Note: This page contains sample records for the topic questions faqs epidemiology from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs CTRP Program >> What is the purpose of the Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP)? How will CTRP be connected to other databases within NCI and NIH? Will CTRP support the Cancer Centers Summary 4 Report? Will CTRP

2

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - Reorganization of Division of Integrative Biology and Neuroscience  

NSF Publications Database

... of the Division of Integrative Biology and Neuroscience Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) November ... Biology and Neuroscience (IBN) is now reorganized into the Division of Integrative Organismal ...

3

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 05-520)  

NSF Publications Database

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 05-520) Table of Contents ... for HSD this year? Why is the Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences the only one ...

4

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

5

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

6

Drinking Water FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

7

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

Cancer.gov

Costs to consider when planning a study that uses ASA24 include system and labor costs associated with uploading study details, including respondent usernames and recall dates. Costs also are associated with contacting and monitoring respondents, assessing data quality, and analyzing data. The labor and resources needed by researchers and associated costs to configure and manage studies using ASA24 are within the purview and the responsibility of users.

8

Agricultural biotechnology FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the U.S. Department of Agriculture list a number of frequently asked questions regarding biotechnology. The FAQs addresses questions related to defining biotechnology, biotechnology helping farmers and consumers, public dialogue and exchange of information on biotechnology, federal agencies that regulate biotechnology, testing a biotechnology derived plant, commercial production of a biotechnology derived plant, exposure of biotech crops, the role of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), and trade issues with biotechnology. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

2003-01-01

9

Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... scabicide may be necessary. If I come in contact with a person who has scabies, should I ... page Get email updates Listen to audio/Podcast Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

10

Giardiasis Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... for example, untreated or improperly treated water from lakes, streams, or wells) Swallowing water while swimming or ... in water where Giardia may live, especially in lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, and streams Eating uncooked food ...

11

FAQs - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

This page is designed to answer some of the common questions about NCI's Cancer Human Biobank (caHUB) initiative. We will update these Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) as new information becomes available or new questions are submitted to us. If you don't find an answer to your question on this page, please send us an e-mail.

12

Frequently Asked Questions - Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Updated Frequently Asked Questions on Research Bases Request for Application (RFA) Select a category by clicking on its title below. How to search the content of the FAQs: Click on the FAQ Category you

13

The Use of Question Types to Match Questions in FAQFinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

One useful way to find the answer to a question is to search a library of previously-answered questions. This is the idea behind FAQFinder, a Web-based natural language question- answering system which uses Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) files to answer users' questions. FAQFinder tries to answer a user's question by retrieving a similar FAQ ques- tion, if one exists, and

Steven L. Lytinen; Noriko Tomuro

2002-01-01

14

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

15

Selecting appropriate study designs to address specific research questions in occupational epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Various epidemiological study designs are available to investigate illness and injury risks related to workplace exposures. The choice of study design to address a particular research question will be guided by the nature of the health outcome under study, its presumed relation to workplace exposures, and feasibility constraints. This review summarises the relative advantages and limitations of conventional study designs including cohort studies, cross?sectional studies, repeated measures studies, case?control (industry? and community?based) studies, and more recently developed variants of the nested case?control design: case?cohort and case?crossover studies.

Checkoway, Harvey; Pearce, Neil; Kriebel, David

2007-01-01

16

FAQs about the wireless challenge in healthcare.  

PubMed

AAMI's Wireless Strategy Task Force (WSTF) developed the following document to provide answers to frequently asked questions (FAQs) regarding wireless issues in the healthcare environment. A special thanks to Steve Baker, senior principal engineer at Welch Allyn, for leading the project and writing much of the content; as well as to Rick Hampton, wireless communications manager at Partners HealthCare Systems, Scott Coleman at Welch Allyn, and Paul Sherman, a consultant retired from the Veteran's Administration, who developed responses to many of the questions. The complete list of FAQs can be accessed at www.aami.org/hottopics/wireless/index.html . PMID:24847925

2014-01-01

17

Culinary herbFAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

1997-01-01

18

FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks FAQ: Pregnancy & Breastfeeding I am pregnant. Am I at higher risk ... Top of Page If I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself ...

19

FAQ Nurse practitions physician  

Cancer.gov

September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

20

Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Newborn Care > Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort ... have. Is it normal to have cramps while nursing? Yes. During the first few days to weeks ...

21

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat  

MedlinePLUS

... you to lose more fluid. Should I take salt tablets during hot weather? Do not take salt tablets unless directed by your doctor. Heavy sweating removes salt and minerals from the body. These are necessary ...

22

Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... system. A small percentage of persons will develop lymphedema. This is caused by improper functioning of the ... microfilariae for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis. Because lymphedema may develop many years after infection, lab tests ...

23

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus in Spanish Preguntas frecuentes: Preguntas generales sobre el virus del Nilo Occidental en Español (Spanish) Síntomas y tratamiento en Español (Spanish) Prevención y ...

24

Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... scabies and my job requires skin-to-skin contact with patients? Scabies usually is spread by prolonged ... page Get email updates Listen to audio/Podcast Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ...

25

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Plague  

MedlinePLUS

... bromide Methyl isocyanate Nicotine Nitrogen mustard Opioids Organic solvents Osmium tetroxide Paraquat Phosgene Phosgene oxime Phosphine Phosphorus ... Radiation Disasters Public Health Planning for Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism Radiation Basics Made Simple Radiological Terrorism: Just ...

26

FAQs About Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a FAQ in a concise, readable summary of the current state of ocean acidification knowledge to support the scientific research community and educators. It is maintained by the OCB Project Office, with oversight from the Ocean Acidification Subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program. Featured items include a primer to offer the foundational basics of ocean acidification and its impact on humans, Earth systems and marine life.

2012-09-24

27

Hepatitis B Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Index of Questions ± Overview ... C. What is the difference between Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C? Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , and ...

28

What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor?  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The Pancreas Types of Tumors Causes Hereditary ... Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Questions What questions should I ask my doctor? ...

29

Just the FAQs: An Alternative to Teaching the Research Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changing the form of the traditional research paper often results in a greater emphasis on inquiry or FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). An alternative form of presentation that capitalizes on available technology and requires students to develop their thinking, reading, writing and presentation skills is presented.

Strickland, James

2004-01-01

30

Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

2010-05-14

31

Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links ... Are there specific disorders or conditions associated with Fragile X syndrome? Among the other conditions associated with Fragile X ...

32

FAQ Returning agent to Reposito  

Cancer.gov

September 15, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

33

FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding  

MedlinePLUS

... ?????? ????? HO? GELD?N?Z FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence in popularity. ... Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink into the ...

34

FAQ Study Closed Transfer Agent  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

35

FAQ Shipping+storage temperatur  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

36

FAQ Accounting for Oral Agents  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

37

Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

Find answers to many common questions about CTRP and its use. The FAQs provide information about what CTRP is and how it works, registering trials and reporting accrual in CTRP, accessing CTRP data, and what resources are available to learn more.

38

Dark Matter FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page has a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Dark Matter and related issues. The main questions concern the origin of Dark Matter, its propeties and the possible ways to detect it. There are also questions linking cosmology with particle physics.

Group, Berkeley C.

2008-05-02

39

The Online Tornado FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

Edwards, Roger

40

The Online Tornado FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

Edwards, Roger

2009-12-31

41

Online Darwin FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides links to organizations that offer information for a general audience about teaching evolution, suggestions for responding to questions from students and your community, and strategies for addressing the public controversy about evolution and science education.

42

Global Warming FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research is dedicated to understanding the atmosphereâÂÂthe air around usâÂÂand the interconnected processes that make up the Earth system, from the ocean floor to the Sun's core. The National Center for Atmospheric Research and the UCAR Office of Programs provide research, observing and computing facilities, and a variety of services for the atmospheric and Earth sciences community. Here, they have helpfully provided a series of frequently asked questions about Climate Change. Each question provides a clear and concise answer and provides links to further information. In addition, the site includes a special inset on Global Warming, a "Ask a Scientist" section, and links at the bottom of the page to learn more.

2008-10-21

43

Evidence-based decision-making in infectious diseases epidemiology, prevention and control: matching research questions to study designs and quality appraisal tools  

PubMed Central

Background The Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT) was initiated and is being funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to define a methodology for evaluating and grading evidence and strength of recommendations in the field of public health, with emphasis on infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control. One of the first steps was to review existing quality appraisal tools (QATs) for individual research studies of various designs relevant to this area, using a question-based approach. Methods Through team discussions and expert consultations, we identified 20 relevant types of public health questions, which were grouped into six domains, i.e. characteristics of the pathogen, burden of disease, diagnosis, risk factors, intervention, and implementation of intervention. Previously published systematic reviews were used and supplemented by expert consultation to identify suitable QATs. Finally, a matrix was constructed for matching questions to study designs suitable to address them and respective QATs. Key features of each of the included QATs were then analyzed, in particular in respect to its intended use, types of questions and answers, presence/absence of a quality score, and if a validation was performed. Results In total we identified 21 QATs and 26 study designs, and matched them. Four QATs were suitable for experimental quantitative study designs, eleven for observational quantitative studies, two for qualitative studies, three for economic studies, one for diagnostic test accuracy studies, and one for animal studies. Included QATs consisted of six to 28 items. Six of the QATs had a summary quality score. Fourteen QATs had undergone at least one validation procedure. Conclusions The results of this methodological study can be used as an inventory of potentially relevant questions, appropriate study designs and QATs for researchers and authorities engaged with evidence-based decision-making in infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control.

2014-01-01

44

The Moon FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you look in the sky over the course of a month, you should notice a change in the appearance of the moon. The different shapes the moon makes are known as the moon\\'s phases. The moon is an extremely hot & cold place, and it is very, very far away. Huh? Read on... 1. For billions of years the moon has orbited the Earth. Read about The Origin of the Moon and then answer these two questions: A. How old is the moon? B. Where did it come from? 2. The moon is far away. So far, in fact, you\\'re going to need ...

2007-09-26

45

FAQs about Facilities: Practical Tips for Planning Renovations and New School Library Media Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers frequently asked questions (FAQs) related to planning for renovating or building school library media centers (SLMCs). Topics include the role of the school library media specialist, advance planning, importance of a written long-range plan, library consultants, courses on planning, design compromises, planning resources, professional…

Lenk, Mary Anne

2002-01-01

46

Frequently asked questions about the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents frequently asked questions (FAQ's) about the Inventory of Learning Styles, a tool designed to identify students' preferred methods of learning and to help to improve their learning skills.

Felder, Richard; University, North C.

47

FAQ Lost shipment or missing dr  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

48

FAQs of Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage  

MedlinePLUS

... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Pregnancy Loss: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media ... anything a woman can do to prevent a pregnancy loss? Most of the time, a woman cannot ...

49

FAQ Used commercial drug or vic  

Cancer.gov

September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

50

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER FAQ) Program  

NSF Publications Database

... with the importance of the program, beginning with the FY 2003 CAREER competition, changes were made ... for faculty members who are at or near the beginning of their careers, NSF added the requirement ...

51

FAQs  

Cancer.gov

The DCIDE program is intended to supply or enable missing steps to those who lack development capacity or resources so that promising discoveries may eventually be translated to the clinical research environment. The DCIDE program will focus on promising diagnostic agents that are not otherwise likely to undergo adequate pre-clinical testing to warrant an IND application.

52

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

Letting researchers study your samples may help find new and better treatments for cancer and other diseases. Researchers use samples to look for ways to prevent, find, or treat health problems-as in Example 1 below.

53

Inflammatory Bowel Disease of the Elderly: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing recognition of the older inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient is heightened by the entry of the 77.2 million baby boomers who will turn 65 beginning of 2011. It is anticipated that this will occur at a rate of 10,000 per day or 4 million per year for the next 19 years. The management of IBD in this population

Seymour Katz; Darrell S Pardi

2011-01-01

54

administrative_supplement_new_faculty_faqs  

Cancer.gov

P30/U54 Faculty Initiative FAQs 1. May we only submit one application for one new faculty member? a. One application per recruit and no more than two applications per P30 or U54 2. Can you clarify the term “newly hired” in the funding opportunity

55

Questioning the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

2010-01-01

56

question_1296837100 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

While the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to increased risk for certain cancers are largely unknown (as noted in other questions), we pose an associated question -- what are the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to decreased risk of certain other cancers?

57

question_1296401928 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

58

question_1298614465 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

59

question_1298857225 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

60

question_1297460130 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

61

question_1309291494 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

62

question_1309291860 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

63

question_1309291793 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

64

question_1309292133 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

65

question_1309292190 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

66

question_1309360864 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

67

question_1302126805 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

68

question_1296513894 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

69

question_1297125849 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

70

question_1309532294 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

71

question_1299508744 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

72

question_1296826063 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

73

question_1296786622 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

74

question_1297107652 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

75

question_1295643225 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

76

question_1297424940 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

77

question_1297423727 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

78

question_1296830406 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

79

question_1312382828 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

80

question_1296157694 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

81

question_1296057192 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

82

question_1296826774 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

83

question_1296657942 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

84

question_1302559585 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

85

question_1314022426 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

86

A Classification Method of Inquiry E-mails for Describing FAQ with Automatic Setting Mechanism of Judgment Thresholds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the authors propose a classification method of inquiry e-mails for describing FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) and automatic setting mechanism of judgment thresholds. In this method, a dictionary used for classification of inquiries is generated and updated automatically by statistical information of characteristic words in clusters, and inquiries are classified correctly to each proper cluster by using the dictionary. Threshold values are automatically set by using statistical information.

Tsuda, Yuki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Samejima, Masaki; Oka, Hironori

87

A Detection Method of FAQ Matching Inquiry E-mails by Automatic Generation of Characteristic Word Groups from Past Inquiry E-mails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses how to detect the inquiry e-mails corresponding to pre-defined FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions). Web-based interactions such as order and registration form on a Web page are usually provided with their FAQ pages for helping a user. However, most users submit their inquiry e-mails without checking such pages. This causes a help desk operator to process lots of e-mails even if some contents match FAQs. Automatic detecting of such e-mails is proposed based on SVM (Support Vector Machine) and specific Jaccard coefficient based on positive and negative already-received inquiry e-mails. Experimental results show its effectiveness, and we also discuss future work to improve our method.

Sakumichi, Yuki; Akiyoshi, Masanori; Samejima, Masaki; Oka, Hironori

88

question_1332002134 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

89

MedlinePlus FAQ: What is MedlinePlus?  

MedlinePLUS

... herbs and supplements. Interactive tutorials from the Patient Education Institute explain over 165 procedures and conditions in easy-to-read language. Return to the list of MedlinePlus FAQs Mobile version Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

90

Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Literature Reviews Market Research Statistics Reference Guides Reports Salmonella: Dry Pet Foods and Pet Treats (FAQ) Originally ... 2008, there was a prolonged multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund infections in humans. A total ...

91

FAQs about Hepatitis B Vaccine (Hep B) and Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 Hepatitis B Related Quick Links Hepatitis B Vaccine: Fact Sheet ... Not Get This Vaccine Vaccine Precautions FAQs about Hepatitis B Vaccine (Hep B) and Multiple Sclerosis On this ...

92

question_1303305591 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

93

Epidemiology in Knowledge Integration  

Cancer.gov

Session 5 Panel Discussion Question: How can epidemiology help integrate knowledge from basic, clinical and population sciences to accelerate translation from research to practice? Moderator: Muin J. Khoury, M.D., Ph.D., EGRP, DCCPS, NCI Panelists:

94

Four Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

2013-01-01

95

Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

NCI’s Provocative Questions Project seeks to go beyond the questions that are self-evident or that have been studied for many years. NCI asked investigators to propose intriguing questions that need attention or have stumped us in the past.

96

4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate: FAQ  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a list of questions and corresponding answers about the 4-year cohort graduation rate. Answers to the following questions are presented: (1) Why don't GED (General Educational Development) students count as graduates?; (2) How does a district code students who have moved out of state? How should a district code a student who…

Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

97

Dibromochloropropane: epidemiological findings and current questions.  

PubMed

Dibromochloropropane, DBCP, has had a seminal role in our current understanding of how to prevent chemical risks to health. Early toxicological studies showed its special impact on the testes, and detection of its mutagenic potency was soon followed by demonstration of its carcinogenicity to animals. Its commercial use as a useful nematocide ignored, at first, these warnings from the laboratory. When production workers, first in California and then in Israel, found they were sterile as a result of their exposure, this was convincing evidence that prevention had failed. The evidence, azospermia, oligospermia, and gonadotrophin response to testicular damage, were found first in production workers. In agricultural applicators in California who used the material, decreased sperm count and increased gonadotrophin levels were found. While production in California, Texas, and Israel was halted, studies continued and so, it seems, did use. Our first Israeli study was of workers on banana crops, and we found convincing evidence of increased spontaneous abortion in their family histories. Follow-up studies among production workers in Israel showed that some recovered testicular function, but among their offspring, otherwise in good health, there was a predominance of females. Those who did not recover from azospermia were those with high levels of follicle stimulating hormone. However data for production workers did not show increased spontaneous abortion. Nor have any studies so far shown increased birth defects or increased infant mortality. Unfavorable reproductive outcomes can be due to other agents, as shown by sprayers in Dutch orchards having hypofecundity (increased interpregnancy period) and sex ratio changes; but the agents responsible have not yet been identified. These experiences have lead to the general acceptance of some implications: (1) Paternal exposures can lead to a variety of unfavorable effects on reproductive outcome, including infertility, spontaneous abortion, and altered sex ratio. (2) Patterns of effects of potent agents in production workers and in applicators or users of chemicals may differ. (3) Although human carcinogenesis has not yet been confirmed, unfavorable reproductive outcomes are a reasonable early indicator of such risk. (4) Shifts in sex ratios of populations may be a subtle sign of more serious risks. (5) Continued use of an agent such as this under circumstances in which these UROs cannot be prevented is unconscionable. PMID:9472348

Goldsmith, J R

1997-12-26

98

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

99

The molecular epidemiology of parasites.  

