Sample records for questions faqs epidemiology

  1. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Lymphatic Filariasis Parasites Home Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) On ... develop clinical symptoms, despite the fact that the parasite damages the lymph system. A small percentage of ...

  2. FAQ IRB questions (includes SPE

    Cancer.gov

    The most recent Investigator’s Brochure (IB) will provide a good estimate of known adverse event inci-dence (see the FAQ on how to receive an IB), and some CAEPRs (included in the protocol docu-ment) do, too.

  3. Question Answering from FrequentlyAsked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System

    E-print Network

    Burke, Robin

    Question Answering from Frequently­Asked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System, Noriko Tomuro, & Scott Schoenberg School of Computer Science, DePaul University 243 S. Wabash, Chicago -- not for citation Abstract This paper describes FAQ Finder, a natural language question­answering system that uses

  4. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline The University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline is NOT a 911 or Emergency Service. Reports submitted through the Anonymous Reporting Hotline may not receive an immediate response. If you require emergency

  5. Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

  6. Accelerated hypofractionated breast radiotherapy: FAQs (frequently asked questions) and facts.

    PubMed

    Montero, Angel; Sanz, Xavier; Hernanz, Raul; Cabrera, Dolores; Arenas, Meritxell; Bayo, Eloisa; Moreno, Ferran; Algara, Manel

    2014-08-01

    The demand for breast cancer care has increased as cancer treatment innovations have proliferated. Adjuvant radiotherapy to the breast is considered to be part of the standard treatment in breast cancer. The role of radiotherapy in terms of reducing loco-regional recurrence and increased survival after conservative surgery, and also after a mastectomy in selected cases, has been previously shown in several randomized trials. Patterns of radiotherapy commonly used for breast cancer comprise a period of approximately five weeks, frequently with the addition of an additional 1-1.5 weeks of a radiation boost to the primary tumour area. In last years, there has been a renewed interest in hypofractionated and accelerated radiotherapy schedules that reduce the overall treatment time to barely three weeks, leading to an improvement in quality of life for patients and also optimizing workload of radiation oncology departments. However, despite the existing evidence supporting the use of hypofractionated treatment regimens, their widespread is still far from complete. Many questions have generated resistance among clinical oncologists for their regular use. The aim of this review is to answer those questions that may arise with the use of moderate hypofractionation in breast cancer. PMID:24530095

  7. Fish FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

  8. Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing

    MedlinePLUS

    Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

  9. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  10. Bad Coriolis FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alistair Fraser

    This set of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) is written in response to questions from readers of the Bad Meteorology pages. Although the questions presented here are often ones asked by a specific person, each is chosen to characterize a group of similar questions which have been asked about the topic. The questions and answers printed here all center around the topic of the Coriolis effect.

  11. FAQ finder: a case-based approach to knowledge navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hammond; R. Burke; C. Martin; S. Lytinen

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss a class of systems, called FAQ FINDER systems, that use a natural language question-based interface to distributed information sources, specifically files organized as question\\/answer pairs such as FAQ files. In using these systems, users enter question in natural language and the system attempts answer that question, using FAQ files as a resource. We combined

  12. Agricultural biotechnology FAQs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

    2003-01-01

    This resource from the U.S. Department of Agriculture list a number of frequently asked questions regarding biotechnology. The FAQs addresses questions related to defining biotechnology, biotechnology helping farmers and consumers, public dialogue and exchange of information on biotechnology, federal agencies that regulate biotechnology, testing a biotechnology derived plant, commercial production of a biotechnology derived plant, exposure of biotech crops, the role of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), and trade issues with biotechnology. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

  13. Giardiasis Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with giardiasis People who drink water or use ice made from places where Giardia may live (for example, untreated or improperly treated water from lakes, streams, or wells) Backpackers, hikers, and campers who ...

  14. Analysis on the move: deconstructing troublesome health questions and troubling epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, M

    2000-03-01

    Qualitative research gets close to experiences of pain, illness, and disease; consequently, qualitative researchers often find themselves asked troublesome questions (i.e., laypeople ask for practical, helpful answers to their everyday illness concerns). This is not surprising, but of interest is the fact that academics ask each other such troublesome questions as part of academic discourse. When academics ask such questions, they may sometimes be after practical information, but they may also be using the questioning as an attack on the supposed excessive relativism of social constructionism. Three key analytical moves that offer a useful deconstruction of troublesome health questions are outlined, showing that they are another useful topic of constructionist inquiry. To lessen abstraction, these moves are brought to bear on a case study of a possible connection between pesticide use and birth defects, thus showing how social science and epidemiology can be connected, troubled, and extended in the process. PMID:10788280

  15. MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/faq/criteria.html Question: How do Web sites get listed in MedlinePlus? To use the ... authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web sites. We try to ensure that the information ...

  16. FAQ Nurse practitions physician

    Cancer.gov

    September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

  17. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease is a great drain on many national economies. Since many countries with malaria are already among ... be said to involve both population size and economic development of an area in which there is ...

  18. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hours if it did not feed on human blood. However, although rarely necessary, some experts recommend that items that may be contaminated by an infested person and that cannot be laundered or dry-cleaned should be sealed in plastic bag and stored for 2 weeks to kill any ...

  19. State Cancer Profiles Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Cancer.gov

    Coping with Cancer for information about complications of cancer and its treatment, as well as information on treatment-related nutritional concerns, supportive care clinical trials, and end-of-life issues.

  20. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... detected in all lower 48 states (not in Hawaii or Alaska). Outbreaks have been occurring every summer ... that have not reported cases are Alaska and Hawaii. Seasonal outbreaks often occur in local areas that ...

  1. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the environment. How much should I drink during hot weather? During hot weather you will need to ... more fluid. Should I take salt tablets during hot weather? Do not take salt tablets unless directed ...

  2. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  3. MedlinePlus FAQ: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mobile.html Question: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device? To use the sharing features on this page, ... Some video content might not play on your mobile device. See our FAQ on playing videos on phones ...

  4. MedlinePlus FAQ: Information on Doctors or Hospitals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... faq/doctors.html Question: Where can I find information on doctors or hospitals? To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Many health topic ... of information about physicians, other health professionals, and health facilities. ...

  5. UML Semantics FAQ Stuart Kent, Andy Evans, and Bernhard Rumpe

    E-print Network

    Wieringa, Roel

    UML Semantics FAQ Stuart Kent, Andy Evans, and Bernhard Rumpe pUML@york.cs.ac.uk WWW home page for the Unified Modelling Lan- guage. Questions examined the meaning of the term semantics in the context of UML semantics; and some of the outstanding problems for defining a semantics for all of UML. Introduction

  6. Just the FAQs: An Alternative to Teaching the Research Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James

    2004-01-01

    Changing the form of the traditional research paper often results in a greater emphasis on inquiry or FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). An alternative form of presentation that capitalizes on available technology and requires students to develop their thinking, reading, writing and presentation skills is presented.

  7. Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links ... Are there specific disorders or conditions associated with Fragile X syndrome? Among the other conditions associated with Fragile X ...

  8. FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ?????? ????? HO? GELD?N?Z FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence in popularity. ... Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink into the ...

  9. DICK'S HOUSE Questions and answers to frequently

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    DICK'S HOUSE FAQ Questions and answers to frequently asked questions at the Geisel School of Medicine Always identify yourself as a Geisel student when you contact Dick's House!! Updated: December 2013 #12;Dick's House FAQ Contents How do I find what I need quickly in this document? 2 Mental Health

  10. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

  11. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions I gave my dog ...

  12. Bad Clouds FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alistair Fraser

    The answers on this page were written in response to questions from readers of the Bad Meteorology pages. Although the questions presented here are often ones asked by a specific person, each is chosen to characterize a group of similar questions which have been asked about the topic. Topics include: the vapor-holding capacity of air, reasoning and prediction, relative humidity, and boiling point.

  13. The Online Tornado FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roger Edwards

    2009-12-31

    This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

  14. The Online Tornado FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roger Edwards

    This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

  15. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  16. Relocation Frequently Asked Questions General Questions

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Lagoyda, New Mexico Operations Business Manager and Allen Lewis. Skip can be reached at 575 to acquaint you with the relocation processes at the NRAO. This collection of frequently asked questions (FAQs for additional guidance. Contacts Who is my contact for arranging a household relocation? For Green Bank

  17. The Cockroach FAQ.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    More than 75 frequently asked questions about cockroaches are here answered expertly by University of Massachusetts Amherst biologist Joseph Kunkel. Everything from how to determine the gender of roaches to why they sometimes die on their backs is authoritatively answered. From this page, one also can link to the cockroach home page, which includes much additional information about cockroaches.

  18. The Carnivorous Plant FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meyers-Rice, Barry.

    Provided by Barry Meyers-Rice, carnivorous plant enthusiast and team member of The Nature Conservancy's Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, this site offers answers to many questions about carnivorous plants. Although the majority of content targets the (deservedly) gee-whiz aspects of these plants that "attract, capture, kill, and digest animal life forms," several sections will be of interest to educators and researchers. Carnivorous Plant Taxonomy covers relationships among genera and families; Carnivorous Plant Genera provides text and color photos on genera from Aldrovanda (Waterwheel Plants) to Utricularia (Bladderworts); and Carnivorous Plants and Conservation offers information on the threats to these plants and efforts to protect them. A selection of related links rounds out the site.

  19. The Canadian Nuclear FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whitlock, Jeremy

    1996-04-24

    This highly pro-nuclear website offers information not only about nuclear energy in Canada, but about this controversial energy resource more generally. Start with the Introduction and Disclaimer, where Dr. Jeremy Whitlock, the author of the site and a reactor physicist at an Ottawa Valley nuclear power plant, explains the purpose and limitations of the site. Then have a look at the dozens of questions Dr. Whitlock answers with erudite â?? and opinionated â?? precision, covering such broad topics as Cost and Benefits, Safety and Liability, Waste Management, and Security and Non-Proliferation. Also, take a look at the excellent Links and Further Information pages, as well as the Editorials page, which features dozens of pro-nuclear missives. In all, interested readers will find this page well argued and informative.

  20. question_1411052731 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    This question is epidemiologic but prevention is better than cure. Since both ovarian low and high grade serous carcinomas originate from the distal fallopian tube, wouldn’t (large- scale) snipping of the fimbrial end of both tubes at the time of tubectomy (with informed consent) prevent the majority of serous carcinomas developing over time?

  1. Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Alcohol and Public Health Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Alcohol & Public Health Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Fact Sheets Age 21 ...

  2. Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Response Network Biorisk Reduction Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease May 2015 FAQs from August 2014 ... based on recent evidence. For more information on Ebola virus disease Fact sheet on Ebola virus disease ...

  3. MedlinePlus FAQ: What's New on Medline Plus Page and Email Updates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... faq/whatsnew.html Question: How is the What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed different from ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed include alerts ...

  4. FAQs

    Cancer.gov

    The DCIDE program is intended to supply or enable missing steps to those who lack development capacity or resources so that promising discoveries may eventually be translated to the clinical research environment. The DCIDE program will focus on promising diagnostic agents that are not otherwise likely to undergo adequate pre-clinical testing to warrant an IND application.

  5. FAQ Used commercial drug or vic

    Cancer.gov

    September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

  6. Contraception and Birth Control: Other FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Contraception and Birth Control: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links ... choose a method of contraception? The choice of birth control depends on many factors. Before deciding on a ...

  7. FAQs of Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pregnancy Loss: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media ... anything a woman can do to prevent a pregnancy loss? Most of the time, a woman cannot ...

  8. FAQ Lost shipment or missing dr

    Cancer.gov

    September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

  9. Frequently asked questions about the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Felder

    This website presents frequently asked questions (FAQ's) about the Inventory of Learning Styles, a tool designed to identify students' preferred methods of learning and to help to improve their learning skills.

  10. Web Search Engines FAQS: Questions, Answers, and Issues

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Price, Gary.

    The October issue of Searcher magazine offers this article by Gary Price, Web searcher extraordinaire (see the October 3, 1997 Scout Report). The article, which "reviews the latest goings on in the search world and tries to provide some suggestions and tools to make you more knowledgeable and save you some time," is, as one might expect from Price, clear and detailed in its review of the latest in search engines and the like. Running down the side of the page are "Price's Priceless Tips," including Ten Things to Know about Google (AllTheWeb, Altavista, etc.) and information on new search tools. There is a wealth of useful information here.

  11. CAMP FAQ's What is Hi-GEAR?

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    CAMP FAQ's What is Hi-GEAR? High School Girls' Engineering to offer our Annual Hi - GEAR Program, a special week-long event for female high school students. Hi-GEAR will be held June 16­20, 2014 from 9:00 am until 4

  12. Invited commentary: is prenatal fasting during Ramadan related to adult health outcomes? A novel and important question for epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Susser, Ezra; Ananth, Cande V

    2013-04-15

    In this issue of the Journal, Van Ewijk et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(8):729-736) report intriguing associations between prenatal exposure to the religious month of Ramadan and body anthropometry among adult Muslims in Indonesia. They categorized prenatal exposure according to the relative timing of Ramadan and the individual's birth date. Because the data were derived from a study of adults, they could not determine whether an individual's mother had fasted during Ramadan or not. Therefore, they used an intention-to-treat analysis to compare the outcomes for groups categorized as unexposed with the outcomes for groups categorized as exposed during specified periods of gestation. Periconceptional exposure to Ramadan was associated with a 0.8-cm reduction in average adult height. Exposure in mid- or late gestation was associated with slightly lower adult weight. We address 5 questions raised by this study: 1) Can Ramadan fasting be considered a mild form of acute starvation?; 2) Are the findings consistent with other knowledge about prenatal nutrition and offspring outcomes?; 3) Are there other explanations for the associations that were found?; 4) Are the results internally coherent and robust enough to support the 2 main findings?; and 5) What strategies could be used to further advance this important field of research? PMID:23486310

  13. Accessing the Internet by E-mail FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Boyd, Gerald E.

    Gerald Boyd has spent much time learning the internal syntax of web search engines. He has made the fruits of his labor available at an ftp site. Interested Internauts can download FAQs on how to query fifteen generic and eight specialty search engines by email. Included are Alta Vista, Excite, Inktomi, Yahoo, Infoseek, OKRA, Open Text, SwitchBoard, TheList, and others. Also included is a FAQ on how to use an Agora Server to use the web by email. See the Scout Report for March 8, 1996 for more on Agora. The FAQs are of greatest use to those without a web connection, but are also interesting to anyone who is intrigued by the intricacies of search engines. Users should download wsintro.faq (table of contents of FAQs), wscrack.faq (basic strategy for figuring out how to query search indexes via email) and wshelp.faq (Agora help file) before any others. For those who would like to download everything at once, wssearch.zip contains all of the files. Note that while these files are fairly technical, they are very useful for those who need such Internet access.

  14. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Blood Screening FAQs On This Page Why are blood ... be concerned about getting Chagas disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission ...

  15. FAQs about Hepatitis B Vaccine (Hep B) and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Not Get This Vaccine Vaccine Precautions FAQs about Hepatitis B Vaccine (Hep B) and Multiple Sclerosis On this Page ... been done to examine the suggested association between hepatitis B vaccine and neurological disorders? CDC and the National Institutes ...

  16. question_1412830344 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  17. question_1410865099 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  18. question_1414049861 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  19. question_1412590509 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  20. question_1410251969 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  1. question_1410689941 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  2. question_1298942394 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1298942394 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  3. question_1302099820 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1302099820 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  4. question_1337052960 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1337052960 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  5. question_1297533065 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297533065 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  6. question_1309291860 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1309291860 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  7. question_1309209288 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1309209288 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  8. question_1297191134 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297191134 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  9. question_1302015319 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1302015319 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  10. question_1296057192 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296057192 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  11. question_1296826774 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296826774 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  12. question_1296786566 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296786566 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  13. question_1333398119 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1333398119 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  14. question_1296850328 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296850328 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  15. question_1297435384 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297435384 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  16. Social Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarani Chandola; Michael Marmot

    Social epidemiology has been defined as the branch of epidemiology that studies the social distribution and social determinants\\u000a of health (Berkman and Kawachi 2000). As all aspects of human life are inextricably bound within the context of social relations,\\u000a every conceivable epidemiological exposure is related to social factors. In this broad sense, all epidemiology is social epidemiology\\u000a (Kaufman and Cooper

  17. Urbana-Champaign Chicago Springfield FAQ ID # 117

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Urbana-Champaign · Chicago · Springfield FAQ ID # 117 esri offline mac address Last Update : 2010 now like to switch to using the MAC address of my computer but my comp on the USB key. How do I fix/. Also remove the MAC_ADDRESS= from the SERVER line if it is still there. 4. Reboot your computer 5. Make

  18. Transfer Student FAQs New Jersey Institute of Technology

    E-print Network

    Bieber, Michael

    TM Xxxx Transfer Student FAQs New Jersey Institute of Technology #12;HOW WILL I REGISTER.njit.edu/admissions/undergrad/ applying/transfers/communitycolleges.php NJIT AT A GLANCE · New Jersey's Science and Technology University bill. WHAT GRADE DO I NEED TO RECEIVE IN ORDER TO RECEIVE TRANSFER CREDIT? Generally, college level

  19. FAQ: Earthquakes, Faults, Plate Tectonics, Earth Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This frequently-asked-questions feature provides answers about earthquakes, faults, plate tectonics, and earth structure. Maps and diagrams are provided with some answers, and links to additional information and to related topics are included.

  20. question_1411972022 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

  1. question_1411972090 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

  2. Black Holes: From Here to Infinity FAQ

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    Black Holes: From Here to Infinity is a 6-page illustrated brochure that answers the eight most frequently asked questions about black holes. It was developed by the Education and Public Outreach group at Sonoma State University, with funding from the EXIST mission concept study and the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission. It is available in both English and Spanish and is part of the “Black Holes” suite of materials that accompany the PBS NOVA show “Monster of the Milky Way” and the planetarium show “Black Holes: the Other Side of Infinity.”

  3. question_1410159378 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Looking at cell to cell differences within a tumor bed, contributed by either DNA mutations, epigenetic or post-translational modifications (PTM) or miRNA mediated control switches or even a combination of all these, the question rise how to best design a personalized drug trial?

  4. Environmental Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

  5. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol J. Boushey

    Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

  6. SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS General Questions

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    SAMPLE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS General Questions Tell me a little about yourself / describe yourself to Binghamton? Behavioral Questions Do you anticipate problems or do you react to them? How do you go about? What are some important values that you live by? Creative Questions What does success mean to you

  7. 75 FR 62502 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Information for Self-Certification Under FAQ 6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...FAQ 6 of the United States--European Union Safe Harbor Privacy Framework...Abstract In response to the European Union Directive on Data Protection that...bridges the differences between the European Union (EU) and U.S....

  8. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  9. [Epidemiological approach to mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Brochard, P

    1997-06-15

    Mesothelioma, the primitive cancer of pleura, peritoneum or pericardium, is a tumor for which many etiologic studies have been conducted, because of close relations with environment. If asbestos remains the essential risk factor, many uncertainties persist on extent of phenomena in next decades. Furthermore, emergence of new etiologies, confirmed on human (erionite, ionizing radiations) or only suspected in experimentation (some biopersistent synthetic fibers, some virus as the SV40), ask new questions which are susceptible to modify our view of mesothelioma epidemiology. PMID:9248100

  10. Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices for Occupational and Environmental Epidemiologic Research. The Chemical Manufacturers Association's Epidemiology Task Group.

    PubMed

    1991-12-01

    The Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices (GEPs) for Occupational and Environmental Epidemiologic Research address the conduct of studies generally undertaken to answer questions about human health in relationship to the work place or the environment. The GEPs propose minimum practices and procedures that should be considered to help ensure the quality and integrity of data used in epidemiologic research and to provide adequate documentation of the research methods. The GEPs address the process of conducting individual epidemiologic studies and do not prescribe specific research methods. The Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices propose minimum practices and procedures in the following areas: I. Organization and Personnel II. Facilities, Resource Commitment, and Contractors III. Protocol IV. Review and Approval V. Study Conduct VI. Communication VII. Archiving VIII. Quality Assurance Although the Guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practices will not guarantee good epidemiology, they do provide a useful framework for ensuring that all research issues are adequately addressed. This framework is proposed as a first step in improving epidemiologic research practices through adherence to sound scientific research principles. Appendices provide an overview of standard operating procedures, a glossary of terms used in the Guidelines, and suggested references on occupational epidemiology methods. PMID:1800677

  11. Fermi questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouffard, Karen

    1999-05-01

    This column contains problems and solutions for the general category of questions known as "Fermi" questions. Forcing the students to use their ability to estimate, giving answers in terms of order-of-magnitude, is not only a challenge for a competition, but a teaching strategy to use in the classroom to develop self-confidence and the ability to analyze answers as to whether or not they make sense, as opposed to relying on the "precision" of a calculator value.

  12. [Tuberculosis epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015. PMID:25131367

  13. "The" Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular language.…

  14. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  15. [Clinical epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ohyashiki, K

    2001-12-01

    Although the exact incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia(CML) in Japan is obscure, the occurrence rate of CML is approximately 15% of all leukemia patients in Japan, and thus about 5/100,000 cases appeared per year. This incidence of CML seems to be lower that that of Caucasian, but the incidence of CML patients in Japan may increase gradually. Molecular investigation in CML disclosed the exact mechanism of t(9; 22) anomaly, thus providing appropriate classification for chronic myeloid leukemia. From the etiological aspect, it is well documented that exposure to atomic bomb at Nagasaki and Hiroshima actually induced CML, however, factors other than irradiation are still obscure. Recent spread of annual examination pick up some CML patients at the early phase and the disease severity might be thus different from those of previous CML patients. For example, currently diagnosed CML patients usually lack palpable splenomegaly and some of them had normal karyotypes in addition to Ph-cells in the bone marrow at the time of CML diagnosis. These findings indicate that epidemiological aspect in CML patients might be changing. PMID:11766349

  16. USING ADOBE INDESIGN FOR RESEARCH POSTERS FAQ: IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW BEFORE YOU BEGIN

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    USING ADOBE INDESIGN FOR RESEARCH POSTERS FAQ: IMPORTANT THINGS TO KNOW BEFORE YOU BEGIN What is In other functions. It's used to make posters, flyers and brochures in the department, and to produce ADOBE INDESIGN FOR RESEARCH POSTERS Last Updated August 2010 using Adobe InDesign CS5 for Mac COMPILED

  17. CONFERENCES JOURNALS BOOKS RESEARCH INDEXING FAQ E-LIBRARY HOME Call For Papers

    E-print Network

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    CONFERENCES JOURNALS BOOKS RESEARCH INDEXING FAQ E-LIBRARY HOME Main Page Call For Papers Location Conferences... Urgent News ... Learn the recent news of the WSEAS ... The 6th WSEAS International Conference on Environment and Development, WSEAS Transactions on Biology and Biomedicine, WSEAS Transactions on Systems

  18. Subscriber: Princeton University Library | Sign In as Individual | FAQ | Access Rights | Join AAAS 31 January 2003

    E-print Network

    Subscriber: Princeton University Library | Sign In as Individual | FAQ | Access Rights | Join AAAS of Energy make it public, we can all be sure that they are committed, and we are happy," says Bernd Kramer trap that ITER will make obsolete. Taking the tour. Subscriber: Princeton University Library | Sign

  19. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

  20. Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

  1. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... States Geography Seasonality Persons at risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Anaplasmosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Anaplasmosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...

  2. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Persons at risk Other Ehrlichiosis, Undetermined Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Ehrlichiosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Ehrlichiosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...

