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1

FAQ IRB questions (includes SPE  

Cancer.gov

The most recent Investigator’s Brochure (IB) will provide a good estimate of known adverse event inci-dence (see the FAQ on how to receive an IB), and some CAEPRs (included in the protocol docu-ment) do, too.

2

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline  

E-print Network

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline The University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline is NOT a 911 or Emergency Service. Reports submitted through the Anonymous Reporting Hotline may not receive an immediate response. If you require emergency

Papautsky, Ian

3

Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) Program Solicitation NSF 04-511 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

NSF Publications Database

... MRI) Program Solicitation NSF 04-511 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) FAQ #1. Changes in the MRI ... Program and Solicitation 1.A. Question: How does the new FY 2004 MRI Program Solicitation differ ...

4

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for 2004 Information Technology Research (ITR) Solicitation  

NSF Publications Database

... Asked Questions (FAQ) for Information Technology Research (ITR) (NSF 04-012) REVISIONS AND UPDATES ... 06, 2004). Table of Contents Information Technology Research Frequently Asked Questions - ...

5

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - Reorganization of Division of Integrative Biology and Neuroscience  

NSF Publications Database

... of the Division of Integrative Biology and Neuroscience Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) November ... Biology and Neuroscience (IBN) is now reorganized into the Division of Integrative Organismal ...

6

Quantum System Engineering (QSE) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web-page contains an FAQ offered by the quantum systems engineering group at the University of Washington. The FAQ provides some general information about the utility of quantum microscopy as well as magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM).

2005-11-21

7

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 05-520)  

NSF Publications Database

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 05-520) Table of Contents ... for HSD this year? Why is the Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences the only one ...

8

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

9

The Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ): Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

PubMed Central

The Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) is a measure of mid-aged women's emotional and physical health. Since its publication in 1992 the WHQ has been widely used in multinational clinical trials, in epidemiological studies as well as in the evaluation of non-medical treatments. In particular the WHQ has been included as a quality of life measure in trials of hormonal preparations for peri and post menopausal women and in studies using a variety of preventative interventions for mid-aged and older women. The questionnaire was developed in English and standardised on a sample of women aged 45–65 years. It is reliable, has good concurrent validity and is sensitive to detecting change, and is available in 27 languages. The range of subscales included in the WHQ enable a detailed assessment of dimensions of emotional and physical health, such as depression, anxiety, sleep problems, somatic symptoms, with optional subscales for menstrual problems and sexual difficulties. The WHQ is the first measure to be included in the MAPI Research Institute's database, the International Health-related Quality of Life Outcomes Database (IQOD). Drawing upon data from international studies this project aims to produce reference values for cross-culturally valid, reliable and responsive quality of life instruments. In addition to this work, a revised shorter version of the WHQ is currently being developed. PMID:14521718

Hunter, Myra S

2003-01-01

10

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

11

Economic FAQs About the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a set of Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) about the economic, institutional, and technological structure of the Internet. We describe the history and current state of the Internet, discuss some of the pressing economic and regulatory problems, and speculate about future developments. What is a FAQ? FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions. There are dozens of FAQ documents

Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason; Hal R. Varian

1995-01-01

12

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

13

Investment FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Christopher Lott developed the Investment FAQ site to help individual investors obtain "clear and concise information about investments and personal finance." The site consists of a collection of Frequently Asked Questions and answers about investments and personal finance. Collection categories include advice, analysis, bonds, derivatives, exchanges, financial planning, information sources, insurance, mutual funds, real estate, regulation, retirement plans, software, stocks, strategies, tax code, technical analysis and trading. There are tours designed for the beginner, intermediate users, and experts.

1998-01-01

14

Heart Attack Recovery FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

Heart Attack Recovery FAQS Updated:Sep 2,2014 Most people survive their first heart attack and return to ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers How long will I ...

15

his document presents the highlights of the Frequently Asked Questions about Ocean Acidification (2010, 2012; www.whoi.edu/OCB-OA/FAQs), a detailed summary of the state of  

E-print Network

T his document presents the highlights of the Frequently Asked Questions about Ocean Acidification (2010, 2012; www.whoi.edu/OCB-OA/FAQs), a detailed summary of the state of ocean acidification research policy advisors asked to comment on details about ocean acidification. In all, 63 scientists from 47

16

The Epidemiology of Fragrance Allergy: Questions and Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are still open questions about the safety of fragrances. Objectives: To evaluate the evidence concerning the frequency of contact dermatitis to fragrances in the general population and selected subgroups and the risk factors for sensitization and clinical manifestations. Methods: Review of published data. Results: No criteria for a reliable diagnosis of ‘contact dermatitis’ are available. International recommendations and

Luigi Naldi

2002-01-01

17

Bad Rain FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Frequently asked questions (FAQ) is written in response to questions posed over the years by readers of the Bad Meteorology pages. Although the questions presented here are often ones asked by a specific person, each is chosen to characterize a group of similar questions which have been asked about the topic. The author cites four types of evidence: photography, theory, rainbows, and radar and proceeds to explain how each offers evidence of the true shape of raindrops. In his replies to the other two issues the author points out that rain does not fall through a vacuum and that some of the paintings of Picasso would not be helpful in the teaching of anatomy.

Fraser, Alistair

18

Giardiasis Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... water where Giardia may live, especially in lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, and streams Eating uncooked food that ... water where Giardia may live, especially in lakes, rivers, springs, ponds, and streams International travelers People exposed ...

19

Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... to treat crusted scabies successfully. Reinfestation from items (fomites) such as clothing, bedding, or towels that were ... by persons with crusted scabies); potentially contaminated items (fomites) should be machine washed in hot water and ...

20

Falls: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... objects such as furniture, cords and rugs Poor lighting, particularly areas with dark/light variability Poorly fitting ... a fall, such as loose carpets or poor lighting Treat any cardiovascular disorders, such as heart-rhythm ...

21

FAQs - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

This page is designed to answer some of the common questions about NCI's Cancer Human Biobank (caHUB) initiative. We will update these Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) as new information becomes available or new questions are submitted to us. If you don't find an answer to your question on this page, please send us an e-mail.

22

Frequently Asked Questions - Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Updated Frequently Asked Questions on Research Bases Request for Application (RFA) Select a category by clicking on its title below. How to search the content of the FAQs: Click on the FAQ Category you

23

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northeast Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service provides this wonderful site offering a myriad of answers to frequently asked fish questions. If your questions include "Do fish sleep?" or "How does a scallop move?" or "What is 'tomalley'?", you are sure to find the answers here--as well as many other fascinating fish facts. Answers are thorough, and many are accompanied by color graphics, tables, and photographs to illustrate principles and provide examples.

1999-01-01

24

Selecting appropriate study designs to address specific research questions in occupational epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Various epidemiological study designs are available to investigate illness and injury risks related to workplace exposures. The choice of study design to address a particular research question will be guided by the nature of the health outcome under study, its presumed relation to workplace exposures, and feasibility constraints. This review summarises the relative advantages and limitations of conventional study designs including cohort studies, cross?sectional studies, repeated measures studies, case?control (industry? and community?based) studies, and more recently developed variants of the nested case?control design: case?cohort and case?crossover studies. PMID:17704203

Checkoway, Harvey; Pearce, Neil; Kriebel, David

2007-01-01

25

FAQs for the Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) Program  

NSF Publications Database

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 04-537) Table of Contents ... for HSD this year? Why is the Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences the only one ...

26

FAQs about Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection  

MedlinePLUS

FAQs (frequently asked questions) “Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection” about What is “catheter-associated urinary tract infection”? A urinary tract infection (also called “UTI”) is an infection in the urinary system, ...

27

Low Vision FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs Listen What is low vision? Low vision ...

28

Culinary herbFAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

1997-01-01

29

Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Parasites - Onchocerciasis (also known as River Blindness) Parasites Home Share Compartir Onchocerciasis FAQs On ... an infected Simulium blackfly. It is also called River Blindness because the fly that transmits infection breeds ...

30

FAQ Nurse practitions physician  

Cancer.gov

September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

31

FAQ DARF discrepancies  

Cancer.gov

September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

32

Pediatric Obesity and Anesthesia FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Expect Patient Stories FAQs Anesthesia Topics FAQs Pediatric Obesity and Anesthesia Share PRINT Print Home > Anesthesia Topics > Detail Page What is pediatric obesity? Pediatric obesity is defined as children and adolescents ...

33

Lyme Disease Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... 6 weeks and the IgG Western Blot is still negative, it is highly likely that the IgM result is incorrect (e.g., a false positive). This does not mean that you are not ill, but it does suggest that the cause of ...

34

Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms. The adult worms only live in the human lymph system. The ... South America. You cannot get infected with the worms in the United States. How is lymphatic filariasis ...

35

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria  

MedlinePLUS

... of an area in which there is concentrated commercial activity, such as manufacturing, the sale of goods ... and transportation. Rural areas tend to have less commercial activity, less population density, more green space, and ...

36

Updated Hurricane Katrina Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

NSF Publications Database

... to your institution's ability to manage financial activities, to include payment of salaries for ... that have been made available as a result of hurricane Katrina? Answer: Some NSF programs have ...

37

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... virus has been detected in all lower 48 states (not in Hawaii or Alaska). Outbreaks have been occurring every summer ... reported from all 48 lower states. The only states that have not reported cases are Alaska and Hawaii. Seasonal outbreaks often occur in local areas that ...

38

Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... kill adult lice? No. Using fumigant sprays or fogs is NOT recommended. Fumigant sprays and fogs can be toxic if inhaled or absorbed through ... home fumigated? No. Use of insecticide sprays or fogs is NOT recommended. Fumigant spray and fogs can ...

39

FAQs About Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a FAQ in a concise, readable summary of the current state of ocean acidification knowledge to support the scientific research community and educators. It is maintained by the OCB Project Office, with oversight from the Ocean Acidification Subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program. Featured items include a primer to offer the foundational basics of ocean acidification and its impact on humans, Earth systems and marine life.

2012-09-24

40

Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis and contact allergy are common medical conditions. But how common are they? Are they more common in certain\\u000a populations? Are reactions to specific contact allergens more prevalent than to other allergens? This chapter presents some\\u000a basic epidemiologic principles which are important in population-based or clinic-based studies on contact dermatitis. Examples\\u000a of studies on contact allergy as well as

Pieter-Jan Coenraads; Wolfgang Uter; Thomas Diepgen

41

Just the FAQs: An Alternative to Teaching the Research Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changing the form of the traditional research paper often results in a greater emphasis on inquiry or FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). An alternative form of presentation that capitalizes on available technology and requires students to develop their thinking, reading, writing and presentation skills is presented.

Strickland, James

2004-01-01

42

FAQs Manhattanville Campus Central Energy Plant Boiler Stacks  

E-print Network

FAQs Manhattanville Campus Central Energy Plant Boiler Stacks Installation Frequently Asked Questions What is happening? Columbia University is installing two (2) boiler stacks on top of the Jerome L, a below-grade facility which will consist four (4) 45,000 lbs/hr steam boilers and related equipment

Kim, Philip

43

Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media ... there specific disorders or conditions associated with Fragile X syndrome? Among the other conditions associated with Fragile ...

44

FAQ Injectable agents in vials  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

45

Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... Free Health Lessons Social Media: Connect With Us Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

46

Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

2010-05-14

47

Dark Matter FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page has a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Dark Matter and related issues. The main questions concern the origin of Dark Matter, its propeties and the possible ways to detect it. There are also questions linking cosmology with particle physics.

Group, Berkeley C.

2008-05-02

48

Bad Greenhouse FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These answers were written in response to questions from readers of the Bad Meteorology pages. Although the questions presented here are often ones asked by a specific person, each is chosen to characterize a group of similar questions which have been asked about the topic. They involve temperature conversion and energy emission.

Fraser, Alistair

49

Using a FAQ as a Student Learning Resource: An Examination of Productivity, Self-Confidence, and Task-Related Behaviors of Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) resource affects student productivity of class work, self- confidence for completing tasks independently, and task-related behaviors in a sixth-grade technology class. A FAQ resource, which provided questions and answers about how to use Microsoft Word, was utilized for the development of student research reports. Data collection

Janice R. Keith; Verilette Hinkle

50

Bad Clouds FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The answers on this page were written in response to questions from readers of the Bad Meteorology pages. Although the questions presented here are often ones asked by a specific person, each is chosen to characterize a group of similar questions which have been asked about the topic. Topics include: the vapor-holding capacity of air, reasoning and prediction, relative humidity, and boiling point.

Fraser, Alistair

51

The Online Tornado FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

Edwards, Roger

2009-12-31

52

Cyber Trust FAQs  

NSF Publications Database

... ITWF (NSF 03-609), SFS (NSF 04-505), and ATE (NSF 03-523). Question: I notice that the awards made ... should be:[H.R.3394.ENR]). See Section 16. @media print { BODY {font-size: 12pt; line-height: 120% ...

53

Evidence-based decision-making in infectious diseases epidemiology, prevention and control: matching research questions to study designs and quality appraisal tools  

PubMed Central

Background The Project on a Framework for Rating Evidence in Public Health (PRECEPT) was initiated and is being funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) to define a methodology for evaluating and grading evidence and strength of recommendations in the field of public health, with emphasis on infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control. One of the first steps was to review existing quality appraisal tools (QATs) for individual research studies of various designs relevant to this area, using a question-based approach. Methods Through team discussions and expert consultations, we identified 20 relevant types of public health questions, which were grouped into six domains, i.e. characteristics of the pathogen, burden of disease, diagnosis, risk factors, intervention, and implementation of intervention. Previously published systematic reviews were used and supplemented by expert consultation to identify suitable QATs. Finally, a matrix was constructed for matching questions to study designs suitable to address them and respective QATs. Key features of each of the included QATs were then analyzed, in particular in respect to its intended use, types of questions and answers, presence/absence of a quality score, and if a validation was performed. Results In total we identified 21 QATs and 26 study designs, and matched them. Four QATs were suitable for experimental quantitative study designs, eleven for observational quantitative studies, two for qualitative studies, three for economic studies, one for diagnostic test accuracy studies, and one for animal studies. Included QATs consisted of six to 28 items. Six of the QATs had a summary quality score. Fourteen QATs had undergone at least one validation procedure. Conclusions The results of this methodological study can be used as an inventory of potentially relevant questions, appropriate study designs and QATs for researchers and authorities engaged with evidence-based decision-making in infectious disease epidemiology, prevention and control. PMID:24886571

2014-01-01

54

The Moon FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you look in the sky over the course of a month, you should notice a change in the appearance of the moon. The different shapes the moon makes are known as the moon\\'s phases. The moon is an extremely hot & cold place, and it is very, very far away. Huh? Read on... 1. For billions of years the moon has orbited the Earth. Read about The Origin of the Moon and then answer these two questions: A. How old is the moon? B. Where did it come from? 2. The moon is far away. So far, in fact, you\\'re going to need ...

2007-09-26

55

The Canadian Nuclear FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly pro-nuclear website offers information not only about nuclear energy in Canada, but about this controversial energy resource more generally. Start with the Introduction and Disclaimer, where Dr. Jeremy Whitlock, the author of the site and a reactor physicist at an Ottawa Valley nuclear power plant, explains the purpose and limitations of the site. Then have a look at the dozens of questions Dr. Whitlock answers with erudite â and opinionated â precision, covering such broad topics as Cost and Benefits, Safety and Liability, Waste Management, and Security and Non-Proliferation. Also, take a look at the excellent Links and Further Information pages, as well as the Editorials page, which features dozens of pro-nuclear missives. In all, interested readers will find this page well argued and informative.

Whitlock, Jeremy

1996-04-24

56

FAQs about Facilities: Practical Tips for Planning Renovations and New School Library Media Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers frequently asked questions (FAQs) related to planning for renovating or building school library media centers (SLMCs). Topics include the role of the school library media specialist, advance planning, importance of a written long-range plan, library consultants, courses on planning, design compromises, planning resources, professional…

Lenk, Mary Anne

2002-01-01

57

FAQ And Guide For uCLA entrepreneurs FAQfor UCLA EntrEprEnEUrs  

E-print Network

FAQ And Guide For uCLA entrepreneurs FAQfor UCLA EntrEprEnEUrs And Guide #12;uCLA oFFiCe oF inte follows is a list of frequently asked questions to help entrepreneurs in the UCLA community getCLA entrepreneurs What type of assistance can OIP provide in starting my company? Through our network, we can

Levine, Alex J.

58

FAQs  

Cancer.gov

The DCIDE program is intended to supply or enable missing steps to those who lack development capacity or resources so that promising discoveries may eventually be translated to the clinical research environment. The DCIDE program will focus on promising diagnostic agents that are not otherwise likely to undergo adequate pre-clinical testing to warrant an IND application.

59

FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir FAQ: Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Can I get infected with ... get infected with West Nile virus by donating blood? No. You cannot get West Nile virus by ...

60

Prader-Willi Syndrome: Other FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS): Other FAQs Skip sharing on social ... or silenced genes in this region, called the Prader-Willi critical region (PWCR). This section of the chromosome ...

61

FAQs of Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Pregnancy Loss: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media ... anything a woman can do to prevent a pregnancy loss? Most of the time, a woman cannot ...

62

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER FAQ) Program  

NSF Publications Database

The official guidelines for submission of CAREER proposals can be found in the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program Solicitation (NSF 02-111), available on the NSF web site (http://www.nsf.gov/career). The "CAREER Contacts List" can be found on the CAREER Web page at http://www.nsf.gov/home/crssprgm/career/contacts.htm. Before preparing a CAREER proposal, refer to the CAREER Program Solicitation and the FastLane Web page at http://www.fastlane.nsf.gov/a1/newstan.htm for detailed...

63

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

Letting researchers study your samples may help find new and better treatments for cancer and other diseases. Researchers use samples to look for ways to prevent, find, or treat health problems-as in Example 1 below.

64

Web Search Engines FAQS: Questions, Answers, and Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The October issue of Searcher magazine offers this article by Gary Price, Web searcher extraordinaire (see the October 3, 1997 Scout Report). The article, which "reviews the latest goings on in the search world and tries to provide some suggestions and tools to make you more knowledgeable and save you some time," is, as one might expect from Price, clear and detailed in its review of the latest in search engines and the like. Running down the side of the page are "Price's Priceless Tips," including Ten Things to Know about Google (AllTheWeb, Altavista, etc.) and information on new search tools. There is a wealth of useful information here.

Price, Gary.

2001-01-01

65

Automatic question answering using the web: Beyond the Factoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe and evaluate a Question Answering (QA) system that goes beyond answering factoid questions. Our approach to QA assumes no restrictions on the type of questions that are handled, and no assumption that the answers to be provided are factoids. We present an unsupervised approach for collecting question and answer pairs from FAQ pages, which we

Radu Soricut; Eric Brill

2006-01-01

66

Hale Hall Move FAQ Who has moved?  

E-print Network

floor. July 15 ­ The Hale Black Cultural Center will occupy the first floor. September 20 ­ Hale HallHale Hall Move FAQ Who has moved? · Frank W. Hale, Jr., Black Cultural Center (expected move date, Campus Change, and Young Scholars College Success Program) · Special Programs · Young Scholars Program

Howat, Ian M.

67

CAMP FAQ's What is Hi-GEAR?  

E-print Network

CAMP FAQ's What is Hi-GEAR? High School Girls' Engineering to offer our Annual Hi - GEAR Program, a special week-long event for female high school students. Hi-GEAR will be held June 16�20, 2014 from 9:00 am until 4

Provancher, William

68

Frequently Asked Questions on Ebola Virus Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently asked questions on Ebola virus disease Updated 8 August 2014 1. What is Ebola virus disease? Download the FAQ on Ebola in pdf format ... in detail. Should patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola virus be separated from other patients? Isolating patients ...

