Note: This page contains sample records for the topic questions faqs epidemiology from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs CTRP Program >> What is the purpose of the Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP)? How will CTRP be connected to other databases within NCI and NIH? Will CTRP support the Cancer Centers Summary 4 Report? Will CTRP

2

Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... FAQs) Vectors of Lymphatic Filariasis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Life Cycle of W. Bancrofti Life Cycle of B. Malayi Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Guidance for Evaluation and ...

3

Export Certificate Program Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. CDER Export Certificate Program Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q. What is an FDA CDER issued Export Certificate? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

4

Head Lice: Treatment FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

5

Head Lice: FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

6

Question Answering from Frequently-Asked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes FAQ Finder, a natural language question-answering system that usesfiles of frequently-asked questions as its knowledge base. Unlike AI question-answering systemsthat focus on the generation of new answers, FAQ Finder retrieves existing ones found infrequently-asked question files. Unlike information retrieval approaches that rely on a purelylexical metric of similarity between query and document, FAQ Finder uses a semantic

Robin D. Burke; Kristian J. Hammond; Vladimir Kulyukin

1996-01-01

7

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 05-520)  

NSF Publications Database

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 05-520) Table of Contents ... for HSD this year? Why is the Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences the only one ...

8

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

9

Fish FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Fisheries Science Center answers your question regarding all things fish. Hundreds of fish and other marine fauna questions are answered in the FAQ section. Site also links to several external fish FAQs, as well as other internal and external resources, including kids sites, fish images, species synopses, how to age a fish. The site also features a glossary of fish terms and insight into the different ways fish are caught.

10

Agricultural biotechnology FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the U.S. Department of Agriculture list a number of frequently asked questions regarding biotechnology. The FAQs addresses questions related to defining biotechnology, biotechnology helping farmers and consumers, public dialogue and exchange of information on biotechnology, federal agencies that regulate biotechnology, testing a biotechnology derived plant, commercial production of a biotechnology derived plant, exposure of biotech crops, the role of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), and trade issues with biotechnology. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

2003-01-01

11

The Epidemiology of Fragrance Allergy: Questions and Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are still open questions about the safety of fragrances. Objectives: To evaluate the evidence concerning the frequency of contact dermatitis to fragrances in the general population and selected subgroups and the risk factors for sensitization and clinical manifestations. Methods: Review of published data. Results: No criteria for a reliable diagnosis of ‘contact dermatitis’ are available. International recommendations and

Luigi Naldi

2002-01-01

12

DDT Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Who is eligible to contact CDER regarding the Qualification Programs? ... Each DDT program has its own point of contact. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/drugdevelopmenttoolsqualificationprogram

13

Scabies: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot cycle or by dry-cleaning. Items that cannot be ... can be decontaminated by machine-washing in hot water and drying using the hot cycle or by dry-cleaning. Items that cannot be ...

14

[Multiple sclerosis: etiology, epidemiology, some questions of pathogenicity].  

PubMed

In the article the questions of ways of development of the dissipated sclerosis, as nosologies, are affected from the group of autoimmune diseases. Examined etiology, epidedemiologiya, separate links of pathogeny of the dissipated sclerosis. The analysis of multifaktors of his origin is conducted, with the detailed study of internal and external factors, marked on the important role of inherited predisposition, infectious and klimato-geograficheskogo factors in genesis of the dissipated sclerosis. PMID:23373393

Chuprina, H M

2012-01-01

15

Hydrocephalus FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... qualified doctors is one of the most important elements of overall healthcare planning. Some people feel nervous when ... establish a good relationship (Select Education and Support/Publications and Products/Questions for Doctors). Q. What is the purpose of a second opinion? Is it important? A. The ...

16

FAQs for the Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) Program  

NSF Publications Database

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 04-537) Table of Contents ... for HSD this year? Why is the Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences the only one ...

17

Bed Bugs FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Bed Bugs FAQs On this Page What are bed bugs? ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

18

Culinary herbFAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

1997-01-01

19

FAQ Nurse practitions physician  

Cancer.gov

September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

20

Isaac Asimov FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A WWW FAQ on Isaac Asimov is now available covering Dr. Asimov's personal life and the books he wrote. It includes pointers to bibliographies of his books and stories and other miscellaneous items on Dr. Asimov available on the Internet.

21

Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort  

MedlinePLUS

... IBCLC Date reviewed: January 2012 Back 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Nursing Positions Burping Your Baby Breastfeeding FAQs: Getting Started Breastfeeding FAQs: How Much ...

22

Questions  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Questions Sildenafil July 29, 2010 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

23

FAQs About Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a FAQ in a concise, readable summary of the current state of ocean acidification knowledge to support the scientific research community and educators. It is maintained by the OCB Project Office, with oversight from the Ocean Acidification Subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program. Featured items include a primer to offer the foundational basics of ocean acidification and its impact on humans, Earth systems and marine life.

2012-09-24

24

Scabies: Workplace Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... scabies and my job requires skin-to-skin contact with patients? In order for me to return to work, my employer ... for persons with scabies. Back To Top In order for ... by prolonged skin-to-skin contact with a person who has scabies. Scabies sometimes ...

25

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Malaria  

MedlinePLUS

... Because there is little information available on the safety of atovaquone/proguanil to prevent malaria in infants weighing less than 5 kg (11 lbs), CDC does not currently recommend it for the prevention of malaria in women breastfeeding infants weighing less than 5 kg. Back To ...

26

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Complementary Therapies  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercise therapy may decrease stress, pain, nausea, fatigue and depression. Regular exercise affects your hormonal balance as well as most of your body systems. Regular participation in physical activity raises the heart rate and maintains an increased heart rate for a period ...

27

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Plague  

MedlinePLUS

... Announcements Related Links Landslides & Mudslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather About Winter Weather Take Steps Before ... of Trust Program Spotlight: Frontlines of the CA Wildfires Research Summaries: Summaries of Work from Deborah Glik ...

28

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat  

MedlinePLUS

... temperature include old age, youth (age 0-4), obesity, fever, dehydration, heart disease, mental illness, poor circulation, ... Outages Coping With a Disaster Preparedness for All Hazards What CDC is Doing What You Can Do Blog: Public Health Matters What's New A - Z Index Disasters & Severe ...

29

Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... crowded living conditions where hygiene is poor (the homeless, refugees, victims of war or natural disasters). In ... States, body lice infestations are found only in homeless transient populations who do not have access to ...

30

In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Remediation of Contaminated Groundwater. Frequently Asked Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains a set of frequently asked questions (FAQ) along with short answers concerning the application of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) for remediation of contaminated groundwater. This FAQ guide is designed to provide an overview of the...

M. Crimi

2010-01-01

31

Just the FAQs: An Alternative to Teaching the Research Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Changing the form of the traditional research paper often results in a greater emphasis on inquiry or FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). An alternative form of presentation that capitalizes on available technology and requires students to develop their thinking, reading, writing and presentation skills is presented.|

Strickland, James

2004-01-01

32

Just the FAQs: An Alternative to Teaching the Research Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changing the form of the traditional research paper often results in a greater emphasis on inquiry or FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). An alternative form of presentation that capitalizes on available technology and requires students to develop their thinking, reading, writing and presentation skills is presented.

Strickland, James

2004-01-01

33

FAQ Returning agent to Reposito  

Cancer.gov

September 15, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

34

FAQ Accounting for Oral Agents  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

35

FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding  

MedlinePLUS

... ?????? ????? HO? GELD?N?Z FAQ on Tattoos and Breastfeeding Breastfeeding and tattooing are enjoying resurgence in popularity. ... Is it safe to get a tattoo while breastfeeding? Tattoos are created by injecting ink into the ...

36

FAQshare: a frequently asked questions voting system as a collaboration and evaluation tool in teaching activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for managing FAQ lists with voting, to be used in an educational environment. Our goal is twofold: 1) to optimize the student-teacher interaction; 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of learning. In our FAQ sharing system students can contribute to a FAQ collection on the subject taught. They can post questions and answers (as in a

Huu Le Van; Andrea Trentini

2002-01-01

37

Bad Clouds FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The answers on this page were written in response to questions from readers of the Bad Meteorology pages. Although the questions presented here are often ones asked by a specific person, each is chosen to characterize a group of similar questions which have been asked about the topic. Topics include: the vapor-holding capacity of air, reasoning and prediction, relative humidity, and boiling point.

Fraser, Alistair

38

The Online Tornado FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

Edwards, Roger

39

The Online Tornado FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

Edwards, Roger

2009-12-31

40

Questions to Ask Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... prepare your questions before your appointment. Your doctor wants your questions Doctors know a lot about a ... Privacy Policy Electronic Policies Viewers & Players Get Social Home About Us Careers Contact Us Sitemap FAQ Health Care Information Priority Populations Información en español For ...

41

The Cockroach FAQ.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than 75 frequently asked questions about cockroaches are here answered expertly by University of Massachusetts Amherst biologist Joseph Kunkel. Everything from how to determine the gender of roaches to why they sometimes die on their backs is authoritatively answered. From this page, one also can link to the cockroach home page, which includes much additional information about cockroaches.

0002-11-30

42

Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact dermatitis and contact allergy are common medical conditions. But how common are they? Are they more common in certain\\u000a populations? Are reactions to specific contact allergens more prevalent than to other allergens? This chapter presents some\\u000a basic epidemiologic principles which are important in population-based or clinic-based studies on contact dermatitis. Examples\\u000a of studies on contact allergy as well as

Pieter-Jan Coenraads; Wolfgang Uter; Thomas Diepgen

43

Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a From an epidemiologic perspective, retinoblastoma is one of the most interesting childhood tumors to study. Retinoblastoma\\u000a is a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and its occurrence in early childhood suggests that incidence can be associated with\\u000a events affecting development of neuroectodermal tissues during the fetal period. Furthermore, it exists in two genetically\\u000a distinct forms associated with differing (though not mutually exclusive) clinical

M. Orjuela

44

The Moon FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you look in the sky over the course of a month, you should notice a change in the appearance of the moon. The different shapes the moon makes are known as the moon\\'s phases. The moon is an extremely hot & cold place, and it is very, very far away. Huh? Read on... 1. For billions of years the moon has orbited the Earth. Read about The Origin of the Moon and then answer these two questions: A. How old is the moon? B. Where did it come from? 2. The moon is far away. So far, in fact, you\\'re going to need ...

2007-09-26

45

The Carnivorous Plant FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Barry Meyers-Rice, carnivorous plant enthusiast and team member of The Nature Conservancy's Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, this site offers answers to many questions about carnivorous plants. Although the majority of content targets the (deservedly) gee-whiz aspects of these plants that "attract, capture, kill, and digest animal life forms," several sections will be of interest to educators and researchers. Carnivorous Plant Taxonomy covers relationships among genera and families; Carnivorous Plant Genera provides text and color photos on genera from Aldrovanda (Waterwheel Plants) to Utricularia (Bladderworts); and Carnivorous Plants and Conservation offers information on the threats to these plants and efforts to protect them. A selection of related links rounds out the site.

Meyers-Rice, Barry.

46

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer?  

MedlinePLUS

... Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Search MedlinePlus Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer? To use the sharing features on this page, ...

47

Buying Medicines and Medical Products Online FAQs  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Search the FDA Archive. Home; Food; Drugs; Medical Devices; Radiation- Emitting Products; ... Buying Medicines and Medical Products Online FAQs. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

48

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Digg Google Bookmarks FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

49

[Epidemiology].  

PubMed

In France, the incidence of PE is estimated to range between 1 and 3% in the nuliparous and between 0.5 and 1.5% in the multiparous women. Factors associated with the development of PE are of various types. Studies conducted on families affected by PE suggest the existence of a genetic component to the disease, even though the association between PE and certain genes, allotypes and polymorphisms are still under scrutiny. The hypotheses suggesting an immunological mechanism is supported by several arguments. Indeed, being nuliparous, changing partner, insemination with donor semen are factors associated with the development of PE whereas pre-exposition to the father's sperm bears protection. Some factors qualified as physiological are also associated with the occurrence of PE although no clear pathophysiological explanation can be put forward. These are being a mother of African descent, an increase in the mothers' age or herself being born prematurely. Some gestational incidents are also associated with the occurrence of PE: multiparity, a congenital defect affecting the foetus, UTI. Similarly, some pre-existing conditions of the mother are associated with PE, i.e. chronic hypertension, kidney disease, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Several well designed epidemiological studies confirm that tobacco consumption is itself associated with a 20 to 50% reduction in the development of PE, although being itself associated with an increase in other vascular gestational complications such as retroplacental haemorrhage and IUGR. Living conditions and stress, especially at work are also associated with the occurrence of PE. All these identified risk factors by far do not account for all the reported cases of PE and do not bear sufficient positive or negative predictive value. PMID:20338718

Goffinet, F

2010-03-24

50

Parasites - Lice  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

51

Head Lice: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

52

Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

53

Body Lice Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

54

Head Lice: Information for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

55

Head Lice: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

56

Body Lice Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

57

Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

58

Body Lice Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

59

Pubic "Crab" Lice Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

60

FAQs  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Q1. Will the temporary importation supply of Sun Pharma Global FZE's doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection (Lipodox) totally alleviate the ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

61

Inflammatory bowel disease of the elderly: frequently asked questions (FAQs).  

PubMed

The growing recognition of the older inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patient is heightened by the entry of the 77.2 million baby boomers who will turn 65 beginning of 2011. It is anticipated that this will occur at a rate of 10,000 per day or 4 million per year for the next 19 years. The management of IBD in this population is complex because of problems with co-morbidities, polypharmacy, impaired mobility, and cognition, as well as difficult social and financial issues. This review focuses on the older IBD patient's unique concerns and provides guidance in their diagnosis and management. PMID:21862997

Katz, Seymour; Pardi, Darrell S

2011-08-23

62

Frederick National Lab: Green Procurement - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

Cancer.gov

No, it will not. Many vendors want you to purchase your supplies through them, to include toners. The vendor may 'imply' this is a possibility, when in fact, it is not. You can enjoy savings of up to 60% by purchasing remanufactured cartridges. All contracted vendors will replace any toner that is found to be defective free of charge.

63

Frederick National Lab: TYCTWD - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

Cancer.gov

If a registered child is not wearing their TYCTWD ID badge and appropriate footwear, they will be denied access. Closed toed shoes must be worn by all to participate. Late arrivals may also be denied access at the discretion of the Program Sponsor.

64

Frederick National Lab: C&A Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

Cancer.gov

Our first priority is to re-issue surplus equipment at the facility. If that does not happen the equipment is reported to the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-Personal Property Services Division, so that it can be screened (for no longer than 20 days) by anyone connected to HHS. NIH screens the equipment for re-utilization.

65

Draft Draft Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for the FDA ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... ANSWER: When we transferred LAERS data into the FAERS database, it remained in all upper case (for ... 9. Does FDA use a drug dictionary? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

66

Invited commentary: is prenatal fasting during Ramadan related to adult health outcomes? A novel and important question for epidemiology.  

PubMed

In this issue of the Journal, Van Ewijk et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;177(8):729-736) report intriguing associations between prenatal exposure to the religious month of Ramadan and body anthropometry among adult Muslims in Indonesia. They categorized prenatal exposure according to the relative timing of Ramadan and the individual's birth date. Because the data were derived from a study of adults, they could not determine whether an individual's mother had fasted during Ramadan or not. Therefore, they used an intention-to-treat analysis to compare the outcomes for groups categorized as unexposed with the outcomes for groups categorized as exposed during specified periods of gestation. Periconceptional exposure to Ramadan was associated with a 0.8-cm reduction in average adult height. Exposure in mid- or late gestation was associated with slightly lower adult weight. We address 5 questions raised by this study: 1) Can Ramadan fasting be considered a mild form of acute starvation?; 2) Are the findings consistent with other knowledge about prenatal nutrition and offspring outcomes?; 3) Are there other explanations for the associations that were found?; 4) Are the results internally coherent and robust enough to support the 2 main findings?; and 5) What strategies could be used to further advance this important field of research? PMID:23486310

Susser, Ezra; Ananth, Cande V

2013-03-13

67

Accessing the Internet by E-mail FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gerald Boyd has spent much time learning the internal syntax of web search engines. He has made the fruits of his labor available at an ftp site. Interested Internauts can download FAQs on how to query fifteen generic and eight specialty search engines by email. Included are Alta Vista, Excite, Inktomi, Yahoo, Infoseek, OKRA, Open Text, SwitchBoard, TheList, and others. Also included is a FAQ on how to use an Agora Server to use the web by email. See the Scout Report for March 8, 1996 for more on Agora. The FAQs are of greatest use to those without a web connection, but are also interesting to anyone who is intrigued by the intricacies of search engines. Users should download wsintro.faq (table of contents of FAQs), wscrack.faq (basic strategy for figuring out how to query search indexes via email) and wshelp.faq (Agora help file) before any others. For those who would like to download everything at once, wssearch.zip contains all of the files. Note that while these files are fairly technical, they are very useful for those who need such Internet access.

Boyd, Gerald E.

1994-01-01

68

FAQs about Hepatitis B Vaccine (Hep B) and Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... FAQs about Hepatitis B Vaccine (Hep B) and Multiple Sclerosis On this Page What is multiple sclerosis? Does ... B vaccine causes or worsens MS. What is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of ...

69

question_1301530459 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

70

question_1329194782 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

71

question_1297191134 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

72

question_1309209336 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

73

question_1313450002 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

74

question_1309952087 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

75

question_1309292133 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

76

question_1309291494 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

77

question_1297533065 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

78

question_1296825839 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

79

question_1302126805 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

80

question_1302545047 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

81

question_1297499720 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

82

question_1299172071 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

83

question_1299173164 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

84

question_1298674892 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

85

question_1312382828 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

86

question_1337052960 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

87

question_1297191054 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

88

question_1309360864 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

89

question_1309532294 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

90

question_1296513894 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

91

question_1303305591 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

92

Epidemiology in Knowledge Integration  

Cancer.gov

Session 5 Panel Discussion Question: How can epidemiology help integrate knowledge from basic, clinical and population sciences to accelerate translation from research to practice? Moderator: Muin J. Khoury, M.D., Ph.D., EGRP, DCCPS, NCI Panelists:

93

Cascades Volcano Observatory - Learn About Volcanoes: Frequently Asked Volcano Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides the answers to frequently asked questions about volcanoes. It is created by the United States Geological Survey. Topics addressed include: What Is A Volcano? Why Do Volcanoes Occur? How Do Volcanoes Erupt? Where Do Volcanoes Occur? When Will A Volcano Erupt? How Hot Is A Volcano? Can Lava Be Diverted? Do Volcanoes Affect Weather? What Types of Volcanoes are There? Which Eruptions Were The Deadliest? 20th Century Volcanic Eruptions and Their Impact. About 60 additional questions with answers are available under MORE FAQ's -Volcano Questions and Answers, and includes some sections on volcanoes of the western United States. Other links to volcano information are also available.

94

Astronomy Cafe: FAQ's About the Planet Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an archive of questions and answers about Mars. It is divided into Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced categories and covers such topics as the possibility of life on Mars, Martian atmosphere and geography, and Mars colonization. There are also links to other Mars-related sites.

Odenwald, Sten

95

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

96

Black Holes: From Here to Infinity FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black Holes: From Here to Infinity is a 6-page illustrated brochure that answers the eight most frequently asked questions about black holes. It was developed by the Education and Public Outreach group at Sonoma State University, with funding from the EXIST mission concept study and the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission. It is available in both English and Spanish and is part of the âBlack Holesâ suite of materials that accompany the PBS NOVA show âMonster of the Milky Wayâ and the planetarium show âBlack Holes: the Other Side of Infinity.â

2009-01-01

97

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for 2004 Information Technology Research (ITR) Solicitation  

NSF Publications Database

... collaborations is NSF encouraging? If multiple institutions are cooperating in the research project ... as the lead or a collaborative proposal from multiple organizations? Does EPSCOR certification ...

98

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - Reorganization of Division of Integrative Biology and Neuroscience  

NSF Publications Database

... are further explained in a ?Dear Colleague? letter and in other materials available on the NSF ... the proposal review process for unsolicited proposals? Answer: The review process remains unchanged ...

99

Social Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social epidemiology has been defined as the branch of epidemiology that studies the social distribution and social determinants\\u000a of health (Berkman and Kawachi 2000). As all aspects of human life are inextricably bound within the context of social relations,\\u000a every conceivable epidemiological exposure is related to social factors. In this broad sense, all epidemiology is social epidemiology\\u000a (Kaufman and Cooper

Tarani Chandola; Michael Marmot

100

Questioning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses a project involving the observation of 12 teachers in different schools, teaching pupils at Key Stage 3 of differing ages and abilities, noting both questioning techniques used and pupils' responses. The teachers involved were volunteers, chosen to give a range of experience, styles, and school, and included…

Martin, Nikki

2003-01-01

101

Four Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

2013-01-01

102

PV FAQs: Will We Have Enough Materials for Energy-Significant PV Production?  

SciTech Connect

This PV FAQ fact sheet discusses whether we will have enough of the feedstock materials used for energy-significant PV production. The answer is that, for a set amount of PV production, we will indeed have enough materials.