PubMed

The explosion of new techniques, made available by the rapid advance in molecular biology, has provided a battery of novel approaches and technology which can be applied to more practical issues such as the epidemiology of parasites. In this review, we discuss the ways in which this new field of molecular epidemiology has contributed to and corroborated our existing knowledge of parasite epidemiology. Similar epidemiological questions can be asked about many different types of parasites and, using detailed examples such as the African trypanosomes and the Leishmania parasites, we discuss the techniques and the methodologies that have been or could be employed to solve many of these epidemiological problems. PMID:1672109

Hide, G; Tait, A

1991-02-15

100

Proposed Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

View all of the questions that have been submitted and see how they have been evaluated by peers. Submit your own evaluation of a submitted question, or leave a comment about a question (commenting requires log in or creation of your own PQ account).

101

Curiosity Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

2010-01-01

102

Astronomy Cafe: FAQ's About the Planet Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an archive of questions and answers about Mars. It is divided into Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced categories and covers such topics as the possibility of life on Mars, Martian atmosphere and geography, and Mars colonization. There are also links to other Mars-related sites.

Odenwald, Sten

103

MedlinePlus FAQ: News Coverage  

MedlinePLUS

... Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: I saw a news article on MedlinePlus but now I can't ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The health news page displays the most recent news. MedlinePlus displays ...

104

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Working Groups  

Cancer.gov

Childhood Brain Tumor Working Group - This Working Group focuses on epidemiologic studies of childhood brain tumors. We will focus on establishing research questions of interest in order to plan appropriate studies to address these questions.

105

Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) Program Solicitation NSF 04-511 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

NSF Publications Database

... Institutional Representative. Below is a sample of a Certification of Institutional Classification ... Sample Certification of Institutional Classification ?By submission of this proposal, the ...

106

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) - NSF02-190  

NSF Publications Database

... scientists and engineers from institutions of higher education participate fully in the improvement ... among school districts, institutions of higher education, and other partners. Partnership models ...

107

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for 2004 Information Technology Research (ITR) Solicitation  

NSF Publications Database

... collaborations is NSF encouraging? If multiple institutions are cooperating in the research project ... as the lead or a collaborative proposal from multiple organizations? Does EPSCOR certification ...

108

Active Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined whether the technique of having students ask "active questions" (in the form of "I understand that...but I don't understand...") enhanced critical thinking and overall performance in the classroom. Subjects, 164 students in six tenth-grade biology sections and four junior-senior astronomy/geology sections, responded to a…

Williams, Steven F.

109

Questioning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses a project involving the observation of 12 teachers in different schools, teaching pupils at Key Stage 3 of differing ages and abilities, noting both questioning techniques used and pupils' responses. The teachers involved were volunteers, chosen to give a range of experience, styles, and school, and included a…

Martin, Nikki

2003-01-01

110

Questor's Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

2009-01-01

111

Demand Response For Power System Reliability: FAQ  

SciTech Connect

Demand response is the most underutilized power system reliability resource in North America. Technological advances now make it possible to tap this resource to both reduce costs and improve. Misconceptions concerning response capabilities tend to force loads to provide responses that they are less able to provide and often prohibit them from providing the most valuable reliability services. Fortunately this is beginning to change with some ISOs making more extensive use of load response. This report is structured as a series of short questions and answers that address load response capabilities and power system reliability needs. Its objective is to further the use of responsive load as a bulk power system reliability resource in providing the fastest and most valuable ancillary services.

Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2006-12-01

112

101questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by math educator Dan Meyer, randomly displays photos and brief videos contributed by Meyer or visitors to the site. The photos and videos are in intended to be "perplexing" and to promote wondering. Visitors to the site are encouraged to post questions inspired by the images. Many of these can be used in the classroom to spark inquiry and initiate mathematics investigations. The page links to a related blog.

2012-03-01

113

Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

114

Environmental Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

115

Descriptive Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

Descriptive epidemiology studies characterize cancer incidence and mortality temporal trends, age-specific rates, geographic distribution of cancer, race and ethnic differences in cancer rates, and birth cohort effects.

116

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

Carol J. Boushey

117

Cognitive epidemiology  

PubMed Central

This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology.

Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

2007-01-01

118

Post-genome respiratory epidemiology: a multidisciplinary challenge F. Kauffmann and the Post Genome Respiratory Epidemiology group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-genome respiratory epidemiology: a multidisciplinary challenge. F. Kauffmann and the Post Genome Respiratory Epidemiology group. #ERS Journals Ltd 2004. ABSTRACT: The introduction of genetic approaches in respiratory epidemiology is novel for most epidemiologists, and the post-genome phase poses new challenges. After describing specific questions pertinent to the field of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, two main methodological aspects regarding

J. Anto; M. P. Baur; H. Bickeboller; D. Clayton; W. O. C. Cookson; F. Demenais; P. J. Helms; I. Humphery-Smith; S. Imbeaud; F. Kauffmann; B. M. Knoppers; M. Lathrop; N. Pearce; D. Schaid; E. Silverman; S. Weiss; M. Wjst

119

Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

Salathe, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

120

Question, Problem, Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions and question-formulating strategies are central to science. In many ways the formulation of a question forms the basis for high-quality instruction in science. Effective questioning has a strong connection to cognitive theory. The sentence start

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

121

Digital epidemiology.  

PubMed

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J; Brewer, Devon D; Brownstein, John S; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

122

Eight Questions Frequently Asked about Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom teachers' engagement in dialogue with their students develops important skills and attitudes. Drawing from a series of inservice teacher education workshops, this paper addresses the following concerns with respect to acquiring and strengthening questioning techniques: (1) "Should all children be asked a variety of question types, or…

Supon, Viola; Wolf, Pat

123

Drawing on Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines observations and research on question-answer interaction between client and therapist, and teacher and student. Discusses Patton's six-question instrument which provides categories of question options, with application for the art therapist. Argues that effective formulation of questions provides the clinician, educator, and researcher…

Bloomgarden, Joan

2000-01-01

124

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

125

NAEP Questions Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool from the National Center for Educational Statistics provides assessment questions used on the NAEP since 1990. Question searches may be limited by subject, grade, year, or type. Questions returned show their assessed difficulty and the percentage of students that answered correctly. Additionally, each question gives its scoring guide, a sample of student responses, and scoring demographics.

Tool, Naep A.

2006-10-30

126

Who Asks the Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…

Hervey, Sheena

2006-01-01

127

Mathematical modeling and the epidemiological research process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper advocate for the expanded use of mathematical models in epidemiology and provide an overview of\\u000a the principles of mathematical modeling. Mathematical models can be used throughout the epidemiological research process.\\u000a Initially they may help to refine study questions by visually expressing complex systems, directing literature searches, and\\u000a identifying sensitive variables. In the study design phase,

Mikayla C. Chubb; Kathryn H. Jacobsen

2010-01-01

128

Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... I change my listing in the Online Directory? Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music ...

129

Laboratory Testing for Anthrax: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

130

Frequently Asked Questions about Nutrition Labeling  

MedlinePLUS

... without Trans Fat Baking without Trans Fat 0 Grams Trans Fat Oils and Fats Restaurant FAQs Other ... products. When the Nutrition Facts label lists “0 grams trans fat” for the food, does that mean ...

131

MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How do Web sites get listed in MedlinePlus? To use the ... authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web sites. We try to ensure that the information ...

132

MedlinePlus FAQ: Copyrighted and Non-Copyrighted Material  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Is the material on MedlinePlus copyrighted? To use the sharing features ... Answer: MedlinePlus contains both copyrighted and non-copyrighted material. Please see our copyright information page . Restrictions may ...

133

MedlinePlus FAQ: Easy-to-Read Documents  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How can I locate materials on MedlinePlus that are easy to read and ... public, not for health professionals. But, not all materials on MedlinePlus are at the same reading level. ...

134

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program For Fiscal Years 2006, 2007 and 2008  

NSF Publications Database

The official guidelines for submission of CAREER proposals can be found in the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program Solicitation (NSF 05-579), available on the NSF web site (http://www.nsf.gov/career). Since NSF receives approximately 2,500 proposals in the CAREER Program each year, you are encouraged to start your FastLane proposal submission well before the CAREER deadline. A link to the ?Note to Reviewers of CAREER Proposals? can be found on the CAREER Web page at: http://www....

135

2-4-2011 PQ Summary — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Twenty-six cancer researchers assembled at the Stone House on the NIH campus on February 4, 2011 for the NCI Behavioral, Population, Epidemiology, and Prevention Provocative Questions workshop. The participants were invited by the project's organizers to craft a list of interesting questions that might highlight potential new research directions among NCI-supported investigators or reinvigorate research in important areas that have been neglected, and to discuss and evaluate some of the questions submitted by the participants prior to the workshop.

136

Formulating a Research Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial discusses the conceptual development of a research goal, beginning with the formation of a research question. It also explains the links between a research question, specific aims, hypotheses, and long-term research goals.

The Research Assistant (Danya International, Inc.)

2003-08-12

137

Workshops & Outcomes — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The participants of the first Provocative Questions meeting supported the idea that the format of small workshops are a useful means to engage in conversations about questions that might stimulate innovative research on various aspects of cancer.

138

Prosthetic epidemiology.  

PubMed

The need for an epidemiological method which focuses upon the problems of missing teeth, tooth spaces and prosthetic treatment is emphasized. From the prosthetic viewpoint the distinction between missing teeth and tooth spaces must be made and examples are given to show that up to 20 per cent of missing teeth do not give rise to tooth space. The presentation of the prosthetic parameters per tooth is recommended using the six alternatives: tooth present; tooth missing (open space); tooth missing (closed space); tooth replaced by pontic in fixed bridge, by removable partial denture, or by complete denture. In the presentation of the mean number of existing teeth, fixed bridge pontics should be included as they serve as natural teeth both aesthetically and functionally. Data on removable dentures, or edentulism without denture wearing, should be presented in such a way that comparisons at jaw level as well as at person level can be made. A system for this is described. The method may be used in industrialized countries where there is much prosthetic treatment as well as in developing countries with few health services. Comparisons will still be meaningful. PMID:3468082

Owall, B

1986-12-01

139

How To Ask Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to aid teachers, particularly social studies teachers, in improving their classroom questioning techniques. An introductory section notes the importance of effective questioning in the stimulation of thinking and learning. A technique is suggested by which a teacher can measure his question-response patterns by…

Morgan, Jack C.; Schreiber, Joan E.

140

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1983-01-01

141

Questions for Surveys  

PubMed Central

We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge.

Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

2011-01-01

142

The Question about Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a list of questions for teachers to ask their literature classes, including questions on the author, the style, the theme, the setting, and the plot. Notes how sequencing these questions can prepare students for other activities in literature appreciation. (RL)

Evans, Ronald

1982-01-01

143

Teachers' Classroom Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

Sahin, Alpaslan

2007-01-01

144

The Questions of Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the basic things that compose curriculum, and what are the questions that may be posed about these things? Joseph Schwab's conception of curriculum is used to introduce a scheme of questions concerning the nature, elements, and practice of curriculum. Formulations of questions by other curriculum theorists are reviewed and analysed in…

Dillon, J. T.

2009-01-01

145

Improving Student Question Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

2009-01-01

146

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

147

Why-Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions that define correct answers to why-questions are discussed. Stated more precisely, a why-question is a question that can be put in English in the form of an interrogative sentence of which the following is true: (1) the sentence begins with...

S. Bromberger

1966-01-01

148

The Inappropriate Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the inappropriate question in the particular context of the Modern Language Association (MLA) interview--interviews for academic positions which take place at the MLA convention. Mentions questions that are illegal as well as inappropriate. Encourages "planning" for inappropriate questions. (PA)

Kress, Susan

1998-01-01

149

FAQs-6: Evaluating Teaching and Converting the Masses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A short article that responds to two frequently asked questions: "Is there a meaningful way to evaluate teaching?". And "How can staunchly traditional professors be persuaded to use proven but non-traditional teaching methods?" Target Audience: 2-4 year College Faculty/Administrators

Brent, Rebecca, 1956-; Felder, Richard M., 1939-

2009-12-17

150

MedlinePlus FAQ: Mobile Version of MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Is there a mobile version of MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Answer: Yes, there is a mobile version of MedlinePlus available at http://m.medlineplus. ...

151

Question-Asking and Question-Exploring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

2012-01-01

152

The "Trickster" and the Questionability of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tricksters represent creativity and ingenuity in ways that are also integral to arts education. Like the tricksters, strong arts programs teach that a question can have many answers and there are multiple ways to interpret what is seen (Eisner, 2002). In this article, the author discusses how she applies lessons learned from the Trickster stories…

Stewart, Connie

2009-01-01

153

Transsexualism and Gender Transition FAQ for Significant Others, Friends, Family, Employers, Coworkers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FAQ, written by members of the Mid-Michigan FTM (female-to-male) Alliance, offers general information about transsexualism and gender transition, and addresses the common responses and concerns that friends, family, and co-workers have about the transgendered person in their lives. An annotated webliography of relevant resources and a bibliography about transsexualism guide users to additional information. A text-only version of the entire site is available to facilitate printing.

1998-01-01

154

Modeling of Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) as continuous bounded data from the ADNI database.  

PubMed

An assessment of abilities to function independently in daily life is an important clinical endpoint for all Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and caregivers. A mathematical model was developed to describe the natural history of change of the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) from data obtained in normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment, and mild AD in the AD neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) study. FAQ is a bounded outcome (ranging from 0 to 30), with 0 scored as "no impairment" and 30 as "severely impaired". Since many normal elderly patients had 0 scores and some AD patients had scores of 30 in the ADNI database, a censored approach for handling the boundary data was compared with a standard approach, which ignores the bounded nature of the data. Baseline severity, ApoE4 genotype, age, sex, and imaging biomarkers were tested as covariates. The censored approach greatly improved the predictability of the disease progression in FAQ scores. The basic method for handling boundary data used in this analysis is also applicable to handle boundary observations for numerous other endpoints. PMID:22990808

Ito, K; Hutmacher, M M; Corrigan, B W

2012-12-01

155

Abiogenesis FAQs: Articles on the Origin of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to articles that address common questions about the origins of life and refute many creationist assertions. The articles cover the probability of abiogenesis, current models of the origin of life, and a historical review of the theory of spontaneous generation. There is also an index of creationist claims with specific rebuttals. This would be a good source of background information for high school or undergraduate teachers.

Archive, The T.

156

When lawyers question children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the impact of some complex question forms frequently used by attorneys who examine and cross-examine witnesses in the courtroom. Fifteen males and 15 females from each of four student populations (kindergarten, fourth grade, ninth grade, and college) viewed a videotaped incident and then responded to questions about the incident. Half the questions were asked in “law-yerese” (i.e.,

Nancy W. Perry; Bradley D. McAuliff; Paulette Tam; Linda Claycomb; Colleen Dostal; Cameron Flanagant

1995-01-01

157

Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology  

MedlinePLUS

... Persons at risk Other Ehrlichiosis, Undetermined Further Reading Statistics and Epidemiology Annual Cases of Ehrlichiosis in the ... PDF - 21 pages] Ehrlichiosis Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology In-Depth Information Related Tick Topics ...

158

Epidemiology and Air Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explores the scientific feasibility of conducting epidemiologic investigations of the health consequences of current and future air pollution. It assesses the limits of available epidemiologic techniques for studying air pollution problems and ...

1985-01-01

159

It's about the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

Bearwald, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

160

Math Questions Worth Asking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article by Wendy Petti contains an updated version of Bloom's Taxonomy and sample questions that encourage dialogue with students. The article also includes suggestions for teachers about how to create questions that stimulate higher order thinking. Although there are advertisements on this webpage, the content of the freely available article is a valuable resource for teachers.

Petti, Wendy

2010-05-18

161

Problem of Questioning  

SciTech Connect

Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

None

2005-10-31

162

Questions in Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for the instructional development team provides an understanding of the educational value of using questions in instructional training materials. It also shows examples and illustrations for incorporating questions into instructional materials (print and video) produced by the Shipyard Training Modernization Program. Background…

Usova, George M.; Casteen, Dennis

163

Principal engineering design questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of principal questions is key to providing a common direction in the developing field of engineering design research. A general engineering framework can be utilized to identify these principal questions. This general framework rigorously defines variables and indicates relationships among the fundamental engineering variables of geometric form, material form, performance, behavior, environmental constraints, environmental conditions, space, and time.

Ronald Samuel LaFleur

1992-01-01

164

Problem of Questioning  

ScienceCinema

Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

None

2011-04-25

165

The Challenge Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They are asked to write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Students then read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for any additional ideas and add them to the list they produced already. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

166

The Driving Question Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"It was helpful to keep track of questions we had at the beginning so we knew what we were trying to find out." With these words, a student described the value of using a Driving Question Board (DQB) in a project-based science (PBS) unit. This instructional tool is designed to support inquiry and project-based learning by organizing and focusing students' questions and linking them to content learning goals. The authors have used this tool in both physics and chemistry classes, but it can be used with any subject matter. This article describes the purpose and process of DQB.

Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Schwartz, Yael

2008-11-01

167

Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

168

Choice in Question Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to clarify the position concerning the giving of options in choosing questions on examination papers, and provokes thinking on the curricular and measurement problems associated with it. (Author/PG)

Singha, H. S.

1974-01-01

169

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

170

Answering Essay Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay questions for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay questions. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay questions. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, ``Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay question?'' Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.

Debuvitz, William

2008-03-01

171

Endocrine System Clicker Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of clicker questions designed for first year nursing students in an Anatomy and Physiology course, used during the endocrine system. It can also be used for an undergraduate Physiology course.

DDS/DO Elizabeth J Kavran (Ursuline College Biology)

2009-05-01

172

Scardino, Peter — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Excellent question, made more provocative when we realize that the seminal vesicles and Cowper’s gland in the male, tissues adjacent to the prostate and under the same hormonal influences as the prostate, rarely if even harbor malignant tumors.

173

Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

174

Schneider, Thomas — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

175

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

176

Paternostro, Giovanni — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This question addresses a very important problem but could be slightly modified to be more provocative. For example, can we design combinatorial cancer therapies that use the same strategies as biological combinatorial control?

177

Redefining the Fundamental Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

Crain, Margaret Ann

2006-01-01

178

Epidemiology of fatty liver: An update  

PubMed Central

We provide a concise review of the main epidemiological literature on fatty liver (FL) published between January 2011 and October 2013. The findings from the literature will be considered in light of the already available knowledge. We discuss the limitations inherent in the categorization of FL into non-alcoholic and alcoholic FL, the potential relevance of FL as an independent predictor of cardiometabolic disease, and recent research addressing the role of FL as an independent predictor of mortality. This review is organized as a series of answers to relevant questions about the epidemiology of FL.