69

Questioning the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

2010-01-01

70

Questioning the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

2009-01-01

71

Epidemiology in Knowledge Integration  

Cancer.gov

Session 5 Panel Discussion Question: How can epidemiology help integrate knowledge from basic, clinical and population sciences to accelerate translation from research to practice? Moderator: Muin J. Khoury, M.D., Ph.D., EGRP, DCCPS, NCI Panelists:

72

Accessing the Internet by E-mail FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gerald Boyd has spent much time learning the internal syntax of web search engines. He has made the fruits of his labor available at an ftp site. Interested Internauts can download FAQs on how to query fifteen generic and eight specialty search engines by email. Included are Alta Vista, Excite, Inktomi, Yahoo, Infoseek, OKRA, Open Text, SwitchBoard, TheList, and others. Also included is a FAQ on how to use an Agora Server to use the web by email. See the Scout Report for March 8, 1996 for more on Agora. The FAQs are of greatest use to those without a web connection, but are also interesting to anyone who is intrigued by the intricacies of search engines. Users should download wsintro.faq (table of contents of FAQs), wscrack.faq (basic strategy for figuring out how to query search indexes via email) and wshelp.faq (Agora help file) before any others. For those who would like to download everything at once, wssearch.zip contains all of the files. Note that while these files are fairly technical, they are very useful for those who need such Internet access.

Boyd, Gerald E.

1994-01-01

73

question_1296837100 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

While the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to increased risk for certain cancers are largely unknown (as noted in other questions), we pose an associated question -- what are the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to decreased risk of certain other cancers?

74

question_1408193863 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown the usefulness of fasting or dietary interventions as potential cancer preventive and therapeutic approach. Fasting itself is known to suppress many cancer cells growth and increases chemo-sensitivity. Likewise, ketogenic diets are also known to suppress cancer cells growth. The potential of such kind of approaches has motivated many clinicians and researchers to carry out experimental and clinical studies at different parts of the world.

75

question_1302545047 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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108

question_1409749007 — Provocative Questions  

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109

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question_1298614465 — Provocative Questions  

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111

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112

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question_1297499720 — Provocative Questions  

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114

question_1409921534 — Provocative Questions  

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115

question_1296759663 — Provocative Questions  

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116

question_1302203772 — Provocative Questions  

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117

question_1297435384 — Provocative Questions  

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118

question_1297191134 — Provocative Questions  

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119

question_1312912193 — Provocative Questions  

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120

question_1299539367 — Provocative Questions  

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121

question_1296507921 — Provocative Questions  

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122

question_1296508079 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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123

question_1409933220 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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124

question_1409976519 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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125

question_1297384627 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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126

question_1410844360 — Provocative Questions  

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127

question_1296786566 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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128

question_1299510834 — Provocative Questions  

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129

question_1296849841 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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130

question_1410954604 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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131

question_1410954609 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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132

question_1309291860 — Provocative Questions  

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133

question_1309291793 — Provocative Questions  

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134

question_1298674892 — Provocative Questions  

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135

question_1410865099 — Provocative Questions  

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136

question_1411474796 — Provocative Questions  

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137

question_1409748730 — Provocative Questions  

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138

question_1409740665 — Provocative Questions  

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139

question_1297423727 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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140

question_1301530459 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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141

question_1296825839 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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142

question_1299172071 — Provocative Questions  

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143

question_1308171779 — Provocative Questions  

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144

question_1302099820 — Provocative Questions  

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145

question_1411079495 — Provocative Questions  

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146

question_1298409202 — Provocative Questions  

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147

question_1297424940 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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148

question_1329194782 — Provocative Questions  

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149

question_1407902564 — Provocative Questions  

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150

question_1296157694 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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151

question_1296513894 — Provocative Questions  

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152

question_1309291494 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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153

question_1408342453 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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154

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Blood Screening FAQs On This Page Why are blood ... be concerned about getting Chagas disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission ...

155

Mon. 23rd February 2004 FAQ Feedback About HERO  

E-print Network

Whole site Mon. 23rd February 2004 FAQ Feedback About HERO You are here: > >HERO home page Media relations Study shows some mammals can influence sex of offspring Latest stories Recent stories Archive Member organisations Links page influence sex

West, Stuart

156

question_1410159378 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Looking at cell to cell differences within a tumor bed, contributed by either DNA mutations, epigenetic or post-translational modifications (PTM) or miRNA mediated control switches or even a combination of all these, the question rise how to best design a personalized drug trial?

157

question_1411473029 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Gemcitabine is a widely used drug for pancreatic cancer therapy, but due to poor prognosis this drug is now in question. Cells resistance to gemcitabine activates EMT in the background, but the drug itself is a potential replication blocker and activates apoptosis, then why gemcitabine induced apoptosis activates a kind of fleeting mechanism (EMT) to get protection from apoptotic threat?

158

question_1296796037 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

159

question_1332002134 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

160

4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate: FAQ  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a list of questions and corresponding answers about the 4-year cohort graduation rate. Answers to the following questions are presented: (1) Why don't GED (General Educational Development) students count as graduates?; (2) How does a district code students who have moved out of state? How should a district code a student who…

Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

161

FAQ: Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Tropical Cyclones  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains the answers to over 50 questions relating the characteristics of typhoons, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes. It covers a wide variety of topics, from basic definitions to myths, names, winds, forecasting, and historical information. The answers to the questions contain charts, graphs, text, and illustrations for a thorough explanation. When appropriate, links are given for more details. This site is also available in Spanish and French.

Landsea, Christopher

162

Evolutionary epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is a science of disease which specifies rates (illness prevalences, incidences, distributions, etc.). Evolution is a science of life which specifies changes (gene frequencies, generations, forms, function, etc.). ‘Evolutionary Epidemiology’ is a synthesis of these two sciences which combines the empirical power of classical methods in genetical epidemiology with the interpretive capacities of neo-darwinian evolutionary genetics. In particular, prevalence

Daniel R. Wilson

1993-01-01

163

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Working Groups  

Cancer.gov

Childhood Brain Tumor Working Group - This Working Group focuses on epidemiologic studies of childhood brain tumors. We will focus on establishing research questions of interest in order to plan appropriate studies to address these questions.

164

Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

NCI’s Provocative Questions Project seeks to go beyond the questions that are self-evident or that have been studied for many years. NCI asked investigators to propose intriguing questions that need attention or have stumped us in the past.

165

Questioning Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this brief article from the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin the best practices of questioning strategies are explained. The author illustrates the difference between an open and a closed question and provides examples of the five categories of questions that teachers should be asking. A bibliography of additional resources is included for further study.

2012-01-01

166

Astronomy Cafe: FAQ's About the Planet Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an archive of questions and answers about Mars. It is divided into Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced categories and covers such topics as the possibility of life on Mars, Martian atmosphere and geography, and Mars colonization. There are also links to other Mars-related sites.

Odenwald, Sten

167

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

168

Proposed Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

View all of the questions that have been submitted and see how they have been evaluated by peers. Submit your own evaluation of a submitted question, or leave a comment about a question (commenting requires log in or creation of your own PQ account).

169

Cascades Volcano Observatory - Learn About Volcanoes: Frequently Asked Volcano Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides the answers to frequently asked questions about volcanoes. It is created by the United States Geological Survey. Topics addressed include: What Is A Volcano? Why Do Volcanoes Occur? How Do Volcanoes Erupt? Where Do Volcanoes Occur? When Will A Volcano Erupt? How Hot Is A Volcano? Can Lava Be Diverted? Do Volcanoes Affect Weather? What Types of Volcanoes are There? Which Eruptions Were The Deadliest? 20th Century Volcanic Eruptions and Their Impact. About 60 additional questions with answers are available under MORE FAQ's -Volcano Questions and Answers, and includes some sections on volcanoes of the western United States. Other links to volcano information are also available.

170

Essential Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

171

Curiosity Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

2010-01-01

172

Whose epidemiology, whose health?  

PubMed

Simplistic claims about the objectivity of science have been challenged from a variety of perspectives. Evaluation of the external context of production of knowledge and the methodological approaches to posing questions and assembling evidence shows that there is no pure "science"; rather, all scientific knowledge is shaped by the social history of its production. Examples are given of how quantitative concepts in modern epidemiology influence the recognition of the causes of disease. The author uses the phenomenon of intensive swine production by vertically integrated agribusiness to illustrate how broad problems such as environmental racism, agricultural determinants of nutrition, loss of natural resources, and conditions conducive to emergence of new diseases are hidden by epidemiological approaches that fit into corporate policy perspectives. It is critically important to ask who produces epidemiological knowledge, and whose health is promoted by that knowledge. PMID:9595342

Wing, S

1998-01-01

173

Question Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about generating hypotheses and testable questions. Learners will use critical thinking and a collaborative approach to pose questions related to the study of Mars and evaluate the quality of their questions. They will explore remote-sensing data collected by a camera orbiting Mars - the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and develop a team science question. Students will practice critical thinking skills, use a collaborative approach to this first critical step of the scientific process. Exploring the images of the surface of Mars in Visible (VIS) images, students will come up with a topic of study, their team science question and hypotheses. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

174

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) - NSF02-190  

NSF Publications Database

... education in which two departments in a college want to participate in separate proposals with ... have their college as the lead. For the other proposal, the department and college would be a ...

175

Environmental Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

176

Descriptive Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

Descriptive epidemiology studies characterize cancer incidence and mortality temporal trends, age-specific rates, geographic distribution of cancer, race and ethnic differences in cancer rates, and birth cohort effects.

177

Epidemiological Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the principles of study design and related methodological issues in the epidemiology of congenital\\u000a anomalies, with specific regard to environmental factors. We present the major types of experimental and observational designs\\u000a used in environmental epidemiology, namely the basic designs involving the individual as the unit of analysis and the ecological\\u000a designs, which involve groups or geographical areas

A. Rosano; E. Robert-Gnansia

178

Endodontic epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

2014-01-01

179

Tough Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One professor of education's solution to the shortage of qualified urban teachers is an urban teacher selection interview that predicts would-be teachers' professional potential in the classroom. It involves relentless questioning by interviewers who test the interviewees' persistence in handling tough problems then rate their potential as…

Gursky, Daniel

1992-01-01

180

Questionable Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

1999-01-01

181

Circular questioning.  

PubMed

The plan of this paper is to explore the question: Does a model that includes the principles of double description, circularity, and coevolutionary change, all accounting for shifts in family coalitions over time and the emergence of problems in connection with these shifts, allow the family therapist to design better methods for the understanding and practice of family therapy? Concepts of double description, coevolution, and circularity from Gregory Bateson's writing and the research of other scientists describe the translation of these ideas from pure epistemology to the pragmatics of family therapy. Circular questioning developed by the Milan Associates is presented as a practice method exemplifying how these notions of circularity and coevolutionary change--especially changes in family patterns--are used during actual family sessions. PMID:7128764

Penn, P

1982-09-01

182

Environmental epidemiology  

SciTech Connect

This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F. (eds.)

1986-01-01

183

Social sensing for epidemiological behavior change  

E-print Network

An important question in behavioral epidemiology and public health is to understand how individual behavior is affected by illness and stress. Although changes in individual behavior are intertwined with contagion, ...

Madan, Anmol Prem Prakash

184

Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

185

Epidemiologic Aspects of Down Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study focused primarily on epidemiological questions regarding Down Syndrome (DS) births in Ohio, but included data for the United States as well. Specific objectives were to (1) extend a previous Ohio DS data set from 1970-79 to 1980-85 so that a 16 ...

C. A. Huether

1987-01-01

186

Epidemiology Exemption Exam  

E-print Network

. Epidemiology and epidemiologic methods are central to public health, being used to describe and explain, among other uses. While epidemiology and epidemiologists rely on biostatistical theory and methods for meeting this requirement: PH 250A (Epidemiologic Methods I), PH 250B (Epidemiologic Methods II

Doudna, Jennifer A.

187

Epidemiologic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

When performing empirical research in public health and medicine, the investigator is typically faced with a variety of methodologic issues to resolve at the design and analysis stages of the research. The investigator must specify the research question, conceptualize and operationalize the variables to be measured, consider several research designs to choose from, determine appropriate measures of disease frequency and

David G. Kleinbaum

2002-01-01

188

Migraine and ischemic stroke: a debated question  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous epidemiologic observations reporting high prevalence of migraine among young individuals with stroke as well as dysfunction of cerebral arteries during migraine attacks prompt speculation on the existence of a comorbidity between the two disorders. The recent finding of silent infarct-like brain lesions in migraineurs reinforced this hypothesis and raised questions on whether migraine may be a progressive disorder rather

Elisabetta Del Zotto; Alessandro Pezzini; Alessia Giossi; Irene Volonghi; Alessandro Padovani

2008-01-01

189

CRCHD - Research Questions  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD - Research Questions  Back to CRCHD Ongoing Research PNP Project Listing Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) Research Questions Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) Overview Research Questions

190

Science and Technology Centers (STC): Integrative Partnerships Program FAQs  

NSF Publications Database

Question: How does the new FY 2003 STC Program Solicitation differ from the previous FY 2000 STC Program Solicitation (NSF 00-67)? Answer: NSF will entertain STC preliminary proposals and full proposals in all areas of research and education normally supported by the Foundation. Question: The STC Program Solicitation asks for lists of institutions, project personnel, and collaborators with Conflicts of Interest.

191

Clinical Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Rational clinical practice requires deductive particularization of diagnostic findings, prognoses, and therapeutic responses from groups of animals (herds) to the individual animal (herd) under consideration This process utilizes concepts, skills, and methods of epidemiology, as they relate to the study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in populations, and casts them in a clinical perspective. We briefly outline diagnostic strategies and introduce a measure of agreement, called kappa, between clinical diagnoses. This statistic is useful not only as a measure of diagnostic accuracy, but also as a means of quantifying and understanding disagreement between diagnosticians. It is disconcerting to many, clinicians included, that given a general deficit of data on sensitivity and specificity, the level of agreement between many clinical diagnoses is only moderate at best with kappa values of 0.3 to 0.6. Sensitivity, specificity, pretest odds, and posttest probability of disease are defined and related to the interpretation of clinical findings and ancillary diagnostic test results. An understanding of these features and how they relate to ruling-in or ruling-out a diagnosis, or minimizzing diagnostic errors will greatly enhance the diagnostic accuracy of the practitioner, and reduce the frequency of clinical disagreement. The approach of running multiple tests on every patient is not only wasteful and expensive, it is unlikely to improve the ability of the clinician to establish the correct diagnosis. We conclude with a discussion of how to decide on the best therapy, a discussion which centers on, and outlines the key features of, the well designed clinical trial. Like a diagnosis, the results from a clinical trial may not always be definitive, nonetheless it is the best available method of gleaning information about treatment efficacy. PMID:17422801

Martin, S. Wayne; Bonnett, Brenda

1987-01-01

192

75 FR 62502 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Information for Self-Certification Under FAQ 6...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under FAQ 6 of the United States--European Union Safe Harbor Privacy Framework AGENCY...INFORMATION: I. Abstract In response to the European Union Directive on Data Protection that...U.S. organizations to satisfy the European Directive's requirements and...

2010-10-12

193

Subscriber: Princeton University Library | Sign In as Individual | FAQ | Access Rights | Join AAAS 31 January 2003  

E-print Network

Subscriber: Princeton University Library | Sign In as Individual | FAQ | Access Rights | Join AAAS of Energy make it public, we can all be sure that they are committed, and we are happy," says Bernd Kramer trap that ITER will make obsolete. Taking the tour. Subscriber: Princeton University Library | Sign

194

MedlinePlus FAQ: Mobile Version of MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Is there a mobile version of MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Answer: Yes, there is a mobile version of MedlinePlus. You do not need a ...

195

The epidemiology of panic disorder and agoraphobia in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature search, in addition to expert survey, was performed to estimate the size and burden of panic disorder in the European Union (EU). Epidemiologic data from EU countries were critically reviewed to determine the consistency of prevalence estimates across studies and to identify the most pressing questions for future research. A comprehensive literature search focusing on epidemiological studies in

R. D. Goodwin; C. Faravelli; S. Rosi; F. Cosci; E. Truglia; R. de Graaf; H. U. Wittchen

2005-01-01

196

Epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has changed over the last decade. Remarkable advances in understanding the pathobiology and clinical care required in PAH have resulted in improved quality of life and survival. Despite such important progress, the long-term rate of survival is still unacceptable. The epidemiology of PAH could not be easily generalized globally, due to the fact that nearly all of the present data has been gathered from Western, multicenter, prospective registries. There are potentially marked differences in PAH patients from Western and Eastern populations, and from developed and developing countries. Therefore, it is clear that more registry data will be needed to address novel questions emerging with improved knowledge of PAH. PMID:24114080

Jiang, Xin; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

2013-12-01

197

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about the Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program For Fiscal Years 2006, 2007 and 2008  

NSF Publications Database

... 4) your appointment has substantial educational responsibilities; and (5) your proposed project ... to apply? Answer: Yes. NSF supports educational research both through the Directorate for Education ...

198

Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

2000-01-01

199

Frequently Asked Questions: Questions About Paleontology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site asks and answers questions about paleontology, fossils and dinosaurs. Paleontology questions are: What is paleontology? How does paleontology differ from anthropology and archaeology? What are the practical uses of paleontology? How do paleontologists know how old their fossils are? What training is necessary to become a paleontologist? What organizations exist for paleontologists?

2007-01-01

200

Drawing on Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines observations and research on question-answer interaction between client and therapist, and teacher and student. Discusses Patton's six-question instrument which provides categories of question options, with application for the art therapist. Argues that effective formulation of questions provides the clinician, educator, and researcher…

Bloomgarden, Joan

2000-01-01

201

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

202

Any Questions, Please?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet discusses the use of questioning in the college classroom and its contribution to learning. Starting with a brief examination of the ways children question, discussions cover: (1) the effects of linguistic and socio-linguistic characteristics in questioning; (2) questions in psychotherapy, law, and opinion polling; (3) classroom…

Pollio, Howard R.

1989-01-01

203

Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy  

MedlinePLUS

American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... I change my listing in the Online Directory? Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music ...

204

Laboratory Testing for Anthrax: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

205

Frequently Asked Questions about Spina Bifida  

MedlinePLUS

... To-School Resources Family Planning and Prenatal Care Orthopedic Needs and Care FAQs About Spina Bifida Adult ... General Health & Fitness Hydrocephalus Insurance Latex Allergy Neuropsychology Orthopedics Pain Precocious Puberty Pregnancy Risk, Prevention, & Treatment Sexuality ...

206

Abiogenesis FAQs: Articles on the Origin of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to articles that address common questions about the origins of life and refute many creationist assertions. The articles cover the probability of abiogenesis, current models of the origin of life, and a historical review of the theory of spontaneous generation. There is also an index of creationist claims with specific rebuttals. This would be a good source of background information for high school or undergraduate teachers.

Archive, The T.

207

Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights  

PubMed Central

Molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis (TB) have focused largely on utilizing molecular techniques to address short- and long-term epidemiologic questions, such as in outbreak investigations and in assessing the global dissemination of strains, respectively. This is done primarily by examining the extent of genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When molecular methods are used in conjunction with classical epidemiology, their utility for TB control has been realized. For instance, molecular epidemiologic studies have added much-needed accuracy and precision in describing transmission dynamics, and they have facilitated investigation of previously unresolved issues, such as estimates of recent-versus-reactive disease and the extent of exogenous reinfection. In addition, there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters (lineages) may differ in virulence, pathogenesis, and epidemiologic characteristics, all of which may significantly impact TB control and vaccine development strategies. Here, we review the current methods, concepts, and applications of molecular approaches used to better understand the epidemiology of TB. PMID:17041139

Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia E.; Bifani, Pablo J.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

2006-01-01

208

Hydrosphere: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class Content Area: Hydrosphere Back to Example This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through an entire Socratic ...

