These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

2

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs CTRP Program >> What is the purpose of the Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP)? How will CTRP be connected to other databases within NCI and NIH? Will CTRP support the Cancer Centers Summary 4 Report? Will CTRP

3

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Plague  

MedlinePLUS

... Specific Fact Sheets Toxicology FAQs Case Definitions Toxic Syndrome Descriptions Toxicological Profiles Training First Responders Medical Management Emergency Response Cards Lab Info Surveillance Preparation & Planning 2014 West Virginia Chemical Release Info on MCHM Info on ...

4

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline  

E-print Network

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline The University of Cincinnati's Anonymous Reporting Hotline is NOT a 911 or Emergency Service. Reports submitted through the Anonymous Reporting Hotline may not receive an immediate response. If you require emergency

Papautsky, Ian

5

Head Lice: Malathion Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

6

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 05-520)  

NSF Publications Database

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 05-520) Table of Contents ... institutions are cooperating in the proposed project, what are the mechanisms for submitting a ...

7

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

8

Financial Aid Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) for Study Abroad Students Please read and keep for your records  

E-print Network

Financial Aid Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) for Study Abroad Students Please read and keep for your records How does the Study Abroad Financial Aid Process work? 1. Students doing non-UM sponsored in a Financial Aid Study Abroad Worksheet and a Permission to Study Abroad Form to the financial aid office

Milchberg, Howard

9

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Solids and Supplementing Print A A A ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

10

Investment FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Christopher Lott developed the Investment FAQ site to help individual investors obtain "clear and concise information about investments and personal finance." The site consists of a collection of Frequently Asked Questions and answers about investments and personal finance. Collection categories include advice, analysis, bonds, derivatives, exchanges, financial planning, information sources, insurance, mutual funds, real estate, regulation, retirement plans, software, stocks, strategies, tax code, technical analysis and trading. There are tours designed for the beginner, intermediate users, and experts.

11

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

Cancer.gov

Costs to consider when planning a study that uses ASA24 include system and labor costs associated with uploading study details, including respondent usernames and recall dates. Costs also are associated with contacting and monitoring respondents, assessing data quality, and analyzing data. The labor and resources needed by researchers and associated costs to configure and manage studies using ASA24 are within the purview and the responsibility of users.

12

Sunscreens FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... regulations in place that govern the manufacture and marketing of all sunscreen products, including safety data on ... Download a Word version of Sunscreen FAQs. Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Site map Home Copyright © ...

13

Agricultural biotechnology FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the U.S. Department of Agriculture list a number of frequently asked questions regarding biotechnology. The FAQs addresses questions related to defining biotechnology, biotechnology helping farmers and consumers, public dialogue and exchange of information on biotechnology, federal agencies that regulate biotechnology, testing a biotechnology derived plant, commercial production of a biotechnology derived plant, exposure of biotech crops, the role of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), and trade issues with biotechnology. Copyright 2005 International Technology Education Association

US Department of Agriculture (USDA)

2003-01-01

14

Semantic Segment Extraction and Matching for Internet FAQ Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation presents a novel approach to semantic segment extraction and matching for retrieving information from Internet FAQs with natural language queries. Two semantic segments, the question category segment (QS) and the keyword segment (KS), are extracted from the input queries and the FAQ questions with a semiautomatically derived question-semantic grammar. A semantic matching method is presented to estimate the

Chung-hsien Wu; Jui-feng Yeh; Yu-sheng Lai

2006-01-01

15

FAQs - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

This page is designed to answer some of the common questions about NCI's Cancer Human Biobank (caHUB) initiative. We will update these Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) as new information becomes available or new questions are submitted to us. If you don't find an answer to your question on this page, please send us an e-mail.

16

NCI DEA - FAQs & Glossary  

Cancer.gov

National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Extramural Activities - Home Page Skip to Main Content Home Funding Advisory Consumer Guides FAQs & Glossary Awarded Research Division of Extramural Activities FAQs & Glossary Site

17

Frequently Asked Questions - Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Updated Frequently Asked Questions on Research Bases Request for Application (RFA) Select a category by clicking on its title below. How to search the content of the FAQs: Click on the FAQ Category you

18

FAQs for the Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) Program  

NSF Publications Database

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Human and Social Dynamics (HSD) (NSF 04-537) Table of Contents ... for each project and how do I submit one? What should be in the Project Summary? Will you enforce ...