  3. Epidemiology, Health Literacy, and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark A.; Huebner, Wendy W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework for teaching epidemiology to middle school students. The curriculum, "Detectives in the Classroom," addresses five essential questions: 'Why Are Some People Getting Sick While Others Remain Healthy?;''Is There an Association between the Hypothesized Cause and the Disease?;''Is This Association Causal?;''What Should Be Done…

  4. Social sensing for epidemiological behavior change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anmol Madan; Manuel Cebrián; David Lazer; Alex Pentland

    2010-01-01

    An important question in behavioral epidemiology and public health is to understand how individual behavior is affected by illness and stress. Although changes in individual behavior are intertwined with contagion, epidemiologists today do not have sensing or modeling tools to quantitatively measure its effects in real-world conditions. In this paper, we propose a novel application of ubiquitous computing. We use

  5. The Department of Epidemiology and

    E-print Network

    of Epidemiologic Studies and Clinical Trials 3 EPI 815 Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease, or EPI 823 Cancer Nutritional Epidemiology EPI 815 Cardiovascular Epidemiology EPI 816 Perinatal Epidemiology EPI 819 Spatial Epidemiology EPI 820 Evidence-based Medicine (currently offered as Independent Study*) EPI 823 Cancer

  6. The FIRST-APM QSO survey (FAQS) in the SBS Region. Preliminary Results

    E-print Network

    V. H. Chavushyan; R. Mújica; L. Carrasco; J. R. Valdés; O. V. Verkhodanov; J. Stepanian

    2000-10-25

    The main goal of the FIRST-APM QSO Survey (FAQS) survey is to compile the most complete sample of Bright QSOs, located in the area covered by the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). Here we report the first results of an ongoing study based on the cross-identification of the FIRST radio catalog and the APM optical catalog. The overlapping sky area between FIRST and SBS is about 700 deg$^{2}$. The compiled list of sources for this overlapping region contains $\\sim 400$ quasar candidates brighter than $B=18\\fm5$. About 90 objects were already spectroscopically classified. During 1999-2000, we observed spectroscopically more than 150 FAQS objects with the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory (GHO).We have found 51 new QSOs (4 BAL QSOs), 13 Seyfert Galaxies (5 NLSy1's), 23 emission line galaxies, 3 BL Lac objects and 57 stars.

  7. Transsexualism and Gender Transition FAQ for Significant Others, Friends, Family, Employers, Coworkers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This FAQ, written by members of the Mid-Michigan FTM (female-to-male) Alliance, offers general information about transsexualism and gender transition, and addresses the common responses and concerns that friends, family, and co-workers have about the transgendered person in their lives. An annotated webliography of relevant resources and a bibliography about transsexualism guide users to additional information. A text-only version of the entire site is available to facilitate printing.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights

    PubMed Central

    Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia E.; Bifani, Pablo J.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis (TB) have focused largely on utilizing molecular techniques to address short- and long-term epidemiologic questions, such as in outbreak investigations and in assessing the global dissemination of strains, respectively. This is done primarily by examining the extent of genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When molecular methods are used in conjunction with classical epidemiology, their utility for TB control has been realized. For instance, molecular epidemiologic studies have added much-needed accuracy and precision in describing transmission dynamics, and they have facilitated investigation of previously unresolved issues, such as estimates of recent-versus-reactive disease and the extent of exogenous reinfection. In addition, there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters (lineages) may differ in virulence, pathogenesis, and epidemiologic characteristics, all of which may significantly impact TB control and vaccine development strategies. Here, we review the current methods, concepts, and applications of molecular approaches used to better understand the epidemiology of TB. PMID:17041139

  9. Questions? Search for a student FAQ, contact studentHQ or call 1300 368 777. SWINBURNE SUPPORT SERVICES

    E-print Network

    Liley, David

    and Wellbeing Equity Finance Disability Student Development and Counselling Housing Childcare Facilities campuses. There is no charge for these services, however, occasional costs may apply at the Health Service at low cost (medical consultations) or no cost, in a strictly confidential manner. Assistance

  10. 1156 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    1156 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology Spatial Analysis of Phytophthora infestans Genotypes and Late and geographic information systems. Phytopathology 91:1156-1165. Genetic structure of Phytophthora infestans

  11. Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296761243 Hecht, Toby Pose a

  12. Qian, Yong — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297533065 Qian, Yong Pose a

  13. Pagel, Mark — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297191134 Pagel, Mark Pose a

  14. Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1295994802 Griguer, Corinne Pose

  15. INITIAL DIVISION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY REPORT

    E-print Network

    INITIAL DIVISION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY REPORT THROUGH AUGUST 2013 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Contents Division of Epidemiology: Key Functions and Responsibilities_______________________________________ 2 Epidemiology Data Resource Center: Key Functions and Responsibilities __________________________ 3 Funding

  16. Scientific Computing FAQ: S.C., Numerical Analysis, and Associated Fields Resource Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Numerical Analysis (NA) is the union of theoretical and computational investigation into the computer solution of mathematical problems, including linear algebra, statistics, and operations research. The Scientific Computing FAQ metasite lists and links to resources such as electronic texts and software catalogs for NA and related fields in scientific computing. Examples of topics covered include Dense Linear Algebra Systems, Stochastic Differential Equations, and Random Numer Generators (RNG's), among others. The site is provided by Mathcom Solutions, Inc., a consulting business for the fields of finance, engineering, and operations.

  17. [Epidemiology and heterogeny].

    PubMed

    Breilh, J; Granda, E

    1989-01-01

    The innovation of epidemiology plays a crucial role in the development of the health sciences. The authors emphasize the importance of epistemological analysis related to scientific and technical production. They focus on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the principal Latin American groups in the field of epidemiology, stating their main accomplishments, issues and potentials. When reviewing those conceptual and practical innovations, the authors analyse the effects of broader historical conditions on scientific work. To them, Latin American contemporary innovative epidemiological research and production have developed clearly differentiated principles, methods and technical projections which have led to a movement of critical or 'social' epidemiology. The functionalist approach of conventional epidemiology, characterized by an empiricist viewpoint, is being overcome by a more rigorous and analytical approach. This new epidemiological approach, in which the authors as members of CEAS (Health Research and Advisory Center) are working, has selectively incorporated some of the technical instruments of conventional epidemiology, subordinating them to a different theoretical and logical paradigm. The new framework of this group explains the need to consider the people's objective situation and necessities, when constructing scientific interpretations and planning technical action. In order to accomplish this goal, epidemiological reasoning has to reflect the unity of external epidemiological facts and associations, the so-called phenomenological aspect of health, with the underlying determinants and conditioning processes or internal relations, which are the essence of the health-disease production and distribution process. Epidemiological analysis is considered not only as a problem of empirical observation but as a process of theoretical construction, in which there is a dynamic fusion of deductive and inductive reasoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2660269

  18. 2-4-2011 PQ Summary — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Twenty-six cancer researchers assembled at the Stone House on the NIH campus on February 4, 2011 for the NCI Behavioral, Population, Epidemiology, and Prevention Provocative Questions workshop. The participants were invited by the project's organizers to craft a list of interesting questions that might highlight potential new research directions among NCI-supported investigators or reinvigorate research in important areas that have been neglected, and to discuss and evaluate some of the questions submitted by the participants prior to the workshop.

  19. Epidemiology: Understanding Disease Spread

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marion Fass (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Factors that influence disease spread throughout populations can be explored with the program Epidemiology. Both population and disease characteristics can be modeled over different time periods. The Susceptible- Infected- Recovered (SIR) model enables us to make predictions based on significant variables such as the flow of new susceptibles in to the population, transmission rates, disease deaths, and the duration of the disease. Ebola is used as a model organism and epidemiology is presented from both a microbiological and social perspective. * build epidemiological models of different diseases, design strategies for disease control, and test the effectiveness of these strategies on virtual populations

  20. Women Veterans Health Care: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Care » Program Overview » Outreach Materials » FAQs Women Veterans Health Care Menu Menu Womens Health Women Veterans Health Care ... Who can I call for more help? What health care services are available to women Veterans? A full ...

  1. Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to physical and chemical agents; nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious agents.

  2. 1188 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    1188 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Genetic Structure of Phytophthora infestans from tomato and potato in the Del Fuerte Valley. Phytopathology 90:1188-1195. The temporal

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  4. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  5. Licensing Information & FAQs Social Work is a licensed profession with an entry level post-MSW license, the LGSW (Licensed

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    Licensing Information & FAQs Social Work is a licensed profession with an entry level post that is mailed to the Maryland Board of Social Work Examiners. Note: If you wish to receive such a letter, submit Application packets are obtained from the Maryland Board of Social Work Examiners at http

  6. FAQs about the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities Site Visit Program What is the purpose of the site visit program?

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    FAQs about the NIH Office of Biotechnology Activities Site Visit Program General What at enhancing compliance with the NIH Guidelinesfor Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines). The aim of the site visits is to enhance institutional awareness of the requirements of the NIH Guidelines

  7. Open access: CC-BY licence required for all articles which incur an open access publication fee -FAQ

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Open access: CC-BY licence required for all articles which incur an open access publication fee - FAQ In June 2012 the Wellcome Trust announced its intention to modify its open access policy, such that whenever the Trust funds the open access publishing fee for a research article (also known as an Article

  8. Campus Telephone Carrier Change FAQ's On Monday November 25, 2013 the telephone services carrier for the campus will be changing.

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Campus Telephone Carrier Change FAQ's On Monday November 25, 2013 the telephone services carrier for the campus will be changing. This process involves the transitioning of telephone numbers from AT&T to CENIC/Level3. The project involves a two-step process: 1) Porting the telephone numbers (change of carrier

  9. Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Chinn; Aziz Sheikh

    Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations,\\u000a and the application of this study to the control of health problems [1]. Epidemiological measures of interest for anaphylaxis\\u000a include the incidence, incidence rate, lifetime prevalence of its occurrence and case fatality rate (Box 1). Other aspects\\u000a of interest concern features of persons

  10. Study Questions for Geophysics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Slaymaker

    This website hosts over fifty practice questions relating geophysics. Topics covered in these questions include gravity, earthquake waves and seismicity, Earth's structure, geochronology, anomalies, viscosity, and polar wandering.

  11. Question the Author

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-16

    This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

  12. Drawing on Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Examines observations and research on question-answer interaction between client and therapist, and teacher and student. Discusses Patton's six-question instrument which provides categories of question options, with application for the art therapist. Argues that effective formulation of questions provides the clinician, educator, and researcher…

  13. Closing Panel Question & Answer

    E-print Network

    Moore, Paul A.

    N E X T #12;Closing Panel Question & Answer REDDIN SYMPOSIUM XXI CANADIAN STUDIES"Unsecure"World Question and Answer Inuit Rights and Responsibilities in the Changing North Question & Answer Environmental to translate science into public policy. 1 #12;Closing Panel Question & Answer REDDIN SYMPOSIUM XXI CANADIAN

  14. Who Asks the Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey, Sheena

    2006-01-01

    From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…

  15. Any Questions, Please?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses the use of questioning in the college classroom and its contribution to learning. Starting with a brief examination of the ways children question, discussions cover: (1) the effects of linguistic and socio-linguistic characteristics in questioning; (2) questions in psychotherapy, law, and opinion polling; (3) classroom…

  16. Infertility FAQ's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with unexplained infertility. What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)? Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes all fertility treatments ... of Page How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful? Success rates vary and depend on many ...

  17. Caregiver FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... functioning, such as problem solving, abstract thinking, and reasoning, while Alzheimer's features a predominant decline in memory. ... are still several years from being ready for clinical use. My father passed away from DLB, or ...

  18. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... count (thrombocytopenia). How common is leishmaniasis in the world? The number of new cases per year is ... million (400,000). In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found? In the Old World (the ...

  19. Catastrophism FAQs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Talk.Origins Archive

    This site is devoted to refuting the pseudo-scientific theory of catastrophism, which claims that only catastrophic events are responsible for changing the Earth's surface. Scientific evidence is used to counter evidence that the young-Earth theory (catastrophism) is plausible.

  20. TES FAQ

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-14

    ... to observe volcanic eruptions, biomass burning, and pollution events. Data File Information TES Level 1B ... calibrated spectral radiances and their corresponding noise equivalent spectral radiances (NESR). The geolocation, quality and some ...

  1. Questions in reference interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilyn Domas White

    1998-01-01

    This article characterises the questioning behaviour in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behaviour in other types of interviews\\/settings. With one exception, the unit of analysis is the question (N=610), not the interview. The author uses A.C. Graesser‘s typology of questions to analyse type of question and M.D. White’s typology of information

  2. Enter Search Term Enter Drill Deeper or ED Online ID Home Subscribe Back Issues Design FAQs Ideas for Design Power Analog

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Enter Search Term Enter Drill Deeper or ED Online ID Home Subscribe Back Issues Design FAQs Ideas Subscribe to Electronic Design UPDATE (Archive) Email: Enter Email Click to view this week's welcome screen

  3. Commentary: Epidemiology in the era of big data.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-05-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called "three V's": variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field's future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future. PMID:25756221

  4. Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    ...........................................................................................................................31 STUDENT PRINTING REIMBURSEMENT POLICY..........................................................................................32 STUDENT LIFE EPIDEMIOLOGY, BIO

  5. Q Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rates Geography Seasonality Persons at Risk Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Q Fever in ... CDC–INFO Q Fever Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Prevention Other Ricketssial ...

  6. First NCI Epidemiology Leadership Workshop: Tobacco, Diet, and Genes

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Croyle, DCCPS Director, said that this workshop is one in a series of activities to be undertaken as part of a review of the EGRP, as has occurred in other parts of DCCPS. It is an important opportunity to identify the epidemiologic questions in tobacco, diet, and genetic research that need support and facilitation and what is needed to overcome barriers.

  7. Medical sociology and epidemiology: Convergences, divergences and legitimate boundaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingeborg P. Spruit; Daan Kromhout

    1987-01-01

    For the purpose of exploring the existence of problem areas that may give rise to the question whether there is a tendency to (illegitimately) trespass across boundaries between medical sociology and epidemiology, important convergences and divergences between both disciplines are described. To assemble arguments for the legitimacy of fields of study we trace comparatively the history of both disciplines, definitions

  8. Epidemiology of autism: Current controversies and research directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith K. Grether

    2006-01-01

    In many respects, the epidemiology of autism is still in its infancy. Although important questions remain unanswered, epidemiologists are making significant progress in several areas of inquiry that will be addressed in this presentation: How common is autism? Has the prevalence changed over time? What demographic and environmental risk factors have been identified that may provide clues to underlying etiology?

  9. Thursday, March 21, 2013 I. Epidemiological Models of Infectious disease

    E-print Network

    Saleska, Scott

    of population size (e.g. for sexually transmitted disease)Adjustment for small pop: cN/(b+N) What is a contact3/21/2013 1 Ecol 380 Thursday, March 21, 2013 I. Epidemiological Models of Infectious disease A. Questions about disease that models can address B. How to Build a model of disease? ­ the SIR model C. Some

  10. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  11. Formulating a Research Question

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Research Assistant (Danya International, Inc.)

    2003-08-12

    This tutorial discusses the conceptual development of a research goal, beginning with the formation of a research question. It also explains the links between a research question, specific aims, hypotheses, and long-term research goals.

  12. Using Socratic Questioning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorothy Merritts

    Can it be, Ischomachus, that asking questions is teaching? I am just beginning to see what is behind all your questions. You lead me on by means of things I know, point to things that resemble them, and persuade ...

  13. Concepts in Huanglongbing Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was discovered in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Previously, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The perennial nature of the disease necessitates...

  14. Epidemiology of Ischemic Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Mas; M. Zuber

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide major clues to etiology and therapeutic programs in stroke. Recent studies concerning secular trends in incidence and mortality, identification of well-defined independent risk factors and natural history of stroke are reviewed. While there has been a dramatic decline in stroke mortality (in relation to both declining incidence and improving survival following stroke) in most industrialized countries during

  15. Epidemiology of anxiety disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jürgen Margraf; U ZETSCHE

    2007-01-01

    This contribution provides an overview of the most important recent epidemiological studies examining anxiety disorders in the general population. Results demonstrate that anxiety disorders are widespread, with lifetime prevalence rates ranging between 13.6% and 28.8% in Western countries. Comorbidity among individuals with an anxiety disorder is high: three out of four people with a lifetime anxiety disorder experience at least

  16. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  17. Student Questioning Educational Outreach

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    of discussing why questioning is important, how research classes(like PUMA) differ from previous science classes still have about water filtration? What questions do you still have about Material Science? #12 average- 1.44 Question 3 average- .79 No lessons on Material Science, much information on water

  18. Improve Your Verbal Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Kenneth E.

    2005-01-01

    Most teachers are well aware that verbal questioning can aid student learning. Asking questions can stimulate students to think about the content being studied; connect it to prior knowledge consider its meanings and implications; and explore its applications. A common problem with many teachers' use of verbal questioning is a lack of knowledge…

  19. Department of Epidemiology Master of Science in Epidemiology Curriculum (36 credits minimum)

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    Epidemiology 3 PHC 6194 Spatial Epidemiology 3 PHC 7038 Psychiatric Epidemiology 3 PHC 6711 Measurement in Epidemiology & Outcomes Research 3 PHC 6937 Cancer Epidemiology 3 Course Statistics & Data Management (All 3Department of Epidemiology Master of Science in Epidemiology Curriculum (36 credits minimum) Course

  20. Asking questions with focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.

  1. Mock Interview FAQs How will I benefit from a mock interview?

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    questions How will I be evaluated? Your interviewer will evaluate your professional appearance, nonverbal communication, attitude, ability to answer questions effectively and use of examples to highlight relevant questions at the end of the interview. My questions helped me to gain a better understanding of the employer

  2. [Epidemiology of varicose veins].

    PubMed

    Davy, A

    1983-01-01

    Having recalled the classic works on epidemiology, and having mentioned recent research, the author then considers: 1) Fundamental epidemiological facts. He shows that there is a zone of great varicose occurrence (Western Europe, North America); a zone of mild occurrence (Black Africa, the Far East, the Third World in general); and zones showing discrepancies, (South America, the Mediterranean Basin, India). 2) Explanatory hypotheses concerning the upright posture of Man; prolonged standing; heredity, both clinical (work done by Merlen) and biological (work by Ničbes), affecting the biochemical structure of the venous wall producing degradation of the conjunctive tissue; our way of dressing; the seated position. The terms of a plausible hypothesis must include all the elements defined by Burkitt. 3) Research axes: the role of abdominal hyper-pressure proved by Doppler examination (Folse), provoked by constipation (Cleave) and the idea of an alimentary factor. PMID:6601280

  3. Dengue: update on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact. PMID:25475383

  4. An on-line interactive interviewing program for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Kramer, S; Caplan, I; Sessions, R; Meadows, A T

    1984-04-01

    An on-line interactive verification and entry system (OLIVES) has been developed for conducting telephone interviews in large-scale epidemiological studies. Responses are automatically coded into a computer legible form suitable for analysis. Use of a question stack to control question flow allows on-line response modification, restart from any termination point, and minimal reprogramming in order to change question order. Numerical, coded, and text string data types are permitted. A multilevel hierarchical data structure reflects interview content. The advantages and disadvantages of the on-line approach are discussed. OLIVES is generalizable and is applicable to other on-line or off-line interview situations. PMID:6736817

  5. Epidemiology of Lyme Borreliosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zdenek Hubálek

    2009-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most frequent ixodid tick-borne human disease in the world, with an estimated 85,500 patients annually (underlying data presented in this review: Europe 65,500, North America 16,500, Asia 3,500, North Africa 10; approximate figures). This chapter summarizes the up-to-date knowledge about facts and factors important in the epidemiology of LB all over the world. Individual sections

  6. VZV Molecular Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith Breuer

    \\u000a The molecular epidemiology of varicella zoster virus (VZV) has led to an understanding of virus evolution, spread, and pathogenesis.\\u000a The availability of over 20 full length genomes has confirmed the existence of at least five virus clades and generated estimates\\u000a of VZV evolution, with evidence of recombination both past and ongoing. Genotyping by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and\\u000a single nucleotide

  7. Informatics for Healthcare Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bala Hota

    \\u000a A major effort in healthcare epidemiology is the surveillance of healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Increasingly, HAIs\\u000a are viewed as preventable and as a marker of healthcare quality. The automation of the surveillance of HAIs could have several\\u000a benefits: for institutions, it could allow infection control programs to focus on the prevention, not simply the measurement,\\u000a of infection. For policy makers,

  8. Epidemiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    Great strides have been made in understanding the epidemiology of EoE over the past two decades. Initial research focused on case description and characterization of the burden of disease. Research is now shifting to risk factor ascertainment, resulting in new and intriguing etiologic hypotheses. This paper will review the current knowledge related to the epidemiology of EoE. Demographic features and natural history will be described, data summarizing the prevalence and incidence of EoE throughout the world will be highlighted, and risk factors for EoE will be discussed. EoE can occur at any age, there is a male predominance, it is more common in Whites, and there is a strong association with atopic diseases. EoE is chronic, relapses are frequent, and persistent inflammation increases the risk of fibrostenotic complications. The prevalence is currently estimated at 0.5–1 in 1000, and EoE is now the most common cause of food impaction. EoE can be seen in 2–7% of patients undergoing endoscopy for any reason, and 12–23% undergoing endoscopy for dysphagia. The incidence of EoE is approximately 1/10,000 new cases per year, and the rise in incidence is outpacing increases in recognition and endoscopy volume. The reasons for this evolving epidemiology are not yet fully delineated, but possibilities include changes in food allergens, increasing aeroallergens and other environmental factors, the decrease of H. pyloriand early life exposures. PMID:24813510

  9. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  10. Asking Effective Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This 8-page monograph offers strategies for effective questioning that engages students and that deepens their conceptual understanding in mathematics. It suggests questions and prompts that help students progress through various stages of the problem solving process and that help teachers assess the thinking of students. The article describes the purposes of questions at different stages of a lesson and describes situations when it is appropriate to convey information to students. A list of references is included.

  11. Nutritional epidemiology--there's life in the old dog yet!

    PubMed

    Potter, John D

    2015-02-01

    Consideration is given to the idea that the nutritional epidemiology of cancer is dead, as some in the media have claimed. The basis for the claim does not lie in science nor has anyone with relevant knowledge made such a statement-although that, too, has been claimed. Evidence is adduced for the importance of past achievements of nutritional epidemiology. Attention is similarly drawn to recent contributions. In particular, I note the state of play of cancer and plant foods, fat and breast cancer, meat and cancer, vegetarians, intervention studies, migrant studies, and westernization of diet and lifestyle. Some next steps and some currently important questions are outlined. PMID:25515549

  12. Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Kannel, W B

    1995-12-01

    The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

  13. Question #44 Free childcare

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    or were you a dependent or ward of the court?" Q: I am a single mom with one child and will get free day parents deceased, were you in foster care or were you a dependent or ward of the court?" Question #52 care or were you a dependent or ward of the court?" Question #53 Section 2 "As determined by a court

  14. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  15. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  16. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  17. University Of Missouri: Sample Interview Questions Creating Interview Questions

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Jerry

    University Of Missouri: Sample Interview Questions Creating Interview Questions Position Title of Missouri Page 1 #12;University Of Missouri: Sample Interview Questions Common Competencies and Behavioral. _______________________________________ List 10 Questions you will ask candidates that related to your competencies: 1

  18. 1052 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Ecology and Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    1052 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Ecology and Epidemiology Phytophthora Community Structure Analyses in Oregon to disease management. Phytopathology 104:1052-1062. Nursery plants are important vectors for plant pathogens

  19. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  20. ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions: A good, substantive question are addressing. Providing this context helps both the person who is answering the question and helps the rest of the audience understand what you are talking about. #12;Guidelines for Answering Questions: Question and answer

  1. Knowledge and question asking.

    PubMed

    Ibáńez Molinero, Rafael; García-Madruga, Juan Antonio

    2011-02-01

    The ability and the motivation for question asking are, or should be, some of the most important aims of education. Unfortunately, students neither ask many questions, nor good ones. The present paper is about the capacity of secondary school pupils for asking questions and how this activity depends on prior knowledge. To examine this, we use texts containing different levels of information about a specific topic: biodiversity. We found a positive relationship between the amount of information provided and the number of questions asked about the texts, supporting the idea that more knowledgeable people ask more questions. Some students were warned that there would be an exam after the reading, and this led to a diminishing number of questions asked, and yet this still did not significantly improve their exam scores. In such a case, it seems that reading was more concerned with immediacy, hindering critical thinking and the dialog between their previous ideas and the new information. Thus, question asking seems to be influenced not only by the amount of knowledge, but also by the reader's attitude towards the information. PMID:21266138

  2. The Challenge Question

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Then students read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for additional ideas and add them to the list. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

  3. The Driving Question Board

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ayelet Weizman

    2008-11-01

    "It was helpful to keep track of questions we had at the beginning so we knew what we were trying to find out." With these words, a student described the value of using a Driving Question Board (DQB) in a project-based science (PBS) unit. This instructional tool is designed to support inquiry and project-based learning by organizing and focusing students' questions and linking them to content learning goals. The authors have used this tool in both physics and chemistry classes, but it can be used with any subject matter. This article describes the purpose and process of DQB.