Not Available

2004-01-01

103

Epidemiology of osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of osteoporosis is reviewed in this article. Attempts were made to answer the following questions: How should osteoporosis be defined? How can risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements be applied to diagnose osteoporosis? How do the rates for osteoporotic fractures vary by country, sex, age and time? What are the costs for osteoporosis in terms of

Edith M. C. Lau

2001-01-01

104

101questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by math educator Dan Meyer, randomly displays photos and brief videos contributed by Meyer or visitors to the site. The photos and videos are in intended to be "perplexing" and to promote wondering. Visitors to the site are encouraged to post questions inspired by the images. Many of these can be used in the classroom to spark inquiry and initiate mathematics investigations. The page links to a related blog.

2012-03-01

105

Computational Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Born from a desire to predict the future, epidemiology has largely been limited to studying the past. Now, computational epidemiology researchers are harnessing computing power to crack the complicated mystery of how diseases spread.

Pam Frost Gorder

2010-01-01

106

Shadow enhancers: frequently asked questions about distributed cis-regulatory information and enhancer redundancy.  

PubMed

This paper, in the form of a frequently asked questions page (FAQ), addresses outstanding questions about "shadow enhancers", quasi-redundant cis-regulatory elements, and their proposed roles in transcriptional control. Questions include: What exactly are shadow enhancers? How many genes have shadow/redundant/distributed enhancers? How redundant are these elements? What is the function of distributed enhancers? How modular are enhancers? Is it useful to study a single enhancer in isolation? In addition, a revised definition of "shadow enhancers" is proposed, and possible mechanisms of shadow enhancer function and evolution are discussed. PMID:22083793

Barolo, Scott

2011-11-15

107

Environmental Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

Environmental epidemiology seeks to understand how physical, chemical, biologic, as well as, social and economic factors affect human health. Social factors, that is where one lives, works, socializes or buys food, often influence exposure to environmental factors.

108

FAQs Regarding the Deliberate Use of Biological Agents and Chemicals as Weapons  

MedlinePLUS

... extremely important, as is the checking of all contacts an infected person has had with others, in order to ensure they can be treated and the ... Google Delicious LinkedIn More... Print You are here: ... and Services Contacts FAQs Employment Feedback Privacy E-mail scams WHO ...

109

Epidemiology of Thrombosis in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have utilized epidemiological data to address three questions in patients with cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE): (1) What is the risk for occult cancer in patients with idiopathic versus secondary VTE? (2) What is the risk for thrombosis in patients with cancer (vs. noncancer patients)? (3) What is the risk of recurrent VTE in cancer patients with an initial

Frederick R. Rickles; Mark N. Levine

2001-01-01

110

Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators and their organizations agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) post excerpts of their grant applications online. The applications in the table below are excellent examples of grantsmanship.

111

Questions, Questioning Techniques, and Effective Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…

Wilen, William W., Ed.

112

MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How do Web sites get listed in MedlinePlus? To use the ... authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web sites. We try to ensure that the information ...

113

[Epidemiological approach to mesothelioma].  

PubMed

Mesothelioma, the primitive cancer of pleura, peritoneum or pericardium, is a tumor for which many etiologic studies have been conducted, because of close relations with environment. If asbestos remains the essential risk factor, many uncertainties persist on extent of phenomena in next decades. Furthermore, emergence of new etiologies, confirmed on human (erionite, ionizing radiations) or only suspected in experimentation (some biopersistent synthetic fibers, some virus as the SV40), ask new questions which are susceptible to modify our view of mesothelioma epidemiology. PMID:9248100

Brochard, P

1997-06-15

114

Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

Salathe, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

115

Study Questions for Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website hosts over fifty practice questions relating geophysics. Topics covered in these questions include gravity, earthquake waves and seismicity, Earth's structure, geochronology, anomalies, viscosity, and polar wandering.

Slaymaker, Susan

116

Transsexualism and Gender Transition FAQ for Significant Others, Friends, Family, Employers, Coworkers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This FAQ, written by members of the Mid-Michigan FTM (female-to-male) Alliance, offers general information about transsexualism and gender transition, and addresses the common responses and concerns that friends, family, and co-workers have about the transgendered person in their lives. An annotated webliography of relevant resources and a bibliography about transsexualism guide users to additional information. A text-only version of the entire site is available to facilitate printing.

1998-01-01

117

Parsing and Question Classification for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes machine learning based parsing and question classification for ques- tion answering. We demonstrate that for this type of application, parse trees have to be semantically richer and structurally more oriented towards semantics than what most treebanks offer. We empirically show how question parsing dramatically improves when augmenting a semantically enriched Penn treebank training corpus with an addi-

Ulf Hermjakob

2001-01-01

118

Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)|

Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

2000-01-01

119

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

120

Effective Classroom Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide to help instructors improve or review their questioning skills is presented, with a focus on devising appropriate questions and interpersonal skills that maximize student responses. Questions that entail knowledge, comprehension, and simple application levels are distinguished from questions requiring complex application (e.g., analysis…

Goodwin, Stephanie S.; And Others

121

Using Socratic Questioning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can it be, Ischomachus, that asking questions is teaching? I am just beginning to see what is behind all your questions. You lead me on by means of things I know, point to things that resemble them, and persuade ...

Merritts, Dorothy

122

Burning Questions about Calories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

2001-01-01

123

Hydrosphere: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class Content Area: Hydrosphere Back to Example This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through an entire Socratic ...

124

Formulating a Research Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial discusses the conceptual development of a research goal, beginning with the formation of a research question. It also explains the links between a research question, specific aims, hypotheses, and long-term research goals.

The Research Assistant (Danya International, Inc.)

2003-08-12

125

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... WHO .int site Submit Advanced search Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Subnavigation WER Home 2013: Volume 88 2012: ... 85 2009: Volume 84 Archives The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) serves as ...

126

Many questions Begs the Question (but questions do not Beg the Question)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fallacy of many questions or the complex question, popularized by the sophism ‘Have you stopped beating your spouse?’ (when a yes-or-no answer is required), is similar to the fallacy of begging the question orpetitio principii. Douglas N. Walton inBegging the Question has recently argued that the two forms are alike in trying unfairly to elicit an admission from a

Dale Jacquette

1994-01-01

127

2-4-2011 PQ Summary — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Twenty-six cancer researchers assembled at the Stone House on the NIH campus on February 4, 2011 for the NCI Behavioral, Population, Epidemiology, and Prevention Provocative Questions workshop. The participants were invited by the project's organizers to craft a list of interesting questions that might highlight potential new research directions among NCI-supported investigators or reinvigorate research in important areas that have been neglected, and to discuss and evaluate some of the questions submitted by the participants prior to the workshop.

128

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)|

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1983-01-01

129

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

130

Why-Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions that define correct answers to why-questions are discussed. Stated more precisely, a why-question is a question that can be put in English in the form of an interrogative sentence of which the following is true: (1) the sentence begins with...

S. Bromberger

1966-01-01

131

Critical Questions for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good teachers of critical thinking ask hard questions of students; however, they must also ask hard questions of themselves to be the best possible teacher and provide the best learning environment. In this article, two veteran educators present reflective questions that teachers might ask themselves as they prepare and implement courses. These…

Kienzler, Donna; Smith, Frances M.

2005-01-01

132

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

133

Mathematical modeling and the epidemiological research process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors of this paper advocate for the expanded use of mathematical models in epidemiology and provide an overview of\\u000a the principles of mathematical modeling. Mathematical models can be used throughout the epidemiological research process.\\u000a Initially they may help to refine study questions by visually expressing complex systems, directing literature searches, and\\u000a identifying sensitive variables. In the study design phase,

Mikayla C. Chubb; Kathryn H. Jacobsen

2010-01-01

134

Scientific Computing FAQ: S.C., Numerical Analysis, and Associated Fields Resource Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numerical Analysis (NA) is the union of theoretical and computational investigation into the computer solution of mathematical problems, including linear algebra, statistics, and operations research. The Scientific Computing FAQ metasite lists and links to resources such as electronic texts and software catalogs for NA and related fields in scientific computing. Examples of topics covered include Dense Linear Algebra Systems, Stochastic Differential Equations, and Random Numer Generators (RNG's), among others. The site is provided by Mathcom Solutions, Inc., a consulting business for the fields of finance, engineering, and operations.

1995-01-01

135

EXPERIMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY  

PubMed Central

In this paper we have described the first part of an experimental study of the epidemiology of mouse typhoid. One set of data has been presented on the basis of which little or no analysis has been attempted. The immediate object has been rather to collect materials than to undertake to account for the phenomena encountered. It is obvious that the factors involved in the inquiry are intricate, but it is believed that they are not necessarily or all beyond disentanglement. About 500 mice in all have been studied in an experimental village, brought together in increments among a population in which mouse typhoid experimentally induced was prevailing. The results have been presented according to two phenomena; namely, mortality or death rate, and bacillus carriage rate. The material does not lend itself to consideration according to morbidity rates. If it were established that every instance of attack, when not fatal, was attended by carrier production for the bacillus of mouse typhoid, reliable morbidity tables could be constructed. In the absence of this certain criterion, the materials here presented can be dealt with only as mortality data. This fact is attended with obvious disadvantages in respect to the epidemiological material assembled regarding infectious disease in man. In spite, however, of the drawbacks, it is already evident that the results obtained by the sort of inquiry here described may come to throw no inconsiderable light on moot problems on the origin, mode of spread, and manner of decline of epidemic diseases in general. The analysis of the strains by selecting single cells and thus establishing substrains has yielded results which may eventually have value in explaining fluctuations in virulence. Among the positive data arising from the experiments with such cultures are, first, that there have been obtained by mechanical means from the ordinary bacteriologically pure culture, single cell strains exhibiting slightly different pathogenic activity, whether administered by mouth or parenterally, and second, that more regular results are obtained with intraperitoneal injections of these strains than with the parent strain. Among the negative results to be recorded are the failures of two single cell strains to incite an epidemic among mice under conditions known to be suitable when the parent strain is used.

Amoss, Harold L.

1922-01-01

136

Asking Effective Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 8-page monograph offers strategies for effective questioning that engages students and that deepens their conceptual understanding in mathematics. It suggests questions and prompts that help students progress through various stages of the problem solving process and that help teachers assess the thinking of students. The article describes the purposes of questions at different stages of a lesson and describes situations when it is appropriate to convey information to students. A list of references is included.

2011-07-01

137

When lawyers question children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the impact of some complex question forms frequently used by attorneys who examine and cross-examine witnesses in the courtroom. Fifteen males and 15 females from each of four student populations (kindergarten, fourth grade, ninth grade, and college) viewed a videotaped incident and then responded to questions about the incident. Half the questions were asked in “law-yerese” (i.e.,

Nancy W. Perry; Bradley D. McAuliff; Paulette Tam; Linda Claycomb; Colleen Dostal; Cameron Flanagant

1995-01-01

138

Epidemiological studies on syncope.  

PubMed

The epidemiology and prognosis of ''fainting'' or syncope has puzzled physicians over the years. Is fainting dangerous? This is a question often asked by the patient- and the answer is ''it depends on a lot of things''. The diverse pathophysiology of syncope and the underlying comorbidites of the patients play an essential role. In epidemiology these factors have major impact on the outcome of the patients. Until recently, even the definition of syncope differed from one study to another which has made literature reviews difficult. Traditionally the data on epidemiology of syncope has been taken from smaller studies from different clinical settings with wide differences in patient morbidity. Through the extensive Danish registries we examined the characteristics and prognosis of the patients hospitalized due to syncope in a nationwide study. The aims of the present thesis were to investigate: 1) the use, validity and accuracy of the ICD-10 diagnosis of syncope R55.9 in the National Patient Registry for the use of this diagnosis in the epidemiology of syncope, 2) diagnostics used and etiology of a random selection of patients who had a discharge diagnosis of R55.9, 3) the incidence, prevalence and cardiovascular factors associated with the risk of syncope, 4) the prognosis in healthy individuals discharged after syncope, and 5) the prognosis of patients after syncope and evaluation of the CHADS2 score as a tool for short- and long-term risk prediction. The first studies of the present thesis demonstrated that the ICD-10 discharge diagnosis could reliably identify a cohort of patients admitted for syncope and that the discharge code carried a high number of unexplained cases despite use of numerous tests. The last studies showed that syncope is a common cause for hospital contact in Denmark and that the risk of syncope is tightly associated with cardiovascular co-morbidities and use of pharmacotherapy. Furthermore in patients with no co-morbidities (or healthy individuals), syncope is a significant and independent prognostic factor of adverse cardiovascular outcome and death compared to the background population. Lastly, evaluation of the CHADS2 score, as a tool for risk stratification, showed that it provided additional prognostic information on short- and long-term cardiovascular mortality in syncope patients compared to controls. PMID:24001470

Ruwald, Martin Huth

2013-09-01

139

It's about the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

Bearwald, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

140

Seven Questions of Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What do leaders mean when they talk about networks and whether leadership networks have the power to transform the profession? When it comes to educational leadership networks, there certainly are more than seven important questions. This article focuses on seven key questions about networking in the superintendent ranks by the coordinator of one…

Livingston, David

2007-01-01

141

1 Great Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

Nethery, Carrie

2011-01-01

142

What is a Question?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion,

Kevin H. Knuth

2003-01-01

143

Questioning: The Untapped Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The questioning behavior of college faculty is descriptively analyzed. The cognitive levels of questioning patterns of professors are described and the differences in these levels and patterns are examined across the variables of institution size (small or large), sector (public or private), course level (beginning or advanced), and discipline…

Barnes, Carol P.

144

Water Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of questions and answers about water covers a variety of categories, including water use in the United States, water use in the home, data and measurements, chemistry, and others. Links to additional information is embedded in the text of some questions.

145

Forming the research question.  

PubMed

The most important precondition for performing a clinical research project in plastic surgery, or any other surgical subspecialty, is the need to ask the "right question." Although this might seem to be an easy task, in truth it requires a lot of effort and hard work. This article addresses the key points to remember when formulating a research question. PMID:18298991

Thoma, Achilleas; McKnight, Leslie; McKay, Paula; Haines, Ted

2008-04-01

146

[Epidemiology: an instrument for the nurse's working process?].  

PubMed

This paper discusses the role of the epidemiology in the nurse's work process. It searches for the comprehension of the work process's concepts and their elements deriving from a marxist analysis. It discusses the importance of this comprehension for the knowledge/recognition of the nursing profession and the epidemiologic support question as a work instrument. PMID:7569256

do Prado, M L

1994-08-01

147

The epidemiology of panic disorder and agoraphobia in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature search, in addition to expert survey, was performed to estimate the size and burden of panic disorder in the European Union (EU). Epidemiologic data from EU countries were critically reviewed to determine the consistency of prevalence estimates across studies and to identify the most pressing questions for future research. A comprehensive literature search focusing on epidemiological studies in

R. D. Goodwin; C. Faravelli; S. Rosi; F. Cosci; E. Truglia; R. de Graaf; H. U. Wittchen

2005-01-01

148

Heberden Oration 1981: epidemiology and the arthritides.  

PubMed Central

The multifactorial control of serum uric acid levels is discussed from an epidemiological point of view and the principles at issue related to the epidemiology of osteoarthrosis. It is shown that in osteoarthrosis the clinical characteristics vary from one joint group to another. Association of x-ray changes with pain varies between joints and between sexes for the various joints. The disease tends to be commoner in females but not in all age groups. There is an association between obesity and osteoarthrosis in the hands and knees but not the hips or ankles. These differences raise questions about the homogeneity of generalised osteoarthrosis. Such questions might be answered by epidemiological studies which consider individual joint groups and are carefully directed towards specific hypotheses, the development of which could be facilitated by the use of iconic models.

Acheson, R M

1982-01-01

149

Epidemiologic Evidence on Coffee and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee consumption is a major and frequent dietary exposure in diverse cultures around the globe whose safety has been questioned. A substantial body of epidemiologic evidence, consisting of over 500 papers relating the consumption of coffee to cancer of various sites, has accumulated to date. Numerous individual, site-specific meta analyses have been undertaken at various times. However, there is no

Lenore Arab

2010-01-01

150

Epidemiology, Health Literacy, and Health Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a framework for teaching epidemiology to middle school students. The curriculum, "Detectives in the Classroom," addresses five essential questions: 'Why Are Some People Getting Sick While Others Remain Healthy?;''Is There an Association between the Hypothesized Cause and the Disease?;''Is This Association Causal?;''What Should Be Done…

Kaelin, Mark A.; Huebner, Wendy W.

2002-01-01

151

The Logic of Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper further develops semantic theory in two ways. First, it extends the range of semantic concepts that the theory can successfully define by adding definitions for the logical properties and relations of questions to the definitions already given f...

J. J. Katz

1968-01-01

152

Rotavirus Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Rotavirus Rubella Shingles Tetanus Frequently Asked Questions About Rotavirus What is Rotavirus? Why can dehydration be serious ... I find information about the vaccine? What is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that infects ...

153

Cho, Hearn — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

154

Frequently Asked Questions  

NASA Website

Frequently Asked Questions 1. Do you have drawings of airplanes? 2. How can I get photos of aircraft? 3. How can I gain access to NASA technical reports? 4. How can I understand the principles of flight 5.

155

Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

156

Scardino, Peter — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Excellent question, made more provocative when we realize that the seminal vesicles and Cowper’s gland in the male, tissues adjacent to the prostate and under the same hormonal influences as the prostate, rarely if even harbor malignant tumors.

157

Dystonia: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... and Aging Locate a Support Group Regional Coordinators Online Support and Resources Support Related Articles Resources for Families Order Brochures and Materials Catalog and Shopping Cart Questions & Answers How does the doctor know ...

158

Lerman, Michael — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

159

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

160

Amalgam Homework Assignment Questions  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Amalgam Homework Assignment Questions Reviewer: Gary Ginsberg Date: Oct 27, 2010 Prepared for US FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

161

Provocative Questions Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Workshop August 2, 2011 UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, California Final Participant List Chair Edward Harlow, Ph.D Chair Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical

162

CAT questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions.

Not Available

1993-02-01

163

Saha, Bratin — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

164

Schneider, Thomas — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

165

Pagel, Mark — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

166

Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

167

Questions to Committee  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... TUMORS THYROID TUMORS Question 1 (voting) Has the applicant provided adequate data on the animal thyroid C-cell tumor findings to ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

168

Redefining the Fundamental Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

Crain, Margaret Ann

2006-01-01

169

Recruitment of minority students to U.S. epidemiology degree programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: African-, Hispanic-, and Native Americans are underrepresented in the field of epidemiology including degree programs. As part of the assessment component of its mandate, the American College of Epidemiology Committee on Minority Affairs conducted a survey of minority recruitment activities of U.S. epidemiology degree programs.METHODS: The survey, containing questions related to marketing activities, institutional infrastructure, financial support, academic offerings,

Diane Marie M. St. George; Victor J. Schoenbach; Gladys H. Reynolds; John Nwangwu; Lucile Adams-Campbell

1997-01-01

170

Advocacy in epidemiology and demography.  

PubMed

This paper is a summary of a panel discussion at the Conference on Epidemiology and Demography held at Georgetown University, in Washington D.C. on February 8-9, 2001. The participants were Al Hermalin, Linda Martin, Mike Stoto, Robert Wallace, Douglas Weed, and Rose Li (who chaired the session). A list of questions similar to the section headings in this paper was prepared in advance of the conference, and each of the participants was asked to address specific issues, although the presentations typically covered a range of topics. This summary also includes comments from the floor. PMID:11797868

Stoto, M A; Hermalin, A I; Li, R; Martin, L; Wallace, R B; Weed, D L

2001-12-01

171

Research Questions and Hypotheses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This first section guides students to ask testable questions, and formulate hypotheses and null hypotheses. Students also become familiar with the parts of a science research report. This structure reinforces the concepts of quantitative observations and comparative research. It also sets the stage for doing statistical testing. At the end of the first section, students are ready to ask a research question and formulate hypotheses for their Long-Term Research Projects (LTRP). Students finish the section by drafting the introduction paragraphs for their LTRP poster presentations. In this free section you will find Lesson 1--Ooze Observations, an Introduction and the Table of Contents.

Steel, Ashley; Kelsey, Kathryn

2001-01-01

172

Residents' clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess residents’ clinical questions, where they get their answers, the utility of those answers, and if an evidence-based medicine (EBM) workshop improves the use of evidence-based electronic resources. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Urban family medicine teaching clinics in Edmonton, Alta, in 2007. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents training in the family medicine teaching units. Methods An observer recorded clinical questions posed by residents in clinic, the resources used to answer these questions, and how residents thought the answers modified practice. Resources were categorized broadly as colleagues, electronic, or paper. Answer utility was ranked in decreasing order as large change, small change, confirmed, expanded knowledge, or no help. Use of resources was compared before and after an EBM workshop, and between residents under normal supervision and those in semi-independent clinics. Results Thirty-eight residents from 5 sites were observed addressing 325 questions in 114 clinical half-day sessions (420 patients). Residents had 0.8 questions per patient and answered 83.4% of questions with 1 resource (range 1 to 6). Residents made 406 attempts to answer questions, using colleagues 65.5% of the time (93.6% were preceptors), electronic resources 20.7% of the time, and paper resources 13.8% of the time. Answers from colleagues were least likely to require secondary resources (F test, P < .001). The utility of answers from colleagues (F test, P = .002) was superior to that of answers from electronic resources, and this difference remained significantly higher in sensitivity analysis. The EBM workshop training did not influence electronic resource use (17.8% before and 15.1% after, Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, P = .18), but semi-independence from preceptors increased the use of electronic resources from 16.5% to 51.0% (Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, P < .001). Conclusion Residents have many questions during clinical practice. Preceptors were used more commonly than all other resources combined and were the most dependable resource for residents to obtain answers. Although an EBM workshop was not associated with increased use of electronic evidence-based resources, semi-independent work appeared to be.