19

Culinary herbFAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Readers interested in herbs and the culinary arts can explore Culinary herbFAQ, a site maintained by Henriette Kress that provides information on a wide array of herbs for eating, drinking, gifts (potpourri, bath salts, etc.), ground cover, and shade. Composed of long and short contributions from listserv members, herbFAQ offers useful advice on herb-related topics that spans from seeding to transplanting to harvesting and documents discussions on a variety of herb problems. Readers may need to look a bit for a particular herb as items are randomly arranged within the seven sections of this FAQ. Links to Medicinal herbFAQ can also be found at this site.

1997-01-01

20

FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir FAQ: Pregnancy & Breastfeeding I am pregnant. Am I at higher risk ... Top of Page If I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself ...

21

Low Vision FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Low Vision FAQs Listen What is low vision? Low vision ...

22

Bed Bugs FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Parasites - Bed Bugs Parasites Home Share Compartir Bed Bugs FAQs On this Page What are bed ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, ...

23

FAQ DARF discrepancies  

Cancer.gov

September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

24

Natural Language Processing in the FAQ Finder System: Results and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some recent results regardingthe employment of natural language processingtechniques in the FAQ Finder system. FAQFinder is a natural language question-answeringsystem that uses files of frequently-asked questionsas its knowledge base. Unlike AI questionansweringsystems that focus on the generationof new answers, FAQ Finder retrieves existingones found in frequently-asked question files.FAQ Finder uses a combination of statisticaland natural language...

Robin Burke

1997-01-01

25

Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Newborn Care > Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort ... have. Is it normal to have cramps while nursing? Yes. During the first few days to weeks ...

26

FAQ Mining via List Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to FAQ mining via a list detection algorithm. List detection is very important for data collection since list has been widely used for representing data and information on the Web. By analyzing the rendering of FAQs on the Web, we found a fact that all FAQs are always fully\\/partially represented in a list-like form. There

Yu-Sheng Lai; Kuao-Ann Fung; Chung-Hsien Wu

2002-01-01

27

FAQs About Ocean Acidification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides a FAQ in a concise, readable summary of the current state of ocean acidification knowledge to support the scientific research community and educators. It is maintained by the OCB Project Office, with oversight from the Ocean Acidification Subcommittee of the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) program. Featured items include a primer to offer the foundational basics of ocean acidification and its impact on humans, Earth systems and marine life.

2012-09-24

28

Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... three lice forms compared to a penny. (CDC Photo) Illustration of egg on a hair shaft. (CDC Photo) Egg/Nit: Nits are lice eggs laid by ... distinguish with the naked eye. Nymph form. (CDC Photo) Nymph: A nymph is an immature louse that ...

29

Lymphatic Filariasis: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

MedlinePLUS

... skin, which is called elephantiasis. Many of these bacterial infections can be prevented with appropriate skin hygiene. Men can develop hydrocele or swelling of the scrotum due to infection with one of the parasites ...

30

FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... been documented in Europe and the Middle East, Africa, India, parts of Asia, and Australia. It was ... y control Symptoms & Treatment Síntomas y tratamiento Transmission Statistics & Maps Preliminary Maps & Data for 2014 Disease Cases ...

31

CAM Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's) - Health Information  

Cancer.gov

It is important that CAM therapies receive the same scientific evaluation that is used to assess standard healthcare approaches. As CAM therapies are proven safe and effective, they may become part of standard health care.

32

Lyme Disease Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... Borrelia burgdorferi and Treponema pallidum (the cause of syphilis) are both spirochetes (cork screw shaped bacteria). Therefore, B. burgdorferi can be transmitted like syphilis. Not true. Although B. burgdorferi and T. pallidum ...

33

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Extreme Heat  

MedlinePLUS

... the environment. How much should I drink during hot weather? During hot weather you will need to ... more fluid. Should I take salt tablets during hot weather? Do not take salt tablets unless directed ...

34

Just the FAQs: An Alternative to Teaching the Research Paper  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changing the form of the traditional research paper often results in a greater emphasis on inquiry or FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions). An alternative form of presentation that capitalizes on available technology and requires students to develop their thinking, reading, writing and presentation skills is presented.