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  5. Periodontal diseases: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Papapanou, P N

    1996-11-01

    1. The interpretation of epidemiological data of periodontal disease is difficult, due to inconsistencies in the methodology used. It is not possible, therefore, to accurately assess if the prevalence of the periodontal diseases shows a world-wide decline. As long as the disease is assessed through accumulated clinical attachment loss, retention of the natural dentition in older ages entails increased prevalence in these cohorts. Contemporary epidemiological studies should ideally employ full-mouth examination of the periodontal tissues. Partial recording estimates are generally biased, especially when the prevalence of the disease is low. 2. Early-onset periodontitis is infrequent in all populations. Adult periodontitis is rather prevalent; however, advanced disease affects limited subfractions of the population (probably less than 10 to 15%). Although prevalence figures vary with race and geographic region, in most cases, the progression pattern of the disease seems compatible with the retention of a functional dentition throughout life. 3. Of a plethora of behavioral and environmental risk markers identified by multi-variate analysis, smoking and presence of certain subgingival microorganisms have been proven to be true risk factors. The same holds true for diabetes mellitus, a systemic condition that confers a risk for periodontal disease which is independent of the effect of other significant factors. 4. In certain cases, periodontal infections appear to have a systemic impact on the host. Most recent data indicate that periodontal disease may confer risk for coronary heart disease and pre-term low birth weight. PMID:9118256

  6. Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Public Health & Occupational Health 2014/2015 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2014-2015 Student

  7. Asking gender questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Jonathan; Masters, Karen; Allen, James; Contenta, Filippo; Huckvale, Leo; Wilkins, Stephen; Zocchi, Alice

    2014-12-01

    Jonathan Pritchard, Karen Masters, James Allen, Filippo Contenta, Leo Huckvale, Stephen Wilkins and Alice Zocchi report on a survey of the gender of astronomers attending and asking questions at this year's UK National Astronomy Meeting.

  8. Questions about Biological Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Espańol Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

  9. Cho, Hearn — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

  10. Endocrine System Clicker Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DDS/DO Elizabeth J Kavran (Ursuline College Biology)

    2009-05-01

    This is a set of clicker questions designed for first year nursing students in an Anatomy and Physiology course, used during the endocrine system. It can also be used for an undergraduate Physiology course.

  11. Provocative Questions Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Workshop August 2, 2011 UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, California Final Participant List Chair Edward Harlow, Ph.D Chair Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical

  12. Quantitative epidemiology: Progress and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian R. Dohoo

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript is derived from a presentation at the 2006 AVEPM – Schwabe Symposium which honoured the 2006 recipient of the Calvin Schwabe Award – Dr. S. Wayne Martin. Throughout his career, Dr. Martin was instrumental in furthering the development of quantitative epidemiology. This manuscript highlights some of the recent advances in quantitative methods used in veterinary epidemiology and identifies

  13. The New Epidemiology of Nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field. PMID:26088071

  14. Redefining the Fundamental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Margaret Ann

    2006-01-01

    Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

  15. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

  16. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions

  17. Genetic Epidemiology of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rashmi; Debbaneh, Maya G.; Liao, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated skin condition with a prevalence of 0-11.8% across the world. It is associated with a number of cardiovascular, metabolic, and autoimmune disease co-morbidities. Psoriasis is a multifactorial disorder, influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Its genetic basis has long been established through twin studies and familial clustering. The association of psoriasis with the HLA-Cw6 allele has been shown in many studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of other genes associated with psoriasis. Many of these genes regulate the innate and adaptive immune system. These findings indicate that a dysregulated immune system may play a major role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. In this article, we review the clinical and genetic epidemiology of psoriasis with a brief description of the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:25580373

  18. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    PubMed

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder. PMID:2691513

  19. Epidemiology of Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H

    2012-10-01

    Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

  20. Epidemiology of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Osann, K E

    1998-07-01

    Lung cancer incidence is now decreasing in US men. Although rates continue to increase in women, the rate of increase is declining. Most lung cancer in men and women is attributable to cigarette smoking. Histologic patterns are consistent with smoking trends for gender, race, and age. Trends in adenocarcinoma may be related to an increase in exposure to tobacco-specific nitrosamines from low-tar cigarettes. Other risk factors, including exposure to residential radon, occupational exposures, diet, and family history, have been shown to increase risk of lung cancer independent of cigarette smoking. Recent research in molecular epidemiology has greatly increased our understanding of the mechanism of lung carcinogenesis and the interactions between exposure to lung carcinogens (smoking, occupational exposures, radon), diet, and heritable variations in susceptibility. PMID:10813232

  1. Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

    2005-01-01

    There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

  2. Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment. PMID:1807619

  3. Color Code (see first page for links to documents): Program Solicitation; NSF FAQs about CAREER Program; 2012 NSF CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    1 Color Code (see first page for links to documents): Program Solicitation; NSF FAQs about CAREER Program; 2012 NSF CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop 2012 NSF Faculty Career Development (CAREER) Program http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=503214 This document summarizes information about

  4. Color Code (see first page for links to documents): Program Solicitation; NSF FAQs about CAREER Program; 2013 NSF CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    1 Color Code (see first page for links to documents): Program Solicitation; NSF FAQs about CAREER Program; 2013 NSF CAREER Proposal Writing Workshop 2013 NSF Faculty Career Development (CAREER) Program http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=503214 This document summarizes information about

  5. Ebola FAQs for Managers and Employees Ebola is not transmitted through the air, food, or water. The virus can ONLY be transmitted through

    E-print Network

    Ebola FAQs for Managers and Employees Ebola is not transmitted through the air, food, or water are at risk of contracting Ebola. It is transmitted only by direct contact with the blood or bodily uids to work without fear of being exposed to Ebola virus. Do I need to wear protective gear on campus? No

  6. Ebola FAQs for Masters, Deans, Parents, Students Ebola is not transmitted through the air, food, or water. The virus can ONLY be transmitted through

    E-print Network

    Ebola FAQs for Masters, Deans, Parents, Students Ebola is not transmitted through the air, food of contracting Ebola, which is transmitted only by direct contact with the blood or bodily uids of an infected should go to class without fear of being exposed to Ebola virus. Can I eat in the dining hall? Go

  7. Copyright Some Key Questions

    E-print Network

    Ollivier-Gooch, Carl

    #12;#12;Copyright Matters! Some Key Questions and Answers for Teachers 2nd Edition, 2005 From the Authors The authors of Copyright Matters! are pleased to offer teachers this revised edition. It replaces the first edition published in 2000. Many changes have occurred in the area of copyright since that original

  8. Cosmic Questions Educator's Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    This educator's guide contains activities relating to the Cosmic Questions national traveling exhibit's theme, our place in space and time-and information about the exhibit. Although the guide complements a museum visit, activities can be used independently from the exhibit.

  9. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  10. De, Abhijit — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Looking at cell to cell differences within a tumor bed, contributed by either DNA mutations, epigenetic or post-translational modifications (PTM) or miRNA mediated control switches or even a combination of all these, the question rise how to best design a personalized drug trial?

  11. Any Questions? Please contact

    E-print Network

    Rubin, Yoram

    ! To Donate To purchase a package and/or item(s), email Jessica Tran at jesstran@berkeley.edu and includeAny Questions? Please contact Name: Jessica Tran Phone Number: 805-587-7753 Email: jesstran Competition Team Cal's Seismic Team educates students on earthquakedesign of high rise buildings. Students

  12. Name: Link Question

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    Name: Link Question: In patients with periodontal disease requiring dentures, what is the prognosis for the abutment teeth? Bottom Line: Some studies indicate that teeth with periodontal disease in periodontal disease when teeth are used as abutments in RPDs, however more studies are needed. PICO

  13. EFFECTIVELY ADDRESSING CONSUMER QUESTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions can be one of the toughest aspects of working in the egg industry. Consumers enjoy being informed about the products they purchase. The increased use of the internet by consumers can prove problematic due to the wealth of inaccurate information available on the interne...

  14. Eight Questions about Corruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) what is corruption; (2) which countries are the most corrupt; (3) what are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption; (4) what is the magnitude of corruption; (5) do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption; (6) can competition reduce corruption;( 7) why have there been so few

  15. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  16. QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-print Network

    QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ĄIS IT REAL? ĄIS IT IMPORTANT? ĄWHAT IS IT DUE TO? ĄHOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TRENDŐt a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

  17. Researching Classroom Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lores Gonzalez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    The complexities of the modern society and interconnected world in which we live requires students who are able to problem solve and think critically. The research on which this article is based aims to explore how classroom questioning can help students guide their learning and model the spirit of inquiry to become lifelong learners. The research…

  18. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  19. Prosthetic Frequently Asked Questions for the New Amputee

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the New Amputee Prosthetic FAQs for the New Amputee Web Development June 5, 2015 Fact Sheet ... step in your journey toward returning to your new normal after surgery. It is important to make ...

  20. EGRP-Supported Epidemiology Consortia

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  1. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

  3. An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

  4. Epidemiology of binge eating disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore; Debra L. Franko

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: Objective: First described over 50 years ago, binge eating disorder (BED) only recently has become,the focus of epidemiologic,studies. This article provides a comprehen- sive review,of these studies. Method: Relevant studies were examined,and summarized,in the form of a narrative review. Results: Similar to the early studies of bulimia nervosa (BN), the first generation of epidemiologic,studies of BED is limited in

  5. [Epidemiology of Behçet's disease].

    PubMed

    Mahr, A; Maldini, C

    2014-02-01

    With more than 30 published prevalence estimates for Behçet's disease (BD), covering many different regions worldwide, the prevalence of BD is quite well described. Even though the interpretation of these data is complicated by between-study differences in methodology, which may substantially influence the results, these data suggest large geographic variations in frequency of BD, with prevalence rates of 20-420/100,000 inhabitants for Turkey, 2.1-19.5 for other Asian countries, 1.5-15.9 for southern Europe and 0.3-4.9 for northern Europe. Additional epidemiological studies or case series from North and South America, the Caribbean Islands, and individuals of sub-Saharan ancestry further suggest that the geographic distribution of BD is much wider than the boundaries of the ancient Silk Road. The few available incidence rates prevent from making strong inferences as to whether the frequency of BD has changed over time. Recent population-based studies of immigrants or migrant populations consistently indicate that migrants from areas of high BD prevalence remain at high risk for BD, which may even be close to the prevalence observed in their countries of origin. Genetic factors, which are not detailed in this review, seem to play a preponderant role in BD development, although they cannot explain the wide between-country disparities in BD prevalence. However, environmental risk factors, including infectious and non-infectious causes, remain poorly investigated and have not yet produced solid hints. PMID:24398415

  6. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Green, Adčle C

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. PMID:25561199

  7. MedlinePlus FAQ: What's the difference between MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus Connect?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Question: What's the difference between MedlinePlus and MedlinePlus Connect? To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus Connect is a free service that allows electronic health ...

  8. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  9. The "Looting Question" Bibliography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provocatively subtitled "Web and Literary Resources on the Archaeological Politics of Private Collecting, Commercial Treasure Hunting, Looting, and 'Professional' Archaeology," this comprehensive online bibliography provides scholars and practitioners with resources related to the "looting question." The bibliography is organized by format type and focuses on North American materials. Hugh Jarvis, a doctoral candidate in Anthropology as well as a graduate student in Information and Library Studies at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, has compiled this unique, frequently updated resource.

  10. Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... A / Poultry Processing: Questions and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  11. Automatically Classifying Question Types for Consumer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411

  12. The competency question.

    PubMed

    Ruthemeyer, M

    2000-01-01

    JCAHO mandates "processes that are designed to ensure that the competency of all staff members is assessed, maintained, demonstrated, and improved on an ongoing basis." However, it is difficult to collect aggregate data regarding staff competency patterns and trends. How many facilities have the time or energy to collect aggregate data, let alone statistically analyze it for patterns and trends? Not many in today's environment. I saw the need to create a test to evaluate staff competency at my facility, but soon realized I would have no way of knowing if the results were good or bad. The only way to judge the results would be to have a standardized test that was used by multiple facilities. As president of the Houston X-ray Quality Society, I brought the topic up at a meeting in 1995, and a committee was set up to work on the test. The result is two competency tests--one for staff radiographers and one for mammographers--which are currently used by 35 to 40 facilities, with approximately 1,000 technologists taking the test each year. The tests include practical questions that reflect the knowledge required to perform daily exams. Each test has five sections that assess different areas of competency. The scoring system allows technologists to fail one or more individual sections but still pass the test overall. Twenty to 30 percent of the questions are new each year. That gives us the ability to look for improvement on previous year's questions, and at the same time, avoid producing a static and ineffective test. There are 60 questions on the staff radiographer test and 65 questions on the mammographer test, which also includes clinical images. Facilities must sign an agreement that states that they cannot use the test as a disciplinary tool in the employee's evaluation, or in any other way against the technologist. As a profession, radiology administration not only has regulatory requirements to evaluate competency, but also a moral duty to insure that patients receive the best possible care. We should not cover up or ignore the blemishes that we all know exist. Instead, we should take them on, as professional and personal challenges to improve the competency of our staff. PMID:11151318

  13. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tejedor Alonso, M A; Moro Moro, M; Múgica García, M V

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the epidemiology of anaphylaxis is based on data from various sources: clinical practice, large secondary clinical and administrative databases of primary care or hospitalized patients, and recent surveys with representative samples of the general population. As several similar results are often reported in several publications and populations, such findings are highly like to be robust. One such finding is that the incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis are higher than previously thought. Publications from the last 5 years reveal an incidence of between 50 and 112 episodes per 100 000 person-years; estimated prevalence is 0.3-5.1% depending on the rigour of the definitions used. Figures are higher in children, especially those aged 0-4 years. Publications from various geographical areas based on clinical and administrative data on hospitalized patients suggest that the frequency of admissions due to anaphylaxis has increased (5-7-fold in the last 10-15 years). Other publications point to a geographic gradient in the incidence of anaphylaxis, with higher frequencies recorded in areas with few hours of sunlight. However, these trends could be the result of factors other than a real change in the incidence of anaphylaxis, such as changes in disease coding and in the care provided. Based on data from the records of voluntary declarations of death by physicians and from large national databases, death from anaphylaxis remains very infrequent and stands at 0.35-1.06 deaths per million people per year, with no increases observed in the last 10-15 years. Although anaphylaxis can be fatal, recurrence of anaphylaxis - especially that associated with atopic diseases and hymenoptera stings - affects 26.5-54% of patients. PMID:25495512

  14. Epidemiology of Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Stolwijk, Carmen; van Tubergen, Astrid; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a group of interrelated diseases with common clinical features and a close association with HLA-B27. Figures on the incidence and prevalence of diseases vary highly dependent on methodological differences between studies, the case definition used to classify disease and on the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the population studied. When summarizing the available literature, incidence rates of SpA are mainly based on the ESSG criteria and range between 0.48 and 63/100.000 while prevalence rates vary between 0.01 and 2.5%. For ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the most widely recognized representative of the SpA group of diseases, incidence rates of 0.44-7.3/100.000 and prevalence rates of 0.007-1.7% have been described in studies that were based on the (modified) New York criteria to classify cases. The incidence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) varied from 3.6 up to 23.1/100.000 in different studies and prevalence between <0.1% and 0.4%, using a variety of classification criteria. The incidence of ReA has been estimated between 0.6 up to 28/100.000 in studies based on different source populations and different case definitions. The newly proposed criteria for axial SpA and peripheral SpA present an attractive new approach to facilitate classification of the SpA into two main subtypes and the axial SpA criteria allow earlier detection of patents with inflammatory back pain. It should be emphasized that these criteria were developed for use in a (specialized) clinical setting and not for large epidemiological studies. PMID:23083748

  15. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  16. Molecular Epidemiology to Better Predict Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Mary E.; Santella, Regina; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is clear that smoking causes lung cancer, it is not known why some smokers develop the disease while others do not. Little is also known regarding risk factors for lung cancer among never-smokers, particularly women, or why women with lung cancer are more likely to have a family history of cancer, to be diagnosed at a young age, or to have adenocarcinoma. The application of molecular epidemiology to the study of lung cancer risk might facilitate elucidation of these questions. In this review, the molecular epidemiology of lung cancer is discussed, with an emphasis on studies of genetic variability in metabolic pathways as a means for determining susceptibility. Work that has assessed intermediate markers of risk, such as DNA adducts, is also presented, as are studies of tumor tissue alterations, such as mutations and DNA methylation, in relation to risk of lung cancer. Finally, approaches to evaluating factors that might explain the differing epidemiology of lung cancer between men and women are also presented. It is likely that, by incorporating biomarkers of susceptibility, exposure, and effect, molecular epidemiologic approaches might better define factors that explain some of the variability in lung cancer risk. PMID:18621624

  17. Sudden infant deaths: from epidemiology to physiology.

    PubMed

    Kahn, A; Sawaguchi, T; Sawaguchi, A; Groswasser, J; Franco, P; Scaillet, S; Kelmanson, I; Dan, B

    2002-09-14

    The incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dropped significantly in most countries following the development of education campaigns on the avoidance of risk factors for SIDS. However, questions have been raised about the physiological mechanism responsible for the effects of these environmental risk factors. Since 1985, a series of prospective, multicentric studies have been developed to address these questions; over 20,000 infants were recorded during one night in a sleep laboratory and among these, 40 infants eventually died of SIDS. In this review, the following methods were employed: sleep recordings and analysis, monitoring procedure, data analysis of sleep stages, cardiorespiratory and oxygen saturation, scoring of arousals, spectral analysis of the heart rate and the determination of arousal thresholds, and statistical analysis and the results including sleep apneas, arousals and heart rate and autonomic controls in both future SIDS victims and normal infants were introduced separately. In addition, the physiological effect of prenatal risk factors (maternal smoking during gestation) and postnatal risk factors (administration of sedative drugs, prone sleeping position, ambient temperature, sleeping with the face covered by a bed sheet, pacifiers and breastfeeding) in normal infants were analyzed. In conclusion, the physiological studies undertaken on the basis of epidemiological findings provide some clues about the physiological mechanisms linked with SIDS. Although the description of the mechanisms responsible for SIDS is still far from complete, it appears to involve both arousal responses and cardiac autonomic controls during sleep-wake processes. PMID:12350296

  18. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

    PubMed

    Tong, Steven Y C; Davis, Joshua S; Eichenberger, Emily; Holland, Thomas L; Fowler, Vance G

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that causes a wide range of clinical infections. It is a leading cause of bacteremia and infective endocarditis as well as osteoarticular, skin and soft tissue, pleuropulmonary, and device-related infections. This review comprehensively covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management of each of these clinical entities. The past 2 decades have witnessed two clear shifts in the epidemiology of S. aureus infections: first, a growing number of health care-associated infections, particularly seen in infective endocarditis and prosthetic device infections, and second, an epidemic of community-associated skin and soft tissue infections driven by strains with certain virulence factors and resistance to ?-lactam antibiotics. In reviewing the literature to support management strategies for these clinical manifestations, we also highlight the paucity of high-quality evidence for many key clinical questions. PMID:26016486

  20. Microbial molecular epidemiology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tibayrenc, Michel

    2009-01-01

    In this introductory chapter, I stress one more time the urgency to better connect molecular epidemiology and evolutionary biology. I show how much population genetics and phylogenetic analyses can confer a considerable added value to all attempts to characterize strains and species of pathogens. The problems dealing with the mere definition of basic concepts, such as species, subspecies, or strains, are briefly summarized. Last, I show the important contribution of molecular epidemiology to our knowledge of the basic biology of pathogens and insist on the necessity not to separate the studies dealing with pathogens from those that concern the hosts and the vectors, in the case of vector-borne diseases. PMID:19521862

  1. Improving Question Retrieval in Community Question Answering with Label Ranking

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    Improving Question Retrieval in Community Question Answering with Label Ranking Wei Wang, Baichuan Li Department of Computer Science and Engineering The Chinese University of Hong Kong Shatin, N@research.att.com Abstract-- Community question answering services (CQA), which provides a platform for people with diverse

  2. Internal Audit RFP 2013 Questions and Answers Question set 1

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    ;Internal Audit RFP 2013 ­ Questions and Answers b. High risk areas · Accounts Payable · Accounts Receivable) for the fiscal 2013 Internal Audit Plan? We will establish our own estimates based upon our risk assessmentInternal Audit RFP 2013 ­ Questions and Answers Question set 1: 1. What do you like about your

  3. Radiation epidemiology: a perspective on Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2012-03-01

    For nearly 100 years, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to ionising radiation have provided quantitative information on health risks. High dose deterministic (tissue reaction) effects result when sufficient numbers of functioning cells are killed, such as in bone marrow depression that can lead to death. Lower dose stochastic effects are probabilistic in nature and include an increased risk of cancer later in life and heritable genetic defects, although genetic conditions in the children of irradiated parents have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Radiation studies are of diverse populations and include not only the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but also patients treated with radiation for malignant and non-malignant disease; patients exposed for diagnostic purposes; persons with intakes of radionuclides; workers occupationally exposed; and communities exposed to environmental and accidentally released sources of radiation. Much is known about radiation and its risks. The major unanswered question in radiation epidemiology, however, is not whether radiation causes cancer, but what the level of risk is following low dose (<100 mSv) or low dose rate exposures. Paracelsus is credited with first articulating that the 'poison is in the dose', which for radiation epidemiology translates as 'the lower the dose, the lower the risk' and, an important corollary, the lower the dose, the greater the difficulty in detecting any increase in the number of cancers possibly attributable to radiation. In contrast to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Fukushima reactor accident has to date resulted in no deterministic effects and no worker deaths. Estimates to date of population doses suggest very low uptakes of radioactive iodine which was a major determinant of the epidemic of thyroid cancer following childhood exposures around Chernobyl. The estimates to date of population doses are also much lower (and the distribution much narrower) than the doses for which cancer excesses have been detected among atomic bomb survivors after 60 years of follow-up. Studies of populations exposed to low doses are also limited in their ability to account for important lifestyle factors, such as cigarette smoking and medical x-ray exposures, which could distort findings. Studies of the Fukushima population should be and are being considered for reassurance and health care reasons. Apart from as regards the extreme psychological stress caused by the horrific loss of life following the tsunami and the large-scale evacuation from homes and villages, such studies have limited to no chance of providing information on possible health risks following low dose exposures received gradually over time--the estimated doses (to date) are just too small. PMID:22395193

  4. Information Technology Usage for Epidemiological Functions in U.S. State Public Health Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) use for epidemiological purposes in state public health departments has been documented only for a limited number of specific applications, leaving questions about its actual utilization and hindering IT's potential for information sharing. Communications, stages of change, and systems theories all influence the…

  5. The epidemiology of rape and sexual coercion in South Africa: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Jewkes; Naeema Abrahams

    2002-01-01

    During 1999 the issue of rape in South Africa was debated at the highest levels. The epidemiology of rape has become an issue of considerable political importance and sensitivity, with President Mbeki demanding an answer to the question: how much rape is there in South Africa? The purpose of this paper is both to summarise and synthesise the findings of

  6. Asbestos, asbestosis, and lung cancer: a critical assessment of the epidemiological evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P A Hessel; J F Gamble; J C McDonald

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether lung cancer can be attributed to asbestos exposure in the absence of asbestosis remains controversial. Nine key epidemiological papers are reviewed in a point\\/counterpoint format, giving the main strengths and limitations of the evidence presented. Of the nine papers, two concluded that asbestosis was necessary and seven that it was not. However, the study design, nature

  7. Phoning while driving I: a review of epidemiological, psychological, behavioural and physiological studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Collet; A. Guillot; C. Petit

    2010-01-01

    The impact of cell (mobile) phone use on driving performance has been widely questioned for 20 years. This paper reviews the literature to evaluate the extent to which phoning may impact behaviour with a risk to affect safety. After analysing epidemiological studies that give an overview of cell phone use, this paper examines the experimental results and focuses on variables

  8. Gallery Walk Questions about Coastlines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about coastlines. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

  9. Gallery Walk Questions about Volcanism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about volcanism. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

  10. Gallery Walk Questions about Glaciers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about glaciers. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level ...