Allan, G. Michael; Ma, Victoria; Aaron, Sarah; Vandermeer, Ben; Manca, Donna; Korownyk, Christina

2012-01-01

173

Caregiver FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... ways to combat these symptoms of the disease? Sleep disorders like sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome and REM sleep behavior disorder are common in LBDs. Sleep disorders often prevent the person with LBD and their ...

174

Stillbirth FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... Donate Now - Learn How You Can Help Join Us On: Facebook Twitter Myspace First Candle 443-640- ... Professionals About News Store Contact Research Advocacy Contact Us Whether you are looking for the most up- ...

175

SIDS FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... babies by building their immunity against illness and infections, in addition to other benefits. Recent research provides the strongest evidence to date that breastfeeding may also reduce the risk of SIDS. Mothers ...

176

Donation FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... needle in one arm and passed through a machine that separates out the blood-forming cells. The ... needle in one arm and passed through a machine that separates out the blood-forming cells. The ...

177

Catastrophism FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is devoted to refuting the pseudo-scientific theory of catastrophism, which claims that only catastrophic events are responsible for changing the Earth's surface. Scientific evidence is used to counter evidence that the young-Earth theory (catastrophism) is plausible.

Archive, Talk O.

178

CTRP FAQs  

Cancer.gov

In January 2004, the Director of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) established the Clinical Trials Working Group (CTWG) to advise the National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB) on whether and in what ways the NCI-supported national clinical trials enterprise should be restructured to realize the promise of molecular medicine for advancing oncologic clinical practice in the 21st century.

179

Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

2005-01-01

180

The True Love Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

The true love question is a marital therapy intervention utilized to evaluate marriage viability. This intervention is based upon a model which posits three possible origins for marriage, of which only one, bilateral true love, is maintained as the sole basis for marital longevity with enduring intimacy. Four possible outcomes from introducing this intervention with couples are discussed, as are

Russell W. Brethauer

2009-01-01

181

Questions&Ansers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: What evidence is there that genetic factors might predispose individuals to anorexia nervosa?It is now well established that all major psychological illnesses run in families. While the causes of these conditions are multiply determined, genetic factors appear to play a highly important role in determining the familial susceptibility patterns seen in conditions such as manic depression, unipolar depression, panic

Michael Strober

1996-01-01

182

The Compensation Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

2012-01-01

183

Unanswered Questions from CTX.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The big question being addressed on CTX during the past year has been: Why was energy confinement not improved by increasing the mesh flux conserver radius from 40 cm to 67 cm. A comparison of decaying spheromaks with the same values of j and n in the two...

B. L. Wright C. W. Barnes J. C. Fernandez I. Henins H. W. Hoida

1986-01-01

184

Questions about Adoption  

MedlinePLUS

... honest explanation. When you are proud of your child's identity, she too will learn to appreciate her own value. Be aware that your attitude about adoption will show in your answers. How you respond can set an example as to how your child may choose to answer these questions in the ...

185

Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions  Policy-Related Can the career awardee stay at his/her current institution in an unmentored phase?Yes. The NCI Staff must approve the transition to an unmentored phase at the same institution in the same way as if they were

186

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)|

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

187

Questions for the Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the issues and lists available options for these questions: why don't teachers (1) teach about the future, (2) use results of educational research, (3) focus on teacher-student interaction, (4) assign grades from a competency criterion, and (5) teach the structure of mechanical drafting. (SK)

Smalley, Lee

1984-01-01

188

CONSUMERS AND THEIR QUESTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumers and Their Questions Today’s consumer enjoys being informed about the products they purchase. Some have strong beliefs on how the agricultural products they utilized are produced and processed. An important part of egg marketing being able to effectively communicate with consumers. Rela...

189

Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis: Current Insights  

PubMed Central

Molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis (TB) have focused largely on utilizing molecular techniques to address short- and long-term epidemiologic questions, such as in outbreak investigations and in assessing the global dissemination of strains, respectively. This is done primarily by examining the extent of genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When molecular methods are used in conjunction with classical epidemiology, their utility for TB control has been realized. For instance, molecular epidemiologic studies have added much-needed accuracy and precision in describing transmission dynamics, and they have facilitated investigation of previously unresolved issues, such as estimates of recent-versus-reactive disease and the extent of exogenous reinfection. In addition, there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters (lineages) may differ in virulence, pathogenesis, and epidemiologic characteristics, all of which may significantly impact TB control and vaccine development strategies. Here, we review the current methods, concepts, and applications of molecular approaches used to better understand the epidemiology of TB.

Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia E.; Bifani, Pablo J.; Kreiswirth, Barry N.

2006-01-01

190

Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: current insights.  

PubMed

Molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis (TB) have focused largely on utilizing molecular techniques to address short- and long-term epidemiologic questions, such as in outbreak investigations and in assessing the global dissemination of strains, respectively. This is done primarily by examining the extent of genetic diversity of clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When molecular methods are used in conjunction with classical epidemiology, their utility for TB control has been realized. For instance, molecular epidemiologic studies have added much-needed accuracy and precision in describing transmission dynamics, and they have facilitated investigation of previously unresolved issues, such as estimates of recent-versus-reactive disease and the extent of exogenous reinfection. In addition, there is mounting evidence to suggest that specific strains of M. tuberculosis belonging to discrete phylogenetic clusters (lineages) may differ in virulence, pathogenesis, and epidemiologic characteristics, all of which may significantly impact TB control and vaccine development strategies. Here, we review the current methods, concepts, and applications of molecular approaches used to better understand the epidemiology of TB. PMID:17041139

Mathema, Barun; Kurepina, Natalia E; Bifani, Pablo J; Kreiswirth, Barry N

2006-10-01

191

CDL Online Practice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspiring truck drivers and those who seek a commercial driving license will appreciate this website a great deal, as it features a number of practice questions that may be found on the test that is required for such certifications. The site features over a dozen self-assessment modules that cover such topics as air brakes, hazardous materials, and of course, transporting passengers. Within each section, visitors will find both Âtrue-falseÂ-style questions and their equally well-known counterpart, the multiple choice query. Also, for those getting acquainted with teaching others how to prepare for this exam, this site may be most handy. Whether one is on their way to Bangor, Maine, or just in need of this certification to meet up with a midnight train, this site will get them on their way.

192

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

193

The helium question  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the desirability of a governmental program of recovering and storing helium from helium-rich natural gas for the low-cost supply of future helium demands is considered. The geologic occurence and distribution of helium, most of which is found in the United States, are discussed, and difficulties in the assessment of helium resources are presented. Uncertainties of future large-scale

E. Cook

1979-01-01

194

The "Looting Question" Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provocatively subtitled "Web and Literary Resources on the Archaeological Politics of Private Collecting, Commercial Treasure Hunting, Looting, and 'Professional' Archaeology," this comprehensive online bibliography provides scholars and practitioners with resources related to the "looting question." The bibliography is organized by format type and focuses on North American materials. Hugh Jarvis, a doctoral candidate in Anthropology as well as a graduate student in Information and Library Studies at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, has compiled this unique, frequently updated resource.

195

ETX Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since its creation in September 1996, the Mighty ETX Site on the Web has become a respected resource known worldwide for its\\u000a tips, information, how-to’s, and actual ETX astrophotography and as a forum for questions and answers from real ETX users.\\u000a For readers of this book who are not “Net-connected”, this chapter will give you a flavor of the ETX

Mike Weasner

196

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

197

The Art of Asking Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

Sykes, Rosetta A.

1979-01-01

198

Epidemiology of fecal mutagenicity.  

PubMed

Fecal mutagenicity presents unique difficulties of measurement (63); nonetheless, population studies of fecal mutagenicity typify the common methodological problems of colorectal cancer epidemiology. For example, correlational studies have linked fecal mutagenicity both to colorectal cancer incidence and to dietary practices postulated to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. The threat of an ecologic fallacy, however, is just as strong for biochemical assays as for other epidemiologic data. Fecal mutagenicity may represent, along with high-fat or low-fiber intake, a mere correlate of some true risk factor still to be elucidated in high-risk populations. Dietary trials, on the other hand, may directly confirm the influence of diet on fecal mutagenicity (or another presumed "intermediate end point") but cannot directly address the relationship of mutagenicity to colorectal cancer risk. Case-control comparisons of fecal mutagenicity might initially seem to promise more compelling evidence regarding colorectal cancer risk, but they are actually unsuitable, since the possibility of disease affecting this "exposure" is so strong. Specifically, fecal mutagenicity might be affected by the clinical tests required to diagnose colorectal cancer; it might also be affected by the malignancy itself, or indirectly by the dietary modifications that can accompany gastrointestinal illness. The resultant biases threaten to confound a case-control comparison as much as recall bias can affect interview data. A proper case-control study of fecal mutagenicity and colorectal cancer must therefore consider the effect of diagnostic workup on each mutagenicity assay, before the test is used to compare case and control specimens. In addition, case subjects should be followed through hospitalization and recovery, in the hope that for some cured patients the measurements after surgery will exclude any effect of disease on exposure. A case-control study incorporating these extra efforts is now underway. It seems reasonable to state that most biochemical assays incorporated into case-control studies of colorectal cancer will require similar modifications. Moreover, even if an effect of disease or of health care on biochemical measurements is excluded, an additional concern regarding the role of fecal mutagenicity or other assays in case-control studies will remain. The use of biochemical tests in a case-control context is analogous to asking questions regarding current smoking or current diet in a case-control interview. The current measurements reflect past values only to the degree that the exposure variable remains stable during the subject's lifetime.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3533586

Schiffman, M H

1986-01-01

199

Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

2002-01-01

200

Unanswered questions from CTX  

SciTech Connect

The big question being addressed on CTX during the past year has been: Why was energy confinement not improved by increasing the mesh flux conserver radius from 40 cm to 67 cm. A comparison of decaying spheromaks with the same values of j and n in the two cases shows tau/sub B/2 improving roughly as R/sup 2/ but little change in T/sub e/. As a result, <..beta..>/sub vol/ has gone from approx. 7.0% to approx. 2.0% and the inferred energy confinement time has remained unchanged at approx. 23 ..mu..s. An energy balance analysis of the 40 cm case showed that the observed rapid particle loss could account for most of the energy loss while providing a mechanism for the removal of impurities. At 67 cm, tau/sub p/ has also improved by about a factor of 2, particle loss therefore contributes substantially less to energy balance and the achievement in CTX of j/n/sub e/ as high as 3 x 10/sup -14/ A.m (I/sub tor/ up to 1 MA), low-Z impurities should not be a problem. A question then arises: Is CTX faced with a new strong energy loss mechanism that is characteristic of spheromaks in general. This question is not simply answered because it may involve processes of thermal conduction or convection that cannot be directly measured. In the following paragraphs we discuss many of the topics that have been considered in this search.

Wright, B.L.; Barnes, C.W.; Fernandez, J.C.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Knox, S.O.; Marklin, G.J.; Platts, D.A.

1986-01-01

201

Questioning and Experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

Mutanen, Arto

2013-08-01

202

Marchetti, Dario — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

203

The Early Years: Investigable Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers may not need to teach children to ask questions, just develop that safe place where questions can be voiced, observe children to see the questions in their actions, and develop a culture that appreciates and records questions. An investigable que

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-12-01

204

Engaging Students through Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are…

Neal, Mary-Anne

2011-01-01

205

Engaging Students through Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…

Neal, Mary-Anne

2011-01-01

206

Handling Difficult Questions and Situations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommendations are presented for dealing with difficult students and the questions they ask during classroom discussions. Brief ideas are provided for handling argumentative individuals, long-winded questioners, and questions for which the instructor does not have a good answer. A discussion of curved or loaded questions (pseudoquestions)…

Watkins, Karen

1983-01-01

207

Ask an intelligent question...  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, as electric utilities have moved toward deregualtion, industry watchers have counceled them to create streamlined competitor intelligence functions or else be outstripped by utilities that do. Gathering competitor intelligence stays focused on answering key questions and showing a cource of action. To that extent, it is part and parcel of good decision-making. In strategic analysis, intelligence focuses on broad-scale comparisons to other electric utilities to determine competitive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This information helps utilities develop business strategies, including a high-level view of what products and services to offer customers. The objective is to ensure that the company doesn`t miss an important issue or trend, so such analysis is ongoing and benefits from a visionary or creative viewpoint.

Mann, K.

1995-05-01

208

Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.  

PubMed Central

More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area.

Brigden, M L

1995-01-01

209

Psychiatric epidemiology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies report prevalence rates for psychiatric disorders from 9.5 to 370\\/1000 populations in India. This review critically evaluates the prevalence rate of mental disorders as reported in Indian epidemiological studies. Extensive search of PubMed, NeuroMed and MEDLARS using search terms \\

Suresh Bada Math; C. R. Chandrashekar; Dinesh Bhugra

2007-01-01

210

Computers and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analogies with biological disease with topological considerations added, which show that the spread of computer viruses can be contained, and the resulting epidemiological model are examined. The findings of computer virus epidemiology show that computer viruses are far less rife than many have claimed, that many fail to thrive, that even successful viruses spread at nowhere near the exponential rate

J. O. Kephart; S. R. White; D. M. Chess

1993-01-01

211

Epidemiology - SEER Landmark Studies  

Cancer.gov

The area of cancer epidemiology has benefited immensely from the SEER network, a key resource not only for descriptive and correlational studies of cancer in the United States, but also for population-based case-control and cohort studies. SEER is often where changes in cancer incidence and death rates are first detected, stimulating additional epidemiologic investigation to reveal the cause.

212

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health conditions. In this article, epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases and, more specifically, of coronary heart disease (CHD), are reviewed to document their major public health importance, the changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of these trends. The major risk indicators for CHD are reviewed and found

C. David Jenkins

1988-01-01

213

Epidemiology of STIs: UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents data on the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the UK, focusing on syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection, genital herpes and warts, and lymphogranuloma venereum. The epidemiology of STIs has changed considerably over the course of the 20th century, reflecting changes in sexual behaviour, new diagnostic techniques, and social, economic and demographic shifts in society. Following historically

Catherine M. Lowndes; Gwenda Hughes

2010-01-01

214

Evolution of environmental epidemiologic risk assessment  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiology has historically played an important role in the recognition of causes for diseases affecting the health of the public. Initially, epidemiology was concerned with infectious diseases. Later it became involved in metabolic and dietary deficiency diseases. Most recently, epidemiology has addressed the question of the public health effects of chemicals from production facilities, accidental spills, and chemical waste disposal sites. Concurrent improvements in the sensitivity of chemical analyses have enabled the identification of chemicals arising from waste disposal sites in the soil, air, drinking water, and food supplies of neighboring residential areas, albeit usually at very low concentrations. This knowledge has created great concerns among the affected populations and their public health agencies. The responsibility for interpreting the potential severity of the health effects of these environmental contaminants has fallen to those scientists experienced in epidemiology. This has led to a subdiscipline, reactive epidemiology, which describes investigations focused on specific events, usually under emotion-laden circumstances, rather than scientific merit. The reactive epidemiologist is rigidly constrained as to the size, timing, and location of the study. There is a strong requirement for public communication skills. New data bases are needed including ''sentinel'' diseases that are linked to exposure to chemicals, records of land use, and residency data for the population at risk.

Anderson, H.A.

1985-10-01

215

Terra and Aqua: new data for epidemiology and public health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth-observing satellites have only recently been exploited for the measurement of environmental variables of relevance to epidemiology and public health. Such work has relied on sensors with spatial, spectral and geometric constraints that have allowed large-area questions associated with the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases to be addressed. Moving from pretty maps to pragmatic control tools requires a suite of satellite-derived

Andrew J. Tatem; Scott J. Goetz; Simon I. Hay

2004-01-01

216

[Epidemiology and heterogeny].  

PubMed

The innovation of epidemiology plays a crucial role in the development of the health sciences. The authors emphasize the importance of epistemological analysis related to scientific and technical production. They focus on the theoretical and methodological contributions of the principal Latin American groups in the field of epidemiology, stating their main accomplishments, issues and potentials. When reviewing those conceptual and practical innovations, the authors analyse the effects of broader historical conditions on scientific work. To them, Latin American contemporary innovative epidemiological research and production have developed clearly differentiated principles, methods and technical projections which have led to a movement of critical or 'social' epidemiology. The functionalist approach of conventional epidemiology, characterized by an empiricist viewpoint, is being overcome by a more rigorous and analytical approach. This new epidemiological approach, in which the authors as members of CEAS (Health Research and Advisory Center) are working, has selectively incorporated some of the technical instruments of conventional epidemiology, subordinating them to a different theoretical and logical paradigm. The new framework of this group explains the need to consider the people's objective situation and necessities, when constructing scientific interpretations and planning technical action. In order to accomplish this goal, epidemiological reasoning has to reflect the unity of external epidemiological facts and associations, the so-called phenomenological aspect of health, with the underlying determinants and conditioning processes or internal relations, which are the essence of the health-disease production and distribution process. Epidemiological analysis is considered not only as a problem of empirical observation but as a process of theoretical construction, in which there is a dynamic fusion of deductive and inductive reasoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2660269

Breilh, J; Granda, E

1989-01-01

217

Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.  

PubMed Central

There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective.

Pearce, N

1996-01-01

218

An Arabic question-answering system for factoid questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an Arabic Question-Answering (Q-A) system called QASAL (Question-Answering system for Arabic Language). QASAL accepts as an input a natural language question written in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and generates as an output the most efficient and appropriate answer. The proposed system is composed of three modules: A question analysis module, a passage retrieval module and

Wissal BRINI; Mariem ELLOUZE; Slim MESFAR; Lamia HADRICH BELGUITH

2009-01-01

219

Automating preparation of exam questions: Exam Question Classification System (EQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is no any available computerized mechanism to classify the exam questions prepared by the instructors. Everything is done manually by the instructors according to their own style. Written exam question has always been a method for educators to assess the level of understanding of students. A good exam question should consist of different levels of difficulties in order

Nor Diana Ahmad; Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Maslina Abdul Aziz; Mohd Yusaimir Yusof

2011-01-01

220

Develop Your Questioning Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How much thought have you given to what you want your students to gain from your class? Far too often the emphasis on factual content overshadows the development of conceptual understanding, and accountability issues force us to present a wide-ranging curriculum in a short time period. As a beginning teacher, you are probably being directed to ``cover'' the curriculum, and your focus has been on making sure you understand the concepts you are presenting. You spend hours studying the content until you are sure you know every aspect and can work every problem in the textbook dealing with the given topic. You prepare a very detailed lesson plan and deliver a brilliant lecture only to find that your students did not ``receive'' the information you thought you transmitted. You know the content much better because you had to present your understanding of the concepts to others. You can provide your students the same opportunity to test their understanding by developing questioning techniques to engage them in effective dialogue.

Blanton, Patricia

2009-01-01

221

Dietary glucosamine under question  

PubMed Central

Annual sales of glucosamine as a neutraceutical for affecting cartilage in treatment of osteoarthritis are close to a billion dollars, but recent clinical studies have currently raised severe criticism regarding its functional value. Additional doubts can be raised by the knowledge of the well-defined cellular steps in glucosamine formation and production of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin. Glucosamine is produced in an activated state from glucose by essentially all cells for incorporation into glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, and there have been no reports of any deficiencies in its production under any conditions. Nevertheless, many investigations of glucosamine, using cells or tissues, have claimed effects on cartilage and chondroitin sulfate. The significance of these studies is questionable since they have invariably been with concentrations that were 10- to 1000-fold higher than has been found in human serum or plasma after glucosamine ingestion. Experiments with cells or tissues using glucosamine in the low concentrations found after ingestion need to be examined before any conclusions are drawn concerning its direct action on cartilage and its potential for modifying osteoarthritis.

Silbert, Jeremiah E

2009-01-01

222

Gallery Walk Questions on Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about karst. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level at ...

223

Gallery Walk Questions about Volcanism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about volcanism. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

224

Global Warming: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Back to Example Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through a Socratic lesson. It will help instructors ...

225

Gallery Walk Questions about Coastlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about coastlines. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

226

A question of character.  

