Science.gov

Sample records for questions faqs epidemiology

  1. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  2. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  3. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  4. Lyme Disease Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Epidemiology and clinical similarities of human spirochetal diseases. Rev Infect Dis 11 Suppl 6: S1460-9. Porcella ... al. Coinfections acquired from Ixodes ticks . Clin Microbiol Rev . 2006 Oct;19(4):708-27. Wormser, Gary. ...

  5. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  6. Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a health care provider. If you have any questions about the parasites described above or think that you may have a parasitic ... Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333 ...

  7. FAQs II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Frank, Vikki; Lester, Jaime; Yang, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    In their paper entitled "Why should postsecondary institutions consider partnering to offer (Individual Development Accounts (IDAs)?" the authors reviewed frequently asked questions they encountered from higher education professionals about IDAs, but as their research continued so did the questions. FAQ II has more in-depth questions and answers…

  8. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 28,2015 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  9. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Cancer.gov

    Costs to consider when planning a study that uses ASA24 include system and labor costs associated with uploading study details, including respondent usernames and recall dates. Costs also are associated with contacting and monitoring respondents, assessing data quality, and analyzing data. The labor and resources needed by researchers and associated costs to configure and manage studies using ASA24 are within the purview and the responsibility of users.

  11. Provocative questions in cancer epidemiology in a time of scientific innovation and budgetary constraints.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Schully, Sheri D; Rogers, Scott D; Benkeser, Rachel; Reid, Britt; Khoury, Muin J

    2013-04-01

    In a time of scientific and technological developments and budgetary constraints, the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Provocative Questions Project offers a novel funding mechanism for cancer epidemiologists. We reviewed the purposes underlying the Provocative Questions Project, present information on the contributions of epidemiologic research to the current Provocative Questions portfolio, and outline opportunities that the cancer epidemiology community might capitalize on to advance a research agenda that spans a translational continuum from scientific discoveries to population health impact. PMID:23413299

  12. Why does obesity promote cancer? Epidemiology, biology, and open questions

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The association between obesity and/or metabolic syndrome and an elevated mortality from cancer has been confirmed by an astonishing number of studies across nations and ethnicities, such that obesity is now recognised to be among the most prominent cancer risk factors worldwide. Despite this overwhelming evidence and the societal impact of obesity, we know surprisingly little about the underlying molecular mechanisms. This knowledge gap is a major obstacle to the implementation of effective lifestyle change policies. As the scientific community is insecure on what messages it should deliver, administrators are uncertain as to what exactly to recommend, and consumers are confused about whom to believe. This leaves the field flooded with pseudo-scientific recommendations that are hard to eradicate. In this review, I will provide a summary of the existing epidemiological and mechanistic evidence on the relationship between systemic metabolism and cancer, highlighting debated issues and ongoing investigations. PMID:26284118

  13. MedlinePlus FAQ: Search Cloud

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/faq/searchcloud.html Question: How does the search cloud work? To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The search cloud displays the top 100 search terms typed ...

  14. Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot cycle or by dry-cleaning. Items that cannot be ... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot cycle or by dry-cleaning. Items that cannot be ...

  15. Giardiasis Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parasites - Giardia Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Data, & Statistics Health Promotion Materials Fact Sheets Podcasts Parasites Home This Page Has Moved Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/faq/criteria.html Question: How do Web sites get listed in MedlinePlus? To use the ... authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web sites. We try to ensure that the information ...

  17. MedlinePlus FAQ: Copyrighted and Non-Copyrighted Material

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/faq/copyrightfaq.html Question: Is the material on MedlinePlus copyrighted? To use the sharing features ... Answer: MedlinePlus contains both copyrighted and non-copyrighted material. Please see our copyright information page . Restrictions may ...

  18. MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... faq/easytoread.html Question: How can I locate materials on MedlinePlus that are easy to read and ... public, not for health professionals. But, not all materials on MedlinePlus are at the same reading level. ...

  19. MedlinePlus FAQ: News Coverage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/faq/news.html Question: I saw a news article on MedlinePlus but now I can't find ... stories are also displayed on health topic pages . News articles come from the HealthDay news services. NLM does ...

  20. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Parasites - Bed Bugs Parasites Home Share Compartir Bed Bugs FAQs On this Page What are bed bugs? ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

  1. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as Pinworm Infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Pinworm Infection FAQs On this Page What is a pinworm? ... skin. What are the symptoms of a pinworm infection? Pinworm infection (called enterobiasis or oxyuriasis) causes itching ...

  2. Hepatitis C FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... URL - Redirecting ... Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & ...

  3. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis A FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  4. Hepatitis B FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  5. Low Vision FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs Listen What is low vision? Low vision ...

  6. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  7. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain ... a smaller size. Is it normal to feel pain during or after nursing? If your baby is ...

  8. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Law Enforcement Training Victim & Family Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) ... a person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime ...

  9. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention Law Enforcement Training Victim & Family Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) ... a person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime ...

  10. State Cancer Profiles Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    Cancer.gov

    Coping with Cancer for information about complications of cancer and its treatment, as well as information on treatment-related nutritional concerns, supportive care clinical trials, and end-of-life issues.

  11. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... months pregnant, and want to take a 2-week trip to a country where malaria transmission occurs. ... days Doxycycline 12–24 hours Mefloquine 2–3 weeks Primaquine 4–7 hours Proguanil 14–21 hours ...

  12. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... environment. How much should I drink during hot weather? During hot weather you will need to drink ...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Plague

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ebola virus E. coli Food safety threats Glanders Lassa fever Marburg virus Melioidosis Plague Case Definitions and Report ... Investigation Infection Control Other Resources Typhoid fever Viral hemorrhagic fevers Treatment & Infection Control Specimen Submission & Lab Testing Education & ...

  14. Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... We would like to create workplace guidelines in case an employee is diagnosed with scabies. Can CDC ... Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention Control Single Case Multiple Cases Crusted Scabies Cases Publications Information For: ...

  15. Measuring sun exposure in epidemiological studies: Matching the method to the research question.

    PubMed

    King, Laura; Xiang, Fan; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Lucas, Robyn M

    2015-12-01

    Sun exposure has risks and benefits for health. Testing these associations requires tools for measuring sun exposure that are feasible and relevant to the time-course of the health outcome. Recent sun exposure, e.g. the last week, is best captured by dosimeters and sun diaries. These can also be used for medium-term sun exposure e.g. over several weeks, but incur a high participant burden. Self-reported data on "typical time outdoors" for working and non-working days, is less detailed and not influenced by day-to-day variation. Over a longer period, e.g. the lifetime, or for particular life stages, proxies of sun exposure, such as latitude of residence or ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation levels (from satellites or ground-level monitoring) can be used, with additional detail provided by lifetime sun exposure calendars that include locations of residence, usual time outdoors, and detail of sunburn episodes. Objective measures of lifetime sun exposure include microtopography of sun-exposed skin (e.g. using silicone casts) or conjunctival UV autofluorescence. Potential modifiers of the association between sun exposure and the health outcome, such as clothing coverage and skin colour, may also need to be measured. We provide a systematic approach to selecting sun exposure measures for use in epidemiological health research. PMID:26555640

  16. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ This page has moved. Please update ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html Print page Share Compartir ...

  17. MedlinePlus FAQ: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/faq/audiodescription.html Question: Is audio description available for videos on MedlinePlus? To use ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: Audio description of videos helps make the content of ...

  18. MedlinePlus FAQ: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mobile.html Question: Will MedlinePlus work on my mobile device? To use the sharing features on this ... Some video content might not play on your mobile device. See our FAQ on playing videos on ...

  19. Just the FAQs: An Alternative to Teaching the Research Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, James

    2004-01-01

    Changing the form of the traditional research paper often results in a greater emphasis on inquiry or FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). An alternative form of presentation that capitalizes on available technology and requires students to develop their thinking, reading, writing and presentation skills is presented.

  20. FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ברוכים הבאים HOŞ GELDİNİZ FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence in popularity. ... Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink into the ...

  1. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  2. Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

  3. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  4. A FAQ-Based e-Learning Environment to Support Japanese Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yuqin; Yin, Chengjiu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Qiao, Guojun; Yano, Yoneo

    2011-01-01

    In traditional classes, having many questions from learners is important because these questions indicate difficult points for learners and for teachers. This paper proposes a FAQ-based e-Learning environment to support Japanese language learning that focuses on learner questions. This knowledge sharing system enables learners to interact and…

  5. MedlinePlus FAQ: What's New on Medline Plus Page and Email Updates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... faq/whatsnew.html Question: How is the What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed different from ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed include alerts ...

  6. MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I play videos on my phone or tablet?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/faq/mobilevideo.html Question: Can I play videos on my phone or tablet? To use the ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus has video content in different formats. MedlinePlus also links to ...

  7. FAQs

    Cancer.gov

    The DCIDE program is intended to supply or enable missing steps to those who lack development capacity or resources so that promising discoveries may eventually be translated to the clinical research environment. The DCIDE program will focus on promising diagnostic agents that are not otherwise likely to undergo adequate pre-clinical testing to warrant an IND application.

  8. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... and veteran — may have. Where should my baby sleep? There are many options for where your baby ...

  9. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  10. FAQ Lost shipment or missing dr

    Cancer.gov

    September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

  11. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... and veteran — may have. Where should my baby sleep? There are many options for where your baby ...

  12. MedlinePlus Connect: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and IT providers to link patient portals and electronic health record (EHR) systems to information from MedlinePlus ( ... MedlinePlus Connect is a free service that allows electronic health record (EHR) systems to easily link users ...

  13. Body Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  14. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  15. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  16. Body Lice Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  17. Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  18. Head Lice: Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  19. Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  20. Pubic "Crab" Lice Prevention and Control

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  1. Head Lice: Information for Parents

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  2. Parasites - Lice

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  3. Head Lice: Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  4. question_1410546275 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  5. question_1414049861 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  6. question_1302099820 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1302099820 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  7. question_1309291860 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1309291860 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  8. question_1297460130 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1297460130 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  9. question_1296401928 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296401928 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  10. question_1301530459 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1301530459 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  11. question_1296830406 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296830406 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  12. question_1312382828 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1312382828 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  13. question_1309360864 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1309360864 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  14. question_1298409202 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1298409202 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  15. question_1302545047 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1302545047 Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010

  16. FAQs: Learning Languages through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Sarah L.

    2000-01-01

    Using a format of frequently asked questions about teaching foreign languages using drama, this article explores the evolution of this approach, its benefits and drawbacks, and the various theatrical activities that can be used to teach languages. After describing how drama fits into the communicative approach to language teaching, the article…

  17. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

  18. MedlinePlus FAQ: Statistics about MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... faq/stats.html Can you give me some statistics about MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features on ... For page requests and unique visitors, see MedlinePlus statistics . Return to the list of MedlinePlus FAQs About ...

  19. Frequently Asked Questions: IDEA Early Childhood--Disclosure Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This 2014 document is an adaptation of the 2012 release of "Frequently Asked Questions--Disclosure Avoidance" intended for K-12 audiences. Presented here in the form of responses to frequently asked questions (FAQs) are suggestions intended to provide guidance to IDEA Part C early intervention and Part B 619 preschool special education…

  20. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  1. question_1296837100 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    While the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to increased risk for certain cancers are largely unknown (as noted in other questions), we pose an associated question -- what are the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to decreased risk of certain other cancers?

  2. Implementing Response to Intervention: Practices and Perspectives from Five Schools--Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackett, Kathryn Klingler; Roberts, Greg; Baker, Scott; Scammacca, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    One question frequently arises in the work of the Regional Comprehensive Centers: "What are states, districts, and schools doing about RTI?" This document addresses that question, with particular focus on instruction and the implementation of effective practices. It uses a frequently asked questions (FAQs) format, with answers based on the…

  3. question_1296796037 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

  4. Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online Pose a Question Workshops 10-9-2010 PQ

  5. MedlinePlus FAQ: Disease or Condition Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ... also type your disease or condition into the search box. There is a search box at the ...

  6. Frequently Asked Questions: Hemophilia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people with hemophilia, while American football, rugby, and boxing are usually not recommended. What are inhibitors? Inhibitors ... Treatment Hemophilia in Pictures FAQs Resources Carriers and Women with Hemophilia Inheritance of Hemophilia Definitions & Terminology Bleeding ...

  7. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... provide this patient support at no cost. In Depth FAQ About IC Potential Causes Treatments InterStim Complementary ... IC Initial Evaluation for IC Diagnosing Complicated IC Cases Promising IC Diagnostic Tests Wrong Diagnosis IC Treatment ...

  8. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  9. Critiquing Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2015-01-01

    Question formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the question properly and not as much on the quality of the information the question is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…

  10. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  11. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  12. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  13. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  14. NLM extramural program: frequently asked questions.

    PubMed Central

    Zink, S; Illes, J; Vannier, M W

    1996-01-01

    New and aspiring investigators often ask the same questions of experts as proposals are formulated, written, and submitted to the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for peer review. The NLM's Division of Extramural Programs (EP) provides support to medical libraries, academic medical centers, individuals, and industry through numerous types of grants and contracts. A complex set of processes and procedures is in place and is familiar to established and funded researchers, but to few others. A collection of frequently asked questions (FAQ) and their answers on these issues has been prepared by the Biomedical Library Review Committee (BLRC), a standing advisory group to the NLM that meets three times a year to review and score proposals. The BLRC and two experts on National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and contracts compiled their advice in an electronic FAQ that has been edited and abridged as an introduction to NLM EP for investigators from medical library science, informatics, and biotechnology. The BLRC expects that if new investigators are able to avoid common mistakes and misconceptions, their proposals will improve in quality and they will be able to spend their time more effectively in proposal preparation. Images PMID:8826620

  15. Demand Response For Power System Reliability: FAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Brendan J

    2006-12-01

    Demand response is the most underutilized power system reliability resource in North America. Technological advances now make it possible to tap this resource to both reduce costs and improve. Misconceptions concerning response capabilities tend to force loads to provide responses that they are less able to provide and often prohibit them from providing the most valuable reliability services. Fortunately this is beginning to change with some ISOs making more extensive use of load response. This report is structured as a series of short questions and answers that address load response capabilities and power system reliability needs. Its objective is to further the use of responsive load as a bulk power system reliability resource in providing the fastest and most valuable ancillary services.

  16. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  17. Questioning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Nikki

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a project involving the observation of 12 teachers in different schools, teaching pupils at Key Stage 3 of differing ages and abilities, noting both questioning techniques used and pupils' responses. The teachers involved were volunteers, chosen to give a range of experience, styles, and school, and included a…

  18. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  19. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  20. Questor's Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

  1. Descriptive Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    Descriptive epidemiology studies characterize cancer incidence and mortality temporal trends, age-specific rates, geographic distribution of cancer, race and ethnic differences in cancer rates, and birth cohort effects.

  2. Environmental Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

  3. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  4. Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

  5. Parasitic contamination cycles and mathematical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    van Knapen, F

    1987-10-01

    Mathematics plays an essential role in epidemiology. Whether simple questions are asked about simple relations, or complicated questions about complicated relations, the best fitting mathematical figures are always searched for. In a holistic approach, it may often be necessary to assess complicated relations by using (real) mathematical models (simulation models). Examples are presented of parasitic contamination cycles which require more or less complicated mathematics to answer epidemiological questions regarding prevalence and incidence of infection in the human population: Trichinella, Toxocara and Toxoplasma. Some general remarks on epidemiological insights which are necessary to understand abstract concepts of the 'real world' ('mathematical modelling'), are discussed. PMID:3321687

  6. Open Questions.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A few items in this issue of the Report explore a hodge-podge of questions associated with cutting-edge genetics research. In the lead article, Charles Dupras and Vardit Ravitsky look at research into epigenetics, which refers to molecular mechanisms that affect how genes are expressed. As Dupras and Ravitsky explain, research into epigenetics might turn out to be useful for developing environmental and social strategies for improving public health, but it might also end up leading to clinical tools-tools that work at the "molecular" instead of the social level and that target individuals rather than the collective public. Dupras and Ravitsky plainly hope to see a good effort to develop environmental and social strategies, and they fear that funding and interest will go mostly the other way, toward ever more "molecular" interventions. That trend in funding and interest is reflected, to some degree, in the second article, in which Oscar Zarate and colleagues explore how the Personal Genome Project, an endeavor launched at Harvard University to collect and share personal genetic and health information in order to facilitate research, is perceived by the people who consent to be part of it. Questions about open consent and subjects' role in fostering research recur in several shorter contributions to this issue. In the lead essay, Carl Elliott reflects on how and why the language used to describe research has been updated ("subjects" giving way to "participants" and "experimentation" to "research") and suggests that the changes reflect an effort to deflect concerns about the treatment of subjects. PMID:26786031

  7. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  8. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  9. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  10. Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1295994802 Griguer, Corinne Pose

  11. Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296831143 Finn, Olivera Pose

  12. Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1296761243 Hecht, Toby Pose a

  13. Lerman, Michael — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Community Dialog US Workshops Questions from Workshops Questions Submitted Online question_1302545047 Lerman, Michael Pose

  14. Questions, Questioning Techniques, and Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilen, William W., Ed.

    This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…

  15. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with a health care provider. If you have any questions about the parasites described above or think that you may have a parasitic ... Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 ...