Bedogni, Giorgio; Nobili, Valerio; Tiribelli, Claudio

2014-01-01

179

Encyclopedia Smithsonian: FAQs and Guide to Resources A - Z  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the Smithsonian Institution, gives quick answers to frequently asked questions, available at any time of day or night. Not new but always being improved upon, Encyclopedia Smithsonian includes general information such as admission fees and hours, access to Smithsonian library catalogs, and exhibition calendars. It also provides subject access to the collections of the many Smithsonian museums, without requiring that users know which museum holds the answer to a query. For example, clicking on First Ladies brings one to the U.S. Political History section of the Encyclopedia, which, in addition to listing the collection of First Ladies' gowns at the National Museum of American History, also directs users to a long list of Presidential Historic sites located in all parts of the country, and resources at the National Portrait Gallery. Arranged alphabetically, Encyclopedia Smithsonian is a good starting point for K-12 students, tourists, and anyone looking for a simple approach to the varied riches of the Smithsonian.

180

Scientific Computing FAQ: S.C., Numerical Analysis, and Associated Fields Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numerical Analysis (NA) is the union of theoretical and computational investigation into the computer solution of mathematical problems, including linear algebra, statistics, and operations research. The Scientific Computing FAQ metasite lists and links to resources such as electronic texts and software catalogs for NA and related fields in scientific computing. Examples of topics covered include Dense Linear Algebra Systems, Stochastic Differential Equations, and Random Numer Generators (RNG's), among others. The site is provided by Mathcom Solutions, Inc., a consulting business for the fields of finance, engineering, and operations.

1995-01-01

181

Question Their Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by ``questioning their answers.''

Royce, Brenda

2004-10-01

182

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

183

Asking the Right Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it comes to teaching, learning, technology, and students, it is very easy to ask the wrong question. Because students in the current generation seem to be technologically savvy, we often want to know how they use technology. So as part of the NLII?s focus on the next generation of learners -- the Net Generation --NLII started talking to…

Oblinger, Diana G.

2005-01-01

184

A Question of Character  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

Stuart, Reginald

2010-01-01

185

The Language Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of total communication as the means to educational success for deaf persons is called into question on the basis of Jean Piaget's theory which is said to show that language does not play the major role in learning that traditional education has assigned to it. (GW)

Wolff, Sydney

1972-01-01

186

That Is the Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own questions. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…

Korsunsky, Syd

2002-01-01

187

[Epidemiological research with data from cancer registries: a program financed by the German Cancer Aid (Deutsche Krebshilfe, DKH)].  

PubMed

In 2007, the German Cancer Aid started a program to promote epidemiological research with data from cancer registries. Within this program, ten projects with various epidemiological research questions were funded. The program was a major boost for the use of data from population-based cancer registries and was an important milestone for cancer epidemiology in Germany. PMID:24357172

Blettner, M; Ludwig, S

2014-01-01

188

CDL Online Practice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspiring truck drivers and those who seek a commercial driving license will appreciate this website a great deal, as it features a number of practice questions that may be found on the test that is required for such certifications. The site features over a dozen self-assessment modules that cover such topics as air brakes, hazardous materials, and of course, transporting passengers. Within each section, visitors will find both âÂÂtrue-falseâÂÂ-style questions and their equally well-known counterpart, the multiple choice query. Also, for those getting acquainted with teaching others how to prepare for this exam, this site may be most handy. Whether one is on their way to Bangor, Maine, or just in need of this certification to meet up with a midnight train, this site will get them on their way.

189

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The importance of this question depends on what sort of research will be considered important to fund. If we prioritize research on the tumor cell and forget about the host response, we might miss the answer. This has in part been happening in many studies over many years that attempted to find the most effective chemotherapy by testing its effects on the growth of a xenograft in an immunocompromized mouse.

190

Computers and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogies with biological disease with topological considerations added, which show that the spread of computer viruses can be contained, and the resulting epidemiological model are examined. The findings of computer virus epidemiology show that computer viruses are far less rife than many have claimed, that many fail to thrive, that even successful viruses spread at nowhere near the exponential rate

J. O. Kephart; S. R. White; D. M. Chess

1993-01-01

191

Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.

2007-02-11

192

Neutrino Oscillations:. Hierarchy Question  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of ?13. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find ?13 = 0.152±0.014, ? 23 = 0.25{ - 0.05}{ + 0.03} ? and ?32 = 2.45±0.14×10-3 eV2, results consistent with others. We then include data that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of ?13. We find, unlike others, four isolated minimum in the ?2-space as predicted by the symmetry. Now that Daya Bay and RENO have determined ?13 to be surprisingly large, the Super-K atmospheric data produce meaningful symmetry breaking such that the inverse hierarchy is preferred at the 97.2 % level.

Ernst, D. J.; Cogswell, B. K.; Burroughs, H. R.; Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. L.

2014-09-01

193

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

194

Evolution of environmental epidemiologic risk assessment.  

PubMed

Epidemiology has historically played an important role in the recognition of causes for diseases affecting the health of the public. Initially, epidemiology was concerned with infectious diseases. Later it became involved in metabolic and dietary deficiency diseases. Most recently, epidemiology has addressed the question of the public health effects of chemicals from production facilities, accidental spills, and chemical waste disposal sites. Concurrent improvements in the sensitivity of chemical analyses have enabled the identification of chemicals arising from waste disposal sites in the soil, air, drinking water, and food supplies of neighboring residential areas, albeit usually at very low concentrations. This knowledge has created great concerns among the affected populations and their public health agencies. The responsibility for interpreting the potential severity of the health effects of these environmental contaminants has fallen to those scientists experienced in epidemiology. This has led to a subdiscipline, reactive epidemiology, which describes investigations focused on specific events, usually under emotion-laden circumstances, rather than scientific merit. The reactive epidemiologist is rigidly constrained as to the size, timing, and location of the study. There is a strong requirement for public communication skills. New data bases are needed including "sentinel" diseases that are linked to exposure to chemicals, records of land use, and residency data for the population at risk. PMID:4085441

Anderson, H A

1985-10-01

195

Evolution of environmental epidemiologic risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiology has historically played an important role in the recognition of causes for diseases affecting the health of the public. Initially, epidemiology was concerned with infectious diseases. Later it became involved in metabolic and dietary deficiency diseases. Most recently, epidemiology has addressed the question of the public health effects of chemicals from production facilities, accidental spills, and chemical waste disposal sites. Concurrent improvements in the sensitivity of chemical analyses have enabled the identification of chemicals arising from waste disposal sites in the soil, air, drinking water, and food supplies of neighboring residential areas, albeit usually at very low concentrations. This knowledge has created great concerns among the affected populations and their public health agencies. The responsibility for interpreting the potential severity of the health effects of these environmental contaminants has fallen to those scientists experienced in epidemiology. This has led to a subdiscipline, reactive epidemiology, which describes investigations focused on specific events, usually under emotion-laden circumstances, rather than scientific merit. The reactive epidemiologist is rigidly constrained as to the size, timing, and location of the study. There is a strong requirement for public communication skills. New data bases are needed including ''sentinel'' diseases that are linked to exposure to chemicals, records of land use, and residency data for the population at risk.

Anderson, H.A.

1985-10-01

196

Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.  

PubMed Central

There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective.

Pearce, N

1996-01-01

197

[Causal analysis approaches in epidemiology].  

PubMed

Epidemiological research is mostly based on observational studies. Whether such studies can provide evidence of causation remains discussed. Several causal analysis methods have been developed in epidemiology. This paper aims at presenting an overview of these methods: graphical models, path analysis and its extensions, and models based on the counterfactual approach, with a special emphasis on marginal structural models. Graphical approaches have been developed to allow synthetic representations of supposed causal relationships in a given problem. They serve as qualitative support in the study of causal relationships. The sufficient-component cause model has been developed to deal with the issue of multicausality raised by the emergence of chronic multifactorial diseases. Directed acyclic graphs are mostly used as a visual tool to identify possible confounding sources in a study. Structural equations models, the main extension of path analysis, combine a system of equations and a path diagram, representing a set of possible causal relationships. They allow quantifying direct and indirect effects in a general model in which several relationships can be tested simultaneously. Dynamic path analysis further takes into account the role of time. The counterfactual approach defines causality by comparing the observed event and the counterfactual event (the event that would have been observed if, contrary to the fact, the subject had received a different exposure than the one he actually received). This theoretical approach has shown limits of traditional methods to address some causality questions. In particular, in longitudinal studies, when there is time-varying confounding, classical methods (regressions) may be biased. Marginal structural models have been developed to address this issue. In conclusion, "causal models", though they were developed partly independently, are based on equivalent logical foundations. A crucial step in the application of these models is the formulation of causal hypotheses, which will be a basis for all methodological choices. Beyond this step, statistical analysis tools recently developed offer new possibilities to delineate complex relationships, in particular in life course epidemiology. PMID:24388738

Dumas, O; Siroux, V; Le Moual, N; Varraso, R

2014-02-01

198

Marchetti, Dario — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

199

Improving Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

2011-01-01

200

Questioning Techniques for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers ideas for asking good questions in the classroom. Recommends that key questions be written down prior to class. Questions should clearly cue students to respond specifically and briefly. Presents examples of types of questions that have been found either to encourage or to inhibit thinking. (JS)

Karmos, Joseph S.; And Others

1990-01-01

201

The Early Years: Investigable Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers may not need to teach children to ask questions, just develop that safe place where questions can be voiced, observe children to see the questions in their actions, and develop a culture that appreciates and records questions. An investigable que

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-12-01

202

PV FAQs: Does the world have enough materials for PV to help address climate change?  

SciTech Connect

In the ongoing discussion of what needs to be done to stabilize atmospheric CO2 by mid-century (Hoffert 1998), one possible option would be to add about 10-20 terawatts (trillion watts, or TW) of photovoltaics (PV) in place of conventional sources. PV would help because, unlike burning fossil fuels, it produces no CO2. However, 10-20 TW is an enormous amount of energy. In peak Watts, the way PV installations are generally rated, it is about 50-100 TWpeak (TWp) of PV. Would we have enough materials to make this much PV? As we explain in this PV FAQ, we think our planet has enough feedstock materials for PV to meet the ''TW challenge.''

Not Available

2005-06-01

203

Caregiver FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... it adequate by itself to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are a number of distinguishing features that help differentiate DLB from AD. For example, the cognitive profile in DLB features ...

204

Infertility FAQ's  

MedlinePLUS

... are transferred back to the uterus. For example, transfer of a single embryo, rather than multiple embryos, ... the most common form of ART. Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) or tubal embryo transfer. This is similar ...

205

Catastrophism FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is devoted to refuting the pseudo-scientific theory of catastrophism, which claims that only catastrophic events are responsible for changing the Earth's surface. Scientific evidence is used to counter evidence that the young-Earth theory (catastrophism) is plausible.

Archive, Talk O.

206

Sunscreens FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Stories and news News releases Press ... Media contacts Public service advertisements Stats and facts Gold Triangle Awards Home Media resources Stats and facts ...

207

Stillbirth FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... cause of death. Stillbirth cuts across all socio-economic classes, races, religions, body types and maternal age ... 24 hour a day, seven days a week crisis hotline for all those affected by the death ...

208

Leishmaniasis FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... count (thrombocytopenia). How common is leishmaniasis in the world? The number of new cases per year is ... million (400,000). In what parts of the world is leishmaniasis found? In the Old World (the ...

209

Registration - FAQs  

Cancer.gov

Yes, NCI is willing to work with sites on their registration process. No "link" is required. System developers and vendors can configure their applications to use NCI Enterprise Services. CTRP is working with various vendors and institutions to facilitate registration via Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS).

210

administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar Haberman Argyris cruz Aristotle's  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar Haberman Argyris cruz Aristotle's ?

211

International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium  

Cancer.gov

The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Formed in 2001, the Consortium is a group of international investigators who have completed or have ongoing case-control studies and who discuss and undertake research projects that pool data across studies or otherwise undertake collaborative research.

212

Using Student Submitted Questions for Practice in Answering Reference Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real questions, with no predetermined answers, were submitted by students in an introductory reference class and used to supplement instructor developed problems sets for practice in answering reference questions. The methodology and benefits are discussed. (Author/MBR)

Braunagel, Judith S.

1978-01-01

213

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

214

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

215

Epidemiology 1: What's My Hypothesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is part of a 34-lesson curriculum called Detectives in the Classroom, a project of the College of Education and Human Services at Montclair State University. The project is supported by Science Education Partnership Awards from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health. The entire curriculum, which can be viewed at the Detectives in the Classroom site, consists of five instructional modules that explore specific health-related issues relevant to middle-school students through the science of epidemiology.This lesson is the third of six lessons in Module 1 that all deal with the Essential Question: Why do some people get sick while others remain healthy? In learning to answer this question, students will come to appreciate the Enduring Understanding that Clues for formulating hypotheses can be found by describing the way a disease is distributed in a population of people in terms of person, place, and time. The lessons which precede and follow this lesson help develop this Essential Understanding but are not prerequisites.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-06-09

216

Epidemiological studies of lung carcinoma incidence in uranium miners (accumulation and retrospective use of diagnostic data).  

PubMed

The paper attracts attention to the question of accumulation and retrospective use of diagnostic data in the early epidemiological studies of lung carcinoma incidence in uranium miners in Schneeberg, Saxony, and in Jáchymov (Joachimsthal), Bohemia. PMID:19591391

T?sínská, E

2009-01-01

217

Question of the Day: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To answer the questions, refer to the map below and the wind belt map. The question refers to an imaginary continent named "Xeyna," which is populated by a fierce band of female warriors, which is ...

218

Instance-Based Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During recent years, question answering (QA) has grown from simple passage retrieval and information extraction to very complex approaches that incorporate deep question and document analysis, reasoning, planning, and sophisticated uses of knowledge resou...

L. V. Lita

2006-01-01

219

Questioning Mechanisms during Complex Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated the psychological mechanisms that underlie human question asking and answering during comprehension and complex learning. We believe that questioning mechanisms are fundamental components of human cognition and must be integrate...

1992-01-01

220

Questioning Mechanisms during Complex Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated human question asking and answering during comprehension and complex learning. The primary studies investigated questioning during tutoring. We collected and analyzed transcripts of tutoring sessions on research methods (college...

A. C. Graesser

1992-01-01

221

Gallery Walk Questions on Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about karst. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level at ...

222

Gallery Walk Questions on Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about rivers. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level ...

223

Question of the Day Examples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Refine the Results Biosphere 2 matches Climate 2 matches Earth surface 1 match Ocean 4 matches Solid Earth 2 matches Results 1 - 10 of 11 matches Question of the Day: Efficiency of Food Production part of Question ...

224

The Questions of Liberal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

Arcilla, Rene V.

2007-01-01

225

Question Preference in Literature Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 22-item question preference test was developed and administered to different age and ability groups in an attempt to identify "describer/explainer" question preferences. All groups preferred "explainer" questions, but there was a highly significant difference between low and high ability groups. Implications for the classroom are considered.…

Ellis, James

1979-01-01

226

Investigations of Human Question Answering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

Graesser, Arthur C.

227

Pre-Lab Questions: Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of simulation based interactive questions that were used as pre-lab questions at Kennesaw State University. The simulations in this case are based on Davidson's College Physlets. These particular questions focus on magnetism. Magnetism due to a bar magnet, a wire, a loop and a solenoid are explored.

Mzoughi, Taha

2008-07-19

228

Contemplative Pedagogy: Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemplative Pedagogy is a new and sometimes controversial pedagogical practice. Faculty often have basic questions about how to implement the pedagogy in their classrooms, in addition to questions that challenge the educational value and appropriateness of the practice. Assembled here are the most frequently asked questions about Contemplative…

Coburn, Tom; Grace, Fran; Klein, Anne Carolyn; Komjathy, Louis; Roth, Harold; Simmer-Brown, Judith

2011-01-01

229

The epidemiology of male infertility.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to integrate understanding of epidemiology and infertility. A primer on epidemiologic science and an example disease for which the design of epidemiologic investigations is readily apparent are provided. Key features of infertility that limit epidemiologic investigation are described and a survey of available data on the epidemiology of infertility provided. Finally, the work that must be completed to move this area of research forward is proposed, and, with this new perspective of "infertility as a disease," improvements envisioned in public health that may be gained through improved understanding of the epidemiology of male infertility. PMID:24286777

Winters, Brian R; Walsh, Thomas J

2014-02-01

230

First NCI Epidemiology Leadership Workshop: Tobacco, Diet, and Genes  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Croyle, DCCPS Director, said that this workshop is one in a series of activities to be undertaken as part of a review of the EGRP, as has occurred in other parts of DCCPS. It is an important opportunity to identify the epidemiologic questions in tobacco, diet, and genetic research that need support and facilitation and what is needed to overcome barriers.

231

Epidemiology of gout.  

PubMed

Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiologic studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the past few decades. Although incidence data are scarce, data from the United States suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol, and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C seem to have a protective effect. PMID:24703341

Roddy, Edward; Choi, Hyon K

2014-05-01

232

Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges. PMID:23972899

McKeown, Robert E

2013-10-01

233

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

234

Cryptosporidium Epidemiology and Risk Factors  

MedlinePLUS

... also known as "Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Epidemiology & Risk Factors Crypto lives in the intestine of ... to Commerically Bottled-Water and Other Beverages Diagnosis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Treatment Biology Prevention & Control Child Care ...

235

Epidemiology of Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

2007-01-01

236

Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts  

Cancer.gov

Cohort studies are one of the fundamental designs for epidemiological research. Throughout the last two decades, cohort-based studies have helped researchers to better understand the complex etiology of cancer, and have provided fundamental insights into key environmental, lifestyle, clinical, and genetic determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

237

Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2%

F Sommer; U Schwarzer; G Wassmer; W Bloch; M Braun; T Klotz; U Engelmann

2002-01-01

238

Epidemiology in sustainable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has had increasing impact in the production-based industry of both the developed and developing world. In the last 50 years European agriculture has been associated with a move towards the simplification of systems, as farms have tended to specialize in arable or livestock production, largely determined by their soil or climatic conditions. Although cereal monoculture

Robert J. Cook; David J. Yarhm

239

Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry.

Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

2012-01-01

240

Epidemiology of OHSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a rare iatrogenic complication of ovarian stimulation occurring during the luteal phase or during early pregnancy. The prevalence of the severe form of OHSS is very low and precise analysis of this risk population is difficult. This work reviews the literature in order to identify patients at risk. Data pertaining to the epidemiology and the

Annick Delvigne

2009-01-01

241

Epidemiology of traumatic experiences in childhood.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of traumatic experiences in childhood is a key context for research, clinical treatment, program management, and policy development. This article discusses the conceptual, methodological, and programmatic challenges in precisely answering even relatively simple questions concerning the basic prevalence and incidence of important trauma types among American youth. Findings from studies using nationally representative samples and directly interviewing youth about their trauma histories are reviewed, and lifetime prevalence rates for various types of traumatic experience presented. Clinical application of this information and future directions are discussed. PMID:24656575

Saunders, Benjamin E; Adams, Zachary W

2014-04-01

242

Global epidemiology of meningococcal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

As reviewed in this paper, meningococcal disease epidemiology varies substantially by geographic area and time. The disease can occur as sporadic cases, outbreaks, and large epidemics. Surveillance is crucial for understanding meningococcal disease epidemiology, as well as the need for and impact of vaccination.Despite limited data from some regions of the world and constant change, current meningococcal disease epidemiology can

Lee H. Harrison; Caroline L. Trotter; Mary E. Ramsay

2009-01-01

243

Drug abuse epidemiology: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of drug abuse epidemiology is a relatively new one and recognition of drug abuse as a phenomenon amenable to study within the field of epidemiology is still forthcoming. Reviews of programmes for meetings of epidemiologic research societies rarely highlight drug abuse, even in association with the transmission of, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis

Z. SLOBODA

244

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

245

Geomagnetic Field Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site the question and answer format is used to provide information about the Earth's magnetic field. Frequently asked questions are linked to detailed answers. Along with standard questions about the magnetic poles and how a compass works, there are sections about geomagnetic models, Space Weather Scales and magnetic field reversals. Links lead to a site to download the latest model as well as sites for more detailed information.

246

The value of asking questions.  

PubMed

Science begins by asking questions and then seeking answers. Young children understand this intuitively as they explore and try to make sense of their surroundings. However, science education focuses upon the end game of "facts" rather than the exploratory root of the scientific process. Encouraging questioning helps to bring the true spirit of science into our educational system, and the art of asking good questions constitutes an important skill to foster for practicing scientists. PMID:23486404

Vale, Ronald D

2013-03-01

247

Systems epidemiology in cancer.  

PubMed

Prospective studies in cancer epidemiology have conserved their study design over the last decades. In this context, current epidemiologic studies investigating gene-environment interactions are based on biobank for the analysis of genetic variation and biomarkers, using notified cancer as outcome. These studies result from the use of high-throughput technologies rather than from the development of novel design strategies. In this article, we propose the globolomic design to run integrated analyses of cancer risk covering the major -omics in blood and tumor tissue. We defined this design as an extension of the existing prospective design by collecting tissue and blood samples at time of diagnosis, including biological material suitable for transcriptome analysis. The globolomic design opens up for several new analytic strategies and, where gene expression profiles could be used to verify mechanistic information from experimental biology, adds a new dimension to causality in epidemiology. This could improve, for example, the interpretation of risk estimates related to single nucleotide polymorphisms in gene-environment studies by changing the criterion of biological plausibility from a subjective discussion of in vitro information to observational data of human in vivo gene expression. This ambitious design should consider the complexity of the multistage carcinogenic process, the latency time, and the changing lifestyle of the cohort members. This design could open the new research discipline of systems epidemiology, defined in this article as a counterpart to systems biology. Systems epidemiology with a focus on gene functions challenges the current concept of biobanking, which focuses mainly on DNA analyses. PMID:18990736

Lund, Eiliv; Dumeaux, Vanessa

2008-11-01

248

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

249

Asking Questions, All the Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to ask and answer questions while reading is essential to comprehension. This article discusses instructional strategies used to teach questioning and provides many online resources. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which explores the seven essential principles of the climate sciences for teachers in k-grade 5 classrooms.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

250

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

251

Test Pool Questions, Area III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

Sloan, Jamee Reid

252

Twenty Questions about Mathematical Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper poses and answers 20 questions about mathematical reasoning. Questions include: (1) Is mathematical reasoning mathematical? (2) Is mathematical reasoning useful? (3) Is mathematical reasoning an appropriate goal of school mathematics? (4) Can teachers teach mathematical reasoning? (5) Can mathematical reasoning be taught? (6) Do skills…

Steen, Lynn Arthur

253

Twenty Questions on Conference Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a working handbook for supervisors, staff members, and managers at all levels who are looking for ways to improve their conference leadership skills. It is built around frequently asked questions on participant involvement, the nature of a guided conference, questioning and motivational techniques, amounts of presentation needed, effective…

Nathan, Ernest D.

254

The Geography of Virtual Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions

Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

2009-01-01

255

Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides answers to common questions regarding cosmology. Questions include the Universe's age, its origin, its fate, and its physical properties. It is part of an in depth cosmology tutorial covering some of the history of scientific cosmology, observations, curvature, inflation, and the age of the universe.

Wright, Edward

2007-05-15

256

The Value Question in Metaphysics  

PubMed Central

Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

Kahane, Guy

2012-01-01

257

International Genetic Epidemiology Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Genetic Epidemiology Society (IGES) is composed of "geneticists, epidemiologists, statisticians, mathematicians, biologists, related biomedical researchers and students interested in the research of the genetic basis of the diseases, complex traits and their risk factors." Hosted by the Division of Biostatistics at Washington University School of Medicine, the IGES website provides information about annual scientific meetings; organizational information such as bylaws; the official IGES journal, _Genetic Epidemiology_; books of interest; relevant courses and training programs, and meetings for related organizations. Notably, the site posts an extensive list of available positions (at institutions in a number of countries) such as post-docs, research fellows, faculty positions, research associate positions, and more. The website links to an IGES membership directory as well.

258

Science Friday Kid's Connection: John Snow and Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Who was John Snow and what role did he play in the development of epidemiology? This website from Science Friday Kid's Connection offers middle school teachers a variety of online resources to explore this question and others with their students. The website links to the companion NPR Talk of the Nation: Science Friday radio program (aired on September 24, 2004) featuring three Michigan State University professors. In addition, the website contains a collection of links to supplementary educational resource sites addressing John Snow's life and work, epidemiology, and microbes. The site also contains an Academic Content Standards section with related standards and benchmarks for Grades 6-8.

259

Epidemiology of Asthma Mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The epidemiology of asthma mortality has been controversial since Osler stated in the Principles and Practice of Medicine,published in 1901, that the “the asthmatic pants into old age” [1]. Certainly asthma deaths were rare in the first half of\\u000a this century, although since this time, the patterns of asthma mortality have become considerably more complex. There have\\u000a been epidemics of

C. Richard W. Beasley; Neil E. Pearce; Julian Crane

260

Epidemiology of erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of the current epidemiological literature on erectile dysfunction (ED) suggests that approximately 5–20% of men have moderate-to-severe ED. Different definitions of ED, age distributions and concomitant medical conditions, as well as methodological differences, may explain much of the variance in reported prevalence rates. Various chronic disorders are associated with elevated rates of ED including depression, diabetes, and cardiovascular

M Kubin; G Wagner; A R Fugl-Meyer

2003-01-01

261

Informatics for Healthcare Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A major effort in healthcare epidemiology is the surveillance of healthcare associated infections (HAIs). Increasingly, HAIs\\u000a are viewed as preventable and as a marker of healthcare quality. The automation of the surveillance of HAIs could have several\\u000a benefits: for institutions, it could allow infection control programs to focus on the prevention, not simply the measurement,\\u000a of infection. For policy makers,

Bala Hota

262

Veterinary cancer epidemiology.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the impact of veterinary cancer epidemiology on veterinary oncology, human oncology, comparative oncology, and on the etiology and pathogenesis of cancer. The detection of clusters of diseased animals has led to the discovery of the infectious, viral-associated nature of malignant lymphoma of cats, poultry, and cattle. Although some viruses (FeLV, BLV) can, under experimental conditions, cross the species barrier, there is thus far no evidence for a zoonotic hazard for the human. The keeping of pet/birds or pigeons was found to be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in the bird keepers. Dogs appear to be useful 'sentinels' for environmental hazards (asbestos, dyes, passive smoking, insecticides). The complex pathogenesis of cancer was dissected in an epidemiologic-experimental study in cows, which had intestinal papillomas and carcinomas. Endogenous genetic factors may also play a role in pathogenesis, as is evidenced by species, breed (Boxer!), and family related aggregates of tumour diseases. Epidemiology may provide a means to prevent tumour diseases by, for example, withdrawal of hormones (mammary cancer) or isolation of tumour-virus positive animals (malignant lymphoma). PMID:8833612

Misdorp, W

1996-03-01

263

The Early Years: Young Questioners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children are often described as natural scientists and their curiosity as a basic human trait. They amaze adults with perceptive questions and extended explorations of the environment. Asking questions is part of the National Science Education Teaching Standards B and E, and Content Standard A, Science as Inquiry, for grades K-4. Because asking questions is central to inquiry and learning in general, science teachers are especially investigated in having all their students use this process skill. A lesson is included with this article.

Ashbrook, Peggy

2006-09-01

264

Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  

PubMed

The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B

1995-12-01

265

Analytical Division Questions CPT Criteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Analytical Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) questions criteria established by the Committee on Professional Training of the same organization concerning the role of analytical chemistry in freshman level courses. (CP)

Hercules, David M.

1978-01-01

266

OSHA Frequently Asked Questions: HAZWOPER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OSHA web page provides answers to many of the more common questions regarding the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) regulation. Many of the answers provided are regarding the HAZWOPER training requirements.

2007-09-21

267

Birds: Old Questions and New.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

Flannery, Maura C.

2002-01-01

268

Frequently Asked Questions - Community Sites  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Updated Frequently Asked Questions on Community and Minority/ Underserved Community Sites Request for Application (RFA) Select a category by clicking on its title below. How to search the content of the

269

Questions to Ask Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... ears. Our members living across the country in cities, towns, and rural areas suggested these questions. The ... presently have? Do you recommend I get a port (an implanted device, generally in the chest area, ...

270

Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... with Cancer , Prevention/Early Detection , Prostate Cancer Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered Article date: August 29, 2009 ... your 50s, should you being getting screened for prostate cancer? Answer: Researchers still don’t know for ...

271

Legal Questions about Juveniles’ Capacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (2009). Legal questions about juveniles’ capacities. Module 4 in series: Toward developmentally appropriate practice: A juvenile court training curriculum. Washington, D.C.: National Juvenile Defender Center and MacArthur Foundation Models for Change Project.\\u000aOverview: Module 4 is designed to assist participants in: 1. Understanding legal questions in delinquency cases that require information about youth’s capacities; 2. Knowing about

Thomas Grisso

2009-01-01

272

Automatic Generation of Trivia Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a (nearly) domain-independent approach to mining trivia questions from a database. Generated questions are ranked\\u000a and are more “interesting” if they have a modest number of solutions and may reasonably be solved (but are not too easy).\\u000a Our functional model and genetic approach have several advantages: they are tractable and scalable, the hypothesis space size\\u000a is limited, and

Matthew Merzbacher

2002-01-01

273

Validation of a Five-Question Survey to Assess a Child's Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To study the potentially adverse health effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in young children, a short five-question survey was developed to identify routine exposure to ETS in a large epidemiological study.METHODS: The survey is administered to parents of a healthy cohort of children starting at age 3 months. To validate the survey, urinary cotinine levels were measured

Jennifer A Seifert; Colleen A Ross; Jill M Norris

2002-01-01

274

Quality of reviews in epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the quality of recent reviews in epidemiology. METHODS: All 1995 issues of 7 widely read epidemiology journals were searched to identify reviews. RESULTS: Twenty-nine reviews were identified. Methodology was not specified or incomplete for literature searches in 79% of reviews; the same was true for inclusion criteria in 83% and for combining studies in 62%. More than 60% of the reviews were not methodologically systematic. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the quality of review papers in epidemiology. If systematic methodology were followed more frequently, epidemiologic science and its application could be improved.

Breslow, R A; Ross, S A; Weed, D L

1998-01-01

275

Epidemiology--Teaching the Fundamentals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of epidemiology as an introduction to useful aspects of biology, mathematics, and simulation skills for kindergarten through university undergraduate students. (Contains 20 references.) (ASK)

McEachron, Donald L.; Finegold, Leonard

2000-01-01

276

Epidemiologic research in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

1990-01-01

277

Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches. PMID:23801009

Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

2013-08-01

278

Epidemiology of OA  

PubMed Central

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the US, and a leading cause of disability. It is typically defined in epidemiologic studies on the basis of radiographic findings and consideration of symptoms. Its incidence and prevalence are rising, likely related to the aging of the population and increasing obesity. Risk factors for OA include a number of person-level factors, such as age, sex, obesity, and genetics, as well as joint-specific factors that are likely reflective of abnormal loading of the joints. A number of methodologic challenges exist in studying OA that can hamper our ability to identify pertinent relationships.

Neogi, Tuhina; Zhang, Yuqing

2012-01-01

279

Epidemiology Abuse: Epidemiological and Psychosocial Models of Drug Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a paper presented at the National Drug Abuse Conference April 4-7, 1975, New Orleans, Louisiana, epidemiological and psychosocial approaches to drug abuse are discussed. An approach reflecting an appreciation of the psychological/social/political realities involved in addiction as well as a grounding in epidemiological principles and data is…

Jacobs, Phillip E.

1976-01-01

280

Epidemiology of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes.

Zhang, Yuwei

2013-01-01

281

NCI DEA - Board of Scientific Counselors - Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Extramural Activities - Home Page Skip to Main Content Home Funding Advisory Consumer Guides FAQs & Glossary Awarded Research Division of Extramural Activities Board of Scientific

282

Quick Questions: Create a Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will conduct an open-ended survey, and then organize and analyze results. What languages does everyone speak? Whatâs the most common? the least common? Do you think weâd get the same results if we asked this question in a different neighborhood? Start out by posing an open-ended question. Everyone writes answers on stick-on notes and sticks them on a large piece of paper. Explore ways to organize the responses to make sense of them. For instance, if the question is about languages, one approach is to put all the stick-on notes with the same language together. A further step could involve grouping related languages (Eastern European, Southeast Asian, etc.). Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

283

The epidemiology of delirium: challenges and opportunities for population studies.  

PubMed

Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

Davis, Daniel H J; Kreisel, Stefan H; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; Maclullich, Alasdair M J; Brayne, Carol

2013-12-01

284

The epidemiology of acute encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain matter. Despite being a rare condition, encephalitis is of public health importance worldwide because it has high morbidity and mortality. Yet, many details about its epidemiology have yet to be elucidated. This review attempts to summarise what is known about the epidemiology of the infective causes of encephalitis and is based on a literature

Julia Granerod; Natasha S. Crowcroft

2007-01-01

285

CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

Not Available

1993-08-01

286

Ten Practical Questions about Branding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

2004-01-01

287

Question 2: Gas procurement strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a collection of responses from natural gas distribution company representatives to questions on how the start-up of the natural gas futures market has changed gas procurement strategies, identification of procurement problems related to pipeline capacity, deliverability, or pregranted abandonment of firm transportation, the competition of separate utility subsidiaries with brokers, marketers, and other gas suppliers who sell

J. A. Carrigg; J. R. Crespo; E. B. Jr. Davis; R. D. Farman; R. C. Jr. Green; R. W. Hale; J. J. Howard; W. T. Jr. McCormick; T. A. Page; W. F. Ryan; T. F. Schrader; J. A. Schuchart; J. F. Smith; R. D. Stys; J. A. Thorpe

1990-01-01

288

Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

Meltzer, Edmund S.

2006-01-01

289

Practice Questions for Business Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a list of sample questions that can be used when teaching basic probability concepts, probability distributions, data collection methods, inferential statistics, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, regression analysis, or problem sensing related to descriptive statistics. Links to the answers are also provided. Application is not limited to business.

Schott, Brian

2009-08-20

290

Essay Questions in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major part of this article presents examples of representative social studies essay questions which are used in the New York State Regents' examination and discusses their evaluation. Fundamental purposes of evaluation and changes and trends which have influenced evaluation are also discussed. (Author/RM)

History and Social Science Teacher, 1977

1977-01-01

291

Lessons about Asking, Answering Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the web-based lessons highlighted in this article, students learn how to pose questions before, during, and after reading nonfiction, fiction, and diagrams. This reading comprehension strategy is included in the literacy column of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a free, online publication for K-5 teachers.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

292

Questioning Centre-Periphery Platforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How much is hegemony and how much is self-determination in the higher education systems in Southeast Asia? This paper argues that while the question of centre and periphery is still relevant to the analysis of international university systems, the analytical frameworks from which it has arisen may lose viability in the long term. Southeast Asian…

Postiglione, Gerard A.

2005-01-01

293

Cloud Seeding Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by North American Weather Consultants, Inc. The site briefly answers questions such as "when did application of modern cloud seeding technology begin?," "Is cloud seeding effective?," and "Do the commonly used seeding materials pose any direct health or environmental risks?"

Griffith, Don; Solak, Mark

2008-01-07

294

Kast, Wijbe Martin — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is such a relevant question. Especially as evidence from animal models is mounting that therapeutic vaccines can be used very effectively in the cancer preventive setting while they do not work well in the cancer therapeutic setting. It is time to change the paradigm. Don't watchful wait, Vaccinate!

295

Explaining Errors in Children's Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

Rowland, Caroline F.

2007-01-01

296

Looming Questions in Performance Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

Gratz, Donald B.