PubMed

For the most part, Glamor-a-Go-Go's board has been thrilled with CEO Joe Ryan's performance. Ryan, after all, had transformed the private-label cosmetics company into a retail powerhouse with flashy outlets from New York to Los Angeles. In addition to saving the company from bankruptcy shortly after his arrival in 1992, Ryan had made Glamor-a-Go-Go a fun and exciting place to work, increasing workers' wages and creating boundless opportunities for anyone willing to work hard and think out of the box. He had also brought more women and people of color on board. And he had made many employees wealthy, with generous stock giveaways and options for the most senior employees down to the most junior. Glamor-a-Go-Go's stock price had grown tenfold during Ryan's tenure. But Ryan's personal affairs were beginning to call into question his leadership abilities. The local paper's gossip column recently ran a photo of Ryan--a married man--leaving a gala event with a beautiful young woman from the company, with the headline "Who's That Girl?" Indeed, rumors about Ryan's philandering were starting to take on a harsher edge. Some people believed his secretary left because Ryan had sexually harassed her. Others believed a mail-room employee had been promoted to factory supervisor because of her affair with the CEO. Having warned Ryan several times about his alleged infidelities, the board is stuck. What should it do about Ryan's extracurricular behavior? Does Ryan's personal behavior even affect the company? Is what Ryan does outside the office the board's concern? Six commentators weigh in. PMID:10621266

Wetlaufer, S

227

A question of authority  

SciTech Connect

A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

Morgan, Earl W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-10-15

228

Questioning to resolve decision problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do we ask questions? Because we want to have some information. But why this particular kind of information? Because only information of this partic- ular kind is helpful to resolve the decision problem that the agent faces. In this paper I argue that questions are asked because their answers help to resolve the questioner's decision problem, and that this

Robert van Rooy

1999-01-01

229

Contemplative Pedagogy: Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contemplative Pedagogy is a new and sometimes controversial pedagogical practice. Faculty often have basic questions about how to implement the pedagogy in their classrooms, in addition to questions that challenge the educational value and appropriateness of the practice. Assembled here are the most frequently asked questions about Contemplative…

Coburn, Tom; Grace, Fran; Klein, Anne Carolyn; Komjathy, Louis; Roth, Harold; Simmer-Brown, Judith

2011-01-01

230

Questions and Critical Thinking1  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can you stimulate critical thinking with the questions you ask in the classroom? Can these questions motivate students? Indeed, there are practical techniques, which work, that can help educators ask questions to stimulate critical thinking in class. Those of you with a strong back- ground in education literature will recognize the influence of the critical thinking literature, teaching techniques

Peter D. Hurd

231

Questions Parents Ask about Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school, along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center…

National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

232

The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

Bingham, Charles

2005-01-01

233

Questions for Music Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

Jorgensen, Estelle R.

2008-01-01

234

Teacher Researchers Questioning their Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight teacher researchers examined their own practice to analyse their use of questioning in the context of numeracy, in partnership with two researchers. Each teacher researcher devised their own question categories, from which the research team then developed common categories. Teacher researchers found the most helpful way to categorise questions was according to their purposes for asking them, and that

Linda Bonne; Ruth Pritchard

235

Epidemiology of Lice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

Juranek, Dennis D.

1977-01-01

236

Epidemiology of Lice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)|

Juranek, Dennis D.

1977-01-01

237

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

238

Epidemiology of Anaphylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations,\\u000a and the application of this study to the control of health problems [1]. Epidemiological measures of interest for anaphylaxis\\u000a include the incidence, incidence rate, lifetime prevalence of its occurrence and case fatality rate (Box 1). Other aspects\\u000a of interest concern features of persons

David J. Chinn; Aziz Sheikh

239

Ecological Genomics and Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge amount of genomic data now becoming available offers both opportunities and challenges for epidemiologists. In this\\u000a “preview” of likely developments as the field of ecological genomics evolves and merges with epidemiology, we discuss how\\u000a epidemiology can use new information about genetic sequences and gene expression to form predictions about epidemic features\\u000a and outcomes and for understanding host resistance

K. A. Garrett; S. H. Hulbert; J. E. Leach; S. E. Travers

2006-01-01

240

Ecological genomics and epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The huge amount of genomic data now becoming available offers both opportunities and challenges for epidemiologists.In this\\u000a “preview“ of likely developments as the field of ecological genomics evolves and merges with epidemiology,we discuss how epidemiology\\u000a can use new information about genetic sequences and gene expression to form predictions about epidemic features and outcomes\\u000a and for understanding host resistance and pathogen

K. A. Garrett; S. H. Hulbert; J. E. Leach; S. E. Travers

241

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

242

ToxProfiles 2007 (including ToxFAQs and Public Health Statements in English and en Espanol) (on CD-ROM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ATSDR ToxFAQs are a series of summaries about hazardous substances developed by the ATSDR Division of toxicology and Environmental Medicine. Each chemical-specific fact sheet serves as a quick and easy to understand guide. Answers are provided to the ...

2007-01-01

243

Geomagnetic Field Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site the question and answer format is used to provide information about the Earth's magnetic field. Frequently asked questions are linked to detailed answers. Along with standard questions about the magnetic poles and how a compass works, there are sections about geomagnetic models, Space Weather Scales and magnetic field reversals. Links lead to a site to download the latest model as well as sites for more detailed information.

2007-09-05

244

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

245

Classroom Questioning Techniques: The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions was developed for use by teachers who wish to stimulate their students' critical thinking skills, but who find the terminology of existing skill taxonomies both confusing and elusive. This taxonomy consists of six levels of questions. Each level is given the name of a television program reflecting how the student…

Kahn, Michael

246

Clear and present questions: formulating questions for evidence based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to provide an overview and update of thinking in relation to the theory and practice of formulation of answerable research questions within evidence based information practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews the healthcare and information literature on question formulation, augmented by structured and purposive internet searches. Findings – Although a few key authors have published

Andrew Booth

2006-01-01

247

Donating Blood Questions and Answers  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. ... Donating Blood Questions and Answers. The blood safety system established by FDA is dependent ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/questionsaboutblood

248

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)|

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

249

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

250

Welcome to epidemiology and health.  

PubMed

The Korean Society of Epidemiology publishes a scholarly journal titled 'Korean Journal of Epidemiology', which announces and discusses the results of epidemiological studies from the past 30 yr. Since its first publication in 1979, the journal has contributed to the advancement of epidemiology as well as the prevention and control of disease, and the promotion of health in Korea.In 2009, the editorial board has decided to publish the journal in English to contribute internationally, and change the journal's name. The new name of the journal is 'Epidemiology and Health'.The abstract and full text of articles will be published as an open access online journal, which will be posted onto the homepage (http://www.e-epih.org/) in real time for anyone in the world to access free of charge. Our editorial policy is that 'Epidemiology and Health' is open to every researcher in fields related to epidemiology, regardless of membership, his or her major and nationality.Editorials, lectures, review papers, original articles, epidemic and case investigations, brief communications and letters will be published to generate active discussion through the journal along with the publication of the papers.'Epidemiology and Health' welcomes articles from various fields of epidemiology, such as 1) infectious diseases epidemiology, 2) chronic diseases epidemiology, 3) nutritional epidemiology, 4) clinical epidemiology, 5) pharmacoepidemiology, 6) genetic or molecular epidemiology, 7) social epidemiology, 8) environmental or occupational epidemiology, 9) epidemiological methods and biostatistics, 10) disease prevention and control, 11) health promotion and, 12) all other fields related to epidemiology. PMID:21191464

Choi, Bo Youl

2009-10-29

251

Advances in epidemiology survey methodology and techniques in schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Quantitative techniques are now recognized to contribute to the validity and comparability of data from epidemiological studies in schistosomiasis. These methods have been developed and tested in field investigations in areas where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic and, to a lesser extent, S. haematobium endemic areas. Carefully planned epidemiological investigations using standardized and quantitative methods have contributed to our understanding of the relationships between intensity of infection and morbidity, as well as to the development of improved control strategies relevant to these areas. This article reviews the newer parasitological techniques, methods of morbidity assessment, and data analysis procedures employed in current epidemiological studies in schistosomiasis, as well as the analytical questions involved in research on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis.

Mott, K. E.; Cline, B. L.

1980-01-01

252

Epidemiology of autism: Current controversies and research directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many respects, the epidemiology of autism is still in its infancy. Although important questions remain unanswered, epidemiologists are making significant progress in several areas of inquiry that will be addressed in this presentation: How common is autism? Has the prevalence changed over time? What demographic and environmental risk factors have been identified that may provide clues to underlying etiology?

Judith K. Grether

2006-01-01

253

Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: Methods and pitfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and

Nick Andrews

254

[Epidemiology of schizophrenia].  

PubMed

Schizophrenia exhibits wide variation in epidemiological characteristics. Through the past few decades, we have learned much about schizophrenia epidemiology, providing important findings for etiological research, clinical care and public health. In this article, we provide overview of current research on incidence, prevalence, risk factors, mortality and outcome of schizophrenia. Contrary to traditional understanding, the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia show prominent variation between locations. Risk factors for schizophrenia include urbanicity, migration, sex, season of birth and pregnancy and birth complications. Schizophrenia patients have an increased mortality risk compared with the general population. Recent studies about outcome show not so tragic, especially in regard to social functioning. Over the recent decades, circumstances have been changing around schizophrenia. As to treatment, for example, 'the second generation antipsychotics' have replaced conventional ones and 'early intervention' is developing. However, we have only limited evidences of current schizophrenia. Further epidemiological development is needed. PMID:23678583

Nonaka, Shunsuke; Ichinose, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Hirohisa; Nakane, Hideyuki

2013-04-01

255

Test Pool Questions, Area III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

Sloan, Jamee Reid

256

Unanswered Questions in Audience Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As its title implies, this article explores a number of unanswered questions and outstanding issues in contemporary audience research. These include: models of the “active audience”; questions of cultural power; global media and transnational audiences; methodologies in audience research; problems of essentialism in the conceptualization of categories of audience members; the strengths and limitations of the encoding\\/decoding model; models of

David Morley

2006-01-01

257

Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

Butler, John C.; Houston, University O.

258

Twenty Questions about Mathematical Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper poses and answers 20 questions about mathematical reasoning. Questions include: (1) Is mathematical reasoning mathematical? (2) Is mathematical reasoning useful? (3) Is mathematical reasoning an appropriate goal of school mathematics? (4) Can teachers teach mathematical reasoning? (5) Can mathematical reasoning be taught? (6) Do skills…

Steen, Lynn Arthur

259

LCC Tools for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased complexity of the TREC QA questions requires advanced text processingtools that rely on natural language processing and knowledge reasoning. Thispaper presents the suite of tools that account for the performance of the PowerAnswerquestion answering system. It is shown how questions, answers and world knowledgeare transformed first in logic representation, followed by a systematic and rigorouslogic proof that validly

Dan I. Moldovan; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Roxana Girju; Paul Morarescu; V. Finley Lacatusu; Adrian Novischi; Adriana Badulescu; Orest Bolohan

2002-01-01

260

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus;…

Kalichman, Seth C.

261

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

262

Thirteen Questions: Reframing Education's Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides alternative answers to those questions about the American educational system that have been answered until now by an outmoded, conservative educational agenda. Following the introduction that describes the rationale for a postmodern deconstruction of educational narratives, 13 chapters present essays on the following questions:…

Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.

263

The Geography of Virtual Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions

Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

2009-01-01

264

Guiding Questions for Technology Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents guiding questions developed by the U.S. Department of Education's Technology Planning Task Force. Questions revolve around creating a vision of learning, using technology to support the mission, developing a supportive infrastructure, understanding the plan's context, garnering public support, and implementing and evaluating the plan.…

North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium

2001-01-01

265

Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology.  

PubMed

Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges. PMID:23972899

McKeown, Robert E

2013-08-21

266

Toward Automated Consumer Question Answering: Automatically Separating Consumer Questions from Professional Questions in the Healthcare Domain  

PubMed Central

Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. Conclusion Healthcare consumer questions posted at Yahoo online communities can be reliably classified from professional questions posted by point-of-care clinicians and online physicians. The supervised machine-learning models are robust for this task. Our study will significantly benefit further development in automated consumer question answering.

Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong

2011-01-01

267

The Value Question in Metaphysics.  

PubMed

Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

Kahane, Guy

2012-07-01

268

The Value Question in Metaphysics  

PubMed Central

Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

Kahane, Guy

2012-01-01

269

Posing clinical questions: framing the question for scientific inquiry.  

PubMed

Much of nursing practice is (and always has been) based on information generated through inquiry. Finding the best answers quickly and effectively for the questions that arise in the clinical setting facilitates care, increases nursing efficiency, and improves patient outcome and satisfaction. Posing clinical questions also can help nurses identify and fill in gaps in knowledge, keep up with advances in clinical practice, and strengthen interactions with their peers, team members, and patients and their families. Formulating clinical questions that lead to sound, evidence-based answers to resolve clinical problems or direct patient-care decisions takes time and practice. The information in this article will assist nurses to develop the skill of framing clinical questions efficiently and effectively. PMID:11759420

McKibbon, K A; Marks, S

2001-11-01

270

Explaining errors in children's questions.  

PubMed

The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations. PMID:16839536

Rowland, Caroline F

2006-07-12

271

Epidemiology of Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of Turner syndrome is largely unknown. A few studies of prevalence and incidence of the syndrome have been performed based on large chromosome surveys, and based on these studies it may be estimated that Turner syndrome occur in 50 per 100,000 liveborn females. A considerable delay in diagnosis of new cases of Turner syndrome exists in all studied

Claus Højbjerg Gravholt; Kirstine Stochholm

2008-01-01

272

Epidemiology of reflex syncope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effective diagnostic approaches to reflex syncope require knowledge of its frequency and causes in different age groups. For this purpose we reviewed the available literature dealing with the epidemiology of reflex syncope. The incidence pattern of reflex syncope in the general population and general practice is bimodal with peaks in teenagers and in the elderly. In the young almost all

N. Colman; K. Nahm; K. S. Ganzeboom; W. K. Shen; J. B. Reitsma; M. Linzer; W. Wieling; H. Kaufmann

2004-01-01

273

Epidemiology by computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collecting epidemiological data from a large community sample has, in the past, been a costly and timeconsuming exercise. This paper outlines a methodology for undertaking such research by using a set of standard psychiatric questionnaries, including a computerised version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Screening Interview on a portable laptop computer. The study of 1009 country South Australian subjects found

J. R. Clayer; A. C. McFarlane; G. Wright

1992-01-01

274

Changing epidemiology of AIDS.  

PubMed Central

It has been 15 years since AIDS made its first appearance in North America, probably longer worldwide. In that time, our knowledge of the epidemiology of AIDS has grown and changed. This review highlights significant aspects of the epidemic with particular emphasis on the evolution of this disease in North America.

Donovan, C. A.; Stratton, E.

1994-01-01

275

Spatial analysis for epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and spatial analysis provide important tools that are as yet under-exploited in the fight against disease. As the use of such tools becomes more accepted and prevalent in epidemiological studies, so our understanding of the mechanisms of disease systems has the potential to increase. This paper introduces a range of techniques used in remote

A. J Graham; P. M Atkinson; F. M Danson

2004-01-01

276

Epidemiology of Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

2007-01-01

277

Epidemiology of clavicle fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all

Franco Postacchini; Stefano Gumina; Pierfrancesco De Santis; Francesco Albo

2002-01-01

278

Epidemiology in sustainable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has had increasing impact in the production-based industry of both the developed and developing world. In the last 50 years European agriculture has been associated with a move towards the simplification of systems, as farms have tended to specialize in arable or livestock production, largely determined by their soil or climatic conditions. Although cereal monoculture

Robert J. Cook; David J. Yarhm

279

Questions  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... national levels. 6. Changes in Visits for Acute Otitis Media among Children <2 years old Pre- & Post-PCV7. Administrative data ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

280

Scabies: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

281

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

282

Scabies: Disease Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

283

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

284

U.S. Science Support Program Associated with the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program FAQs  

NSF Publications Database

... Questions regarding NSF 03-586: U.S. Science Support Program Associated with the Integrated Ocean ... proposers responding to the U.S. Science Support Program Associated with the Integrated Ocean ...

285

Drug abuse epidemiology: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of drug abuse epidemiology is a relatively new one and recognition of drug abuse as a phenomenon amenable to study within the field of epidemiology is still forthcoming. Reviews of programmes for meetings of epidemiologic research societies rarely highlight drug abuse, even in association with the transmission of, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis

Z. SLOBODA

286

Causation in epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Causation is an essential concept in epidemiology, yet there is no single, clearly articulated definition for the discipline. From a systematic review of the literature, five categories can be delineated: production, necessary and sufficient, sufficient-component, counterfactual, and probabilistic. Strengths and weaknesses of these categories are examined in terms of proposed characteristics of a useful scientific definition of causation: it must be specific enough to distinguish causation from mere correlation, but not so narrow as to eliminate apparent causal phenomena from consideration. Two categories—production and counterfactual—are present in any definition of causation but are not themselves sufficient as definitions. The necessary and sufficient cause definition assumes that all causes are deterministic. The sufficient-component cause definition attempts to explain probabilistic phenomena via unknown component causes. Thus, on both of these views, heavy smoking can be cited as a cause of lung cancer only when the existence of unknown deterministic variables is assumed. The probabilistic definition, however, avoids these assumptions and appears to best fit the characteristics of a useful definition of causation. It is also concluded that the probabilistic definition is consistent with scientific and public health goals of epidemiology. In debates in the literature over these goals, proponents of epidemiology as pure science tend to favour a narrower deterministic notion of causation models while proponents of epidemiology as public health tend to favour a probabilistic view. The authors argue that a single definition of causation for the discipline should be and is consistent with both of these aims. It is concluded that a counterfactually-based probabilistic definition is more amenable to the quantitative tools of epidemiology, is consistent with both deterministic and probabilistic phenomena, and serves equally well for the acquisition and the application of scientific knowledge.???Keywords: causality; counterfactual; philosophy

Parascandola, M; Weed, D

2001-01-01

287

So Far Away: Twenty Questions for Long-Distance Caregivers  

MedlinePLUS

... What’s New About NIA Budget & Testimony Calendar Careers at NIA History Initiatives Minority Aging & Health Disparities National Advisory Council on Aging (NACA) Offices & Divisions Staff Visitor Information Contact Us FAQs Stay Connected You are here Home » Health and Aging » Publications So Far Away: Twenty ...

288

OSHA Frequently Asked Questions: HAZWOPER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OSHA web page provides answers to many of the more common questions regarding the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) regulation. Many of the answers provided are regarding the HAZWOPER training requirements.

2007-09-21

289

Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)|

Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

1988-01-01

290

Toward a Question Answering Roadmap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth in government investment, academic research, and commercial question answering (QA) systems is motivating a need for increased planning and coordination. The internationalization of QA research, and the need to move toward a common understanding of...

M. T. Maybury

2002-01-01

291

Birds: Old Questions and New.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

Flannery, Maura C.

2002-01-01

292

On Clickers, Questions, and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this paper is to review the procedures used to help students become learning victors. Specifically, this paper will discuss the process used to integrate classroom-response-system technology and question-driven instruction into an introductory anatomy and physiology course for pre-nursing/allied health students at a community college. Emphasis is placed on a systematic process for developing effective questions. Student reaction to this strategy is also discussed.

Skinner, Steven

2009-03-01

293

Automatic Generation of Trivia Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a (nearly) domain-independent approach to mining trivia questions from a database. Generated questions are ranked\\u000a and are more “interesting” if they have a modest number of solutions and may reasonably be solved (but are not too easy).\\u000a Our functional model and genetic approach have several advantages: they are tractable and scalable, the hypothesis space size\\u000a is limited, and

Matthew Merzbacher

2002-01-01

294

Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

295

[Epidemiological situation of Chad].  

PubMed

Chad, the land located in Central Africa nowadays is one of the poorest countries in the world, what is connected with catastrophic demographic indicators and numerous cases of infectious diseases among local population as well as external and internal refugees. Epidemiologic profile is dominated by vector-, water-, food-borne, respiratory, and sexually transmitted diseases. Environmental factors, such as an effect of high temperature, sand and dust storms also pose essential threat. This is related to location of majority of Chad territory in the area of Sahara and Sahel. The article presents information concerning current epidemiological hazards encountered by visitors in this country. This knowledge is essential for Polish health service and armed forces in the context of forming of EUFOR mission in Chad with participation of our soldiers. PMID:19145944

Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

2008-10-01

296

Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed.

Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

297

Epidemiology of Narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness with\\u000a episodic weakness often triggered by strong emotions. Due to difficulty in diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and delayed diagnosis,\\u000a measurement of prevalence rates in population-based samples is complicated. However, the most intensively screened population-based\\u000a studies suggest that prevalence rates for narcolepsy with cataplexy range between 25

Lauren Hale

298

Epidemiology of Vascular Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second commonest dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies of this condition suffer from many shortcomings related to definition of the disease, diagnostic criteria and assessment of subjects. The prevalence of VaD increases linearly with age and varies greatly from country to country, ranging from 1.2 to 4.2% of people over 65 years old, even

Réjean Hébert; Carol Brayne

1995-01-01

299

The leukemias: Epidemiologic aspects  

SciTech Connect

Particularly geared to physicians and cancer researchers, this study of the epidemiology and etiology of leukemia analyzes the four major leukemia subtypes in terms of genetic and familial determinant factors and examines the incidence, distribution and frequency of reported leukemia clusters. Linet discusses the connection between other types of malignancies, their treatments, and the subsequent development of leukemia and evaluates the impact on leukemia onset of such environmental factors as radiation therapy, drugs, and occupational hazards.

Linet, M.S.

1984-01-01

300

Epidemiology of Faecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter focuses on the prevalence and incidence rate of faecal incontinence in the general population and specific subgroups,\\u000a including the elderly and children. Epidemiological definitions are described, and problems with measuring faecal incontinence\\u000a are discussed. Descriptive studies of prevalence and incidence rates are reviewed, including demographic determinants and\\u000a the reliability of the prevalence estimates. A thorough discussion of risk

Alexandra K. Macmillan; Arend E. H. Merrie

301

Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed Central

This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease.