  16. Answering Questions About Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.

    1977-01-01

    Lists suggestions for aiding teachers in answering student questions about sex, including hints for classroom discussions, questioning and answering techniques, and appropriate role for the teacher. Also lists resources (textbooks, filmstrips, pamphlets and reports) for answering questions about sex. (CS)

  17. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  18. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  19. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

  20. Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (2007–2011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/?L CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.45–0.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

  1. QUESTIONS IN CHINESE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TSAO, WEN YEN

    THIS ARTICLE, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND CHINESE, IS DESIGNED TO BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE PRESENTATION OF QUESTIONS IN THE TEACHING OF CHINESE. QUESTIONS CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO THREE CATEGORIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS--(1) PURE QUESTIONS, (2) RHETORICAL QUESTIONS, AND (3)…

  2. Revisiting Routine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  3. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  5. Questions about Adoption

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Questions About Adoption Page Content Article Body What's the best way to handle my child's questions about her adoption? Many parents want to know ...

  6. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  7. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  8. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  9. Questions for Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

  10. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  11. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  12. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  13. Adolescents' questions about sex.

    PubMed

    Davis, S M; Harris, M B

    1983-12-01

    Male and female Anglo, Hispanic and Native American adolescents from urban and rural areas were given a chance to ask anonymous questions about sex. These questions were then used as the bases for subsequent presentations on sex education. The most popular categories of questions were reproduction, sexuality, and contraception, followed by anatomy, venereal disease, pregnancy, abortion, vocabulary, hygiene, and other diseases. Younger adolescents asked significantly more questions in most categories than older ones. Girls asked significantly more total questions and ones concerning pregnancy, contraception, and anatomy than boys. Students attending rural schools asked more questions about venereal disease than those in urban schools, but no other main effects of urban-rural location were found. There were no ethnic differences found. The adolescents' questions ranged from sophisticated to poignantly ignorant, suggesting that the strategy of adapting sex education sessions to fit the concerns of the specific adolescents involved might be valuable. PMID:6643199

  14. Questions and Questioning: Working with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macro, Chris; McFall, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Teachers who work with early-years children often ask how young children can be encouraged to think about the events, living things, or objects they are investigating and how they can be encouraged to ask appropriate scientific questions. The authors felt that they needed to examine their own practice and that of other teachers in respect to…

  15. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  16. Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights

    PubMed Central

    Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia E.; Bifani, Pablo J.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis (TB) have focused largely on utilizing molecular techniques to address short- and long-term epidemiologic questions, such as in outbreak investigations and in assessing the global dissemination of strains, respectively. This is done primarily by examining the extent of genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When molecular methods are used in conjunction with classical epidemiology, their utility for TB control has been realized. For instance, molecular epidemiologic studies have added much-needed accuracy and precision in describing transmission dynamics, and they have facilitated investigation of previously unresolved issues, such as estimates of recent-versus-reactive disease and the extent of exogenous reinfection. In addition, there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters (lineages) may differ in virulence, pathogenesis, and epidemiologic characteristics, all of which may significantly impact TB control and vaccine development strategies. Here, we review the current methods, concepts, and applications of molecular approaches used to better understand the epidemiology of TB. PMID:17041139

  17. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  18. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  19. [Molecular epidemiology in the epidemiological transition].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological transition describes the changes in the health profile of populations where infectious diseases are substituted by chronic or non-communicable diseases. Even in industrialized countries, infectious diseases emerge as important public health problems and with a very important association with several type of neoplasm. Molecular epidemiology brings in new tools for the study of the epidemiological transition by discovering infectious agents as etiology of diseases, neither of both new. Much has been advanced in the understanding of the virulence and resistance mechanism of different strains, or improving the knowledge on transmission dynamics and dissemination pathways of infectious diseases. As to the non-communicable diseases, molecular epidemiology has enhanced the identification of endogenous risk factors link to alterations, molecular changes in genetic material, that will allow a more detail definition of risk and the identification of individual and groups at risk of several diseases. The potential impact of molecular epidemiology in other areas as environmental, lifestyles and nutritional areas are illustrated with several examples. PMID:9504120

  20. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  1. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  2. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  3. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  4. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  5. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  6. Questions in Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usova, George M.; Casteen, Dennis

    This guide for the instructional development team provides an understanding of the educational value of using questions in instructional training materials. It also shows examples and illustrations for incorporating questions into instructional materials (print and video) produced by the Shipyard Training Modernization Program. Background…

  7. It's about the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearwald, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

  8. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  9. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions. PMID:26386480

  10. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Detailed FAQs Blood Screening FAQs Triatomine Bug FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Diagnosis Newly Diagnosed Patients ...

  11. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Improving Survival Medical Bibliography Data Reports Related Links Sepsis Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... organ failure, and death. When can you get sepsis? Sepsis can occur to anyone, at any time, ...

  12. Paternostro, Giovanni — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    This question addresses a very important problem but could be slightly modified to be more provocative. For example, can we design combinatorial cancer therapies that use the same strategies as biological combinatorial control?

  13. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  14. Pertussis Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment Prevention Adults Parents-to-be Babies & Children Preteens & Teens Travelers Healthcare Personnel Frequently Asked Questions Photos ... Pregnant Women For Parents of Young Children For Preteens & Teens For Adults For Spanish Speakers Publications Related ...

  15. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...

  16. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and consumers are each critical links in the food safety chain. This document answers common questions about the bacteria Salmonella , describes how the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. ...

  17. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and consumers are each critical links in the food safety chain. This document answers common questions about the bacteria " ... at a number of different points in the food production and marketing chain. On the farm: Good sanitary practices on farms, ...

  18. Choice in Question Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singha, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts to clarify the position concerning the giving of options in choosing questions on examination papers, and provokes thinking on the curricular and measurement problems associated with it. (Author/PG)

  19. Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N

    1996-01-01

    There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

  20. Redefining the Fundamental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Margaret Ann

    2006-01-01

    Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

  1. Enhancers: five essential questions

    PubMed Central

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Bickmore, Wendy; Dean, Ann; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Bejerano, Gill

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that the human genome contains hundreds of thousands of enhancers, so understanding these gene-regulatory elements is a crucial goal. Several fundamental questions need to be addressed about enhancers, such as how do we identify them all, how do they work, and how do they contribute to disease and evolution? Five prominent researchers in this field look at how much we know already and what needs to be done to answer these questions. PMID:23503198

  2. Evolution of environmental epidemiologic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.A.

    1985-10-01

    Epidemiology has historically played an important role in the recognition of causes for diseases affecting the health of the public. Initially, epidemiology was concerned with infectious diseases. Later it became involved in metabolic and dietary deficiency diseases. Most recently, epidemiology has addressed the question of the public health effects of chemicals from production facilities, accidental spills, and chemical waste disposal sites. Concurrent improvements in the sensitivity of chemical analyses have enabled the identification of chemicals arising from waste disposal sites in the soil, air, drinking water, and food supplies of neighboring residential areas, albeit usually at very low concentrations. This knowledge has created great concerns among the affected populations and their public health agencies. The responsibility for interpreting the potential severity of the health effects of these environmental contaminants has fallen to those scientists experienced in epidemiology. This has led to a subdiscipline, reactive epidemiology, which describes investigations focused on specific events, usually under emotion-laden circumstances, rather than scientific merit. The reactive epidemiologist is rigidly constrained as to the size, timing, and location of the study. There is a strong requirement for public communication skills. New data bases are needed including ''sentinel'' diseases that are linked to exposure to chemicals, records of land use, and residency data for the population at risk.

  3. Epidemiology: Then and Now.

    PubMed

    Kuller, Lewis H

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-five years ago, on the 75th anniversary of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, I noted that epidemiologic research was moving away from the traditional approaches used to investigate "epidemics" and their close relationship with preventive medicine. Twenty-five years later, the role of epidemiology as an important contribution to human population research, preventive medicine, and public health is under substantial pressure because of the emphasis on "big data," phenomenology, and personalized medical therapies. Epidemiology is the study of epidemics. The primary role of epidemiology is to identify the epidemics and parameters of interest of host, agent, and environment and to generate and test hypotheses in search of causal pathways. Almost all diseases have a specific distribution in relation to time, place, and person and specific "causes" with high effect sizes. Epidemiology then uses such information to develop interventions and test (through clinical trials and natural experiments) their efficacy and effectiveness. Epidemiology is dependent on new technologies to evaluate improved measurements of host (genomics), epigenetics, identification of agents (metabolomics, proteomics), new technology to evaluate both physical and social environment, and modern methods of data collection. Epidemiology does poorly in studying anything other than epidemics and collections of numerators and denominators without specific hypotheses even with improved statistical methodologies. PMID:26493266

  4. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology. PMID:26319950

  5. What matters most: quantifying an epidemiology of consequence.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine; Galea, Sandro

    2015-05-01

    Risk factor epidemiology has contributed to substantial public health success. In this essay, we argue, however, that the focus on risk factor epidemiology has led epidemiology to ever increasing focus on the estimation of precise causal effects of exposures on an outcome at the expense of engagement with the broader causal architecture that produces population health. To conduct an epidemiology of consequence, a systematic effort is needed to engage our science in a critical reflection both about how well and under what conditions or assumptions we can assess causal effects and also on what will truly matter most for changing population health. Such an approach changes the priorities and values of the discipline and requires reorientation of how we structure the questions we ask and the methods we use, as well as how we teach epidemiology to our emerging scholars. PMID:25749559

  6. Question Their Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Brenda

    2004-10-01

    Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  8. Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to physical and chemical agents; nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious agents.

  9. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  10. Epidemiology of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  11. Epidemiology of Toxoplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent throughout the world. This chapter discusses modes of transmission, the epidemiology of T. gondii infection worldwide and in Brazil, and methods of prevention and control....

  12. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  13. Epidemiology of varicocele.

    PubMed

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  14. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  15. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... I change my listing in the Online Directory? Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music therapists ...

  16. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  17. What Is the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Melba D.

    Second language educators need to examine in greater depth the learning processes of young children in order to provide them with the kind of teaching they need in order to really learn. This means searching other fields to learn as much as possible about: questioning strategies and the development of critical thinking skills; hemispheric…

  18. Manjili, Masoud — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

  19. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the north of…

  20. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  1. Researching Classroom Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lores Gonzalez, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    The complexities of the modern society and interconnected world in which we live requires students who are able to problem solve and think critically. The research on which this article is based aims to explore how classroom questioning can help students guide their learning and model the spirit of inquiry to become lifelong learners. The research…

  2. EFFECTIVELY ADDRESSING CONSUMER QUESTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions can be one of the toughest aspects of working in the egg industry. Consumers enjoy being informed about the products they purchase. The increased use of the internet by consumers can prove problematic due to the wealth of inaccurate information available on the interne...

  3. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  4. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  5. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  6. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  7. Question: Who Can Vote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

  8. The Questions Children Ask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Erika

    1987-01-01

    Fifty children (ages 9-15, N=30 with high intelligence) participating in a course on creative thinking were invited to construct questions about mankind's future. Gifted children displayed a high degree of anxiety and a greater, somewhat pessimistic, long-range outlook. Interests included quality of life, faith in human potential, and individual…

  9. Questioning Ohio's Loyalty Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive questions. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist Exclusion?" inquiry,…

  10. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

  11. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  12. The 200 Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlin, Barbara

    1982-01-01

    Describes a contract between the reference service of a library system in Illinois and a commercial supplier of information in Berkeley, California, to provide the answers to 200 reference questions for a flat rate of $6000. The contract, considered the first of its kind, successfully relieved a current reference overload. (RAA)

  13. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  14. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  15. My Favorite Exam Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styer, Dan

    2015-12-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical deformation, and so forth. How much does the flatcar weigh?

  16. Stillbirth FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... like her kidneys and liver, may not be working properly. Maternal smoking, street drugs, prescription painkillers or drinking. African American mothers (2-3 times greater risk). African American mothers ...

  17. Caregiver FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... functioning, such as problem solving, abstract thinking, and reasoning, while Alzheimer's features a predominant decline in memory. ... are still several years from being ready for clinical use. My father passed away from DLB, or ...

  18. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... count (thrombocytopenia). How common is leishmaniasis in the world? The number of new cases per year is ... million (400,000). In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found? In the Old World (the ...

  19. Caregiver FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications for Professionals Order Free Handouts Checkout Home Learn about lbd What is LBD? Is It LBD or Something Else? 10 Things You Should Know about LBD Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Options ...

  20. Sunscreens FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... regulations in place that govern the manufacture and marketing of all sunscreen products, including safety data on ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2015 American Academy ...

  1. Infertility FAQ's

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infertility. Top of Page What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)? Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) includes all fertility ... Top of Page How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful? Success rates vary and depend on ...

  2. Donation FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... needle in one arm and passed through a machine that separates out the blood-forming cells. The ... needle in one arm and passed through a machine that separates out the blood-forming cells. The ...

  3. Sunscreens FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of “1 ounce, enough to fill a shot glass,” which dermatologists consider the amount needed to cover ... and age spots, and can pass through window glass. UVB rays (or burning rays) are the primary ...

  4. Donation FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for you. Matching a patient How is a bone marrow match determined? Doctors look for a donor who ... life-threatening — delays for the patient. How are bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation different? ...

  5. TES FAQ

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-14

    ... 2004. The routine TES observation mode is to produce global survey standard products spanning 16 orbits on a 50% duty cycle, or ... spectral radiances (NESR). The geolocation, quality and some engineering data are also provided. A Level 1B data file contains ...

  6. Living in the question.

    PubMed

    Flower, J

    1999-01-01

    We live in a fast moving-world. Business has accelerated to breathtaking speeds in the 1990s--and in the last few years the afterburner has really kicked in. The speed of change is overwhelming. Especially in health care, who has time to "live in the question?" We need to decide things quickly, get the decision out of the way, and move on, right? Maybe. Biology shows us that you can't plan ahead very far. New things come along that you don't even have a category for, and therefore you don't even see them. Things are going to happen that you literally have no notion are even possible. The key to succeeding in this environment? Don't plan ahead. Stay curious. Make small bets. Build organizational hothouses. Feed the seedlings that grow. The challenge is to remain curious, to live in the question, both personally and organizationally. PMID:10557490

  7. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  8. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  9. Frequently Asked Questions about Immunizations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... All About Food Allergies Frequently Asked Questions About Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Frequently Asked Questions About Immunizations ... for answers to some common questions. What do immunizations do? Vaccines work by preparing the body to ...

  10. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  11. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  12. Vertigo: epidemiologic aspects.

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, Hannelore K; Lempert, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Vertigo is a frequent symptom in the general population with a 12-month prevalence of 5% and an incidence of 1.4% in adults. Its prevalence rises with age and is about two to three times higher in women than in men. The epidemiology of vertigo and underlying specific vestibular disorders is still an underdeveloped field despite its usefulness for clinical decision making and its potential for improving patient care. In this article, the authors give an overview on the epidemiology of vertigo as a symptom and of four specific vestibular disorders: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), vestibular migraine, Ménière's disease, and vestibular neuritis. PMID:19834858

  13. Automatically Classifying Question Types for Consumer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411

  14. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  15. Understanding Nutritional Epidemiology and Its Role in Policy12

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Ambika; Yu, Edward; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology has recently been criticized on several fronts, including the inability to measure diet accurately, and for its reliance on observational studies to address etiologic questions. In addition, several recent meta-analyses with serious methodologic flaws have arrived at erroneous or misleading conclusions, reigniting controversy over formerly settled debates. All of this has raised questions regarding the ability of nutritional epidemiologic studies to inform policy. These criticisms, to a large degree, stem from a misunderstanding of the methodologic issues of the field and the inappropriate use of the drug trial paradigm in nutrition research. The exposure of interest in nutritional epidemiology is human diet, which is a complex system of interacting components that cumulatively affect health. Consequently, nutritional epidemiology constantly faces a unique set of challenges and continually develops specific methodologies to address these. Misunderstanding these issues can lead to the nonconstructive and sometimes naive criticisms we see today. This article aims to clarify common misunderstandings of nutritional epidemiology, address challenges to the field, and discuss the utility of nutritional science in guiding policy by focusing on 5 broad questions commonly asked of the field. PMID:25593140

  16. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  17. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  18. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  19. Concepts in Huanglongbing Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) was discovered in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively. Previously, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The perennial nature of the disease necessitates...

  20. Epidemiology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Behr, C; Goltzene, M A; Kosmalski, G; Hirsch, E; Ryvlin, P

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a burden affecting no fewer than 50 million patients worldwide. It is a heterogeneous group of disorders comprising both common and very rare forms, thus rendering its epidemiological investigations rather difficult. Moreover, making an epilepsy diagnosis per se can be challenging due to an evolving system of classification, and its dependency on local habits and culture. Any attempt at meta-analyses must consider such biases when pooling data from different centers and countries. Differentiating a contextual seizure from chronic epilepsy is every epileptologist's daily mission, yet it is also crucial for achieving a proper estimation of the epidemiology of epilepsy. Our present objective was to provide an overview of the epidemiology of both syndromic and non-syndromic epilepsy. Most epileptic syndromes tend to be rare and, thus, the feasibility of epidemiological quantification in populations is also addressed. Regarding its prevalence and cost, epilepsy deserves greater attention than it generally receives, as it appears to continue to be a condition under persistent taboos. PMID:26754036

  1. Proximal femural fractures: epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Innocenti, Massimo; Civinini, Roberto; Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    The Authors report briefly about epidemiology and prognosis of proximal femoral fractures in elderly people worldwide. Focusing particurarly on Italian population, the Authors report on the impact that this pathologic phenomenon has on the quality of life of patients and on general population, also from a social and economical point of view. A concise overview of the options treatment is also presented. PMID:22461159

  2. An approach for conducting epidemiological surveillance in industry.

    PubMed

    Collins, J J

    1994-04-01

    There are three unresolved issues in epidemiological surveillance: 1) should surveillance be hypothesis generating, 2) how much effort should be put into the design and data collection of a surveillance project, and 3) can useful surveillance be done with questionable data? It is concluded that epidemiological surveillance should be approached as an epidemiology study that examines the potential association between specific exposure and disease. This would include 1) a feasibility study to determine if surveillance on a particular subject is possible, 2) a detailed protocol, and 3) plans for data reduction, interpretation of findings, and worker communication. Epidemiological surveillance must be well planned and resourced to be used as a screening mechanism for occupational illness or injury excess, monitoring the health of workers exposed to specific substances, or setting priorities for future special studies. PMID:10133285

  3. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  4. Ask an intelligent question...