  11. Gallery Walk Questions on Karst

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about karst. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level at ...

  12. Global Warming: Questions and Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Back to Example Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through a Socratic lesson. It will help instructors ...

  13. Question of the Day Examples

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Refine the Results Biosphere 2 matches Climate 2 matches Earth surface 1 match Ocean 4 matches Solid Earth 2 matches Results 1 - 10 of 11 matches Question of the Day: Efficiency of Food Production part of Question ...

  14. Exposure variables in ergonomic epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, M

    1992-01-01

    The ergonomic field is rather new to epidemiology and ergonomists are usually without knowledge in epidemiology. This review presents exposure variables used in ergonomic epidemiology, especially those that concern mechanical trauma to the musculoskeletal system at the workplace and suggests how to approach exposure definition, exposure assessment, and exposure evaluation. The exposure variables that define the exposure can be divided into five main categories: posture, motion/repetition, material handling, work organization, and external factors. There is no consensus on how different exposure variables should be pooled and interpreted as single estimates of cumulative exposure. For future ergonomic epidemiology, it is suggested that exposure be described by different exposure variables giving an exposure profile and not by a single estimate of the exposure. The possibly short time-response relationship for many work-related musculoskeletal disorders provides a challenge in evaluating different cumulative exposure measures. These measures could easily turn into effective hazard surveillance tools. Large etiological fractions found for some musculoskeletal diseases indicate a great potential for ergonomic interventions. PMID:1553989

  15. Huanglongbing Epidemiology: An international perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the discovery of Huanglongbing (HLB) in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The main issue is the perennial nature of the dise...

  16. Epidemiologic Aspects of Toilet Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence B. Berk; Patrick C. Friman

    1990-01-01

    Toilet training is becoming an increasingly important child care issue as child raising becomes an institutional enterprise. This paper reviews the literature of the last 40 years, focusing on the epidemiology of the development of day and night bladder control. The studies indicate that bladder control is usually obtained between 24 months and 48 months of age. Many variations exist

  17. Epidemiological Trends in Pancreatic Neoplasias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babette Simon; Hartmut Printz

    2001-01-01

    Primary prevention is the most effective approach to reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer. Epidemiological studies have contributed to the identification of risk factors for pancreatic cancer, suggesting an association with age, various medical conditions, environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and occupational and genetic conditions. Age is the strongest risk factor. The most consistently identified environmental risk factor is smoking,

  18. Unsolved Problems in Genetic Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Newton E. Morton

    2000-01-01

    Genetic epidemiology faces six critical issues: its scope, genetic mapping, complex inheritance, population structure, nonmendelian genetics, and the internationalization of genetics. To solve these problems the scope must be broadened to include normal variation, although much of descriptive genetics will be lost to related sciences. Genetic mapping continues to play an essential role for positional cloning and chromosome architecture, which

  19. Epidemiological studies in human radiobiology*

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    A meeting on the contribution of epidemiological studies to the better understanding of the effects of radiation on human health was held in Washington, D.C., from 13 to 17 December 1965. This meeting was organized and sponsored by the World Health Organization, with the co-operation of the Division of Radiological Health, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The main emphasis of the meeting was on obtaining representative views on the epidemiological studies now in progress and on the possibilities for further studies, but past work was also briefly reviewed under such headings as leukaemia, lung and other tumours, congenital malformations and cytogenetic effects. In addition, information was presented on current concepts of the mechanism of carcinogenesis and life-shortening derived from experimental and theoretical work. Against this background an attempt was made to identify the most essential needs for epidemiological data at present and to consider how such data might be obtained. The text presented below was prepared by Professor L. F. Lamerton of the Department of Biophysics, Institute of Cancer Research (Surrey Branch), Sutton, Surrey, England, and Professor B. MacMahon of the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., USA. It is a précis of some of the views expressed and of the information and the suggestions made. PMID:20604319

  20. Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida

    2012-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

  1. Social network visualization in epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas A. Christakis; James H. Fowler

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks

  2. THE SCIENCE OF ASKING QUESTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nora Cate Schaeffer; Stanley Presser

    2003-01-01

    ? Abstract Survey methodologists have drawn on and contributed to research by cognitive psychologists, conversation analysts, and others to lay a foundation for the science of asking questions. Our discussion of this work is structured around the decisions that must be made for two common types of inquiries: questions about events or behaviors and questions that ask for evaluations or

  3. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  4. Questions Parents Ask about Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school, along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center…

  5. Sample Exam questions Advanced Databases

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Richard C.

    Sample Exam questions CITS4243 Advanced Databases #12;Things to remember · You should follow understanding. #12;Some sample questions · Explain the structure of a data warehouse and how a data warehouse sample questions · Explain clearly the major steps of decision tree induction. · Why is naive Bayesian

  6. Improving your IQ -- Intelligent Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Stresses the importance for teachers to analyze their Intelligent Questioning (IQ) and Responding to Answers (RSA) scores. Provides three methods for measuring IQ and RSA: Flowchart for Asking Effective Questions, Questioning Observation form, and Flanders Technique of Interaction Analysis. Contends that by improving these teaching skills,…

  7. The Question The Standard Construction

    E-print Network

    Raghavan, Dilip

    The Question The Standard Construction The ZFC construction Bibliography Solution to a Problem Construction The ZFC construction Bibliography Outline 1 The Question 2 The Standard Construction 3 The ZFC construction Dilip Raghavan Solution to a Problem of Van Douwen #12;The Question The Standard Construction

  8. Questioning as a teaching tool.

    PubMed

    Long, Michele; Blankenburg, Rebecca; Butani, Lavjay

    2015-03-01

    The Dreyfus and Bloom frameworks can help the great clinical teacher craft questions that are learner-centric and appropriately challenging.Employing strategies to ask the right questions in the right way can further add to the effectiveness of using questions as a valuable teaching,learning, and assessment tool. PMID:25647682

  9. Validation of a Five-Question Survey to Assess a Child's Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A Seifert; Colleen A Ross; Jill M Norris

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the potentially adverse health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in young children, a short five-question survey was developed to identify routine exposure to ETS in a large epidemiological study.METHODS: The survey is administered to parents of a healthy cohort of children starting at age 3 months. To validate the survey, urinary cotinine levels were measured

  10. Why Research in Family Medicine? A Superfluous Question

    PubMed Central

    De Maeseneer, Jan M.; De Sutter, An

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate answer to the question, “Why research in family medicine?” is to provide better care for our patients. Through research we want to improve quality of primary care by improving our understanding and practice of it. This research will inevitably be specific for family medicine as family medicine is a specific discipline. In this article we first explore what makes family medicine a specific discipline. In a second part we present a framework to grasp the various research questions that must be answered to achieve the complex and multifaceted goal of improving quality of care. Family medicine is a specific discipline for 3 reasons: it has a unique epidemiology, the context of care is important, and it has a strong link and responsibility to the community. Quality of care is a complex and multidimensional concept that raises diverse research questions. We propose to map these questions within a framework defined by the 3 dimensions of the Donabedian triangle—structure, process, and outcome—and within each of these dimensions by 5 foci—basic knowledge, diagnostic and therapeutic problem solving, practice implementation, policy context, and education. This framework may help to make the various research questions operational and to point out the gaps in our research. The questions and answers should be relevant to daily practice and comprise all domains of family medicine so that eventually most of our daily actions in practice will be underpinned with medical, contextual, and policy evidence and contribute to the improvement of the quality of care. PMID:15655082

  11. Frontline: The Torture Question

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    Experts and pundits continue to debate the myriad of strategies deployed by the United States in the effort to combat terrorism around the world and internally. The Frontline program on PBS has created this website to complement a special edition of their show. This show focused on the question of whether torture is a viable way to obtain effective results in combating terrorism. Visitors can dive right in by watching the program in its entirety, or they may also wish to visit one of the sections providing supplementary information. One particularly compelling area is the section that provides information on how the current administration of President George W. Bush has created a protocol for conducting such investigations. Another very useful section is titled â??Behind the Wireâ?ť and offers visitors an inside look into the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. Perhaps the most moving and intense portion of the site is the discussion section, where visitors can leave feedback and read the impassioned opinions of others who have seen the program.

  12. Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nick

    2012-09-01

    Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

  13. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  14. A question of authority

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  15. A question of character.

    PubMed

    Wetlaufer, S

    1999-01-01

    For the most part, Glamor-a-Go-Go's board has been thrilled with CEO Joe Ryan's performance. Ryan, after all, had transformed the private-label cosmetics company into a retail powerhouse with flashy outlets from New York to Los Angeles. In addition to saving the company from bankruptcy shortly after his arrival in 1992, Ryan had made Glamor-a-Go-Go a fun and exciting place to work, increasing workers' wages and creating boundless opportunities for anyone willing to work hard and think out of the box. He had also brought more women and people of color on board. And he had made many employees wealthy, with generous stock giveaways and options for the most senior employees down to the most junior. Glamor-a-Go-Go's stock price had grown tenfold during Ryan's tenure. But Ryan's personal affairs were beginning to call into question his leadership abilities. The local paper's gossip column recently ran a photo of Ryan--a married man--leaving a gala event with a beautiful young woman from the company, with the headline "Who's That Girl?" Indeed, rumors about Ryan's philandering were starting to take on a harsher edge. Some people believed his secretary left because Ryan had sexually harassed her. Others believed a mail-room employee had been promoted to factory supervisor because of her affair with the CEO. Having warned Ryan several times about his alleged infidelities, the board is stuck. What should it do about Ryan's extracurricular behavior? Does Ryan's personal behavior even affect the company? Is what Ryan does outside the office the board's concern? Six commentators weigh in. PMID:10621266

  16. The use of epidemiology in alcohol research

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Norström, Thor

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper presents examples to illustrate the utility and limitations in the use of epidemiology in alcohol research and discusses some promising new directions. Methods Review of literature, concentrating on epidemiological alcohol research with relevance to public health. Findings and conclusion Epidemiology offers tools for assessment of causes and effects of alcohol consumption as well as the effects of efforts to prevent alcohol consumption and its consequences. Epidemiological studies have made significant contributions to alcohol research with respect to public health and public policy. Fixed-effects modelling, difference-in-differences estimation and integrated qualitative and epidemiological methods are promising but underused methods in epidemiological studies. Many epidemiological studies have limited transferability of knowledge to other cultures and jurisdictions. PMID:23134358

  17. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... housing and spraying insecticide inside housing to eliminate triatomine bugs has significantly decreased the spread of Chagas disease. ... Disease General Information Detailed FAQs Blood Screening FAQs Triatomine Bug FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment ...

  18. Integrated Exams System CMS Exam Questions CMS: Exam Questions

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    8.0 View Exam Marks 9.0 Problems 10.0 Appendices 10.1 Web reports 1.0 Overview The CMS: ExamIntegrated Exams System ­ CMS Exam Questions CMS: Exam Questions Author: Colin Clark 6 th April.2 Record Marks by Question 4.3 Record Marks by Candidate 5.0 Conflation 6.0 Confirmation 7.0 Send to Exams

  19. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  20. The genetic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Compston, A

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have implicated an interplay between genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a familial recurrence rate of approximately 15%. Meta-analysis of the recurrence risk shows that the rate is highest overall for siblings, then parents and children, with lower rates in second- and third-degree relatives. Recurrence is highest for monozygotic twins. Conversely, the frequency in adoptees is similar to the population lifetime risk. The age-adjusted risk for half siblings is also less than for full siblings. Recurrence is higher in the children of conjugal pairs with MS than the offspring of single affected. These classical genetic observations suggest that MS is a complex trait in which susceptibility is determined by several genes acting independently or epistatically. Comparisons between co-affected sibling pairs provide no evidence for correlation with age or year at onset and mode of presentation or disability. Thus far, the identification of susceptibility genes has proved elusive but genetic strategies are now in place which should illuminate the problem. The main dividend will be an improved understanding of the pathogenesis. To date, population studies have demonstrated an association between the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles DR15 and DQ6 and their corresponding genotypes. An association with DR4, with or without the primary DR15 link, is seen in some Mediterranean populations. Candidate gene approaches have otherwise proved unrewarding. Four groups of investigators have undertaken a systematic search of the genome. In common with most other complex traits, no major susceptibility gene has been identified but regions of interest have been provisionally identified. These genetic analyses are predicated on the assumption that MS is one disease. Genotypic and phenotypic analyses are beginning to question this assumption. A major part of future studies in the genetics of MS will be to resolve the question of disease heterogeneity. PMID:10603615

  1. [Nutritional epidemiology of coronary disease].

    PubMed

    Ferričres, J

    2003-09-01

    The nutritional epidemiology of coronary disease is complex because nutrition is composed of a large number of factors which are susceptible to interfere with each other and to affect the coronary risk after a long period of exposure. The methodology of nutritional studies relies on known and validated enquiry techniques, but they are difficult to perform in the general population. The lipid nutritional hypothesis of coronary disease was centred on cholesterol and the saturated fatty acids. This lipid theory has allowed great advances in the pathophysiological and therapeutic areas. The concepts of a French paradox and global diet have allowed research in nutritional epidemiology to be refocused on other nutrients (lipids and non-lipids) and on alimentary fashions and lifestyle in general. The success of proposed diets at the population level depends strictly on correctly validated scientific data, and on the cultural and social context of where the prevention messages warrant dissemination. PMID:14655545

  2. [The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

  3. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

  4. Anxiety: Its Role in the History of Psychiatric Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jane M.; Leighton, Alexander H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The role played by anxiety in the history of psychiatric epidemiology has not been well recognized. Such lack of understanding retarded the growth of psychiatric research in general populations. It seems useful to look back on this history while deliberations are being carried out about how anxiety will be presented in DSM-V. Methods Drawing on the literature and our own research, we examine work that was carried out during and after the Second World War by a Research Branch of the United States War Department, by the Stirling County Study, and by the Midtown Manhattan Study. The differential influences of Meyerian psychobiology and Freudian psychoanalysis are noted. Results The instruments developed in the early epidemiologic endeavors used questions about nervousness, palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, upset stomach, etc. These symptoms are important features of what the clinical literature called “manifest”, “free-floating”, or “chronic anxiety”. A useful descriptive name is “autonomic anxiety”. Conclusions Although not focusing on specific circumstances as in Panic and Phobic Disorders, a non-specific form of autonomic anxiety is a common, disabling, and usually chronic disorder that received empirical verification in studies of several community populations. It is suggested that two types of general anxiety may need to be recognized-- one dominated by excessive worry and feelings of stress, as in the current DSM-IV definition of Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and another emphasizing frequent unexplainable autonomic fearfulness, as in the early epidemiologic studies. PMID:18940025

  5. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Department of Energy (DOE) maintains the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program to provide public access to "health and exposure data concerning DOE installations" (generally, exposure data on industrial workers). The CEDR Website maintains over 300 data files for public access, as well as publications based on those data sets. Users interested in accessing data will find a variety of selection options on the homepage, including Health & Mortality Data Sets, Classic Radiation Data Sets, and others.

  6. Epidemiology of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Kauffman; Nelson P. Nicolasora

    \\u000a The epidemiology of IA, the major invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients, has evolved over the last several\\u000a decades. During the 1990s, increasing morbidity and mortality from these infections, particularly amongst the increasing numbers\\u000a of patients being treated for haematological malignancies and those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation,\\u000a became a universal experience in many tertiary care medical centres. Changes

  7. Malaria epidemiology and control in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Mharakurwa, Sungano; Thuma, Philip E; Norris, Douglas E; Mulenga, Modest; Chalwe, Victor; Chipeta, James; Munyati, Shungu; Mutambu, Susan; Mason, Peter R

    2012-03-01

    The burden of malaria has decreased dramatically within the past several years in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, following the scale-up of interventions supported by the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, the President's Malaria Initiative and other partners. It is important to appreciate that the reductions in malaria have not been uniform between and within countries, with some areas experiencing resurgence instead. Furthermore, while interventions have greatly reduced the burden of malaria in many countries, it is also recognized that the malaria decline pre-dated widespread intervention efforts, at least in some cases where data are available. This raises more questions as what other factors may have been contributing to the reduction in malaria transmission and to what extent. The International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) in Southern Africa aims to better understand the underlying malaria epidemiology, vector ecology and parasite genomics using three contrasting settings of malaria transmission in Zambia and Zimbabwe: an area of successful malaria control, an area of resurgent malaria and an area where interventions have not been effective. The Southern Africa ICEMR will capitalize on the opportunity to investigate the complexities of malaria transmission while adapting to intervention and establish the evidence-base to guide effective and sustainable malaria intervention strategies. Key approaches to attain this goal for the region will include close collaboration with national malaria control programs and contribution to capacity building at the individual, institutional and national levels. PMID:21756864

  8. Earthquakes Living Lab: FAQs about P Waves, S Waves and More

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,

    Students learn what causes earthquakes, how we measure and locate them, and their effects and consequences. Through the online Earthquakes Living Lab, student pairs explore various types of seismic waves and the differences between shear waves and compressional waves. They conduct research using the portion of the living lab that focuses primarily on the instruments, methods and data used to measure and locate earthquakes. Using real-time U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data accessed through the living lab interface, students locate where earthquakes are occurring and how frequently. Students propose questions and analyze the real-world seismic data to find answers and form conclusions. They are asked to think critically about why earthquakes occur and how knowledge about earthquakes can be helpful to engineers. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

  9. The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes. PMID:25416451

  10. Questionnaire for the identification of back pain for epidemiological purposes.

    PubMed Central

    Agius, R M; Lloyd, M H; Campbell, S; Hutchison, P; Seaton, A; Soutar, C A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To design a questionnaire for the identification and assessment of severity of back pain for epidemiological purposes, and gain preliminary experience of its use. METHODS--A group of specialists, experienced in the epidemiology and clinical assessment of back pain, designed the questionnaire, and tested it individually. It was also given cross sectionally by interview to a population of male coal mine workers. RESULTS--The questionnaire comprised a maximum of 12 questions on the presence, radiation, frequency, and severity of back pain with reference to difficulty with specific activities, interference with normal work, and absence from work. 471 coal miners answered the questionnaire (66% of those invited). 56% (265 men) of the responders reported pain or ache in the back during the previous 12 months, and the incidence of first ever attacks during the same period was reported to be 34%. 69% reported having had back pain at some time. The responses to the questionnaire were partially validated by comparison with certified sickness absence for two days or more attributed to back pain. In men who were symptomatic in the previous 12 months, for the question relating to absence from work because of back pain, the sensitivity was 82% and specificity was 84%. CONCLUSION--The questionnaire is easy to administer and generates clear cut data that could be useful for epidemiological or screening purposes. Preliminary, limited, studies of its validity are reasonably encouraging, although further validation is required. It is hoped that researchers will find the questionnaire useful, will extend its validation, and continue to develop it. PMID:7849853

  11. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions

  12. Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wright, Edward

    This web page, created by Edward L. Wright of the University of California, Los Angeles, provides answers to common questions regarding cosmology. Questions include the Universe's age, its origin, its fate, and its physical properties. It is part of an in depth cosmology tutorial covering some of the history of scientific cosmology, observations, curvature, inflation, and the age of the universe.

  13. Asking Questions, All the Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    The ability to ask and answer questions while reading is essential to comprehension. This article discusses instructional strategies used to teach questioning and provides many online resources. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which explores the seven essential principles of the climate sciences for teachers in k-grade 5 classrooms.

  14. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  15. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  16. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  17. Genetic epidemiological study of schizophrenia: reproduction behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, M; Sherina, O; Ginath, Y

    1992-06-01

    Data from the Tomsk Epidemiological Register and epidemiological family sample were used to study the relationship between schizophrenics' reproductive behaviour (marital status and fertility rate), severity of ICD-9 schizophrenia and risk of illness among relatives of probands. The results are interpreted in terms of multifactorial threshold and single monolocus models. Their importance for the interpretation of epidemiological data (a change of prevalence rate, cohort effect and clinical polymorphism) is discussed. PMID:1642123

  18. Heart failure epidemiology: European perspective.

    PubMed

    Guha, K; McDonagh, T

    2013-05-01

    Heart failure poses an increasing problem for global healthcare systems. The epidemiological data which has been accrued over the last thirty years has predominantly been accumulated from experience within North America and Europe. Initial large cohort, prospective longitudinal studies produced the first publications; however latterly the focus has shifted onto epidemiological data governing hospitalisation and mortality. The emphasis behind this shift has been the resource implications with regards to repetitive, costly and prolonged hospitalisation. The European experience in heart failure, though similar to North America has recently demonstrated differences in hospitalisation which may underlie the differences between healthcare system configuration. Heart failure however remains an increasing global problem and the endpoint of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Allied with the fact of increasingly elderly populations and prior data demonstrating a steep rise in prevalent cases within more elderly populations, it is likely that the increasing burden of disease will continue to pose challenges for modern healthcare. Despite the predicted increase in the number of patients affected by heart failure, over the last thirty years, a clear management algorithm has evolved for the use of pharmacotherapies (neuro-hormonal antagonists), device based therapies (Implantable Cardioverting Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT)) and mechanical therapies including left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplantation. Though the management of such patients has been clearly delineated in national and international guidelines, the underuse of all available and appropriate therapies remains a significant problem. When comparing various epidemiological studies from different settings and timepoints, it should be remembered that rates of prevalence and incidence may vary depending upon the definition used, methods of accumulating information (with the possibility of bias) and the chosen cut point of defining left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). PMID:23597298

  19. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological transition witnessed by the developed nations, with similar matrices for India. PMID:24848651

  20. [Epidemiology and prevention of influenza].

    PubMed

    Demicheli, Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarizes information on the epidemiology of influenza and on the impact on main preventive measures. Data show as the incidence of Influenza Like Illness has been declining in the last ten years and also the seriousness of the disease, in terms of mortality and social disruption, is limited. Among preventive intervention the use of modern antiviral drugs appears to have no effect on incidence and minimal impact on duration of disease, and the overall effectiveness of vaccination with inactivated vaccine in just around 25% while higher effects are shown by public health intervention aimed to interrupt transmission of respiratory viruses like frequent handwashing and wearing mask, gloves and gown. PMID:21061710

  1. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  2. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23805178

  3. Epidemiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vollmer-Buhl, Brian

    Students will look at world health data using GIS. The students will be compare malaria and cholera death data from different years and predict if there exist the conditions for an epidemic. Students will take on the role of an epidemiologist and identify the region of the world where deaths are the highest and recommend to the World Health Organization where they should concentrate their relief efforts. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

  4. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

  5. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    DePestel, Daryl D.; Aronoff, David M.