Coon, W W

1977-01-01

302

Epidemiology of hip fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were an estimated 1.66 million hip fractures worldwide in 1990. According to the epidemiologic projections, this worldwide annual number will rise to 6.26 million by the year 2050. This rise will be in great part due to the huge increase in the elderly population of the world. However, the age-specific incidence rates of hip fractures have also increased during

P. Kannus; J. Parkkari; H. Sievänen; A. Heinonen; I. Vuori; M. Järvinen

1996-01-01

303

Ultraviolet tanning equipment: six questions.  

PubMed

Recreational tanning, particularly as promoted by commercial salons with 'sunbeds' or booths, has generated increasing attention from the regulatory and the biomedical communities. Several agencies have weighed in with opinions on recommended modifications in guidelines, training procedures, regulatory controls, and consumer awareness. Currently there is little uniformity in the guidance provided by trade groups, in recommendations supplied by health agencies and medical associations, or in regulatory approaches taken or proposed by the many countries involved. In an effort to provide a clearer focus for its concerns in this area, the EU Directorate General Health and Consumer Affairs formulated six questions on ultraviolet (UV) tanning, all of a technical or biomedical nature. The questions were stimulated in part by the fact that the European Commission no longer regards the European standard EN 60335-2-27:1997 ('Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation') as giving presumption of conformity to the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC. (The latter Directive governs marketing of electrical devices in EC countries.) Initially, the questions were posed to an EU Scientific Committee. Subsequently, industry representatives and the European Commission jointly requested that the scientific community provide answers to the questions. We received the questions with a request for our technical responses and opinions. Our response was in the form of the following essay, submitted earlier this year to the European Commission. We offer it here in the hope of stimulating constructive discussion and comment. PMID:16149938

van der Leun, Jan C; Forbes, Paul Donald

2005-10-01

304

Obesity in Infancy: Questions, More Questions, and Few Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current literature presents conflicting views about the existence of infant obesity and its role as a risk factor for later life obesity and comorbidity. This article reviews extant literature and addresses the issues raised about obesity and overweight status in the first 2 years of life. The epidemic increase in childhood obesity stimulates questions about the effects of body weight

Marjorie M. Heinzer

2005-01-01

305

Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  

PubMed

The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B

1995-12-01

306

Response times to conceptual questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

2013-09-01

307

FAQs. II.(a) Active Learning vs. Covering The Syllabus; (b) Dealing with Large Classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article, written by Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent, which addresses the questions "Can I use active learning exercises in my classes and still cover the syllabus?" and "Do active learning methods work in large classes?" Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Felder, Richard M., 1939-; Brent, Rebecca, 1956-

2009-12-17

308

Cloud Seeding Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by North American Weather Consultants, Inc. The site briefly answers questions such as "when did application of modern cloud seeding technology begin?," "Is cloud seeding effective?," and "Do the commonly used seeding materials pose any direct health or environmental risks?"

Griffith, Don; Solak, Mark

2008-01-07

309

ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

310

Some Questions for Feminist Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions about feminist rhetoric would include the following. Should a speaker resist the phallocentric rhetoric of the academy by refusing, resisting or otherwise willfully choosing not to say, "Here are my points, Here are my conclusions, Here is my argument that I hope to persuade you to believe?" Should a speaker foster a discourse that…

Hayes, Christopher G.

311

Folic Acid Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO flo@cdc.gov Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Questions & Answers Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Global Initiative Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Free Materials Links ...

312

Information Extraction Supported Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of our information extraction (IE) system, Textract, in the question- answering (QA) track of the recently held TREC-8 tests. One of our major objectives is to examine how IE can help IR (Information Retrieval) in applications like QA. Our study shows: (i) IE can provide solid support for QA; (ii) low-level IE like Named Entity

Rohini K. Srihari; Wei Li

1999-01-01

313

Tolstoy and the woman question  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the perceptions of women in art and literature in Russia during the later half of the nineteenth century. It specifically focuses on the women question and examines women's function and role in Russian society and how different visual artists along with Tolstoy examine this issue through their artwork. The first section of the work focuses specifically on

Jeanna Marie Whiting

2006-01-01

314

Four Questions to Ask Yourself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

2007-01-01

315

Physical Fitness: Questions Teachers Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers teachers' questions about physical fitness, emphasizing children's physical fitness, why people believe children are unfit, children's activity levels, heredity and maturation in fitness testing, test results, adequate fitness, activity, and participation, how long it takes children to get fit, reward systems, current fitness testing, and…

Pangrazi, Robert P.; Corbin, Charles B.

1993-01-01

316

Questions and Answers about Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. When a stroke occurs, brain ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

317

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

318

Unanswered questions in venous thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made great strides in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite these advances, however, questions remain. Perhaps the most important unmet need is the development and implementation of strategies to increase the uptake of guidelines for thromboprophylaxis. VTE is largely preventable with appropriate prophylaxis. New oral anticoagulants have the potential to further streamline VTE prevention

Jeffrey I. Weitz

2009-01-01

319

Cloning: questions answered and unsolved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning by the transfer of adult somatic cell nuclei to oocytes has produced viable offspring in a variety of mammalian species. The technology is still in its initial stages of development. Studies to date have answered several basic questions related to such issues as genome potency, life expectancy of clones, mitochondrial fates, and feasibility of inter-species nuclear transfer. They have

Keith E. Latham

2004-01-01

320

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

321

On the question of fill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two unrelated areas of APL have become the basis for the notion of prototype in some groups of extensions to APL. One of these areas, which arises when new operators like Rank, or its special case Each, are considered, is the question of empty frames: what result to return when an expression specifies, roughly, that a function is to be

Roland H. Pesch

1984-01-01

322

Five questions on intellectual history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to questions posed by Mikkel Thorup (University of Aarhus), I recount how I was drawn to intellectual history by its breadth of concern and its relative epistemological modesty. I characterise it is as less a subfield of history than an interdisciplinary field aimed at clarifying problems and calling attention to limits. I reject the view that it ought to

Allan Megill

2011-01-01

323

Key questions regarding work engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the concept of work engagement and summarizes research on its most important antecedents. The authors formulate 10 key questions and shape a research agenda for engagement. In addition to the conceptual development and measurement of enduring work engagement, the authors discuss the importance of state work engagement. Further, they argue that the social context is crucial and

Arnold B. Bakker; Simon L. Albrecht; Michael P. Leiter

2011-01-01

324

Looming Questions in Performance Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

Gratz, Donald B.

2010-01-01

325

Ten Practical Questions about Branding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

2004-01-01

326

What questions about patient care do physicians have during and after patient contact in the ED? The taxonomy of gaps in physician knowledge  

PubMed Central

Objectives To categorise questions that emergency department physicians have during patient encounters. Methods An observational study of 26 physicians at two institutions. All physicians were followed for at least two shifts. All questions that arose during patient care were recorded verbatim. These questions were then categorised using a taxonomy of clinical questions. Results Physicians had 271 questions in the course of the study. The most common questions were about drug dosing (35), what drug to use in a particular case (28), “what are the manifestations of disease X” (23), and what laboratory test to do in a situation (21). Notably lacking were questions about medication costs, administrative questions, questions about services in the community, and pathophysiology questions. Conclusions Emergency department physicians tend to have questions that cluster around practical issues such as diagnosis and treatment. In routine practice they have fewer epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, administrative, and community services questions.

Graber, Mark A; Randles, Bradley D; Monahan, Jay; Ely, John W; Jennissen, Charles; Peters, Bobby; Anderson, Dean

2007-01-01

327

Is there epidemiology in Russia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies

Vlassov, V.

2000-01-01

328

Worldwide Report, Epidemiology, No. 327.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Epidemiology, Human Diseases, Health, Malaria, AIDS, Homosexual Male, Medical Administration, Rabies, Tuberculosis, Encephalitis Statistics, Gastroenteritie, Mystery Diseases, Children, Epidemics, Chickenpox, Measles, Eye Diseases, Dengu...

1983-01-01

329

Epidemiology of tuberculosis immunology.  

PubMed

Immunological impairment plays a major role in the epidemiology of TB. Globally, the most common causes of immunological impairment are malnutrition, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, aging, and smoking. With the notable exception of HIV, each factor leads to relatively mild immunological impairment in individuals. However, as these conditions affect a significant proportion of the population, they contribute substantially to the incidence of TB at a global scale. Understanding immunological impairment is central to understanding the global TB pandemic, and vital to the development of effective disease control strategies. PMID:23468101

Fox, G J; Menzies, D

2013-01-01

330

[Epidemiology of allergic diseases].  

PubMed

The article gives a critical review of the main epidemiological features of allergic diseases, their frequency, distribution and etiologic background as well as the possibilities of prevention and control, based on current literature. Statistical data for Croatia, collected by the Croatian National Institute of Public Health, are used to present actual epidemiological situation in Croatia. Basic descriptive epidemiological methods were used to express age and sex distribution, etc. In comments and review of preventive measures, our own epidemiological experiences and experience acquired on creating the national programs of health measures were used. The genesis of allergies usually implies the influence of various potent environmental allergens such as proteins or smaller molecules attached to proteins (haptens) through repeat or continuous exposure by contact, alimentary or respiratory route, and parenteral route as most efficient (mucous membrane exposure is similar to parenteral exposure). In addition, almost all substances from our environment may, under certain circumstances, become allergens and produce allergic reaction. Individual constitution that is inherited also plays a role. Allergic diseases are present all over the world, however, with variable frequency. Response to an allergen is generally the same, causing distinct allergic diseases like urticaria, anaphylactic shock, asthma, etc., while the main allergens can be different. It is estimated that 30%-40% of all people have some type or manifestation of allergy. According to our Institute data, in Croatia hospitalization was mostly required for allergic urticaria and allergic asthma, followed by Quincke's edema. Optimal treatment and appropriate healthcare structure are essential for efficient control and prevention of allergic diseases. The main direct elements are as follows: well organized emergency service for anaphylactic and other severe conditions; health education expected from all levels of healthcare system; allergology outpatient services available; and sufficient hospital capacities. An indirect yet important element is optimal drug prescribing and usage practice. Other specific public health measures include: pollen air concentration monitoring by public health institutes; information on particular allergen presence and intensity via public media; and control of potential allergen emission into the environment, especially air. People will, as always, find ways to adapt themselves and cope with allergies, with medical profession helping them by identifying the reasons causing allergic diseases and developing successful measures of treatment, prevention and control. PMID:22359881

Aleraj, Borislav; Tomi?, Branimir

2011-01-01

331

[Epidemiology of thyroid disease].  

PubMed

Thyroid dysfunction induces clinical problems even in the stage of subclinical. Patients with clinical signs suggesting thyroid dysfunction, as well as pregnant women, should be examine their thyroid function despite the high prevalence, 7-10% of adults. Thyroid nodules, most of which should not be treated blindly, are frequently found in the ultrasonographic screening. Therefore, careful consideration regarding the method in dealing thyroid nodules is necessary to avoid unnecessary clinical examinations and treatments. In the screening program of thyroid disease for children and adolescents after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, importance of epidemiological findings is growing to assess the results. PMID:23214052

Shimura, Hiroki

2012-11-01

332

Questions, Not Answers, Stimulate Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful classroom questioning is an art that can be cultivated through practice. While teachers do use questions in classroom interaction with students, these questions tend to be lower order questions which only require recall or comprehension on the part of the students. Research suggests that teachers favor these lower order questions for…

Williams, Bonnie; And Others

333

Classroom Questions. ERIC/AE Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questioning is one of the most popular modes of teaching, but it has the capacity to turn a child off to learning if done incorrectly. This digest provides teachers with information on the types of questions and questioning behaviors that can facilitate the learning process and on the types of questions that are ineffective. Good questions foster…

Brualdi, Amy C.

334

Asking Personal Questions in Mock Job Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies used a job interview role-play situation to examine strategies that interviewers employed when asking personal as compared to neutral questions. They found that personal questions were asked later in the interview than neutral questions and that more hesitation markers, tag questions, and hedges were used with personal questions than…

Ng, Sik Hung

1995-01-01

335

Comparison among antiretroviral adherence questions  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to compare antiretroviral adherence questions. Among 53 methadone maintained HIV-infected drug users, we compared five measures, including two single item measures using qualitative Likert-type responses, one measure of percent adherence, one visual analog scale, and one measure that averaged responses across antiretrovirals. Responses were termed inconsistent if respondents endorsed the highest adherence level on at least one measure but middle levels on others. We examined ceiling effects, concordance, and correlations with VL. Response distributions differed markedly between measures. A ceiling effect was less pronounced for the single-item measures than for the measure that averaged responses for each antiretroviral: the proportion with 100% adherence varied from 22% (single item measure) to 58% (multi-item measure). Overall agreement between measures ranged from fair to good; 49% of participants had inconsistent responses. Though responses correlated with VL, single-item measures had higher correlations. Future studies should compare single-item questions to objective measures.

Berg, Karina M.; Wilson, Ira B.; Li, Xuan; Arnsten, Julia H.

2013-01-01

336

Lexical Chains for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a method for finding topically related words on an extended WordNet. By exploiting the information in the WordNet glosses, the connectivity between the synsets is dramatically increased. Topical relations expressed as lexical chains on extended WordNet improve the performance of a question answering system by increasing the document retrieval recall and by providing the much needed axioms

Dan I. Moldovan; Adrian Novischi

2002-01-01

337

High performance question\\/answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the features of a Question\\/Answering (Q\\/A) system that had unparalleled performance in the TREC-9 evaluations. We explain the accuracy of our system through the unique characteristics of its architecture: (1) usage of a wide-coverage answer type taxonomy; (2) repeated passage retrieval; (3) lexico-semantic feedback loops; (4) extraction of the answers based on machine learning techniques;

Marius A. Pasca; Sandra M. Harabagiu

2001-01-01

338

Difficult questions of relativity theory  

SciTech Connect

The following concepts are discussed: covariance, invariance, the general, special, and kinematic principles of relativity, coordinate systems and frames of reference, and the energy--momentum tensor of the gravitational field. The relationships between the three canonical theories of gravitation are considered. The theory of the affine connection as applied to these questions is presented. Attention is drawn to inconsistency in terminology and the need for an explanatory dictionary for gravitational specialists. A contribution to the compilation of such a dictionary is made.

Chernikov, N.A.

1987-09-01

339

Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis  

PubMed Central

Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis.

Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

2008-01-01

340

Epidemiology of esophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

Esophageal cancer (EsC) is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide because of its extremely aggressive nature and poor survival rate. It ranks sixth among all cancers in mortality. In retrospective studies of EsC, smoking, hot tea drinking, red meat consumption, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett’s esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EsC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EsC. Using population based cancer data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the United States; we generated the most up-to-date stage distribution and 5-year relative survival by stage at diagnosis for 1998-2009. Special note should be given to the fact that esophageal cancer, mainly adenocarcinoma, is one of the very few cancers that is contributing to increasing death rates (20%) among males in the United States. To further explore the mechanism of development of EsC will hopefully decrease the incidence of EsC and improve outcomes.

Zhang, Yuwei

2013-01-01

341

PBS: The Question of God  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS may not have cornered the entire market on thoughtful and intelligent television programming, but they certainly have garnered the lion's share of this type of material. One of the network's most recent programs (and this website which accompanies it), The Question of God, is certainly proof positive of this fact. The four-hour series (based on a popular Harvard course taught by Dr. Armand Nicholi) explores some of the basic questions of humanity, such as "What is happiness?" and "How do we find meaning and purpose in our lives?" The program itself does this by looking through the lens of the eyes of two of the 20th century's most well-known intellectuals, Sigmund Freud, who was a strong critic of religious belief, and C.S. Lewis, who was a strong proponent of "faith based on reason." On the site, visitors can learn about the lives of Freud and Lewis through excerpts from their own writings, read synopses of the programs, and read other perspectives on the question of God from such individuals as Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and D.T. Suzuki. Additionally, visitors can watch clips from the program and listen in on roundtable conversations moderated by Dr. Nicholi.

342

Epidemiology in early childhood education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early childhood educators are keen observers of young children, and as such are important sources of information about the health and safety of young children. This paper discusses the importance to quality early childhood programs of an epidemiological approach to those observations. Surveillance is described using examples from the literature on preschoolers’ unintentional injuries. Basic epidemiological measurements (count, rate, incidence,

Rene R. Gratz

1994-01-01

343

Epidemiology of urinary stone disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the epidemiological risk factors for calcium stone formation is shown in Table. 4. At present, the data would seem to support the hypothesis that calcium stone disease is a multi-factorial disorder for which no single underlying metabolic or environmental factor is uniquely responsible. That is not to say that certain epidemiological factors are unimportant in the genesis

W. G. Robertson

1990-01-01

344

The Era of Genomic Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent revolution in genomics is already having a profound impact on the practice of epidemiology. The purpose of this commentary is to demonstrate how genomics and epidemiology will continue to rely heavily on each other, now and in the future, by illustrating a number of interaction points between these 2 disciplines: (1) the use of genomics to estimate disease

Bryan J. Traynor

2009-01-01

345

The epidemiology of acute encephalitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain matter. Despite being a rare condition, encephalitis is of public health importance worldwide because it has high morbidity and mortality. Yet, many details about its epidemiology have yet to be elucidated. This review attempts to summarise what is known about the epidemiology of the infective causes of encephalitis and is based on a literature

Julia Granerod; Natasha S. Crowcroft

2007-01-01

346

VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. (Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-07-01

347

Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.  

PubMed

Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies. PMID:22436257

Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

2012-01-01

348

Fundamental questions to sun protection  

PubMed Central

Since exposure to sunlight is a main factor in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer and there are associations between malignant melanoma and short-term intense ultraviolet (UV) exposure, particularly burning in childhood, strict protection from UV-radiation is recommended. However, up to 90% of all requisite vitamin D has to be formed within the skin through the action of the sun—a serious problem, for a connection between vitamin D deficiency, demonstrated in epidemiological studies, and various types of cancer and other diseases has been confirmed. A UVB-triggered skin autonomous vitamin D3 synthesis pathway has recently been described, producing the active Vitamin D metabolite calcitriol. This cutaneous vitamin D3 pathway is unique. Keratinocytes and dendritic cells can convert vitamin D to calcitriol. Cutaneous T cells activated in the presence of calcitriol express the chemokine receptor CCR10 attracting them to the chemokine CCL27 that keratinocytes express selectively in the epidermis, and migrate from dermal layers of the skin to the epidermis under UV radiation. Thus, calcitriol has endocrine roles beyond its calciotropic action, including cell growth and cancer prevention. Therefore, strict sun protection procedures to prevent skin cancer may induce the risk of vitamin D deficiency. As there is evidence that the protective effect of less intense solar radiation can outweigh its mutagenic effect, better balanced approaches to sun protection should be sought.

Reichrath, Jorg; Lehmann, Bodo; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Feldmeyer, Laurence; Hofbauer, Gunther FL; Lichtensteiger, Walter

2010-01-01

349

A question of competing paradigms?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some fundamental—i.e., essential—differences between conceptual change theory and a rigorously applied discourse approach to the question of what and how people know. In this rejoinder, I suggest that the differences are paradigmatic because, among others, the units of analysis used and the data constructed are irreconcilably different. I now have abandoned my hopes for a collaborative extension of the two approaches, which I articulated not so long ago. I conclude that as alternative paradigms, conceptual change and discursive approaches will co-exist until one of them dies with its proponents.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2008-07-01

350

Unanswered Questions in Friedreich Ataxia  

PubMed Central

During the past 15 years, the pace of research advancement in Friedreich ataxia has been rapid. The abnormal gene has been discovered and its gene product characterized, leading to the development of new evidence-based therapies. Still, various unsettled issues remain that affect clinical trials. These include the level of frataxin deficiency needed to cause disease, the mechanism by which frataxin-deficient mitochondrial dysfunction leads to symptomatology, and the reason selected cells are most affected in Friedreich ataxia. In this review, we summarize these questions and propose testable hypotheses for their resolution.

Lynch, David R.; Deutsch, Eric C.; Wilson, Robert B.; Tennekoon, Gihan

2013-01-01

351

Quick Questions: Learn About Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyoneâs first name? Whatâs the most common number of letters? Whatâs most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public areaâmuseum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

352

Epidemiology of spondyloarthritis.  

PubMed

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a group of interrelated diseases with common clinical features and a close association with HLA-B27. Reports of incidence and prevalence of diseases vary depending on methodological differences between studies, the case definition used to classify disease, and the prevalence of HLA-B27 in the population studied. Newly proposed criteria for axial SpA and peripheral SpA present a new approach to facilitate classification of the SpA into 2 main subtypes and the criteria allow earlier detection of patents with inflammatory back pain. These criteria were developed for use in a (specialized) clinical setting and not for large epidemiologic studies. PMID:23083748

Stolwijk, Carmen; Boonen, Annelies; van Tubergen, Astrid; Reveille, John D

2012-08-01

353

[Epidemiology of osteoporosis].  

PubMed

Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures. PMID:17580550

Grazio, Simeon

2006-01-01

354

Epidemiology of Behçet disease.  

PubMed

Behçet disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder that is an important cause of morbidity worldwide. BD is most common along the ancient "Silk Road" route in the Far East and Mediterranean basin. The eye is the most commonly involved organ in BD patients.The prototypical form of involvement is a relapsing remitting panuveitis and retinal vasculitis. Less commonly, BD may present in the form of conjunctivitis, conjunctival ulcers, keratitis, episcleritis, scleritis, and extraocular muscle paralysis. Uveitis in BD carries significant implications for the patient, because it is a chronic recurrent disease characterized by explosive attacks of severe inflammation that may cause significant, cumulative damage to the intraocular structures. This review summarizes the epidemiology of systemic and ocular clinical features of BD with particular focus on risk factors, clinical characteristics, complications, and prognosis of BD-associated uveitis. PMID:23030353

Khairallah, Moncef; Accorinti, Massimo; Muccioli, Cristina; Kahloun, Rim; Kempen, John H

2012-10-01

355

[Epidemiology of myasthenia gravis].  