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.

    1995-05-01

    In recent years, as electric utilities have moved toward deregualtion, industry watchers have counceled them to create streamlined competitor intelligence functions or else be outstripped by utilities that do. Gathering competitor intelligence stays focused on answering key questions and showing a cource of action. To that extent, it is part and parcel of good decision-making. In strategic analysis, intelligence focuses on broad-scale comparisons to other electric utilities to determine competitive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This information helps utilities develop business strategies, including a high-level view of what products and services to offer customers. The objective is to ensure that the company doesn`t miss an important issue or trend, so such analysis is ongoing and benefits from a visionary or creative viewpoint.

  5. Raising questions about antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Antonuccio, D O; Danton, W G; DeNelsky, G Y; Greenberg, R P; Gordon, J S

    1999-01-01

    Antidepressant medication has apparently become the most popular treatment for depression in the USA. Several beliefs about the efficacy of antidepressant medications prevail among mental health professionals and the public. This paper explores relevant research data and raises questions about these beliefs. Many of the common beliefs about these medications are not adequately supported by scientific data. The following issues are raised: (1) industry-funded research studies which result in negative findings sometimes do not get published; (2) placebo washout procedures may bias results in some studies; (3) there are serious questions about the integrity of the double-blind procedure; (4) the 'true' antidepressant drug effect in adults appears to be relatively small; (5) there is minimal evidence of antidepressant efficacy in children; (6) side effects are fairly common even with the newer antidepressants; (7) combining medications raises the risk for more serious complications; (8) all antidepressants can cause withdrawal symptoms; (9) genetic influences on unipolar depression appear to be weaker than environmental influences; (10) biochemical theories of depression are as yet unproven; (11) biological markers specific for depression have been elusive; (12) dosage and plasma levels of antidepressants have been minimally related to treatment outcome; (13) preliminary evidence suggests that patients who improve with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy show similar biological changes as those who respond to medication, and (14) the evidence suggests that psychological interventions are at least as effective as pharmacotherapy in treating depression, even if severe, especially when patient-rated measures are used and long-term follow-up is considered. PMID:9873236

  6. Systems epidemiology in cancer.

    PubMed

    Lund, Eiliv; Dumeaux, Vanessa

    2008-11-01

    Prospective studies in cancer epidemiology have conserved their study design over the last decades. In this context, current epidemiologic studies investigating gene-environment interactions are based on biobank for the analysis of genetic variation and biomarkers, using notified cancer as outcome. These studies result from the use of high-throughput technologies rather than from the development of novel design strategies. In this article, we propose the globolomic design to run integrated analyses of cancer risk covering the major -omics in blood and tumor tissue. We defined this design as an extension of the existing prospective design by collecting tissue and blood samples at time of diagnosis, including biological material suitable for transcriptome analysis. The globolomic design opens up for several new analytic strategies and, where gene expression profiles could be used to verify mechanistic information from experimental biology, adds a new dimension to causality in epidemiology. This could improve, for example, the interpretation of risk estimates related to single nucleotide polymorphisms in gene-environment studies by changing the criterion of biological plausibility from a subjective discussion of in vitro information to observational data of human in vivo gene expression. This ambitious design should consider the complexity of the multistage carcinogenic process, the latency time, and the changing lifestyle of the cohort members. This design could open the new research discipline of systems epidemiology, defined in this article as a counterpart to systems biology. Systems epidemiology with a focus on gene functions challenges the current concept of biobanking, which focuses mainly on DNA analyses. PMID:18990736

  7. First NCI Epidemiology Leadership Workshop: Tobacco, Diet, and Genes

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Croyle, DCCPS Director, said that this workshop is one in a series of activities to be undertaken as part of a review of the EGRP, as has occurred in other parts of DCCPS. It is an important opportunity to identify the epidemiologic questions in tobacco, diet, and genetic research that need support and facilitation and what is needed to overcome barriers.

  8. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  9. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle. PMID:11797741

  10. Questioning the psychoanalyst's authority.

    PubMed

    Tuch, R H

    2001-01-01

    Sources of the trend to question not just the analyst's authority to interpret, but the analyst's use of authority in general, are explored. Out of a wish to circumvent the potentially detrimental effects an analyst's interpretations can have on patients, certain psychoanalysts have modified their analytic techniques with an eye to downplaying the role of their authority. When taken to extremes, this has led analysts to act as if they have little to offer patients in the way of an alternative point of view, and to privilege patients' accounts and interpretations by treating them as if they were objectively true. It is argued that one need not go so far in order to protect patients from the analyst's less than careful use of authority. It is argued further that the judicious use of authority remains an indispensable tool in helping to ready the patient's mind for a consideration of constructs different from those on which the patient has always relied. Finally, becoming comfortable with the aggressive aspect of the use of one's authority may determine the extent to which one is willing to employ one's authority with patients. PMID:11508374

  11. Causality in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    The article presents short historical review of the concepts of causality. Then it deals with contemporary concepts of causal dependence with special reference to epidemiological studies. In particular Lewis counterfactuals theory and contemporary probabilistic theories were analyzed including applications of DAG's (directed acyclic graphs), which in the last decade are frequently applied for presentation of complicated study designs in epidemiology. Authors high appreciation explanatory role of graphic presentation of relationships between variables and the role of conditional probability of events respecting Markov conditions and Bayesian premises, does not change his opinion, that statistical methods are insufficient for final assessment of causal dependence and some subjective element of learned judgment of the scientist has to be always present. In Authors opinion causal approach to associations between are crucial as a base for therapeutic approach and for public health interventions. This is why he is against consequent indeterministic approach. PMID:20120956

  12. Dengue: update on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact. PMID:25475383

  13. Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

  14. Epidemiology of Gout

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyon

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the last few decades. Whilst incidence data are scarce, data from the US suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiological studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C appear to have a protective effect. Further prospective studies are required to examine other proposed risk factors for hyperuricaemia and gout such as the use of β-blockers and angiotension-II receptor antagonists (other than losartan), obstructive sleep apnoea, and osteoarthritis, and putative protective factors such as calcium-channel blockers and losartan. PMID:24703341

  15. Molecular epidemiology in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Collins, A R

    1998-12-01

    The use of molecular biomarkers in epidemiological investigations brings clear advantages of economy, speed and precision. Epidemiology--the study of the factors that control the patterns of incidence of disease--normally requires large numbers of subjects and/or long periods of time, because what is measured (the occurrence of disease) is a rare event. Biomarkers are measurable biological parameters that reflect, in some way, an individual's risk of disease-because they indicate exposure to a causative (or protective) agent, or because they represent an early stage in development of the disease, or because they allow an assessment of individual susceptibility. Biomarkers must be usable on one of the few materials available for biomonitoring of humans, i.e. blood, urine, exfoliated epithelial cells and, with some difficulty, biopsies. The approach of molecular epidemiology has a great potential is several areas of cancer research: investigating the aetiology of the disease; monitoring cancer risk in people exposed to occupational or environmental carcinogens; studying factors that protect from cancer; and assessing intrinsic factors that might predispose to cancer. The biomarkers most commonly employed in cancer epidemiology include: measurements of DNA damage--DNA breaks, altered bases, bulky adducts--in lymphocytes; the surrogate marker of chemical modifications to blood proteins, caused by agents that also damage DNA; the presence of metabolites of DNA-damaging agents (or the products of DNA damage themselves) in urine; chromosome alterations, including translocations, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange, resulting from DNA damage; mutations in marker genes; DNA repair; and the differential expression of a variety of enzymes, involved in both activation and detoxification of carcinogens, that help to determine individual susceptibility. The molecular approach has been enthusiastically employed in several studies of occupational/environmental exposure to carcinogens. While the estimation of biological markers of exposure has certainly shown the expected effects in terms of DNA damage and adducts, the detection of the biological effects of exposure (e.g. at the level of chromosome alterations) has not been so clear-cut. This is true also when smokers are examined as a group compared with non-smokers. Several markers (especially of chromosome damage and mutation) show a strong correlation with age-indicating either an increasing susceptibility to damage with age, or an accumulation of long-lived changes. DNA repair--a crucial player in the removal of damage before it can cause mutation--may vary between individuals, and may be modulated by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, but limited data are available because of the lack of a reliable assay. Information on other enzymes determining individual susceptibility does exist, and some significant effects of phenotypic or genotypic polymorphisms have emerged, although the interactions between various enzymes make the situation very complex. The important question of whether oxidative DNA damage in normal cells is decreased by dietary antioxidants (vitamin C, carotenoids etc., from fruit and vegetables) has been tackled in antioxidant supplementation experiments. The use of poorly validated assays for base oxidation has not helped us to reach a definitive answer; it seems that, in any case, the level of oxidative damage has been greatly exaggerated. DNA-damaging agents lead to characteristic kinds of base changes (transitions, transversions, deletions). The investigation of the spectrum of mutations in cancer-related genes studied in tumour tissue should lead to a better understanding of the agents ultimately responsible for inducing the tumour. Similarly, studying mutations in a neutral marker gene (not involved in tumorigenesis) can tell us about the origins of the 'background' level of mutations. So far, interpretation of the growing databases is largely speculative. (ABSTRACT PMID:10385877

  16. The epidemiology of influenza.

    PubMed

    Langmuir, A D; Schoenbaum, S C

    1976-10-01

    Although unpredictable, influenza outbreaks are known to occur in three patterns: pandemics every 30 to 40 years, with high excess mortality; epidemics much more frequently, with lower excess mortality; and usually mild sporadic outbreaks. The possibility of a swine-flu pandemic this winter, resembling that of 1918-20, is the result of a unique deviation in the epidemiology of this fascinating disease. PMID:67988

  17. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  18. Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, A; Carcaillon, L; Kab, S; Moisan, F

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's. PD is considered a multifactorial disorder that results, in most cases, from the combined effects of multiple risk and protective factors, including genetic and environmental ones. This review discusses some of the methodological challenges involved in assessing the descriptive, prognostic and etiological epidemiological studies of PD, and summarizes their main findings. PMID:26718594

  19. Indices of thyroid epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Jarhyan, Prashant; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    This brief communication proposes various indices of epidemicity and endemicity which may be used to predict the future prevalence of hypothyroidism. Taking advantage of knowledge related to the natural progression of autoimmune thyroid disease, it uses data from two recent Indian epidemiological studies to assess the epidemicity or endemicity of thyroid disease in the country. The hypothesis generated in this communication will be of help to clinicians as well as policy makers.

  20. Epidemiology of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Spoonhower, Kimberly A; Davis, Pamela B

    2016-03-01

    Improved quality of care and rapidly emerging therapeutic strategies to restore chloride transport profoundly impact the epidemiology and pathobiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) in the twenty-first century. CF now serves as a model for chronic illness management, continuous quality improvement via registry data, and a seamless link between basic science research, translational studies, clinical trials, and outcomes research to enable rapid expansion of treatment options. PMID:26857763

  1. A question of character.

    PubMed

    Wetlaufer, S

    1999-01-01

    For the most part, Glamor-a-Go-Go's board has been thrilled with CEO Joe Ryan's performance. Ryan, after all, had transformed the private-label cosmetics company into a retail powerhouse with flashy outlets from New York to Los Angeles. In addition to saving the company from bankruptcy shortly after his arrival in 1992, Ryan had made Glamor-a-Go-Go a fun and exciting place to work, increasing workers' wages and creating boundless opportunities for anyone willing to work hard and think out of the box. He had also brought more women and people of color on board. And he had made many employees wealthy, with generous stock giveaways and options for the most senior employees down to the most junior. Glamor-a-Go-Go's stock price had grown tenfold during Ryan's tenure. But Ryan's personal affairs were beginning to call into question his leadership abilities. The local paper's gossip column recently ran a photo of Ryan--a married man--leaving a gala event with a beautiful young woman from the company, with the headline "Who's That Girl?" Indeed, rumors about Ryan's philandering were starting to take on a harsher edge. Some people believed his secretary left because Ryan had sexually harassed her. Others believed a mail-room employee had been promoted to factory supervisor because of her affair with the CEO. Having warned Ryan several times about his alleged infidelities, the board is stuck. What should it do about Ryan's extracurricular behavior? Does Ryan's personal behavior even affect the company? Is what Ryan does outside the office the board's concern? Six commentators weigh in. PMID:10621266

  2. A question of authority

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Earl W.)

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  3. Epigenetic epidemiology of cancer.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Timothy M; Michels, Karin B

    2014-12-01

    Epigenetic epidemiology includes the study of variation in epigenetic traits and the risk of disease in populations. Its application to the field of cancer has provided insight into how lifestyle and environmental factors influence the epigenome and how epigenetic events may be involved in carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it has the potential to bring benefit to patients through the identification of diagnostic markers that enable the early detection of disease and prognostic markers that can inform upon appropriate treatment strategies. However, there are a number of challenges associated with the conduct of such studies, and with the identification of biomarkers that can be applied to the clinical setting. In this review, we delineate the challenges faced in the design of epigenetic epidemiology studies in cancer, including the suitability of blood as a surrogate tissue and the capture of genome-wide DNA methylation. We describe how epigenetic epidemiology has brought insight into risk factors associated with lung, breast, colorectal and bladder cancer and review relevant research. We discuss recent findings on the identification of epigenetic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for these cancers. PMID:25124661

  4. Question Games for Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Thomas N.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests using games to teach students how to ask effective questions. Games include "I've Got a Secret,""What's My Career,""To Tell the Truth,""Jeopardy,""Stump the Teacher,""Ten Q," and "Question Circle." (KC)

  5. Consumer Health Information Needs and Question Classification: Analysis of Hypertension Related Questions Asked by Consumers on a Chinese Health Website.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haihong; Li, Jiao; Dai, Tao

    2015-01-01

    This study built up a classification schema of consumer health questions which consisted of 48 quaternary categories and 35 annotation rules. Using such a schema, we manually classified 2,000 questions randomly selected from nearly 100 thousand hypertension-related messages posted by consumers on a Chinese health website to analyze the information needs of health consumers. The results showed questions in the categories of treatment, diagnosis, healthy lifestyle, management, epidemiology, and health provider choosing were 48.1%, 23.8%, 11.9%, 5.2%, 9.0%, and 1.9% respectively. The comparison of the questions asked by consumers and physicians showed that their health information needs were significantly different (P<0.0001). PMID:26262164

  6. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  7. Improving your IQ -- Intelligent Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    1998-01-01

    Stresses the importance for teachers to analyze their Intelligent Questioning (IQ) and Responding to Answers (RSA) scores. Provides three methods for measuring IQ and RSA: Flowchart for Asking Effective Questions, Questioning Observation form, and Flanders Technique of Interaction Analysis. Contends that by improving these teaching skills,…

  8. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  9. The Questions of Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcilla, Rene V.

    2007-01-01

    There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

  10. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  11. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  12. Nutritional epidemiology--there's life in the old dog yet!

    PubMed

    Potter, John D

    2015-02-01

    Consideration is given to the idea that the nutritional epidemiology of cancer is dead, as some in the media have claimed. The basis for the claim does not lie in science nor has anyone with relevant knowledge made such a statement-although that, too, has been claimed. Evidence is adduced for the importance of past achievements of nutritional epidemiology. Attention is similarly drawn to recent contributions. In particular, I note the state of play of cancer and plant foods, fat and breast cancer, meat and cancer, vegetarians, intervention studies, migrant studies, and westernization of diet and lifestyle. Some next steps and some currently important questions are outlined. PMID:25515549

  13. [Suicide - background, epidemiology, risk factors].

    PubMed

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-10-01

    Suicide research, in particular epidemiology, comprises a huge amount of data. However, the theoretical understanding clearly lags behind the empirical knowledge. Suicide, suicide attempts and other suicidal behaviors are more heterogeneous than most explanatory approaches would assume. The most important recent contributions to a better understanding have come from selected epidemiological findings and, interestingly, prevention. This article provides an overview of epidemiological findings, the most relevant risk factors and conclusions related to successful preventive efforts. PMID:26423878

  14. Epidemiology of urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2014-01-01

    Urethral stricture disease is relatively common and is associated with a significant financial cost and potentially debilitating outcomes. Understanding urethral stricture epidemiology is important to identify risk factors associated with the etiology or progression of the disease. This understanding may lead to better treatments and preventative measures that could ameliorate disease severity, produce better health outcomes, and reduce expenditures. We performed a comprehensive review of urethral stricture disease based on available published case series, identified gaps in knowledge of this disease, and recommend future directions for research.