    2014-01-01

    There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st Century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challenges in the management of CDI. The increased incidence and severity associated with CDI has coincided with the emergence and rapid spread of a previously rare strain, ribotype 027. Recent data from the U.S. and Europe suggest the incidence of CDI may have reached a crescendo in recent years and is perhaps beginning to plateau. The acute-care direct costs of CDI were estimated to be $4.8 billion in 2008. However, nearly all the published studies have focused on CDI diagnosed and treated in acute-care hospital setting and fail to measure the burden outside the hospital, including recently discharged patients, outpatients, and those in long-term care facilities. Enhanced surveillance methods are needed to monitor the incidence, identify populations at risk, and characterize the molecular epidemiology of strains causing CDI. PMID:24064435

  6. Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers. PMID:18836333

  7. Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

  8. Epidemiology of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Laura E

    2005-05-15

    The epidemiological investigation of the common open neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephaly, and spina bifida, has a long history. The most significant finding from these past studies of NTDs was the identification of the protective effect of maternal, periconceptional supplementation with folic acid. Fortuitously, the association between folic acid and NTDs became widely accepted in the early 1990s, at a time when genetic association studies of complex traits were becoming increasingly feasible. The confluence of these events has had a major impact on the direction of epidemiological, NTD research. Association studies to evaluate genes that may influence the risk of NTDs through their role in folate-related processes, or through other metabolic or developmental pathways are now commonplace. Moreover, the study of genetic as well as non-genetic, factors that may influence NTD risk through effects on the nutrient status of the mother or embryo has emerged as a major research focus. Research efforts over the past decade indicate that gene-gene, gene-environment, and higher-order interactions, as well as maternal genetic effects influence NTD risk, highlighting the complexity of the factors that underlie these conditions. The challenge for the future is to design studies that address these complexities, and are adequately powered to detect the factors or combination of factors that influence the development of NTDs. PMID:15800877

  9. MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

  10. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY: POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction The term "molecular epidemiology" has been used to cover a broad range of scientific activities, often without specific reference to epidemiology. In fact, as noted by Foxman and Riley [1],molecular epidemiology has often been described almost exclusively in...

  11. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... problem? Despite the law, the statistics, and the science, some people still think teen drinking is not a serious problem. Here are some of the more common questions and assertions you may hear from neighbors and ...

  12. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  13. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  14. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  15. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Recommend ...

  16. OSHA Frequently Asked Questions: HAZWOPER

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This OSHA web page provides answers to many of the more common questions regarding the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) regulation. Many of the answers provided are regarding the HAZWOPER training requirements.

  17. Answers to Commonly-Asked Questions Regarding the Epidemiology and Health Policy Research Breach

    E-print Network

    Guo, Jing

    participation in a HPV vaccination telephone survey. The letters included a number on the address label so your child's social security number or Medicaid identification number. Q: How did this happen? A of this information. The Social Security Number or Medicaid Identification Number belonging to the child was also

  18. Automatic Generation of Trivia Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Merzbacher

    2002-01-01

    We present a (nearly) domain-independent approach to mining trivia questions from a database. Generated questions are ranked\\u000a and are more “interesting” if they have a modest number of solutions and may reasonably be solved (but are not too easy).\\u000a Our functional model and genetic approach have several advantages: they are tractable and scalable, the hypothesis space size\\u000a is limited, and

  19. On Clickers, Questions, and Learning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Steven Skinner

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the procedures used to help students become learning victors. Specifically, this paper will discuss the process used to integrate classroom-response-system technology and question-driven instruction into an introductory anatomy and physiology course for pre-nursing/allied health students at a community college. Emphasis is placed on a systematic process for developing effective questions. Student reaction to this strategy is also discussed.

  20. Epidemiology, Science as Inquiry and Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark; Huebner, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    The recent worldwide SARS outbreak has put the science of epidemiology into the headlines once again. Epidemiology is "... the study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events and the application of these methods to the control of health problems" (Gordis 2000). In this context, the authors have developed a…

  1. Applied epidemiology and environmental health: Emerging controversies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Needleman

    1997-01-01

    This review article assesses the state of the science in environmental epidemiology, not by summarizing current scientific findings but rather by examining conceptual controversies in the study of how environmental factors influence human health. This approach seems necessary because environmental epidemiology presently stands at a crossroads—in fact, at a number of overlapping crossroads. The field teems with epistemologic debates concerning

  2. GEOVISUALIZATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: A GENERAL DESIGN FRAMEWORK

    E-print Network

    Klippel, Alexander

    GEOVISUALIZATION AND EPIDEMIOLOGY: A GENERAL DESIGN FRAMEWORK Anthony C. Robinson GeoVISTA Center design framework for a geovisualization toolkit to support epidemiological work. The framework is based with practicing epidemiologists from the National Cancer Institute and the Penn State Hershey Medical School

  3. Epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Chien Chien; Lu Pai; Chao-Cheng Lin; Heng-Chang Chen

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies based on either single hospital data or sampling of specific groups of hospitalized burns victims in Taiwan have provided only minimal epidemiological information. The study is designed to provide additional data on the epidemiology of hospitalized burns patients in Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Burn Injury Information System (BIIS), which brings together information supplied by 34 contracted

  4. Molecular epidemiology of enzootic rabies in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leta K. Crawford-Miksza; Debra A. Wadford; David P. Schnurr

    1999-01-01

    Background: Molecular characterization of rabies virus has been used to trace spillover transmission from reservoir species to non-reservoir animals and humans (molecular epidemiology), and to monitor emergence of specific strains of the virus into new species and geographic areas (molecular surveillance). Objectives: To characterize the enzootic strains of rabies virus in California wildlife for epidemiological investigation of transmission to non-reservoir

  5. The medical aspects of soccer injury epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cary S. Keller; Frank R. Noyes; C. Ralph Buncher

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the six major studies of soccer injury epidemiology are reviewed. Strengths and weaknesses of each epidemiologic design are critiqued and the crucial importance of the definition of injury is empha sized. The effect of age, sex, and intensity of play on injury rates is discussed. Our present knowledge of injury rate by anatomical site, player position, and

  6. The current epidemiology of SIDS in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Mehanni, M; Cullen, A; Kiberd, B; McDonnell, M; O'Regan, M; Matthews, T

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines some epidemiological factors associated with SIDS to give a general profile of SIDS cases occurring in Ireland between the years 1993 to 1997. There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in the Republic of Ireland in the last decade from an average rate of 2.2/1000 live-births in the 1980s to 0.8/1000 live-births in the years 1993-1997, a decrease of 100 deaths a year. The fall in the SIDS rate has been seen in many countries and is felt to be associated with Reduce The Risks (RTR) of SIDS campaigns and the avoidance of the prone sleeping position. The use of the prone sleep position averaged at 6% of children being put prone in the years 1993-1997 but the prone position has progressively decreased from 13% of children being put prone in 1994 to only 2% in 1997. The profile of the Irish SIDS cases is similar to that of SIDS cases in other countries following similar RTR campaigns with a male predominance, the characteristic clustering of deaths in the first six months of life and the majority of cases (75%) occuring in the night sleep period. The loss of the seasonal variation of the time of death is also shown and factors such as lower socio-economic status, unemployment and medical card eligibility were seen in higher proportions in SIDS families than in the general population. A high percentage of SIDS mothers smoked (73%). Higher smoking rates were seen among younger and single mothers and smoking rates were inversely related to educational level and socioeconomic grouping. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is how socioeconomic disadvantage increases the SIDS risk and what factors influence socioeconomically disadvantaged families to adopt life style and parenting practices such as smoking that influence their children's health. PMID:11209910

  7. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  8. Linking healthcare associated norovirus outbreaks: a molecular epidemiologic method for investigating transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lopman, Ben A; Gallimore, Chris; Gray, Jim J; Vipond, Ian B; Andrews, Nick; Sarangi, Joyshri; Reacher, Mark H; Brown, David W

    2006-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause gastroenteritis in the community and in semi-closed institutions such as hospitals. During outbreaks, multiple units within a hospital are often affected, and a major question for control programs is: are the affected units part of the same outbreak or are they unrelated transmission events? In practice, investigators often assume a transmission link based on epidemiological observations, rather than a systematic approach to tracing transmission. Here, we present a combined molecular and statistical method for assessing: 1) whether observed clusters provide evidence of local transmission and 2) the probability that anecdotally|linked outbreaks truly shared a transmission event. Methods 76 healthcare associated outbreaks were observed in an active and prospective surveillance scheme of 15 hospitals in the county of Avon, England from April 2002 to March 2003. Viral RNA from 64 out of 76 specimens from distinct outbreaks was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and was sequenced in the polymerase (ORF 1) and capsid (ORF 2) regions. The genetic diversity, at the nucleotide level, was analysed in relation to the epidemiological patterns. Results Two out of four genetic and epidemiological clusters of outbreaks were unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, thus suggesting local transmission. There was anecdotal epidemiological evidence of a transmission link among 5 outbreaks pairs. By combining this epidemiological observation with viral sequence data, the evidence of a link remained convincing in 3 of these pairs. These results are sensitive to prior beliefs of the strength of epidemiological evidence especially when the outbreak strains are common in the background population. Conclusion The evidence suggests that transmission between hospitals units does occur. Using the proposed criteria, certain hypothesized transmission links between outbreaks were supported while others were refuted. The combined molecular/epidemiologic approach presented here could be applied to other viral populations and potentially to other pathogens for a more thorough view of transmission. PMID:16834774

  9. Epidemiologic studies of ionizing radiation and cancer: past successes and future challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M

    1997-01-01

    The health effects of radiation have been a focus for research since early in the 20th century. As the century ends, extensive experimental and epidemiologic evidence has been accumulated that addresses the adverse consequences of radiation exposure; epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed groups from the general population and specific occupational groups provide quantitative estimates of the cancer risks associated with exposure. This report provides a perspective on the extensive epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of ionizing radiation and on likely needs for further epidemiologic research on radiation and health. Epidemiologic studies have proved informative on the quantitative risks of radiation-caused cancer but we now face the challenges of more precisely characterizing risks at lower levels of exposure and also of assessing modifiers of the risks, including dose rate, genetic susceptibility, and other environmental exposures. This report considers investigative approaches, such as pooled analysis of multiple data sets, that can be used to address these complex questions and the limitations of these approaches for addressing societal concerns about the risks of radiation exposure. PMID:9255575

  10. Epidemiological basis of malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, G.

    1956-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria is discussed with special reference to the pattern observed in equatorial Africa, where the disease is very stable and where certain features, such as severe epidemic tendencies and ready amenability to control, commonly found in other malarious regions, are lacking. The particular conditions giving rise to stability are described in detail, and the ways in which they can be modified to bring about control of the disease in its stable form are outlined. The importance of measuring certain rates—for example, the basic reproduction rate, the index of stability, and the actual reproduction rate—when making any major malaria survey is emphasized, and formulae by means of which such rates can be readily calculated are included in an annex. PMID:13404439

  11. [Epidemiology and prevention in dialysis].

    PubMed

    Cherubini, C; Barbera, G; Petrosillo, N; Di Giulio, S

    2003-01-01

    During the last years, prevention of hospital infections assumed the role of primary objective for active interventions and dedicated laws for safety in work areas and for facilities accreditation defined responsibilities and preventive measures to reduce the biological risk. Dialysis centers are areas where the infective risk is high but the strict application of the Universal Measures and of specific recommendations are sufficient to reduce the risk of diffusion and transmission of pathogens. The late referral of the ESRD patient, with or without infectious comorbidity, shows an intervention field, in which a local epidemiological survey gives useful data and stimulates the data management at hospital level (Epidemiologists and nefrologists) and family doctors, to improve the disease management of very complex and high cost patients. PMID:12851920

  12. Microwave radiation: an epidemiologic assessment.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, R M; Landau, E

    1979-01-01

    Microwave radiation is coming into increasing use in many countries; it is in use in communications, in industry, for ovens in the home and in commercial establishments and for diathermy. The power output is increasing steadily and community exposure is already a fact. East European countries claim that adverse effects can result from exposure substantially lower than levels permitted in Western countries. Also some of the effects claimed are frequent and disabling. Prolonged and cumulative exposure is especially suspect. While studies in animals are necessary, studies in man cannot be dispensed with. Extrapolation from on species of animal to another, and even more, to man, is hazardous. Moreover, epidemiologic studies are needed to uncover the potentially wide variety of subtle effects, especially mental. Fortunately, there are indices of exposure which can be used in field studies and dosimetry is reaching the point where it can be applied to field studies. PMID:395588

  13. Measurement issues in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the area of environmental epidemiology involving measurement of exposure and dose, health outcomes, and important confounding and modifying variables (including genotype and psychosocial factors). Using examples, we illustrate strategies for increasing the accuracy of exposure and dose measurement that include dosimetry algorithms, pharmacokinetic models, biologic markers, and use of multiple measures. Some limitations of these methods are described and suggestions are made about where formal evaluation might be helpful. We go on to discuss methods for assessing the inaccuracies in exposure or dose measurements, including sensitivity analysis and validation studies. In relation to measurement of health outcomes, we discuss some definitional issues and cover, among other topics, biologic effect markers and other early indicators of disease. Because measurement error in covariates is also important, we consider the problems in measurement of common confounders and effect modifiers. Finally, we cite some general methodologic research needs. PMID:8206042

  14. Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

  15. Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vini G. Khurana; Charles Teo; Michael Kundi; Lennart Hardell; Michael Carlberg

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundThe debate regarding the health effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. In the present review, the authors attempt to address the following question: is there epidemiologic evidence for an association between long-term cell phone usage and the risk of developing a brain tumor? Included with this

  16. Answering Questions about Unanswered Questions of Stack Overflow

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Kevin A.

    is an ex- ample of such a service that targets developers and software engineers. In general, questions of knowledge on the site. SO's active community attracts information seekers from around the globe harvesting its knowledge-base. Many visitors become members of the site and contribute to the site dynamics

  17. Question Taxonomy and Implications for Automatic Question Generation

    E-print Network

    Calvo, Rafael A.

    University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia Abstract: Many Automatic Question Generation (AQG academic writing. We conducted a large-scale case study with 25 supervisors and 36 research students, produced by supervisors, and how they support these students' literature review writing. In this paper, we

  18. Quick Questions: Create a Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners will conduct an open-ended survey, and then organize and analyze results. What languages does everyone speak? What’s the most common? the least common? Do you think we’d get the same results if we asked this question in a different neighborhood? Start out by posing an open-ended question. Everyone writes answers on stick-on notes and sticks them on a large piece of paper. Explore ways to organize the responses to make sense of them. For instance, if the question is about languages, one approach is to put all the stick-on notes with the same language together. A further step could involve grouping related languages (Eastern European, Southeast Asian, etc.). Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

  19. The Checkered History of American Psychiatric Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2011-01-01

    Context American psychiatry has been fascinated with statistics ever since the specialty was created in the early nineteenth century. Initially, psychiatrists hoped that statistics would reveal the benefits of institutional care. Nevertheless, their fascination with statistics was far removed from the growing importance of epidemiology generally. The impetus to create an epidemiology of mental disorders came from the emerging social sciences, whose members were concerned with developing a scientific understanding of individual and social behavior and applying it to a series of pressing social problems. Beginning in the 1920s, the interest of psychiatric epidemiologists shifted to the ways that social environments contributed to the development of mental disorders. This emphasis dramatically changed after 1980 when the policy focus of psychiatric epidemiology became the early identification and prevention of mental illness in individuals. Methods This article reviews the major developments in psychiatric epidemiology over the past century and a half. Findings The lack of an adequate classification system for mental illness has precluded the field of psychiatric epidemiology from providing causal understandings that could contribute to more adequate policies to remediate psychiatric disorders. Because of this gap, the policy influence of psychiatric epidemiology has stemmed more from institutional and ideological concerns than from knowledge about the causes of mental disorders. Conclusion Most of the problems that have bedeviled psychiatric epidemiology since its inception remain unresolved. In particular, until epidemiologists develop adequate methods to measure mental illnesses in community populations, the policy contributions of this field will not be fully realized. PMID:22188350

  20. An animated depiction of major depression epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Scott B

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic estimates are now available for a variety of parameters related to major depression epidemiology (incidence, prevalence, etc.). These estimates are potentially useful for policy and planning purposes, but it is first necessary that they be synthesized into a coherent picture of the epidemiology of the condition. Several attempts to do so have been made using mathematical modeling procedures. However, this information is not easy to communicate to users of epidemiological data (clinicians, administrators, policy makers). Methods In this study, up-to-date data on major depression epidemiology were integrated using a discrete event simulation model. The mathematical model was animated in Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to create a visual, rather than mathematical, depiction of the epidemiology. Results Consistent with existing literature, the model highlights potential advantages of population health strategies that emphasize access to effective long-term treatment. The paper contains a web-link to the animation. Conclusion Visual animation of epidemiological results may be an effective knowledge translation tool. In clinical practice, such animations could potentially assist with patient education and enhanced long-term compliance. PMID:17559663

  1. Response times to conceptual questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

  2. Global Warming: Frequently Asked Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Easterling

    This global warming site contains questions commonly addressed to climate scientists and brief replies (based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and other research). The questions concern the greenhouse effect and its impact on our climate, whether greenhouse gases are increasing and the climate warming, the relation of El Nino to global warming, change in the hydrological cycle (evaporation and precipitation) and atmospheric/oceanic circulation, climate becoming more variable and extreme, the importance of these changes in a longer-term context, the rise of sea levels, whether the observed changes can be explained by natural variability, and the future of global warming.

  3. 10/16/2014 Prepared by the Purdue Public Health Emergency Planning Committee. For the latest information, please see www.cdc.gov/ebola Ebola Virus Disease FAQ for the Purdue Community

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    information, please see www.cdc.gov/ebola Ebola Virus Disease FAQ for the Purdue Community What is Ebola? Ebola virus disease (EVD), previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a rare and deadly disease caused by infection with one of the Ebola virus strains. See CDC website for more detailed information

  4. On framing the research question and choosing the appropriate research design.

    PubMed

    Parfrey, Patrick S; Ravani, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Clinical epidemiology is the science of human disease investigation with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The generation of a reasonable question requires definition of patients, interventions, controls, and outcomes. The goal of research design is to minimize error, to ensure adequate samples, to measure input and output variables appropriately, to consider external and internal validities, to limit bias, and to address clinical as well as statistical relevance. The hierarchy of evidence for clinical decision-making places randomized controlled trials (RCT) or systematic review of good quality RCTs at the top of the evidence pyramid. Prognostic and etiologic questions are best addressed with longitudinal cohort studies. PMID:25694301

  5. Atherogenesis and iron: from epidemiology to cellular level

    PubMed Central

    Vinchi, Francesca; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Da Silva, Milene C.; Balla, György; Balla, József; Jeney, Viktória

    2014-01-01

    Iron accumulates in human atherosclerotic lesions but whether it is a cause or simply a downstream consequence of the atheroma formation has been an open question for decades. According to the so called “iron hypothesis,” iron is believed to be detrimental for the cardiovascular system, thus promoting atherosclerosis development and progression. Iron, in its catalytically active form, can participate in the generation of reactive oxygen species and induce lipid-peroxidation, triggering endothelial activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and macrophage activation; all of these processes are considered to be proatherogenic. On the other hand, the observation that hemochromatotic patients, affected by life-long iron overload, do not show any increased incidence of atherosclerosis is perceived as the most convincing evidence against the “iron hypothesis.” Epidemiological studies and data from animal models provided conflicting evidences about the role of iron in atherogenesis. Therefore, more careful studies are needed in which issues like the source and the compartmentalization of iron will be addressed. This review article summarizes what we have learnt about iron and atherosclerosis from epidemiological studies, animal models and cellular systems and highlights the rather contributory than innocent role of iron in atherogenesis. PMID:24847266

  6. A New Era of Low-Dose Radiation Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Linet, Martha S.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Ntowe, Estelle; de González, Amy Berrington

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has introduced a new era of epidemiologic studies of low-dose radiation facilitated by electronic record linkage and pooling of cohorts that allow for more direct and powerful assessments of cancer and other stochastic effects at doses below 100 mGy. Such studies have provided additional evidence regarding the risks of cancer, particularly leukemia, associated with lower-dose radiation exposures from medical, environmental, and occupational radiation sources, and have questioned the previous findings with regard to possible thresholds for cardiovascular disease and cataracts. Integrated analysis of next generation genomic and epigenetic sequencing of germline and somatic tissues could soon propel our understanding further regarding disease risk thresholds, radiosensitivity of population subgroups and individuals, and the mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. These advances in low-dose radiation epidemiology are critical to our understanding of chronic disease risks from the burgeoning use of newer and emerging medical imaging technologies, and the continued potential threat of nuclear power plant accidents or other radiological emergencies. PMID:22550076

  7. The population biology of coccidioides: epidemiologic implications for disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Barker, B M; Jewell, K A; Kroken, S; Orbach, M J

    2007-09-01

    Studies of field- and patient-derived isolates conducted over the past 75 years have provided a general picture of the population structure of Coccidioides, the cause of coccidioidomycosis. Premolecular studies provided a general outline of the geographical range, epidemiology and distribution of the fungus. Recent studies based on molecular markers have demonstrated that the genus is comprised of two genetically diverse, and genetically isolated, species: Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii. Both species are composed of biogeographically distinct populations. Structure for two of these populations (C. immitis from central California, and C. posadasii from southern Arizona) indicates that frequent genetic recombination occurs within the entire geographic range of each population, even though sex has never been observed in the genus. Outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis are not the result of the spread of a single clonal isolate, but are caused by a diversity of genotypes. Although it is now possible to match patient isolates to populations, the lack of apparent structure within each population and the current paucity of environmental isolates limit map-based epidemiological approaches to understanding outbreaks. Therefore, a comprehensive database comprised of soil-derived isolates from across the biogeographic range of Coccidioides will improve the utility of this approach. Appropriate collection of environmental isolates will assist the investigation of remaining questions regarding the population biology of Coccidioides. The comparative genomics of representative genotypes from both species and all populations of Coccidioides will provide a thorough set of genetic markers in order to resolve the population genetics of this pathogenic fungus. PMID:17344537

  8. Key questions regarding work engagement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold B. Bakker; Simon L. Albrecht; Michael P. Leiter

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of work engagement and summarizes research on its most important antecedents. The authors formulate 10 key questions and shape a research agenda for engagement. In addition to the conceptual development and measurement of enduring work engagement, the authors discuss the importance of state work engagement. Further, they argue that the social context is crucial and

  9. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  10. Practice Questions for Business Statistics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Schott, Brian

    This site offers a list of sample questions that can be used when teaching basic probability concepts, probability distributions, data collection methods, inferential statistics, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, regression analysis, or problem sensing related to descriptive statistics. Links to the answers are also provided. Application is not limited to business.

  11. In this Issue: Questioning "Professor

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    interdependent world is far from an integrated world," said Bill Clinton in a wide-ranging address to the Hunter welcomes former U.S. President Bill Clinton and Hunter alumnus Mel Tukman ('61), sponsor of HunterIn this Issue: Questioning "Professor Clinton" page 2 page 2 Hunter Student Wins Fulbright page 3

  12. Salvaging Timber: Frequently Asked Questions 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

    2005-10-19

    When timber is damaged by a storm, landowners may have questions such as "Who can I call for help? "How fast do I need to salvage my damaged timber? or "How can timber value be estimated in damaged timber stands? This publication answers...

  13. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  14. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  15. For Research Questions to ask

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    CT Scans For Research Questions to ask: 1. Is this CT being done specifically for the research study or is it also a part of my regular medical care? 2. Where will I go for my CT scan? 3. How many Procedures: CT Scans What is computed tomography (CT)? Computed tomography (CT) is a procedure that uses x

  16. Response to Literature: Student Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Deborah L.

    Reading comprehension involves making connections between prior knowledge and the visual information on the page. To reduce uncertainty, the reader makes orthographic, syntactic, or semantic predictions. Thus, comprehension is relative, dependent on the answers to different readers' different kinds of questions. The reader does not record a…

  17. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  18. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multimedia & Tools Partners About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Questions and Answers Language: English Espańol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Why can’t I wait until I’m pregnant—or planning to get pregnant to start taking folic acid? ...