PubMed

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder characterized by weakness and fatigue of voluntary muscles, and presence of autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptor of postsynaptic muscle membrane. A review of the international literature suggests that there is large variety of MG frequency and distribution. An annual incidence rate of MG is thought to be between 0.25 and 20 per 1,000,000 population. The prevalence of MG in world shows even wider variation, i.e. ranging from 50/1,000,000 in Hong Kong to 200/1,000,000 in Virginia (USA). Among population of Belgrade, an average annual incidence rate during the period 1983-1992 was 7.1/1,000,000, and prevalence on December 31, 1992 was 121.5/1,000,000. The mortality rate of MG is very low with value under 1/1,000,000. Epidemiological studies of MG have indicated trend of increasing MG prevalence with relatively stable incidence. This reflects the impact of effective treatment, improved diagnostic methods and prolonged survival. Due to development of intensive care facilities and immunomodulating treatment, the mortality of MG has significantly decreased. The most common age of MG onset is between 20 and 40 years. In this age group, about 60% of patients are women, while sex ratio at older age is 1:1. Stressful life events, viral infections, pregnancy and delivery may precipitate the development of MG. MG is associated with other autoimmune diseases in about 30% of cases. Although the number of patients with MG continues to rise, it is still a rare disease. Further epidemiological research with a view to establish population registries and to estimate economic impact of disease on population as well as quality of life of patients with MG is needed. PMID:17252917

Pekmezovi?, Tatjana; Lavrni?, Dragana; Jarebinski, Mirjana; Apostolski, Slobodan

356

[Epidemiology of lung tumors].  

PubMed

Approximately one out of 500 chest radiographs shows the incidental finding of a solitary pulmonary nodule and almost one half of these pulmonary lesions are caused by a tumor. Unfortunately, only 2% to 5% of all lung tumors are of benign origin, e. g. lipoma, fibroma, hamartoma, and chondroma, and the majority are malignant neoplasms, most commonly primary lung cancer followed by metastases of extrapulmonary primary carcinomas. Thus, a careful diagnostic work up of solitary pulmonary nodules, including histological diagnosis, is mandatory for an adequate management and treatment of patients with pulmonary lesions. Despite all recent improvements of treatment modalities, lung cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among malignant diseases worldwide. The prognosis of affected patients is still very poor and a 5-years survival rate of only 14% makes lung cancer the number one cause of death due to cancer in Switzerland. Active and passive tobacco smoking are by far the best known risk factor for the development of lung cancer, but there are severe other probably less known factors that may increase the individual risk for malignant neoplasms of the lung. These risk factors include e. g. exposure to natural ionic radiation, consisting of terrestrial radiation and indoor radiation caused by radon gas, exposure to respirable dust and Diesel engine emissions, asbestos, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the majority of cases, the latency between exposure and development of cancer is years to decades and the person concerned was occupationally exposed. Therefore, a detailed evaluation of a patient's medical and occupational history is needed. Due to its poor prognosis, prevention and early diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial to improve our patients' outcome. Good knowledge of epidemiology and aetiology of pulmonary tumors is the key to preventive measures and identification of individuals at increased risk for lung cancer. An overview will be provided on the epidemiology of lung tumors and predominantly preventable risk factors for lung cancer. PMID:22753285

Ott, S; Geiser, T

2012-07-01

357

Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.  

PubMed

Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3?billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence. PMID:23210645

Bhate, K; Williams, H C

2013-03-01

358

Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: an update.  

PubMed

What have epidemiologic studies on IBD taught so far? Consistent findings are as follows: A high incidence of both CD and UC in industrialized countries and an increase in these areas of the incidence of CD during the years 1960-80 followed by a plateau phase, and a more stable pattern in UC during the same period have been found. A greater number of mild cases have probably been diagnosed recently. This also helps to explain the differences in severity and survival between community and referral centre groups. The male to female ratio is greater than 1 in UC, and this is the opposite in CD. Mortality of IBD has decreased during the past decades. As young people are especially prone to develop IBD, most of those affected will have their disease for many years. In developing IBD, genetic influences are of importance. However, epidemiologic studies strongly point to possible interactions between genetically determined features and environmental or other factors. Of these exogenic factors smoking is the most consistent, being of negative influence in CD and protective in UC. Diet and oral contraceptives may influence disease expression, and perinatal events such as viral infections may alter adult susceptibility. The question remains open whether UC and CD are one diseases entity. Similarities in the epidemiologic features of UC and CD support the idea of IBD being one disease. Other findings suggest dividing UC and CD into further subgroups: in CD it has been suggested that fibrostenotic, penetrating, and inflammatory behaviour should be considered different disease entities; in UC some groups consider ulcerative proctitis a disease entity on its own, separating it from the proximally extending colitis. In therapeutic trials this approach has proved to be of importance, and it is not inconceivable that in subgroups, with regard to aetiopathogenetic mechanisms, different factors have to be looked for. PMID:8734336

Russel, M G; Stockbrügger, R W

1996-05-01

359

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03

360

The Urban Institute: Five Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the mid-1960s, President Johnson saw the need for independent nonpartisan analysis of the problems facing America's cities and their residents. The President created a blue-ribbon commission of civic leaders who recommended chartering a center to do that work and in 1968, the Urban Institute became that center. Today the Urban Institute analyzes policies, evaluates programs, and informs community development to "improve social, civic, and economic well-being." Working in all 50 states and abroad, the Institute shares its research with policymakers, business leaders, and academics. On this site, visitors can enjoy the Institute's series of interviews entitled "Five Questions For"" which poses five questions to the people behind the Urban Institute's research. Here, experts talk about the nature of their work and offer insights on what they've learned. The collection allows visitors to browse a chronological list of this series of interviews and each interview is easily emailed and is also available in a printer friendly format.

361

Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function of CQA services, question retrieval in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical question-answer pairs that

Xin Cao; Gao Cong; Bin Cui; Christian S. Jensen; Quan Yuan

2012-01-01

362

Classroom questioning: teachers’ perceptions and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moving from a teacher-centered teaching to a student-centered teaching implies a new perspective of the approaches to questioning. Putting the focus on students’ questions rather then on teacher's questions, and valuing students’ questions rather then emphasizing their responses is imperative in supporting learners’ higher levels of thinking. This paper outlines and action research study with 3 secondary biology teachers and

Patrícia Albergaria-Almeida

2010-01-01

363

Accelerating instant question search with database techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed question answering services, like Yahoo Answer and Aardvark, are known to be useful for end users and have also opened up numerous topics ranging in many research fields. In this paper, we propose a user-support tool for composing questions in such services. Our system incrementally recommends similar questions while users are typing their question in a sentence, which gives

Takeharu Eda; Toshio Uchiyama; Katsuji Bessho; Norifumi Katafuchi; Alice Chen; Ryoji Kataoka

2011-01-01

364

37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question of law, referral to the...Copyright Royalty Judges is mandatory. A ânovel question of lawâ is a question...a proceeding where the referral of a novel question to the Register of...

2010-07-01

365

37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question of law, referral to the...Copyright Royalty Judges is mandatory. A ânovel question of lawâ is a question...a proceeding where the referral of a novel question to the Register of...

2009-07-01

366

Using Questioning to Stimulate Mathematical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good questioning techniques have long been regarded as a fundamental tool of effective teachers and research has found that "differences in students' thinking and reasoning could be attributed to the type of questions that teachers asked" (Wood, 2002). Past research shows that 93% of teacher questions were "lower order" knowledge-based questions

Way, Jenni

2008-01-01

367

Minimal Span Weighting Retrieval for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current question answering systems rely on document re- trieval as a means of providing documents which are likely to contain an answer to a user's question. Recent research has shown that taking into account the proximity between question terms is helpful in determining whether a docu- ment contains an answer to a question. In this paper, we propose a novel

Christof Monz

368

Recognizing Digressive Questions During Interactive Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In expository discourse, people sometimes ask ques- tions that digress from the purpose of the discussion. A system that provides interactive explanations and advice must be able to distinguish pertinent questions from questions that digress. It must also be able .to recognize questions that are incoherent. These types of questions require different treatment. Pertinent ques- tions must be answered to

Susan M. Hailer

369

Epidemiologic basis for the asbestos standard.  

PubMed Central

The current standard for occupational exposure to asbestos is 2 fibers/cm3 averaged over an 8-hr day. A NIOSH/OSHA committee has recently concluded that the 2 fiber/cm3 standard is grossly inadequate to protect workers from asbestos-related disease, and that all levels of asbestos exposure studied thus far have demonstrated asbestos-related disease. The committee recommends that a 0.1 fiber/cm3 limit replace the current 2 fiber/cm3 standard on the grounds that this is the lowest level detectable with currently available analytical techniques. Thus a 0.1 fiber/cm3 limit is not based on epidemiological data but on the presumption that any level of exposure is disease producing. This paper addresses the question of whether it would be possible to detect health effects of exposure below the current 2 fiber/cm3 standard. Five studies are reviewed which provide evidence on the strength of the relationship between asbestos fiber exposure and lung cancer. Calculation of sample sizes needed to be 95% certain of detecting the kind of excess probably associated with exposure to 2 fibers/cm3 suggests that epidemiology is not likely to be useful in detecting lung cancer below the current standard. Some outcome measures other than lung cancer or clinical asbestosis will be needed if observations on humans are to be used as evidence for a lowering of the present standard.

Enterline, P E

1983-01-01

370

Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic research but looms as a towering obstacle in environmental epidemiology. One of the most promising developments in improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology is to find exposure biomarkers, which could serve as built-in dosimeters that reflect the biologic footprint left behind by environmental exposures. Beyond exposure assessment, epidemiologists studying environmental exposures face the difficulty of studying small effects that may be distorted by confounding that eludes easy control. This challenge may prompt reliance on new study designs, such as two-stage designs in which exposure and disease information are collected in the first stage, and covariate information is collected on a subset of subjects in state two. While the analytic methods already available for environmental epidemiology are powerful, analytic methods for ecologic studies need further development. This workshop outlines the range of methodologic issues that environmental epidemiologists must address so that their work meets the goals set by scientists and society at large.

Rothman, K J

1993-01-01

371

G Proteins Go Green: A Plant G Protein Signaling FAQ Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses G protein signal transduction in plants and animals. Plants, like animals, use signal transduction pathways based on heterotrimeric guanine nucleotideâÂÂbinding proteins (G proteins) to regulate many aspects of development and cell signaling. Some components of G protein signaling are highly conserved between plants and animals and some are not. This Viewpoint compares key aspects of G protein signal transduction in plants and animals and describes the current knowledge of this system in plants, the questions that still await exploration, and the value of research on plant G proteins to scientists who do not study plants. Pathways in Science's Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment Connections Maps database provide details about the emerging roles of G proteins in several cellular processes of plants.

Sarah Assmann (Pennsylvania State University;Biology Department)

2005-10-07

372

OpenEpi - Epidemiologic Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Andrew G. Dean, Roger A. Mir and Kevin Sullivan of Open Epidemiology.com, contains calculators for use in epidemiological calculations. There are modules that can be used online and open source modules that can be downloaded and altered. Some modules include 2x2 tables, an R by C table, proportions, dose-response and trend calculator, sample size, and generation of random numbers. This is a great resource for those interested in general statistics, social statistics, public health, or more specifically, epidemiology.

Sullivan, Kevin; Dean, Andrew G.; Mir, Roger A.

2009-02-09

373

Big questions about the universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

Stavinschi, Magda

2011-06-01

374

Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.  

PubMed

Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

1991-02-01

375

Evaluation of four maternal smoking questions.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated four questions about maternal smoking during pregnancy for use on birth certificates. METHODS: Question 1 (yes/no format) and Question 2 (trimester-specific design) were tested among 1171 women who delivered at two Kaiser Permanente medical centers in northern California. Responses to Questions 1 and 2 were compared with smoking information provided by participants in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy. Question 3 (multiple choice format) and Question 4 (month- and grouped month-specific design) were tested among 900 women who enrolled in a statewide prenatal screening program and who delivered in 20 hospitals in four Central Valley counties. Responses to Questions 3 and 4 were compared with mid-pregnancy serum cotinine levels. The authors evaluated the four questions in terms of conciseness, response rate, data accuracy, and type of data requested. RESULTS: Questions 1 and 2 were the most concise. Response rates could not be calculated for Questions 1 and 2. Response rates were 86.0% for Question 3 and 74.2% for Question 4. Sensitivity was 47.3% for Question 1, 62.1% for Question 2, 83.8% for Question 3, and 86.7% for Question 4. The types of data requested by Questions 2 and 4 seem to best satisfy the needs of the broad audience of birth certificate users. CONCLUSIONS: No single question was clearly superior. The authors propose a combination of Questions 2 and 4, which asks about average number of cigarettes smoked per day in the three months before pregnancy and in each trimester of pregnancy.

Kharrazi, M; Epstein, D; Hopkins, B; Kreutzer, R; Doebbert, G; Hiatt, R; Swan, S; Eskenazi, B; Pirkle, J L; Bernert, J T

1999-01-01

376

EPISCOPE: computer programs in veterinary epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary epidemiology is a rapidly developing science. However, many veterinarians are unfamiliar with the relevant techniques because veterinary schools have not introduced biostatistics as a core element of their courses or adopted epidemiology as a specific discipline. EPISCOPE, the computer software presented in this paper, covers many epidemiological principles and calculations. It can assist both the teaching of epidemiology and

K. Frankena; J. P. T. M. Noordhuizen; P. Willeberg; PF van Voorthuysen; J. O. Goelema

1990-01-01

377

Worldwide Report: Epidemiology. No. 326.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from around the world on epidemiology. Some titles include: Chittagong Diarrhea, Dysentery; Infant Mortality Rate Fourth Highest in Latin America (Brazil); Reasons for Continue...

1983-01-01

378

EGRP-Supported Epidemiology Consortia  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

379

Georeferenced data in epidemiologic research.  

PubMed

This paper reviews some conceptual and practical issues regarding the application of georeferenced data in epidemiologic research. Starting with the disease mapping tradition of geographical medicine, topics such as types of georeferenced data, implications for data analysis, spatial autocorrelation and main analytical approaches are heuristically discussed, relying on examples from the epidemiologic literature, most of them concerning mapping disease distribution, detection of disease spatial clustering, evaluation of exposure in environmental health investigation and ecological correlation studies. As for concluding remarks, special topics that deserve further development, including the misuses of the concept of space in epidemiologic research, issues related to data quality and confidentiality, the role of epidemiologic designs for spatial research, sensitivity analysis and spatiotemporal modeling, are presented. PMID:18833352

Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro

380

On the epidemiology of influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, \\

John J Cannell; Michael Zasloff; Cedric F Garland; Robert Scragg; Edward Giovannucci

2008-01-01

381

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASES SURVEILLANCE (DEDS)  

EPA Science Inventory

To establish and operate a central epidemiologic resource for the Army; analyze, interpret, and disseminate information regarding the status, trends, and determinants of the health and fitness of America's Army; and identify and evaluate obstacles to medical readiness. The Direct...

382

[Update on stroke epidemiology].  

PubMed

In the past 50 years, there have been dramatic changes in the epidemiological profiles of stroke in Japan. Although stroke used to be a leading cause of death between 1950s and 1970s, thereafter stroke mortality rate has declined mainly due to the decrease in the mortality of cerebral hemorrhage and stroke has dropped to the fourth leading cause of death following cancer, heart disease, and pneumonia in 2011. The Akita Stroke Onset Registry (ASOR), which was set up in 1983 to collect data on all stroke events in Akita prefecture, revealed a substantial increase in the incidence of first ever strokes, suggesting a marked increase in the incidence of cerebral infarction, although the age-standardized incidence did not change significantly. These trends were explained by the rapid aging of the population in Akita. Stroke recurrence rates were 22.8%, 17.7%, and 7.0% for cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. When the index stroke event was cerebral infarction, 84.2% of the recurrence was also cerebral infarction, while 13.6% experienced cerebral hemorrhage. The yearly recurrence rate was highest in the first year following the index stroke event and gradually decreased afterwards. The prevalence of dementia was only 3% in those without a history of stroke events, whereas it was 27% in the stroke survivors in the cohort data. These findings suggest a participation of cerebrovascular lesions in the development and evolution of dementia, especially in the elderly population. PMID:23832988

Nagata, Ken; Suzuki, Kazuo

2013-07-01

383

Epidemiology of esophageal atresia.  

PubMed

Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare congenital malformation consisting of a lack of continuity between the upper and lower esophageal pouches, frequently associated with tracheoesophageal fistula. The prevalence of such rare abnormalities is established by global birth surveillance programs over the world. EUROCAT is a European program covering 1.7 million births since its creation. The prevalence of EA in Europe seems stable over decades. The National Birth Defects Prevention Network in the USA also shows a stable prevalence with a wide range between states or regions. In France, with the implementation of the national rare diseases plan, a reference center for congenital abnormalities of the esophagus was created in 2006 and a national registry for EA began patient inclusion in 2008. This has resulted in the establishment of the national live birth prevalence for EA, prenatal diagnosis rates, and clinical characteristics of EA patients, early survival, and early morbidity. Prevalence rates seem stable all over the world since many decades. Continuous surveillance of congenital abnormalities and specific registries are useful for epidemiologic data but also for public health authorities for helping families of rare diseases patients. PMID:23679022

Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Salleron, J; Gottrand, F

384

Epidemiology of the leishmaniases.  

PubMed

The leishmaniases are a group of zoonotic infections caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. These infections produce a variety of different clinical diseases depending on the virulence or tropism of the parasite and differential host immune responses. Newly recognized clinical presentations, such as viscerotropic leishmaniasis in American military veterans of Operation Desert Storm, continue to challenge clinicians. Epidemics of classic visceral leishmaniasis leading to thousands of deaths are ongoing in Brazil, India, and the Sudan. Epidemics of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis are ongoing in many areas of South America, North Africa, and Central Asia. A marked increase in cases is often associated with an influx of nonimmune populations into newly cleared agricultural populations into newly cleared agricultural areas or population expansion into previously unsettled areas surrounding cities. The emergence of leishmaniasis as an important opportunistic infection in AIDS patients portends an ominous future as the HIV pandemic sweeps into the hyperendemic areas of South America, Africa, and the Indian subcontinent. Parenteral transmission via needle sharing in HIV coinfected individuals in Spain is an epidemiologically significant new mode of transmission. Finally, recent work has elucidated an enzootic transmission cycle involving L. mexicana in Texas. PMID:7554500

Magill, A J

1995-07-01

385

Epidemiology of the vasculitides.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of systemic vasculitis is becoming increasingly well understood. Giant cell arteritis is the commonest type of vasculitis with an incidence that is highest in populations of Scandinavian descent, where the annual incidence reaches 15 to 35/100,000 aged > 50 years. Takayasu's arteritis has a relatively uniform global incidence of one to two/million. The ANCA-associated vasculitides have an overall incidence of 20/million with a peak age of onset at 65 to 74 years. Wegener's granulomatosis appears to be more common in northern Europe compared with microscopic polyangiitis, which seems to be more common in southern Europe. Henoch-Schönlein purpura is the commonest form of childhood vasculitis in the West with an incidence of 20/100,000 aged < 17 years, but it is much rarer in adults (13/million). Kawasaki disease is commonest in the childhood population of southeast Asia; in Japan the incidence is 500/million aged < 5 years, 50% of cases occur in those aged < 2 years. Behçet's disease occurs along the Silk Road and in the Mediterranean littoral with a prevalence in Turkey of 380/100,000. The various types of vasculitis have very different geographical and ethnic distributions, which provide clues to the pathogenesis. PMID:16088491

Watts, Richard A; Scott, David G I

2004-10-01

386

Community Epidemiology of Risk and Adolescent Substance Use: Practical Questions for Enhancing Prevention  

PubMed Central

To promote an effective approach to prevention, the community diagnosis model helps communities systematically assess and prioritize risk factors to guide the selection of preventive interventions. This increasingly widely used model relies primarily on individual-level research that links risk and protective factors to substance use outcomes. I discuss common assumptions in the translation of such research concerning the definition of risk factor elevation; the equivalence, independence, and stability of relations between risk factors and problem behaviors; and community differences in risk factors and risk factor–problem behavior relations. Exploring these assumptions could improve understanding of the relations of risk factors and substance use within and across communities and enhance the efficacy of the community diagnosis model. This approach can also be applied to other areas of public health where individual and community levels of risk and outcomes intersect.

Feinberg, Mark E.