  15. [Epidemiology of allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Aleraj, Borislav; Tomić, Branimir

    2011-01-01

    The article gives a critical review of the main epidemiological features of allergic diseases, their frequency, distribution and etiologic background as well as the possibilities of prevention and control, based on current literature. Statistical data for Croatia, collected by the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, are used to present actual epidemiological situation in Croatia. Basic descriptive epidemiological methods were used to express age and sex distribution, etc. In comments and review of preventive measures, our own epidemiological experiences and experience acquired on creating the national programs of health measures were used. The genesis of allergies usually implies the influence of various potent environmental allergens such as proteins or smaller molecules attached to proteins (haptens) through repeat or continuous exposure by contact, alimentary or respiratory route, and parenteral route as most efficient (mucous membrane exposure is similar to parenteral exposure). In addition, almost all substances from our environment may, under certain circumstances, become allergens and produce allergic reaction. Individual constitution that is inherited also plays a role. Allergic diseases are present all over the world, however, with variable frequency. Response to an allergen is generally the same, causing distinct allergic diseases like urticaria, anaphylactic shock, asthma, etc., while the main allergens can be different. It is estimated that 30%-40% of all people have some type or manifestation of allergy. According to our Institute data, in Croatia hospitalization was mostly required for allergic urticaria and allergic asthma, followed by Quincke's edema. Optimal treatment and appropriate healthcare structure are essential for efficient control and prevention of allergic diseases. The main direct elements are as follows: well organized emergency service for anaphylactic and other severe conditions; health education expected from all levels of healthcare system; allergology outpatient services available; and sufficient hospital capacities. An indirect yet important element is optimal drug prescribing and usage practice. Other specific public health measures include: pollen air concentration monitoring by public health institutes; information on particular allergen presence and intensity via public media; and control of potential allergen emission into the environment, especially air. People will, as always, find ways to adapt themselves and cope with allergies, with medical profession helping them by identifying the reasons causing allergic diseases and developing successful measures of treatment, prevention and control. PMID:22359881

  16. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  17. Epidemiology of OA

    PubMed Central

    Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the US, and a leading cause of disability. It is typically defined in epidemiologic studies on the basis of radiographic findings and consideration of symptoms. Its incidence and prevalence are rising, likely related to the aging of the population and increasing obesity. Risk factors for OA include a number of person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, and genetics, as well as joint-specific factors that are likely reflective of abnormal loading of the joints. A number of methodologic challenges exist in studying OA that can hamper our ability to identify pertinent relationships. PMID:23312408

  18. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  19. Epidemiology--Teaching the Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachron, Donald L.; Finegold, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of epidemiology as an introduction to useful aspects of biology, mathematics, and simulation skills for kindergarten through university undergraduate students. (Contains 20 references.) (ASK)

  20. Molecular epidemiology of amebiasis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ibne Karim M; Clark, C Graham; Petri, William A

    2008-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to the development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  1. Epidemiology of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuwei

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes. PMID:24039351

  2. Epidemiology of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Fishbein, D B

    1991-05-01

    Rickettsial diseases have a diversity of epidemiologic characteristics reflective of the variety of ecologic situations in which the obligate intracellular bacteria are transmitted to humans. For the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi, R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii, and the human ehrlichial agent, humans are a dead-end host who plays no role in the maintenance of the organism in nature. All rickettsioses exist as zoonoses. Moreover, all rickettsiae are found in infected arthopods, which generally serve as the natural hosts and can transmit the infection to the next generation of ticks, mites, chiggers, or fleas. From our anthropocentric viewpoint, Q fever aerosol infection from parturient animals and Brill-Zinsser disease ignited epidemics of louse-borne epidemic typhus are exceptions. However, silent cycles of C. burnetii in ticks and R. prowazekii in the flying squirrel flea may have maintained these agents in transovarial or enzootic cycles for eons before humans and their domestic animals arrived on the scene. Thus, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases must be recognized as an unfortunate aberration of the rickettsial economy. Several excellent reviews of rickettsial ecology contain a wealth of useful information. PMID:1884775

  3. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention. PMID:26073423

  4. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  5. Classroom Questioning Techniques: The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael

    The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions was developed for use by teachers who wish to stimulate their students' critical thinking skills, but who find the terminology of existing skill taxonomies both confusing and elusive. This taxonomy consists of six levels of questions. Each level is given the name of a television program reflecting how the student…

  6. Norovirus Surveillance: An Epidemiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Harris, John P

    2016-02-01

    Surveillance for norovirus is challenging because the nature of illness due to norovirus is such that the majority of people who are infected will not have any contact with medical services and are highly unlikely to have a sample collected for diagnosis. Public health advice urges people to not visit hospitals or their family physicians, to prevent the risk further spread. The recognition of the importance of this pathogen was quickly established following the introduction of surveillance of outbreaks of gastrointestinal infection in England and Wales in 1992. This period saw >1800 outbreaks of norovirus infection reported in hospitals in England, affecting >45 000 patients and staff. A new system for reporting outbreaks of norovirus infection in hospitals, the Hospital Norovirus outbreak Reporting Scheme (HNORS), began in January 2009. Summary information on outbreaks is provided by infection control staff at hospitals and includes questions on the date the first and last person in the outbreak became symptomatic and whether closure of a bay or ward was needed. In the first 3 years (2009-2011) of the HNORS surveillance scheme, 4000 outbreaks were reported, affecting 40 000 patients and 10 000 staff. Over the last 3 years, these outbreaks have been associated with an average of 13 000 patients and 3400 staff becoming ill, with 15 000 lost bed-days annually. With the possible introduction of a vaccine on the horizon, targeted research with a more integrated approach to laboratory testing and outbreak reporting is essential to a greater understanding of the epidemiology of norovirus. PMID:26744431

  7. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  8. The Epidemiology of Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

  9. Children's Judgments of Negative Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiramatsu, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    In a series of production and grammaticality judgment experiments, I investigated the status of children's non-adult questions with 2 auxiliary verbs, such as "What did the smurf didn't buy." Previous studies showed that these questions were produced primarily in negative contexts. In the first part of the study, I tested whether children produce…

  10. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  11. Adjunct Questions and Rule Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Steven

    This paper begins by reviewing the results of research on the potential of adjunct questions for teaching both rote recall and intellectual skills, i.e., concept learning, problem solving, and rule learning. It is argued that greater understanding of what kinds of questions best support intellectual skills learning will promote effective…

  12. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  13. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  14. Teaching Question Answer Relationships, Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy E.

    1986-01-01

    Offers modifications to the Question Answer Relationships technique that provide (1) a clearer explanation of different sources of information for answering questions, (2) an easier format for considering developmental differences in reading and learning, and (3) an expanded use for the technique both as a tool for teachers and as a strategy for…

  15. Twenty Questions about Mathematical Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Lynn Arthur

    This paper poses and answers 20 questions about mathematical reasoning. Questions include: (1) Is mathematical reasoning mathematical? (2) Is mathematical reasoning useful? (3) Is mathematical reasoning an appropriate goal of school mathematics? (4) Can teachers teach mathematical reasoning? (5) Can mathematical reasoning be taught? (6) Do skills…

  16. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  17. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  18. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  19. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  20. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies. PMID:22436257

  1. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  2. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in different regions, its estimated incidence and risk factors for the development of the disease. Aspects modulating the expression of the clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are also presented. This review also deals with diseases associated with the mycosis, opportunistic paracoccidioidomycosis, lethality, mortality and infection and disease in animals. PMID:26465364

  4. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015. PMID:25131367

  5. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  6. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

  7. Epidemiologic trends of leprosy for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Pieter A M; Noto, Salvatore; Richardus, Jan Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Major gaps still exist in the knowledge about leprosy, particularly with regard to how it spreads. Leprosy epidemiology remains complicated due to the specific characteristics of Mycobacterium leprae. To describe epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, the first part of this paper gives an overview of the epidemiology of leprosy, followed by past trends and the present situation of new-case detection as a proxy of the incidence. The third part, regarding predicted epidemiologic trends for the 21st century, elaborates on the main topic of this paper. With limited diagnostic tools to detect infection with M leprae, other methods are necessary to estimate trends in incidence and transmission. A computer program has been developed for modeling the transmission and control of leprosy (SIMLEP). The effect of failure to sustain early case detection beyond 2005 on leprosy incidence and case detection is shown. Important unanswered questions are whether the incubation period is contagious and how rapid close contacts of leprosy patients are infected. As long as such key questions remain unanswered, it will be difficult to estimate the impact of control strategies on the transmission of M leprae on resulting disease incidence. In the meantime we can expect that the global new-case detection trends will stay more or less stable or only decrease slightly for many years to come. There is a need of new preventive interventions to change this situation and reduce the incidence of leprosy in the 21st century. PMID:26773620

  8. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23805178

  9. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  10. The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  11. The epidemiology of delirium: challenges and opportunities for population studies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel H J; Kreisel, Stefan H; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Maclullich, Alasdair M J; Brayne, Carol

    2013-12-01

    Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

  12. VDTs: field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies.

    PubMed

    Kavet, R; Tell, R A

    1991-07-01

    As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. PMID:2061049

  13. Questions and Answers about TB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Verified Case of Tuberculosis National Tuberculosis Indicators Project (NTIP): Frequently Asked Questions TB Genotyping TB Genotyping Information Management System (TB GIMS) Drug-Resistant TB Multidrug-Resistant ...

  14. Six Questions on Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, John F.; Sanayei, Ali

    2011-09-01

    This paper includes an interview with John F. Symons regarding some important questions in "complex systems" and "complexity". In addition, he has stated some important open problems concerning complex systems in his research area from a philosophical point of view.

  15. Analytical Division Questions CPT Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercules, David M.

    1978-01-01

    The Analytical Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) questions criteria established by the Committee on Professional Training of the same organization concerning the role of analytical chemistry in freshman level courses. (CP)

  16. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Matters What's New Preparation & Planning Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  17. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  18. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  19. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  20. MedlinePlus FAQ: MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Question: What is the difference between MedlinePlus and MEDLINE/PubMed? To use the sharing features on this ... to latest health professional articles on your topic. MEDLINE/PubMed: Is a database of professional biomedical literature ...

  1. Epidemiology of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Soong, S J

    1996-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology of melanoma indicates increases in both incidence and mortality over the past two to three decades. A moderation in both rates began to emerge in several regions after the 1980s, especially in younger age groups. Recent improvement in survival rates is more likely due to earlier diagnosis than to real improvement in treatment. This suggests the potential effectiveness of secondary prevention. Continued health education efforts to improve awareness about signs and symptoms of melanoma should lead to earlier diagnosis and may increase incidence for a certain period of time. However, reduction in mortality will eventually be achieved owing to thinner melanoma at time of diagnosis. Etiologic studies indicate that the most important environmental risk factor for melanoma is extensive exposure to the sun. Primary prevention efforts should target public education about the risk of sun exposure and the benefit of wearing hats and adequate clothing. Specific prevention and control programs should be implemented among high-risk groups, such as those with light complexions and those sensitive to sunburn. In view of the long latency of melanoma, as much as 10 years, past exposure to the risk factors continues to cause melanoma, and any benefits of preventive efforts do not appear for some time. Although a dramatic decline is not expected in melanoma rates immediately, continuous preventive efforts ultimately should lead to a reduction in incidence and mortality. PMID:8977547

  2. [Epidemiology of brain metastases].

    PubMed

    Taillibert, S; Le Rhun, É

    2015-02-01

    The most frequent intracranial brain tumours are brain metastases. All types of cancer can develop brain metastases but two thirds of brain metastases occurring in adult patients are secondary to one of these three cancers: lung cancer, breast cancer and melanoma. In accordance with these data, this review is focusing on the epidemiology of these three types of cancer. We report here the incidence, risk factors, median time of brain metastases occurrence after diagnosis of the primary cancer, prognosis and median survival for these three types of cancer. We also discuss the clinical implications of these data. The second part of this review is focusing on the Graded Prognostic Assessment scores in all types of primary cancer with brain metastases, how they can be applied in clinical research for a better stratification of patients, and to some extent in clinical practice to guide decisions for personalized treatments. These scores provide a better understanding of the different profiles of clinical evolution that can be observed amongst patients suffering from brain metastases according to the type of primary cancer. We highlighted the most remarkable and useful clinical implications of these data. PMID:25636729

  3. Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.

    PubMed

    Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. PMID:25561199

  4. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  5. The epidemiology of favism

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

  6. Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control

    PubMed Central

    Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere. PMID:25408856

  7. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  8. COLLABORATION ON NHEERL EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task will continue ORD's efforts to develop a biologically plausible, quantitative health risk model for particulate matter (PM) based on epidemiological, toxicological, and mechanistic studies using matched exposure assessments. The NERL, in collaboration with the NHEERL, ...

  9. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

  10. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  11. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  12. Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel’s law of independent assortment. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as proxiesforenvironmentalexposuresofinterest.AssociationsderivedfromMendelian randomization analysis are less likely to be affected by confounding and reverse causation. During the past 5 years, a body of studies examined the causal effects of diet/lifestyle factors and biomarkers on a variety of diseases. The Mendelian randomization approach also holds considerable promise in the study of intrauterine influences on offspring health outcomes. However, the application of Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology has some limitations. PMID:19674341

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

  14. [The symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk: an incursion into the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos].

    PubMed

    Sevalho, Gil; Stotz, Eduardo

    2012-09-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the concept of epidemiological risk is critically discussed. The work of Elizabeth Teixeira, who uses the ideas of Boaventura de Sousa Santos, is presented. The proposal for symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk is sketched out, defining analytical scales ranging from exteriority and distancing from the field of science to the proximity of territory and place, conceptualized on the basis of the geography of Milton Santos, in which conceptions of risk are drawn up from the perspective of the everyday routine of social existence. Questions relating to space, territoriality, subjectivity and time give meaning to a cartography of risk which is proposed as a model for epidemiological investigations. PMID:23070378

  15. [Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential aproach].

    PubMed

    Hersch-Martínez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems. PMID:24626623

  16. Epidemiological determinants of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Islam, M T; Paul, H K; Zakaria, S M; Islam, M M; Shafiquzzaman, M

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 102 cases having clinical manifestation of psoriasis with a view to evaluate the epidemiological determinants of psoriasis. Psoriasis constituted 1.49% of the total dermatological disorder. Seventy patients (68.6%) were males and thirty two (31.4%) were females with a male to female ratio of 2.18:1. The mean age was 30.76±13.17 years in male and 26.94±14.94 years in female. Sixteen (15.7%) patients had one or more family member having psoriasis with male and female in equal frequency. Regarding precipitating factors, psoriasis was developed after trauma in 4.9%, infection 3.9%, stressful life events 6.9% and drugs 2.9%; and was exacerbated after trauma in 5.9%, infection 5.9%, stressful life events 35.3% and drugs 12.7%. The disease showed improvement in summer (27.5%) and found deteriorated in winter (47.1%). Sunlight had beneficial effect in 33.3% of cases. During pregnancy improvement was observed in 50% but flare up in 22.2% of cases. Fifty percent of patients were smokers, 41.2% were non-smokers and 13.7% were ex-smokers. Forty percent had Body Mass Index (BMI) between 22 to 26 Kg/m², 40.2% had less than 22 Kg/m² and 15.7% had above 26 Kg/m². It was concluded that the prevalence of psoriasis among dermatological patients was similar to results reported in Turkey and in Northern India. The precipitating factors, such as smoking, stressful life events, infection, trauma, sunlight, pregnancy, drugs, and seasonal variations could influence the development of psoriasis and affect its clinical expression. PMID:21240156

  17. Epidemiology of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Tejedor Alonso, M A; Moro Moro, M; Múgica García, M V

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the epidemiology of anaphylaxis is based on data from various sources: clinical practice, large secondary clinical and administrative databases of primary care or hospitalized patients, and recent surveys with representative samples of the general population. As several similar results are often reported in several publications and populations, such findings are highly like to be robust. One such finding is that the incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis are higher than previously thought. Publications from the last 5 years reveal an incidence of between 50 and 112 episodes per 100 000 person-years; estimated prevalence is 0.3-5.1% depending on the rigour of the definitions used. Figures are higher in children, especially those aged 0-4 years. Publications from various geographical areas based on clinical and administrative data on hospitalized patients suggest that the frequency of admissions due to anaphylaxis has increased (5-7-fold in the last 10-15 years). Other publications point to a geographic gradient in the incidence of anaphylaxis, with higher frequencies recorded in areas with few hours of sunlight. However, these trends could be the result of factors other than a real change in the incidence of anaphylaxis, such as changes in disease coding and in the care provided. Based on data from the records of voluntary declarations of death by physicians and from large national databases, death from anaphylaxis remains very infrequent and stands at 0.35-1.06 deaths per million people per year, with no increases observed in the last 10-15 years. Although anaphylaxis can be fatal, recurrence of anaphylaxis--especially that associated with atopic diseases and hymenoptera stings--affects 26.5-54% of patients. PMID:25495512

  18. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  19. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions…

  20. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  1. Even Start Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RMC Research Corp., Hampton, NH. Parent Involvement Center.

    This guide for school district administrators answers question about Even Start, a new, special family-centered compensatory education program funded under Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981 that combines adult literacy, parent education, and early childhood education. The following issues about program design are…

  2. Looming Questions in Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2010-01-01

    When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

  3. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  4. Questioning Centre-Periphery Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2005-01-01

    How much is hegemony and how much is self-determination in the higher education systems in Southeast Asia? This paper argues that while the question of centre and periphery is still relevant to the analysis of international university systems, the analytical frameworks from which it has arisen may lose viability in the long term. Southeast Asian…

  5. 3: MBO Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrisey, George L.

    1976-01-01

    Answers a variety of questions on the role of management by objectives in government service. (Available from Public Personnel Management, Room 240, 1313 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637; $15.00 annually, $3.00 single copy.) (Author/IRT)

  6. Questions to Ask Your Dentist

    MedlinePLUS

    ... questions: How much does the dentist charge for dental checkups, X-rays, cavity fillings and other procedures? If you have a health insurance plan, does the dentist participate in it? When and how ... of dental procedures can the dentist perform? Are dental specialists , ...

  7. Kast, Wijbe Martin — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    This is such a relevant question. Especially as evidence from animal models is mounting that therapeutic vaccines can be used very effectively in the cancer preventive setting while they do not work well in the cancer therapeutic setting. It is time to change the paradigm. Don't watchful wait, Vaccinate!

  8. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  9. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  10. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  11. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  12. Questions about Montessori Education Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.

