, avoiding or altering the pre-operative chemotherapy regimen and the utilization of portal vein embolization. Thiazolidinediones are therapeutic for MetS and NASH and Vitamin E for active NASH; however, their utility in improving the peri-operative outcome after hepatic resection is unknown. A short-term regimen for weight loss improves post-operative patient and liver-related outcomes in patients with >30% steatosis. Cardiovascular disease associated with MetS or NAFLD should be managed aggressively. Peri-operative measures to minimize thrombotic events and acute renal injury secondary to the pro-inflammatory, prothrombotic state of MetS may further improve the outcome. Conclusion Potential candidates for hepatic resection should be screened for MetS as the pre-operative identification of NASH, short-term treatment of significant steatosis, cardiovascular risk assessment and optimization of each component of MetS may improve the peri-operative outcome in this high-risk subset of patients. PMID:2208191