2013-01-01

387

Epidemiology of pancreas cancer (1988)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This article reviews the epidemiology of cancer of the pancreas, both descriptive and analytical, at all times cognizant of\\u000a the problems of misdiagnosis, particularly underdiagnosis, of this lethal disease that continue to hinder epidemiological\\u000a studies. Pancreas cancer is consistently reported to occur more frequently in men than in women, in blacks than in whites,\\u000a and in urban rather than rural

P. Boyle; C.-C Hsieh; P. Maisonneuve; C. La Vecchia; G. J. Macfarlane; A. M. Walker; D. Trichopoulos

1989-01-01

388

Ionizing radiation biomarkers for potential use in epidemiological studies.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiation is a known human carcinogen that can induce a variety of biological effects depending on the physical nature, duration, doses and dose-rates of exposure. However, the magnitude of health risks at low doses and dose-rates (below 100mSv and/or 0.1mSvmin(-1)) remains controversial due to a lack of direct human evidence. It is anticipated that significant insights will emerge from the integration of epidemiological and biological research, made possible by molecular epidemiology studies incorporating biomarkers and bioassays. A number of these have been used to investigate exposure, effects and susceptibility to ionizing radiation, albeit often at higher doses and dose rates, with each reflecting time-limited cellular or physiological alterations. This review summarises the multidisciplinary work undertaken in the framework of the European project DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) to identify the most appropriate biomarkers for use in population studies. In addition to logistical and ethical considerations for conducting large-scale epidemiological studies, we discuss the relevance of their use for assessing the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure at the cellular and physiological level. We also propose a temporal classification of biomarkers that may be relevant for molecular epidemiology studies which need to take into account the time elapsed since exposure. Finally, the integration of biology with epidemiology requires careful planning and enhanced discussions between the epidemiology, biology and dosimetry communities in order to determine the most important questions to be addressed in light of pragmatic considerations including the appropriate population to be investigated (occupationally, environmentally or medically exposed), and study design. The consideration of the logistics of biological sample collection, processing and storing and the choice of biomarker or bioassay, as well as awareness of potential confounding factors, are also essential. PMID:22677531

Pernot, Eileen; Hall, Janet; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi; Blanchardon, Eric; Bouffler, Simon; El Saghire, Houssein; Gomolka, Maria; Guertler, Anne; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Jeggo, Penny; Kreuzer, Michaela; Laurier, Dominique; Lindholm, Carita; Mkacher, Radhia; Quintens, Roel; Rothkamm, Kai; Sabatier, Laure; Tapio, Soile; de Vathaire, Florent; Cardis, Elisabeth

2012-06-04

389

Making Sense of Sexual Orientation Measures: Findings from a Cognitive Processing Study with Adolescents on Health Survey Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To carry out a study using cognitive processing interview methods to explore ways in which adolescents understand sexual orientation questions currently used on epidemiologic surveys.Methods: In-depth, individual interviews were conducted to probe cognitive processes involved in answering four self-report survey questions assessing sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sex of sexual partners. A semi-structured interview guide was used to explore

S. Bryn Austin; Kerith J. Conron; Aarti Patel; Naomi Freedner

2007-01-01

390

Questions on Mediterranean Spotted Fever a Century after Its Discovery  

PubMed Central

Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) was first described in 1910. Twenty years later, it was recognized as a rickettsial disease transmitted by the brown dog tick. In contrast to Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), MSF was thought to be a benign disease; however, the first severe case that resulted in death was reported in France in the 1980s. We have noted important changes in the epidemiology of MSF in the last 10 years, with emergence and reemergence of MSF in several countries. Advanced molecular tools have allowed Rickettsia conorii conorii to be classified as a subspecies of R. conorii. New clinical features, such as multiple eschars, have been recently reported. Moreover, MSF has become more severe than RMSF; the mortality rate was as high as 32% in Portugal in 1997. Whether Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the only vector and reservoir for R. conorii conorii is a question not yet answered.

Rovery, Clarisse; Brouqui, Philippe

2008-01-01

391

Brief questions highlight the need for melanoma information campaigns.  

PubMed

Melanoma awareness was briefly assessed at walk/runs held simultaneously in Philadelphia PA, Phoenix AZ, and Seattle WA. Of the participants, 75 % (1521) answered short questions during event registration. Among 1,036 respondents aged 14 years and older, 66 % reported knowing melanoma warning signs. Significantly more respondents with melanoma family history reported having a physician-administered skin exam and knowing warning signs. More than one third of walk/run participants reported no definitive melanoma warning sign knowledge. Self-reported melanoma awareness and detection indices were lowest among Phoenix participants; the event city with the greatest annual sun exposure. Educational efforts for melanoma awareness are critically needed. Selected results of this project were presented in a poster forum at the 2006 Congress for Epidemiology meeting held in Seattle, WA (June 2006). PMID:23996205

Foote, Janet A; Poole, Catherine M

2013-12-01

392

An Edge Question: What Now ?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature from the nonprofit Edge Foundation, Inc. (reviewed previously in the July 25, 2000 Scout Report for Social Sciences & Humanities) is an impressive collection of thoughtful words in response to the recent terrorist attacks and ensuing war. The Edge postulated the question, "What now?" to its members with the idea that, as editor John Brockman explains, "within the community is invaluable expertise in many pertinent areas, not to mention the intelligence that the 'Edgies' can bring to the subjects." What separates this forum from many others dealing with recent issues of terrorism is that Brockman asks for "'hard-edge' comments, derived from empirical results or experience specific to the expertise of the contributors," rather than emotional or purely rhetorical responses. Here are a few of the pieces -- some essay length, others only a few sentences -- found here: psychiatrist Richard Rabkin takes a "strategic psychotherapy" approach to dealing with terrorism, science writer and television commentator Margaret Wertheim and archaeologist Timothy Taylor both touch on the corruption of science by weapons development as well as the intermingling of science and religion, and evolutionary scholar Richard Dawkins brings up the tendency to "bend over backwards to see the other point of view and blame ourselves for everything." Take time to peruse this collection of 44,000 words from 55 contributors and you'll be glad you did.

2001-01-01

393

Answering Complex, List and Context Questions with LCC's Question-Answering Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the architecture of the Question-Answering Server (QAS) developed at the Language Computer Corporation (LCC) and used in the TREC-10 evaluations. LCC's QAS extracts answers for (a) factual questions of variable degree of difficulty; (b) questions that expect lists of answers; and (c) questions posed in the context of previous questions and answers. One of the major novelties

Sanda M. Harabagiu; Dan I. Moldovan; Marius Pasca; Mihai Surdeanu; Rada Mihalcea; Roxana Girju; Vasile Rus; V. Finley Lacatusu; Paul Morarescu; Razvan C. Bunescu

2001-01-01

394

Lawyers' Questioning: The Effect of Confusing Questions on Witness Confidence and Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect on witness confidence and accuracy of confusing questions often used by attorneys in court. Participants viewed a videotaped film and were individually questioned about the incident 1 week later. Half the participants were asked questions using six categories of confusing questions (negatives, double negatives, leading, multiple questions, complex syntax, and complex vocabulary); the remaining

Mark R. Kebbell; Shane D. Johnson

2000-01-01

395

The Effect of Distributed Questioning with Varied Examples on Exam Performance on Inference Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the distributed presentation of different versions of a question would produce better performance on a new version of the question than distributed presentation of the same version of the question. A total of 48 four question sets of five alternative multiple-choice questions were presented…

Glass, Arnold Lewis

2009-01-01

396

Questions in Classrooms; Questions in the Lecture. Teaching and Learning at Indiana University Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questioning in the college classroom remains an undeveloped, unrefined skill even though there is abundant evidence that classroom questioning can be improved. Research on classroom questioning techniques at the pre-college level shows that teachers ask questions that are predominantly literal in nature. Questions that require "higher order"…

Gliessman, David; And Others

397

Gallery Walk Questions about Human Dimensions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the human dimensions of geologic issues. The questions are organized ...

398

Gallery Walk Questions about the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the solar system. The questions are organized according to the ...

399

Gallery Walk Questions on Atmospheric Moisture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about Atmospheric Mosture. The questions are organized according to the ...

400

Editor's Note: No Dumb Questions, But. . .  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigable questions are important elements of lessons that promote inquiry and help students construct meaning. Good questions help students make links between what they know, what they want to find out, what they observe, and how their observations fi

Froschauer, Linda

2010-12-01

401

Gallery Walk Questions on Earth's Radiation Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the Earth's Radiation Balance. The questions are organized ...

402

Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Prospective Massage Therapist Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist Ensure your massage therapy session will benefit ... questions: Are you a member of the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)? AMTA members commit to the ...

403

Global Perspectives in Education: Questions People Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses 20 questions commonly asked when educators express a need for a global approach in education. Questions focus on defining the term, relating it to the schools, its place in the curriculum, and implementation procedures. (KC)|

King, David C.

1980-01-01

404

Gallery Walk Questions about the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the ocean. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

405

Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... and Specimen Submission Frequently Asked Questions For Clinicians Antifungal Prophylaxis Lumbar Puncture Patient Guidance Frequently Asked Questions ... arms up to their elbows with an antiseptic agent just before the surgery. Clean their hands with ...

406

Are Viruses Alive: Sample Socratic Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This example Socratic questioning page provides an outline for leading a classroom discussion regarding whether or not viruses are alive. Sample questions, resources for background information, and tips and assessment information are provided.

By Monica Bruckner and George Rice, Montana State University, Bozeman. Based on MLER website:Are Viruses Alive? by George Rice (mbruckner@montana.edu and grice@montana.edu).

407

Gallery Walk Questions on Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about weather and climate. The questions are organized according to the ...

408

Home Care Services: Questions to Ask  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Home care services: Questions to ask By Mayo Clinic staff ... share your e-mail address Sign up Home care services: Questions to ask Home care services range ...

409

Epidemiology of Chronic Pain in Denmark and Sweden  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Estimates on the epidemiology of chronic pain vary widely throughout Europe. It is unclear whether this variation reflects true differences between populations or methodological factors. Information on the epidemiology of chronic pain can support decision makers in allocating adequate health care resources. Methods. In order to obtain epidemiological data on chronic pain in Denmark and Sweden, we conducted a literature review of epidemiological data primarily on chronic noncancer pain, prioritising studies of highest quality, recency, and validity by conducting a systematic search for relevant studies. Following quality assessment, data were summarised and assigned to the research questions. Results. The prevalence of moderate to severe noncancer pain was estimated at 16% in Denmark and 18% in Sweden. Chronic pain impacts negatively on perceived health status, quality of life and is associated with increased cost. Despite using pain medications, a large proportion of chronic pain sufferers have inadequate pain control. There was a lack of high-quality and low-bias studies with clear inclusion criteria. Conclusions. In both Denmark and Sweden, chronic pain is a common health problem which is potentially undertreated and warrants attention of health care workers, policy makers and researchers. Future research should utilise clear reporting guidelines to assist decision and policy makers, in this important area.

Harker, Julie; Reid, Kim J.; Bekkering, Geertruida E.; Kellen, Eliane; Bala, Malgorzata M.; Riemsma, Rob; Worthy, Gill; Misso, Kate; Kleijnen, Jos

2012-01-01

410

Multilingual Question\\/Answering: the DIOGENE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the DIOGENE question\\/answering system developed at ITC- Irst. The system is based on a rather standard architecture which includes three components for question processing, search and answer extraction. Linguistic processing strongly relies on MULTIWORDNET, an extended version of the English WORDNET. The system has been designed to address two promising directions: multilingual question\\/answering and question\\/answering on the

Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Roberto Prevete; Hristo Tanev

2001-01-01

411

COGEX: A Logic Prover for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent TREC results have demonstrated the need for deeper text understanding methods. This paper introduces the idea of automated reasoning applied to question answering and shows the feasibility of integrating a logic prover into a Question Answering system. The approach is to transform questions and answer passages into logic representations. World knowledge axioms as well as linguistic axioms are supplied

Dan I. Moldovan; Christine Clark; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Steven J. Maiorano

2003-01-01

412

Children's Production and Comprehension of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to discover possible patterns in question acquisition. For the production study, questions were collected from 22 children aged two to eleven. In the comprehension study, 100 children, aged three to five, were tested. The test controlled syntax and vocabulary and varied specific "wh-" question-words. (Author/RM)

Tyack, Dorothy; Ingram, David

1977-01-01

413

The outcomes question in teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with the premise that it is possible to trace teacher education development and reform in terms of the major questions that have driven the field and the sometimes competing ways these questions have been constructed, debated, and enacted in research, policy, and practice. The author argues that currently “the outcomes question” is driving teacher education. Generally, the

Marilyn Cochran-Smith

2001-01-01

414

The Physics Question of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The question of the week web site hosts questions about physics related to experiments and demonstrations. The answer to each question is posted at the end of the week along with a short video showing the experiment and a link to a page with more information about a related demonstration.

Berg, Richard E.

2007-11-10

415

Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)|

Goodwin, Alan

2003-01-01

416

Question Answering in the Context of Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a model of question answering (called QUEST) is tested in the context of short stories. College students first read a story and then judged the quality of answers to questions about episodes in the story. The model could account for the goodness-of-answer judgments and decision latencies of 5 categories of questions: why, how, when, enablement, and consequence.

Arthur C. Graesser; Kathy L. Lang; Richard M. Roberts

1991-01-01

417

Questioning and Teaching. A Manual of Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questions and questioning play a major role in both formal and informal educative processes. They are the means by which a child expresses the desire to understand the world outside and they subsequently become the means by which a teacher assesses whether or not a child has satisfactorily assimilated something. This book considers questions from…

Dillon, J. T.

418

Responding to Questions to Continue Classroom Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the importance of questioning techniques in the instruction of learning disabled students. Factors affecting students' responses to questions are the strengths and weaknesses of the learner and the type and difficulty of the question asked. A systematic method of providing or following up on students answers, termed…

Bachor, Dan G.

419

Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

2009-01-01

420

Questions Analysis of Confucius Analects Knowledge System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the method based on keywords to analyze the questions for Confucius Analects Knowledge System. After analyzing the questions we can find the answers from the knowledge database of Confucius Analects. Confucius Analects Knowledge System is regard as a specific domain Question-Answer system. Taking a reference to the chapters' structure of Confucius Analects and the literature

Song Liu; F. Ren; Ye Yang; S. Kuroiwa

2007-01-01

421

What Can We Learn from Students' Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)|

Commeyras, Michelle

1995-01-01

422

Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

Stafford, Tish

2009-01-01

423

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

424

Questioning as Thinking: A Metacognitive Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present Questioning as Thinking (QAT), a metacognitive framework that helps teachers and students focus on performance. QAT combines components of three widely-used strategies: Think-Alouds, Question Answer Relationships (QAR), and Self-Questioning. Together, these three strategies give students and teachers the…

Wilson, Nance S.; Smetana, Linda

2009-01-01

425

Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.  

PubMed

Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

2011-01-01

426

EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

427

Questions Good Teachers of Reading Should Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good teachers of reading should ask questions which link the research knowledge base in reading, effective teaching, and learning with proficient decision-making skills. These questions should focus on the content to be taught, the behaviors of the student, and the behaviors of the teacher. Content questions address central concepts, prior…

Hull, Starr; Shaw-Baker, Margaret

428

Questioning and Teaching. A Manual of Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions and questioning play a major role in both formal and informal educative processes. They are the means by which a child expresses the desire to understand the world outside and they subsequently become the means by which a teacher assesses whether or not a child has satisfactorily assimilated something. This book considers questions from…

Dillon, J. T.

429

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

430

Reference Services: A Model of Question Handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a conceptual framework and a vocabulary which can be used to discuss strategies and choices involved in question handling. A model of question handling is presented which provides for: (1) developing strategies for handling questions; (2) evaluating the appropriateness of the strategy; and (3) relating levels of service to resource requirements. The model can be used both

Barbara M. Robinson

1989-01-01

431

Boston University Physics Applets: Test Charge Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item contains two in-class questions relating to test charge. Given a uniform electric field, students decide which simulation shows a test charge. In the related question, students use the positive test charge to determine the signs of two simulated charges. This item is part of a larger collection of physics questions and simulations developed by the Boston University Physics Department.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-01

432

Leading questions and the eyewitness report*1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 490 subjects, in four experiments, saw films of complex, fast-moving events, such as automobile accidents or classroom disruptions. The purpose of these experiments was to investi- gate how the wording of questions asked immediately after an event may influence responses to questions asked considerably later. It is shown that when the initial question contains either true presuppositions

Elizabeth F. Loftus

1975-01-01

433

Effects of Comparison Question Type and Between Test Stimulation on the Validity of Comparison Question Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the validity of two approaches to the comparison question test. Probable-lie and directed-lie comparison questions were evaluated in a mock crime experiment with 250 participants. Review of questions between charts was also manipulated...

C. R. Honts R. Reavy

2009-01-01

434

Validation Studies of the Two Question and Three Question Physical Activity Assessment  

Cancer.gov

Validation Studies of the Two Question and Three Question Physical Activity Assessment Smith et al. 2005 See reference #106 Methods (2Q) and three-question (3Q) assessments compared to Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ), and 7-day CSA accelerometer

435

EGRP News Flash - November 30, 2012  

Cancer.gov

You do not need to have a Twitter account to view the NCI Epidemiology news, but you will need to create an account in order to interact with us on Twitter. More information about using Twitter can be found in the Twitter.com frequently asked questions (FAQ).

436

An Immuno-epidemiological Model of Paratuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this article is to introduce an immuno-epidemiological model of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease). To develop the immuno-epidemiological model, we first develop an immunological model and an epidemiological model. Then, we link the two models through time-since-infection structure and parameters of the epidemiological model. We use the nested approach to compose the immuno-epidemiological model. Our immunological model captures the switch between the T-cell immune response and the antibody response in Johne's disease. The epidemiological model is a time-since-infection model and captures the variability of transmission rate and the vertical transmission of the disease. We compute the immune-response-dependent epidemiological reproduction number. Our immuno-epidemiological model can be used for investigation of the impact of the immune response on the epidemiology of Johne's disease.

Martcheva, M.

2011-11-01

437

Epidemiology of urolithiasis.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of urolithiasis differs according to geographical area and historical period: changing socio-economic conditions have generated changes in the incidence and type of lithiasis in terms of both the site and the physical-chemical composition of the calculi. Reno-ureteral calculosis typical of adult age and featuring mainly calcium oxalate and phosphate is currently more frequent in economically developed countries, where the prevalence rate hovers between 4% and 20% and the annual incidence of hospitalization for calculosis ranges from 0.03 to 0.1%. On the contrary "primitive" vesical calculosis is fairly widespread in Asia, with calculi composed of ammonium urate and calcium oxalate. Vesical calculosis, due to malnutrition in the very early years of life, is currently frequent in huge areas of Turkey, Iran, India, China, Indochina and Indonesia, although the incidence is decreasing in proportion as social conditions gradually improve. At the beginning of the 20th century primitive vesical calculosis was relatively frequent in Europe also, but in the course of the last 100 years, there has been a gradual decrease in its incidence, while the reno-ureteral calculosis has become more common. This trend definited as "stone wave" has been explained in terms of changing social conditions and the consequent changes in eating habits. In Europe, Northern America, Australia, Japan, and, more recently, Saudi Arabia affluence has spread to all social classes, and with it the tendency to eat "rich" food in large quantities. Calcium oxalate and/or phosphate stones account for almost 70% of all renal stones observed in economically developed countries. The prevalence of this type of stones varies considerably on account of environmental factors, especially dietary intake and lifestyle, while radiolucent and infection stones seem to be less influenced by environmental conditions. In the seventies the pathogenetic role for calcium oxalate stones of a diet rich in proteins, refined carbohydrate and sodium has become evident, while the effect of alimentary calcium and oxalate is still debated. However, the concurrence of a genetic predisposition seem to be crucial for calcium stone formation. In fact the importance of family history for idiopathic calcium stone disease is clearly demonstrated, although little is known about the metabolic alterations underlying this predisposition and their genetic transmission mechanisms. PMID:8936716

Trinchieri, A

1996-09-01

438

Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiology is struggling increasingly with problems with correlated exposures and small relative risks. As a consequence, some scholars have strongly emphasized molecular epidemiology, whereas others have argued for the importance of the population context and the reintegration of epidemiology into public health. Environmental epidemiology has several unique features that make these debates especially pertinent to it. The very large number of environmental exposures require prioritization, and the relative risks are usually very low. Furthermore, many environmental exposures can be addressed only by comparing populations rather than individuals, and the disruption of both local and global ecosystems requires us to develop new methods of study design. The population context is also very important to consider in risk management decisions because of the involuntary nature of most environmental exposures and the diversity of possible outcomes, both health- and nonhealth-related. Studies at the individual or molecular level tend to focus the research hypotheses and subsequent interventions at that level, even when research and interventions at other levels may be more appropriate. Thus, only by starting from the population and ecosystem levels can we ensure that these are given appropriate consideration. Although better research is needed at all levels, it is crucially important to choose the most appropriate level, or levels, of research for a particular problem. Only by conducting research at all these levels and by developing further methods to combine evidence from these different levels can we hope to address the challenges facing environmental epidemiology today.

Pekkanen, J; Pearce, N

2001-01-01

439

Scabies  

MedlinePLUS

... Epidemiology & Risk Factors Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health ...