209

Community Dialog — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

View all of the questions that have been submitted and see how they have been evaluated by peers. Submit your own evaluation of a submitted question, or leave a comment about a question (commenting requires log in or creation of your own PQ account).

210

The Department of Epidemiology and  

E-print Network

) EPI 808 Biostatistics I 3 EPI 809 Biostatistics II 3 EPI 826 Research Methods in Epidemiology 3 Epidemiology EPI 920 Advanced Methods in Epidemiology and Applied Statistics EPI 945 Molecular Epidemiology EPIThe Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics GRADUATE HANDBOOK #12;Fall 2013 (Aug. 14) Page1 I

211

Principles of Infectious Disease Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, principles and concepts of modern infectious disease epidemiology Epidemiology are presented. We delineate\\u000a the role of epidemiology for public health and discuss the characteristics of infectious disease epidemiology. This chapter\\u000a also includes definitions of important terms used in infectious disease epidemiology.

Alexander Krämer; Manas Akmatov; Mirjam Kretzschmar

212

The "Trickster" and the Questionability of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tricksters represent creativity and ingenuity in ways that are also integral to arts education. Like the tricksters, strong arts programs teach that a question can have many answers and there are multiple ways to interpret what is seen (Eisner, 2002). In this article, the author discusses how she applies lessons learned from the Trickster stories…

Stewart, Connie

2009-01-01

213

Proposed Provocative Questions for the Indian PQ Workshops — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

To stimulate wider participation in the Provocative Questions Initiative, scientists may pose their own Provocative Questions (Indian "Pose a Question" link) on this website or comment on questions submitted online (Indian "Questions Submitted Online" link) from the research community.

214

Web tools for molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

In this study we explore publicly available web tools designed to use molecular epidemiological data to extract information that can be employed for the effective tracking and control of tuberculosis (TB). The application of molecular methods for the epidemiology of TB complement traditional approaches used in public health. DNA fingerprinting methods are now routinely employed in TB surveillance programs and are primarily used to detect recent transmissions and in outbreak investigations. Here we present web tools that facilitate systematic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) genotype information and provide a view of the genetic diversity in the MTBC population. These tools help answer questions about the characteristics of MTBC strains, such as their pathogenicity, virulence, immunogenicity, transmissibility, drug-resistance profiles and host-pathogen associativity. They provide an integrated platform for researchers to use molecular epidemiological data to address current challenges in the understanding of TB dynamics and the characteristics of MTBC. PMID:21903179

Shabbeer, Amina; Ozcaglar, Cagri; Yener, Bülent; Bennett, Kristin P

2012-06-01

215

Unpark Those Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

Ness, Molly

2013-01-01

216

Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.  

PubMed Central

There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

Pearce, N

1996-01-01

217

Human papillomavirus infection: biology, epidemiology, and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheurer ME, Tortolero-Luna G, Adler-Storthz K. Human papillomavirus infection: biology, epidemiology, and prevention. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2005;15:727-746. Over the past several decades, knowledge of the biology and epi- demiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has increased tremendously. However, there are still many unanswered questions concerning the interaction of the virus with its host. The virus has been identified as

M. E. SCHEURER; G. TORTOLERO-LUNA; K. ADLER-STORTHZ

2005-01-01

218

Problem of Questioning  

ScienceCinema

Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

None

2011-04-25

219

Essay Questions: Another Look.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay questions and the effects of their use on student scores are examined by a teacher through collaborative action research. Collaboration with the teacher's graduate school faculty resulted in refinements to the research question and development of a practical study methodology. During the two years of the study, the teacher taught four…

Saurino, Dan R.

220

1 Great Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

Nethery, Carrie

2011-01-01

221

Towards Answering Procedural Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we first present an analysis of pro- cedural question structure. Next, we investigate the structure of procedural texts and of the relevant rhetorical relations of interest for answering ques- tions. We then show how, from a linguistic point of view, questions and procedural text fragments can match in order to produce responses.

Farida Aouladomar

222

Math Questions Worth Asking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article by Wendy Petti contains an updated version of Bloom's Taxonomy and sample questions that encourage dialogue with students. The article also includes suggestions for teachers about how to create questions that stimulate higher order thinking. Although there are advertisements on this webpage, the content of the freely available article is a valuable resource for teachers.

Petti, Wendy

2010-05-18

223

Senapati, Shantibhusan — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiological and experimental evidence has shown the usefulness of fasting or dietary interventions as potential cancer preventive and therapeutic approach. Fasting itself is known to suppress many cancer cells growth and increases chemo-sensitivity. Likewise, ketogenic diets are also known to suppress cancer cells growth. The potential of such kind of approaches has motivated many clinicians and researchers to carry out experimental and clinical studies at different parts of the world.

224

Epidemiology: Understanding Disease Spread  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Factors that influence disease spread throughout populations can be explored with the program Epidemiology. Both population and disease characteristics can be modeled over different time periods. The Susceptible- Infected- Recovered (SIR) model enables us to make predictions based on significant variables such as the flow of new susceptibles in to the population, transmission rates, disease deaths, and the duration of the disease. Ebola is used as a model organism and epidemiology is presented from both a microbiological and social perspective. * build epidemiological models of different diseases, design strategies for disease control, and test the effectiveness of these strategies on virtual populations

Marion Fass (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

225

The Challenge Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Then students read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for additional ideas and add them to the list. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

226

The Driving Question Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"It was helpful to keep track of questions we had at the beginning so we knew what we were trying to find out." With these words, a student described the value of using a Driving Question Board (DQB) in a project-based science (PBS) unit. This instructional tool is designed to support inquiry and project-based learning by organizing and focusing students' questions and linking them to content learning goals. The authors have used this tool in both physics and chemistry classes, but it can be used with any subject matter. This article describes the purpose and process of DQB.

Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Schwartz, Yael

2008-11-01

227

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

228

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... Français ??????? Español RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER Home ... Follow WHO on Twitter WHO Facebook page WHO Google+ page WHO iTunes © WHO 2014 Back to top

229

Answering Questions about Unanswered Questions of Stack Overflow  

E-print Network

Answering Questions about Unanswered Questions of Stack Overflow Muhammad Asaduzzaman Ahmed Shah questions has increased significantly in the past two years. Understanding why questions remain unanswered questions from Stack Overflow. We then conduct a qualitative study to categorize unanswered questions, which

Schneider, Kevin A.

230

Lerman, Michael — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

231

Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions Where is the SRK postdoctoral fellowship geographically located?The highly competitive program is for female postdoctoral fellows training in any of the National Cancer Institutes’ intramural research settings.  NCI facilities

232

Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

233

Qian, Yong — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

234

Burning Questions About Calories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Encouraging students to define problems through asking questions about the topic has a positive impact on classroom morale. First, the teacher benefits from increased understanding of students' knowledge and background. Second, because students have ident

Keller, J. D.; Berry, Kimberly A.

2001-04-01

235

Scardino, Peter — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Excellent question, made more provocative when we realize that the seminal vesicles and Cowper’s gland in the male, tissues adjacent to the prostate and under the same hormonal influences as the prostate, rarely if even harbor malignant tumors.

236

Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

237

Paternostro, Giovanni — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This question addresses a very important problem but could be slightly modified to be more provocative. For example, can we design combinatorial cancer therapies that use the same strategies as biological combinatorial control?

238

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

239

Question All Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council for Advancement and Support of Education's Teacher of the Year John Roth teaches students that conclusions shouldn't come easily, encouraging them to question everything they hear, read, or assume, including what he says. (MSE)

Barre, Nancy

1989-01-01

240

Thesis Statement Research Question  

E-print Network

Topic Background research Brainstorm Thesis Statement Research Question Summative Description an effective research paper is gathering sources that comprehensively address an appropriately focused topic Search library catalogue and databases Detailed Notes Plan Draft Revise Supplementary Research WRITING

Boonstra, Rudy

241

Provocative Questions Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Workshop August 2, 2011 UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, California Final Participant List Chair Edward Harlow, Ph.D Chair Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical

242

Cho, Hearn — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

243

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

244

Rubella: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

245

Endocrine System Clicker Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of clicker questions designed for first year nursing students in an Anatomy and Physiology course, used during the endocrine system. It can also be used for an undergraduate Physiology course.

DDS/DO Elizabeth J Kavran (Ursuline College Biology)

2009-05-01

246

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

247

Pagel, Mark — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

248

Chia, David — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

249

International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium  

Cancer.gov

The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Formed in 2001, the Consortium is a group of international investigators who have completed or have ongoing case-control studies and who discuss and undertake research projects that pool data across studies or otherwise undertake collaborative research.

250

Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations,\\u000a and the application of this study to the control of health problems [1]. Epidemiological measures of interest for anaphylaxis\\u000a include the incidence, incidence rate, lifetime prevalence of its occurrence and case fatality rate (Box 1). Other aspects\\u000a of interest concern features of persons

David J. Chinn; Aziz Sheikh

251

[Epidemiological data and radiation risk estimates].  

PubMed

The results of several major epidemiology studies on populations with particular exposure to ionizing radiation should become available during the first years of the 21(st) century. These studies are expected to provide answers to a number of questions concerning public health and radiation protection. Most of the populations concerned were accidentally exposed to radiation in ex-USSR or elsewhere or in a nuclear industrial context. The results will complete and test information on risk coming from studies among survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs, particularly studies on the effects of low dose exposure and prolonged low-dose exposure, of different types of radiation, and environmental and host-related factors which could modify the risk of radiation-induced effects. These studies are thus important to assess the currently accepted scientific evidence on radiation protection for workers and the general population. In addition, supplementary information on radiation protection could be provided by formal comparisons and analyses combining data from populations with different types of exposure. Finally, in order to provide pertinent information for public health and radiation protection, future epidemiology studies should be targeted and designed to answer specific questions, concerning, for example, the risk for specific populations (children, patients, people with genetic predisposition). An integrated approach, combining epidemiology and studies on the mechanisms of radiation induction should provide particularly pertinent information. PMID:11938114

Cardis, E

2002-01-01

252

Multiple choice questions revisited.  

PubMed

MCQs of the multiple true/false (MTF) variety were widely used in summative assessment 25 years ago. They could test a number of skills in addition to recall of factual knowledge, and were reliable, discriminatory, reproducible and cost-effective. However, there are now considerable doubts about their construct validity, mainly because of the varying responses of examinees to negative countermarking and the 'don't know' option, and the strategies they use when sitting examinations. Extended matching and one-from-five questions are now preferable, and negative countermarking is outmoded. MTF questions are still valuable in formative assessment and revision but are not recommended for summative examinations. PMID:15203517

Anderson, John

2004-03-01

253

Research Questions and Hypotheses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This first section guides students to ask testable questions, and formulate hypotheses and null hypotheses. Students also become familiar with the parts of a science research report. This structure reinforces the concepts of quantitative observations and comparative research. It also sets the stage for doing statistical testing. At the end of the first section, students are ready to ask a research question and formulate hypotheses for their Long-Term Research Projects (LTRP). Students finish the section by drafting the introduction paragraphs for their LTRP poster presentations. In this free section you will find Lesson 1--Ooze Observations, an Introduction and the Table of Contents.

Steel, Ashley; Kelsey, Kathryn

2001-01-01

254

Epidemiology in occupational medicine.  

PubMed

Each of the research strategies employed in epidemiology has distinctive advantages and disadvantages related to costs, time required, sources of bias, kinds of risk assessments produced, and limitations on causal inference. Therefore each must be evaluated in the light of the needs and opportunities that characterize the disease problem addressed and the environment within which it occurs. Epidemiology has the major disadvantage that it requires illness and death as a base for research. However, many health and disease problems cannot be anticipated before illnesses have occurred, and epidemiological studies then represent the most efficient means of identifying hazardous substances and situations. Epidemiological analysis should be a routine responsibility of every major corporate medical department, including, at a minimum, a system of surveillance for morbidity and mortality that will draw attention to significant problems as they arise, so that more intensive research may be initiated and preventive measures taken as early as possible. Epidemiology should, therefore, be integrated with industrial hygiene, safety engineering, and toxicology as the bases of occupational health. PMID:6679675

Stallones, R A

1983-03-20

255

Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

2005-01-01

256

Questioning Ohio's Loyalty Requirement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive questions. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist Exclusion?" inquiry,…

O'Neil, Robert M.

2006-01-01

257

De, Abhijit — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Looking at cell to cell differences within a tumor bed, contributed by either DNA mutations, epigenetic or post-translational modifications (PTM) or miRNA mediated control switches or even a combination of all these, the question rise how to best design a personalized drug trial?

258

Some Questions About Neurocognitive  

E-print Network

Some Questions About Neurocognitive Networks Steven Bressler Center for Complex Systems & Brain is a Brain Network? · A brain network is a large-scale system in the brain consisting of distributed neuronal ­ Dynamic Interdependency #12;Does The Brain Need Networks? · Serial processing, as found in the PNS, is too

Bressler, Steven L.

259

Questioning 9-11  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 9-11 several assumptions have dominated our thinking about terrorism. Instead of accepting these assumptions we question each one. In every case the assumption proved wrong.One of the most important assumptions is that terrorism is a complex and difficult task to carry out. In fact, it is rather simple. In order to examine this a “reconnaissance” was conducted. Numerous targets

George C. Klein

2006-01-01

260

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

261

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND�t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

262

Manjili, Masoud — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

263

A Question of Choice  

PubMed Central

Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

2011-01-01

264

Question: Who Can Vote?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the questions: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…

Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.

2008-01-01

265

Questioning and Experimentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

Mutanen, Arto

2014-01-01

266

Cosmic Questions Educator's Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educator's guide contains activities relating to the Cosmic Questions national traveling exhibit's theme, our place in space and time-and information about the exhibit. Although the guide complements a museum visit, activities can be used independently from the exhibit.

2006-01-01

267

CTRP FAQs  

Cancer.gov

In January 2004, the Director of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) established the Clinical Trials Working Group (CTWG) to advise the National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB) on whether and in what ways the NCI-supported national clinical trials enterprise should be restructured to realize the promise of molecular medicine for advancing oncologic clinical practice in the 21st century.

268

TES FAQ  

... to observe volcanic eruptions, biomass burning, and pollution events. Data File Information TES Level 1B ... calibrated spectral radiances and their corresponding noise equivalent spectral radiances (NESR). The geolocation, quality and some ...

2013-03-14

269

Cosmetics FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... How does FDA regulate cosmetics? Are they FDA approved? Are all personal care products regulated as cosmetics? Are some drugs or "cosmeceuticals"? Does FDA require animal testing for cosmetics? What ingredients are prohibited from use in cosmetics? Does FDA approve the color additives used ...

270

Sunscreens FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... such as a long-sleeved shirt, pants, a wide-brimmed hat and sunglasses, where possible. Seek shade ... in addition to wearing long sleeves, pants, a wide-brimmed hat, and sunglasses. Make sure they do ...

271

Infertility FAQ's  

MedlinePLUS

... of Page How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful? Success rates vary and depend on many factors, including the clinic performing the procedure, the infertility diagnosis, and the age ...

272

Catastrophism FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is devoted to refuting the pseudo-scientific theory of catastrophism, which claims that only catastrophic events are responsible for changing the Earth's surface. Scientific evidence is used to counter evidence that the young-Earth theory (catastrophism) is plausible.

Archive, Talk O.

273

Epidemiology of gout.  

PubMed

Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis in men. The findings of several epidemiologic studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that the prevalence of gout has risen over the past few decades. Although incidence data are scarce, data from the United States suggests that the incidence of gout is also rising. Evidence from prospective epidemiologic studies has confirmed dietary factors (animal purines, alcohol, and fructose), obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diuretic use, and chronic kidney disease as clinically relevant risk factors for hyperuricemia and gout. Low-fat dairy products, coffee, and vitamin C seem to have a protective effect. PMID:24703341

Roddy, Edward; Choi, Hyon K

2014-05-01

274

Epidemiological Methods: About Time  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies often produce false positive results due to use of statistical approaches that either ignore or distort time. The three time-related issues of focus in this discussion are: (1) cross-sectional vs. cohort studies, (2) statistical significance vs. public health significance, and (3), how risk factors “work together” to impact public health significance. The issue of time should be central to all thinking in epidemiology research, affecting sampling, measurement, design, analysis and, perhaps most important, the interpretation of results that might influence clinical and public-health decision-making and subsequent clinical research. PMID:20195431

Kraemer, Helena Chmura

2010-01-01

275

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program ­ Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer Associate Professor Tenuretrack Health is expanding research in Cancer Genetic Epidemiology to enrich an already robust campuswide

Weber, David J.

276

PV FAQs: Does the world have enough materials for PV to help address climate change?  

SciTech Connect

In the ongoing discussion of what needs to be done to stabilize atmospheric CO2 by mid-century (Hoffert 1998), one possible option would be to add about 10-20 terawatts (trillion watts, or TW) of photovoltaics (PV) in place of conventional sources. PV would help because, unlike burning fossil fuels, it produces no CO2. However, 10-20 TW is an enormous amount of energy. In peak Watts, the way PV installations are generally rated, it is about 50-100 TWpeak (TWp) of PV. Would we have enough materials to make this much PV? As we explain in this PV FAQ, we think our planet has enough feedstock materials for PV to meet the ''TW challenge.''

Not Available

2005-06-01

277

Enter Search Term Enter Drill Deeper or ED Online ID Home Subscribe Back Issues Design FAQs Ideas for Design Power Analog  

E-print Network

Enter Search Term Enter Drill Deeper or ED Online ID Home Subscribe Back Issues Design FAQs Ideas Subscribe to Electronic Design UPDATE (Archive) Email: Enter Email Click to view this week's welcome screen

Rogers, John A.

278

First NCI Epidemiology Leadership Workshop: Tobacco, Diet, and Genes  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Croyle, DCCPS Director, said that this workshop is one in a series of activities to be undertaken as part of a review of the EGRP, as has occurred in other parts of DCCPS. It is an important opportunity to identify the epidemiologic questions in tobacco, diet, and genetic research that need support and facilitation and what is needed to overcome barriers.

279

Attending, questioning, and quality.  

PubMed

Health care is just now feeling the effects of many years of neglect of serious attention to quality outcomes. We have many tools available now to change our thinking and to provide techniques to attain excellence in quality, such as Six Sigma and principals from Toyota. However, these techniques will only get us to a minimal level of quality. We need to change our questions, think the impossible, and break out of our old modes of thinking about quality. Zero defects are possible. We only have to take that quantum leap and think in new ways. We are posed on the edge of a quantum leap into new ways of thinking about quality. We will hear much more about nurse-sensitive indicators in the near future. Nurse leaders should change their questions now to attend to new models that will get us closer to the ultimate "impossible thinking" goal of zero defects in nurse-sensitive indicators of quality. PMID:15586486

Kerfoot, Karlene

2004-01-01

280

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

281

Questioning Skills Hugh Foy MD  

E-print Network

of Medicine #12;Objectives · Identify good and bad questioning techniques · Classify questions by level value Creating a new plan Breaking down into parts Problem solving Understanding Remembering Questioning

Maxwell, Bruce D.

282

Quarter-sheet questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first day or two can set the stage for a positive relationship between the teacher and the students. "Icebreakers" are often used to start the conversation. Here I describe the use of quarter-sheet questions to not only get my students talking early on, but also to have them realize that I am willing to look into peripheral areas of interest to them as well as make clear what my objectives are for them.

Hubisz, John L.