2010-01-01

297

Questioning Trends in University Dance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article revisits ideas put forward at the beginning of an academic career and discusses the ways in which time and experience within academe has shifted the author's perspective. Specifically, focusing on the balance of artistic thinking with the widely perceived need to justify the arts in higher education, the author explores questions

Van Dyke, Jan

2012-01-01

298

Four Questions to Ask Yourself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

2007-01-01

299

Questions on Medicine for Scholars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Historical Note on the 'Questions' and on its Role in the Later Development of Medicine and Its Teaching, by Paul Ghalioungui, M.D.; Preface to the English Translation, by Paul Ghalioungui, M.D.; Biographical Sketch of Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, by Galal...

H. I. Ishaq

1980-01-01

300

On Being a Naive Questioner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the questioning and answering interaction provides a setting whereby adults can socialize naive children into communal views of reality. It is suggested, however, that this tradition acts both as a brake and as a springboard to the acquisition of new knowledge. (MS)

Krantz, David L.; Bacon, Penelope

1977-01-01

301

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer?  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer? To ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: You cannot download the interactive health tutorials from MedlinePlus. With permission ...

302

MedlinePlus FAQ: What's New on Medline Plus Page and Email Updates  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How is the What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed different from ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed include alerts ...

303

VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. (Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-07-01

304

Heat illness. I. Epidemiology.  

PubMed

Reliable information on the epidemiology of heat illness has come, until recently, mainly from the armed forces and, to a lesser extent, from some industries and civil communities. Data from the records of the British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Indian Armed Forces, U.S. Army and forces engaged in the Arab-Israeli wars, from the South African gold mining corporations and Persian Gulf oil tankers, and from civilian communities, mainly in the U.S.A., are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to the classification of heat illness and definition of the terms used, and the effects on acclimatized and non-acclimatized personnel and on other sections of the civilian communities most at risk, i.e. the old and very young. This section concludes with an outline of the classification of acute heat illnesses from 1899 to the eighth revision of the WHO International Classification of Diseases in 1967. PMID:320723

Ellis, F P

1976-01-01

305

Epidemiology of Behçet disease.  

PubMed

Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H

2012-10-01

306

[The symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk: an incursion into the thinking of Boaventura de Sousa Santos].  

PubMed

Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, the concept of epidemiological risk is critically discussed. The work of Elizabeth Teixeira, who uses the ideas of Boaventura de Sousa Santos, is presented. The proposal for symbolic cartography of epidemiological risk is sketched out, defining analytical scales ranging from exteriority and distancing from the field of science to the proximity of territory and place, conceptualized on the basis of the geography of Milton Santos, in which conceptions of risk are drawn up from the perspective of the everyday routine of social existence. Questions relating to space, territoriality, subjectivity and time give meaning to a cartography of risk which is proposed as a model for epidemiological investigations. PMID:23070378

Sevalho, Gil; Stotz, Eduardo

2012-09-01

307

[Philosophical theories of causation for epidemiology].  

PubMed

What is a causal nexus? How do we get to know one? In the last decades a proliferation of philosophical theories, mainly put forward as opposing each other and as possible alternatives, has been trying to answer such questions. In the last few years the need has been emerging to refer any analysis of the concept of cause to the context in which it is adopted. The pursuit of a single definition has been thus substituted by the elaboration of various forms of causal pluralism, aimed at accounting for the actual use of the notion of cause especially within some of the so-called , such as economy, law, medicine. We shall here outline the main contemporary approaches (probabilistic, mechanistic, counterfactual and manipulative) and some of the intersections they can have with reflections on causation taking place in epidemiology. PMID:20595736

Campaner, Raffaella

2010-01-01

308

On a question of Gross  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

Banerjee, Abhijit

2007-03-01

309

Mapping the Question Answering Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a trend analysis of the question answering (QA) domain. Bibliometric mapping was used to sketch the boundary of\\u000a the domain by uncovering the topics central to and peripheral to QA research in the new millennium. This paper visualizes\\u000a the evolution of concepts in the QA domain by studying the dynamics of the QA research during the periods 2000

Mohan John Blooma; Alton Yeow-kuan Chua; Dion Hoe-lian Goh

2008-01-01

310

Questions to Ask about Radiation Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During Treatment Questions to Ask Your Doctor Statistics Homepage Cancer Types Bladder Bone ... more information What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor? Quick Links Questions to Ask Your Doctor ...

311

Journal of Chemical Education: Conceptual Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides examples of conceptual questions, an introduction to several different types of conceptual questions, and a discussion of what constitutes a conceptual question. Links to definitions and discussions provide the details.

Education, Journal O.; Society, Division O.

312

OpenEpi - Epidemiologic Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Andrew G. Dean, Roger A. Mir and Kevin Sullivan of Open Epidemiology.com, contains calculators for use in epidemiological calculations. There are modules that can be used online and open source modules that can be downloaded and altered. Some modules include 2x2 tables, an R by C table, proportions, dose-response and trend calculator, sample size, and generation of random numbers. This is a great resource for those interested in general statistics, social statistics, public health, or more specifically, epidemiology.

Dean, Andrew G.; Mir, Roger A.; Sullivan, Kevin

2009-02-09

313

Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.  

PubMed Central

In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment.

Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

1991-01-01

314

Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.  

PubMed

Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. PMID:24229634

Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

2013-12-01

315

John Snow: Pioneer of Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The key tactics of epidemiology—surveillance and response—were first used by Dr. John Snow during a cholera outbreak in 1850s London, as dramatized in this video segment adapted from Rx for Survival.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-08-31

316

The People's Library of Epidemiology.  

PubMed

The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology. PMID:22326598

Last, John M

2012-03-01

317

Epidemiology of Type B Hepatitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Employing the techniques of radioimmunoassay and passive hemagglutination, the population of West Seneca Developmental Center was followed in serial epidemiological surveys for the incidence and prevalence of type B hepatitis. The initial survey carried o...

P. L. Ogra M. L. Tiku R. I. Ramirez K. R. Beutner M. Makhdoomi

1975-01-01

318

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

319

Fundamental questions to sun protection  

PubMed Central

Since exposure to sunlight is a main factor in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer and there are associations between malignant melanoma and short-term intense ultraviolet (UV) exposure, particularly burning in childhood, strict protection from UV-radiation is recommended. However, up to 90% of all requisite vitamin D has to be formed within the skin through the action of the sun—a serious problem, for a connection between vitamin D deficiency, demonstrated in epidemiological studies, and various types of cancer and other diseases has been confirmed. A UVB-triggered skin autonomous vitamin D3 synthesis pathway has recently been described, producing the active Vitamin D metabolite calcitriol. This cutaneous vitamin D3 pathway is unique. Keratinocytes and dendritic cells can convert vitamin D to calcitriol. Cutaneous T cells activated in the presence of calcitriol express the chemokine receptor CCR10 attracting them to the chemokine CCL27 that keratinocytes express selectively in the epidermis, and migrate from dermal layers of the skin to the epidermis under UV radiation. Thus, calcitriol has endocrine roles beyond its calciotropic action, including cell growth and cancer prevention. Therefore, strict sun protection procedures to prevent skin cancer may induce the risk of vitamin D deficiency. As there is evidence that the protective effect of less intense solar radiation can outweigh its mutagenic effect, better balanced approaches to sun protection should be sought.

Reichrath, Jorg; Lehmann, Bodo; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Feldmeyer, Laurence; Hofbauer, Gunther FL; Lichtensteiger, Walter

2010-01-01

320

[Epidemiology of Behçet's disease].  

PubMed

With more than 30 published prevalence estimates for Behçet's disease (BD), covering many different regions worldwide, the prevalence of BD is quite well described. Even though the interpretation of these data is complicated by between-study differences in methodology, which may substantially influence the results, these data suggest large geographic variations in frequency of BD, with prevalence rates of 20-420/100,000 inhabitants for Turkey, 2.1-19.5 for other Asian countries, 1.5-15.9 for southern Europe and 0.3-4.9 for northern Europe. Additional epidemiological studies or case series from North and South America, the Caribbean Islands, and individuals of sub-Saharan ancestry further suggest that the geographic distribution of BD is much wider than the boundaries of the ancient Silk Road. The few available incidence rates prevent from making strong inferences as to whether the frequency of BD has changed over time. Recent population-based studies of immigrants or migrant populations consistently indicate that migrants from areas of high BD prevalence remain at high risk for BD, which may even be close to the prevalence observed in their countries of origin. Genetic factors, which are not detailed in this review, seem to play a preponderant role in BD development, although they cannot explain the wide between-country disparities in BD prevalence. However, environmental risk factors, including infectious and non-infectious causes, remain poorly investigated and have not yet produced solid hints. PMID:24398415

Mahr, A; Maldini, C

2014-02-01

321

Epidemiology of gastric cancer  

PubMed Central

The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socio-economic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socio-economic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

Crew, Katherine D; Neugut, Alfred I

2006-01-01

322

Epidemiology of Nursemaid's Elbow  

PubMed Central

Introduction To provide an epidemiological description of radial head subluxation, also known as nursemaid’s elbow, from a database of emergency department visits. Methods We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients 6 years of age and younger, who presented to the ED between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and were diagnosed with nursemaid’s elbow. Inclusion criteria consisted of chart information, including date, unique account number, medical record number, weight, age, sex, and arm affected. Exclusion criteria included any charts with missing or incomplete data. Results There were 1,228 charts that met inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were female (60%). The mean age was 28.6 months (±12.6). The left arm was affected 60% of the time. Most of the included patients were over the 75th percentile for weight and more than one quarter were over the 95th percentile in each gender. Conclusion The average age of children presenting with nursemaid’s elbow was 28.6 months. Females were affected more than males, and the left arm was predominately affected. Most patients were above the 75th percentile for weight and more than one quarter were over the 95th percentile for weight.

Vitello, Sarah; Dvorkin, Ronald; Sattler, Steven; Levy, David; Ung, Lyncean

2014-01-01

323

[Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential aproach].  

PubMed

The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems. PMID:24626623

Hersch-Martínez, Paul

2013-01-01

324

The epidemiology of mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, and genetic epidemiology of mood disorders in adults and\\u000a children. The magnitude and impact of mood disorders in the community outweighs that of most other chronic diseases. Although\\u000a there is substantial knowledge regarding the sociodemographic risk factors for mood disorders, our understanding of the pathogenesis\\u000a and classification still is evolving.

Kathleen Ries Merikangas; Nancy C. P. Low

2004-01-01

325

Quick Questions: Learn About Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyoneâs first name? Whatâs the most common number of letters? Whatâs most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public areaâmuseum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

326

FAQs. II.(a) Active Learning vs. Covering The Syllabus; (b) Dealing with Large Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article, written by Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent, which addresses the questions "Can I use active learning exercises in my classes and still cover the syllabus?" and "Do active learning methods work in large classes?" Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Brent, Rebecca, 1956-; Felder, Richard M., 1939-

2009-12-17

327

Evaluative Conditioning: The "How" Question  

PubMed Central

Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “how” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains.

Jones, Christopher R.; Olson, Michael A.; Fazio, Russell H.

2011-01-01

328

The Urban Institute: Five Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the mid-1960s, President Johnson saw the need for independent nonpartisan analysis of the problems facing America's cities and their residents. The President created a blue-ribbon commission of civic leaders who recommended chartering a center to do that work and in 1968, the Urban Institute became that center. Today the Urban Institute analyzes policies, evaluates programs, and informs community development to "improve social, civic, and economic well-being." Working in all 50 states and abroad, the Institute shares its research with policymakers, business leaders, and academics. On this site, visitors can enjoy the Institute's series of interviews entitled "Five Questions For"" which poses five questions to the people behind the Urban Institute's research. Here, experts talk about the nature of their work and offer insights on what they've learned. The collection allows visitors to browse a chronological list of this series of interviews and each interview is easily emailed and is also available in a printer friendly format.

329

Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question

Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

330

Recognizing Digressive Questions During Interactive Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In expository discourse, people sometimes ask ques- tions that digress from the purpose of the discussion. A system that provides interactive explanations and advice must be able to distinguish pertinent questions from questions that digress. It must also be able .to recognize questions that are incoherent. These types of questions require different treatment. Pertinent ques- tions must be answered to

Susan M. Hailer

331

SNTEMP (In)frequently asked questions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Here, you will find a series of questions and answers resulting from many years of technical assistance with SNTEMP and SSTEMP. These (in)frequently asked questions are presented here so that you may get a feel for the range of questions posed, learn from the questions and their 'answers,' and share in the discussions if you wish. I certainly didn't answer all the questions, nor do I feel like I've got the only answer for them all.

Bartholow, J.M.

2000-01-01

332

Science Sampler: Thinking about students' questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asking questions is a vital component in any classroom, but it is absolutely essential in a science classroom. As science teachers, we know that questioning plays a major role in the inquiry process and has a positive impact on students' learning. This article discusses the importance of questioning skills and current research on questioning techniques. In addition, this article will present a series of lessons that were implemented by the author to improve the questioning abilities of middle school students.

Turner, Jaclyn

2006-11-01

333

Community Epidemiology of Risk and Adolescent Substance Use: Practical Questions for Enhancing Prevention  

PubMed Central

To promote an effective approach to prevention, the community diagnosis model helps communities systematically assess and prioritize risk factors to guide the selection of preventive interventions. This increasingly widely used model relies primarily on individual-level research that links risk and protective factors to substance use outcomes. I discuss common assumptions in the translation of such research concerning the definition of risk factor elevation; the equivalence, independence, and stability of relations between risk factors and problem behaviors; and community differences in risk factors and risk factor–problem behavior relations. Exploring these assumptions could improve understanding of the relations of risk factors and substance use within and across communities and enhance the efficacy of the community diagnosis model. This approach can also be applied to other areas of public health where individual and community levels of risk and outcomes intersect.

2012-01-01

334

An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

Martcheva, M.

2011-11-01

335

EpiBasket: how e-commerce tools can improve epidemiological preparedness  

PubMed Central

Background Should an emerging infectious disease outbreak or an environmental disaster occur, the collection of epidemiological data must start as soon as possible after the event's onset. Questionnaires are usually built de novo for each event, resulting in substantially delayed epidemiological responses that are detrimental to the understanding and control of the event considered. Moreover, the public health and/or academic institution databases constructed with responses to different questionnaires are usually difficult to merge, impairing necessary collaborations. We aimed to show that e-commerce concepts and software tools can be readily adapted to enable rapid collection of data after an infectious disease outbreak or environmental disaster. Here, the ‘customers’ are the epidemiologists, who fill their shopping ‘baskets’ with standardised questions. Methods For each epidemiological field, a catalogue of questions is constituted by identifying the relevant variables based on a review of the published literature on similar circumstances. Each question is tagged with information on its source papers. Epidemiologists can then tailor their own questionnaires by choosing appropriate questions from this catalogue. The software immediately provides them with ready-to-use forms and online questionnaires. All databases constituted by the different EpiBasket users are interoperable, because the corresponding questionnaires are derived from the same corpus of questions. Results A proof-of-concept prototype was developed for Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) surveys, which is one of the fields of the epidemiological investigation frequently explored during, or after, an outbreak or environmental disaster. The catalogue of questions was initiated from a review of the KAP studies conducted during or after the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic. Conclusion Rapid collection of standardised data after an outbreak or environmental disaster can be facilitated by transposing the e-commerce paradigm to epidemiology, taking advantage of the powerful software tools already available.

Xing, Weijia; Hejblum, Gilles; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

2013-01-01

336

Studying the Learning Disabled Adolescent through Epidemiological and Intervention Research Tactics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examined the relationship between epidemiological and intervention research with learning disabled adolescents. Several historical trends and contemporary issues (e.g., the importance of prevention as opposed to treatment efforts, applied versus basic research, continuing questions related to definition and identification, and…

Altman, Reuben

337

The epidemiology of rape and sexual coercion in South Africa: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1999 the issue of rape in South Africa was debated at the highest levels. The epidemiology of rape has become an issue of considerable political importance and sensitivity, with President Mbeki demanding an answer to the question: how much rape is there in South Africa? The purpose of this paper is both to summarise and synthesise the findings of

Rachel Jewkes; Naeema Abrahams

2002-01-01

338

Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging.

Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

2013-01-01

339

Lawyers' Questioning: The Effect of Confusing Questions on Witness Confidence and Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect on witness confidence and accuracy of confusing questions often used by attorneys in court. Participants viewed a videotaped film and were individually questioned about the incident 1 week later. Half the participants were asked questions using six categories of confusing questions (negatives, double negatives, leading, multiple questions, complex syntax, and complex vocabulary); the remaining

Mark R. Kebbell; Shane D. Johnson

2000-01-01

340

Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

PubMed Central

The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission.

Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Nakamura-Lopez, Yuko; Vaughan, Gilberto

2012-01-01

341

Living with Kidney Disease: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... With Your Health Professionals Questions to Ask Your Health Care Professional Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Testing for Kidney ... Changes Medicines and Kidney Disease Working with Your Health Care Providers Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Kidney ...

342

Question Answering Based on Semantic Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability to answer complex questions posed in Natural Language depends on (1) the depth of the available semantic representations and (2) the inferential mechanisms they Support. In this paper we describe a QA architecture where questions are analyzed ...

S. Harabagiu S. Narayanan

2004-01-01

343

Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions Frequently Asked Questions 1. What is palliative care and when is it provided? Palliative care is ... Does my child have to be in hospice care to receive palliative care? No, your child does ...

344

Gallery Walk Questions on Atmospheric Moisture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about Atmospheric Mosture. The questions are organized according to the ...

345

Are Nanobacteria Alive: Sample Socratic Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This example Socratic questioning page provides an outline for leading a classroom discussion regarding whether or not nanobacteria exist. Sample questions, resources for background information, and tips and assessment information are provided.

By Monica Bruckner, Montana State University, Bozeman (based on MLER website:Nanobes and Nanobacteria).

346

Gallery Walk Questions on Map Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about map reading. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

347

HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

348

Gallery Walk Questions on Earth's Radiation Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the Earth's Radiation Balance. The questions are organized ...

349

Multilingual Question\\/Answering: the DIOGENE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the DIOGENE question\\/answering system developed at ITC- Irst. The system is based on a rather standard architecture which includes three components for question processing, search and answer extraction. Linguistic processing strongly relies on MULTIWORDNET, an extended version of the English WORDNET. The system has been designed to address two promising directions: multilingual question\\/answering and question\\/answering on the

Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Roberto Prevete; Hristo Tanev

2001-01-01

350

THE COMPREHENSIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA RESOURCE (CEDR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) is a Department of Energy (DOE) public-use repository of data collected for DOE-sponsored epidemiologic, environmental, and related health studies....