    In three parts, this symposium presentation to the American Montessori Society: (1) comments generally on current perceptions of Montessori education; (2) poses questions about practices in Montessori classrooms that challenge Montessori educators' core beliefs about Montessori education; and (3) discusses the cutting edges of contemporary…

  13. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  14. Epidemiology of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Silverman, D T; Hartge, P; Morrison, A S; Devesa, S S

    1992-02-01

    Approximately 49,000 persons in the United States develop bladder cancer each year, and about 9700 die of it. White men face a lifetime risk of almost 3%; white women and black men face a risk of about 1%, and black women, about 0.5%. Cigarette smoking is accepted widely as a cause of bladder cancer. Smoking accounts for about half of bladder cancer diagnosed among men and about one third of that among women. Moderate to heavy smokers typically show a two to five fold risk of bladder cancer, compared with persons who never smoked. When cigarette smokers quit smoking, their bladder cancer risk falls measurably within 2 to 4 years, but probably does not continue to decline with increasing years since quitting and does not appear to return to the baseline level of nonsmokers. Occupational exposure to certain aromatic amines causes human bladder cancer. Clear evidence of bladder cancer risk also is apparent for a small number of occupational groups: dye workers, rubber workers, leather workers, painters, truck drivers, and aluminum workers. Many other occupational groups have been reported to have increased bladder cancer risk, but evidence for these is not as strong. Coffee drinking has been studied extensively as a potential risk factor, but the inconsistency of the observed associations suggests that the relationship is either quite weak, noncausal, or dependent in a complex way on unmeasured factors. Artificial sweeteners confer little or no excess bladder cancer risk. Alcohol consumption apparently does not affect risk either. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and foods high in vitamin A have been suggested as possible protective factors; consumption of high-fat foods, pork, and beef have been suggested as possible risk factors. Further epidemiologic research is needed to elucidate the role of diet in human bladder carcinogenesis. Less common risk factors for bladder cancer include ionizing radiation, cyclophosphamide use, and abuse of phenacetin-containing analgesics. Schistosomiasis infection may contribute substantially to the bladder cancer burden in Egypt and elsewhere, though not in the United States.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1556044

  15. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Bonjour, J P; Burckhardt, P; Dambacher, M; Kraenzlin, M E; Wimpfheimer, C

    1997-04-19

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disease of the skeleton characterized by decreased bone mass and a disturbed microarchitecture of the bone. Its consequences is an increase in fracture risk. In women, the risk of experiencing an osteoporotic fracture once in life is twice as high (30-40%) as in men. In a model using population-based data, it is estimated that 54% of 50-year-old women present an osteoporotic fracture once in their remaining life. Typical osteoporotic fractures involve vertebral bodies, the proximal femur and the forearm. The number of fractures caused by osteoporosis is steadily increasing, due to greater life expectancy in particular. In addition, there is a secular increase in the incidence of fractures. In Switzerland, the number of fractures of the hip per year increased from 5,500 in 1980 to 9,800 in 1990 (VESKA data). The consequences of these fractures for the patients and their life quality and the direct and indirect effects on society are generally underestimated. Mortality and morbidity are both increased in comparison with unfractured persons of the same age. One of the most serious consequences of hip fractures is the loss of functional independence in the elderly; 10% of patients lose their functional independence after such fractures, and about 10% need to be placed in homes. Fractures of the waist lead to hospitalization in about 70% of patients aged over 85, and in many patients with forearm fractures algodystrophy occurs. Hip fractures are responsible for about 175,000 days in hospital per year for all Switzerland. Applied to all fractures caused by osteoporosis, this number may be much higher. Lack of epidemiological data, insufficient methods of investigation and the symptomless and silent development of osteoporosis in its beginnings have in many respects led to severe underestimation of this disease in the past. The extension of this growing worldwide health problem has only recently become apparent in Switzerland, essentially because of increasing life expectancy. The frequency of hip fractures is well documented in Switzerland and comparable with that in the US. It justifies in itself the development of a strategy for prevention and treatment. But because osteoporosis is a systemic disease of the skeleton, additional Swiss data on fractures other than that of the hip, such as vertebral and forearm fractures, would be of great interest, especially in the sector of ambulatory medicine. PMID:9198892

  16. Epidemiological studies for regulatory agencies.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, V R

    1981-01-01

    In regulation of exposures to hazardous environmental agents, epidemiologic evidence is especially important in defining human risk estimates. The process of developing appropriate regulations is complex, however, and depends on many considerations beyond those established to a high degree of scientific certainty. Thus the needs of regulatory agencies are involved in the way epidemiologic data are developed and presented. To coordinate and review common problems associated with preventive and regulatory activities among the federal agencies concerned with regulation, an Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG) was established in 1977. Because of difficulties encountered by these agencies or Congressional committees in evaluating epidemiologic evidence, a subcommittee of the IRLG has developed in draft form guidelines for human population studies to be used in public health decision-making. Although these guidelines have attracted much controversy, their aim is to present criteria for design and documentation of epidemiologic studies, without interfering with the initiative of investigators. Some aspects of the IRLG guidelines are discussed. The need for epidemiologic research in providing evidence for regulatory purposes is increasing, but such studies must be well done if they are to be useful. PMID:7333261

  17. Congenital Malformations and Consequential Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    A call for a shift in the discipline of epidemiology, away from those aimed at identifying risk factors and toward those aimed at more directly improving health – so called consequential epidemiology. This call for epidemiologists to engage in solving the biggest public health problems has been heralded for decades by Cates and more recently by Galea [Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178; 1185–94]. In consideration of the consequential epidemiology perspective, the impacts of epidemiologic research of birth defects over the recent decades are evaluated and directions for the field are proposed. While many causal factors have been identified, the causes of the majority of birth defects remain unknown. Folic acid intake notwithstanding, primary prevention of birth defects is elusive. Meanwhile, research that identifies what improves the lives of individuals born with a birth defect and how to ensure those factors are available to all affected would have great impact. In summary, a consequentialist approach to birth defects epidemiology requires a shift in research agendas and teams, but the opportunities are wide open. PMID:25685656

  18. An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martcheva, M.

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

  19. Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area. PMID:22693667

  20. Operational definitions of asthma in recent epidemiological studies are inconsistent

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The best combination of questions to define asthma in epidemiological asthma studies is not known. We summarized the operational definitions of asthma used in prevalence studies and empirically assess how asthma prevalence estimates vary depending on the definition used. Methods We searched the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of knowledge and included (1) cross-sectional studies (2) on asthma prevalence (3) conducted in the general population and (4) containing an explicit definition of asthma. The search was limited to the 100 most-cited papers or published since January 2010. For each paper, we recorded the asthma definition used and other variables. Then we applied the definitions to the data of the Portuguese National Asthma survey (INAsma) and of the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) computing asthma prevalence estimates for the different definitions. Results Of 1738 papers retrieved, 117 were included for analysis. Lifetime asthma, diagnosed asthma and current asthma were defined in 8, 12 and 29 different ways, respectively. By applying definitions of current asthma on INAsma and NHANES data, the prevalence ranged between 5.3%-24.4% and 1.1%-17.2%, respectively. Conclusions There is considerable heterogeneity in the definitions of asthma used in epidemiological studies leading to highly variable estimates of asthma prevalence. Studies to inform a standardized operational definition are needed. Meanwhile, we propose a set of questions to be reported when defining asthma in epidemiological studies. PMID:25136441

  1. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of...

  2. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    PubMed

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  3. Scabies Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... INFO Scabies General Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  4. Toxoplasmosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Toxoplasmosis General Information Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

  5. Scabies: Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... INFO Scabies General Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  6. Difficult questions of relativity theory

    SciTech Connect

    Chernikov, N.A.

    1987-09-01

    The following concepts are discussed: covariance, invariance, the general, special, and kinematic principles of relativity, coordinate systems and frames of reference, and the energy--momentum tensor of the gravitational field. The relationships between the three canonical theories of gravitation are considered. The theory of the affine connection as applied to these questions is presented. Attention is drawn to inconsistency in terminology and the need for an explanatory dictionary for gravitational specialists. A contribution to the compilation of such a dictionary is made.

  7. Community epidemiology of risk and adolescent substance use: practical questions for enhancing prevention.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E

    2012-03-01

    To promote an effective approach to prevention, the community diagnosis model helps communities systematically assess and prioritize risk factors to guide the selection of preventive interventions. This increasingly widely used model relies primarily on individual-level research that links risk and protective factors to substance use outcomes. I discuss common assumptions in the translation of such research concerning the definition of risk factor elevation; the equivalence, independence, and stability of relations between risk factors and problem behaviors; and community differences in risk factors and risk factor-problem behavior relations. Exploring these assumptions could improve understanding of the relations of risk factors and substance use within and across communities and enhance the efficacy of the community diagnosis model. This approach can also be applied to other areas of public health where individual and community levels of risk and outcomes intersect. PMID:22390508

  8. Community Epidemiology of Risk and Adolescent Substance Use: Practical Questions for Enhancing Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    To promote an effective approach to prevention, the community diagnosis model helps communities systematically assess and prioritize risk factors to guide the selection of preventive interventions. This increasingly widely used model relies primarily on individual-level research that links risk and protective factors to substance use outcomes. I discuss common assumptions in the translation of such research concerning the definition of risk factor elevation; the equivalence, independence, and stability of relations between risk factors and problem behaviors; and community differences in risk factors and risk factor–problem behavior relations. Exploring these assumptions could improve understanding of the relations of risk factors and substance use within and across communities and enhance the efficacy of the community diagnosis model. This approach can also be applied to other areas of public health where individual and community levels of risk and outcomes intersect. PMID:22390508

  9. [Epidemiology of dizziness and vertigo].

    PubMed

    Neuhauser, H K

    2009-08-01

    Dizziness and vertigo rank among the most common symptoms in medical practice and belong to the 10 most common reasons for a neurological examination. Epidemiological data on dizziness, vertigo and underlying specific disorders of vestibular origin are useful for clinical decision making, may contribute to a better understanding of disease mechanisms and help evaluate the state of patient care. This article gives an overview on the epidemiology of dizziness/vertigo and of four specific vestibular disorders: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular migraine, vestibular neuritis and Menière's disease. PMID:19626307

  10. Exertional sickling: questions and controversy

    PubMed Central

    Blinder, Morey A.; Russel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell trait (SCT) occurs in about 8% of African-Americans and is often described to be of little clinical consequence. Over time, a number of risks have emerged, and among these are rare but catastrophic episodes of sudden death in athletes and other individuals associated with physical activities which is often described as exercise collapse associated with sickle trait (ECAST). Despite an epidemiologic link between SCT and sudden death as well as numerous case reports in both medical literature and lay press, no clear understanding of the key pathophysiologic events has been identified. Strategies for identification of individuals at risk and prevention of ECAST have been both elusive and controversial. Stakeholders have advocated for different approaches to this issue particularly with regard to screening for hemoglobin S. Furthermore, the recommendations and guidelines that are in place for the early recognition of ECAST and the prevention and treatment of the illness are not well defined and remain fragmented. Among the cases identified, those in collegiate football players in the United States are often highlighted. This manuscript examines these case studies and the current recommendations to identify areas of consensus and controversy regarding recommendations for prevention, recognition and treatment of ECAST. PMID:25568759

  11. EpiBasket: how e-commerce tools can improve epidemiological preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Weijia; Hejblum, Gilles; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Background Should an emerging infectious disease outbreak or an environmental disaster occur, the collection of epidemiological data must start as soon as possible after the event's onset. Questionnaires are usually built de novo for each event, resulting in substantially delayed epidemiological responses that are detrimental to the understanding and control of the event considered. Moreover, the public health and/or academic institution databases constructed with responses to different questionnaires are usually difficult to merge, impairing necessary collaborations. We aimed to show that e-commerce concepts and software tools can be readily adapted to enable rapid collection of data after an infectious disease outbreak or environmental disaster. Here, the ‘customers’ are the epidemiologists, who fill their shopping ‘baskets’ with standardised questions. Methods For each epidemiological field, a catalogue of questions is constituted by identifying the relevant variables based on a review of the published literature on similar circumstances. Each question is tagged with information on its source papers. Epidemiologists can then tailor their own questionnaires by choosing appropriate questions from this catalogue. The software immediately provides them with ready-to-use forms and online questionnaires. All databases constituted by the different EpiBasket users are interoperable, because the corresponding questionnaires are derived from the same corpus of questions. Results A proof-of-concept prototype was developed for Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) surveys, which is one of the fields of the epidemiological investigation frequently explored during, or after, an outbreak or environmental disaster. The catalogue of questions was initiated from a review of the KAP studies conducted during or after the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic. Conclusion Rapid collection of standardised data after an outbreak or environmental disaster can be facilitated by transposing the e-commerce paradigm to epidemiology, taking advantage of the powerful software tools already available. PMID:24183326

  12. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  13. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  14. Radiation epidemiology: a perspective on Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2012-03-01

    For nearly 100 years, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to ionising radiation have provided quantitative information on health risks. High dose deterministic (tissue reaction) effects result when sufficient numbers of functioning cells are killed, such as in bone marrow depression that can lead to death. Lower dose stochastic effects are probabilistic in nature and include an increased risk of cancer later in life and heritable genetic defects, although genetic conditions in the children of irradiated parents have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Radiation studies are of diverse populations and include not only the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but also patients treated with radiation for malignant and non-malignant disease; patients exposed for diagnostic purposes; persons with intakes of radionuclides; workers occupationally exposed; and communities exposed to environmental and accidentally released sources of radiation. Much is known about radiation and its risks. The major unanswered question in radiation epidemiology, however, is not whether radiation causes cancer, but what the level of risk is following low dose (<100 mSv) or low dose rate exposures. Paracelsus is credited with first articulating that the 'poison is in the dose', which for radiation epidemiology translates as 'the lower the dose, the lower the risk' and, an important corollary, the lower the dose, the greater the difficulty in detecting any increase in the number of cancers possibly attributable to radiation. In contrast to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Fukushima reactor accident has to date resulted in no deterministic effects and no worker deaths. Estimates to date of population doses suggest very low uptakes of radioactive iodine which was a major determinant of the epidemic of thyroid cancer following childhood exposures around Chernobyl. The estimates to date of population doses are also much lower (and the distribution much narrower) than the doses for which cancer excesses have been detected among atomic bomb survivors after 60 years of follow-up. Studies of populations exposed to low doses are also limited in their ability to account for important lifestyle factors, such as cigarette smoking and medical x-ray exposures, which could distort findings. Studies of the Fukushima population should be and are being considered for reassurance and health care reasons. Apart from as regards the extreme psychological stress caused by the horrific loss of life following the tsunami and the large-scale evacuation from homes and villages, such studies have limited to no chance of providing information on possible health risks following low dose exposures received gradually over time--the estimated doses (to date) are just too small. PMID:22395193

  15. Community Engagement in Epidemiological Research

    PubMed Central

    Sapienza, Jessica N.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Keim, Sarah; Fleischman, Alan R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Engaging communities has become a critical aspect of planning and implementing health research. The role community engagement should play in epidemiological and observational research remains unclear since much of this research is not directly generated by community concerns and is not interventional in nature. The National Children's Study (NCS), an observational longitudinal study of 100,000 children and their families, provides a model to help guide the development of community engagement strategies in epidemiologic research. Methodology This manuscript describes community engagement activities of the NCS during the planning phases of the study. Results There are many challenges of community engagement in epidemiologic research particularly before the actual research sites are determined. After communities of interest are designated many further issues must be resolved, including: defining the specific community, determining which residents or institutions represent the identified community, and developing trust and rapport through respectful engagement. Conclusions Community engagement is critical to the long-term success of any longitudinal epidemiologic study. A partnership with the community should be formed to ensure mutual respect and the establishment of an enduring relationship. Genuine community engagement offers the hope of enhancing recruitment, retention, and participant satisfaction. PMID:17512886

  16. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  17. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

  18. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from Amazon Mechanical Turk, it turned out that the two types of questions performed very closely on all the three measures.