2010-02-01

283

The "Looting Question" Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provocatively subtitled "Web and Literary Resources on the Archaeological Politics of Private Collecting, Commercial Treasure Hunting, Looting, and 'Professional' Archaeology," this comprehensive online bibliography provides scholars and practitioners with resources related to the "looting question." The bibliography is organized by format type and focuses on North American materials. Hugh Jarvis, a doctoral candidate in Anthropology as well as a graduate student in Information and Library Studies at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, has compiled this unique, frequently updated resource.

284

Questions of wisdom.  

PubMed

In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person. PMID:19342709

Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra

2009-04-01

285

Epidemiology of Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

2007-01-01

286

Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts  

Cancer.gov

Cohort studies are one of the fundamental designs for epidemiological research. Throughout the last two decades, cohort-based studies have helped researchers to better understand the complex etiology of cancer, and have provided fundamental insights into key environmental, lifestyle, clinical, and genetic determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

287

Epidemiology in sustainable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has had increasing impact in the production-based industry of both the developed and developing world. In the last 50 years European agriculture has been associated with a move towards the simplification of systems, as farms have tended to specialize in arable or livestock production, largely determined by their soil or climatic conditions. Although cereal monoculture

Robert J. Cook; David J. Yarhm

288

Community-Based Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional epidemiologic research, the concept of risk emerges from a biomedical paradigm which draws heavily upon Cartesian-Newtonian ontological assumptions. Rational assessment of individual risk is based on a culturally conditioned metatheoreti-cal framework that seeks specific causes for specific disease conditions. This leads to the identification of “risk factors” that can be individually modified. Research within this orientation tends to

Mark H. Smith

1998-01-01

289

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David

1988-01-01

290

Translational Epidemiology in Psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Translational research generally refers to the application of knowledge generated by advances in basic sciences research translated into new approaches for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of disease. This direction is called bench-to-bedside. Psychiatry has similarly emphasized the basic sciences as the starting point of translational research. This article introduces the term translational epidemiology for psychiatry research as a bidirectional concept in which the knowledge generated from the bedside or the population can also be translated to the benches of laboratory science. Epidemiologic studies are primarily observational but can generate representative samples, novel designs, and hypotheses that can be translated into more tractable experimental approaches in the clinical and basic sciences. This bedside-to-bench concept has not been explicated in psychiatry, although there are an increasing number of examples in the research literature. This article describes selected epidemiologic designs, providing examples and opportunities for translational research from community surveys and prospective, birth cohort, and family-based designs. Rapid developments in informatics, emphases on large sample collection for genetic and biomarker studies, and interest in personalized medicine—which requires information on relative and absolute risk factors—make this topic timely. The approach described has implications for providing fresh metaphors to communicate complex issues in interdisciplinary collaborations and for training in epidemiology and other sciences in psychiatry. PMID:21646577

Weissman, Myrna M.; Brown, Alan S.; Talati, Ardesheer

2012-01-01

291

Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges. PMID:23972899

McKeown, Robert E

2013-10-01

292

The competency question.  

PubMed

JCAHO mandates "processes that are designed to ensure that the competency of all staff members is assessed, maintained, demonstrated, and improved on an ongoing basis." However, it is difficult to collect aggregate data regarding staff competency patterns and trends. How many facilities have the time or energy to collect aggregate data, let alone statistically analyze it for patterns and trends? Not many in today's environment. I saw the need to create a test to evaluate staff competency at my facility, but soon realized I would have no way of knowing if the results were good or bad. The only way to judge the results would be to have a standardized test that was used by multiple facilities. As president of the Houston X-ray Quality Society, I brought the topic up at a meeting in 1995, and a committee was set up to work on the test. The result is two competency tests--one for staff radiographers and one for mammographers--which are currently used by 35 to 40 facilities, with approximately 1,000 technologists taking the test each year. The tests include practical questions that reflect the knowledge required to perform daily exams. Each test has five sections that assess different areas of competency. The scoring system allows technologists to fail one or more individual sections but still pass the test overall. Twenty to 30 percent of the questions are new each year. That gives us the ability to look for improvement on previous year's questions, and at the same time, avoid producing a static and ineffective test. There are 60 questions on the staff radiographer test and 65 questions on the mammographer test, which also includes clinical images. Facilities must sign an agreement that states that they cannot use the test as a disciplinary tool in the employee's evaluation, or in any other way against the technologist. As a profession, radiology administration not only has regulatory requirements to evaluate competency, but also a moral duty to insure that patients receive the best possible care. We should not cover up or ignore the blemishes that we all know exist. Instead, we should take them on, as professional and personal challenges to improve the competency of our staff. PMID:11151318

Ruthemeyer, M

2000-01-01

293

Causation in epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation from mere correlation, but not so narrow as to eliminate apparent causal phenomena from consideration. Two categories—production and counterfactual—are present in any definition of causation but are not themselves sufficient as definitions. The necessary and sufficient cause definition assumes that all causes are deterministic. The sufficient-component cause definition attempts to explain probabilistic phenomena via unknown component causes. Thus, on both of these views, heavy smoking can be cited as a cause of lung cancer only when the existence of unknown deterministic variables is assumed. The probabilistic definition, however, avoids these assumptions and appears to best fit the characteristics of a useful definition of causation. It is also concluded that the probabilistic definition is consistent with scientific and public health goals of epidemiology. In debates in the literature over these goals, proponents of epidemiology as pure science tend to favour a narrower deterministic notion of causation models while proponents of epidemiology as public health tend to favour a probabilistic view. The authors argue that a single definition of causation for the discipline should be and is consistent with both of these aims. It is concluded that a counterfactually-based probabilistic definition is more amenable to the quantitative tools of epidemiology, is consistent with both deterministic and probabilistic phenomena, and serves equally well for the acquisition and the application of scientific knowledge.???Keywords: causality; counterfactual; philosophy PMID:11707485

Parascandola, M; Weed, D

2001-01-01

294

Internal Audit RFP 2013 Questions and Answers Question set 1  

E-print Network

Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers Question set 1: 1. What do you like about your current provider? No answer #12;Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers 11. Are identified control;Internal Audit RFP 2013 � Questions and Answers b. High risk areas � Accounts Payable � Accounts Receivable

Heller, Barbara

295

Welcome to Provocative Questions: The Unanswered Questions in Cancer Research — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 20 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI's research communities to use laboratory, clinical and population sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions.

296

Unanswered questions from CTX  

SciTech Connect

The big question being addressed on CTX during the past year has been: Why was energy confinement not improved by increasing the mesh flux conserver radius from 40 cm to 67 cm. A comparison of decaying spheromaks with the same values of j and n in the two cases shows tau/sub B/2 improving roughly as R/sup 2/ but little change in T/sub e/. As a result, <..beta..>/sub vol/ has gone from approx. 7.0% to approx. 2.0% and the inferred energy confinement time has remained unchanged at approx. 23 ..mu..s. An energy balance analysis of the 40 cm case showed that the observed rapid particle loss could account for most of the energy loss while providing a mechanism for the removal of impurities. At 67 cm, tau/sub p/ has also improved by about a factor of 2, particle loss therefore contributes substantially less to energy balance and the achievement in CTX of j/n/sub e/ as high as 3 x 10/sup -14/ A.m (I/sub tor/ up to 1 MA), low-Z impurities should not be a problem. A question then arises: Is CTX faced with a new strong energy loss mechanism that is characteristic of spheromaks in general. This question is not simply answered because it may involve processes of thermal conduction or convection that cannot be directly measured. In the following paragraphs we discuss many of the topics that have been considered in this search.

Wright, B.L.; Barnes, C.W.; Fernandez, J.C.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Knox, S.O.; Marklin, G.J.; Platts, D.A.

1986-01-01

297

Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

298

Attending, questioning, and quality.  

PubMed

Health care is just now feeling the effects of many years of neglect of serious attention to quality outcomes. We have many tools available now to change our thinking and to provide techniques to attain excellence in quality, such as Six Sigma and principals from Toyota. However, these techniques will only get us to a minimal level of quality. We need to change our questions, think the impossible, and break out of our old modes of thinking about quality. Zero defects are possible. We only have to take that quantum leap and think in new ways. PMID:16206898

Kerfoot, Karlene

2005-08-01

299

Lerman, Michael — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This question is highly important. Indeed, high-dose cisplatin-based chemotherapy represents a curative option for patients with testicular germ cell tumors including seminoma and nonseminomas, namely embryonal carcinoma, yolk-sac tumor, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma. The curative effect is most likely due to large growth fractions in these solid and hematological tumors and probably high expression of protein target(s) of cisplatin. At least one such protein target of cisplatin was identified in species ranging from yeast to humans. These predictions could be easily verified.

300

Classroom Applications of Questioning Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are capable of good thinking, asking perceptive questions, ferreting out implications, making applications, formulating conclusions, and making valid predictions and evaluations. Evidence indicates that these capabilities can be improved by teaching children about questions and questioning. Before such questioning strategies have much…

Martin, Lillian

301

Department of Epidemiology Master of Science in Epidemiology Curriculum (36 credits minimum)  

E-print Network

Epidemiologic Methods (All 3 courses required for 9 Credits) Credit PHC 6001 Principles of Epidemiology 3 PHC 6000 Epidemiology Research Methods I 3 PHC 6011 Epidemiology Research Methods II 3 Course Epidemiology Regression Methods 3 PHC 7065 Critical Skills in Epidemiology Data Management 2 Course Epidemiology Electives

Kane, Andrew S.

302

Public health questions on physical disabilities and musculoskeletal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For population-based information on physical disability and musculoskeletal conditions health surveys are the most important source of information. In this thesis studies are presented on the methods of the health survey and on public health questions concerning physical disabilities and musculoskeletal conditions. Data were used from a national health survey (the NetHIS, several years, n=±9,000 each year), a general epidemiological

H. S. J. Picavet

2001-01-01

303

Using Questions To Stimulate Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article states that research shows 93% of teacher questions are focusing on recall of facts and that type of questioning does not stimulate the mathematical thinking of students who are engaged in open ended investigations. To improve the quality of teacher questioning techniques, the author suggests dividing questions into four main categories: starter questions, questions to stimulate mathematical thinking, assessment questions and final discussion questions and then to follow with a rigorous question. A link to an addendum to the article provides a table of generic questions that can be used by teachers to guide children through a mathematical investigation, and at the same time prompt higher order thinking, as espoused by Bloom and others.

Way, Jenni

2001-10-01

304

International Genetic Epidemiology Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Genetic Epidemiology Society (IGES) is composed of "geneticists, epidemiologists, statisticians, mathematicians, biologists, related biomedical researchers and students interested in the research of the genetic basis of the diseases, complex traits and their risk factors." Hosted by the Division of Biostatistics at Washington University School of Medicine, the IGES website provides information about annual scientific meetings; organizational information such as bylaws; the official IGES journal, _Genetic Epidemiology_; books of interest; relevant courses and training programs, and meetings for related organizations. Notably, the site posts an extensive list of available positions (at institutions in a number of countries) such as post-docs, research fellows, faculty positions, research associate positions, and more. The website links to an IGES membership directory as well.

305

Prospects for epigenetic epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

Foley, Debra L; Craig, Jeffrey M; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig A; Olsson, Craig J; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine; Saffery, Richard

2009-02-15

306

Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

307

Epidemiology of Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness with\\u000a episodic weakness often triggered by strong emotions. Due to difficulty in diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and delayed diagnosis,\\u000a measurement of prevalence rates in population-based samples is complicated. However, the most intensively screened population-based\\u000a studies suggest that prevalence rates for narcolepsy with cataplexy range between 25

Lauren Hale

308

The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects  

SciTech Connect

Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

Linet, M.S.

1984-01-01

309

Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed Central

This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

Coon, W W

1977-01-01

310

Epidemiology of reflex syncope  

E-print Network

? Abstract Cost-effective diagnostic approaches to reflex syncope require knowledge of its frequency and causes in different age groups. For this purpose we reviewed the available literature dealing with the epidemiology of reflex syncope. The incidence pattern of reflex syncope in the general population and general practice is bimodal with peaks in teenagers and in the elderly. In the young almost all cases of transient loss of consciousness are due to reflex syncope. The life-time cumulative incidence in young females ( ? 50 %) is about twice as high as in males ( ? 25 %). In the elderly, cardiac causes, orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, and the effects of medications are common, whereas typical vasovagal syncope is less frequent. In emergency departments, cardiac causes and orthostatic hypotension are more frequent especially in elderly subjects. Reflex syncope, however, remains the most common cause of syncope, but all-cause mortality in subjects with reflex syncope is not higher than in the general population. This knowledge about the epidemiology of reflex syncope can serve as a benchmark to develop cost-effective diagnostic approaches. ? Key words reflex syncope · epidemiology · incidence · prevalence · setting · prognosis

N. Colman; K. Nahm; K. S. Ganzeboom; W. K. Shen; J. B. Reitsma; M. Linzer; W. Wieling; H. Kaufmann; W. Wieling; N. Colman; K. Nahm; H. Kaufmann; W. K. Shen; J. B. Reitsma; M. Linzer

311

Frequently Asked Questions about Cell Phones and Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

... effects associated with the use of cell phones. The agency updated these cell phone FAQs in June 2014 as part of efforts to ensure that health information for the public followed best practices, including the use of ...

312

Read and Question: A Question-Forming Exercise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an exercise in which the aim is to practice question-forming in a game context, and to show students how to make well-formed questions. Students are broken down into groups. One member reads a story silently. The others, provided with vague clues, must ask "yes-no" questions and reconstruct the story. (Author/PJM)

Emanuel, Max

1981-01-01

313

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

314

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

315

Cosmic questions: an introduction.  

PubMed

This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle. PMID:11797741

Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

2001-12-01

316

Gallery Walk Questions on Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about rivers. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level ...

317

The Multidisciplinary Study of Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although questioning is of interest to many fields, multidisciplinary approaches are rare. To reveal interrelationships between various literatures, a framework is formulated. The literatures on questioning in different fields are surveyed and compared. (Author/GK)

Dillon, J.T.

1982-01-01

318

Is there epidemiology in Russia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

Vlassov, V.

2000-01-01

319

Epidemiology of brain tumors.  

PubMed

After lagging behind other brain tumor disciplines in the 1980s, the epidemiology of brain tumors is now making progress on several fronts. The Central Brain Tumor Registry in the USA has made a complete description of primary brain tumors available to researchers. International data suggest that environmental components in the etiology of brain tumors are likely to be widely dispersed by geography and demographic subgroups. There are few proven causes of brain tumors: high-dose ionizing radiation, inherited genetic syndromes and AIDs-related brain lymphomas. Promising avenues of research include the role of immune function, genetic components in families, metabolic and DNA-repair pathways and neurocarcinogen exposures. PMID:18076316

Davis, Faith S

2007-12-01

320

Epidemiologic research in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

1990-01-01

321

[Epidemiology of allergic diseases].  

PubMed

The article gives a critical review of the main epidemiological features of allergic diseases, their frequency, distribution and etiologic background as well as the possibilities of prevention and control, based on current literature. Statistical data for Croatia, collected by the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, are used to present actual epidemiological situation in Croatia. Basic descriptive epidemiological methods were used to express age and sex distribution, etc. In comments and review of preventive measures, our own epidemiological experiences and experience acquired on creating the national programs of health measures were used. The genesis of allergies usually implies the influence of various potent environmental allergens such as proteins or smaller molecules attached to proteins (haptens) through repeat or continuous exposure by contact, alimentary or respiratory route, and parenteral route as most efficient (mucous membrane exposure is similar to parenteral exposure). In addition, almost all substances from our environment may, under certain circumstances, become allergens and produce allergic reaction. Individual constitution that is inherited also plays a role. Allergic diseases are present all over the world, however, with variable frequency. Response to an allergen is generally the same, causing distinct allergic diseases like urticaria, anaphylactic shock, asthma, etc., while the main allergens can be different. It is estimated that 30%-40% of all people have some type or manifestation of allergy. According to our Institute data, in Croatia hospitalization was mostly required for allergic urticaria and allergic asthma, followed by Quincke's edema. Optimal treatment and appropriate healthcare structure are essential for efficient control and prevention of allergic diseases. The main direct elements are as follows: well organized emergency service for anaphylactic and other severe conditions; health education expected from all levels of healthcare system; allergology outpatient services available; and sufficient hospital capacities. An indirect yet important element is optimal drug prescribing and usage practice. Other specific public health measures include: pollen air concentration monitoring by public health institutes; information on particular allergen presence and intensity via public media; and control of potential allergen emission into the environment, especially air. People will, as always, find ways to adapt themselves and cope with allergies, with medical profession helping them by identifying the reasons causing allergic diseases and developing successful measures of treatment, prevention and control. PMID:22359881

Aleraj, Borislav; Tomi?, Branimir

2011-01-01

322

Animal influenza epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Influenza A viruses exist within their natural host, aquatic birds, in a number of antigenic subtypes. Only a few of these subtypes have successfully crossed into other avian and mammalian hosts. This brief review will focus on just three examples of viruses that have successfully passed between species; avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses and H3N2 viruses which have transmitted from aquatic birds to humans and then to swine. Although there are a number of other subtypes that have also transmitted successfully between species, these three selected examples have spread and evolved in different ways, exemplifying the complexity of influenza A virus epidemiology. PMID:19230163

Ducatez, M.F.; Webster, R.G.; Webby, R.J.

2009-01-01

323

Questions for music education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addressing the question-set ‘What questions do music education researchers need to address?’, an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the specifically educational dimensions of music education? What

Estelle R. Jorgensen

2008-01-01

324

Questions for Music Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

Jorgensen, Estelle R.

2008-01-01

325

Questioning to resolve decision problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do we ask questions? Because we want to have some information. But why this particular kind of information? Because only information of this partic- ular kind is helpful to resolve the decision problem that the agent faces. In this paper I argue that questions are asked because their answers help to resolve the questioner's decision problem, and that this

Robert van Rooy

1999-01-01

326

Questions and Critical Thinking1  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can you stimulate critical thinking with the questions you ask in the classroom? Can these questions motivate students? Indeed, there are practical techniques, which work, that can help educators ask questions to stimulate critical thinking in class. Those of you with a strong back- ground in education literature will recognize the influence of the critical thinking literature, teaching techniques

Peter D. Hurd

327

Contemplative Pedagogy: Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemplative Pedagogy is a new and sometimes controversial pedagogical practice. Faculty often have basic questions about how to implement the pedagogy in their classrooms, in addition to questions that challenge the educational value and appropriateness of the practice. Assembled here are the most frequently asked questions about Contemplative…

Coburn, Tom; Grace, Fran; Klein, Anne Carolyn; Komjathy, Louis; Roth, Harold; Simmer-Brown, Judith

2011-01-01

328

A question of authority  

SciTech Connect

A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

Morgan, Earl W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

2003-10-15

329

Molecular epidemiology of amebiasis.  

PubMed

Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to the development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

Ali, Ibne Karim M; Clark, C Graham; Petri, William A

2008-09-01

330

Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

2009-01-01

331

Epidemiology of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes. PMID:24039351

Zhang, Yuwei

2013-01-01

332

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health SEMINAR SERIES  

E-print Network

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health SEMINAR SERIES Summer 2011 Wacholder Senior investigator in the Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics Pine Ave. West, Room 25 ALL ARE WELCOME - Refreshments to follow - #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics

Barthelat, Francois

333

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Public Health & Occupational Health 2014/2015 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2014-2015 Student

Shoubridge, Eric

334

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health 2010-2011 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2010-2011 Student Handbook TABLE

Barthelat, Francois

335

2014 American College of Epidemiology Annual Meeting  

Cancer.gov

The theme of the 2014 American College of Epidemiology (ACE) annual meeting is "Making Epidemiology More Consequential." Participants will focus on how epidemiology is used to directly impact the public health of communities and societies, both locally and globally.