  19. Question & Answer QQ&&AA

    E-print Network

    ssyysstteemmss bbiioollooggyy?? Systems biology is the study of com- plex gene networks, protein networks as an amplifier, a switch or a logic gate. Typically, the graphs of these systems possess fewer than a dozen (or a good answer to this question. He likens biology's current status to that of planetary astronomy

  20. Questions Teachers Ask about Spelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Shane; Morris, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    Answers teachers' most frequently asked questions about spelling, including issues related to why English spelling is the way it is; how students learn to spell; selection and organization of spelling words; determining spelling levels; invented spelling; effective instructional activities; spelling strategies; assessment; and adjusting…

  1. Cloud Seeding Frequently Asked Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Griffith, Don

    This site is provided by North American Weather Consultants, Inc. The site briefly answers questions such as "when did application of modern cloud seeding technology begin?," "Is cloud seeding effective?," and "Do the commonly used seeding materials pose any direct health or environmental risks?"

  2. Solar Physics: The Big Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hathaway, David

    This site describes unanswered questions about the sun. These include the coronal heating process, the nature of solar flares, the origin of the sunspot cycle, and missing neutrinos. In each case the problem is stated along with what is known to date. The text includes links to further information.

  3. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  4. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Espańol ... Guy's Guide to Body Image Questions to Ask Your Doctor KidsHealth > Teens > ...

  5. [Questions by adolescents about dieting].

    PubMed

    Bloch, A

    1989-12-15

    In recent years there has been increasing concern and involvement of Israeli adolescents with dieting. An increase in the incidence of obesity has been emphasized by the mass media. This has been marked by an increase in the number of questions on dieting sent anonymously by 12 to 14 year-olds to a column in a popular youth magazine about adolescent sexuality. These letters include requests for diets to prevent obesity in general and fatness of certain parts of the body in particular, such as the thighs or buttocks; questions as to side-effects of diets already started, particularly amenorrhea; and questions about the onset of bulimia and anorexia nervosa, expressing fear of the consequences. This study gives examples of the questions and the answers, and indicates the professions of those to whom the applicants were referred for further diagnosis and treatment. Newer techniques of health education with regard to adolescent dieting are urgently needed so that the health staff can promote insight and indicate the need for treatment at as early a stage as possible. The use of mass media in a suitable manner is critical, given the increase in diet-advertising. PMID:2620891

  6. Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Olga; Lobo, Maria Luisa; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives. PMID:23091702

  7. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  9. Synergizing Epidemiologic Research on Rare Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Search EGRP: Main Menu EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

  10. 2011 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course

    Cancer.gov

    2011 - Three-day course intended for people with backgrounds in epidemiology who are interested in learning about the health effects of radiation exposure–particularly the relationship between ionizing radiation and cancer.

  11. Diagnosis, epidemiology and treatment of inflammatory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Baig, Fahd; Knopp, Michael; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews the main diagnostic, epidemiological and therapeutic issues relating to the three main inflammatory neuropathies: Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy. The current knowledge base and recent developments are described. PMID:22875431

  12. DESIGN OF EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will describe the following items: (1) London daily air pollution and deaths that demonstrate how time series epidemiology can indicate that air pollution caused death; (2) Sophisticated statistical models required to establish this relationship for lower pollut...

  13. Epidemiologic Clues to Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles N. Bernstein

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the recent literature exploring the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is reviewed. Epidemiologic\\u000a studies present data on disease burden, but may also provide clues to disease etiology. The emergence of IBD in developing\\u000a nations warrants a systematic search for environmental changes in those countries to explain the evolution of IBD. The hygiene\\u000a hypothesis suggests that an

  14. The evolving epidemiology of stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Roudakova, Ksenia; Monga, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of kidney stones is evolving – not only is the prevalence increasing, but also the gender gap has narrowed. What drives these changes? Diet, obesity or environmental factors? This article will review the possible explanations for a shift in the epidemiology, with the hope of gaining a better understanding of the extent to which modifiable risk factors play a role on stone formation and what measures may be undertaken for disease prevention in view of these changing trends. PMID:24497682

  15. Molecular epidemiology of enzootic rabies in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leta K. Crawford-Miksza; Debra A. Wadford; David P. Schnurr

    Background: Molecular characterization of rabies virus has been used to trace spillover transmission from reservoir species to non-reservoir animals and humans (molecular epidemiology), and to monitor emergence of specific strains of the virus into new species and geographic areas (molecular surveillance). Objecti6es: To characterize the enzootic strains of rabies virus in California wildlife for epidemiological investigation of transmission to non-reservoir

  16. Improving methods for reporting spatial epidemiologic data

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    2008-08-01

    and Eisen correctly pointed out that these problems complicate spatial analyses of epidemiologic data (1). However, the solutions that they pro- pose, referencing epidemiologic data to ZIP codes or census tracts, partially solve only the fi rst problem.... The problem of regional differ- ences in spatial resolution of coun- ty-referenced data is, unfortunately, refl ected in counties, ZIP codes, and census tracts, as shown in plots of nearest-neighbor distances among unit centroids as a function of longi...

  17. Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian R. Matlaga; Anthony J. Schaeffer; Thomas E. Novak; Bruce J. Trock

    2010-01-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein,\\u000a we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID).\\u000a Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence\\u000a over time, and medical comorbidities associated

  18. Yersinia enterocolitica: Epidemiological Studies and Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Bonny, Tania S.; Stonsaovapak, Siriporn; Ananchaipattana, Chiraporn

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common bacteriological cause of gastrointestinal disease in many developed and developing countries. Although contaminated food is the main source of human infection due to Y. enterocolitica, animal reservoir and contaminated environment are also considered as other possible infection sources for human in epidemiological studies. Molecular based epidemiological studies are found to be more efficient in investigating the occurrence of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in natural samples, in addition to conventional culture based studies. PMID:22567324

  19. Trichloroethylene and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Wartenberg, D; Reyner, D; Scott, C S

    2000-01-01

    Trichloroethylene is an organic chemical that has been used in dry cleaning, for metal degreasing, and as a solvent for oils and resins. It has been shown to cause liver and kidney cancer in experimental animals. This article reviews over 80 published papers and letters on the cancer epidemiology of people exposed to trichloroethylene. Evidence of excess cancer incidence among occupational cohorts with the most rigorous exposure assessment is found for kidney cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7), liver cancer (RR = 1.9, 95% CI(1.0-3.4), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.3) as well as for cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and multiple myeloma. However, since few studies isolate trichloroethylene exposure, results are likely confounded by exposure to other solvents and other risk factors. Although we believe that solvent exposure causes cancer in humans and that trichloroethylene likely is one of the active agents, we recommend further study to better specify the specific agents that confer this risk and to estimate the magnitude of that risk. PMID:10807550

  20. [Epidemiology of severe cranial injuries].

    PubMed

    Masson, F

    2000-04-01

    Head injuries (HI) are one of the most common causes of death, morbidity and disabilities in young adults. Epidemiological studies allow a quantitative estimation in terms of incidence and a qualitative estimate for the identification of risk factors in specific populations. These estimates may enable appropriate prevention programs. Estimates of annual incidence rates depend on territories, periods and methodological tools. Annual rates for hospitalized patients are found between 150 and 300/100,000 inhabitants. Severity of HI can be assessed by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) or the Post-Traumatic Amnesia duration. Annual incidences of severe HI will depend on the selected score: around 25/100,000 inhabitants for cerebral trauma with intracranial injuries, around 9/100,000 for the most severe HI, with an AIS maximum of 5 with coma. The male:female ratio increases with degree of severity. Traffic accidents were the most frequent cause of HI. Many patients have associated injuries, worsening the outcome. Some risk factors are considered. Preventive measures are mainly conducted for traffic accidents, and include speed limit and regulations on helmet or seat belt use. Results of these measures are analysed. PMID:10836112

  1. Epidemiologic features of canine hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Milne, K L; Hayes, H M

    1981-01-01

    This study investigates the epidemiologic features of 3,206 dogs diagnosed with hypothyroidism (including myxedema) from 1.1 million dogs seen at 15 veterinary teaching hospitals between March, 1964 and June, 1978. Nine breeds found to be at high-risk for hypothyroidism were: golden retrievers, Doberman pinschers, dachshunds, Shetland sheepdogs, Irish setters, Pomeranians, miniature schnauzers, cocker spaniels, and Airedales. Two breed with a significant deficit of risk were German shepherds and mixed breed (mongrel) dogs. Age risk was greatest among younger dogs of high-risk breeds, further suggesting a genetic component to the etiology of this disease. In contrast, low-risk dogs had increasing relative risk through nine years of age. Spayed female dogs displayed a significantly higher risk when compared to intact females. Though not statistically significant, male castrated dogs had 30% more hypothyroidism compared to their intact counterparts. Among the case series were 91 endocrine and hormone-related neoplasms and 198 other endocrine-related disorders. Further studies linking canine hypothyroidism to other conditions, particularly cancer, could provide valuable insight into human disease experience. PMID:7226844

  2. Epidemiology of HBV subgenotypes D.

    PubMed

    Ozaras, Resat; Inanc Balkan, Ilker; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tabak, Fehmi

    2015-02-01

    The natural history of hepatitis B virus infection is not uniform and affected from several factors including, HBV genotype. Genotype D is a widely distributed genotype. Among genotype D, several subgenotypes differentiate epidemiologically and probably clinically. D1 is predominant in Middle East and North Africa, and characterized by early HBeAg seroconversion and low viral load. D2 is seen in Albania, Turkey, Brazil, western India, Lebanon, and Serbia. D3 was reported from Serbia, western India, and Indonesia. It is a predominant subgenotype in injection drug use-related acute HBV infections in Europe and Canada. D4 is relatively rare and reported from Haiti, Russia and Baltic region, Brazil, Kenya, Morocco and Rwanda. Subgenotype D5 seems to be common in Eastern India. D6 has been reported as a rare subgenotype from Indonesia, Kenya, Russia and Baltic region. D7 is the main genotype in Morocco and Tunisia. D8 and D9 are recently described subgenotypes and reported from Niger and India, respectively. Subgenotypes of genotype D may have clinical and/or viral differences. More subgenotype studies are required to conclude on subgenotype and its clinical/viral characteristics. PMID:25037178

  3. Epidemiological basis of tuberculosis eradication

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Ole; Wilbek, Erik; Erickson, Pennifer A.

    1969-01-01

    The introduction of chemotherapy dramatically changed the epidemiology of tuberculosis as the risk of infection was thereby nearly eliminated. The present paper illustrates the risk of disease under these conditions. A large and representative segment of the Danish population, a total of over 626 000 persons aged 15-44 years, was examined by a standardized technique in 1950-52 and has now been followed for 12 years. It has been possible by means of simple parameters such as infection and vaccination status, X-ray lesion and age to divide the population into groups with widely different incidence rates. The time trend in disease rates among vaccinated persons and natural reactors suggests that post-primary tuberculosis is of great significance in the present tuberculosis situation. Three-quarters of all cases stem from the natural reactors. It would have been of great practical significance to identify high-risk groups which yielded a great part of the patients. This was not possible since the majority of cases developed among reactors whose distinctive feature was that they were infected at time of examination. PMID:5309087

  4. Snowboard traumatology: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Pigozzi, F; Santori, N; Di Salvo, V; Parisi, A; Di-Luigi, L

    1997-06-01

    In the past 10 years, snowboarding has become a popular winter sport among young people, and the number of accidents has increased proportionately. The incidence of traumas from snowboarding is shown to be 4 to 6 for every 1000 medical examinations, which is similar to that of downhill skiing. However, other important statistical differences exist between the two sports. This study of 106 snowboarding-related injury cases analyzes the epidemiology of these injuries in Italy. Results found that 45.1% of injuries are located in the upper limbs and that significant advantages are obtained with the introduction of guards to protect the upper limbs during descent. Serious ligament injuries to the knee are more rare in snowboarding than in downhill skiing. In both sports, injuries are more common with rigid boots, which lead to a higher incidence of injury to the upper limbs. Finally, a high percentage of injury to beginners was found in this study. Training courses for those who are considering taking up the sport of snowboarding could significantly lower their risk of trauma. PMID:9195633

  5. Frequently Asked Questions: NRSA Fellowships

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-09-15

    The NIH supports various Individual Fellowship Programs, all of which have transitioned to the electronic application submission process through grants.gov with the August 2009 application receipt dates. While most programs are funded under the authority for National Research Service Awards or NRSA (e.g., F30, F31, F32, F33), there are non-NRSA programs (e.g., F05, F37) that may vary in the applicant institution and fellow eligibility requirements, funding amounts, and specific program related issues (see the NIH F Kiosk). Each NIH fellowship program is announced as a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. This document represents frequently asked questions and answers to many questions fielded by the Office of Extramural Programs (OEP).

  6. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  7. Visions for the 20th International Epidemiological Association's World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014).

    PubMed

    Monsour, B B; Johnston, J M; Hennessy, T W; Schmidt, M I; Krieger, N

    2012-03-01

    During August 17th-21st, 2014, the University of Alaska Anchorage, along with other local, state, and federal agencies throughout Alaska, will host the 20(th) International Epidemiological Association's (IEA) World Congress of Epidemiology (WCE 2014). The theme for this Congress is "Global Epidemiology in a Changing Environment: The Circumpolar Perspective." The changing environment includes the full range of environments that shape population health and health inequities from the physical to the social and economic. Our circumpolar perspective on these environments includes views on how political systems, work, immigration, Indigenous status, and gender relations and sexuality affect the global world and the health of its people. Suggestions and insights from the 3(rd) North American Congress of Epidemiology (2011) and the first-ever joint regional workshop co-organized by the IEA North American Region and the IEA Latin American and Caribbean Region held at the 19(th) IEA World Congress of Epidemiology (2011) have helped direct the focus for WCE 2014. Since the Arctic regions are feeling the effects of climate change first, we believe focusing on the emerging data on the health impacts of climate change throughout the world will be an important topic for this Congress. This will include a broad range of more traditional epidemiology areas such as infectious disease epidemiology, environmental epidemiology, health disparities, and surveillance and emergency preparedness. Addressing health inequities and promoting health equity is likewise a key concern of the Congress. This Congress will also host presentations on injury epidemiology, occupational health, infectious diseases, chronic diseases, maternal and child health, surveillance and field epidemiology, mental health, violence (from self-directed, e.g., suicide, to interpersonal to structural), psychoactive substance use (including tobacco), and measures of subjective health. Attention will be given to epidemiology's theoretical frameworks and emphasizing knowledge translation, from epidemiology to health systems, to policy, and to the broader public. We also plan to offer many hands-on workshops including practical uses of epidemiology to improve health systems and reduce health inequities within and between countries; the manner in which epidemiology can inform public health practice; the understanding and use of the Dictionary of Epidemiology; and many others. PMID:22325675

  8. PBS: The Question of God

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PBS may not have cornered the entire market on thoughtful and intelligent television programming, but they certainly have garnered the lion's share of this type of material. One of the network's most recent programs (and this website which accompanies it), The Question of God, is certainly proof positive of this fact. The four-hour series (based on a popular Harvard course taught by Dr. Armand Nicholi) explores some of the basic questions of humanity, such as "What is happiness?" and "How do we find meaning and purpose in our lives?" The program itself does this by looking through the lens of the eyes of two of the 20th century's most well-known intellectuals, Sigmund Freud, who was a strong critic of religious belief, and C.S. Lewis, who was a strong proponent of "faith based on reason." On the site, visitors can learn about the lives of Freud and Lewis through excerpts from their own writings, read synopses of the programs, and read other perspectives on the question of God from such individuals as Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and D.T. Suzuki. Additionally, visitors can watch clips from the program and listen in on roundtable conversations moderated by Dr. Nicholi.

  9. Elder Abuse FAQS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... around the world: An overview. Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, 10, 497-508. ; Lusardi, A., & Mitchell, ... planning in the United States. Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, 10, 509-525. Gingrich, N., & Kerrey, ...

  10. FAQs: Japan Nuclear Concerns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... early actions in response to events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant were in line with ... living within a 20-kilometre radius around the Fukushima Daiichi plant. Those living between 20 km and ...

  11. Pelvic Pain: Other FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Round-up: Endometriosis High-tech analysis of genetic data may yield new test for endometriosis All related news Home Accessibility Contact Disclaimer Privacy Policy FOIA Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube Mobile RSS ...

  12. AGU election FAQs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Many of you are aware that this is an election year, and I don't mean electing the next president of the United States! This is AGU's election year, and the polls are opening soon. Your vote matters. Eligible voters should vote, and now is the time to learn about the candidates. There are no TV ads, and the candidates won't be covered in the news. However, electing AGU leaders for the next term affects the future direction of the Union. Please take a few minutes to visit the election Web site (http://sites.agu.org/elections/) and review the candidate bios.

  13. Prosthetic Care FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... practice management. What is a Certified Prosthetist (CP)? ABC Certified Prosthetists are healthcare professionals that have demonstrated ... test their knowledge and skills in this discipline. ABC Certified Prosthetists must also maintain their credential through ...

  14. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Heart Insight magazine and monthly e-newsletter Our digital magazine delivers helpful articles and the latest news on keeping your ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you ...

  15. ToxFAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry Search The CDC Search Button Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Toxic Substances Portal Toxic Substances Portal Substances List Substances ...

  16. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when exposed skin comes in contact with contaminated soil or sand. The larvae in the contaminated soil or sand will burrow into the skin and ... measures to avoid skin contact with sand or soil will prevent infection with zoonotic hookworms. Travelers to ...

  17. Orthodontic Treatment FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... David Sarver, Snead, AL Kory Cook Kory Cook World Champion BMX Racer At the age of five ... Cycling National Champion and UCI (Union Cycliste International) World Champion in 2009. Now in his 17th racing ...

  18. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicine called ivermectin. In what parts of the world am I more likely to get onchocerciasis? Onchocerciasis ... very successful disease control programs led by the World Health Organization (WHO). These programs are based on ...

  19. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for long periods of time, even without a blood meal. Bed bugs are usually transported from place to place as people travel. The bed bugs travel in the seams and folds of luggage, overnight bags, folded clothes, bedding, furniture, and anywhere else where ...

  20. Acanthamoeba Keratitis FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to clean the lenses) Swimming, using a hot tub, or showering while wearing lenses Coming into contact ... contact with water, including showering, using a hot tub, or swimming. Wash hands with soap and water ...

  1. FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Surveillance Software Health Education Public Service Videos Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Top of Page If I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself ...

  2. Epidemiology, Etiology, and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, Richard E.

    2000-02-23

    Veterinary oncology has seen tremendous growth since the first textbook devoted to the subject in the late 1970s. Cancer is usually at the top of the list when owners ask about health concerns for their pets (and it remains the leading cause of death among dogs and cats). The volume, Veterinary Oncology Secrets, joins others in the series by presenting in question and answer format the type of information so important to veterinary students, interns and residents, general practitioners, and specialists in a number of clinical fields.

  3. Exertional sickling: questions and controversy

    PubMed Central

    Blinder, Morey A.; Russel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) occurs in about 8% of African-Americans and is often described to be of little clinical consequence. Over time, a number of risks have emerged, and among these are rare but catastrophic episodes of sudden death in athletes and other individuals associated with physical activities which is often described as exercise collapse associated with sickle trait (ECAST). Despite an epidemiologic link between SCT and sudden death as well as numerous case reports in both medical literature and lay press, no clear understanding of the key pathophysiologic events has been identified. Strategies for identification of individuals at risk and prevention of ECAST have been both elusive and controversial. Stakeholders have advocated for different approaches to this issue particularly with regard to screening for hemoglobin S. Furthermore, the recommendations and guidelines that are in place for the early recognition of ECAST and the prevention and treatment of the illness are not well defined and remain fragmented. Among the cases identified, those in collegiate football players in the United States are often highlighted. This manuscript examines these case studies and the current recommendations to identify areas of consensus and controversy regarding recommendations for prevention, recognition and treatment of ECAST. PMID:25568759

  4. [Epidemiology of diabetic foot problems].

    PubMed

    Richard, J-L; Schuldiner, S

    2008-09-01

    Since diabetes mellitus is growing at epidemic proportions worldwide, the prevalence of diabetes-related complications is bound to increase. Diabetic foot disorders, a major source of disability and morbidity, are a significant burden for the community and a true public health problem. Many epidemiological data have been published on the diabetic foot but they are difficult to interpret because of variability in the methodology and in the definitions used in these studies. Moreover, there is a lack of consistency in population characteristics (ethnicity, social level, accessibility to care) and how results are expressed. In westernized countries, two of 100 diabetic patients are estimated to suffer from a foot ulcer every year. Amputation rates vary considerably: incidence ranges from 1 per thousand in the Madrid area and in Japan to up to 20 per thousand in some Indian tribes in North America. In metropolitan France, the incidence of lower-limb amputation is approximately 2 per thousand but with marked regional differences, and in French overseas territories, the incidence rate is much higher. Nevertheless, the risk for ulceration and amputation is much higher in diabetics compared to the nondiabetic population: the lifetime risk of a diabetic individual developing an ulcer is as high as 25% and it is estimated that every 30s an amputation is performed for a diabetic somewhere in the world. As reviewed in this paper, peripheral neuropathy, arterial disease, and foot deformities are the main factors accounting for this increased risk. Age and sex as well as social and cultural status are contributing factors. Knowing these factors is essential to classify every diabetic using a risk grading system and to take preventive measures accordingly. PMID:18822247

  5. Mesothelioma Epidemiology, Carcinogenesis and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haining; Testa, Joseph R.; Carbone, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Opinion Statement The incidence of mesothelioma has gone from almost none to the current 2500–3000 cases per year in the USA. This estimate is an extrapolation based on information available from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program that collects information on approximately 12% of the US population. Mesothelioma is a cancer that is linked to exposure to carcinogenic mineral fibers. Asbestos and erionite have a proven causative role; the possible role of other mineral fibers in causing mesothelioma is being investigated. Asbestos is considered the main cause of mesothelioma in the US and in the Western world. The capacity of asbestos to induce mesothelioma has been linked to it ability to cause the release of TNF-? (that promotes mesothelial cells survival), other cytokines and growth factors, and of mutagenic oxygen radicals from exposed mesothelial cells and nearby macrophages. Some investigators proposed that as a consequence of the regulations to prevent exposure and to forbid and or limit the use of asbestos, the incidence of mesothelioma in the US (and in some European countries) should have started to decline before or around the year 2000, and sharply decline thereafter. Unfortunately, there are no data available yet to support this optimistic hypothesis. Simian virus 40 (SV40) infection and radiation exposure are additional causes, although their contribution to the overall incidence of mesothelioma is unknown. Recent data from several laboratories indicate that asbestos exposure and SV40 infection are co-carcinogens in causing mesothelioma in rodents and in causing malignant transformation of human mesothelial cells in tissue culture. An exciting new development comes from the discovery that genetic susceptibility to mineral fiber carcinogenesis plays a critical role in the incidence of this cancer in certain families. It is hoped that the identification of this putative mesothelioma gene will lead to novel mechanistically driven preventive and therapeutic approaches. PMID:18709470

  6. Epidemiology of paramphistomosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, P F; Boray, J C; Nichols, P; Collins, G H

    1991-11-01

    The epidemiology of paramphistomosis in cattle was studied using tracer calves in a subtropical location in eastern Australia. Two species of paramphistomes were present; Calicophoron calicophorum and Paramphistomum ichikawai. The former species was the most abundant. Gyraulus scottianus and Helicorbis australiensis acted as intermediate hosts, respectively. Paramphistome burdens varied seasonally and were dependent upon the number of infected host snails. Peak fluke burdens and clinical paramphistomosis occurred in late summer in year 1 and early winter in year 2. The peak fluke burdens coincided with prolonged inundation of the grazing areas resulting in rapid multiplication and infection of host snails, and the period after the inundated areas dried out. The prevalence of infection in snails was high in both years, peaking at 98% in year 1 and 58% in year 2. The main host snail, G. scottianus, aestivated and retained infection for at least 24 weeks in soil, and in vegetable debris on the surface of the soil, resulting in rapid reappearance of host snails and infective metacercariae after the onset of seasonal rain. Metacercariae survived on herbage for up to 12 weeks, depending on the environmental conditions. Paramphistome burdens in calves could be predicted from the prevalence of infection in the host snail, the water levels and an index of surface water on the grazing site. Control of paramphistomosis during and after flooding may be achieved by removal of susceptible cattle from pasture or regular treatment during these periods. Strategic treatment during the dry season may reduce contamination of snail habitats and infectivity of the pasture in the following wet season. PMID:1774118

  7. Descriptive Epidemiology of Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, Giovanni; Jankovic, Joseph; Giel, Jennifer L.; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia, has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with variable clinical features, leading to difficulties and delays in diagnosis. Owing to the lack of reviews specifically focusing on the frequency of primary CD in the general population, we performed a systematic literature search to examine its prevalence/incidence and analyze methodological differences among studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search to examine the prevalence data of primary focal CD. Sixteen articles met our methodological criteria. Because the reported prevalence estimates were found to vary widely across studies, we analyzed methodological differences and other factors to determine whether true differences exist in prevalence rates among geographic areas (and by gender and age distributions), as well as to facilitate recommendations for future studies. Results Prevalence estimates ranged from 20–4,100?cases/million. Generally, studies that relied on service-based and record-linkage system data likely underestimated the prevalence of CD, whereas population-based studies suffered from over-ascertainment. The more methodologically robust studies yielded a range of estimates of 28–183?cases/million. Despite the varying prevalence estimates, an approximate 2:1 female:male ratio was consistent among many studies. Three studies estimated incidence, ranging from 8–12 cases/million person-years. Discussion Although several studies have attempted to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CD, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiological studies on primary CD that include large populations; use defined CD diagnostic criteria; and stratify for factors such as age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:24255801

  8. [Epidemiological aspects of congenital stridor].