  19. Questionable measures are pretty meaningless.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas J L; Wong, Paul T P

    2015-09-01

    Comments on the original article "Life is pretty meaningful," by S. J. Heintzelman and L. A. King (see record 2014-03265-001). Heintzelman and King argued that meaning in life (MIL) is widely experienced and exists at high levels. In this brief commentary, the current authors examine what they believe are several flaws in their argument: a lack of clarity in defining MIL; the questionable validity of the instruments used to measure MIL throughout Heintzelman and King's article; and an erroneous interpretation of quantitative reports of MIL from surveys and the academic literature. PMID:26348345

  20. Clinical questions and "real" research.

    PubMed

    Strauss, J S; Hafez, H

    1981-12-01

    Clinical experiences and the questions they generate are a rich potential source for increased understanding of psychopathology and its treatment. Yet a chasm frequently appears to exist isolating clinical observations from the "real" research viewed as essential to developing and testing their implications. This report suggests that a concept of real research limited to large-sample elaborate studies is too narrow for optimal progress in the field. Research principles for developing a clinical intuition systematically, in the clinical context, are described. The important values as well as limitations of this kind of research are noted. PMID:7304792

  1. Geographic boundary analysis in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology: Perspective and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Geographic boundary analysis is a relatively new approach that is just beginning to be applied in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology to quantify spatial variation in health outcomes, predictors and correlates; generate and test epidemiologic hypotheses; to evaluate health-environment relationships; and to guide sampling design. Geographic boundaries are zones of rapid change in the value of a spatially distributed variable, and mathematically may be defined as those locations with a large second derivative of the spatial response surface. Here we introduce a pattern analysis framework based on Value, Change and Association questions, and boundary analysis is shown to fit logically into Change and Association paradigms. This article addresses fundamental questions regarding what boundary analysis can tell us in public health and epidemiology. It explains why boundaries are of interest, illustrates analysis approaches and limitations, and concludes with prospects and future research directions. PMID:21218153

  2. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  3. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  4. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  5. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  6. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  7. Open questions in classical gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D. )

    1994-04-01

    In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Evaluative Conditioning: The “How” Question

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher R.; Olson, Michael A.; Fazio, Russell H.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “how” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains. PMID:22241936

  9. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  10. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Chan, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Wang, Hao-Chien; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Hang, Liang-Wen; Chang, Chee-Jen; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors. Methods We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition of COPD and smoked were designated as “possible COPD”. Participants who did not fit the case definition of COPD were asked only about their personal circumstances and smoking habits. Data from these groups were analyzed and compared. Results Of the 6,600 participants who completed the survey, 404 (6.1%) fulfilled the epidemiological case definition of COPD: 137 with diagnosed COPD and 267 possible COPD. The most common comorbidities of COPD were hypertension or cardiovascular diseases (36.1%). Subjects with definite COPD had significantly higher COPD Assessment Test scores than the possible COPD group (14.6±8.32 vs 12.6±6.49, P=0.01) and significantly more comorbid illnesses (P=0.01). The main risk factors contributing to health care utilization in each COPD cohort were higher COPD Assessment Test scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.26), higher modified Medical Research Council Breathlessness Scale scores (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.11–3.51), and having more than one comorbidity (OR 5.19, 95% CI 1.05–25.61). Conclusion With estimated prevalence of 6.1% in the general population, COPD in Taiwan has been underdiagnosed. Symptoms and comorbidities were independent risk factors for health care utilization in subjects with definite or possible COPD. There is an urgent need to raise awareness of the importance of early evaluation and prompt treatment for subjects with chronic airway symptoms. PMID:26648708

  11. Information Technology Usage for Epidemiological Functions in U.S. State Public Health Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) use for epidemiological purposes in state public health departments has been documented only for a limited number of specific applications, leaving questions about its actual utilization and hindering IT's potential for information sharing. Communications, stages of change, and systems theories all influence the…

  12. Information Technology Usage for Epidemiological Functions in U.S. State Public Health Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) use for epidemiological purposes in state public health departments has been documented only for a limited number of specific applications, leaving questions about its actual utilization and hindering IT's potential for information sharing. Communications, stages of change, and systems theories all influence the…

  13. 76 FR 17657 - Medical Device Epidemiology Network 2011: Second Annual Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Device Epidemiology Network 2011: Second Annual... Network (MDEpiNet) 2011: Second Annual Public Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to provide... establishment of a network that works with FDA experts to determine the evidence gaps and questions,...

  14. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Ostrom, Quinn T; Langer, Chelsea E; Turner, Michelle C; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L; Lupo, Philip J; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Scheurer, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histologic subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2716-36. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25192704

  15. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... quirúrgico" [PDF - 217 KB] October 2008 Supplement of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (Volume 29, Number S1) Guideline for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection, 1999 Top of page Print page Get email ...

  17. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  18. 29 CFR 18.104 - Preliminary questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary questions. 18.104 Section 18.104 Labor Office of... OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence § 18.104 Preliminary questions. (a) Questions of admissibility generally. Preliminary questions concerning the qualification of a person to be a witness,...

  19. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times...

  20. What Does It Mean to Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berci, Margaret E.; Griffith, Bryant

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is two fold: first, to tease out the meaning inherent in the correlativity of the question and answer process and second, to suggest a philosophical answer to the question "What does it mean to question?" in the context of teacher education. To that end, we want to claim that R.G. Collingwood's "Logic of Question and…

  1. Questions in Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swigger, Keith

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the research and commentary on individuals' questions and specific reference queries that characterize two general approaches in librarianship and other disciplines: question itself as phenomenon of questioner's behavior, linguistic performance, or cognitive state; interaction between question and answer focusing on appropriateness of…

  2. The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Kevin R.; Davis, O. L., Jr.

    The Questioning Strategies Observation System (QSOS) is designed to record verbal behaviors occurring in the classroom which are associated with the teacher's use of questions. Twenty-four categories are used in three main sections: initiation of the question, response to the question, and reaction to the response. Under initiation, the categories…

  3. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  4. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  5. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 1 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 1 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  6. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

  7. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  8. Some recent issues in low-exposure radiation epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    MacMahon, B

    1989-01-01

    Three areas of activity in the field of low-level radiation epidemiology have been reviewed. They concern the questions of cancer risk related to antenatal X-ray exposure, occupational radiation exposure, and residence in areas of real or supposed increased levels of radiation. Despite the a priori unlikelihood of useful information developing from studies in any of these areas, such investigations are being pursued, and the results are proving to be stimulating. Much important information will be forthcoming in the near future. PMID:2667975

  9. Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Nick

    2012-09-01

    Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

  10. Molecular epidemiology and genomics of group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Bessen, Debra E; McShan, W Michael; Nguyen, Scott V; Shetty, Amol; Agrawal, Sonia; Tettelin, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus; GAS) is a strict human pathogen with a very high prevalence worldwide. This review highlights the genetic organization of the species and the important ecological considerations that impact its evolution. Recent advances are presented on the topics of molecular epidemiology, population biology, molecular basis for genetic change, genome structure and genetic flux, phylogenomics and closely related streptococcal species, and the long- and short-term evolution of GAS. The application of whole genome sequence data to addressing key biological questions is discussed. PMID:25460818

  11. SNTEMP (In)frequently asked questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholow, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here, you will find a series of questions and answers resulting from many years of technical assistance with SNTEMP and SSTEMP. These (in)frequently asked questions are presented here so that you may get a feel for the range of questions posed, learn from the questions and their 'answers,' and share in the discussions if you wish. I certainly didn't answer all the questions, nor do I feel like I've got the only answer for them all.

  12. [The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

  13. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

  14. Modern epidemiology and its discontents.

    PubMed

    Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de; Ortega, Francisco; Coeli, Claudia Medina

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this article is to present a snapshot of an ongoing debate within epidemiology, pitching opposing sides in the struggle to define the path it should follow in the years to come. The debate among epidemiologists in the mid-90s pitted those who defended the idea that epidemiology should necessarily deal with a wide context against those who believed that science and public health are better served by focusing on the individual level. Ian Hacking's concept of styles of reasoning was used as a theoretical tool. The literature was reviewed using a core set of articles as an entry point, seeking articles that cited them, and then back-tracking the citations of the resulting set in the Scopus database. The main arguments are presented according to levels (ontological, epistemological, axiological and pragmatic), in order to show an even deeper disagreement, in the very conception of science and its relation to social issues and public policy. PMID:24626504

  15. Felid Lungworms and Heartworms in Italy: More Questions than Answers?

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    Nematodes infecting the cardiorespiratory system of cats have recently stimulated high scientific interest. Over the past few years, different aspects of these parasites have been clarified and various issues elucidated. This increased knowledge has improved awareness on this topic but, at the same time, some dilemmas have not been solved and new questions have been raised. In this review, we underline and discuss current knowledge of, and new doubts relating to, feline lungworms and heartworms, with the aim of stimulating new studies to fill gaps of basic (i.e., epidemiology and biology) and applied (i.e., clinical aspects) knowledge of the old and new parasites affecting the cardiorespiratory system of cats. PMID:26507151

  16. Brief questions highlight the need for melanoma information campaigns.

    PubMed

    Foote, Janet A; Poole, Catherine M

    2013-12-01

    Melanoma awareness was briefly assessed at walk/runs held simultaneously in Philadelphia PA, Phoenix AZ, and Seattle WA. Of the participants, 75 % (1521) answered short questions during event registration. Among 1,036 respondents aged 14 years and older, 66 % reported knowing melanoma warning signs. Significantly more respondents with melanoma family history reported having a physician-administered skin exam and knowing warning signs. More than one third of walk/run participants reported no definitive melanoma warning sign knowledge. Self-reported melanoma awareness and detection indices were lowest among Phoenix participants; the event city with the greatest annual sun exposure. Educational efforts for melanoma awareness are critically needed. Selected results of this project were presented in a poster forum at the 2006 Congress for Epidemiology meeting held in Seattle, WA (June 2006). PMID:23996205

  17. Epidemiologic Approaches to Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Thomas C.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    In this introduction to volume 32 of Epidemiologic Reviews, the authors highlight the diversity and complexity of global health concerns, and they frame the 12 articles included in this issue within the diverse topics of research in this emerging and ever-expanding field. The authors emphasize the need for ongoing research related to the methods used in global health and for comprehensive surveillance, and they offer suggestions for future directions in global health research. PMID:20581220

  18. Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma

    PubMed Central

    McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

  19. Onychomycosis in Israel: epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Segal, Rina; Shemer, Avner; Hochberg, Malca; Keness, Yoram; Shvarzman, Rima; Mandelblat, Marina; Frenkel, Michael; Segal, Esther

    2015-03-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection treated orally for prolonged periods of treatment, caused primarily by Dermatophytes, Candida species and non-dermatophyte moulds (NDMs). The prevalence of specific aetiology may differ in dependence of environmental, geographic and demographic factors, and may affect management of the infection. The objective of this survey was to analyse epidemiologic parameters of onychomycosis in Israel. Data of a cohort of 27,093 patients were collected from six centres during a 2- and 10-year period. The diagnosis was based on microscopy of KOH/calcofluor mounts of nail scrapings and culture isolation. A positive result indicates isolation of a fungus in culture. Data were analysed for each centre and expressed as range for the whole cohort, using the spss v18 software. Analysis included three epidemiologic parameters: fungal aetiology in toe- and fingernails; association with gender; association with age group. Dermatophytes were the major causative agents and Trichophyton rubrum the most frequent isolate. Candida species were more frequent in women fingernails; frequency increased with age and C. parapsilosis the most frequent species. NDMs were isolated at low rate and Aspergillus terreus was the most frequent isolate. This is a first large cohort of onychomycosis patients from Israel analysed by defined epidemiological parameters. PMID:25590832

  20. Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

  1. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  2. Use of Obesity Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Pischon, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet, the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. The adipose tissue produces a variety of hormones and cytokines and thereby actively participates in a network of biomarkers that may be relevant for the development of CVD. Such obesity biomarkers have a great potential to better characterize the obesity phenotype that may be relevant for the risk of CVD beyond anthropometric parameters. They may be used to support mechanistic studies, to help identify individuals at risk for CVD, and to evaluate the effect of preventive measures. The present article discusses the role of some of the most promising obesity biomarkers in cardiovascular epidemiology, including inflammatory markers, adiponectin, resistin, and fetuin-A. Importantly, some of these markers have been related to cardiovascular risk even after accounting for anthropometric parameters. Further, the potential ability to manipulate blood levels of some of these biomarkers through medication, diet and lifestyle make them attractive markers for cardiovascular risk. However, many open questions remain – especially with regard to the causal role of the factors as well as with regard to the extent of improvement in CVD prediction by these markers – before measurement of these biomarkers may be recommended on a public health level. PMID:19773614

  3. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  4. [Questions to television from psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Busch, H

    1979-01-01

    Progress is expected in psychopathological diagnosis by using audiovisual procedures. Nowadays, a valid psychopathology concept should be broadly planned and the important method of description as well as understanding procedures should be considered. For such a model of psychopathology it seems appropriate to investigate the different psychopathological phenomenons as expression of a disturbed communication ability. Concerning this outlook, new strategies are to be developed or procedures of other disciplines are to be adapted for the psychopathological research. It seems attractive to anticipate aid from structuralistic and information-theoretical issues for the breaking of yet substancially less good apperceived facts. The interest hereby concentrates upon the relationship between verbal and averbal phenomenons and upon better criteria for an interpretation of the phenomenons as an expression of the subjective experience of the psychiatric patient as well as of his/her communicative competence. In order to use audio-visual techniques successfully, an orientation in specfic, originary particularities of the different methodological assessments is required. The way and extent of such problems can be demonstrated for the study of psychopathological phenomenons by the importance of the camera guide, the selection, the enlargement of a sequence, and the combination of different parts of an interview. The criteria of a field-specific TV-methodology must first be elaborated for the majority of the questioning. The user of audiovisual methods not only has to consider the special needs of the psychic ill, but also has to face critically the seduction ways of this potential medium. PMID:90381

  5. [Epidemiological aspects of data banks and biological banks].

    PubMed

    van Noord, P A

    1985-09-15

    Human epidemiology differs from studies on health care. Epidemiology is an observational type of research, and partially a substitute for experimental investigations which are seldom possible in the human situation. Another difference from the human situation are privacy features both on the level of individuals and on that of organisations. This is in contrast with herd books, artificial insemination banks and slaughterhouse data bases in animals. In view of these differences and limitations, the largest potential for veterinary epidemiology would appear to lie in the fields of data and biological banking. Instances of the routine collection of data to monitor disease in human individuals are presented. The use of biological banks is discussed: blood, urine, nails, etc., are collected from a cohort of (still) normal animals in this case. This is done in order to use them after follow-ups to determine pre-diagnostic levels and changes in biological parameters in retrospect. This approach, consisting in case-control studies within a cohort combines the advantages of the two methods of investigation, namely the longitudinal aspect which makes it possible to answer post-propter questions and the cost-saving aspect of confining biochemical analysis to cases alone and the controls proper to these cases. Drawbacks to the two separate techniques, such as an expensive complete follow-up and selection bias problems, are ruled out in this manner. PMID:3840610

  6. Epidemiology of Candida kefyr in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dufresne, Simon F.; Sydnor, Emily; Staab, Janet F.; Karp, Judith E.; Lu, Kit; Zhang, Sean X.; Lavallée, Christian; Perl, Trish M.; Neofytos, Dionysios

    2014-01-01

    Candida kefyr is an emerging pathogen among patients with hematologic malignancies (HM). We performed a retrospective study at Johns Hopkins Hospital to evaluate the epidemiology of C. kefyr colonization and infection in HM patients between 2004 and 2010. Eighty-three patients were colonized and/or infected with C. kefyr, with 8 (9.6%) having invasive candidiasis (IC). The yearly incidence of C. kefyr colonization and candidemia increased over the study period (P < 0.01), particularly after 2009. In 2010, C. kefyr caused 16.7% of candidemia episodes. The monthly incidence of C. kefyr was higher during the summer throughout the study. In a cohort of patients with acute myelogenic leukemia receiving induction chemotherapy, risks for C. kefyr colonization included the summer season (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; P = 0.03); administration of an azole (OR, 0.06; P < 0.001) or amphotericin B (OR, 0.35; P = 0.05) was protective. Fingerprinting of 16 isolates by repetitive sequence-based PCR showed that all were different genotypes. The epidemiology of C. kefyr candidemia was evaluated in another hospital in Montreal, Canada; data confirmed higher rates of C. kefyr infection in the summer. C. kefyr appears to be increasing in HM patients, with prominent summer seasonality. These findings raise questions about the effect of antifungal agents and health care exposures (e.g., yogurt) on the epidemiology of this yeast. PMID:24622105

  7. Epidemiology, etiology, and prevention of multiple sclerosis. Hypothesis and fact.

    PubMed

    Ingalls, T H

    1983-03-01

    Slow, retrograde seepage of ionic mercury from root canal or Class V amalgam fillings inserted many years previously, recurrent caries and corrosion around filling edges, and the oxidizing effect of the purulent response may lead to multiple sclerosis in middle age. Epidemiologic studies of MS consistently reveal more neurological disease in the north, inferentially because there may be less caries and therefore fewer fillings done in the south. Clinical and epidemiologic data also suggest that a second heavy metal, lead, may operate almost interchangeably with mercury. Possibly, cases of unilateral MS derive from mercury-amalgam fillings in ipsolateral teeth, whereas the generalized disease may result from ingestion or inhalation of volatile mercury or exhaust fumes of lead additives to gasoline. The forensic and preventive-medical challenge is to identify, monitor, and resolve questions of hidden heavy metal hazards in a high technology society, especially those of lead and mercury. Further clinical-epidemiologic and basic science studies of heavy metal assays in whole blood, CNS tissues, packed cells, and serum are warranted. Prevention awaits further testing of the hypothesis and experience with substitute filling materials. PMID:6837537

  8. Epidemiology of Candida kefyr in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Simon F; Marr, Kieren A; Sydnor, Emily; Staab, Janet F; Karp, Judith E; Lu, Kit; Zhang, Sean X; Lavallée, Christian; Perl, Trish M; Neofytos, Dionysios

    2014-06-01

    Candida kefyr is an emerging pathogen among patients with hematologic malignancies (HM). We performed a retrospective study at Johns Hopkins Hospital to evaluate the epidemiology of C. kefyr colonization and infection in HM patients between 2004 and 2010. Eighty-three patients were colonized and/or infected with C. kefyr, with 8 (9.6%) having invasive candidiasis (IC). The yearly incidence of C. kefyr colonization and candidemia increased over the study period (P < 0.01), particularly after 2009. In 2010, C. kefyr caused 16.7% of candidemia episodes. The monthly incidence of C. kefyr was higher during the summer throughout the study. In a cohort of patients with acute myelogenic leukemia receiving induction chemotherapy, risks for C. kefyr colonization included the summer season (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; P = 0.03); administration of an azole (OR, 0.06; P < 0.001) or amphotericin B (OR, 0.35; P = 0.05) was protective. Fingerprinting of 16 isolates by repetitive sequence-based PCR showed that all were different genotypes. The epidemiology of C. kefyr candidemia was evaluated in another hospital in Montreal, Canada; data confirmed higher rates of C. kefyr infection in the summer. C. kefyr appears to be increasing in HM patients, with prominent summer seasonality. These findings raise questions about the effect of antifungal agents and health care exposures (e.g., yogurt) on the epidemiology of this yeast. PMID:24622105

  9. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts Answers to Common Questions About Scars skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information ... 9044, Fax: (919) 933-9604 [Email] Have a question? Ask us! Thank you! We have received your ...