336

CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

Not Available

1993-08-01

337

Epidemiology of Depression for Clinicians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiology of depression and ways this information can be useful for clinicians. Defines frequently used epidemiological terms; presents prevalence rates and risk factors; discusses impact and consequences of depression; and suggests arenas for prevention, early intervention, and treatment that can help clinicians in their everyday work.…

Bromberger, Joyce T.; Costello, Elizabeth Jane

1992-01-01

338

Feature Identification: An Epidemiological Metaphor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature identification is a technique to identify the source code constructs activated when exercising one of the features of a program. We propose new statistical analyses of static and dynamic data to accurately identify features in large multithreaded object- oriented programs. We draw inspiration from epidemiology to improve previous approaches to feature identification and develop an epidemiological metaphor. We build

Giuliano Antoniol; Yann-gaël Guéhéneuc

2006-01-01

339

The epidemiology of diagphragmatic hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the epidemiology of diaphragmatic hernia based on 1439 cases collected from a French, a Swedish, and a California birth defect registry. This is the largest epidemiological material available up to now. Isolated diaphragmatic hernia existed in 875 infants, diaphragmatic hernia with associated malformations in 486, and with chromosome anomalies in 78. Among unilateral forms, right-sided hernias were found

Elisabeth Robert; Bengt Källén; John Harris

1997-01-01

340

Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.  

PubMed

Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies. PMID:22436257

Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

2012-01-01

341

Why health educators need epidemiology.  

PubMed

The aim of health education is to encourage health behaviors that promote a better quality of life and longer life expectancy. In the late 1960s, universities in the US began offering degree programs in health education. Most programs today require that at least one class be taken in epidemiology, where epidemiology involves the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations. In recent years, several competency areas have been set forth for health educators by the US National Commission for Health Education Credentialing. This paper specifically describes how training in epidemiology provides health educators with the ability to satisfy, in large part, these competency areas. The intent of this paper is to clarify to students and advisors of health education the rationale for requiring course work in epidemiology, as well as to emphasize that epidemiology is the cornerstone to all health education, whether conducted by physicians, nurses, or formally trained health educators. PMID:14741970

Merrill, Ray M; White, George L

2002-01-01

342

The Epidemiology of Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

2012-01-01

343

Statistical inference to advance network models in epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Contact networks are playing an increasingly important role in the study of epidemiology. Most of the existing work in this area has focused on considering the effect of underlying network structure on epidemic dynamics by using tools from probability theory and computer simulation. This work has provided much insight on the role that heterogeneity in host contact patterns plays on infectious disease dynamics. Despite the important understanding afforded by the probability and simulation paradigm, this approach does not directly address important questions about the structure of contact networks such as what is the best network model for a particular mode of disease transmission, how parameter values of a given model should be estimated, or how precisely the data allow us to estimate these parameter values. We argue that these questions are best answered within a statistical framework and discuss the role of statistical inference in estimating contact networks from epidemiological data. PMID:21420658

Welch, David; Bansal, Shweta; Hunter, David R.

2011-01-01

344

The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies  

PubMed Central

Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

2013-01-01

345

Epidemiology of Behçet disease.  

PubMed

Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H

2012-10-01

346

Global epidemiology of tuberculosis.  

PubMed

With 1.4 million deaths in 2011 and 8.7 million new cases, tuberculosis (TB) disease remains a global scourge. Global targets for reductions in the epidemiological burden of TB have been set for 2015 and 2050 within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by the Stop TB Partnership. Achieving these targets is the focus of national and international efforts in TB control, and demonstrating whether or not they are achieved is of major importance to guide future and sustainable investments.This paper discusses the methods used to estimate the global burden of TB; estimates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality for 2011, combined with assessment of progress toward the 2015 targets for reductions in these indicators based on trends since 1990 and projections up to 2015; trends in TB notifications and in the implementation of the Stop TB Strategy; and prospects for elimination of TB by 2050. PMID:23460002

Glaziou, Philippe; Falzon, Dennis; Floyd, Katherine; Raviglione, Mario

2013-02-01

347

Heat illness. I. Epidemiology.  

PubMed

Reliable information on the epidemiology of heat illness has come, until recently, mainly from the armed forces and, to a lesser extent, from some industries and civil communities. Data from the records of the British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force, Indian Armed Forces, U.S. Army and forces engaged in the Arab-Israeli wars, from the South African gold mining corporations and Persian Gulf oil tankers, and from civilian communities, mainly in the U.S.A., are reviewed and discussed with particular reference to the classification of heat illness and definition of the terms used, and the effects on acclimatized and non-acclimatized personnel and on other sections of the civilian communities most at risk, i.e. the old and very young. This section concludes with an outline of the classification of acute heat illnesses from 1899 to the eighth revision of the WHO International Classification of Diseases in 1967. PMID:320723

Ellis, F P

1976-01-01

348

Practical 1: Measuring Disease Occurrence: Prevalence, incidence, incidence density Question 1: Prevalence of Caries in Belo Horizonte  

E-print Network

: Prevalence of Caries in Belo Horizonte The BELCAP Study; background: Dental epidemiological study://www.personal.soton.ac.uk/dab1f10/AdvancedStatsEpi/tabledata.htm Questions: calculate prevalence of caries (DMFT > 0) with 95% CIPractical 1: Measuring Disease Occurrence: Prevalence, incidence, incidence density Question 1

Boehning, Dankmar

349

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

350

Are We Too Many? Some Questions About the Population Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are we too many? Few questions have sparked such heated debate in environmental political thought. It is a question that highlights fundamental tensions between humans and the environment, or people and resources. It stems from a belief that there is imbalance in the natural order and a profound sense of fear for the future of life on earth. It is

Sherilyn MacGregor

2009-01-01

351

Teacher Questions: An Experimental Analysis of the Question Effect Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effects of three types of teacher questions (literal, interpretive, applied) on: (1) frequency, length, and quality of student response; (2) classroom interaction; (3) student questions; (4) intentional and incidental learning; and (5) student attitudes. Multiple-choice formats were used to assess intentional learning, and…

Mahlios, Marc; D'Angelo, Karen

352

Classroom Questioning Techniques: The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions was developed for use by teachers who wish to stimulate their students' critical thinking skills, but who find the terminology of existing skill taxonomies both confusing and elusive. This taxonomy consists of six levels of questions. Each level is given the name of a television program reflecting how the student…

Kahn, Michael

353

Frequently Asked Questions Question: What items are not allowed on  

E-print Network

Frequently Asked Questions Question: What items are not allowed on Laboratory property? Answer: If an explosive is detected in a vehicle, what measures will be taken to protect those nearby? Answer. ENHANCED SECURITY MEASURES Security for You, for the Laboratory, and for the Nation LA-UR 12-00944 February

354

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

355

VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. (Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-07-01

356

Why Research in Family Medicine? A Superfluous Question  

PubMed Central

The ultimate answer to the question, “Why research in family medicine?” is to provide better care for our patients. Through research we want to improve quality of primary care by improving our understanding and practice of it. This research will inevitably be specific for family medicine as family medicine is a specific discipline. In this article we first explore what makes family medicine a specific discipline. In a second part we present a framework to grasp the various research questions that must be answered to achieve the complex and multifaceted goal of improving quality of care. Family medicine is a specific discipline for 3 reasons: it has a unique epidemiology, the context of care is important, and it has a strong link and responsibility to the community. Quality of care is a complex and multidimensional concept that raises diverse research questions. We propose to map these questions within a framework defined by the 3 dimensions of the Donabedian triangle—structure, process, and outcome—and within each of these dimensions by 5 foci—basic knowledge, diagnostic and therapeutic problem solving, practice implementation, policy context, and education. This framework may help to make the various research questions operational and to point out the gaps in our research. The questions and answers should be relevant to daily practice and comprise all domains of family medicine so that eventually most of our daily actions in practice will be underpinned with medical, contextual, and policy evidence and contribute to the improvement of the quality of care. PMID:15655082

De Maeseneer, Jan M.; De Sutter, An

2004-01-01

357

Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.  

PubMed

Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic research but looms as a towering obstacle in environmental epidemiology. One of the most promising developments in improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology is to find exposure biomarkers, which could serve as built-in dosimeters that reflect the biologic footprint left behind by environmental exposures. Beyond exposure assessment, epidemiologists studying environmental exposures face the difficulty of studying small effects that may be distorted by confounding that eludes easy control. This challenge may prompt reliance on new study designs, such as two-stage designs in which exposure and disease information are collected in the first stage, and covariate information is collected on a subset of subjects in state two. While the analytic methods already available for environmental epidemiology are powerful, analytic methods for ecologic studies need further development. This workshop outlines the range of methodologic issues that environmental epidemiologists must address so that their work meets the goals set by scientists and society at large. PMID:8206029

Rothman, K J

1993-12-01

358

The Geography of Virtual Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions

Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

2009-01-01

359

Context, Gender, and Physics Questions  

E-print Network

; individual answers differed between 5 and 21 on pretests, between 3 and 22 on the posttests · Men averaged 13 questions differently on pretests, between 0 and 22 on posttests · Women averaged 13 questions different on content? · When cued to the test similarities, students had somewhat fewer differences between the tests

Wu, Mingshen

360

Twenty Questions about Mathematical Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper poses and answers 20 questions about mathematical reasoning. Questions include: (1) Is mathematical reasoning mathematical? (2) Is mathematical reasoning useful? (3) Is mathematical reasoning an appropriate goal of school mathematics? (4) Can teachers teach mathematical reasoning? (5) Can mathematical reasoning be taught? (6) Do skills…

Steen, Lynn Arthur

361

Thirteen Questions: Reframing Education's Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides alternative answers to those questions about the American educational system that have been answered until now by an outmoded, conservative educational agenda. Following the introduction that describes the rationale for a postmodern deconstruction of educational narratives, 13 chapters present essays on the following questions:…

Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.

362

Questions to Guide RTI's Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents 10 related questions on which Heartland Area Education Agency in Iowa base their approach for developing a response to intervention (RTI) framework. These questions are drawn from the National Association of State Directors of Special Education's publication "Response to Intervention Blueprint for Implementation." The…

Tilly, David

2008-01-01

363

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

364

Composing Questions through Conceptual Authoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a method for composing fluent and complex natural language ques- tions, while avoiding the standard pitfalls of free text queries. The method, based on Conceptual Authoring, is targeted at question-answering systems where reliability and transparency are critical, and where users cannot be expected to undergo extensive training in question composition. This scenario is found in most corporate

Catalina Hallett; Donia Scott; Richard Power

2007-01-01

365

Unanswered Questions in Audience Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As its title implies, this article explores a number of unanswered questions and outstanding issues in contemporary audience research. These include: models of the “active audience”; questions of cultural power; global media and transnational audiences; methodologies in audience research; problems of essentialism in the conceptualization of categories of audience members; the strengths and limitations of the encoding\\/decoding model; models of

David Morley

2006-01-01

366

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

367

Types of Interviews & Interview Questions  

E-print Network

have you enjoyed the most? · Open-Ended Tell me about yourself. Why do you want to work for our recruiting new employees. The case question is generally a business problem or estimating exercise designed are most important to obtain? · Inappropriate Questions Based on Ethnicity, Religion, Sexual Orientation

Lin, Xiaodong

368

Poisoning and epidemiology: 'toxicoepidemiology'.  

PubMed

1. There is little hypothesis-testing clinical research performed in toxicology. Randomized clinical trials are rare and most observational studies are performed on highly selected patients and are subject to marked bias. Thus, for many poisonings, our approach has been based almost entirely on deduction from known pharmacological/toxicological effects, generalizations from drugs within the same therapeutic class, animal data and case reports. This is also far from satisfactory, as many toxicological mechanisms are poorly understood and not related to the therapeutic class. 2. Although we need much better data to address the clinical and public health aspects of poisoning, there are many practical and ethical reasons why randomized clinical trials are difficult in this field. However, the scope for observational research, in particular population-based clinical epidemiology, is almost unlimited. The collection of data on human poisoning is facilitated because most non-fatal overdoses are admitted to hospital and by legal requirements to report to the coroner deaths that are due to poisoning. In the present article I argue that 'toxicoepidemiology', meaning the application of epidemiological methods to the problem of acute poisoning, is the best means we have of addressing deficiencies in our knowledge of poisoning. 3. Examples are given of a variety of observational research strategies, ranging from audit to meta-analysis, that may be applied to clinical toxicology. From coronial and clinical data obtained from reasonably well-defined populations, it has been possible to identify a number of previously unrecognized differences in the severity and spectrum of toxicity between and within drug classes. Also, the demographic risk factors for poisoning and the reproducibility, validity and optimal use of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can be assessed. 4. The major limitations to the range of associations and interventions that may be studied are the need to achieve adequate power to study uncommon outcomes or poisonings and the ability to replicate findings at other centres using similar methodology. The expansion of data collection to other centres has the potential largely to overcome these obstacles. PMID:9590568

Buckley, N A

1998-01-01

369

The Value Question in Metaphysics.  

PubMed

Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

Kahane, Guy

2012-07-01

370

The Value Question in Metaphysics  

PubMed Central

Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

Kahane, Guy

2012-01-01

371

Epi Bio 301 Syllabus: Introduction to Epidemiology  

E-print Network

of Introduction to Epidemiology is to introduce you to epidemiologic methods so that you can understand. Optional Koepsell TD and Weiss NS. Epidemiologic Methods: Studying the Occurrence of Illness. New York1 Epi Bio 301 Syllabus: Introduction to Epidemiology 1.0 Credit Summer 2013 (June 24 ­ August 23

Contractor, Anis

372

Epidemiology, anthropology and health education.  

PubMed

Epidemiology gives only a partial picture of a health problem. Without a knowledge of social, cultural, and economic conditions as well, one can fall into farcical errors in designing interventions. PMID:2637707

Robert, C F; Bouvier, S; Rougemont, A

1989-01-01

373

John Snow: Pioneer of Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The key tactics of epidemiology—surveillance and response—were first used by Dr. John Snow during a cholera outbreak in 1850s London, as dramatized in this video segment adapted from Rx for Survival.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-08-31

374

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

375

Tuberculosis: Epidemiology and Control  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern worldwide: despite a regular, although slow, decline in incidence over the last decade, as many as 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths were estimated to have occurred in 2012. TB is by all means a poverty-related disease, mainly affecting the most vulnerable populations in the poorest countries. The presence of multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis in most countries, with somewhere prevalence is high, is among the major challenges for TB control, which may hinder recent achievements especially in some settings. Early TB case detection especially in resource-constrained settings and in marginalized groups remains a challenge, and about 3 million people are estimated to remain undiagnosed or not notified and untreated. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently launched a new global TB strategy for the “post-2015 era” aimed at “ending the global TB epidemic” by 2035. This strategy is based on the three pillars that emphasize patient-centred TB care and prevention, bold policies and supportive systems, and intensified research and innovation. This paper aims to provide an overview of the global TB epidemiology as well as of the main challenges that must be faced to eliminate the disease as a public health problem everywhere.

Sulis, Giorgia; Roggi, Alberto; Matteelli, Alberto; Raviglione, Mario C.

2014-01-01

376

[Epidemiology of Behçet's disease].  

PubMed

With more than 30 published prevalence estimates for Behçet's disease (BD), covering many different regions worldwide, the prevalence of BD is quite well described. Even though the interpretation of these data is complicated by between-study differences in methodology, which may substantially influence the results, these data suggest large geographic variations in frequency of BD, with prevalence rates of 20-420/100,000 inhabitants for Turkey, 2.1-19.5 for other Asian countries, 1.5-15.9 for southern Europe and 0.3-4.9 for northern Europe. Additional epidemiological studies or case series from North and South America, the Caribbean Islands, and individuals of sub-Saharan ancestry further suggest that the geographic distribution of BD is much wider than the boundaries of the ancient Silk Road. The few available incidence rates prevent from making strong inferences as to whether the frequency of BD has changed over time. Recent population-based studies of immigrants or migrant populations consistently indicate that migrants from areas of high BD prevalence remain at high risk for BD, which may even be close to the prevalence observed in their countries of origin. Genetic factors, which are not detailed in this review, seem to play a preponderant role in BD development, although they cannot explain the wide between-country disparities in BD prevalence. However, environmental risk factors, including infectious and non-infectious causes, remain poorly investigated and have not yet produced solid hints. PMID:24398415

Mahr, A; Maldini, C

2014-02-01

377

Epidemiology of prostatitis  

PubMed Central

Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

2008-01-01

378

Summer School in Cesme (Turkey) Epidemiologic Methods May/June 2011 Epidemiologic Methods  

E-print Network

Summer School in Cesme (Turkey) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 1 Epidemiologic) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 2 15.4516.15 Break 16.1517.00 L6: Measures of effect School in Cesme (Turkey) ­ Epidemiologic Methods ­ May/June 2011 3 Epidemiologic Methods Principal

Boehning, Dankmar

379

The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by Stephanie Chasteen, University of Colorado-Boulder, at the 2012 PhysTEC Conference. This workshop focused on writing questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. Focuses on "peer instruction" -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. Dr. Chasteen's materials from this workshop are also available on her blog.

Chasteen, Stephanie

2012-02-28

380

Contrasting Theories of Interaction in Epidemiology and Toxicology  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidemiologists and toxicologists face similar problems when assessing interactions between exposures, yet they approach the question very differently. The epidemiologic definition of “interaction” leads to the additivity of risk differences (RDA) as the fundamental criterion for causal inference about biological interactions. Toxicologists define “interaction” as departure from a model based on mode of action: concentration addition (CA; for similarly acting compounds) or independent action (IA; for compounds that act differently). Objectives: We compared and contrasted theoretical frameworks for interaction in the two fields. Methods: The same simple thought experiment has been used in both both epidemiology and toxicology to develop the definition of “noninteraction,” with nearly opposite interpretations. In epidemiology, the “sham combination” leads to a requirement that noninteractive dose–response curves be linear, whereas in toxicology, it results in the model of CA. We applied epidemiologic tools to mathematical models of concentration-additive combinations to evaluate their utility. Results: RDA is equivalent to CA only for linear dose–response curves. Simple models demonstrate that concentration-additive combinations can result in strong synergy or antagonism in the epidemiologic framework at even the lowest exposure levels. For combinations acting through nonsimilar pathways, RDA approximates IA at low effect levels. Conclusions: Epidemiologists have argued for a single logically consistent definition of interaction, but the toxicologic perspective would consider this approach less biologically informative than a comparison with CA or IA. We suggest methods for analysis of concentration-additive epidemiologic data. The two fields can learn a great deal about interaction from each other. PMID:23014866

Webster, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

381

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I play tutorials and videos on my mobile device?  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Can I play tutorials and videos on my mobile device? To use the sharing ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus has video content in different formats. MedlinePlus also links to ...

382

MedlinePlus FAQ: What's New on Medline Plus Page and Email Updates  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How is the What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed different from ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed include alerts ...

383

5 Questions 1 -UA Undergraduate  

E-print Network

#12;#12;5 Questions 1 - UA Undergraduate 2 - LPL Grad Student 3 - LPL Postdoc 4 - LPL Professor 5 a UA Undergraduate · Who won the World Series? · A - The Arizona Diamondbacks · B - The number 3 · C

Withers, Paul

384

Women's Health Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... This Guide Home > Topics & States > Topics > Women's Health Women's Health Frequently Asked Questions What are the barriers ... the barriers to health care access for rural women? Problems specific to access to care in rural ...