    PubMed

    Soldatski?, Iu L; Za?tseva, O V; Striga, E V; Onufrieva, E K; Tilikina, L G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study epidemiology of congenital stridor as a leading symptom of laryngeal malformation. The continuous sampling method was employed to perform the retrospective analysis of the growth charts of the patients attending three children's polyclinics in Moscow (9.625 patients born between 2005 and 2009). In addition, the medical histories of 4.623 newborn and breast-fed babies under the age of 1 year admitted to the Department of Newborn and Neonatal Pathology, Saint Vladimir City Children's Clinical Hospital, and 347 patients of the Department of Reconstructive Laryngeal Surgery were analysed. The children with the history of tracheal intubation in the preceding period were excluded from the study. The frequency of congenital stridor annually diagnosed in the aforementioned polyclinics varied from 0.17 to 5.8% compared with 1.5% in the general population. It was 2.21 to 3.14% (mean 2.47%) among the children treated at the Clinical Hospital. In the children under the age of 1 year, congenital malformations accounted for 90.8% of all laryngeal diseases. The principal cause of stridor was shown to be laryngomalacia. This pathology was diagnosed in 91.9% of the cases included in this study. In 11.2% of the patients, this condition occurred in combination with other congenital pathologies. It is concluded that the diagnosis of congenital stridor is an indication for laryngeal endoscopy regardless of the children's age starting from the first day of life. Meeting this recommendation allows the cause of stridor to be established and the treatment strategy to be developed on an individual basis. PMID:22951680

  9. [Epidemiology of risks in the workplace].

    PubMed

    Keil, U; Weiland, S K; Birk, T; Spelsberg, A

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of occupationally exposed subjects allow to detect diseases caused by the work environment and to identify hazardous exposures. They provide the basis for preventive measures and workers compensation. Occupational epidemiology traditionally emphasized the study of work related cancer. Long latency periods for the development of most cancers and limited information about the exposure history of the study subjects are problems for all study types. The specific advantages and limitations of different study designs are discussed. Research strategies in occupational epidemiology are demonstrated using as an example two studies from the American tire and rubber industry. The specific contributions of a historical cohort study and a nested case-control study, concerning the association between lymphosarcoma and exposure to solvents, are discussed. Experiences and first results from a historical cohort study in the German rubber industry are reported. Future research in occupational epidemiology should concentrate more on the study of work related morbidity such as musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, accidents and the influence of the work environment on the mental and physical well being. Modern research methods such as prospective cohort studies or workforce monitoring should be used more often. Prospective cohort studies provide quantitatively and qualitatively more precise information about exposures and potential confounders, e.g. cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption, than traditional study methods. The promising perspectives of biological markers warrant further research. The situation of occupational epidemiology in Germany can only be improved if all concerned parties and institutions realize the importance of occupational epidemiology. Laws concerning data confidentiality which seriously hamper epidemiologic research must be modified. PMID:1604936

  10. That's Fast! Questions Section 5.2

    E-print Network

    That's Fast! Questions · Section 5.2 That's Fast! Questions · Section 5.2 STOPfor science Science? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ That's Fast! Questions · Section 5.2 STOPfor science Science Topic Outreach posters #12;That's Fast! Answers · Section 5.2 STOPfor science Science Topic Outreach posters Level ONE Questions (#1-3) 1. What

  11. Sample Interview Questions Where Innovation Is Tradition

    E-print Network

    Sample Interview Questions Where Innovation Is Tradition Interview Questions are as easy as 1 it? Page 1 of 4 11/27/2012 #12;Sample Interview Questions Where Innovation Is Tradition Drive when you received too much direction. Page 2 of 4 11/27/2012 #12;Sample Interview Questions Where

  12. The Purposes of Language Teachers' Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, Roger

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates a three-level analysis of classroom discourse as a means of examining in detail the implications of characterizing language teachers' questions as "display" questions. Attempts to demonstrate that the characterization of teachers' questions as display questions because they are non-referential is only relevant on one level of analysis.…

  13. Choosing a future for epidemiology: II. From black box to Chinese boxes and eco-epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Susser, M; Susser, E

    1996-01-01

    Part I of this paper traced the evolution of modern epidemiology in terms of three eras, each with its dominant paradigm, culminating in the present era of chronic disease epidemiology with its paradigm, the black box. This paper sees the close of the present era and foresees a new era of eco-epidemiology in which the deployment of a different paradigm will be crucial. Here a paradigm is advocated for the emergent era. Encompassing many levels of organization--molecular and societal as well as individual--this paradigm, termed Chinese boxes, aims to integrate more than a single level in design, analysis, and interpretation. Such a paradigm could sustain and refine a public health-oriented epidemiology. But preventing a decline of creative epidemiology in this new era will require more than a cogent scientific paradigm. Attention will have to be paid to the social processes that foster a cohesive and humane discipline. PMID:8629718

  14. Epidemiological reflections of the contribution of anthropology to public health policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Porter, John D H

    2006-01-01

    Academic disciplines like anthropology and epidemiology provide a niche for researchers to speak the same language, and to interrogate the assumptions that they use to investigate problems. How anthropological and epidemiological methods communicate and relate to each other affects the way public health policy is created but the philosophical underpinnings of each discipline makes this difficult. Anthropology is reflective, subjective and investigates complexity and the individual; epidemiology, in contrast, is objective and studies populations. Within epidemiological methods there is the utilitarian concept of potentially sacrificing the interests of the individual for the benefits of maximizing population welfare, whereas in anthropology the individual is always included. Other strengths of anthropology in the creation of public health policy include: its attention to complexity, questioning the familiar; helping with language and translation; reconfiguring boundaries to create novel frameworks; and being reflective. Public health requires research that is multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary. To do this, there is a need for each discipline to respect the 'dignity of difference' between disciplines in order to help create appropriate and effective public health policy. PMID:16283952

  15. Quick Questions: Learn About Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyone’s first name? What’s the most common number of letters? What’s most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public area—museum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

  16. Burn prevention in Zambia: a targeted epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess primary burn prevention knowledge in a rural Zambian population that is disproportionately burdened by burn injuries. A 10-question survey was completed by youths, and a 15-question survey was completed by adults. The survey was available in both English and Nyanja. The surveys were designed to test their knowledge in common causes, first aid, and emergency measures regarding burn injuries. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore relationships between burn knowledge, age, school, and socioeconomic variables. A burn prevention coloring book, based on previous local epidemiological data, was also distributed to 800 school age youths. Five hundred fifty youths and 39 adults completed the survey. The most significant results show knowledge deficits in common causes of burns, first aid treatment of a burn injury, and what to do in the event of clothing catching fire. Younger children were more likely to do worse than older children. The adults performed better than the youths, but still lack fundamental burn prevention and treatment knowledge. Primary burn prevention data from the youths and adults surveyed demonstrate a clear need for burn prevention and treatment education in this population. In a country where effective and sustainable burn care is lacking, burn prevention may be a better investment to reduce burn injury than large investments in healthcare resources. PMID:23292574

  17. Epidemiology of child psychopathology: major milestones.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-06-01

    Child psychiatric epidemiology has developed rapidly from descriptive, cross-sectional studies in the 1960s to the current large-scale prospective cohorts that unravel aetiological mechanisms. The objective of the study was to give an overview of epidemiological studies that have influenced child psychiatry. A chronological overview of selected major milestone studies was obtained to demonstrate the development of child psychiatric epidemiology, with a more in-depth discussion of findings and methodological issues exemplified in one cohort, the Generation R Study. Epidemiological studies have been successful in describing the frequency and course of child psychiatric problems. The high expectations that biological factors can be used to better explain, diagnose or predict child psychiatric problems have not been met. More ambitious large-scale child psychiatric cohort studies are needed, carefully applying genetics, neuroscience or other molecular research to better understand how the brain produces maladaptive behaviour. Progress will only be attained if the basic sciences are systematically integrated in cohorts with rigorous epidemiological designs rather than hurriedly inserted in child psychiatric studies. PMID:25701924

  18. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Bresnitz, E A; Goldberg, R; Kosinski, R M

    1994-01-01

    Sleep-disturbed breathing, which includes apneas, hypopneas, and oxygen desaturations, occurs in asymptomatic individuals and increases with age. Obstructive apnea is the most frequent type of respiratory disturbance documented by polysomonography, the gold standard test for assessing sleep-disturbed breathing. Many of the prevalence studies done to date have had one or more methodological weaknesses, including selection biases, varying definitions of obstructive sleep apnea, failure to distinguish types of apneas, failure to control for confounding variables, and small sample size. Although there is consensus on the definitions of sleep-disturbed breathing, the appropriate number of apneas and hypopneas for diagnosing clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea is uncertain. While the cutoff of five or more apneas and hypopneas per hour is historically considered abnormal, the origins of this number are vague, and the longevity of those who have this value on polysomnography is not necessarily reduced. This is particularly true among those without symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, which include excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, nocturnal awakenings, and morning headaches. Investigators should be careful to distinguish symptomatic study subjects from asymptomatic subjects, and to exclude central apneas in calculating their estimates. In addition, various studies have used different definitions of sleep apnea syndrome, making comparisons of point estimates difficult. It would be more appropriate for researchers to estimate morbidity and mortality indices with confidence intervals, using several different cutoff points. Subject selection in all studies should follow a two-stage sampling procedure. All subjects with symptoms compatible with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and a subsample of asymptomatic individuals should be studied with all-night polysomnography. If portable monitoring is used, the validity and reproducibility of this diagnostic method should be assessed. Subjects with significant comorbidity should be excluded from prevalence studies. Factors that clearly increase the risk of sleep-disturbed breathing and obstructive sleep apnea and its related symptoms include age, structural abnormalities of the upper airway, sedatives and alcohol, and probably family history. Although endocrine changes such as growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and progesterone deficiency also have been suggested as risk factors for exacerbating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, there is minimal epidemiologic evidence to support this. Case-control studies are recommended to assess the relation of endocrine factors to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a rigorous fashion. A limited number of mortality studies have suggested decreased survival in persons with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, possibly primarily due to vascular-related disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7713177

  19. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer, though generally considered rare, is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract, accounting for 80%–95% of biliary tract cancers. An early diagnosis is essential as this malignancy progresses silently with a late diagnosis, often proving fatal. Its carcinogenesis follows a progression through a metaplasia–dysplasia–carcinoma sequence. This comprehensive review focuses on and explores the risks, management, and outcomes for primary gallbladder carcinoma. Epidemiological studies have identified striking geographic and ethnic disparities – inordinately high occurrence in American Indians, elevated in Southeast Asia, yet quite low elsewhere in the Americas and the world. Age, female sex, congenital biliary tract anomalies, and a genetic predisposition represent important risk factors that are immutable. Environmental triggers play a critical role in eliciting cancer developing in the gallbladder, best exemplified by cholelithiasis and chronic inflammation from biliary tract and parasitic infections. Mortality rates closely follow incidence; those countries with the highest prevalence of gallstones experience the greatest mortality from gallbladder cancer. Vague symptoms often delay the diagnosis of gallbladder cancer, contributing to its overall progression and poor outcome. Surgery represents the only potential for cure. Some individuals are fortunate to be incidentally found to have gallbladder cancer at the time of cholecystectomy being performed for cholelithiasis. Such an early diagnosis is imperative as a late presentation connotes advanced staging, nodal involvement, and possible recurrence following attempted resection. Overall mean survival is a mere 6 months, while 5-year survival rate is only 5%. The dismal prognosis, in part, relates to the gallbladder lacking a serosal layer adjacent to the liver, enabling hepatic invasion and metastatic progression. Improved imaging modalities are helping to diagnose patients at an earlier stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified. PMID:24634588

  20. Evaluation of four maternal smoking questions.

    PubMed Central

    Kharrazi, M; Epstein, D; Hopkins, B; Kreutzer, R; Doebbert, G; Hiatt, R; Swan, S; Eskenazi, B; Pirkle, J L; Bernert, J T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated four questions about maternal smoking during pregnancy for use on birth certificates. METHODS: Question 1 (yes/no format) and Question 2 (trimester-specific design) were tested among 1171 women who delivered at two Kaiser Permanente medical centers in northern California. Responses to Questions 1 and 2 were compared with smoking information provided by participants in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy. Question 3 (multiple choice format) and Question 4 (month- and grouped month-specific design) were tested among 900 women who enrolled in a statewide prenatal screening program and who delivered in 20 hospitals in four Central Valley counties. Responses to Questions 3 and 4 were compared with mid-pregnancy serum cotinine levels. The authors evaluated the four questions in terms of conciseness, response rate, data accuracy, and type of data requested. RESULTS: Questions 1 and 2 were the most concise. Response rates could not be calculated for Questions 1 and 2. Response rates were 86.0% for Question 3 and 74.2% for Question 4. Sensitivity was 47.3% for Question 1, 62.1% for Question 2, 83.8% for Question 3, and 86.7% for Question 4. The types of data requested by Questions 2 and 4 seem to best satisfy the needs of the broad audience of birth certificate users. CONCLUSIONS: No single question was clearly superior. The authors propose a combination of Questions 2 and 4, which asks about average number of cigarettes smoked per day in the three months before pregnancy and in each trimester of pregnancy. PMID:9925173

  1. [Topical questions of psychiatric ethics].

    PubMed

    Kovács, József

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes some ethical problems in psychiatry that have been emerging in recent years. It deals with the ongoing intensive debates about the DSM-5 before its publication, and with some of the criticisms of the DSM-5 itself. Then it goes on to analyze the use of placebo. This is followed by the ethical problems of the treatment of ADHD with stimulant drugs, among which one is the question of authenticity, namely whether the pre-treatment or the post-treatment personality is the real, authentic self of the patient. This question has been raised not only in the case of the ADHD, but also in relation with the antidepressant treatment of depression earlier, and in relation with deep brain stimulation and dopamine replacement therapy now, all of which causes changes in the treated patient's personality and motivations. Finally the article describes some ethical problems of informed consent in the case of antidepressant medication, together with the necessity to involve psychiatric nurses and rating scales in the assessment of the patient's decision making capacity. PMID:25867886

  2. The Urban Institute: Five Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In the mid-1960s, President Johnson saw the need for independent nonpartisan analysis of the problems facing America's cities and their residents. The President created a blue-ribbon commission of civic leaders who recommended chartering a center to do that work and in 1968, the Urban Institute became that center. Today the Urban Institute analyzes policies, evaluates programs, and informs community development to "improve social, civic, and economic well-being." Working in all 50 states and abroad, the Institute shares its research with policymakers, business leaders, and academics. On this site, visitors can enjoy the Institute's series of interviews entitled "Five Questions For"" which poses five questions to the people behind the Urban Institute's research. Here, experts talk about the nature of their work and offer insights on what they've learned. The collection allows visitors to browse a chronological list of this series of interviews and each interview is easily emailed and is also available in a printer friendly format.

  3. Open questions in classical gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States))

    1994-04-01

    In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Evaluative Conditioning: The “How” Question

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher R.; Olson, Michael A.; Fazio, Russell H.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “how” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains. PMID:22241936

  5. History and impact of nutritional epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Alpers, David H; Bier, Dennis M; Carpenter, Kenneth J; McCormick, Donald B; Miller, Anthony B; Jacques, Paul F

    2014-09-01

    The real and important role of epidemiology was discussed, noting heretofore unknown associations that led to improved understanding of the cause and prevention of individual nutritional deficiencies. However, epidemiology has been less successful in linking individual nutrients to the cause of chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Dietary changes, such as decreasing caloric intake to prevent cancer and the Mediterranean diet to prevent diabetes, were confirmed as successful approaches to modifying the incidence of chronic diseases. The role of the epidemiologist was confirmed as a collaborator, not an isolated expert of last resort. The challenge for the future is to decide which epidemiologic methods and study designs are most useful in studying chronic disease, then to determine which associations and the hypotheses derived from them are especially strong and worthy of pursuit, and finally to design randomized studies that are feasible, affordable, and likely to result in confirmation or refutation of these hypotheses. PMID:25469385

  6. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Poornima; Kapur, Malavika

    2003-01-01

    The increasing focus on child mental health in developing countries like India points to the importance of epidemiological data in developing training, service and research paradigms.This review attempts to synthesise and evaluate the available research on the prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India and highlight significant conceptual and methodological trends. It identified 55 epidemiological studies conducted between 1964 and 2002 in the community and school settings. Despite considerable progress, various methodological lacunae continue to limit the value of the epidemiological surveys. These include issues related to sampling, case definition methods, tools, multi-informant data and data analysis. The importance of a socio-culturally relevant research framework has been highlighted. The review suggests directions for future research to guide planning of services that meet the mental health needs of vulnerable children and adolescents PMID:21206860

  7. Genesis of Preeclampsia: An Epidemiological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Moysén, Jaime; Martínez-López, Yolanda; Ramírez-Aranda, José M.; Aguilar-Durán, Marisela; Terrones-González, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    There are analyzed some of the main aspects related to the causality of preeclampsia, privileging two types of models: the clinic model and the epidemiologic model, first one represented by the hypothesis of the reduced placental perfusion and the second one considering the epidemiologic findings related to the high levels of psychosocial stress and its association with preeclampsia. It is reasoned out the relevance of raising the causality of the disease from an interdisciplinary perspective, integrating the valuable information generated from both types, clinical and epidemiologic, and finally a tentative explanatory model of preeclampsia is proposed, the subclinical and sociocultural aspects that predispose and trigger the disease are emphasized making aspects to stand out: the importance of reduced placental perfusion as an indicator of individual risk, and the high levels of physiological stress, as a result of the unfavorable conditions of the psychosocial surroundings (indicator of population risk) of the pregnant women. PMID:22462008

  8. An Analytical Framework for Delirium Research in Palliative Care Settings: Integrated Epidemiologic, Clinician-Researcher, and Knowledge User Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mohammed; Hosie, Annmarie; Kanji, Salmaan; Momoli, Franco; Bush, Shirley H.; Watanabe, Sharon; Currow, David C.; Gagnon, Bruno; Agar, Meera; Bruera, Eduardo; Meagher, David J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.J.A.; Adamis, Dimitrios; Caraceni, Augusto; Marchington, Katie; Stewart, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Context Delirium often presents difficult management challenges in the context of goals of care in palliative care settings. Objectives The aim was to formulate an analytical framework for further research on delirium in palliative care settings, prioritize the associated research questions, discuss the inherent methodological challenges associated with relevant studies, and outline the next steps in a program of delirium research. Methods We combined multidisciplinary input from delirium researchers and knowledge users at an international delirium study planning meeting, relevant literature searches, focused input of epidemiologic expertise, and a meeting participant and coauthor survey to formulate a conceptual research framework and prioritize research questions. Results Our proposed framework incorporates three main groups of research questions: the first was predominantly epidemiologic, such as delirium occurrence rates, risk factor evaluation, screening, and diagnosis; the second covers pragmatic management questions; and the third relates to the development of predictive models for delirium outcomes. Based on aggregated survey responses to each research question or domain, the combined modal ratings of “very” or “extremely” important confirmed their priority. Conclusion Using an analytical framework to represent the full clinical care pathway of delirium in palliative care settings, we identified multiple knowledge gaps in relation to the occurrence rates, assessment, management, and outcome prediction of delirium in this population. The knowledge synthesis generated from adequately powered, multicenter studies to answer the framework’s research questions will inform decision making and policy development regarding delirium detection and management and thus help to achieve better outcomes for patients in palliative care settings. PMID:24726762

  9. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

  10. Role of epidemiology in microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Miliotis, M; Dennis, S; Buchanan, R; Potter, M

    2008-09-01

    Microbial risk assessment (MRA) is a systematic tool to evaluate the likelihood of exposure to food-borne pathogens and the resulting impact of exposure on consumer health. In addition, MRA can be used to evaluate the public health impact of intervention or control measures designed to prevent or reduce pathogens at any or all of the steps in our complex food production system. Epidemiological studies provide useful information and data for MRA. This paper discusses the use and limitations of epidemiological data in the development and validation of MRA using examples from published microbial risk assessments. PMID:18608511

  11. Epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Lemen, R A; Dement, J M; Wagoner, J K

    1980-01-01

    This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of the epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and is restricted to primarily occupational exposure studies. However, some mention of nonoccupational exposures are made because of their direct relationship to a worker or to a secondary occupational source. Over 100 epidemiological studies are reviewed, dating back to the first case of asbestos-associated disease reported by Montague Murray in 1906. The studies are divided by specific fiber type and by specific disease outcomes and the interaction of asbestos and cigarette smoking is discussed in great detail. PMID:6993197

  12. Epidemiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Skrabek, Pamela; Turner, Donna; Seftel, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) occurs worldwide although there is notable geographical variation in incidence and subtype distribution. These differences are due to a combination of demographic, environmental and other unidentified factors. A dramatic increase in NHL incidence was seen starting around 1970, with subsequent stabilization 10 years ago. Despite this plateau, the number of new cases in many countries will increase significantly in coming years due primarily to aging populations. In the majority of cases, strong risk factors are not identifiable. There is significant epidemiological heterogeneity between NHL subtypes, yet cancer registries have tended to consider NHL as a single entity. This is one of several epidemiological obstacles discussed. PMID:23958141

  13. Dietary assessment methods in epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jee-Seon; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a major lifestyle-related risk factor of various chronic diseases. Dietary intake can be assessed by subjective report and objective observation. Subjective assessment is possible using open-ended surveys such as dietary recalls or records, or using closed-ended surveys including food frequency questionnaires. Each method has inherent strengths and limitations. Continued efforts to improve the accuracy of dietary intake assessment and enhance its feasibility in epidemiological studies have been made. This article reviews common dietary assessment methods and their feasibility in epidemiological studies. PMID:25078382

  14. The effect of distributed questioning with varied examples on exam performance on inference questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold Lewis Glass

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the distributed presentation of different versions of a question would produce better performance on a new version of the question than distributed presentation of the same version of the question. A total of 48 four question sets of five alternative multiple?choice questions were presented during a college lecture course. The answers

  15. Great Question! Question Quality in Community Q&A Sujith Ravi

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    }@gmail.com Abstract Asking the right question in the right way is an art (and a science). In a communityGreat Question! Question Quality in Community Q&A Sujith Ravi Bo Pang Vibhor Rastogi Ravi Kumar question-answering setting, a good question is not just one that is found to be use- ful by other people

  16. Cem Kaner Essay Questions Page 1 How to Answer Essay Questions in the Graduate Level

    E-print Network

    of your answer to a long essay question. Create a set of sample questions that covers the material you of sample questions. For the rest, make a list of every significant topic in the course you are studying, and make up questions for every topic not already well covered with the sample questions you have on hand

  17. Importing Questions Using Microsoft Excel Page 1 Importing Questions Using Microsoft Excel

    E-print Network

    Xu, Shouhuai

    Importing Questions Using Microsoft Excel Page 1 Importing Questions Using Microsoft Excel Excel Question Format You can create different question types in Microsoft Excel and upload the questions answers, use the column that follow) Create a Test in Microsoft Excel 1. From Microsoft Excel, create your

  18. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  19. Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.