Strickland, James

2004-01-01

35

FAQs Manhattanville Campus Central Energy Plant Boiler Stacks  

E-print Network

FAQs Manhattanville Campus Central Energy Plant Boiler Stacks Installation Frequently Asked Questions What is happening? Columbia University is installing two (2) boiler stacks on top of the Jerome L, a below-grade facility which will consist four (4) 45,000 lbs/hr steam boilers and related equipment

Kim, Philip

36

FAQ Accounting for Oral Agents  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

37

FAQ Injectable agents in vials  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

38

Dark Matter FAQs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page has a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Dark Matter and related issues. The main questions concern the origin of Dark Matter, its propeties and the possible ways to detect it. There are also questions linking cosmology with particle physics.

Group, Berkeley C.

2008-05-02

39

Bad Greenhouse FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These answers were written in response to questions from readers of the Bad Meteorology pages. Although the questions presented here are often ones asked by a specific person, each is chosen to characterize a group of similar questions which have been asked about the topic. They involve temperature conversion and energy emission.

Alistair Fraser

40

Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's  

MedlinePLUS

Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours ... syndrome (SIDS) . Continue My baby falls asleep while nursing. What Can I Do? Your baby may seem ...

41

Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits  

MedlinePLUS

... Checkups: What to Expect Ebola: What to Know Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Breastfeeding FAQs: Your Eating and Drinking Habits Print A ...

42

The Online Tornado FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

Roger Edwards

2009-12-31

43

The Online Tornado FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides answers to frequently asked questions about tornadoes. The questions are grouped into the following categories: the basics about tornadoes, tornado forecasting, tornado damage, tornado safety, historical tornadoes, tornado climatology, spotting and chasing, tornado research, and scientific references. Information on related concepts is linked within each section and can also be accessed via a clickable index of terms.

Edwards, Roger

44

What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor?  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The Pancreas Types of Tumors Causes Hereditary ... Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Questions What questions should I ask my doctor? ...

45

Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... Size Print Bookmark Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that's ...

46

About ALS: FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... a patient with ALS, is important to consider seeing a sub specialist - a neurologist specializing in neuromuscular ... questions in advance. Since you will likely be seeing an ALS expert, take advantage of the opportunity ...

47

The Cockroach FAQ.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More than 75 frequently asked questions about cockroaches are here answered expertly by University of Massachusetts Amherst biologist Joseph Kunkel. Everything from how to determine the gender of roaches to why they sometimes die on their backs is authoritatively answered. From this page, one also can link to the cockroach home page, which includes much additional information about cockroaches.

0002-11-30

48

Elder Abuse FAQS  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions.aspx Hamby, S., & Grych, J. H. (2013). The web of violence: Exploring connections among different forms of ... see final report: https://www.warwickshire.gov.uk/Web/corporate/wccweb.nsf/Links/6EA919F805F3B54180257885002E4C6B/$file/Full+Report_ ...

49

Black Holes FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions about Black Holes. The goal is to answer the common, and not so common, doubts about Black Holes, such as their origin, properties, and fate. It also deals with gravitational effects of Black Holes, and the concepts of White Holes and Wormholes. It provides rationale for existence of Black Holes despite lack of direct observation.

Bunn, Ted

50

question_1411052731 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This question is epidemiologic but prevention is better than cure. Since both ovarian low and high grade serous carcinomas originate from the distal fallopian tube, wouldn’t (large- scale) snipping of the fimbrial end of both tubes at the time of tubectomy (with informed consent) prevent the majority of serous carcinomas developing over time?

51

The Moon FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you look in the sky over the course of a month, you should notice a change in the appearance of the moon. The different shapes the moon makes are known as the moon\\'s phases. The moon is an extremely hot & cold place, and it is very, very far away. Huh? Read on... 1. For billions of years the moon has orbited the Earth. Read about The Origin of the Moon and then answer these two questions: A. How old is the moon? B. Where did it come from? 2. The moon is far away. So far, in fact, you\\'re going to need ...

2007-09-26

52

The Canadian Nuclear FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly pro-nuclear website offers information not only about nuclear energy in Canada, but about this controversial energy resource more generally. Start with the Introduction and Disclaimer, where Dr. Jeremy Whitlock, the author of the site and a reactor physicist at an Ottawa Valley nuclear power plant, explains the purpose and limitations of the site. Then have a look at the dozens of questions Dr. Whitlock answers with erudite â?? and opinionated â?? precision, covering such broad topics as Cost and Benefits, Safety and Liability, Waste Management, and Security and Non-Proliferation. Also, take a look at the excellent Links and Further Information pages, as well as the Editorials page, which features dozens of pro-nuclear missives. In all, interested readers will find this page well argued and informative.