351

Dengue Occurrence in the Population (Epidemiology)  

MedlinePLUS

... the United States Dengue Surveillance in the U.S. Epidemiology Dengue fever (DF) is caused by any of ... Notices Prevention If You Think You Have Dengue Epidemiology Continental U.S. Entomology/Ecology Mosquito Life-Cycle Mosquito ...

352

The Physics Question of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The question of the week web site hosts questions about physics related to experiments and demonstrations. The answer to each question is posted at the end of the week along with a short video showing the experiment and a link to a page with more information about a related demonstration.

Berg, Richard E.

2007-11-10

353

Boston University Physics Applets: Test Charge Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item contains two in-class questions relating to test charge. Given a uniform electric field, students decide which simulation shows a test charge. In the related question, students use the positive test charge to determine the signs of two simulated charges. This item is part of a larger collection of physics questions and simulations developed by the Boston University Physics Department.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-01

354

Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

Goodwin, Alan

2003-01-01

355

Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question bank can be described as the databank that keeps all the examination questions whether pre-existing or created by user while web based examination system is an online assessment tool that used to evaluate students' performance. In this paper, we develop and implement an online Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System (IQBAES), which make use of open source technology. This

ANG TAN FONG; HU HENG SIEW; LIP YEE; LIEW CHEE SUN

2006-01-01

356

Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

Stafford, Tish

2009-01-01

357

Responding to Questions to Continue Classroom Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the importance of questioning techniques in the instruction of learning disabled students. Factors affecting students' responses to questions are the strengths and weaknesses of the learner and the type and difficulty of the question asked. A systematic method of providing or following up on students answers, termed…

Bachor, Dan G.

358

Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

Met, Myriam

2010-01-01

359

Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.  

PubMed

Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

2011-01-01

360

Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

Agee, Jane

2009-01-01

361

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

362

Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

1989-01-01

363

EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

364

Questioning Profiles in Secondary Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we are concerned with the role of both teachers and students' questioning in classroom interaction. Bearing in mind that the current guidelines point out to student centred teaching, our aim is to analyse and characterise the questioning patterns of contemporary secondary science classes and compare them to the questioning profiles…

Almeida, Patricia; de Souza, Francisle Neri

2010-01-01

365

Epidemiology and Natural History of Nephrolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology and natural history of nephrolithiasis comprise its incidence and prevalence; role of age, gender, and race;\\u000a risk factors, comorbidities, and course. As such, epidemiology verges into clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and\\u000a prognosis. Although it is well known that associations derived from epidemiological studies do not prove causal relationships,\\u000a lessons from epidemiology and natural history have been readily applied

Alan G. Wasserstein

366

Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group  

Cancer.gov

The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group was established in 2012 to promote strategies to develop capacity to support metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as to advance the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

367

Unsolved Problems in Genetic Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic epidemiology faces six critical issues: its scope, genetic mapping, complex inheritance, population structure, nonmendelian genetics, and the internationalization of genetics. To solve these problems the scope must be broadened to include normal variation, although much of descriptive genetics will be lost to related sciences. Genetic mapping continues to play an essential role for positional cloning and chromosome architecture, which

Newton E. Morton

2000-01-01

368

Epidemiology of paragonimiasis in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five newly discovered endemic foci for paragonimiasis in Colombia are described for the first time. The disease was diagnosed in 24 people from the Embera Indian communities located at the Colombian Pacific Coast and investigated in 1993–1998. We also describe the clinical, epidemiological and treatment response aspects. In these foci an Aroapyrgus sp. snail different from A. colombiensis was found

Iván Darío B. Vélez; Jorge Ortega; Martha Inés M. Hurtado; Alba Lucía Salazar; Sara M. Robledo; Judy Natalia Jimenez; Luz Elena T. Velásquez

2000-01-01

369

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

370

The epidemiology of gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiology of gastric carcinoma, especially its “epidemic” or “intestinal” type is reviewed. The prevailing etiologic hypothesis, based on the selective targeting of etiologic agents in different points of the chain of causation, is described. Support for the hypothesis is updated, based on descriptive and analytical epidemiologic studies as well as on recently obtained laboratory and experimental evidence. Primary and

Pelayo Correa

1991-01-01

371

EPIDEMIOLOGY IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES  

PubMed Central

The techniques and principles of epidemiology, so successfully utilized in the study and control of communicable diseases, should be applied to other mass phenomena in the community. The local health officer should apply them in his “diagnosis” of the sicknesses of his organized community. Epidemiological methods have been used to study mental diseases as well as chronic diseases, and an experiment in using epidemiological methods on the county level to study psychosocial disorders has been carried out. The impact of psychosocial episodes on somatic diseases is now generally accepted and well documented. Individual practitioners of medicine are becoming more interested in the significance of social tensions on the health of their patients. Public health physicians, specialists in preventive medicine, are the best equipped by training and experience to take the leadership in the application of epidemiological methods to sociomedical problems and are in a unique position to assist their colleagues in the private practice of medicine in providing modern helpful and meaningful health protection to their patients. Organized medicine might well become more cognizant of the sociological changes taking place in the nation as they relate to health and assume the responsibility for aggressive leadership in the anticipation of and the solution of these problems.

Chope, H. D.

1959-01-01

372

Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models  

SciTech Connect

Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida

2012-01-01

373

Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this Program is to study the association between epidemiologic risk factors, low-risk genes, and histologic and novel molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer. In December 2002, we received final approval from the Human Subject Research Review Boar...

D. Bowtell A. Green G. Chenevix-Trench A. DeFazio D. Gertig

2005-01-01

374

Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this Program is to study the association between epidemiologic risk factors, low-risk genes, and histologic and novel molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer. In December 2002, we received final approval from the Human Subject Research Review Boar...

D. Bowtell

2006-01-01

375

The rare, unilateral headaches. Vågå studyof headache epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Vågå study of\\u000a headache epidemiology, 1838\\u000a parishioners in the age group\\u000a 18–65 years were included (88.6%\\u000a of the relevant population). Each\\u000a individual was questioned in a\\u000a face-to-face situation. In this population,\\u000a a search of rare unilateral\\u000a headaches was also made, in spite\\u000a of their presumed rarity.\\u000a Trigeminal neuralgia was present\\u000a in two cases. Two individuals with\\u000a SUNCT traits

Ottar Sjaastad; Leiv S. Bakketeig

2007-01-01

376

Some recent issues in low-exposure radiation epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Three areas of activity in the field of low-level radiation epidemiology have been reviewed. They concern the questions of cancer risk related to antenatal X-ray exposure, occupational radiation exposure, and residence in areas of real or supposed increased levels of radiation. Despite the a priori unlikelihood of useful information developing from studies in any of these areas, such investigations are being pursued, and the results are proving to be stimulating. Much important information will be forthcoming in the near future.

MacMahon, B

1989-01-01

377

Epidemiologic considerations: scope of problem and disparity concerns.  

PubMed

Elective labor induction is an increasingly common practice not only in high-income countries but also in many low-income and middle-income countries. Many questions remain unanswered on the safety and cost-effectiveness of elective labor induction, particularly in resource-constrained settings wherein there may be a high unmet need for medically indicated inductions, as well as limited or no access to appropriate medications and equipment for induction and monitoring, comprehensive emergency obstetric care, safe, and timely cesarean section, and appropriate supervision from health professionals. This article considers the global perspective on the epidemiology, practices, safety, and costs associated with elective labor induction. PMID:24614814

Getahun, Darios

2014-06-01

378

Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

Andrews, Nick

2012-09-01

379

G Proteins Go Green: A Plant G Protein Signaling FAQ Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses G protein signal transduction in plants and animals. Plants, like animals, use signal transduction pathways based on heterotrimeric guanine nucleotideâÂÂbinding proteins (G proteins) to regulate many aspects of development and cell signaling. Some components of G protein signaling are highly conserved between plants and animals and some are not. This Viewpoint compares key aspects of G protein signal transduction in plants and animals and describes the current knowledge of this system in plants, the questions that still await exploration, and the value of research on plant G proteins to scientists who do not study plants. Pathways in Science's Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment Connections Maps database provide details about the emerging roles of G proteins in several cellular processes of plants.

Sarah Assmann (Pennsylvania State University;Biology Department)

2005-10-07

380

Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to learn from this unique phenomenon of migration medicine. PMID:12615370

Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

2003-02-01

381

Planetary protection - some legal questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to examine: Protectionwhere, of whom andofwhat: On Earth: Humans, and nature, namely other life forms, air, water and soil, but also all man made things. On Other celestial bodies: Crew of manned Space Missions, Stations on C.B., possible alien life forms, or remnants of such, water, other environment on C.B. - even if completely barren? Protection of C.B. from becoming "an area of international conflict". Finally, we have to discuss overriding interests, such as deflection of Asteroids which threaten to hit Earth, then the legally permitted "Use" of C.B., also mining versus protection, then, too high costs of absolutely sterile Spacecraft, etc. With this, we have de lege ferenda to create an order of values of protection, whereby the protection of the higher category has priority over the lesser ones.

Fasan, E.

2004-01-01

382

Planetary protection - some legal questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then we have to examine: Protection where, of whom and of what: On Earth: Humans, other life forms, but also all man made things as well as air, water, soil. On Other celestial bodies: Crew of manned Space Missions, Stations on C.B., possible alien life forms, or remnants of such, water, other environment on C.B.- even if completely barren? Protection of C.B. from becoming "an area of international conflict" Finally we have to discuss overriding interests, such as deflection of Asteroids which threaten to hit Earth, then the legally permitted "Use" of C.B., also mining versus protection, and too high costs of absolutely sterile Spacecraft etc. With this we have de lege ferenda to create an order of values of protection as follows, whereby the protection of the higher category has priority over the lesser ones: 1)Human life, be it on Earth or beyond it, 2)Other terrestrial life, 3)Inanimate terrestrial environment, 4)Possible life forms or their remnants on the Moon or other C.B., 5)The natural environment of the Moon and other C.B., 6)Asteroids, Meteorites, Comets etc.

Fasan, E.

383

The genetic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have implicated an interplay between genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a familial recurrence rate of approximately 15%. Meta-analysis of the recurrence risk shows that the rate is highest overall for siblings, then parents and children, with lower rates in second- and third-degree relatives. Recurrence is highest for monozygotic twins. Conversely, the frequency in adoptees is similar to the population lifetime risk. The age-adjusted risk for half siblings is also less than for full siblings. Recurrence is higher in the children of conjugal pairs with MS than the offspring of single affected. These classical genetic observations suggest that MS is a complex trait in which susceptibility is determined by several genes acting independently or epistatically. Comparisons between co-affected sibling pairs provide no evidence for correlation with age or year at onset and mode of presentation or disability. Thus far, the identification of susceptibility genes has proved elusive but genetic strategies are now in place which should illuminate the problem. The main dividend will be an improved understanding of the pathogenesis. To date, population studies have demonstrated an association between the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles DR15 and DQ6 and their corresponding genotypes. An association with DR4, with or without the primary DR15 link, is seen in some Mediterranean populations. Candidate gene approaches have otherwise proved unrewarding. Four groups of investigators have undertaken a systematic search of the genome. In common with most other complex traits, no major susceptibility gene has been identified but regions of interest have been provisionally identified. These genetic analyses are predicated on the assumption that MS is one disease. Genotypic and phenotypic analyses are beginning to question this assumption. A major part of future studies in the genetics of MS will be to resolve the question of disease heterogeneity. PMID:10603615

Compston, A

1999-10-29

384

Brain tumor epidemiology: consensus from the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium.  

PubMed

Epidemiologists in the Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) have prioritized areas for further research. Although many risk factors have been examined over the past several decades, there are few consistent findings, possibly because of small sample sizes in individual studies and differences between studies in patients, tumor types, and methods of classification. Individual studies generally have lacked samples of sufficient size to examine interactions. A major priority based on available evidence and technologies includes expanding research in genetics and molecular epidemiology of brain tumors. BTEC has taken an active role in promoting understudied groups, such as pediatric brain tumors; the etiology of rare glioma subtypes, such as oligodendroglioma; and meningioma, which, although it is not uncommon, has only recently been registered systematically in the United States. There also is a pressing need for more researchers, especially junior investigators, to study brain tumor epidemiology. However, relatively poor funding for brain tumor research has made it difficult to encourage careers in this area. In this report, BTEC epidemiologists reviewed the group's consensus on the current state of scientific findings, and they present a consensus on research priorities to identify which important areas the science should move to address. PMID:18798534

Bondy, Melissa L; Scheurer, Michael E; Malmer, Beatrice; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Davis, Faith G; Il'yasova, Dora; Kruchko, Carol; McCarthy, Bridget J; Rajaraman, Preetha; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Tihan, Tarik; Wiemels, Joseph L; Wrensch, Margaret; Buffler, Patricia A

2008-10-01

385

Competing Risk Regression Models for Epidemiologic Data  

PubMed Central

Competing events can preclude the event of interest from occurring in epidemiologic data and can be analyzed by using extensions of survival analysis methods. In this paper, the authors outline 3 regression approaches for estimating 2 key quantities in competing risks analysis: the cause-specific relative hazard (csRH) and the subdistribution relative hazard (sdRH). They compare and contrast the structure of the risk sets and the interpretation of parameters obtained with these methods. They also demonstrate the use of these methods with data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study established in 1993, treating time to initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy or to clinical disease progression as competing events. In our example, women with an injection drug use history were less likely than those without a history of injection drug use to initiate therapy prior to progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death by both measures of association (csRH?=?0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.80 and sdRH?=?0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.71). Moreover, the relative hazards for disease progression prior to treatment were elevated (csRH?=?1.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.37, 2.13 and sdRH?=?2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.62, 2.51). Methods for competing risks should be used by epidemiologists, with the choice of method guided by the scientific question.

Cole, Stephen R.; Gange, Stephen J.

2009-01-01

386

Use of obesity biomarkers in cardiovascular epidemiology.  

PubMed

Obesity is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet, the underlying mechanisms are only poorly understood. The adipose tissue produces a variety of hormones and cytokines and thereby actively participates in a network of biomarkers that may be relevant for the development of CVD. Such obesity biomarkers have a great potential to better characterize the obesity phenotype that may be relevant for the risk of CVD beyond anthropometric parameters. They may be used to support mechanistic studies, to help identify individuals at risk for CVD, and to evaluate the effect of preventive measures. The present article discusses the role of some of the most promising obesity biomarkers in cardiovascular epidemiology, including inflammatory markers, adiponectin, resistin, and fetuin-A. Importantly, some of these markers have been related to cardiovascular risk even after accounting for anthropometric parameters. Further, the potential ability to manipulate blood levels of some of these biomarkers through medication, diet and lifestyle make them attractive markers for cardiovascular risk. However, many open questions remain--especially with regard to the causal role of the factors as well as with regard to the extent of improvement in CVD prediction by these markers--before measurement of these biomarkers may be recommended on a public health level. PMID:19773614

Pischon, Tobias

2009-01-01

387

Personal knowledge questions for fallback authentication: security questions in the era of Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Security questions (or challenge questions) are commonly used to authenticate users who,have lost their passwords. We examined the password retrieval mechanisms for a num- ber of personal banking websites, and found that many of them rely in part on security questions with serious usability and security weaknesses. We discuss patterns in the secu- rity questions we observed. We argue

Ariel Rabkin

2008-01-01

388

[Epidemiological aspects of data banks and biological banks].  

PubMed

Human epidemiology differs from studies on health care. Epidemiology is an observational type of research, and partially a substitute for experimental investigations which are seldom possible in the human situation. Another difference from the human situation are privacy features both on the level of individuals and on that of organisations. This is in contrast with herd books, artificial insemination banks and slaughterhouse data bases in animals. In view of these differences and limitations, the largest potential for veterinary epidemiology would appear to lie in the fields of data and biological banking. Instances of the routine collection of data to monitor disease in human individuals are presented. The use of biological banks is discussed: blood, urine, nails, etc., are collected from a cohort of (still) normal animals in this case. This is done in order to use them after follow-ups to determine pre-diagnostic levels and changes in biological parameters in retrospect. This approach, consisting in case-control studies within a cohort combines the advantages of the two methods of investigation, namely the longitudinal aspect which makes it possible to answer post-propter questions and the cost-saving aspect of confining biochemical analysis to cases alone and the controls proper to these cases. Drawbacks to the two separate techniques, such as an expensive complete follow-up and selection bias problems, are ruled out in this manner. PMID:3840610

van Noord, P A

1985-09-15

389

Anxiety: Its Role in the History of Psychiatric Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Background The role played by anxiety in the history of psychiatric epidemiology has not been well recognized. Such lack of understanding retarded the growth of psychiatric research in general populations. It seems useful to look back on this history while deliberations are being carried out about how anxiety will be presented in DSM-V. Methods Drawing on the literature and our own research, we examine work that was carried out during and after the Second World War by a Research Branch of the United States War Department, by the Stirling County Study, and by the Midtown Manhattan Study. The differential influences of Meyerian psychobiology and Freudian psychoanalysis are noted. Results The instruments developed in the early epidemiologic endeavors used questions about nervousness, palpitations, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, upset stomach, etc. These symptoms are important features of what the clinical literature called “manifest”, “free-floating”, or “chronic anxiety”. A useful descriptive name is “autonomic anxiety”. Conclusions Although not focusing on specific circumstances as in Panic and Phobic Disorders, a non-specific form of autonomic anxiety is a common, disabling, and usually chronic disorder that received empirical verification in studies of several community populations. It is suggested that two types of general anxiety may need to be recognized-- one dominated by excessive worry and feelings of stress, as in the current DSM-IV definition of Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and another emphasizing frequent unexplainable autonomic fearfulness, as in the early epidemiologic studies.

Murphy, Jane M.; Leighton, Alexander H.

2013-01-01

390

Epidemiology of Candida kefyr in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.  