385

Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

1988-01-01

386

Questions to Ask Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... How to Manage a Serious Allergic Reaction Quiz: Baseball Injuries Questions to Ask Your Doctor KidsHealth > Teens > ... this serious? Will there be any long-term effects of this problem? Can I give this illness ...

387

Substance Abuse Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

Substance Abuse Frequently Asked Questions What is substance abuse? What are signs of substance abuse? How do ... Methamphetamine Production Prevention Act of 2008? What is substance abuse? Substance abuse is the use of a ...

388

On Clickers, Questions, and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this paper is to review the procedures used to help students become learning victors. Specifically, this paper will discuss the process used to integrate classroom-response-system technology and question-driven instruction into an introductory anatomy and physiology course for pre-nursing/allied health students at a community college. Emphasis is placed on a systematic process for developing effective questions. Student reaction to this strategy is also discussed.

Skinner, Steven

2009-03-01

389

Automatic Generation of Trivia Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a (nearly) domain-independent approach to mining trivia questions from a database. Generated questions are ranked\\u000a and are more “interesting” if they have a modest number of solutions and may reasonably be solved (but are not too easy).\\u000a Our functional model and genetic approach have several advantages: they are tractable and scalable, the hypothesis space size\\u000a is limited, and

Matthew Merzbacher

2002-01-01

390

What questions about patient care do physicians have during and after patient contact in the ED? The taxonomy of gaps in physician knowledge  

PubMed Central

Objectives To categorise questions that emergency department physicians have during patient encounters. Methods An observational study of 26 physicians at two institutions. All physicians were followed for at least two shifts. All questions that arose during patient care were recorded verbatim. These questions were then categorised using a taxonomy of clinical questions. Results Physicians had 271 questions in the course of the study. The most common questions were about drug dosing (35), what drug to use in a particular case (28), “what are the manifestations of disease X” (23), and what laboratory test to do in a situation (21). Notably lacking were questions about medication costs, administrative questions, questions about services in the community, and pathophysiology questions. Conclusions Emergency department physicians tend to have questions that cluster around practical issues such as diagnosis and treatment. In routine practice they have fewer epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, administrative, and community services questions. PMID:17901270

Graber, Mark A; Randles, Bradley D; Monahan, Jay; Ely, John W; Jennissen, Charles; Peters, Bobby; Anderson, Dean

2007-01-01

391

Questions, Questions: Taking Energy Inquiry Further in the School Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle provides ideas on how school librarians can work with elementary teachers to teach about the Sun's impact on weather and climate. The author introduces the Standards for the 21st Century Learner, developed by the American Association of School Librarians. The author focuses on Standard 1, which calls for students to inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge through developing and refining questions, investigating answers, seeking divergent perspectives in information, and assessing whether the information found answers the questions posed. The free, online magazine draws its themes from the Seven Essential Principles of Climate Literacy, with each issue focusing on one of the seven principles.

Mardis, Marcia

2011-02-01

392

Epidemiology of kidney cancer.  

PubMed

Renal-cell carcinoma usually affects those over 40 years old, and, in any age group, the disease occurs about twice as frequently among men as it does among women. The incidence of the disease has been steadily increasing over the years. In the United States, the probability of surviving after diagnosis of renal cancer has been improving since 1940 regardless of race, sex, and age at diagnosis. The relationship between SES and the chance of developing the disease is sporadic with an indication of a slightly higher risk in the upper socioeconomic classes. Urbanrural comparisons consistently suggest that a higher risk is associated with urban residence. Tobacco use is probably the only environmental factor that could be considered to be etiologically related to cancer of the kidney. A variety of studies point to a moderate but consistent association with tobacco use in the form of cigarette, cigar, or pipe smoking. The excess of the disease in males compared to females and the lower incidence in Mormons may partly be due to the confounding effect of smoking. Dietary vitamin A or vitamin A supplements may have an antipromoting effect in the development of kidney cancer. Hypotheses implicating fat and/or cholesterol intake in the etiology of cancer of the kidney appear to be too tenuous. The evidence of a relationship between concentrations of certain trace metals in drinking water and incidence of renal cancer is weak. Similarly, there is no strong indication of an increased risk among individuals exposed to radiation. In general, with the exception of the observation of an unusually high risk among coke-oven workers, occupational studies have not identified any high-risk groups. Familial aggregation, though rare, occurs with peculiar disease characteristics that may predict similar cancers in the proband's relatives with a high degree of accuracy. In conclusion, the etiology of cancer of the kidney is poorly understood. The descriptive epidemiology of the disease provides some interesting insights into the correlates of the distribution of the disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6320449

Dayal, H; Kinman, J

1983-12-01

393

Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology is struggling increasingly with problems with correlated exposures and small relative risks. As a consequence, some scholars have strongly emphasized molecular epidemiology, whereas others have argued for the importance of the population context and the reintegration of epidemiology into public health. Environmental epidemiology has several unique features that make these debates especially pertinent to it. The very large number of environmental exposures require prioritization, and the relative risks are usually very low. Furthermore, many environmental exposures can be addressed only by comparing populations rather than individuals, and the disruption of both local and global ecosystems requires us to develop new methods of study design. The population context is also very important to consider in risk management decisions because of the involuntary nature of most environmental exposures and the diversity of possible outcomes, both health- and nonhealth-related. Studies at the individual or molecular level tend to focus the research hypotheses and subsequent interventions at that level, even when research and interventions at other levels may be more appropriate. Thus, only by starting from the population and ecosystem levels can we ensure that these are given appropriate consideration. Although better research is needed at all levels, it is crucially important to choose the most appropriate level, or levels, of research for a particular problem. Only by conducting research at all these levels and by developing further methods to combine evidence from these different levels can we hope to address the challenges facing environmental epidemiology today. PMID:11171517

Pekkanen, J; Pearce, N

2001-01-01

394

Epidemiological studies for regulatory agencies.  

PubMed Central

In regulation of exposures to hazardous environmental agents, epidemiologic evidence is especially important in defining human risk estimates. The process of developing appropriate regulations is complex, however, and depends on many considerations beyond those established to a high degree of scientific certainty. Thus the needs of regulatory agencies are involved in the way epidemiologic data are developed and presented. To coordinate and review common problems associated with preventive and regulatory activities among the federal agencies concerned with regulation, an Interagency Regulatory Liaison Group (IRLG) was established in 1977. Because of difficulties encountered by these agencies or Congressional committees in evaluating epidemiologic evidence, a subcommittee of the IRLG has developed in draft form guidelines for human population studies to be used in public health decision-making. Although these guidelines have attracted much controversy, their aim is to present criteria for design and documentation of epidemiologic studies, without interfering with the initiative of investigators. Some aspects of the IRLG guidelines are discussed. The need for epidemiologic research in providing evidence for regulatory purposes is increasing, but such studies must be well done if they are to be useful. PMID:7333261

Hunt, V R

1981-01-01

395

Questions of Face: Goffman and the Management of Question Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scrutinizes an academic lecture in the subsequent question and answer period in order to decompose the speech roles associated with this speech event and to increase understanding of the factors influencing the participants and the event in order to design a useful framework for language teaching. (14 references) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for…

Crichton, Jonathan; Wajnryb, Ruth

1996-01-01

396

Global epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Despite having the highest prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, there is a dearth of data describing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) incidence and prevalence in the general population. The lack of basic epidemiological data is an obstacle to addressing the epidemic. Once considered a nuisance infection, the morbidities associated with TV have been increasingly recognised over the past decade, highlighting the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. Recent developments in TV diagnostics and molecular biology have improved our understanding of TV epidemiology. Improved characterisation of the natural history of TV infection has allowed us to hypothesise possible explanations for observed variations in TV prevalence with age. Direct and indirect hormonal effects on the female genital tract provide a likely explanation for the greater burden of persistent TV infection among women compared with men. Further characterisation of the global epidemiology of TV could enhance our ability to respond to the TV epidemic. PMID:23744960

Poole, Danielle N; McClelland, R Scott

2013-09-01

397

EpiBasket: how e-commerce tools can improve epidemiological preparedness  

PubMed Central

Background Should an emerging infectious disease outbreak or an environmental disaster occur, the collection of epidemiological data must start as soon as possible after the event's onset. Questionnaires are usually built de novo for each event, resulting in substantially delayed epidemiological responses that are detrimental to the understanding and control of the event considered. Moreover, the public health and/or academic institution databases constructed with responses to different questionnaires are usually difficult to merge, impairing necessary collaborations. We aimed to show that e-commerce concepts and software tools can be readily adapted to enable rapid collection of data after an infectious disease outbreak or environmental disaster. Here, the ‘customers’ are the epidemiologists, who fill their shopping ‘baskets’ with standardised questions. Methods For each epidemiological field, a catalogue of questions is constituted by identifying the relevant variables based on a review of the published literature on similar circumstances. Each question is tagged with information on its source papers. Epidemiologists can then tailor their own questionnaires by choosing appropriate questions from this catalogue. The software immediately provides them with ready-to-use forms and online questionnaires. All databases constituted by the different EpiBasket users are interoperable, because the corresponding questionnaires are derived from the same corpus of questions. Results A proof-of-concept prototype was developed for Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) surveys, which is one of the fields of the epidemiological investigation frequently explored during, or after, an outbreak or environmental disaster. The catalogue of questions was initiated from a review of the KAP studies conducted during or after the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic. Conclusion Rapid collection of standardised data after an outbreak or environmental disaster can be facilitated by transposing the e-commerce paradigm to epidemiology, taking advantage of the powerful software tools already available. PMID:24183326

Xing, Weijia; Hejblum, Gilles; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

2013-01-01

398

Epidemiology of atrazine.  

PubMed

Chronically exposed workers in chemical plants have revealed no increased incidence of benign or malignant disease attributable to atrazine. Some case-control studies showed a slight increase of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) incidence while others were negative. Weighted evidence supports no causal association of malignant changes in farming populations with atrazine. Two studies on a rural population suggested an increase of ovarian tumors in exposed women. Neither statistics nor exposure data are satisfactory, however, and no other studies present supporting evidence. New studies under clearly defined conditions are desirable. Very high doses of atrazine ingested in suicidal attempts had no acute clinical effect, suggesting that atrazine is virtually innocuous to humans. Sporadic reports on suspected acute poisoning leave too many questions open to be convincing: they reflect coincidence rather than causality. The tolerance of ruminants to triazine is limited. Severe poisoning in case of accidental intake of concentrated products is to be expected. Poisoning through ingestion has been controlled with activated charcoal. Adsorption on fodder enhances tolerability of triazines. Suspected poisoning through spray-contaminated fodder requires differential diagnosis to avoid confusion with other pasture toxins, electrolyte problems, or gastrointestinal infection. PMID:7501866

Loosli, R

1995-01-01

399

[Security of healthcare data networks used for epidemiological studies].  

PubMed

Record linkage, for compiling sameperson records from various source files, can improve the feasibility of epidemiological research using populationbased studies. The question is comply with the European legislation on data privacy and data security. For example, a computerized record hash coding and linkage procedure is described to link medical information within the framework of epidemiological followup. Before their extraction, files are rendered anonymous using a oneway hash coding based on the standard hash algorithm (SHA) function. Once rendered anonymous using the software ANONYMAT, the linkage of patient information can be accomplished by means of a mixture model, taking into account several identification variables. An application of this anonymous record linkage procedure was carried out in order to link medical files on cancer, from 3 hospitals of the French RhôneAlpes region. This application stresses how the use of the ANONYMAT software allows compliance with the legislation on data confidentiality without entailing problems on data availability. PMID:10740088

Quantin, C; Allaert, F A; Bouzelat, H; Rodrigues, J S; Trombertpaviot, B; Brunet-Lecomte, P; Grémy, F; Dusserre, L

2000-01-01

400

Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus  

PubMed Central

The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission. PMID:23202546

Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Nakamura-Lopez, Yuko; Vaughan, Gilberto

2012-01-01

401

Geographic boundary analysis in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology: Perspective and prospects  

PubMed Central

Geographic boundary analysis is a relatively new approach that is just beginning to be applied in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology to quantify spatial variation in health outcomes, predictors and correlates; generate and test epidemiologic hypotheses; to evaluate health-environment relationships; and to guide sampling design. Geographic boundaries are zones of rapid change in the value of a spatially distributed variable, and mathematically may be defined as those locations with a large second derivative of the spatial response surface. Here we introduce a pattern analysis framework based on Value, Change and Association questions, and boundary analysis is shown to fit logically into Change and Association paradigms. This article addresses fundamental questions regarding what boundary analysis can tell us in public health and epidemiology. It explains why boundaries are of interest, illustrates analysis approaches and limitations, and concludes with prospects and future research directions. PMID:21218153

Jacquez, Geoffrey M.

2010-01-01

402

Tolstoy and the woman question  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the perceptions of women in art and literature in Russia during the later half of the nineteenth century. It specifically focuses on the women question and examines women's function and role in Russian society and how different visual artists along with Tolstoy examine this issue through their artwork. The first section of the work focuses specifically on

Jeanna Marie Whiting

2006-01-01

403

Kast, Wijbe Martin — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is such a relevant question. Especially as evidence from animal models is mounting that therapeutic vaccines can be used very effectively in the cancer preventive setting while they do not work well in the cancer therapeutic setting. It is time to change the paradigm. Don't watchful wait, Vaccinate!

404

APPENDIX 4-B INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  

E-print Network

Birth date Dates of attendance at elementary or high school (or college) Dates of military service, children's ages, child care plans, #12;work schedule requirements. spouse's employment or salary. Gender or widowed. Military Service Questions regarding relevant experience gained during military service

Sheridan, Jennifer

405

Ten Practical Questions about Branding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

2004-01-01

406

Questioning Trends in University Dance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article revisits ideas put forward at the beginning of an academic career and discusses the ways in which time and experience within academe has shifted the author's perspective. Specifically, focusing on the balance of artistic thinking with the widely perceived need to justify the arts in higher education, the author explores questions

Van Dyke, Jan

2012-01-01

407

A Question of Competing Paradigms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are some fundamental--i.e., "essential"--differences between conceptual change theory and a rigorously applied discourse approach to the question of what and how people know. In this rejoinder, I suggest that the differences are paradigmatic because, among others, the units of analysis used and the data constructed are irreconcilably…

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2008-01-01

408

BOMB THREAT Questions to Ask  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Questions to Ask: 1. Where is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name? Sex of caller: Age: Race

Ravikumar, B.

409

In this Issue: Questioning "Professor  

E-print Network

interdependent world is far from an integrated world," said Bill Clinton in a wide-ranging address to the Hunter welcomes former U.S. President Bill Clinton and Hunter alumnus Mel Tukman ('61), sponsor of HunterIn this Issue: Questioning "Professor Clinton" page 2 page 2 Hunter Student Wins Fulbright page 3

Qiu, Weigang

410

Salvaging Timber: Frequently Asked Questions  

E-print Network

When timber is damaged by a storm, landowners may have questions such as "Who can I call for help? "How fast do I need to salvage my damaged timber? or "How can timber value be estimated in damaged timber stands? This publication answers...

Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

2005-10-19

411

Qualitative Questions in Fluid Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper in honour of Professor Leen van Wijngaarden, some propositions about fluid mechanics are discussed. First, basic fluid mechanics research should be judged as much by its progress in clarifying the essential questions about the phenomena of fluid flow and in establishing general concepts, as by its contribution to the solutions of specific problems. In fact, the latter

J. C. R. Hunt

1997-01-01

412

For Research Questions to ask  

E-print Network

CT Scans For Research Questions to ask: 1. Is this CT being done specifically for the research for educational purposes and is not intended to provide medical advice. Talk with your doctor or research team before acting on any information contained herein for advice specific to your situation. Common Research

Church, George M.

413

Questions about Influenza Designing Turbulence  

E-print Network

in 1943 to build the first atomic bomb. it remains a premier scientific laboratory, dedicated to nationalQuestions about Influenza Designing Turbulence Los Alamos Institutes Atoms from Nothingness 1663. The enormous project cost about $2 billion but produced atomic weapons that helped end the war in the Pacific

414

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

415

THE GOAL QUESTION METRIC APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with any engineering discipline, software development requires a measurement mechanism for feedback and evaluation. Measurement is a mechanism for creating a corporate memory and an aid in answering a variety of questions associated with the enactment of any software process. It helps support project planning (e. g., How much will a new project cost?); it allows us to determine

Victor R. Basili; Gianluigi Caldiera; H. Dieter Rombach

1994-01-01

416

Four Questions to Ask Yourself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

2007-01-01

417

Looming Questions in Performance Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

Gratz, Donald B.

2010-01-01

418

Radiation epidemiology: a perspective on Fukushima.  

PubMed

For nearly 100 years, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to ionising radiation have provided quantitative information on health risks. High dose deterministic (tissue reaction) effects result when sufficient numbers of functioning cells are killed, such as in bone marrow depression that can lead to death. Lower dose stochastic effects are probabilistic in nature and include an increased risk of cancer later in life and heritable genetic defects, although genetic conditions in the children of irradiated parents have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Radiation studies are of diverse populations and include not only the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but also patients treated with radiation for malignant and non-malignant disease; patients exposed for diagnostic purposes; persons with intakes of radionuclides; workers occupationally exposed; and communities exposed to environmental and accidentally released sources of radiation. Much is known about radiation and its risks. The major unanswered question in radiation epidemiology, however, is not whether radiation causes cancer, but what the level of risk is following low dose (<100 mSv) or low dose rate exposures. Paracelsus is credited with first articulating that the 'poison is in the dose', which for radiation epidemiology translates as 'the lower the dose, the lower the risk' and, an important corollary, the lower the dose, the greater the difficulty in detecting any increase in the number of cancers possibly attributable to radiation. In contrast to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Fukushima reactor accident has to date resulted in no deterministic effects and no worker deaths. Estimates to date of population doses suggest very low uptakes of radioactive iodine which was a major determinant of the epidemic of thyroid cancer following childhood exposures around Chernobyl. The estimates to date of population doses are also much lower (and the distribution much narrower) than the doses for which cancer excesses have been detected among atomic bomb survivors after 60 years of follow-up. Studies of populations exposed to low doses are also limited in their ability to account for important lifestyle factors, such as cigarette smoking and medical x-ray exposures, which could distort findings. Studies of the Fukushima population should be and are being considered for reassurance and health care reasons. Apart from as regards the extreme psychological stress caused by the horrific loss of life following the tsunami and the large-scale evacuation from homes and villages, such studies have limited to no chance of providing information on possible health risks following low dose exposures received gradually over time--the estimated doses (to date) are just too small. PMID:22395193

Boice, John D

2012-03-01

419

NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing, sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), will be held on October 8, 2014, at the NCI Shady Grove Campus in Rockville, Maryland.

420

Technology Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The debate regarding the health effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. In the present review, the authors attempt to address the following question: is there epidemiologic evidence for an association between long-term cell phone usage and the risk of developing a brain tumor? Included with

Vini G. Khurana; Charles Teo; Michael Kundi; Lennart Hardell; Michael Carlberg

2009-01-01

421

Knox Meets Cox: Adapting Epidemiological Space-Time Statistics to Demographic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important questions and theories in demography focus on changes over time, and on how those changes differ over geographic and social space. Space-time analysis has always been important in studying fertility transitions, for example. However, demographers have seldom used formal statistical methods to describe and analyze time series of maps. One formal method, used widely in epidemiology, criminology, and

Joseph E. Potter

2010-01-01

422

The epidemiology of rape and sexual coercion in South Africa: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1999 the issue of rape in South Africa was debated at the highest levels. The epidemiology of rape has become an issue of considerable political importance and sensitivity, with President Mbeki demanding an answer to the question: how much rape is there in South Africa? The purpose of this paper is both to summarise and synthesise the findings of

Rachel Jewkes; Naeema Abrahams

2002-01-01

423

How is sex considered in recent epidemiological publications on occupational risks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESAlthough women account for almost half the working population in industrialised countries, a sex bias persists in publications on medical research in general and occupational health in particular. The objective was to review recent publications on how sex is considered in epidemiological studies of occupational health, and to answer the following questions: are men and women studied equally, what are

Isabelle Niedhammer; Marie-Josèphe Saurel-Cubizolles; Michèle Piciotti; Sébastien Bonenfant

2000-01-01

424

The interface between epidemiology and population genetics.  