Whitlock, Jeremy

1996-04-24

53

The Carnivorous Plant FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Barry Meyers-Rice, carnivorous plant enthusiast and team member of The Nature Conservancy's Wildland Weeds Management & Research Program, this site offers answers to many questions about carnivorous plants. Although the majority of content targets the (deservedly) gee-whiz aspects of these plants that "attract, capture, kill, and digest animal life forms," several sections will be of interest to educators and researchers. Carnivorous Plant Taxonomy covers relationships among genera and families; Carnivorous Plant Genera provides text and color photos on genera from Aldrovanda (Waterwheel Plants) to Utricularia (Bladderworts); and Carnivorous Plants and Conservation offers information on the threats to these plants and efforts to protect them. A selection of related links rounds out the site.

Meyers-Rice, Barry.

54

his document presents the highlights of the Frequently Asked Questions about Ocean Acidification (2010, 2012; www.whoi.edu/OCB-OA/FAQs), a detailed summary of the state of  

E-print Network

or subtractions from the ocean. Acidification can be more severe in areas where human activities and impacts and lower pH and carbonate ion levels associated with ocean acidification. 9The biological impacts of OAT his document presents the highlights of the Frequently Asked Questions about Ocean Acidification

55

FAQs of Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Pregnancy Loss: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media ... anything a woman can do to prevent a pregnancy loss? Most of the time, a woman cannot ...

56

FAQ: Blood Donation and Organ Transplant  

MedlinePLUS

... Nile Virus Share Compartir FAQ: Blood Donation & Organ Transplant Can I get infected with West Nile virus ... get West Nile virus infection after having a transplant? The risk of a transplant patient getting very ...

57

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

58

FAQ Used commercial drug or vic  

Cancer.gov

September 7, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

59

FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds  

MedlinePLUS

... Virus Share Compartir FAQ: West Nile Virus & Dead Birds How do birds get infected with West Nile ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

60

FAQ Lost shipment or missing dr  

Cancer.gov

September 11, 2008 Prepared and distributed by the Pharmaceutical Management Branch, CTEP, NCI. Please do not re-distribute or post without permission. Information in this FAQ is subject to change without notice; check periodically for updates.

61

Domain Ontology Based Automatic Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, we introduce a music knowledge question answering system based on ontology knowledge base. Users can propose a question about music knowledge in natural language, the system automatically extract relative knowledge to form answer based on FAQ (frequently asked questions) and ontology knowledge base, and return the answer to users in natural language. The important modules in the

Jibin Fu; Jinzhong Xu; Keliang Jia

2009-01-01

62

Pubic "Crab" Lice Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

63

Pubic "Crab" Lice Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

64

Head Lice: Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

65

Head Lice: Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

66

Body Lice Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

67

Body Lice Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

68

Head Lice: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

69

Head Lice: Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

70

Pubic "Crab" Lice Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

71

Body Lice Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

72

Head Lice: Information for Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

73

Parasites - Lice  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

74

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - caHUB.Cancer.Gov  

Cancer.gov

Letting researchers study your samples may help find new and better treatments for cancer and other diseases. Researchers use samples to look for ways to prevent, find, or treat health problems-as in Example 1 below.

75

Pennsylvania School Certification FAQs For Working SLPs  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania School Certification FAQs For Working SLPs This is a Summary of Information from the Pennsylvania Department of Education Website www.pde.state.pa.us How do I become School-Certified in PA Paperwork: The application packet you submit must include: . GENERAL APPLICATION FOR PENNSYLVANIA 338G

Guiltinan, Mark

76

CAMP FAQ's What is Hi-GEAR?  

E-print Network

CAMP FAQ's What is Hi-GEAR? High School Girls' Engineering to offer our Annual Hi - GEAR Program, a special week-long event for female high school students. Hi-GEAR will be held June 16­20, 2014 from 9:00 am until 4

Provancher, William

77

FAQ on -Calculus Jeannette M. Wing  

E-print Network

FAQ on -Calculus Jeannette M. Wing Visiting Researcher, Microsoft Research Professor of Computer, the result of calling incr with 17 gets bound to the integer variable y: y := incr(17) and would look like this in -calculus: (a)( incra, 17 | a(y) ) which says in parallel: (1) send on the incr channel both the channel

Wing, Jeannette M.