PubMed

Candida kefyr is an emerging pathogen among patients with hematologic malignancies (HM). We performed a retrospective study at Johns Hopkins Hospital to evaluate the epidemiology of C. kefyr colonization and infection in HM patients between 2004 and 2010. Eighty-three patients were colonized and/or infected with C. kefyr, with 8 (9.6%) having invasive candidiasis (IC). The yearly incidence of C. kefyr colonization and candidemia increased over the study period (P < 0.01), particularly after 2009. In 2010, C. kefyr caused 16.7% of candidemia episodes. The monthly incidence of C. kefyr was higher during the summer throughout the study. In a cohort of patients with acute myelogenic leukemia receiving induction chemotherapy, risks for C. kefyr colonization included the summer season (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; P = 0.03); administration of an azole (OR, 0.06; P < 0.001) or amphotericin B (OR, 0.35; P = 0.05) was protective. Fingerprinting of 16 isolates by repetitive sequence-based PCR showed that all were different genotypes. The epidemiology of C. kefyr candidemia was evaluated in another hospital in Montreal, Canada; data confirmed higher rates of C. kefyr infection in the summer. C. kefyr appears to be increasing in HM patients, with prominent summer seasonality. These findings raise questions about the effect of antifungal agents and health care exposures (e.g., yogurt) on the epidemiology of this yeast. PMID:24622105

Dufresne, Simon F; Marr, Kieren A; Sydnor, Emily; Staab, Janet F; Karp, Judith E; Lu, Kit; Zhang, Sean X; Lavallée, Christian; Perl, Trish M; Neofytos, Dionysios

2014-06-01

391

Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.  

PubMed

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This methodology allowed detailed, veridical analysis of every question asked by the children during their recording sessions. Results indicate that children ask many information-seeking questions and get informative answers. When they do not get an informative response, they keep asking; attention is not enough. Results also indicate that the content of children's questions parallel their conceptual advances, and shift within an exchange and over the course of development to reflect the learning process. So, these data suggest that the components of the IRM are in place and are used by children from very early in development, and the information they seek changes with time. Study 2 asked whether preverbal children who are not yet asking linguistic questions can recruit information via gestures, expressions, and vocalizations, in addition to further investigating the linguistic questions of older children. This study analyzed questions from a cross-sectional diary study, kept by 68 parents of their children's questions (aged 1;0-5;0). Also, this methodology allowed for data collection over a large number of children, a large range of situational contexts, and allows for the collection of low frequency, high-salience events. Results from Study 2 suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place, and extends these findings down to younger, preverbal children who recruit information using gesture and vocalizations. Study 3 investigated the questions asked in one specific domain, biological knowledge, and examined the impact that different stimulus types have on children's questions. This study gathered data from 112 parent/child dyads (children aged 2, 3, and 4 years) walking through one of three zoos (one with real animals, one with drawings of animals, and one with three-dimensional replicas of animals), looking at the animals together. Results from this study also suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place from the earliest age, further supporting the findings from Studies 1 and 2. In addition, while children still ask many nonbiological questions a

Chouinard, Michael M

2007-01-01

392

How to... Ask the Right Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions, questions, questions! They are a large part of a teacher's stock-in-trade. We use questions to help students review, to check on comprehension, to stimulate critical thinking, to encourage creativity, to emphasize a point, to control classroom activities, reduce disruptive behavior, to help determine grades, to encourage discussion, to discourage inattentiveness, and for other reasons and purposes. Questioning style and content varies from teacher to teacher, student group to student group, and situation to situation. The aim of this "How to�" booklet is to help you focus on a common teaching activity--the asking of questions. To illustrate some of the classifications and concepts discussed, excerpts from a videotaped lesson to third graders on magnetism appears at the end of this booklet.

Blosser, Patricia E.

2000-01-01

393

Information Metrics in Genetic Epidemiology*  

PubMed Central

Information-theoretic metrics have been proposed for studying gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in genetic epidemiology. Although these metrics have proven very promising, they are typically interpreted in the context of communications and information transmission, diminishing their tangibility for epidemiologists and statisticians. In this paper, we clarify the interpretation of information-theoretic metrics. In particular, we develop the methods so that their relation to the global properties of probability models is made clear and contrast them with log-linear models for multinomial data. Hopefully, a better understanding of their properties and probabilistic implications will promote their acceptance and correct usage in genetic epidemiology. Our novel development also suggests new approaches to model search and computation.

Tritchler, David L; Sucheston, Lara; Chanda, Pritam; Ramanathan, Murali

2011-01-01

394

[Epidemiology of mental health care].  

PubMed

Mental health care epidemiology seeks to investigate the practical situation of the health care system and services for individuals with mental disorders. In the past decades, mental health care structures in Germany were successively transformed from long-term inpatient treatment capacities to decentralized outpatient and day clinic services. Currently, the proportional relation between treatment facilities in different settings has been stabilized and the strategy of mental health care development focuses on innovative and integrative models of care provision. The aim is to integrate fragmented services by the introduction of network structures to overcome rigid sector boundaries. The need for health care services is associated with multiple factors such as population-based epidemiological data, usage behavior, and health politics. Due to scarce data and poor standards of care it is difficult to determine if current structures of mental health services cover the actual needs. Therefore, a substantial increase of mental health service research is needed. PMID:22371103

Jäger, M; Rössler, W

2012-03-01

395

Epidemiology as a liberal art.  

PubMed

Epidemiology has features that resemble those of the traditional liberal arts. This makes it fit both for inclusion in an undergraduate curriculum and as an example in medical school of the continuing value of a liberal education. As a "low-technology" science, epidemiology is readily accessible to nonspecialists. Because it is useful for taking a first look at a new problem, it is applicable to a broad range of interesting phenomena. Furthermore, it emphasizes method rather than arcane knowledge and illustrates the approaches to problems and the kinds of thinking that a liberal education should cultivate: the scientific method, analogic thinking, deductive reasoning, problem solving within constraints, and concern for aesthetic values. PMID:3807963

Fraser, D W

1987-02-01

396

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics

Aviles, L

2001-01-01

397

Even -NPIs in YES\\/NO Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been a long-standing puzzle that Negative Polarity Items appear to split into two subvarieties when their effect on the interpretation of questions is taken into account: while questions with any and ever can be used as unbiased requests of information, questions with so-called `minimizers', i.e. idioms like lift a finger and the faintest idea, are always biased towards

Elena Guerzoni

2004-01-01

398

Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of Yes, whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue by showing that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1. IPNPR Volume 42-187 Tagged File.txt

Wu, W.; Gill, J. T., III

2011-08-01

399

Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews a number of aspects of the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, and the evidence relating to the major issues.\\u000a There is strong evidence for a rising epidemic of diabetes in many countries of the world, although the prevalence and incidence\\u000a of diabetes varies markedly among regions, countries within regions, and by ethnicity. Some of the increase in

Jonathan E. Shaw; Richard Sicree

400

Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic.

McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

2013-01-01

401

Epidemiologic Approaches to Global Health  

PubMed Central

In this introduction to volume 32 of Epidemiologic Reviews, the authors highlight the diversity and complexity of global health concerns, and they frame the 12 articles included in this issue within the diverse topics of research in this emerging and ever-expanding field. The authors emphasize the need for ongoing research related to the methods used in global health and for comprehensive surveillance, and they offer suggestions for future directions in global health research.

Quinn, Thomas C.; Samet, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01

402

Selection bias in epidemiologic studies.  

PubMed

Consideration of factors involved in the selection of subjects is essential for evaluating the validity of a putative etiologic association. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative conceptual framework for understanding selection bias; this framework integrates both epidemiologic and statistical considerations. Emphasis is given to specifying the conditions under which such bias is likely to occur, identifying the direction and magnitude of the bias, and illustrating how these features differ by type of study design. PMID:6971055

Kleinbaum, D G; Morgenstern, H; Kupper, L L

1981-04-01

403

Ethical Aspects of Epidemiological Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

These two quotes are about values and expectations, about perceived responsibilities, about community benefits and individual\\u000a rights in medical care and research, and reflect thereby compellingly the tensions, the paradoxes, the different views and\\u000a ethical aspects concerning biomedical research (Coughlin 2000). Epidemiology is part of the arena of biomedical research and\\u000a is particularly focussed on determinants of disease occurrences in

Hubert G. Leufkens; Johannes J. M. Delden

404

Climate change epidemiology: methodological challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is now thought to be unequivocal, while its potential effects on global and public health cannot be ignored.\\u000a However, the complexities of the causal webs, the dynamics of the interactions and unpredictability mean that climate change\\u000a presents new challenges to epidemiology and magnifies existing methodological problems. This article reviews a number of such\\u000a challenges, including topics such as

Wei W. Xun; Aneire E. Khan; Edwin Michael; Paolo Vineis

2010-01-01

405

Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1988-01-01

406

Conceptual questions in computer-assisted assignments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer-assisted personalized assignment system has been used to prepare and present conceptual, qualitative questions to students in large introductory classes. The questions appear to be effective in helping students to grasp concepts, as they stimulate dialogue and discussion among the students while they are seeking correct solutions, and provide the instructor with feedback on difficulties students encounter with certain concepts. No formal evaluation of the effectiveness of these questions has been made. Many conceptual, qualitative questions for introductory physics have been written with this system and used in assignments. Several examples are given and briefly discussed.

Kashy, E.; Gaff, S. J.; Pawley, N. H.; Stretch, W. L.; Wolfe, S. L.; Morrissey, D. J.; Tsai, Y.

1995-11-01

407

Earthquake Hazards Program: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This frequently-asked-questions feature deals with the relationship between earthquakes, faults, and plate tectonics; myths about earthquakes; effects and experiences; preparedness; and many other topics.

408

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback.

2012-01-01

409

Epidemiological evidence linking tea consumption to human health: a review.  

PubMed

Tea has been widely consumed around the world for thousands of years and drinking tea is a daily habit for people of all ages. Tea is a major source of flavonoids, which have become well known as antioxidants. Tea also contains caffeine and theanine, which have been found to associate with health benefits. Many animal and epidemiological studies have been conducted to investigate the link between tea consumption and human health. However, common questions that arise about tea consumption include: whether all teas are the same, why drinking tea is linked with health benefits, how do the different ways of tea preparation impact on availability of tea components, how much and how long a person should consume tea to obtain health benefits, and whether there is any negative health effect associated with drinking tea. To answer these questions, this paper outlines the tea components and their link to human health, discusses major factors affecting availability of tea components in a tea cup, and reviews the latest epidemiological evidence linking tea consumption to human health. PMID:24237002

Vuong, Quan V

2014-01-01

410

Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

Wilson, E. B.

2011-01-01

411

Mental Models of Research: Generating Authentic Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we question how we might disrupt positivist research paradigms that preclude students from engaging and experiencing ownership in the research process. We question what we, as professors, could do to facilitate the transition from traditional research reporting to a disposition of inquiry that allows for ambiguity and discovery in…

Donham, Jean; Heinrich, Jill A.; Bostwick, Kerry A.

2010-01-01

412

Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

Neugebauer, Roger

2006-01-01

413

Lunar interferometric astronomy: Some basic questions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author examines some basic questions as to why there should be astronomical facilities on the far side of the moon. The questions are ones of appropriateness, i.e., is this a proper use for human resources, what the real goals are, and are the present concepts the best match for the goals.

Woolf, Neville

1992-01-01

414

Questionnaire Design: Asking Questions with a Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short document guides the user through the stages of creating and implementing an effective questionnaire. The types of questions and how they should be worded are addressed, and many good examples of the different types of questions that could go into a questionnaire are presented. This resource is intended for novice evaluators.

Taylor-Powell, Ellen

1998-05-01

415

Single-Concept Clicker Question Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students typically use electronic polling systems, or clickers, to answer individual questions. Differing from this tradition, we have developed a new clicker methodology in which multiple clicker questions targeting the same underlying concept but with different surface features are grouped into a sequence. Here we present the creation,…

Lee, Albert; Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Bao, Lei

2011-01-01

416

Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

2002-01-01

417

Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

2005-01-01

418

Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel fashion at 33 and 45 months. The measures encompassed moral emotion (guilt and empathic distress) and

Nazan Aksan; Grazyna Kochanska

2005-01-01

419

Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

Gregerson, Jessica

2011-01-01

420

Patterns and Punctuation: Learning to Question Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As teachers plan instruction--even instruction about punctuation--they have the opportunity to engage students' minds and create new labels: question-asking, problem-solving. How teachers teach embeds a vision of who they think kids are and what they think kids are capable of. Are they destined for a future of critical thinking, questioning,…

Schlessman, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

421

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

422

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

423

Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

Seabury, Marcia Bundy

1995-01-01

424

Self-Questioning Instructional Research: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies in self-questioning designed to improve students' prose processing are reviewed in the context of three theoretical perspectives: active processing perspective, metacognitive theory, and schema theory. The effects of self-questioning training on students' prose processing seem successful. Constraints of content knowledge and metacognitive…

Wong, Bernice Y. L.

1985-01-01

425

Questioning Skills Facilitate Online Synchronous Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of this study show that effective questioning skills increase student intellectual moves that, in turn, facilitate the process of knowledge construction in online synchronous discussion (OSD). The open-ended questions elicited multiple perspectives by promoting student participation, while OSD enabled them to share and debate multiple…

Wang, C.-H.

2005-01-01

426

Can Teacher Questions Be "Too" Open?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators recommend using open-ended questions to encourage students to share their thinking. However, inexplicit open-ended questions can make it difficult for students to determine the teacher's intentions and to participate confidently in mathematical conversations. This article describes strategies teachers can use to make the language of…

Parks, Amy Noelle

2009-01-01

427

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

428

The TREC8 Question Answering Track Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering track was the first large-scale evaluation of systems that returnanswers, as opposed to lists of documents, in response to a question. As a first evaluation, it is importantto examine the evaluation methodology itself to understand any limits on the conclusions that can bedrawn from the evaluation and possibly to find ways to improve subsequent evaluations. This

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

1999-01-01

429

[Epidemiologic characterization of Brucellosis under modern conditions].  

PubMed

The spread of brucella infection under modern conditions of cattle breeding were studied with the foci in the Rostov region taken as an example. The main epidemiological features and tendencies of epidemiological importance were established. To find out specific antigen in different environmental objects, the approbation of the enzyme immunoassay test systems was carried out and the possibility of their use at the institutions of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological inspection was shown. PMID:9700876

Batashev, V V; Uraleva, V S; Kuchin, V V; Karbyshev, G L; Kruglikov, V D; Usatkin, A V; Koreshkova, E A; Kondratenko, T A; Shvager, M M; Sherstneva, T A; Nosov, A M; Bratkova, T N

1998-01-01

430

Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

431

Genetics and epidemiology, congenital anomalies and cancer  

SciTech Connect

Many of the basic statistical methods used in epidemiology - regression, analysis of variance, and estimation of relative risk, for example - originally were developed for the genetic analysis of biometric data. The familiarity that many geneticists have with this methodology has helped geneticists to understand and accept genetic epidemiology as a scientific discipline. It worth noting, however, that most of the work in genetic epidemiology during the past decade has been devoted to linkage and other family studies, rather than to population-based investigations of the type that characterize much of mainstream epidemiology. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

Friedman, J.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

1997-03-01

432

Heart Failure Epidemiology: European Perspective  

PubMed Central

Heart failure poses an increasing problem for global healthcare systems. The epidemiological data which has been accrued over the last thirty years has predominantly been accumulated from experience within North America and Europe. Initial large cohort, prospective longitudinal studies produced the first publications; however latterly the focus has shifted onto epidemiological data governing hospitalisation and mortality. The emphasis behind this shift has been the resource implications with regards to repetitive, costly and prolonged hospitalisation. The European experience in heart failure, though similar to North America has recently demonstrated differences in hospitalisation which may underlie the differences between healthcare system configuration. Heart failure however remains an increasing global problem and the endpoint of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Allied with the fact of increasingly elderly populations and prior data demonstrating a steep rise in prevalent cases within more elderly populations, it is likely that the increasing burden of disease will continue to pose challenges for modern healthcare. Despite the predicted increase in the number of patients affected by heart failure, over the last thirty years, a clear management algorithm has evolved for the use of pharmacotherapies (neuro-hormonal antagonists), device based therapies (Implantable Cardioverting Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT)) and mechanical therapies including left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplantation. Though the management of such patients has been clearly delineated in national and international guidelines, the underuse of all available and appropriate therapies remains a significant problem. When comparing various epidemiological studies from different settings and timepoints, it should be remembered that rates of prevalence and incidence may vary depending upon the definition used, methods of accumulating information (with the possibility of bias) and the chosen cut point of defining left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD).

Guha, K; McDonagh, T

2013-01-01

433

Human Resource Management Survey. Analysis of the Substance-Abuse Questions. Questions 75 through 82 Inclusive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The substance-abuse questions of the Navy's Human Resource Management (HRM) survey were analyzed to determine if they are giving commanding officers valid information on substance-abuse problems in their commands. The responses to the questions concerning...

R. P. Peck

1984-01-01

434

Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology  

SciTech Connect

Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

Weller, R.E.

1992-05-01

435

Epidemiology of youth sports concussion.  

PubMed

The overall prevalence of concussion is high school sports is unknown. In general, concussions in this age range occur much more frequently in games than in practice. Also for sports in which both sexes participate, reported concussion rates are higher for female than male high school athletes. Recent data show that the time required for return to play and resolution of symptoms is similar for women and men. Very little is known about the epidemiology of concussions in middle school-aged athletes and younger children. PMID:22050936

Jinguji, Thomas M; Krabak, Brian J; Satchell, Emma K

2011-11-01

436

Some aspects of cancer epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiolgic studies have strongly suggested that a vast majority (80-90%) of cancers are caused by radiation, chemical and biologic agents; the remainder result from endogenous or genetic factors. Biologically, cancer is most probably the end result of a complex multistage process and therefore may be due to a sequence of exposures to different agents at each of these stages. This emphasizes the need to stress the study of interactions in epidemiologic studies to a greater extent than has been done thus far. Examples of the importance of interactions in several types of cancer are presented.

Lilienfeld, A.M.

1982-03-01

437

Epidemiology Visualized: The Prosecutor's Fallacy.  