PubMed

Modern biology increasingly integrates disparate disciplines. Here, Steve Paterson and Mark Viney examine the interface between epidemiology and population genetics. They argue that infection and inheritance can be considered as analogous processes, and that epidemiology and population genetics share many common features. They consider the potential for existing population genetic theory to dissect epidemiological patterns in field studies and they consider other relationships between genetics and epidemiology that provide a research challenge for the future. PMID:11121850

Paterson, S; Viney, M E

2000-12-01

425

Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Montreal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify the epidemiologic caracteristics of tuberculosis (TB) in Mon- treal and the patterns of resistance to antituberculous drugs in order to improve TB control in the region. Design: Descriptive analysis of surveillance data for TB cases reported in Montreal by physicians and laboratories between 1992 and 1995. Setting: Region of Montreal, population 1 775 899. Participants: All cases

Paul Rivest; Terry Tannenbaum; Lucie Bédard

426

Molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular typing methods based on the analysis of the genetic structure of bacteria, are used to address many different problems such as the study of genomic organisation and evolution, the identification of patterns of infection, the identification of sources of transmission, the epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases and for investigations into outbreaks. Of particular interest is the application of these

Stefania Stefani; Antonella Agodi

2000-01-01

427

Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes key results of epidemiologic studies published in peer-reviewed journals between April 2003 and March 2004. The prevalence of H. pylori infection continues to vary strongly between developing countries and developed countries, and according to ethnicity, place of birth and socio- economic factors among people living in the same country. Intrafamilial spread appears to play a central role

Guillermo I. Perez-Perez; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Hermann Brenner

2004-01-01

428

Malaria epidemiological trends in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the official reports received from local health laboratories, an epidemiological analysis of malaria cases reported in Italy from 1989 to 1992 is presented. A total of 1,941 cases were reported, 1,287 among Italians and 654 among foreigners. The incidence of cases was on average 500 per year with a maximum in 1990. A slight, but constant decrease of

G. Sabatinelli; G. Majori; F. D'Ancona; R. Romi

1994-01-01

429

Epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability were established in 958 participants in the Northwick Park Heart Study. The main analyses were based on the dose of adenosine diphosphate at which primary aggregation occurred at half its maximum velocity. Aggregability increased with age in both sexes, was greater in whites than blacks (particularly among men), and tended to decrease with the

T W Meade; M V Vickers; S G Thompson; Y Stirling; A P Haines; G J Miller

1985-01-01

430

Epidemiology of pelvic floor dysfunction.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of female pelvic floor disorders, including urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, anal incontinence, and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is reviewed. The natural history, prevalence, incidence, remission, risk factors, and potential areas for prevention are considered. PMID:19932408

Sung, Vivian W; Hampton, Brittany Star

2009-09-01

431

Computational Epidemiology Research Laboratory (CERL)  

E-print Network

.R., Mikler A.R., Moonan P., and Weis S., 2006, "From Medical Geography to Computational Epidemiology. and Mikler, A.R., 2006, "An Infectious Disease Outbreak Simulator Based on the Cellular Automata Paradigm '04), Guadalajara, Mexico, June 2004, Springer LNCS 3473, 2006, 198 - 211. Biology Medical Geography

Mohanty, Saraju P.

432

Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group  

Cancer.gov

The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group was established in 2012 to promote strategies to develop capacity to support metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as to advance the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

433

Design issues for drug epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Despite the difficulties involved in designing drug epidemiology studies, these studies are invaluable for investigating the unexpected adverse effects of drugs. The aim of this paper is to discuss various aspects of study design, particularly those issues that are not easily found in either textbooks or review papers. We have also compared and contrasted drug epidemiology with the randomized controlled trial (RCT) wherever possible. Drug epidemiology is especially useful in the many situations where the RCT is not suitable, or even possible. The study base has to be defined before the appropriate cohort of subjects is assembled. If all of the cases are identified, then a referent sample of controls may be assembled by random sampling of the study base. If all of the cases cannot be assembled, a hypothetical secondary base may need to be created. Preferably, only new-users of the drug should be included, and the risk-ratio will be different for acute users and chronic users. Studies will usually only be possible when researching the unintended effects of drugs. It is difficult to study efficacy because of confounding by indication. In occasional circumstances it may be possible to study efficacy (examples are given). Discussion of the dangers of designing with generalisability in mind is provided. Additionally, the similarities in study design between drug epidemiology and the RCT are discussed in detail, as well as the design-characteristics that cannot be shared between the two methods. PMID:11069436

McMahon, Alex D; MacDonald, Tom M

2000-01-01

434

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

435

Epidemiologic studies of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementing existing data which indicate an association between disease and air pollution, new epidemiologic studies provide evidence on the relationship of malignant neoplasms of the lung to air pollution, the distribution of deaths resulting from emphysema and the apparent increase in this disease, the relationship of asthmatic attack rates to air pollution as measured by sulfur dioxide, and the effects

R. J. Anderson

1962-01-01

436

Epidemiologic aspects of lipid abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing cholesterol guidelines aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease emphasize the role of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in lipid management decisions, with a subsidiary role for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in guiding treatment and little role for triglycerides. In this article, epidemiologic evidence is reviewed relating to the independent value of lipid factors in prediction of cardiovascular

Michael H Criqui; Beatrice A Golomb

1998-01-01

437

Commentary: Epidemiology: Indeed “Quo Vadis”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To know where you are going, it is useful to know where you are coming from, and who you are. Epidemiology came from studying distributions of diseases, primarily infectious diseases, in populations. The wellknown historical examples of this can be found in any textbook. At the same time, the epidemiologist’s concern with populations – as perceived by non-epidemiologists – rather

Jacobus Lubsen

2004-01-01

438

Asking Personal Questions in Mock Job Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies used a job interview role-play situation to examine strategies that interviewers employed when asking personal as compared to neutral questions. They found that personal questions were asked later in the interview than neutral questions and that more hesitation markers, tag questions, and hedges were used with personal questions than…

Ng, Sik Hung

1995-01-01

439

2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course  

Cancer.gov

Mark your calendars for the 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course, offered by the Radiation Epidemiology Branch, part of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). World renowned radiation experts will discuss basic principles and the most up-to-date thinking about the health effects of radiation exposure.

440

Discrete Methods in Epidemiology James Abello  

E-print Network

Discrete Methods in Epidemiology James Abello Graham Cormode DIMACS and Ask.com Research E@dimacs.rutgers.edu #12;2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 92D30 Epidemiology, Secondary 68R01 Discrete, and Ilya Muchnik 1 Descriptive Epidemiology: A Brief Introduction Dona Schneider 41 Biostatistical

Cormode, Graham

441

Updated October 1, 2013 INTERMEDIATE EPIDEMIOLOGY  

E-print Network

epidemiologic theory and methods. Specifically, this course provides students with the following: (1) advanced understanding of epidemiologic and clinical study designs; (2) knowledge of classical methods of statistical epidemiologic studies (i.e., confounding). In addition, the course will address the use of statistical methods

Contractor, Anis

442

About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally with funding through the extramural Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) and other Programs in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

443

Early life experience and social status in the laboratory rat: Addressing causal questions from social epidemiology  

E-print Network

stress increased sensitivity to adult social status. We found parallel results in college students (stress increased sensitivity to adult social status. We found parallel results in college students (stress increased the responsiveness to adult social status. We found parallel results in college students

Saxton, Katherine Blair

2010-01-01

444

Community Epidemiology of Risk and Adolescent Substance Use: Practical Questions for Enhancing Prevention  

PubMed Central

To promote an effective approach to prevention, the community diagnosis model helps communities systematically assess and prioritize risk factors to guide the selection of preventive interventions. This increasingly widely used model relies primarily on individual-level research that links risk and protective factors to substance use outcomes. I discuss common assumptions in the translation of such research concerning the definition of risk factor elevation; the equivalence, independence, and stability of relations between risk factors and problem behaviors; and community differences in risk factors and risk factor–problem behavior relations. Exploring these assumptions could improve understanding of the relations of risk factors and substance use within and across communities and enhance the efficacy of the community diagnosis model. This approach can also be applied to other areas of public health where individual and community levels of risk and outcomes intersect. PMID:22390508

2012-01-01

445

Journal of Chemical Education: Conceptual Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides examples of conceptual questions, an introduction to several different types of conceptual questions, and a discussion of what constitutes a conceptual question. Links to definitions and discussions provide the details.

Education, Journal O.; Society, Division O.

446

Invited commentary: consequential(ist) epidemiology: let's seize the day.  

PubMed

Now is the time for the science of epidemiology to embrace its pragmatic roots. The article by Galea in this issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(8):1185-1191) calls for us to become more "consequentialist." The Affordable Care Act allows us to access population-level databases from which we can examine how to deliver care more efficiently and cost-effectively. Asking the questions "so what" and "how much" will increase our relevance over the next decade. PMID:24022888

Cates, Willard

2013-10-15

447

Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

Andrews, Nick

2012-09-01

448

08/2011 108/2011 1 PhD Minor in Epidemiology PhD Minor in Epidemiology  

E-print Network

of Epidemiology ( EPID 573B Epidemiologic Methods (3) A B EPID 573B Epidemiologic Methods (3) A B EPID08/2011 108/2011 1 PhD Minor in Epidemiology PhD Minor in Epidemiology The PhD minor in Epidemiology is designed for individuals from other University of Arizona doctoral degree programs who wish

Arizona, University of

449

Epidemiology of mycotoxic porcine nephropathy.  

PubMed

Mycotoxic porcine nephropathy is a renal disorder caused by ingestion of feed-borne secondary fungal metabolites, possessing nephrotoxic properties. The disease is present endemically in all areas of Denmark, but unevenly distributed, with frequency varying from 0.6 to 65.9 cases per 10,000 pigs in 1971. Epidemics were encountered in 1963 and 1971, apparently associated with excessive climatic conditions. The highest frequency of the disease is found among pigs from the smaller farms. Ordinarily the same farm delivers cases during only one year. Female pigs contract the disease more frequently than male (castrated) pigs. The epidemiology of mycotoxic porcine nephropathy shows similarities with the epidemiology of endemic Balkan nephropathy. PMID:980696

Krogh, P

1976-09-01

450

Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

2013-01-01

451

The new epidemiology of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A confluence of findings from different vantage points has led to renewed interest and direction in the epidemiology of schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of prevalence and incidence data, examining the validity of reported secular trends in the occurrence of schizophrenia. Advances in molecular genetics have uncovered new linkage on chromosomes 6, 8, and 22 and have suggested complex models, including anticipation, to explain the perpetuation of genetic transmission in the face of low fecundity. Neurotropic viruses and autoimmunity have emerged as pathoplastic mechanisms to explain recent intriguing epidemiologic associations in schizophrenia. Environmental risk factors are also important. With attention to particular risk factors (i.e., perinatal hypoxia), a preventative approach may be realistic for some forms of schizophrenia. PMID:9551488

Jones, P; Cannon, M

1998-03-01

452

Sarcopenia: Definition, Epidemiology, and Pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological trends that characterize our generation are the aging of the population. Aging results in a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, which is Greek for 'poverty of flesh'. Sarcopenia could lead to functional impairment, physical disability, and even mortality. Today, sarcopenia is a matter of immense public concern for aging prevention. Its prevalence continues to rise, probably as a result of increasing elderly populations all over the world. This paper addressed the definition and epidemiology of sarcopenia and its underlying pathophysiology. In addition, we summarized the abundant information available in the literature related to sarcopenia, together with results from Korean sarcopenic obesity study (KSOS) that we performed. PMID:24524049

Kim, Tae Nyun

2013-01-01

453

Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

2013-01-01

454

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF COLORECTAL CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to analyze certain epidemiological variations in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer. (CRC): From March 1981 up to March 1993, 103 patients were analyzed retrospectively for age, gender, marital state, job, nutritional habits, presenting symptoms and histopathological features. Most of the patients with colorectal cancer were male, age range 20-75 (mean 56), 25.4 percent were long-term

B. Shafayan; M. Keyhani

455

Epidemiology of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The epidemiology of IA, the major invasive mould infection in immunocompromised patients, has evolved over the last several\\u000a decades. During the 1990s, increasing morbidity and mortality from these infections, particularly amongst the increasing numbers\\u000a of patients being treated for haematological malignancies and those undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation,\\u000a became a universal experience in many tertiary care medical centres. Changes

Carol A. Kauffman; Nelson P. Nicolasora

456

Epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension.  

PubMed

Changes in the epidemiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have resulted from changes in classification schemes and an increased emphasis on diagnosis because of the availability of effective therapies. The terms primary pulmonary hypertension and secondary pulmonary hypertension are considered inappropriate, confusing, and should not be used. Recent registries of patients with PAH have provided improved data regarding prognosis in the era of advanced therapies. PMID:24267294

Taichman, Darren B; Mandel, Jess

2013-12-01

457

Climate change epidemiology: methodological challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is now thought to be unequivocal, while its potential effects on global and public health cannot be ignored.\\u000a However, the complexities of the causal webs, the dynamics of the interactions and unpredictability mean that climate change\\u000a presents new challenges to epidemiology and magnifies existing methodological problems. This article reviews a number of such\\u000a challenges, including topics such as

Wei W. Xun; Aneire E. Khan; Edwin Michael; Paolo Vineis

2010-01-01

458

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

Aviles, L

2001-01-01

459

Unanswered Questions in Friedreich Ataxia  

PubMed Central

During the past 15 years, the pace of research advancement in Friedreich ataxia has been rapid. The abnormal gene has been discovered and its gene product characterized, leading to the development of new evidence-based therapies. Still, various unsettled issues remain that affect clinical trials. These include the level of frataxin deficiency needed to cause disease, the mechanism by which frataxin-deficient mitochondrial dysfunction leads to symptomatology, and the reason selected cells are most affected in Friedreich ataxia. In this review, we summarize these questions and propose testable hypotheses for their resolution. PMID:22832776

Lynch, David R.; Deutsch, Eric C.; Wilson, Robert B.; Tennekoon, Gihan

2013-01-01

460

Practical limitations of epidemiologic methods.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiologic methods can be categorized into demographic studies of mortality and morbidity and observational studies that are either retrospective or prospective. Some of the limitations of demographic studies are illustrated by a review of one specific mortality study showing possible relationship of nuclear fallout to leukemia. Problems of accuracy of diagnosis or causes of death on death certificates, estimates of population, migration from areas of study, and the issue of "ecological fallacy" are discussed. Retrospective studies have such problems as recall of previous environmental exposure, selection bias and survivor bias. In environmental epidemiology, prospective studies have been used. The problems associated with these studies are illustrated by reviewing some of the details of the study of effects of microwave radiation on embassy employees in Moscow. The study population had to be reconstructed, individuals had to be located and information on exposure status had to be obtained by questionnaire. The relatively small size of the exposed group permitted the detection of only fairly large relative risks. Despite these limitations, epidemiologic studies have been remarkably productive in elucidating etiological factors. They are necessary since "the proper study of man is man." PMID:6653534

Lilienfeld, A M

1983-01-01

461

Natural history of tuberculosis. Epidemiology.  

PubMed

This Symposium honours the achievements of Dr Karel Styblo. In this presentation, specific epidemiologic insights are reviewed. Studies of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Eskimos showed a picture of tuberculosis at the height of the epidemic. Very high incidence was observed in young people who experienced a high fatality rate. Application of specific control measures were accompanied by rapid decline in rates, greater than observed in any other human population, demonstrating that tuberculosis could be brought under control by specific intervention. Studies of the natural trend of tuberculosis in South India showed that, even in the absence of intervention, a decline was observed in the rates of this disease. In the absence of chemotherapy, 50 per cent of cases die within 5 years, 30 per cent recover spontaneously and 20 per cent remain sputum positive. Studies of the efficacy of BCG in Madras, enabled to study the impact of efficient case-finding associated with poor treatment results showing that such a situation multiplies the number of surviving, infectious cases in the community and, thus, actually deteriorates the epidemiological situation. These various basic studies have shown both how to create success and how to create failure in tuberculosis programmes. PMID:1687514

Grzybowski, S

1991-12-01

462

Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Understanding the etiology of a disease such as prostate cancer may help in identifying populations at high risk, timely intervention of the disease, and proper treatment. Biomarkers, along with exposure history and clinical data, are useful tools to achieve these goals. Individual risk and population incidence of prostate cancer result from the intervention of genetic susceptibility and exposure. Biochemical, epigenetic, genetic, and imaging biomarkers are used to identify people at high risk for developing prostate cancer. In cancer epidemiology, epigenetic biomarkers offer advantages over other types of biomarkers because they are expressed against a person's genetic background and environmental exposure, and because abnormal events occur early in cancer development, which includes several epigenetic alterations in cancer cells. This article describes different biomarkers that have potential use in studying the epidemiology of prostate cancer. We also discuss the characteristics of an ideal biomarker for prostate cancer, and technologies utilized for biomarker assays. Among epigenetic biomarkers, most reports indicate GSTP1 hypermethylation as the diagnostic marker for prostate cancer; however, NKX2-5, CLSTN1, SPOCK2, SLC16A12, DPYS, and NSE1 also have been reported to be regulated by methylation mechanisms in prostate cancer. Current challenges in utilization of biomarkers in prostate cancer diagnosis and epidemiologic studies and potential solutions also are discussed. PMID:24213111

Verma, Mukesh; Patel, Payal; Verma, Mudit

2011-01-01

463

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

2012-01-01

464

[Methodological standards for migrant-sensitive epidemiological research].  

PubMed

Migrant-sensitive epidemiological research often encounters methodological problems: differences among studies with regard to the definition of the term "migrant", difficulties in identifying migrants among the study participants and low participation rates of migrants in epidemiological studies. Therefore, a project has been initiated at the Robert Koch Institute with the aim of developing standards which ensure migrant-sensitive epidemiological research, provide a uniform framework for data collection and analysis, and make different data sources comparable. Ideally, the following standards should be followed: a comprehensive definition of the study population which includes migrants, standardisation of the term "migrant" and of its operationalization, adequate participation rates of migrants in the study, inclusion of migrant-specific topics and questions, and migrant-specific non-responder analysis, data analysis, reporting of results and quality assurance. We give an overview of the status quo of the implementation of the these standards in ongoing studies of the Robert Koch Institute and propose minimum standards, which do not require considerable additional financial resources. PMID:15768300

Schenk, L; Neuhauser, H

2005-03-01

465

Epidemiology of Candida kefyr in patients with hematologic malignancies.  