  10. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  11. Debunking some judicial myths about epidemiology and its relevance to UK tort law.

    PubMed

    Mcivor, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Due to the limitations of current medical knowledge, claimants in complicated disease litigation often experience difficulties in proving causation. This paper aims to demonstrate that in some instances these difficulties could be overcome through greater use of epidemiological evidence. To encourage greater use of such evidence, it is first of all necessary to address and correct a series of common judicial misconceptions of epidemiology as a scientific discipline. By distinguishing epidemiology from the application of bare statistics, and by explaining that the courts are not automatically bound by an epidemiological result of 51+% to hold that causation has been established, this paper seeks to allay common judicial concerns about epidemiological evidence. It further seeks to demonstrate that the current judicial approach to determining questions of probabilistic causation is fundamentally flawed and that it could be significantly improved through greater use of specialist epidemiological expert witnesses. On the issue of expertise, the paper goes on to highlight the problems associated with the tendency of UK lawyers to turn to clinicians as experts on all matters of biomedical science. PMID:23645537

  12. The Precautionary Principle, epidemiology and the ethics of delay.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Laster, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Ethics tells us: do good and do no harm and invokes the norms of justice, equity and respect for autonomy in protecting and promoting health and well-being. The Precautionary Principle, a contemporary re-definition of Bradford Hill's case for action, gives us a common sense rule for doing good by preventing harm to public health from delay: when in doubt about the presence of a hazard, there should be no doubt about its prevention or removal. It shifts the burden of proof from showing presence of risk to showing absence of risk, aims to do good by preventing harm, and subsumes the upstream strategies of the Driving Forces Pressure Stress Exposure Effect Action model and downstream strategies from molecular epidemiology for detection and prevention of risk. The Precautionary Principle has emerged because of the ethical import of delays in detection of risks to human health and the environment. Ethical principles, the Precautionary Principle, the DPSEEA model and molecular epidemiology all imply re-emphasizing epidemiology's classic role for early detection and prevention. Delays in recognizing risks from past exposures and acting on the findings (e.g., cigarette smoking and lung cancer, asbestos, organochlorines and endocrine disruption, radiofrequency, raised travel speeds) were examples of failures that were not only scientific, but ethical, since they resulted in preventable harm to exposed populations. These may delay results from, among other things, external and internal determinants of epidemiologic investigations of hazard and risk, including misuse of tests of statistical significance. Furthermore, applying the Precautionary Principle to ensure justice, equity, and respect for autonomy raises questions concerning the short-term costs of implementation to achieve long-term goals and the principles that guide compensation. PMID:15212202

  13. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  14. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  15. 32 CFR 17.4 - Interlocutory questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... trial by military commission. In accordance with 32 CFR 9.4(a)(5)(iv), however, the Presiding Officer... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interlocutory questions. 17.4 Section 17.4... ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 17.4 Interlocutory questions. (a) Certification of interlocutory questions....

  16. 32 CFR 287.10 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 287.10 Section 287.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM OF... Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedures of the FOIA and the DISA implementation...

  17. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Novel questions. 354.2... ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES SUBMISSIONS TO THE REGISTER OF COPYRIGHTS § 354.2 Novel questions. (a) Mandatory referrals. If the material question of substantive law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel...

  18. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  19. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  20. Improving Students' Questions in Inquiry Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marbach-Ad, Gili; Claassen, Lark A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effects of investigative, open-ended, and inquiry-based labs on students' ability to ask high-level and open-ended questions. Recommends combining direct instruction in questioning with increased background information to improve students' questions. (Contains 19 references.) (YDS)

  1. EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

  2. Wh- Questions and Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…

  3. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  4. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  5. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  6. Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

  7. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  8. Using Questioning to Stimulate Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2008-01-01

    Good questioning techniques have long been regarded as a fundamental tool of effective teachers and research has found that "differences in students' thinking and reasoning could be attributed to the type of questions that teachers asked" (Wood, 2002). Past research shows that 93% of teacher questions were "lower order" knowledge-based questions…

  9. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  10. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  11. Questions ouvertes/questions fermees: une dichotomie qui appelle une analyse critique (Open Questions/Closed Questions: A Dichotomy that Calls for a Critical Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinter, Shirley; Bried, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Among the strategies used by the adult to engage the child in a linguistic interaction, those involving questioning occupy a central position. One of the parameters usually taken into account to differentiate the type of questions directed to the child is the opposition between closed (i.e., yes/no) and open-ended questions. The relevance of that…

  12. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  13. Reference Service Upgraded: Using Patrons' Reference Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Mary

    1978-01-01

    Business Administration-Economics Library staff at the University of Texas at Austin evaluated 18,738 reference questions gathered over a three-year period. Steps were taken to reduce the directional and informational questions with the expectation of increasing the number of general reference questions. (Author)

  14. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  15. Questioning Profiles in Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Patricia; de Souza, Francisle Neri

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with the role of both teachers and students' questioning in classroom interaction. Bearing in mind that the current guidelines point out to student centred teaching, our aim is to analyse and characterise the questioning patterns of contemporary secondary science classes and compare them to the questioning profiles…

  16. Understanding epidemiological transition in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suryakant; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2014-01-01

    Background Omran's theory explains changing disease patterns over time predominantly from infectious to chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). India's epidemiological transition is characterized by dual burden of diseases. Kumar addressed low mortality and high morbidity in Kerala, which seems also to be true for India as a country in the current demographic scenario. Methods NSS data (1986–1987, 1995–1996, 2004) and aggregated data on causes of death provided by Registrar General India (RGI) were used to examine the structural changes in morbidity and causes of death. A zero-inflated poisson (ZIP) regression model and a beta-binomial model were used to corroborate the mounting age pattern of morbidity. Measures, namely the 25th and 75th percentiles of age-at-death and modal age-at-death, were used to examine the advances in mortality transition. Objective This study addressed the advances in epidemiological transition via exploring the structural changes in pattern of diseases and progress in mortality transition. Results The burden of NCDs has been increasing in old age without replacing the burden of communicable diseases. The manifold rise of chronic diseases in recent decades justifies the death toll and is responsible for transformation in the age pattern of morbidity. Over time, deaths have been concentrated near the modal age-at-death. Modal age-at-death increased linearly by 5 years for females (r2=0.9515) and males (r2=0.9020). Significant increase in modal age-at-death ascertained the dominance of old age mortality over the childhood/adult age mortality. Conclusions India experiences a dual burden of diseases associated with a remarkable transformation in the age pattern of morbidity and mortality, contemporaneous with structural changes in disease patterns. Continued progress in the pattern of diseases and mortality transition, accompanied by a linear rise in ex, unravels a compelling variation in advances found so far in epidemiological transition witnessed by the developed nations, with similar matrices for India. PMID:24848651

  17. Some aspects of cancer epidemiology

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienfeld, A.M.

    1982-03-01

    Epidemiolgic studies have strongly suggested that a vast majority (80-90%) of cancers are caused by radiation, chemical and biologic agents; the remainder result from endogenous or genetic factors. Biologically, cancer is most probably the end result of a complex multistage process and therefore may be due to a sequence of exposures to different agents at each of these stages. This emphasizes the need to stress the study of interactions in epidemiologic studies to a greater extent than has been done thus far. Examples of the importance of interactions in several types of cancer are presented.

  18. Pulmonary embolism: Epidemiology and registries.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Manuel; Mahé, Isabelle; Bura-Riviere, Alessandra; Prandoni, Paolo; Verhamme, Peter; Brenner, Benjamin; Wells, Phil S; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Bertoletti, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Real-life data is important in understanding the needs of patients in routine clinical practice, particularly owing to the fact that almost a quarter of patients with venous thromoboembolism (VTE) have at least one exclusion criterion preventing their recruitment into randomized clinical trials. The Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad Trombo Embólica (RIETE) registry is an ongoing, international, multicentre, prospective registry of consecutive patients presenting with acute VTE. In this chapter, we summarized some of the most relevant data concerning the epidemiology of VTE in the RIETE registry. PMID:26547675

  19. [DOHaD: epidemiological researches].

    PubMed

    Delpierre, Cyrille; Lepeule, Johanna; Cordier, Sylvaine; Slama, Remy; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological researches in the field of DOHaD are in favor of a role of early environment, including chemical (pesticides), physical (air pollution), nutritional or psychosocial environment, on child and adult health. Disentangling the different factors of environment that may affect health, especially over time, and identifying critical periods of exposure remains a major challenge. The biological mechanisms involved remain elusive in human beings. Nevertheless, it seems that whatever the nature of the exposure, epigenetic mechanisms are currently discussed to explain how the environment may alter biological systems over time. PMID:26850603

  20. Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

  2. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  3. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: a graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiology is founded on central concepts and principles, essential for conducting, reporting and critically assessing epidemiological studies. Definitions of the many concepts used in the field can be found in textbooks and via the Dictionary of Epidemiology. However, central epidemiological concepts are labelled and used in multiple ways, leading to potential misunderstanding when communicating in different fora. The aim here is to describe collaborative concept mapping, and illustrate how it can be used in teaching and learning epidemiology. Concept mapping is a cognitive technique that is widely used in the education of medical and allied health professions as a tool for critical thinking, and to assimilate new knowledge, but it is still under-utilised in epidemiology. A specific concept map is defined by the aim and question in focus; it is thus framed by a context. The concept map is constructed using a set of concepts (nodes) that are linked with arrows or lines (links). Words and phrases (connective terms) are used to explain relationships between the concepts linked. Different domains can be interconnected by linking concepts in different areas (cross-links). The underlying structure of knowledge is often complex, and consequently concept maps can be constructed using different topological features. Here we provide an illustrative example of concept mapping, based on a set of 'basic' concepts introduced in a doctoral course in epidemiology. In summary, concept mapping is a compelling, active learning tool, which can promote shared deeper knowledge of concepts and their complex interconnections, thereby facilitating a better understanding of epidemiological research. PMID:25987721

  4. The epidemiology of renal trauma

    PubMed Central

    Leddy, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nonoperative and minimally invasive management techniques for both blunt and penetrating renal trauma have become standard of care over the past decades. We sought to examine the modern epidemiology of renal trauma over the past decade. Methods A systematic review of PubMed from the past decade was conducted to examine adult and pediatric renal trauma. A total of 605 articles were identified. Of these, 15 adult and 5 pediatric articles met our a priori search criteria. Results There is a lack of uniform reporting of the renal trauma demographics precluding accurate assessment. Despite this, we were able to elucidate the following details. Renal trauma predominately affects young adult males, and the etiology is predominantly blunt. Among blunt injuries, motor vehicle crashes are most common among adult and pediatric patients. Nonoperative care was utilized in 94.8% of reviewed manuscripts with a 5.4% nephrectomy rate. Discussion There do not appear to be any startling changes in the presentation of adult and pediatric renal trauma over the past decade. Nonoperative care continues to be utilized as primary therapy. Increased attention on the reporting of renal trauma demographics is necessary to improve detection of trends. Conclusions Increased reporting of the presenting demographics of adult and pediatric renal trauma is encouraged to assist future assessment of epidemiology. PMID:26816762

  5. Epidemiologic approaches to veterans' health.

    PubMed

    Gaziano, J Michael; Concato, John; Galea, Sandro; Smith, Nicholas L; Provenzale, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    The present issue of Epidemiologic Reviews is dedicated to better understanding the health of men and women who have served in the military. There are 13 articles that discuss a range of physical and mental health concerns among both military personnel who are currently serving and those who served in the past. The corresponding research provides insight into issues that are directly relevant and of keen interest to clinicians and investigators. The articles illustrate some of the obstacles to conducting rigorous epidemiologic research when seeking to inform the health issues of those who serve in the military and of veterans. Within the United States, they point to opportunities for the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to address existing gaps in knowledge. The VA in particular can take advantage of its research infrastructure, altruistic veteran population, and clinical and administrative databases. In the era of multinational military interventions, international counterparts of the Department of Defense and VA should collaborate in the collection of data on relevant military exposures and also in the characterization of short- and long-term health effects related to service to better inform health needs. The work included in this issue is a call to the global research community to continue to invest resources to better characterize military service and its impact on health. Finally, these articles serve as a testament to the additional health burden carried by many of the women and men who have provided service to their country. PMID:25613553

  6. The cancer epidemiology of radiation.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Richard

    2004-08-23

    Ionizing radiation has been the subject of intense epidemiological investigation. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to moderate-to-high levels can cause most forms of cancer, leukaemia and cancers of the breast, lung and thyroid being particularly sensitive to induction by radiation, especially at young ages at exposure. Predominant among these studies is the Life Span Study of the cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings of Japan in 1945, but substantial evidence is derived from groups exposed for medical reasons, occupationally or environmentally. Notable among these other groups are underground hard rock miners who inhaled radioactive radon gas and its decay products, large numbers of patients irradiated therapeutically and workers who received high doses in the nuclear weapons programme of the former USSR. The degree of carcinogenic risk arising from low levels of exposure is more contentious, but the available evidence points to an increased risk that is approximately proportional to the dose received. Epidemiological investigations of nonionizing radiation have established ultraviolet radiation as a cause of skin cancer. However, the evidence for a carcinogenic effect of other forms of nonionizing radiation, such as those associated with mobile telephones or electricity transmission lines, is not convincing, although the possibility of a link between childhood leukaemia and extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cannot be dismissed entirely. PMID:15322514

  7. The landscape epidemiology of echinococcoses.

    PubMed

    Cadavid Restrepo, Angela M; Yang, Yu Rong; McManus, Donald P; Gray, Darren J; Giraudoux, Patrick; Barnes, Tamsin S; Williams, Gail M; Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J; Hamm, Nicholas A S; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcoses are parasitic diseases of major public health importance globally. Human infection results in chronic disease with poor prognosis and serious medical, social and economic consequences for vulnerable populations. According to recent estimates, the geographical distribution of Echinococcus spp. infections is expanding and becoming an emerging and re-emerging problem in several regions of the world. Echinococcosis endemicity is geographically heterogeneous and over time it may be affected by global environmental change. Therefore, landscape epidemiology offers a unique opportunity to quantify and predict the ecological risk of infection at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the most relevant environmental sources of spatial variation in human echinococcosis risk, and describe the potential applications of landscape epidemiological studies to characterise the current patterns of parasite transmission across natural and human-altered landscapes. We advocate future work promoting the use of this approach as a support tool for decision-making that facilitates the design, implementation and monitoring of spatially targeted interventions to reduce the burden of human echinococcoses in disease-endemic areas. PMID:26895758

  8. Epidemiology of yaws: an update

    PubMed Central

    Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitjà, Oriol

    2014-01-01

    Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

  9. Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.

    PubMed

    Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

  10. What Can Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about the Impact of Chemical Mixtures on Human Health?

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Gennings, Chris; Hauser, Russ; Webster, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental chemicals: Some of these may be toxic, and many others have unknown or poorly characterized health effects. There is intense interest in determining the impact of exposure to environmental chemical mixtures on human health. As the study of mixtures continues to evolve in the field of environmental epidemiology, it is imperative that we understand the methodologic challenges of this research and the types of questions we can address using epidemiological data. In this article, we summarize some of the unique challenges in exposure assessment, statistical methods, and methodology that epidemiologists face in addressing chemical mixtures. We propose three broad questions that epidemiological studies can address: a) What are the potential health impacts of individual chemical agents? b) What is the interaction among agents? And c) what are the health effects of cumulative exposure to multiple agents? As the field of mixtures research grows, we can use these three questions as a basis for defining our research questions and for developing methods that will help us better understand the effect of chemical exposures on human disease and well-being. PMID:26720830

  11. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  12. Validity of a Screening Question for Head Tremor: An Analysis of Four Essential Tremor Case Samples

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Michalec, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to assess the validity of a screening question for head tremor in essential tremor (ET). There are no published data on this topic, and the knowledge will guide future epidemiological investigations of this disorder. Methods These analyses utilized four distinct patient samples: a population-based study in northern Manhattan, a study of the environmental epidemiology of ET, a genetics study, and a brain repository. Sensitivity was the proportion of ET cases with head tremor on examination who self-reported head tremor. Results The sensitivity of the screening question for head tremor was lowest in the population-based study (31.6%), and higher as well as somewhat similar across the remaining studies (46.7% to 62.2%). Higher sensitivity was associated with tremor of longer duration, presence of voice tremor on examination, female gender, and lower education. The use of the screening question would have increased case ascertainment during the screening phase of these four studies by 1.9%, 4.1%, 10.2% and 20.3%. Conclusions A screening question for head tremor had low to moderate sensitivity in ET. The use of such a screening questionnaire, however, has the potential to increase case ascertainment by as much as 20% in some screening settings. PMID:25323630

  13. Epidemiology, Science as Inquiry and Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaelin, Mark; Huebner, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    The recent worldwide SARS outbreak has put the science of epidemiology into the headlines once again. Epidemiology is "... the study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events and the application of these methods to the control of health problems" (Gordis 2000). In this context, the authors have developed a…

  14. Asking Open-Ended Consumer Questions to Aid Program Planning: Variations in Question Format and Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKillip, Jack; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Effects of question length and explicitness of directions (format) were examined for 97 university students answering open-ended consumer satisfaction questions at 9 health promotion workshops. Question format, but not length, was related to the usefulness of answers. Implications for use and construction of open-ended questions are discussed.…