    PubMed

    1991-02-01

    Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

  20. EPID/CPH 309: Introduction to Epidemiology Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    the historical roots of epidemiologic thinking and their contribution to the evolution of the scientific method is causal. #12;7) Describe the basic epidemiologic study designs that are used to test hypotheses, identify

  1. Examination of Different Exposure Metrics in an Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of air pollution have traditionally relied upon measurements of ambient concentration from central-site monitoring stations as surrogates of population exposures. However, depending on the epidemiological study design, this approach may introduce exposure...

  2. The role of ozone exposure in the epidemiology of asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Balmes, J.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Asthma is a clinical condition characterized by intermittent respiratory symptoms, nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness, and reversible airway obstruction. Although the pathogenesis of asthma is incompletely understood, it is clear that airway inflammation is a paramount feature of the condition. Because inhalation of ozone by normal, healthy subjects causes increased airway responsiveness and inflammation, it is somewhat surprising that most controlled human exposure studies that have involved asthmatic subjects have not shown them to be especially sensitive to ozone. The acute decrement in lung function that is the end point traditionally used to define sensitivity to ozone in these studies may be due more to neuromuscular mechanisms limiting deep inspiration than to bronchoconstriction. The frequency of asthma attacks following ozone exposures may be a more relevant end point. Epidemiologic studies, rather than controlled human exposure studies, are required to determine whether ozone pollution increases the risk of asthma exacerbations. Asthma affects approximately 10 million people in the United States and, thus, the answer to this question is of considerable public health importance. Both the prevalence and severity of asthma appear to be increasing in many countries. Although increased asthma morbidity and mortality are probably of multifactorial etiology, a contributory role of urban air pollution is plausible. The epidemiologic database to support an association between asthma and ozone exposure is limited, but the results of several studies suggest such an association. Some potential approaches to further investigation of the relationship between asthma and ozone, including those that would link controlled human exposures to population-based studies, are considered. 57 refs.

  3. Teaching biostatistics and epidemiology in the veterinary curriculum: what do our fellow lecturers expect?

    PubMed

    Zeimet, Ramona; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Doherr, Marcus G

    2015-01-01

    Given veterinary students' varying mathematical knowledge and interest in statistics, teaching statistical concepts to them is often seen as a challenge. Consequently, there is an ongoing debate among lecturers about the best time to introduce the material into the curriculum, and the best thematic content and conceptual approach to teaching in basic biostatistics classes. During a workshop meeting of epidemiology and biostatistics lecturers of Austrian, German, and Swiss veterinary schools, the question was raised as to whether the topics taught in epidemiology and statistics classes are of sufficient relevance to our lecturing colleagues in other fields of veterinary education (i.e., whether our colleagues have certain expectations as to what the students should know about biostatistics before taking their classes). In 2012, an online survey was compiled and carried out at all eight German-speaking veterinary schools to address this issue. There were 266 respondents out of approximately 800 contacted lecturers from all schools and disciplines. Almost 50% responded that the basic biostatistics class should be taught early on (in the second or third year), while only 26% indicated that basic epidemiology should commence before the third year of the veterinary curriculum. There were clear differences in perceived relevance of the 44 epidemiological and biostatistical topics presented in the survey, assessed on a Likert scale from 0 (no relevance) to 4 (very high relevance). The results provide important information about how to revise the content of epidemiology and biostatistics classes, and the approach could also be used for other courses within the veterinary curriculum with a natural science focus. PMID:25572336

  4. Questions to Ask My Healthcare Team

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Clinical Trials New Directions in Lung Cancer Side Effect Management Questions to Ask My Healthcare Team Support & Resources ... Clinical Trials New Directions in Lung Cancer Side Effect Management Questions to Ask My Healthcare Team Support & Resources ...

  5. Gallery Walk Questions about Human Dimensions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the human dimensions of geologic issues. The questions are organized ...

  6. Gallery Walk Questions about the Solar System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the solar system. The questions are organized according to the ...

  7. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

  8. Indexing Low Frequency Information for Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Kosseim, Leila

    system over questions formulated by proxy users. To test the influence of the IR component in the context to capitalize on the redundancy of the Web and bypass the document collection for answering a question (e

  9. Gallery Walk Questions on Earth's Radiation Balance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the Earth's Radiation Balance. The questions are organized ...

  10. Are Nanobacteria Alive: Sample Socratic Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By Monica Bruckner, Montana State University, Bozeman (based on MLER website:Nanobes and Nanobacteria).

    This example Socratic questioning page provides an outline for leading a classroom discussion regarding whether or not nanobacteria exist. Sample questions, resources for background information, and tips and assessment information are provided.

  11. Gallery Walk Questions about the Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the ocean. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

  12. Gallery Walk Questions on Map Reading

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about map reading. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

  13. Gallery Walk Questions about the Biosphere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the biosphere. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

  14. A Web-based Question Answering System

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dell

    The Web is apparently an ideal source of answers to a large variety of questions, due to the tremendous amount of information available online. This paper describes a Web-based question answering system LAMP, which is ...

  15. On the interpretation of concealed questions

    E-print Network

    Nathan, Lance Edward

    2006-01-01

    Determiner phrases have the ability to act as "concealed questions" (CQs), embedded questions in sentences like John knows the time (i.e., John knows what time it is). The fact that know and wonder differ in their ability ...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions Frequently Asked Questions 1. What is palliative care and when is it provided? Palliative care is ... Does my child have to be in hospice care to receive palliative care? No, your child does ...

  17. 32 CFR 17.4 - Interlocutory questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Interlocutory questions. 17.4 Section 17.4 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE...MILITARY COMMISSIONS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.4 Interlocutory questions. (a) Certification...

  18. Position Announcement Post-Doctoral Fellow in Cancer Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Position Announcement Post-Doctoral Fellow in Cancer Epidemiology The Division of Cancer Epidemiology at McGill University in Montreal invites applications for a post-doctoral fellowship position have a doctoral degree in epidemiology and/or biostatistics with some experience in cancer research

  19. Faculty Profiles PhD Program in Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    background in epidemiologic and statistical methods and extensive experience analyzing data, including large in such areas as aging, health outcomes research, sickle cell epidemiology, pediatric cancer survivorship at Fudan University) in Shanghai, China. He obtained a Ph.D. in epidemiology and a MS in statistics from

  20. ADHD in the Arab World: A Review of Epidemiologic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Lynn G.; Fayyad, John A.; Eapen, Valsamma; Cassir,Youmna; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Tabet, Caroline C.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Elie G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Epidemiological studies on psychiatric disorders are quite rare in the Arab World. This article reviews epidemiological studies on ADHD in all the Arab countries. Method: All epidemiological studies on ADHD conducted from 1966 through th present were reviewed. Samples were drawn from the general community, primary care clinical…

  1. An Epidemiologic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of literature on exercise and arthritis considers relevant epidemiologic and experimental studies of animals and humans, focusing on the relationship between running and osteoarthritis. No conclusive evidence exists that running causes osteoarthritis; research trends suggest that running may slow the functional aspects of musculoskeletal…

  2. Ethnography, epidemiology and infertility in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia C. Inhorn; Kimberly A. Buss

    1994-01-01

    Infertility in the developing world has been relatively neglected as an international health problem and a topic of social scientific and epidemiological inquiry. In this study, we examine factors placing poor urban Egyptian men and women at risk of infertility, and we explore the sociocultural and political-economic contexts in which these health-demoting factors are perpetuated. Our approach to the problem

  3. myEpi. Epidemiology of One.

    PubMed

    Bobashev, Georgiy

    2014-01-01

    A new concept of within-individual epidemiology termed "myEpi" is introduced. It is argued that traditional epidemiological methods, which are usually applied to populations of humans, can be applicable to a single individual and thus used for self-monitoring and forecasting of "epidemic" outbreaks within an individual. Traditional epidemiology requires that results be generalizable to a predefined population. The key component of myEpi is that a single individual may be viewed as an entire population of events and thus, the analysis should be generalizable to this population. Applications of myEpi are aimed for, but not limited to, the analysis of data collected by individuals with the help of wearable sensors and digital diaries. These data can include physiological measures and records of healthy and risky behaviors (e.g., exercise, sleep, smoking, food consumption, alcohol, and drug use). Although many examples of within-individual epidemiology exist, there is a pressing need for systematic guidance to the analysis and interpretation of intensive individual-level data. myEpi serves this need by adapting statistical methods (e.g., regressions, hierarchical models, survival analysis, agent-based models) to individual-level data. PMID:25161995

  4. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  5. Ethnicity/race, ethics, and epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    Ethnicity/race is a much-studied variable in epidemiology. There has been little consensus about what self-reported ethnicity/race represents, but it is a measure of some combination of genetic, socioeconomic, and cultural factors. The present article will attempt to: 1.) Elucidate the limitations of contemporary discourse on ethnicity/race that emphasizes the genetic and socioeconomic dimensions as competing explanatory frameworks; 2.) Demonstrate how considerable attention to the cultural dimension facilitates understanding of race differences in health-related outcomes; and 3.) Discuss interpretations of disparities in health status of African Americans versus European Americans from an ethical perspective. A major challenge to the discourse on ethnicity/race and health being limited to socioeconomic and genetic considerations is the lack of attention to the third alternative of a cultural perspective. The combined cultural ideologies of individualism and racism undermine the utility of epidemiologic research in health promotion and disease prevention campaigns aimed at reducing the racial gaps in health status. An ethical analysis supplements the cultural perspective. Ethics converge with culture on the notion of values influencing the study of ethnicity/race in epidemiology. A cultural approach to the use of ethnicity/race in epidemiologic research addresses methodological limitations, public health traditions, and ethical imperatives. PMID:12934873

  6. Research Experience in Mathematical Epidemiology Summer 2011

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    Research Experience in Mathematical Epidemiology Summer 2011 Instructor: Dr. Ariel Cintrón has four parts. First (June 27-July 8), lectures and computer laboratories will be given, conveyingPoint or Beamer; · Oral presentation in ETSU Boland Undergraduate Research Symposium; · Poster presentation

  7. Staff List - Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The following is a list of staff in the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP). Use the drop down menu to sort the list by Branch, last name, first name, or role. Alternatively, if you would like to search the staff list by scientific interest area, enter keywords into the text box below.

  8. Landmarks in the History of Cancer Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Greenwald; Barbara K. Dunn

    2009-01-01

    The application of epidemiology to cancer prevention is relatively new, although observations of the potential causes of cancer have been reported for more than 2,000 years. Cancer was generally considered incurable until the late 19th century. Only with a refined understanding of the nature of cancer and strategies for cancer treatment could a systematic approach to cancer prevention emerge. The

  9. The Epidemiology of Peace and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Francis A.

    Health science (epidemiology) is a relatively advanced discipline which offers theories and methods which could be useful in peace science (polemology). Similarities between war and disease, peace and health, center around concern with prevention of physical damage and death on the one hand and preservation and extension of human life on the…

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGY IN RISK ASSESSMENT FOR REGULATORY POLICY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiology and risk assessment have several of the features needed to make the difficult decisions required in setting standards for levels of toxic agents in the workplace and environment. hey differ in their aims, orientation, and time scale. While the distribution of disease...

  11. Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review article Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases in France Barbara DUFOUR for infectious animal diseases are the Direction générale de l'alimentation, the Agence française de sécurité according to a classification based on published criteria. In the case of human infectious diseases

  12. Assessment of mechanical exposure in ergonomic epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. van der Beek; M. H. W. Frings-Dresen

    1998-01-01

    In recent years several different methods have been developed to assess mechanical exposures, which are related to musculoskeletal disorders in ergonomic epidemiology. Each of these methods is capable of measuring one or more aspects of risk factors, but has drawbacks as well. Improper application of methods might result in biased exposure estimates, which has serious consequences for risk estimates arising

  13. A contact dermatitis of broilers ?epidemiological findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. McIlroy; E. A. Goodall; C. H. McMurray

    1987-01-01

    Lesions of a contact dermatitis have resulted in serious downgrading of broiler carcases in the Northern Ireland poultry industry. A longitudinal survey was initiated to identify the important epidemiological factors involved in the occurrence of the condition. The results from the analysis of data from 986 flocks containing 12.6 million birds over a 2 year period, have quantified the effects

  14. Methodologic Issues and Approaches to Spatial Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Beale, Linda; Abellan, Juan Jose; Hodgson, Susan; Jarup, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Spatial epidemiology is increasingly being used to assess health risks associated with environmental hazards. Risk patterns tend to have both a temporal and a spatial component; thus, spatial epidemiology must combine methods from epidemiology, statistics, and geographic information science. Recent statistical advances in spatial epidemiology include the use of smoothing in risk maps to create an interpretable risk surface, the extension of spatial models to incorporate the time dimension, and the combination of individual- and area-level information. Advances in geographic information systems and the growing availability of modeling packages have led to an improvement in exposure assessment. Techniques drawn from geographic information science are being developed to enable the visualization of uncertainty and ensure more meaningful inferences are made from data. When public health concerns related to the environment arise, it is essential to address such anxieties appropriately and in a timely manner. Tools designed to facilitate the investigation process are being developed, although the availability of complete and clean health data, and appropriate exposure data often remain limiting factors. PMID:18709139

  15. Epidemiologic study of tumors in dinosaurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Rothschild; D. H. Tanke; M. Helbling; L. D. Martin

    2003-01-01

    Occasional reports in isolated fragments of dinosaur bones have suggested that tumors might represent a population phenomenon. Previous study of humans has demonstrated that vertebral radiology is a powerful diagnostic tool for population screening. The epidemiology of tumors in dinosaurs was here investigated by fluoroscopically screening dinosaur vertebrae for evidence of tumors. Computerized tomography (CT) and cross-sections were obtained where

  16. When Should Epidemiologic Regressions Use Random Coefficients?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander Greenland

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY. Regression models with random coefficients arise naturally in both frequentist and Bayesian approaches to estimation problems. They are becoming widely available in standard computer packages under the headings of generalized linear mixed models, hierarchical models, and multilevel models. I here argue that such models offer a more scientifically defensible framework for epidemiologic analysis than the fixed-effects models now prevalent

  17. Epidemiologic methods in analysis of scientific issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdreich, Linda S.

    2003-10-01

    Studies of human populations provide much of the information that is used to evaluate compensation cases for hearing loss, including rates of hearing loss by age, and dose-response relationships. The reference data used to make decisions regarding workman's compensation is based on epidemiologic studies of cohorts of workers exposed to various noise levels. Epidemiology and its methods can be used in other ways in the courtroom; to assess the merits of a complaint, to support Daubert criteria, and to explain scientific issues to the trier of fact, generally a layperson. Using examples other than occupational noise induced hearing loss, these methods will be applied to respond to a complaint that hearing loss followed exposure to a sudden noise, a medication, or an occupational chemical, and thus was caused by said exposure. The standard criteria for assessing the weight of the evidence, and epidemiologic criteria for causality show the limits of such anecdotal data and incorporate quantitative and temporal issues. Reports of clusters of cases are also intuitively convincing to juries. Epidemiologic methods provide a scientific approach to assess whether rates of the outcome are indeed increased, and the extent to which increased rates provide evidence for causality.

  18. IMPROVING EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN DBP EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, an EPA expert panel was convened to evaluate epidemiologic studies of adverse reproductive or developmental outcomes that may be associated with drinking water DBPs. The panel recommended that further efforts be made in an existing cohort study, headed by Dr. Waller and ...

  19. WiFi networks and malware epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Hu; Steven Myers; Vittoria Colizza; Alessandro Vespignani

    2009-01-01

    In densely populated urban areas WiFi routers form a tightly interconnected proximity network that can be exploited as a substrate for the spreading of malware able to launch massive fraudulent attacks. In this article, we consider several scenarios for the deployment of malware that spreads over the wireless channel of major urban areas in the US. We develop an epidemiological

  20. Epidemiology of Suicide in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents epidemiological data for levels and trends in suicide among elderly, focusing on U.S. figures. Details age, sex, race, marital status, and methods of suicide as factors in suicide among the old. Discusses past trends and future predictions of changes in elderly suicide rates. Notes data and literatures on parasuicides and survivors of…

  1. Dosimetric Challenges for Residential Radon Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Steck; R. William Field

    2006-01-01

    Radon concentration alone may not be an adequate surrogate to measure for lung cancer risk in all residential radon epidemiologic lung cancer studies. The dose delivered to the lungs per unit radon exposure can vary significantly with exposure conditions. These dose-effectiveness variations can be comparable to spatial and temporal factor variations in many situations. New technologies that use surface-deposited and

  2. Epidemiologic evidence of diabetogenic effect of arsenic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng; Ching-Ping Tseng; Hung-Yi Chiou; Yu-Mei Hsueh; Choon-Khim Chong; Chien-Jen Chen

    2002-01-01

    It is well documented that arsenic can lead to skin lesions, atherosclerotic diseases and cancers. The association between arsenic exposure and diabetes mellitus is a relatively new finding. Up to now, there are six epidemiologic reports linking diabetes mellitus with arsenic exposure from environmental and occupational sources. Two reports in Taiwan carried out in the blackfoot disease-hyperendemic villages, one cross-sectional

  3. Molecular Epidemiological Studies of Veterinary Arboviral Encephalitides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. WEAVER; A. M. POWERS; A. C. BRAULT; A. D. T. BARRETT

    1999-01-01

    Recent studies using molecular genetic approaches have made important contributions to our understanding of the epidemiology of veterinary arboviral encephalitides. Viruses utilizing avian enzootic hosts, such as Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and North American Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), evolve as relatively few, highly conserved genotypes that extend over wide geographic regions; viruses utilizing mammalian hosts with more limited

  4. Vol. 90, No. 12, 2000 1313 Epidemiology

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    among wheat genotypes may have altered susceptibility to stripe rust (13). The fitness of wheatVol. 90, No. 12, 2000 1313 Epidemiology Effects of Planting Density and the Composition of Wheat. C. 2000. Effects of planting density and the composition of wheat cultivar mixtures on stripe rust

  5. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Moore; Mary D. Barton; Iain S. Blair; Deborah Corcoran; James S. G. Dooley; Séamus Fanning; Isabelle Kempf; Albert J. Lastovica; Colm J. Lowery; Motoo Matsuda; David A. McDowell; Ann McMahon; B. Cherie Millar; Juluri R. Rao; Paul J. Rooney; Bruce S. Seal; William J. Snelling; Ola Tolba

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, particularly with the fluoroquinolones and macrolide antibiotics, has now emerged globally with thermophilic campylobacters, including Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, giving rise to concerns about how these organisms have acquired such resistance characteristics, as well as consequences for human and animal treatment. This review examines (i) the clinical epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in human and animal thermophilic campylobacters,

  6. GIS ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER SUTDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The Beaches Act of 2000 requires that the Agency develop new rapid method water quality indicators (2 hours or less) that predict whether or not coastal water is safe for swimming. This new set of water quality indicators must be validated through the epidemiologi...

  7. A systematic review of the epidemiology of nonfatal strangulation, a human rights and health concern.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Susan B; Joshi, Manisha; Sivitz, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    We reviewed the literature on the epidemiology of nonfatal strangulation (also, albeit incorrectly, called choking) by an intimate partner. We searched 6 electronic databases to identify cross-sectional, primary research studies from 1960 to 2014 that reported national prevalence estimates of nonfatal strangulation by an intimate partner among community-residing adults. Of 7260 identified references, 23 articles based on 11 self-reported surveys in 9 countries met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of women who reported ever having been strangled by an intimate partner ranged from 3.0% to 9.7%; past-year prevalence ranged from 0.4% to 2.4%, with 1.0% being typical. Although many epidemiological surveys inquire about strangulation, evidence regarding its prevalence is scarce. Modifying or adding a question to ongoing national surveys, particularly the Demographic and Health Surveys, would remedy the lack of data for low- and middle-income countries. In addition, when questions about strangulation are asked, findings should be reported rather than only combined with other questions to form broader categories (e.g., severe violence). Such action is merited because of the multiple negative short- and long-term sequelae of strangulation. PMID:25211747

  8. Questioning Strategies: Implications for Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frager, Alan M.

    Well-known questioning strategies, built on question classification systems, are examined. Types of question classification systems are identified as: "hierarchical," which are sequential and cumulative; "non-hierarchical," which are based on elements which should not be rank ordered; systems which are "context-bound" to specifics; and…

  9. Leading questions and the eyewitness report*1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth F. Loftus

    1975-01-01

    A total of 490 subjects, in four experiments, saw films of complex, fast-moving events, such as automobile accidents or classroom disruptions. The purpose of these experiments was to investi- gate how the wording of questions asked immediately after an event may influence responses to questions asked considerably later. It is shown that when the initial question contains either true presuppositions

  10. Question Moon: An Introduction to the

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    1 Question Moon: An Introduction to the Process of Science Learning Objectives: · Generate a big picture question related to the Moon. · Generate hypotheses related to lunar geology. · Generate a research question related to lunar geology. Overview: In this activity, students step into the shoes

  11. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  12. Formal Verification: All Questions and Some Answers

    E-print Network

    Pnueli, Amir

    , WIS 9.5.99 CS Leading Teachers Course, WIS, 9.5.99 #12; Formal Verification: Questions and Answers A Leading Teachers Course, WIS, 9.5.99 1 #12; Formal Verification: Questions and Answers A. Pnueli Mathematics! CS Leading Teachers Course, WIS, 9.5.99 2 #12; Formal Verification: Questions and Answers A

  13. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  14. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  15. Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANG TAN FONG; HU HENG SIEW; LIP YEE; LIEW CHEE SUN

    2006-01-01

    Question bank can be described as the databank that keeps all the examination questions whether pre-existing or created by user while web based examination system is an online assessment tool that used to evaluate students' performance. In this paper, we develop and implement an online Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System (IQBAES), which make use of open source technology. This

  16. Improving Comprehension? That's A Good Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charlotte T.

    This paper presents (1) data indicating the need to increase the percentage of higher cognitive questions in the instructional program, based upon research showing that questioning strategies are instrumental in improving comprehension; (2) data indicating that questions currently included in instructional programs are predominantly of the lower…

  17. Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013

    E-print Network

    Galvin, David

    Some counting questions Math 10120, Spring 2013 January 30, 2013 Math 10120 (Spring 2013) Counting (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 2 / 9 #12;Poker hands A poker hand consists (Spring 2013) Counting questions January 30, 2013 3 / 9 #12;Notre Dame Hockey Notre dame hockey has a 26

  18. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  19. Answering Student Questions Saurabh W. Jha

    E-print Network

    Glashausser, Charles

    Answering Student Questions Saurabh W. Jha Rutgers DELTA-P Seminar October 16, 2014 1Thursday, October 16, 14 #12;Answering Student Questions Saurabh W. Jha Rutgers DELTA-P Seminar October 16, 2014 2Thursday, October 16, 14 #12;answering students' questions well · helps students learn! · student

  20. The Physics Question of the Week

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Berg, Richard E.

    A collection of thought provoking physics questions covering various introductory physics topics from the University of Maryland. The questions can be used in class or like in Maryland as an outreach activity. The archive provide the questions as well as the answers. In most cases, the answers are accompanied with videos of pictures of the activity.