PubMed

Candida kefyr is an emerging pathogen among patients with hematologic malignancies (HM). We performed a retrospective study at Johns Hopkins Hospital to evaluate the epidemiology of C. kefyr colonization and infection in HM patients between 2004 and 2010. Eighty-three patients were colonized and/or infected with C. kefyr, with 8 (9.6%) having invasive candidiasis (IC). The yearly incidence of C. kefyr colonization and candidemia increased over the study period (P < 0.01), particularly after 2009. In 2010, C. kefyr caused 16.7% of candidemia episodes. The monthly incidence of C. kefyr was higher during the summer throughout the study. In a cohort of patients with acute myelogenic leukemia receiving induction chemotherapy, risks for C. kefyr colonization included the summer season (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; P = 0.03); administration of an azole (OR, 0.06; P < 0.001) or amphotericin B (OR, 0.35; P = 0.05) was protective. Fingerprinting of 16 isolates by repetitive sequence-based PCR showed that all were different genotypes. The epidemiology of C. kefyr candidemia was evaluated in another hospital in Montreal, Canada; data confirmed higher rates of C. kefyr infection in the summer. C. kefyr appears to be increasing in HM patients, with prominent summer seasonality. These findings raise questions about the effect of antifungal agents and health care exposures (e.g., yogurt) on the epidemiology of this yeast. PMID:24622105

Dufresne, Simon F; Marr, Kieren A; Sydnor, Emily; Staab, Janet F; Karp, Judith E; Lu, Kit; Zhang, Sean X; Lavallée, Christian; Perl, Trish M; Neofytos, Dionysios

2014-06-01

466

Open Questions in Arithmetic Algebraic Alice Silverberg  

E-print Network

is part of a rich and beautiful theory, with many as yet unanswered questions. Our central objectsOpen Questions in Arithmetic Algebraic Geometry Alice Silverberg #12; #12; Contents Open Questions curves. 46 6.4. Abelian varieties, Shimura varieties, and open questions. 46 Bibliography 49 #12; IAS

Silverberg, Alice

467

Some unanswered questions in fluid mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perhaps a hundred questions are imbedded in this collection. It is an experiment that brings together the contributions of many people. Questions are not widely used in the authors literature. The typical paper in fluid mechanics, or in science and engineering generally, contains not a single question. Some people are clearly reluctant to pose questions for which they have no

L. M. Trefethen; R. L. Panton

1990-01-01

468

Recognizing Digressive Questions During Interactive Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In expository discourse, people sometimes ask ques- tions that digress from the purpose of the discussion. A system that provides interactive explanations and advice must be able to distinguish pertinent questions from questions that digress. It must also be able .to recognize questions that are incoherent. These types of questions require different treatment. Pertinent ques- tions must be answered to

Susan M. Hailer

469

Open questions in classical gravity  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

Mannheim, P.D. (Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States))

1994-04-01

470

The Urban Institute: Five Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the mid-1960s, President Johnson saw the need for independent nonpartisan analysis of the problems facing America's cities and their residents. The President created a blue-ribbon commission of civic leaders who recommended chartering a center to do that work and in 1968, the Urban Institute became that center. Today the Urban Institute analyzes policies, evaluates programs, and informs community development to "improve social, civic, and economic well-being." Working in all 50 states and abroad, the Institute shares its research with policymakers, business leaders, and academics. On this site, visitors can enjoy the Institute's series of interviews entitled "Five Questions For"" which poses five questions to the people behind the Urban Institute's research. Here, experts talk about the nature of their work and offer insights on what they've learned. The collection allows visitors to browse a chronological list of this series of interviews and each interview is easily emailed and is also available in a printer friendly format.

471

Les questions de migrations internationales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

Samman, Mouna Liliane

1993-03-01

472

Comparison among antiretroviral adherence questions  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to compare antiretroviral adherence questions. Among 53 methadone maintained HIV-infected drug users, we compared five measures, including two single item measures using qualitative Likert-type responses, one measure of percent adherence, one visual analog scale, and one measure that averaged responses across antiretrovirals. Responses were termed inconsistent if respondents endorsed the highest adherence level on at least one measure but middle levels on others. We examined ceiling effects, concordance, and correlations with VL. Response distributions differed markedly between measures. A ceiling effect was less pronounced for the single-item measures than for the measure that averaged responses for each antiretroviral: the proportion with 100% adherence varied from 22% (single item measure) to 58% (multi-item measure). Overall agreement between measures ranged from fair to good; 49% of participants had inconsistent responses. Though responses correlated with VL, single-item measures had higher correlations. Future studies should compare single-item questions to objective measures. PMID:21181252

Berg, Karina M.; Wilson, Ira B.; Li, Xuan; Arnsten, Julia H.

2013-01-01

473

Evaluative Conditioning: The "How" Question  

PubMed Central

Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “how” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains. PMID:22241936

Jones, Christopher R.; Olson, Michael A.; Fazio, Russell H.

2011-01-01

474

Epidemiology and the web of causation: has anyone seen the spider?  

PubMed

'Multiple causation' is the canon of contemporary epidemiology, and its metaphor and model is the 'web of causation.' First articulated in a 1960 U.S. epidemiology textbook, the 'web' remains a widely accepted but poorly elaborated model, reflecting in part the contemporary stress on epidemiologic methods over epidemiologic theories of disease causation. This essay discusses the origins, features, and problems of the 'web,' including its hidden reliance upon the framework of biomedical individualism to guide the choice of factors incorporated in the 'web.' Posing the question of the whereabouts of the putative 'spider,' the author examines several contemporary approaches to epidemiologic theory, including those which stress biological evolution and adaptation and those which emphasize the social production of disease. To better integrate biologic and social understandings of current and changing population patterns of health and disease, the essay proposes an ecosocial framework for developing epidemiologic theory. Features of this alternative approach are discussed, a preliminary image is offered, and debate is encouraged. PMID:7992123

Krieger, N

1994-10-01

475

Debunking some judicial myths about epidemiology and its relevance to UK tort law.  

PubMed

Due to the limitations of current medical knowledge, claimants in complicated disease litigation often experience difficulties in proving causation. This paper aims to demonstrate that in some instances these difficulties could be overcome through greater use of epidemiological evidence. To encourage greater use of such evidence, it is first of all necessary to address and correct a series of common judicial misconceptions of epidemiology as a scientific discipline. By distinguishing epidemiology from the application of bare statistics, and by explaining that the courts are not automatically bound by an epidemiological result of 51+% to hold that causation has been established, this paper seeks to allay common judicial concerns about epidemiological evidence. It further seeks to demonstrate that the current judicial approach to determining questions of probabilistic causation is fundamentally flawed and that it could be significantly improved through greater use of specialist epidemiological expert witnesses. On the issue of expertise, the paper goes on to highlight the problems associated with the tendency of UK lawyers to turn to clinicians as experts on all matters of biomedical science. PMID:23645537

Mcivor, Claire

2013-01-01

476

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01

477

Approaches for evaluating veterinary epidemiological models: verification, validation and limitations.  

PubMed

The evaluation of models of the spread and control of animal diseases is crucial if these models are to be used to inform decisions about the control or management of such diseases. Two key steps in the evaluation of epidemiological models are model verification and model validation. Verification is the demonstration that a computer-driven model is operating correctly, and conforms to its intended design. Validation refers to the process of determining how well a model corresponds to the system that it is intended to represent. For a veterinary epidemiological model, validation would address such issues as how well the model represents the dynamics of the disease in question in the population to which this model is applied, and how well the model represents the application of different measures for disease control. Just as the development of epidemiological models is a subjective, continuous process, subject to change and refinement, so too is the evaluation of models. The purpose of model evaluation is not to demonstrate that a model is a 'true' or accurate' representation of a system, but to subject it to sufficient scrutiny so that it may be used with an appropriate degree of confidence to aid decision-making. To facilitate model verification and validation, epidemiological modellers should clearly state the purpose, assumptions and limitations of a model; provide a detailed description of the conceptual model; document those steps already taken to test the model; and thoroughly describe the data sources and the process used to produce model input parameters from those data. PMID:21961221

Reeves, A; Salman, M A; Hill, A E

2011-08-01

478

Earthquakes Living Lab: FAQs about P Waves, S Waves and More  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn what causes earthquakes, how we measure and locate them, and their effects and consequences. Through the online Earthquakes Living Lab, student pairs explore various types of seismic waves and the differences between shear waves and compressional waves. They conduct research using the portion of the living lab that focuses primarily on the instruments, methods and data used to measure and locate earthquakes. Using real-time U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data accessed through the living lab interface, students locate where earthquakes are occurring and how frequently. Students propose questions and analyze the real-world seismic data to find answers and form conclusions. They are asked to think critically about why earthquakes occur and how knowledge about earthquakes can be helpful to engineers. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

479

Statistical questions in experimental evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the mathematical analysis of models describing evolutionary dynamics are rapidly increasing our ability to make precise quantitative predictions. These advances have created a growing need for corresponding improvements in our ability to observe evolutionary dynamics in laboratory evolution experiments. High-throughput experimental methods are particularly crucial, in order to maintain many replicate populations and measure statistical differences in evolutionary outcomes at both phenotypic and genomic levels. In this paper, I describe recent technical developments which have greatly increased the throughput of laboratory evolution experiments, and outline a few promising directions for further improvements. I then highlight a few ways in which these new experimental methods can help to answer simple statistical questions about evolutionary dynamics, and potentially guide future theoretical work.

Desai, Michael M.

2013-01-01

480

Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.  

PubMed

Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

1991-02-01

481

Research Methods in Psychiatric Epidemiology: An Overview?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide an introduction to the concepts and methods of psychiatric epidemiology for non-specialist readers.Methods: An overview of concepts and research procedures based on the published literature.Conclusion: Psychiatric epidemiology is a key mental health discipline that has adopted and developed a variety of methods and procedures for the study of complex mental disorders. In its future development, psychiatric epidemiology

Assen Jablensky

2002-01-01

482

Integrative Cancer Epidemiology - The Next Generation  

PubMed Central

Summary We outline an integrative approach to extend the boundaries of molecular cancer epidemiology by integrating modern and rapidly evolving “omics” technologies into state-of-the-art molecular epidemiology. In this way, one can comprehensively explore the mechanistic underpinnings of epidemiologic observations into cancer risk and outcome. We highlight the exciting opportunities to collaborate across large observational studies and to forge new interdisciplinary collaborative ventures. PMID:23230187

Spitz, Margaret R.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Sellers, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

483

Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

484

Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention  

E-print Network

....................................................................................................... 3 PREGNANCY AND CHILDHOOD EFFECTS OF INTRA-UTERINE EXPOSURE TO ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS.................................................................................. 14 PEDIATRIC (CHILD AND ADOLESCENT) EPIDEMIOLOGIC RESEARCH .................................................................................. 22 RESEARCH ON ADOLESCENT PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

Rau, Don C.

485

The epidemiology of eating disorders.  

PubMed

Further clarification of the epidemiology of eating disorders is essential. The high prevalence of these disorders, which appears to be increasing in women, indicates that high priority should be placed on the effective use of treatment resources through knowledge of the risk factors and clinical course of these illnesses. It seems clear that sociocultural emphasis on thinness in our society contributes to the risk factors of sex, age and social class. Prospective studies following a large number of subjects at high risk will be necessary to define more specific risk factors for the development of these disorders. PMID:6400210

Pyle, R L

486

Intrathoracic neoplasia: Epidemiology and etiology  

SciTech Connect

Neoplasms of the thorax encompass those derived from the thoracic wall, trachea, mediastinum, lungs and pleura. They represent a wide variety of lesions including benign and malignant tumors arising from many tissues. The large surface area, 60 to 90 m{sup 2} in man, represented by the respiratory epithelium and associated thoracic structures are ideal targets for carcinogens carried by inspired air. The topic of discussion in this report is the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in animals and man. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms.

Weller, R.E.

1992-05-01

487

Epidemiology: past, present and future.  

PubMed

Epidemiology in the past was concerned essentially by the study of infectious diseases which were the cause of huge mortalities especially since urbanisation was initiated. Epidemics of pest, typhus, cholera, influenza a.o. were common. The epidemics were halted by better hygiene, vaccination and antibiotics. Since the second world war epidemiology was dominated by an "epidemic" of new chronic diseases, especially heart disease and cancer. This was due to an increase in life span and to an increase in smoking habits and in the intake of saturated fat and a too small intake of fruit and vegetables combined with a too high intake of salt (NaCl). Gradually epidemiology evolved as the study of the causes, the distribution, the risk factors and the prevention of chronic diseases, but also including accidents, suicide, depression a.o., diseases with a mass occurrence at the population level. The importance of nutrition as a determinant of health gradually became recognized, but remains undervalued by the medical profession. Mortality at the population level follows some simple mathematical laws and can be represented accurately (r2>0.99) between the ages of 35 and 84 year by either Gompertz equations (ln mortality versus age) or by a polynomial equation (ln mortality versus age, age2). This is valid for all populations and both sexes and remains valid at times of great and rapid changes in mortality. This shows that measures for prevention should be directed towards the total population. The future of epidemiology should be directed towards the slowing of the ageing process at the population level by a healthy life style consisting of: not smoking, avoiding obesity, a fair amount of physical activity and a healthy nutrition i.e little salt, little saturated fat, an adequate amount of omega-3 fatty acids and a large amount of fruit and vegetables, with an occasional glass of red wine. This contains the secret of a long and healthy life. Conceptually it will be important to determine whether a maximum human life span, genetically determined, exists. A maximal rectangularization of the mortality curve should then be the ultimate goal. At the same time the possible re-emergence of old and new infectious diseases (SARS, Ebola, BSE, AIDS) should be kept in mind. PMID:15641567

Kesteloot, H

2004-01-01

488

Healthcare epidemiology: past and future.  

PubMed

Healthcare epidemiology is a robust and adaptable profession with the noble mission of protecting patients and their healthcare providers from infectious diseases and other threats. Change is the constant that links the successes of our field in each decade of our history. Although it is not possible to predict what specific challenges the next decade will bring, the themes of the Sixth Decennial International Conference in 2020 are likely to reflect the most prominent drivers of change that are affecting our profession, including globalization, sustainability, and consumer empowerment. PMID:20929378

Gerberding, Julie Louise

2010-11-01

489

Nordic School of Public Health Computer Software in Epidemiology / Statistical Methods in Epidemiology  

E-print Network

Nordic School of Public Health Computer Software in Epidemiology / Statistical Methods in Epidemiology Open Source Solutions - # Mark Myatt, December 2001 &RS\\ULJKW0DUN0\\DWW : Permission is granted the 5 environment for data analysis and graphics to work with epidemiological data. Topics covered

Gallagher, Colin

490

The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M. Henderson, Robin E.…

Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

491

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.DESIGNThis article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador,Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse

L A Avilés

2001-01-01

492

Aren't Those Questions Interesting Enough? Investigating the Root Causes of Unanswered Questions  

E-print Network

Aren't Those Questions Interesting Enough? Investigating the Root Causes of Unanswered Questions unanswered questions. In this paper, we mine Stack Overflow dataset to investigate why these questions remain that although there are some topics that were never answered, most questions remained unanswered because

Perry, Dewayne E.

493

Effective Question Recommendation Based on Multiple Features for Question Answering Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new method of recommending questions to answerers so as to suit the answerers' knowledge and inter- ests in User-Interactive Question Answering (QA) commu- nities. A question recommender can help answerers select the questions that interest them. This increases the number of answers, which will activate QA communities. An ef- fective question recommender should satisfy the following three

Yutaka Kabutoya; Tomoharu Iwata; Hisako Shiohara; Ko Fujimura

2010-01-01

494

[Questions to television from psychopathology].  

PubMed

Progress is expected in psychopathological diagnosis by using audiovisual procedures. Nowadays, a valid psychopathology concept should be broadly planned and the important method of description as well as understanding procedures should be considered. For such a model of psychopathology it seems appropriate to investigate the different psychopathological phenomenons as expression of a disturbed communication ability. Concerning this outlook, new strategies are to be developed or procedures of other disciplines are to be adapted for the psychopathological research. It seems attractive to anticipate aid from structuralistic and information-theoretical issues for the breaking of yet substancially less good apperceived facts. The interest hereby concentrates upon the relationship between verbal and averbal phenomenons and upon better criteria for an interpretation of the phenomenons as an expression of the subjective experience of the psychiatric patient as well as of his/her communicative competence. In order to use audio-visual techniques successfully, an orientation in specfic, originary particularities of the different methodological assessments is required. The way and extent of such problems can be demonstrated for the study of psychopathological phenomenons by the importance of the camera guide, the selection, the enlargement of a sequence, and the combination of different parts of an interview. The criteria of a field-specific TV-methodology must first be elaborated for the majority of the questioning. The user of audiovisual methods not only has to consider the special needs of the psychic ill, but also has to face critically the seduction ways of this potential medium. PMID:90381

Busch, H

1979-01-01

495

Invited commentary: Epidemiologic studies of the health associations of environmental exposures with preterm birth.  

PubMed

In this issue of the Journal, two different articles present epidemiologic evidence supporting the hypotheses that environmental exposures to particulate air pollution or higher temperatures modestly increase the risk of preterm birth. In this commentary, the author discusses environmental epidemiologic methods through the lens of these two papers with respect to the causal question, measurements, and quantification and interpretation of the evidence. Both groups of investigators present results from exploratory analyses that are at the hypothesis-generating end of the research spectrum as opposed to the confirmatory end. The present author describes in qualitative terms a method for decomposing evidence about the association of environmental exposures with prematurity into components representing different temporal and spatial scales. Finally, reproducible epidemiologic research methodology for studies like these is offered as one way to speed the transition from exploratory studies to confirmatory studies. PMID:22167745

Zeger, Scott L

2012-01-15

496

Epidemiology of yaws: an update  

PubMed Central

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitja, Oriol

2014-01-01

497

Epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections.  

PubMed Central

This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349

Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R

1996-01-01

498

Epidemiology of yaws: an update.  

PubMed

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitjà, Oriol

2014-01-01

499

[Epidemiology of allergic eye diseases].  

PubMed

Epidemiology of allergic eye diseases has not been sufficiently studied so far. The first statistical studies regarded the coexistence of allergic conjunctivitis together with allergic rhinitis, as rhinoconjunctivitis. Only in the last 10 years eye allergy has been regarded as a separate epidemiological and clinical problem. According to Bonini, seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) accompanies pollinosis in 95.2%. Buckley's studies revealed symptoms of SAC in 21% of British population and Berdy reported a similar result in 20% of Americans. Weeke estimates that depending on geographical region and age of examined patients, allergic eye diseases occur in 5 to 22% of the population. Among them SAC and perennial allertgic conjunctivitis (PAC) account for up to 50%. A recent Italian study demonstrated an increase of the incidence of allergic eye diseases, which were found in 38% of the studied population, most frequently in young males. Eye allergy presented most frequently as rhinoconjunctivitis (SAC and PAC) (63.7%), and then as atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) (21%) and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) (15.5%). It seems that the incidence of allergic eye diseases demonstrates a rising tendency, similarly as it has been found in recent years in the case of bronchial asthma, rhinitis or atopic dermatitis. PMID:14524314

Bogacka, Ewa

2003-06-01

500

Skin cancer epidemiology: research needs.  

PubMed

The basis data currently being used to estimate and evaluate the dose-response relationship of UV-B and skin cancer are from a 6-month survey for four areas that participated in the TNCS, 1971-1972. Although most investigators from various fields of interest outside of cancer research, i.e. aviation, environmental ecology, physics, chemistry, and photobiology, etc., may admit an association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and UV-B exists, they point out that 1) the epidemiologic data currently available are too sparse and lack certain detail, such as exposure patterns and skin types, and 2) more data of this type are needed over a broad geographical range to allow for more precise measurements of the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion. They argue that the present relationships could change drastically with the addition even of a few more points (geographical locations) and that location-specific and demographic factors should be evaluated. Therefore, these data need to be updated and expanded to include more locations over a longer study period. The National Cancer Institute and the Environmental Protection Agency undertook a special skin cancer study from June 1, 1977 to May 31, 1978. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas) in various population groups within the United States, and 2) to ascertain and measure epidemiologic factors that may contribute toward the excess risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in specific population groups. PMID:753973

Scotto, J; Fears, T R

1978-12-01