78

Accessing the Internet by E-mail FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gerald Boyd has spent much time learning the internal syntax of web search engines. He has made the fruits of his labor available at an ftp site. Interested Internauts can download FAQs on how to query fifteen generic and eight specialty search engines by email. Included are Alta Vista, Excite, Inktomi, Yahoo, Infoseek, OKRA, Open Text, SwitchBoard, TheList, and others. Also included is a FAQ on how to use an Agora Server to use the web by email. See the Scout Report for March 8, 1996 for more on Agora. The FAQs are of greatest use to those without a web connection, but are also interesting to anyone who is intrigued by the intricacies of search engines. Users should download wsintro.faq (table of contents of FAQs), wscrack.faq (basic strategy for figuring out how to query search indexes via email) and wshelp.faq (Agora help file) before any others. For those who would like to download everything at once, wssearch.zip contains all of the files. Note that while these files are fairly technical, they are very useful for those who need such Internet access.

Boyd, Gerald E.

79

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Blood Screening FAQs On This Page Why are blood ... be concerned about getting Chagas disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission ...

80

Epidemiology of Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of sleep refers to the study of patterns of sleep and sleep disorders across the population. Under the broad\\u000a heading of the epidemiology of sleep, there are numerous specific questions to be asked about sleep hygiene practices, sleep\\u000a architecture, sleep duration, and any one of a set of disorders. This chapter focuses on what is known about patterns

Lauren Hale

81

question_1296837100 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

While the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to increased risk for certain cancers are largely unknown (as noted in other questions), we pose an associated question -- what are the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to decreased risk of certain other cancers?

82

4-Year Cohort Graduation Rate: FAQ  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a list of questions and corresponding answers about the 4-year cohort graduation rate. Answers to the following questions are presented: (1) Why don't GED (General Educational Development) students count as graduates?; (2) How does a district code students who have moved out of state? How should a district code a student who…

Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

83

question_1411443893 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

84

question_1411443577 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

85

question_1296786622 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

86

question_1297191219 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

87

question_1328804555 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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Cancer.gov

This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

90

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question_1296786512 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

157

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Cancer.gov

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163

question_1295444776 — Provocative Questions  

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164

question_1296826063 — Provocative Questions  

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165

MedlinePlus FAQ: Search Cloud  

MedlinePLUS

... Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How does the search cloud work? To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The search cloud displays the top 100 search terms typed ...

166

Adaptive natural language interfaces to FAQ knowledge bases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a natural language interface architecture, which is used for accessing FAQ knowledge bases. Since one of the main obstacles to the efficient use of natural language interfaces is the high amount of required manual knowledge engineering, we provide an adaptive architecture to automate the acquisition of linguistic knowledge. We apply a machine learning module based

Werner Winiwarter

2000-01-01

167

Transfer Student FAQs New Jersey Institute of Technology  

E-print Network

TM Xxxx Transfer Student FAQs New Jersey Institute of Technology #12;HOW WILL I REGISTER attend one of New Jersey's community colleges, you can also use NJ Transfer at www.njtransfer.org. NJ of scholarships are available to gradu- ates of New Jersey community colleges. There are also scholar- ships

Bieber, Michael

168

question_1410159378 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Looking at cell to cell differences within a tumor bed, contributed by either DNA mutations, epigenetic or post-translational modifications (PTM) or miRNA mediated control switches or even a combination of all these, the question rise how to best design a personalized drug trial?

169

question_1296796037 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

If this important question is answered we would be able to develop a highly tailored therapeutic approach for cancers. Actually, inflammatory type of the anti-tumor immune response such as IFN-g can also induce initial tumor inhibition but eventual tumor escape and progression.

170

question_1332002134 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

171

question_1303305591 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

172

Dibromochloropropane: epidemiological findings and current questions.  