  15. Correlation between Question Intonation and Focus of Interrogation--Evidence from French Dislocated Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiao-nan

    This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens, toi?"), or in the…

  16. MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory


    Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

  17. Eco-epidemiology as anti-terrorism.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard E

    Eco-epidemiology is a promising model for cross-disciplinary anti-terrorism. Derived from epidemiology's dominance of agents to illness and injury, the eco-epidemiological paradigm considers natural systems that generate causal pathways to disease and dynamic morbidity. Within this model is a hierarchy of systems interconnecting at biological, human, and social levels. Eco-epidemiology capitalizes on interacting components within and between system levels to identify contact patterns and apply mechanisms of control. Considering the complex and paradoxical nature of the threat-fear dynamic, a systematic, ecological approach would be more adaptive to terrorism's changing rules of engagement. To counter terrorism and nullify threat-fear, eco-epidemiology must be shared by public health researchers with threat assessment and harm reduction disciplines. PMID:17827097

  18. Epigenetic Epidemiology: Promises for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Bakulski, Kelly M.; Fallin, M. Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. PMID:24449392

  19. Measurement issues in environmental epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the area of environmental epidemiology involving measurement of exposure and dose, health outcomes, and important confounding and modifying variables (including genotype and psychosocial factors). Using examples, we illustrate strategies for increasing the accuracy of exposure and dose measurement that include dosimetry algorithms, pharmacokinetic models, biologic markers, and use of multiple measures. Some limitations of these methods are described and suggestions are made about where formal evaluation might be helpful. We go on to discuss methods for assessing the inaccuracies in exposure or dose measurements, including sensitivity analysis and validation studies. In relation to measurement of health outcomes, we discuss some definitional issues and cover, among other topics, biologic effect markers and other early indicators of disease. Because measurement error in covariates is also important, we consider the problems in measurement of common confounders and effect modifiers. Finally, we cite some general methodologic research needs. PMID:8206042

  20. Genetic epidemiology of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Merikangas, K R; Low, N C P

    2005-01-01

    This chapter reviews the genetic epidemiology of the major subtypes of anxiety disorders including panic disorder, phobic disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Controlled family studies reveal that all of these anxiety subtypes are familial, and twin studies suggest that the familial aggregation is attributable in part to genetic factors. Panic disorder and, its spectrum have the strongest magnitude of familial clustering and genetic underpinnings. Studies of offspring of parents with anxiety disorders an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders, but there is far less specificity of the manifestations of anxiety in children and young adolescents. Although there has been a plethora of studies designed to identify genes underlying these conditions, to date, no specific genetic loci have been identified and replicated in independent samples. PMID:16594258

  1. Epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi Infections

    PubMed Central

    González-Beiras, Camila; Marks, Michael; Chen, Cheng Y.; Roberts, Sally

    2016-01-01

    The global epidemiology of Haemophilus ducreyi infections is poorly documented because of difficulties in confirming microbiological diagnoses. We evaluated published data on the proportion of genital and nongenital skin ulcers caused by H. ducreyi before and after introduction of syndromic management for genital ulcer disease (GUD). Before 2000, the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi ranged from 0.0% to 69.0% (35 studies in 25 countries). After 2000, the proportion ranged from 0.0% to 15.0% (14 studies in 13 countries). In contrast, H. ducreyi has been recently identified as a causative agent of skin ulcers in children in the tropical regions; proportions ranged from 9.0% to 60.0% (6 studies in 4 countries). We conclude that, although there has been a sustained reduction in the proportion of GUD caused by H. ducreyi, this bacterium is increasingly recognized as a major cause of nongenital cutaneous ulcers. PMID:26694983

  2. Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

  3. [Genetics and epidemiology of retinoblastoma].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, E

    1987-04-01

    Recent studies of genetic epidemiology of retinoblastoma are reviewed, and major conclusions drawn are as follows: Retinoblastoma occurs in heritable or nonheritable form. The primary genetic change in the heritable form is a point mutation or deletion at a locus on 13 q 14. For the genesis of a tumor in either form, the loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus is a prerequisite, although additional events may be needed for its development. Information about environmental risk factors for the occurrence of heritable or nonheritable retinoblastoma is still meager. Although viral etiology for nonheritable tumor cannot be excluded, an extensive epidemiologic study revealed no seasonal variation in the births of 675 patients with sporadic unilateral cases, a great majority of which may be regarded as due to somatic mutation. Moreover, there was no paternal age effect at all on the occurrence of 225 sporadic bilateral cases. Paternal exposure to ionizing radiation or chemical mutagens, which should have an accumulated effect with advancing age, does not seem to play a major role in the production of germinal mutation at the Rb locus. Family studies show that host resistance genes at other loci can modify the process of tumor development when the primary genetic change is already present in all the target cells. Unaffected gene carriers may be regarded as inherently resistant to tumor formation, whereas persons who present early onset of bilateral tumors are the most susceptible. In certain families, however, non-expression in the carriers may be due to chromosomal rearrangement in a balanced state. PMID:3474431

  4. Schizophrenia: from Epidemiology to Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Bhat, Krishna M; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: We discuss recent evidences about schizophrenia (frequency, onset, course, risk factors and genetics) and their influences to some epidemiological myths about schizophrenia diffuse between psychiatric and psychopathology clinicians. The scope is to evaluate if the new acquisitions may change the rehabilitation approaches to schizophrenia modifying the balance about the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia accepting that the cognitive deficits are produced by errors during the normal development of the brain (neurodevelopmental hypothesis) that remains stable in the course of illness and the neurodegenerative hypothesis according of which they derived from a degenerative process that goes on inexorably. Research Method/Design: A review of the literature about epidemiology of schizophrenia has been performed and the contributions of some of these evidence to neurodevelopmental hypothesis and to rehabilitation has been described. Results: It cannot be definitively concluded for or against the neurodevelopmental or degenerative hypothesis, but efforts in understanding basis of schizophrenia must go on. Until now, rehabilitation programs are based on the vulnerability-stress model: supposing an early deficit that go on stable during the life under favorable circumstances. So, rehabilitation approaches (as neuro-cognitive approaches, social skill training, cognitive-emotional training) are focused on the individual and micro-group coping skills, aiming to help people with schizophrenia to cope with environmental stress factors. Conclusions/Implications: Coping of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may represents the starting-point for further research on schizophrenia, cohort studies and randomized trials are necessary to defined the range of effectiveness and the outcome of the treatments. PMID:22962559

  5. The epidemiology of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Tortolero-Luna, G; Mitchell, M F

    1995-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer of the female reproductive system and the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. In 1995, 26,600 women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the U.S., and 14,500 women will die from the disease. Between 1986-1900, the overall age-adjusted incidence was 14.3/100,000 women; mortality was 7.8/100,000 women. Ovarian cancer, rare before age 40, increases steeply thereafter and peaks at ages 65-75. Incidence and mortality rates are higher among white women than among African-American women. Over the last three decades, ovarian cancer incidence has remained stable in high-risk countries, while an increasing trend has been reported in low-risk countries. Despite recent advancements in treatment, the overall five-year survival rates continues to be low (39%). Over 70% of ovarian tumors are diagnosed when regional or distant involvement has already occurred, causing survival rates to remain stable. The etiology of ovarian cancer is poorly understood. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology of invasive epithelial ovarian tumors, while few have explored the epidemiology of epithelial tumors of low malignant potential and nonepithelial tumors. Factors associated with an increased risk for invasive epithelial ovarian cancer include age, race, nulliparity, family history of ovarian cancer, and history of endometrial or breast cancer. Factors associated with a reduced risk are history of one or more full-term pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, history of breast feeding, tubal ligation, and hysterectomy. Other factors such as infertility drugs, hormone replacement therapy, age at menarche, age at menopause, dietary factors, lactose intolerance, talc use, coffee and alcohol consumption have been suggested, but their role is still inconclusive. PMID:8747397

  6. On the epidemiology of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, John J; Zasloff, Michael; Garland, Cedric F; Scragg, Robert; Giovannucci, Edward

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1) Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2) Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3) Why do they end so abruptly? (4) What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5) Why is the serial interval obscure? (6) Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7) Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8) Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9) Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza. PMID:18298852

  7. Telomere Length in Epidemiology: A Biomarker of Aging, Age-Related Disease, Both, or Neither?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Jason L.; Newman, Anne B.

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein caps flanking DNA. They are shortened by cell division and oxidative stress and are lengthened by the enzyme telomerase and DNA exchange during mitosis. Short telomeres induce cellular senescence. As an indicator of oxidative stress and senescence (2 processes thought to be fundamental to aging), telomere length is hypothesized to be a biomarker of aging. This hypothesis has been tested for more than a decade with epidemiologic study methods. In cross-sectional studies, researchers have investigated whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with demographic, behavioral, and health variables. In prospective studies, baseline LTL has been used to predict mortality and occasionally other adverse health outcomes. Conflicting data have generated heated debate about the value of LTL as a biomarker of overall aging. In this review, we address the epidemiologic data on LTL and demonstrate that shorter LTL is associated with older age, male gender, Caucasian race, and possibly atherosclerosis; associations with other markers of health are equivocal. We discuss the reasons for discrepancy across studies, including a detailed review of methods for measuring telomere length as they apply to epidemiology. Finally, we conclude with questions about LTL as a biomarker of aging and how epidemiology can be used to answer these questions. PMID:23302541

  8. Introduction to working group on tropospheric ozone, Health Effects Institute environmental epidemiology planning project.

    PubMed Central

    Tager, I B

    1993-01-01

    The working group on tropospheric ozone of the Health Effects Institute has evaluated the need for epidemiologic studies on the health effects of ozone (O3) exposure. This paper summarizes current data and identifies possible research questions. The extent to which ozone exposure results in chronic health effects is largely undefined and is the central issue for epidemiologic studies. Most current data focus on transient endpoints; the link between acute changes in symptoms and/or lung function and possible chronic effects has not been established. Concepts of ozone-induced health effects have been extended to include processes of chronic disease (e.g., markers of ongoing inflammation and repair, markers of accelerated lung aging). Traditional epidemiologic studies performed have focused only on accelerated lung aging and are limited by a number of methodologic problems. Recent, very preliminary, studies suggest new opportunities for the use of human lung tissue and a variety biological response markers as part of epidemiologic studies. The identification of sensitive subpopulations with regard to ozone-induced health effects has been studied incompletely and is important both in terms of study efficiency and mechanistic insight. Methodologic advances in the reconstruction of past ozone exposure are seen as essential, as is the incorporation of emerging markers of biologic response to ozone into traditional epidemiologic study designs. Finally, more data on the joint and independent contribution of other ambient air pollutants to putative ozone-induced health effects is warranted. PMID:8206032

  9. Doing Science and Asking Questions II: An Exercise That Generates Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt Middlecamp, Catherine; Nickel, Anne-Marie L.

    2005-08-01

    Given the importance of questions in science, it is critical that students learn to ask questions as well as learning to answer them. This paper describes a classroom exercise to help students better ask their own questions. It has been classroom-tested in multiple formats and has also been used for curriculum development workshops for faculty. This exercise in creating questions can be easily customized to suit different instructional contexts; some variations are outlined. More broadly, this paper also discusses the pedagogical significance of questioning, raising four salient points: (1) learners are more likely to have a personal interest in the questions they raise; (2) questions can serve as entry points for issues relating to ethnicity and gender; (3) questions give control to the person who asks them; and (4) questions can challenge existing structures, categories, and norms.

  10. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  11. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  12. The Right Questions, the Right Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    According to Dylan Wiliam, the traditional classroom practice in which a teacher asks a question, students raise their hands, and the teacher calls on a volunteer does not actually provide much useful information--and it may even impede learning. When teachers ask questions in this way, they're only engaging the most confident students in the…

  13. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of individual…

  14. Twelve Frequently Asked Questions about Writing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkin, Roxanne Lee

    1984-01-01

    Intended for classroom teachers who are interested in but apprehensive about starting a writing program, this journal article addresses some of the most common questions asked at workshops. The specific questions answered in the article are as follows: (1) How do I start? (2) What materials are needed? (3) How do I find time for student writing?…

  15. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  16. Responding to Disability: A Question of Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, Patricia

    The booklet, in questionnaire form, is designed to stimulate thinking and dialogue regarding attitudes toward and knowledge of disability. Fourteen questions address responses to situations dealing with people who have physical disabilities, blindness, speech impediments, mental illness, and deafness. Answers are provided for each of the questions…

  17. Teaching Reading: Asking the Right Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Arthur E.

    1985-01-01

    Argues that reading should be a significant portion of the foreign language student's experience but that, in order for the reading to be an occasion for comprehensible input, the text must be authentic, meaningful to students, and followed by questions which encourage reading for meaning. Gives examples of such questions. (SED)

  18. Questions and Answers on Programed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Sarah T.

    Materials for inservice and preservice teacher education were developed by home economics specialists for use by teachers and college students. The paper attempts to clarify some typical questions confronting teachers of all subject matter areas as they consider incorporating programed instruction in their classes. Using a question-answer format…

  19. The Effects of Questioning on Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether structured or unstructured questioning strategies, combined with two levels of domain knowledge and text coherence, significantly affect text memory and text learning. Results of this study suggest that high domain knowledge and structured questioning strategies are the most reliable predictors of text memory and…

  20. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  1. [Child psychiatry, the question of a kiss].

    PubMed

    Rosala, Franck

    2010-01-01

    What should child psychiatry care workers do when a child spontaneously embraces or kisses them? This questioning goes far beyond the fact of kissing and raises the question of the nature of the healthcare relationship and environment. While theoretical knowledge is necessary, it is not sufficient for achieving phronesis or "practical wisdom". PMID:20925187

  2. Patterns and Punctuation: Learning to Question Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As teachers plan instruction--even instruction about punctuation--they have the opportunity to engage students' minds and create new labels: question-asking, problem-solving. How teachers teach embeds a vision of who they think kids are and what they think kids are capable of. Are they destined for a future of critical thinking, questioning

  3. The Syntax of Questions in Child English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Provides a contemporary Government-and-Binding reinterpretation and evaluation of Klima and Bellugi's 1966 work on the acquisition of interrogatives. It is argued that wh-questions in Child English involve a wh-pronoun positioned in the head complementizer position within the Complementizer Phrase (CP) and that children learn that wh-questions…

  4. Improving Question-Answering Performance through Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raphael, Taffy

    Three previous investigations of the effects of students' metacognitive awareness of question-answer relationships on reading comprehension led to the development of a four-session question-answer relationship (QAR) training program which can be used as a supplement to a regular reading program. The QAR in the proposed training program is based on…

  5. 9/11: Reflections, Memories, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingone, Joe

    2011-01-01

    What were you doing on September 11th? This seems like an obvious question to prompt conversations about the World Trade Center tragedy, but is it a good question to ask high school students a decade removed from the event? Many students now in high school were toddlers at the time. What do they really remember from that day? Are these memories…

  6. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Michelle M.

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

  8. What Philosophic Questions for Educational Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Richard G.

    The meanings of "evaluation" and "decisioning" are examined and the function, form, and content of educational evaluation are set forth. Philosophical questions which emerge from epistemology, logic, axiology, ethics, social philosophy, ontology, and metaphysics concerning the nature of people are briefly described. In order to address questions…

  9. Lunar interferometric astronomy: Some basic questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville

    1992-01-01

    The author examines some basic questions as to why there should be astronomical facilities on the far side of the moon. The questions are ones of appropriateness, i.e., is this a proper use for human resources, what the real goals are, and are the present concepts the best match for the goals.

  10. Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

  11. The American Indians: Answers to 101 Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Presented in a simple and straightforward manner, this publication answers questions basic to an understanding of the American Indian and his socioeconomic position in the United States. The following identify major areas covered and representative questions: (1) The Indian People (Who is an Indian?); (2) The Legal Status of Indians (Are Indians…

  12. HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

  13. Question Asking and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    This paper argues that provocative questions can be used by teachers to help students write. Described are a series of questions drawn from rhetorical theory, such as "How many times can I change focus so as to get the most complete understanding of a topic?""When does X occur?""Why does X occur?" and "What does X cause or prompt?" Several…

  14. Twenty Questions for Evaluating School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, David M.

    1982-01-01

    Lists 20 questions designed to give an idea of a private school's performance outside of business and development concerns and gives each question's source. Areas covered include school goals, leadership effectiveness, staff evaluation and development, curriculum review, school climate, communication, and parental and graduate involvement.…

  15. The Interesting Questions Approach to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Lisa A.

    1992-01-01

    Teachers at the Dag Hammarskjold School No. 6 in Rochester, New York, developed an interdisciplinary curriculum for fifth and sixth graders that they call the Interesting Questions Approach. Teachers and students choose questions about a topic and plan activities that will enable students to find the answers. (LB)

  16. Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

  17. Asking Questions: Cultivating the Habit of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deluty, Evelyn Wortsman

    2010-01-01

    Learning how to think critically is a slow, painstaking process but one well worth cultivating. Some students never realize that questioning matters. Their smug mockery of any reflective endeavor threatens their comfort zone and creates an obstacle to thinking critically. They simply devalue it. Questioning is a sure sign that the student is…

  18. Prereading Questions and Online Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark Rose; Mensink, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Prereading questions can be an effective tool for directing students' learning. However, it is not always clear what the online effects of a set of prereading questions will be. In two experiments, this study investigated whether readers direct additional attention to and learn more from sentences that are potentially relevant to a set of…

  19. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  20. 10,000 Science Questions by Modem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the ISCS/FIRN Test Item Database, which contains 10,000 juried science questions that can help teachers prepare tests. Describes the process by which teachers can access the database and download certain questions into their own microcomputer. Provides lists from a sample search done using the various menus available. (TW)