PubMed

The "prosecutor's fallacy" (the assumption that Pr [probability] (A|B) = Pr (B|A)) arises often in epidemiology but is often unrecognized as such, in part because investigators do not have strong intuitions about what the fallacy means. Here, we help inform such intuitions and remind investigators of this fallacy by using visualizations. In figures, we demonstrate the prosecutor's fallacy, as well as show conditions under which Pr (A|B) can be assumed to be equal to Pr (B|A). Visualizations can help build intuition around statistical concepts such as the prosecutor's fallacy and should be more widely considered as teaching tools. PMID:24607595

Westreich, Daniel; Iliinsky, Noah

2014-05-01

438

Question Classification using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question classification is very important for question\\u000a answering. This paper presents our research work on\\u000a automatic question classification through machine learning\\u000a approaches. We have experimented with five machine\\u000a learning algorithms: Nearest Neighbors (NN), Naive Bayes\\u000a (NB), Decision Tree (DT), Sparse Network of Winnows\\u000a (SNoW), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) using two kinds\\u000a of features: bag-of-words and bag-ofngrams. The experiment\\u000a results

Dell Zhang; Wee Sun Lee

2003-01-01

439

IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are:\\u000aWhere can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification?\\u000aWhat is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”?\\u000aWhat is the IMS LD Specification about, in a nutshell?\\u000aWhy is the IMS LD Specification important?\\u000aWhat problems

Colin Tattersall; Jocelyn Manderveld; Hans Hummel; Peter Sloep; Rob Koper; Fred De Vries

2004-01-01

440

The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M. Henderson, Robin E.…

Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

441

Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a relatively rare malignancy, occurring in the United States (US) at approximately 1\\/20th the rate\\u000a of lung cancer, and 1\\/7th the rate of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 2006 [1]. Yet, it has inspired a high degree of scientific interest\\u000a because of the heterogeneity of its clinical presentation and behavior, with some aspects characteristic of malignancy but\\u000a others

Sally L. Glaser; Ellen T. Chang; Christina A. Clarke; Theresa H. Keegan

442

Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will look at world health data using GIS. The students will be compare malaria and cholera death data from different years and predict if there exist the conditions for an epidemic. Students will take on the role of an epidemiologist and identify the region of the world where deaths are the highest and recommend to the World Health Organization where they should concentrate their relief efforts. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Vollmer-Buhl, Brian

2011-09-15

443

31 CFR 501.731 - Depositions upon written questions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TREASURY REPORTING, PROCEDURES AND PENALTIES REGULATIONS...731 Depositions upon written questions. (a...taken and submitted on written questions upon motion...730(b). (b) Procedure. Written questions shall...

2013-07-01

444

Unanswered questions about the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)  

PubMed Central

Background The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) represents a current threat to the Arabian Peninsula, and potential pandemic disease. As of June 3, 2014, MERS CoV has reportedly infected 688 people and killed 282. We briefly summarize the state of the outbreak, and highlight unanswered questions and various explanations for the observed epidemiology. Findings The continuing but infrequent cases of MERS-CoV reported over the past two years have been puzzling and difficult to explain. The epidemiology of MERS-CoV, with many sporadic cases and a few hospital outbreaks, yet no sustained epidemic, suggests a low reproductive number. Furthermore, a clear source of infection to humans remains unknown. Also puzzling is the fact that MERS-CoV has been present in Saudi Arabia over several mass gatherings, including the 2012 and 2013 Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages, which predispose to epidemics, without an epidemic arising. Conclusions The observed epidemiology of MERS-CoV is quite distinct and does not clearly fit either a sporadic or epidemic pattern. Possible explanations of the unusual features of the epidemiology of MERS-CoV include sporadic ongoing infections from a non-human source; human to human transmission with a large proportion of undetected cases; or a combination of both. The virus has been identified in camels; however the mode of transmission of the virus to humans remains unknown, and many cases have no history of animal contact. In order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of MERS CoV, further investigation is warranted.

2014-01-01

445

Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax.…

Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

2013-01-01

446

Questioning ‘Open questioning’ in early years science discourse from a social semiotic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received wisdom in Primary science classroom teaching advocates the use of open questions for elicitation. The socio-cultural perspective on discourse, however, leads one to question the usual classification of questioning by its grammatical formality and leads instead to an analysis of the discourse in the socio-cultural context which includes the background of the children. In this paper we develop this

Diane Harris; Julian Williams

2007-01-01

447

Toxoplasmosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Epidemiology & Risk Factors Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

448

Frequently Asked Questions about Cicatricial (Scarring) Alopecia  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently Asked Questions What is cicatricial alopecia or scarring alopecia? Are there different kinds of cicatricial alopecia? What causes cicatricial alopecia? Who is affected by cicatricial alopecia? Are cicatricial ...

449

Dengue/Severe Dengue Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... ??????? Español RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + Dengue control Menu Dengue Control strategies Monitoring and evaluation Other arbo-viral diseases Research Information resources Dengue/Severe dengue frequently asked questions What is dengue ...

450

A Response to the Question of Elitism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out that Ralph Smith's article, "A Question of Elitism," offers useful distinctions for advancing the cause of elitism in education. Contends that excellence and democratic values are indeed compatible. (BSR)

Hausman, Jerome J.

1987-01-01

451

Roth 401(k): asking the right questions.  

PubMed

Roth 401(k) provisions are a newly available feature of 401(k) plans. Roth 401(k) provisions are after-tax savings that generally are tax-free at the time of distribution. Questions arise for plan sponsors about whether the new feature is beneficial, and to whom, and what needs to be done if the plan sponsor decides to offer this provision to its employees. This article tries to answer some of those common questions, including a simple computational analysis to try to answer the important question of how much an employee-participant genuinely benefits from this savings approach. Some practical issues of implementation are touched on, and some unanswered questions are identified. PMID:16833065

Joyner, James F

2006-01-01

452

Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling  

MedlinePLUS

... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Counseling What are genetic professionals and what do ... see a geneticist or other specialist? What are genetic professionals and what do they do? Genetics professionals ...

453

Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders What are genetic disorders? A genetic disorder is a disease caused ... significant risk of developing the disease. . Geneticists group genetic disorders into three categories: Monogenetic disorders are caused ...

454

Similar Density Questions with Very Different Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While developing a standardized fluids assessment covering buoyancy and pressure, we discovered deficiencies in student understanding of density. In particular, many college students do not recognize that density is a fixed property of a solid substance, such as aluminum or gold. We added questions to our diagnostic exam to probe the extent of student difficulties. In one of our questions, only 50-60% of students (depending upon class) recognize that the density of gold is a fixed value. When similar questions from an existing diagnostic¹ are used, however, 88-100% of students correctly identify the density of a piece of wood and of a diamond as fixed values. In this paper we discuss the differences between these questions and how those differences affect student responses. ¹ Yeendâs Density Survey.

Lindow, Ashley; Carbone, Elizabeth; Wagner, Doris J.

2014-02-01

455

The Geomagnetic Field: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a group of frequently asked questions and answers about Earth's magnetic field and poles, the magnetic compass, magnetic reversals, and geomagnetic models. Links to maps and illustrations are embedded in the text.

456

Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Alcohol and Public Health Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions Introduction to alcohol ... 24: Changes from 1998 to 2001 . Annu Rev Public Health 2005;26:259–79. Levy DT, Mallonee S, Miller ...

457

Frequently Asked Questions about Health Reform  

MedlinePLUS

... or not and in advance of the penalty ever being applied. Share this question: Share on Twitter ... benefits, which include Ambulatory patient services Emergency services Hospitalization Maternity and newborn care Mental health and substance ...

458

Rash: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Rash Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long have you had the rash? Is ... Have you had any recent sun exposure? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

459

Insomnia: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Insomnia Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Are you particularly stressed at work or at ... Do you have worries about not sleeping? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

460

Shingles: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Shingles Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Do you have a history of chicken pox? ... p. 872)? Are you taking any medications? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

461

Vaginitis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Vaginitis Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long have you had this vaginal discomfort? ... abdominal pain, joint pain, or a rash? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

462

Gallstones: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Gallstones Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Do you have pain in the mid- or ... your urine or yellowing of the eyes? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

463

Thrombocytopenia: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Thrombocytopenia Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: What medications do you take (including over-the- ... do you drink in an average week? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

464

Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... About High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of ... by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. ...

465

Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Unreviewed Safety Question Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the unreviewed safety question procedures used by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. to evaluate proposed changes and discoveries of potential inadequacies in the safety analyses and to document and report those evaluation.

A. R. Larson

2001-01-01

466

Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS  

SciTech Connect

Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

Meier, W R

2011-03-17

467

Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Eating Disorders Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) donate en -- 3 Summer Menus for Outdoor Dining - ... Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

468

The Complex Nature of Opening Reference Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to review communication theory models and some of the literature from philosophy and linguistics in an attempt to supply a rational explanation for the generality of opening reference questions. (Author)

Eichman, Thomas Lee

1978-01-01

469

Current RFAs and PQs — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

470

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

471

Different Questions, Different Methods of Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn that scientists not only do controlled experiment but other forms of investigations. Different types of questions lead to different types of investigations. Not all scientific knowledge is obtained through experimentation.

Admin, Admin

2011-10-07

472

Report Questions Effectiveness of Flu Meds  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Report Questions Effectiveness of Flu Meds 'Hidden' trial data reveals that some Tamiflu ... 2014) Thursday, April 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Medicines THURSDAY, April 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- No ...

473

Osteoarthritis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Men’s Health Heart & Circulatory Health contact us Osteoarthritis Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long ... function? What have you done to treat your osteoarthritis? Have you seen a physical therapist? Do you ...

474

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

475

Archived RFAs and PQs — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

476

The dynamics of tuberculosis epidemiology.  

PubMed

A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future. PMID:24640341

Rieder, Hans L

2014-01-01

477

Contemporary Renal Cell Cancer Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

We analyzed renal cell cancer incidence patterns in the United States and reviewed recent epidemiologic evidence with regard to environmental and host genetic determinants of renal cell cancer risk. Renal cell cancer incidence rates continued to rise among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, across all age groups, and for all tumor sizes, with the most rapid increases for localized stage disease and small tumors. Recent cohort studies confirmed the association of smoking, excess body weight, and hypertension with an elevated risk of renal cell cancer, and suggested that these factors can be modified to reduce the risk. There is increasing evidence for an inverse association between renal cell cancer risk and physical activity and moderate intake of alcohol. Occupational exposure to TCE has been positively associated with renal cell cancer risk in several recent studies, but its link with somatic mutations of the VHL gene has not been confirmed. Studies of genetic polymorphisms in relation to renal cell cancer risk have produced mixed results, but genome-wide association studies with larger sample size and a more comprehensive approach are underway. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated risk factors by subtypes of renal cell cancer defined by somatic mutations and other tumor markers.

Chow, Wong-Ho; Devesa, Susan S.

2010-01-01

478

Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.  

PubMed Central

This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

1996-01-01

479

Epidemiology of yaws: an update.  

PubMed

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitjà, Oriol

2014-01-01

480

Epidemiology of yaws: an update  

PubMed Central

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication.

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitja, Oriol

2014-01-01

481

Social Epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom  

PubMed Central

Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions.

Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu

2012-01-01

482

Social epidemiology and Eastern Wisdom.  

PubMed

Social epidemiology is the field of study that attempts to understand the social determinants of health and the dynamics between societal settings and health. In the past 3 decades, large-scale studies in the West have accumulated a range of measures and methodologies to pursue this goal. We would like to suggest that there may be conceptual gaps in the science if Western research models are applied uncritically in East Asian studies of socioeconomic, gender, and ethnic inequalities in health. On one hand, there are common concerns, including population aging and gendered labor market participation. Further, international comparison must be built on shared concepts such as socioeconomic stratification in market economies. On the other hand, some aspects of health, such as common mental disorders, may have culturally specific manifestations that require development of perspectives (and perhaps novel measures) in order to reveal Eastern specifics. Exploring and debating commonalities and differences in the determinants of health in Oriental and Occidental cultures could offer fresh inspiration and insight for the next phase of social epidemiology in both regions. PMID:22790787

Brunner, Eric; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Cable, Noriko; Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu

2012-01-01

483

Learning Named Entity Hyponyms for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical mismatch is a problem that con- founds automatic question answering sys- tems. While existing lexical ontologies such as WordNet have been successfully used to match verbal synonyms (e.g., beat and de- feat) and common nouns (tennis is-a sport), their coverage of proper nouns is less ex- tensive. Question answering depends sub- stantially on processing named entities, and thus it

Paul McNamee; Rion Snow; Patrick Schone; James Mayfield

484

Is question answering an acquired skill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question answering (QA) system which learns how to detect and rank answer passages by analyzing questions and their answers (QA pairs) provided as training data. We built our system in only a few person-months using off-the-shelf components: a part-of-speech tagger, a shallow parser, a lexical network, and a few well-known supervised learning algorithms. In contrast, many of

Ganesh Ramakrishnan; Soumen Chakrabarti; Deepa Paranjpe; Pushpak Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

485

La question charbonnière de William Stanley Jevons  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La question charbonnière de William Stanley levons. . Dans La question charbonnière (1865), de W. S. Jevons, les ressources de charbon ressemblent au schéma de Malthus : une consommation croissante contrainte par des réserves fixes exploitées à rendements décroissants. La consommation de charbon suit une progression géométrique à 3,5 % l'an, l'exportation aussi. Cette croissance aboutit à l'épuisement des

Michel Robine

1990-01-01

486

Building a question answering test collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering (QA) Track was the first large-scale evaluation of domain-independent question answering systems. In addition to fostering research on the QA task, the track was used to investigate whether the evaluation methodology used for document retrieval is appropriate for a different natural language processing task. As with document relevance judging, assessors had legitimate differences of opinions as

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

2000-01-01

487

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

488

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara; Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean

2010-12-02

489

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

490

16 CFR 1000.26 - Directorate for Epidemiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Directorate for Epidemiology. 1000.26 Section 1000.26 Commercial...FUNCTIONS § 1000.26 Directorate for Epidemiology. The Directorate for Epidemiology, managed by the Associate Executive...

2009-01-01

491

16 CFR 1000.26 - Directorate for Epidemiology.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Directorate for Epidemiology. 1000.26 Section 1000.26 Commercial...FUNCTIONS § 1000.26 Directorate for Epidemiology. The Directorate for Epidemiology, managed by the Associate Executive...

2010-01-01

492

MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

493

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY: POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction The term "molecular epidemiology" has been used to cover a broad range of scientific activities, often without specific reference to epidemiology. In fact, as noted by Foxman and Riley [1],molecular epidemiology has often been described almost exclusively in...

494

CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY: WHAT, WHO AND WHITHER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical epidemiology, the what, was introduced by John Paul in 1938 as a new basic science for preventive medicine. Its definition subsequently took on a more bedside tone, but continues to be adapted to the needs of its practitioners. Clinical epidemiology, the who, centers on Alvan Feinstein and the way that he led the field and nurtured so many of

David L. Sackett

2002-01-01

495

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

496

Epidemiology, Science as Inquiry and Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent worldwide SARS outbreak has put the science of epidemiology into the headlines once again. Epidemiology is "... the study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events and the application of these methods to the control of health problems" (Gordis 2000). In this context, the authors have developed a…

Kaelin, Mark; Huebner, Wendy

2003-01-01

497

Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly trans- ferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent

Hamish I. McCallum; Armand Kuris; C. Drew Harvell; Kevin. D. Lafferty; Garriet W. Smith; James Porter

2004-01-01

498

[EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].  

PubMed

EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities. PMID:22507994

Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

499

Linking healthcare associated norovirus outbreaks: a molecular epidemiologic method for investigating transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Noroviruses are highly infectious pathogens that cause gastroenteritis in the community and in semi-closed institutions such as hospitals. During outbreaks, multiple units within a hospital are often affected, and a major question for control programs is: are the affected units part of the same outbreak or are they unrelated transmission events? In practice, investigators often assume a transmission link based on epidemiological observations, rather than a systematic approach to tracing transmission. Here, we present a combined molecular and statistical method for assessing: 1) whether observed clusters provide evidence of local transmission and 2) the probability that anecdotally|linked outbreaks truly shared a transmission event. Methods 76 healthcare associated outbreaks were observed in an active and prospective surveillance scheme of 15 hospitals in the county of Avon, England from April 2002 to March 2003. Viral RNA from 64 out of 76 specimens from distinct outbreaks was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and was sequenced in the polymerase (ORF 1) and capsid (ORF 2) regions. The genetic diversity, at the nucleotide level, was analysed in relation to the epidemiological patterns. Results Two out of four genetic and epidemiological clusters of outbreaks were unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, thus suggesting local transmission. There was anecdotal epidemiological evidence of a transmission link among 5 outbreaks pairs. By combining this epidemiological observation with viral sequence data, the evidence of a link remained convincing in 3 of these pairs. These results are sensitive to prior beliefs of the strength of epidemiological evidence especially when the outbreak strains are common in the background population. Conclusion The evidence suggests that transmission between hospitals units does occur. Using the proposed criteria, certain hypothesized transmission links between outbreaks were supported while others were refuted. The combined molecular/epidemiologic approach presented here could be applied to other viral populations and potentially to other pathogens for a more thorough view of transmission.

Lopman, Ben A; Gallimore, Chris; Gray, Jim J; Vipond, Ian B; Andrews, Nick; Sarangi, Joyshri; Reacher, Mark H; Brown, David W

2006-01-01

500

Asbestos exposure and malignant lymphomas--a review of the epidemiological literature.  

PubMed

There has been a significant number of case reports on the occurrence of lymphomas in people previously exposed to asbestos. This raises the question of whether corresponding results are available from analytical epidemiological studies. In the present review of the epidemiological literature, we describe the results of the six cohort and 16 case-control studies that - according to our research - were published up to 1999 and, directly or indirectly. shed light on the above question. In summarizing the results of these studies, we have distinguished between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) and plasmocytoma/ multiple myeloma (MM). A causal relationship between asbestos exposure and the subsequent development of lymphomas cannot be derived from the available results. However, since quite a number of studies and the combined analysis indicate a (weakly) increased risk, this question should be considered directly in future epidemiological studies. Such studies should address separately the various sub-entities, employing the latest internationally agreed classification, and should also use the latest methods of quantifying exposure. PMID:11697448

Becker, N; Berger, J; Bolm-Audorff, U

2001-09-01