440

Pubic "Crab" Lice  

MedlinePLUS

... Epidemiology & Risk Factors Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

441

Head Lice  

MedlinePLUS

... Epidemiology & Risk Factors Who gets it and how... Biology Stages of parasite development... Disease Signs and symptoms ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

442

Intraurban variations of PM 10 air pollution in Christchurch, New Zealand: Implications for epidemiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies relating air pollution to health effects often utilise one or few central monitoring sites for estimating wider population exposures to outdoor particulate air pollution. These studies often assume that highly correlated particulate concentrations between intraurban sites equate to a uniform concentration field. Several recent studies have questioned the universal validity of this assumption, noting that in some cities,

J. Gaines Wilson; Simon Kingham; Andrew P. Sturman

2006-01-01

443

Knox Meets Cox: Adapting Epidemiological Space-Time Statistics to Demographic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important questions and theories in demography focus on changes over time, and on how those changes differ over geographic and social space. Space-time analysis has always been important in studying fertility transitions, for example. However, demographers have seldom used formal statistical methods to describe and analyze time series of maps. One formal method, used widely in epidemiology, criminology, and

Joseph E. Potter

2010-01-01

444

Technology Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The debate regarding the health effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. In the present review, the authors attempt to address the following question: is there epidemiologic evidence for an association between long-term cell phone usage and the risk of developing a brain tumor? Included with

Vini G. Khurana; Charles Teo; Michael Kundi; Lennart Hardell; Michael Carlberg

2009-01-01

445

Variational causal claims in epidemiology.  

PubMed

This article examines definitions of cause in the epidemiological literature. Those definitions describe causes as factors that make a difference to the distribution of disease or to individual health status. In philosophical terms, they are "difference-makers." I argue that those definitions are underpinned by an epistemology and a methodology that hinge upon the notion of variation, contra the dominant Humean paradigm according to which we infer causality from regularity. Furthermore, despite the fact that causes are defined in terms of difference-making, this doesn't fix the causal metaphysics but rather reflects the "variational" epistemology and methodology of epidemiology. I suggest that causality in epidemiology ought to be interpreted according to Williamson's epistemic theory. In this approach, causal attribution depends on the available evidence and on the methods used. In turn, evidence to establish causal claims requires both difference-making and mechanistic considerations. PMID:19855123

Russo, Federica

2009-01-01

446

Global epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Despite having the highest prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, there is a dearth of data describing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) incidence and prevalence in the general population. The lack of basic epidemiological data is an obstacle to addressing the epidemic. Once considered a nuisance infection, the morbidities associated with TV have been increasingly recognised over the past decade, highlighting the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. Recent developments in TV diagnostics and molecular biology have improved our understanding of TV epidemiology. Improved characterisation of the natural history of TV infection has allowed us to hypothesise possible explanations for observed variations in TV prevalence with age. Direct and indirect hormonal effects on the female genital tract provide a likely explanation for the greater burden of persistent TV infection among women compared with men. Further characterisation of the global epidemiology of TV could enhance our ability to respond to the TV epidemic. PMID:23744960

Poole, Danielle N; McClelland, R Scott

2013-06-06

447

150 Student Questions on Solar Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

2010-12-01

448

Radiation epidemiology: a perspective on Fukushima.  

PubMed

For nearly 100 years, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to ionising radiation have provided quantitative information on health risks. High dose deterministic (tissue reaction) effects result when sufficient numbers of functioning cells are killed, such as in bone marrow depression that can lead to death. Lower dose stochastic effects are probabilistic in nature and include an increased risk of cancer later in life and heritable genetic defects, although genetic conditions in the children of irradiated parents have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Radiation studies are of diverse populations and include not only the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but also patients treated with radiation for malignant and non-malignant disease; patients exposed for diagnostic purposes; persons with intakes of radionuclides; workers occupationally exposed; and communities exposed to environmental and accidentally released sources of radiation. Much is known about radiation and its risks. The major unanswered question in radiation epidemiology, however, is not whether radiation causes cancer, but what the level of risk is following low dose (<100 mSv) or low dose rate exposures. Paracelsus is credited with first articulating that the 'poison is in the dose', which for radiation epidemiology translates as 'the lower the dose, the lower the risk' and, an important corollary, the lower the dose, the greater the difficulty in detecting any increase in the number of cancers possibly attributable to radiation. In contrast to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Fukushima reactor accident has to date resulted in no deterministic effects and no worker deaths. Estimates to date of population doses suggest very low uptakes of radioactive iodine which was a major determinant of the epidemic of thyroid cancer following childhood exposures around Chernobyl. The estimates to date of population doses are also much lower (and the distribution much narrower) than the doses for which cancer excesses have been detected among atomic bomb survivors after 60 years of follow-up. Studies of populations exposed to low doses are also limited in their ability to account for important lifestyle factors, such as cigarette smoking and medical x-ray exposures, which could distort findings. Studies of the Fukushima population should be and are being considered for reassurance and health care reasons. Apart from as regards the extreme psychological stress caused by the horrific loss of life following the tsunami and the large-scale evacuation from homes and villages, such studies have limited to no chance of providing information on possible health risks following low dose exposures received gradually over time--the estimated doses (to date) are just too small. PMID:22395193

Boice, John D

2012-03-06

449

[Epidemiology of limb fractures].  

PubMed

To analyze age- and sex-specific frequencies of peripheral fractures, we used data from the third MONICA-Augsburg Survey (1994/95). The study comprises 2404 male and 2450 female participants (age 25 to 74 years) who were questioned regarding fracture history. We investigated fracture prevalence, age-specific incidence rates, and the circumstances under which the fractures occurred. The age-standardized, cumulative fracture prevalence among men (m) 25 to 74 years of age was 45% and among women (w) of the same age 31%. Fracture prevalence among women was more than 10% lower than among men in the younger age groups (age 25 to 64 years), but after an significant increase in the 65 to 74-year-olds the fracture prevalence corresponded to that of men (m: 42%, w: 40%). A peak of incidence rates was found among men at age 15-24 (overall incidence rate: 2017 fractures/100,000 person-years) and at age 45-54 (overall incidence rate: 1640 fractures/100,000 PY), respectively, and among women at age 65-74 (overall incidence rate: 3214 fractures/100,000 PY). The prevalence of self-reported osteoporosis (age 25 to 74 years) was higher in women (7%) than in men (1%). Falls caused 43% (w: 59%, m: 33%) of all fractures, external violence 40% (m: 47%, w: 29%), and sports activities 15% (m: 18%, w: 10%). Further investigation of risk factors related to fractures can contribute to the development of specific preventive measures in that field. In the future, the prevention and efficient treatment of an existing or an often undiagnosed osteoporosis and also the prevention of falls in elderly persons should be an important public health concern. PMID:11963475

Meisinger, C; Wildner, M; Stieber, J; Heier, M; Sangha, O; Döring, A

2002-01-01

450

Personal knowledge questions for fallback authentication: security questions in the era of Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Security questions (or challenge questions) are commonly used to authenticate users who,have lost their passwords. We examined the password retrieval mechanisms for a num- ber of personal banking websites, and found that many of them rely in part on security questions with serious usability and security weaknesses. We discuss patterns in the secu- rity questions we observed. We argue

Ariel Rabkin

2008-01-01

451

How to... Ask the Right Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions, questions, questions! They are a large part of a teacher's stock-in-trade. We use questions to help students review, to check on comprehension, to stimulate critical thinking, to encourage creativity, to emphasize a point, to control classroom activities, reduce disruptive behavior, to help determine grades, to encourage discussion, to discourage inattentiveness, and for other reasons and purposes. Questioning style and content varies from teacher to teacher, student group to student group, and situation to situation. The aim of this "How to�" booklet is to help you focus on a common teaching activity--the asking of questions. To illustrate some of the classifications and concepts discussed, excerpts from a videotaped lesson to third graders on magnetism appears at the end of this booklet.

Blosser, Patricia E.

2000-01-01

452

Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Carcinoma In Situ.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a molecular epidemiologic case-control study of breast carcinoma in situ in Los Angeles County designed to address issues related to the cause and progression of breast CIS by determining epidemiologic risk factors, characterizing selected molecul...

M. F. Press

1997-01-01

453

Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Carcinoma In Situ.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a molecular epidemiologic case-control study of breast carcinoma in situ in Los Angeles County designed to address issues related to the cause and progression of breast CIS by determining epidemiologic risk factors, characterizing selected molecul...

M. Press

1999-01-01

454

Epidemiologic research program: Selected bibliography. Third edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography is a current listing of scientific reports from epidemiologic and related activities sponsored by the Department of Energy. The Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance now is the departmental focal point for these activities and a...

1993-01-01

455

Molecular Epidemiology of Breast Carcinoma in Situ.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a molecular epidemiologic case-control study of breast carcinoma in situ in Los Angeles County designed to address issues related to the cause and progression of breast CIS by determining epidemiologic risk factors, characterizing selected molecul...

M. F. Press

1998-01-01

456

Une structure pour les questions enchainées  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé. Nous présentons des travaux réalisés dans le domaine des systèmes de questions réponses (SQR) utilisant des questions enchainées. La recherche des documents dans un SQR est perturbée par l'absence d'informations sur la valeur à a ccorder aux éléments de texte éven- tuellement utiles à la recherche d'informations qui figuren t dans les questions liées. Les récentes campagnes d'évaluation montrent

Kévin Séjourné

457

Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of Yes, whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue by showing that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1. IPNPR Volume 42-187 Tagged File.txt

Wu, W.; Gill, J. T., III

2011-08-01

458

Single-Concept Clicker Question Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students typically use electronic polling systems, or clickers, to answer individual questions. Differing from this tradition, we have developed a new clicker methodology in which multiple clicker questions targeting the same underlying concept but with different surface features are grouped into a sequence. Here we present the creation, validation, and evaluation of clicker question sequences sufficient in number to populate a year of calculus-based introductory physics.

Lee, Albert; Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Bao, Lei

2011-09-01

459

Invited Commentary: Consequential(ist) Epidemiology: Let's Seize the Day.  

PubMed

Now is the time for the science of epidemiology to embrace its pragmatic roots. The article by Galea in this issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(8):1185-1191) calls for us to become more "consequentialist." The Affordable Care Act allows us to access population-level databases from which we can examine how to deliver care more efficiently and cost-effectively. Asking the questions "so what" and "how much" will increase our relevance over the next decade. PMID:24022888

Cates, Willard

2013-09-10

460

Earthquake Hazards Program: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This frequently-asked-questions feature deals with the relationship between earthquakes, faults, and plate tectonics; myths about earthquakes; effects and experiences; preparedness; and many other topics.

461

Questions and Answers on Monosodium glutamate (MSG)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Questions and Answers on Monosodium glutamate (MSG). November 19, 2012. What is MSG? Monosodium glutamate ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

462

Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)|

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1988-01-01

463

Epidemiology of pelvic floor dysfunction.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of female pelvic floor disorders, including urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, anal incontinence, and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome is reviewed. The natural history, prevalence, incidence, remission, risk factors, and potential areas for prevention are considered. PMID:19932408

Sung, Vivian W; Hampton, Brittany Star

2009-09-01

464

The changing epidemiology of gout  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides, which is considered to be a true crystal deposition disorder caused by the formation of monosodium urate crystals in and around joints. A number of epidemiological studies from a diverse range of countries suggest that gout has increased in prevalence and incidence in recent years and that the clinical pattern of

Weiya Zhang; Michael Doherty; Edward Roddy

2007-01-01

465

The Changing Epidemiology of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews epidemiological studies of autism and related disorders. Study designs and sample characteristics are summarized. Currently, conservative prevalence estimates are: 13/10000 for autistic disorder, 21/10000 for pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified, 2.6/10000 for Asperger disorder, and 2/100000 for childhood…

Fombonne, Eric

2005-01-01

466

The Changing Epidemiology of Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews epidemiological studies of autism and related disorders. Study designs and sample characteristics are summarized. Currently, conservative prevalence estimates are: 13/10000 for autistic disorder, 21/10000 for pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified, 2.6/10000 for Asperger disorder, and 2/100000 for childhood…

Fombonne, Eric

2005-01-01

467

Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.  

PubMed

We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

2009-12-01

468

Social network visualization in epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks

Nicholas A. Christakis; James H. Fowler

2009-01-01

469

Epidemiologic Aspects of Toilet Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toilet training is becoming an increasingly important child care issue as child raising becomes an institutional enterprise. This paper reviews the literature of the last 40 years, focusing on the epidemiology of the development of day and night bladder control. The studies indicate that bladder control is usually obtained between 24 months and 48 months of age. Many variations exist

Lawrence B. Berk; Patrick C. Friman

1990-01-01

470

Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes key results of epidemiologic studies published in peer-reviewed journals between April 2003 and March 2004. The prevalence of H. pylori infection continues to vary strongly between developing countries and developed countries, and according to ethnicity, place of birth and socio- economic factors among people living in the same country. Intrafamilial spread appears to play a central role

Guillermo I. Perez-Perez; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Hermann Brenner

2004-01-01

471

The cancer epidemiology of radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing radiation has been the subject of intense epidemiological investigation. Studies have demonstrated that exposure to moderate-to-high levels can cause most forms of cancer, leukaemia and cancers of the breast, lung and thyroid being particularly sensitive to induction by radiation, especially at young ages at exposure. Predominant among these studies is the Life Span Study of the cohort of survivors

Richard Wakeford

2004-01-01

472

Possible contribution from epidemiological studies  

PubMed Central

The problem of chemically contaminated water supplies are in general terms followed by a description of three examples of water supply problems in China. A large-scale prospective epidemiological study, now in the early planning stages, to be carried out in China is also described.

Hammond, E. Cuyler; You, Wei-cheng; Wang, Long-de

1983-01-01

473

Huanglongbing Epidemiology: An international perspective  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prior to the discovery of Huanglongbing (HLB) in Brazil and Florida in 2004 and 2005 respectively, very few quantitative epidemiological studies had been conducted, and thus the increase and spread of the disease remains incompletely characterized. The main issue is the perennial nature of the dise...

474

Epidemiology of Acute Kidney Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different definitions for acute kidney injury (AKI) once posed an important impediment to research. The RIFLE consensus classification was the first universally accepted definition for AKI, and has facilitated a much better understanding of the epidemiology of this condition. The RIFLE classification was adapted by a broad platform of world societies, the Acute Kidney Injury Network group, as the preferred

Eric A. J. Hoste; John A. Kellum; Nevin M. Katz; Mitchell H. Rosner; Michael Haase; Claudio Ronco

2010-01-01

475

Epidemiology of paragonimiasis in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five newly discovered endemic foci for paragonimiasis in Colombia are described for the first time. The disease was diagnosed in 24 people from the Embera Indian communities located at the Colombian Pacific Coast and investigated in 1993–1998. We also describe the clinical, epidemiological and treatment response aspects. In these foci an Aroapyrgus sp. snail different from A. colombiensis was found

Iván Darío B. Vélez; Jorge Ortega; Martha Inés M. Hurtado; Alba Lucía Salazar; Sara M. Robledo; Judy Natalia Jimenez; Luz Elena T. Velásquez

2000-01-01

476

Molecular Epidemiology of Ovarian Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this Program is to study the association between epidemiologic risk factors, low-risk genes, and histologic and novel molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer. In December 2002, we received final approval from the Human Subject Research Review Boar...

D. Bowtell A. Green G. Chenevix-Trench A. DeFazio D. Gertig

2004-01-01

477

Biological Markers in Epidemiologic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper identifies some of the issues relevant to the use of biological markers in epidemiologic research. Foremost among these are clarity of definitions and marker classification. Illustrations of markers in the categories of internal dose, biological effective dose, biological response, disease, and susceptibility are presented with a theoretical model for the interrelationship among these. Issues faced by epidemiologists in

Barbara S. Hulka; Timothy Wilcosky

1988-01-01

478

Eye Tracking While Answering Questions in Electronic Multimedia Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project collected eye tracking data while adults answered questions, asked questions, and interacted with electronic media. We tested computational models of question answering (QUEST), question comprehension difficulty (QUAID), and question...

A. C. Graesser

2002-01-01

479

Vascular holism: The epidemiology of vascular disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the distinguishing features of epidemiology and clinical medicine and their interdependence in clinical epidemiology as applied to vascular disease. Selected literature is reviewed to emphasize the principles of clinical epidemiology for five vascular disorders: abdominal aortic aneurysms, lower extremity peripheral arterial occlusive disease, cerebrovascular disease, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and varicose veins. These vascular disorders

Robert W. Barnes

1995-01-01

480

A Definition of Complexity of Questions for Question and Answer and its Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a definition of complexity of questions for a question and answer function in an intelligent support system for English learning, and its evaluation. To realize adaptive question and answer, the system should generates questions depending on both educational intentions and the learner's understanding state. For generating suitable questions for the learner automatically, we must investigate the factors which influence difficulty of questions, and prepare the mechanism to calculate the difficulty. The difficulty is composed of the learner dependent part and the independent part. The former is evaluated by referring to a student model. The latter is defined by enumerating factors which influence complexity of questions. We present a definition of the complexity along with learners' answering flow; understanding text sentences, understanding a question and composing an answer. Moreover, we describe experimentation comparing the complexity of questions calculated by computer according to the definition with the complexity evaluated by human.

Kunichika, Hidenobu; Urushima, Minoru; Hirashima, Tsukasa; Takeuchi, Akira

481

Asking the Wrong Questions about Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the article by R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman (see record 2006-23492-007) which presented some directions for leadership research. Hackman and Wageman organized their article around their five reject-accept questions suggesting new directions. The current author discusses how each of the questions appears far too timid for real progress…

Graen, George B.

2007-01-01

482

The Effects of Questioning on Thinking Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the background…

Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest

483

[Questions about the Part H Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Directed to the state lead agency directors, the memorandum from the Office of Special Education Programs answers questions concerning implementation of Part H of the EHA, Education of the Handicapped Act, the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Handicaps. The following questions are addressed: (1) Can a child who is counted…

Bellamy, G. Thomas

484

Analyses for elucidating current question answering technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we take a detailed look at the performance of components of an idealized question answering system on two dieren t tasks: the TREC Question Answering task and a set of reading comprehension exams. We carry out three types of analysis: inherent properties of the data, feature analysis, and performance bounds. Based on these analyses we explain some

MARC LIGHT; GIDEON S. MANN; ERIC BRECK

2001-01-01

485

Natural language question-answering systems: 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments in programming natural language question-answering systems are reviewed to summarize the methods that have been developed for syntactic, semantic, and logical analysis of English strings. It is concluded that at least minimally effective techniques have been devised for answering questions from natural language subsets in small scale experimental systems and that a useful paradigm has evolved to guide

Robert F. Simmons

1970-01-01

486

Surface form and memory in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speakers tend to repeat materials from previous talk. This tendency is experi- mentally established and manipulated in various question-answering situations. It is shown that a question's surface form can affect the format of the answer given, even if this form has little semantic or conversational consequence, as in the pair Q: (At) what time do you close,\\

WILLEM J. M. LEVELT; S. Kelter

1982-01-01

487

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this

Dave W. McColgin; Michelle L. Gregory; Elizabeth G. Hetzler; Alan E. Turner

2006-01-01

488

Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

Gregerson, Jessica

2011-01-01

489

Developing Offline Strategies for Answering Medical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ongoing developments on two offline strategies for automatically answering questions in the medical domain: one based on an analysis of the document structure, the other based on dependency parsing. We highlight differences with open domain question answering, and provide a preliminary evaluation of the current state of our strategies. Copyright (c) 2005, American Association for Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org).

E. F. Tjong Kim Sang; G. Bouma; Rijke de M

2005-01-01

490

Self-Questioning Instructional Research: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies in self-questioning designed to improve students' prose processing are reviewed in the context of three theoretical perspectives: active processing perspective, metacognitive theory, and schema theory. The effects of self-questioning training on students' prose processing seem successful. Constraints of content knowledge and metacognitive…

Wong, Bernice Y. L.

1985-01-01

491

Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

Wilson, E. B.

2011-01-01

492

Asking Good Questions & Promoting Discourse (Part 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief NCTM article ( and Part 2 cataloged separately) presents tips on asking good questions and promoting discourse, which is an integral part of the teaching and learning in a classroom. The article includes suggestions on how teachers can improve their questioning techniques as well as how they respond to student discourse.

2013-01-01

493

Asking Questions & Promoting Discourse (Part 2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief NCTM article presents Part 2 (Part 1 cataloged separately) of their collection of tips on asking good questions and promoting discourse, which is an integral part of the teaching and learning in a classroom. The article includes suggestions on how teachers can improve their questioning techniques as well as how they respond to student discourse.

2013-01-01

494

Uniqueness Questions for Multiple Trigonometric Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey some recent results on the uniqueness questions on multiple trigonometric series. Two basic questions, one about series which converges to zero and the other about the series which converge to an inte- grable function, are asked for four modes of convergence: unrestricted rectan- gular convergence, spherical convergence, square convergence, and restricted rectangular convergence. We will either get into

J. Marshall Ash; Gang Wang

495

Questioning Strategies that Minimize Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers know from their training and experience that questioning plays an important role in today's instruction. Modern lessons are fast-paced and interactive, with teachers asking a lot of questions. Because this instructional strategy dominates class time and because students are active during the lesson, there are more chances for management…

Bond, Nathan

2008-01-01

496

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

497

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

498

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

499

The School in Question: An Economist's Viewpoint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Replies to theories stated in "The School in Question" by Torsten Husen are presented. The author questions Husen's argument that unless education is linked with the work world, youth unemployment will be a permanent feature of advanced industrial society. Husen's statements about the cost-effectiveness of education are also examined. (KC)|

Vaizey, John

1979-01-01

500

Questionnaire Design: Asking Questions with a Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short document guides the user through the stages of creating and implementing an effective questionnaire. The types of questions and how they should be worded are addressed, and many good examples of the different types of questions that could go into a questionnaire are presented. This resource is intended for novice evaluators.

Taylor-Powell, Ellen

1998-05-01