PubMed

Dibromochloropropane, DBCP, has had a seminal role in our current understanding of how to prevent chemical risks to health. Early toxicological studies showed its special impact on the testes, and detection of its mutagenic potency was soon followed by demonstration of its carcinogenicity to animals. Its commercial use as a useful nematocide ignored, at first, these warnings from the laboratory. When production workers, first in California and then in Israel, found they were sterile as a result of their exposure, this was convincing evidence that prevention had failed. The evidence, azospermia, oligospermia, and gonadotrophin response to testicular damage, were found first in production workers. In agricultural applicators in California who used the material, decreased sperm count and increased gonadotrophin levels were found. While production in California, Texas, and Israel was halted, studies continued and so, it seems, did use. Our first Israeli study was of workers on banana crops, and we found convincing evidence of increased spontaneous abortion in their family histories. Follow-up studies among production workers in Israel showed that some recovered testicular function, but among their offspring, otherwise in good health, there was a predominance of females. Those who did not recover from azospermia were those with high levels of follicle stimulating hormone. However data for production workers did not show increased spontaneous abortion. Nor have any studies so far shown increased birth defects or increased infant mortality. Unfavorable reproductive outcomes can be due to other agents, as shown by sprayers in Dutch orchards having hypofecundity (increased interpregnancy period) and sex ratio changes; but the agents responsible have not yet been identified. These experiences have lead to the general acceptance of some implications: (1) Paternal exposures can lead to a variety of unfavorable effects on reproductive outcome, including infertility, spontaneous abortion, and altered sex ratio. (2) Patterns of effects of potent agents in production workers and in applicators or users of chemicals may differ. (3) Although human carcinogenesis has not yet been confirmed, unfavorable reproductive outcomes are a reasonable early indicator of such risk. (4) Shifts in sex ratios of populations may be a subtle sign of more serious risks. (5) Continued use of an agent such as this under circumstances in which these UROs cannot be prevented is unconscionable. PMID:9472348

Goldsmith, J R

1997-12-26

173

Black Holes: From Here to Infinity FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Black Holes: From Here to Infinity is a 6-page illustrated brochure that answers the eight most frequently asked questions about black holes. It was developed by the Education and Public Outreach group at Sonoma State University, with funding from the EXIST mission concept study and the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission. It is available in both English and Spanish and is part of the “Black Holes” suite of materials that accompany the PBS NOVA show “Monster of the Milky Way” and the planetarium show “Black Holes: the Other Side of Infinity.”

2009-01-01

174

Subscriber: Princeton University Library | Sign In as Individual | FAQ | Access Rights | Join AAAS 17 November 2004  

E-print Network

Subscriber: Princeton University Library | Sign In as Individual | FAQ | Access Rights | Join AAAS's management and construction contracts worth more than Japan's expected financial contribution, which the E

175

Question Builder  

MedlinePLUS

... Tips and Tools || Question Builder Text Size: Question Builder Be prepared for your next medical appointment. Create ... is important to be prepared. With the Question Builder, it is easy. Step 1: Choose the kind ...

176

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) - Reorganization of Division of Integrative Biology and Neuroscience  

NSF Publications Database

... common to all organisms: development, physiology, behavior, and environmental interactions ... on the basic mechanisms of development, physiology, behavior, and environmental interactions in the ...

177

Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) Program Solicitation NSF 04-511 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)  

NSF Publications Database

... classifications in FY 2004: non-Ph.D. granting, Ph.D. granting, and non-degree granting institutions ... Ph.D. granting institutions are academic institutions that have produced more than 20 Ph.D.?s or D ...

178

Questioning Strategies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this brief article from the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin the best practices of questioning strategies are explained. The author illustrates the difference between an open and a closed question and provides examples of the five categories of questions that teachers should be asking. A bibliography of additional resources is included for further study.

2012-01-01

179

Proposed Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

View all of the questions that have been submitted and see how they have been evaluated by peers. Submit your own evaluation of a submitted question, or leave a comment about a question (commenting requires log in or creation of your own PQ account).

180

Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators and their organizations agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) post excerpts of their grant applications online. The applications in the table below are excellent examples of grantsmanship.

181

Epidemiology Chapter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union‘s dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still

J. H. Wolfram; M. K. Butaev; A. Duysheev; A. R. Gabbasova; O. S. Khasanov; Yu. K. Kulakov; A. R. Mkrtchyan; A. M. Myrzabekov; R. Z. Nurgaziev; L. E. Tsirel'son; R. D. Willer; R. G. Yaraev; M. M. Zheludkov

2010-01-01

182

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

183

Question Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about generating hypotheses and testable questions. Learners will use critical thinking and a collaborative approach to pose questions related to the study of Mars and evaluate the quality of their questions. They will explore remote-sensing data collected by a camera orbiting Mars - the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and develop a team science question. Students will practice critical thinking skills, use a collaborative approach to this first critical step of the scientific process. Exploring the images of the surface of Mars in Visible (VIS) images, students will come up with a topic of study, their team science question and hypotheses. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes and vocabulary.

184

Digital Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

2012-01-01

185

Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

186

Composing questions  

E-print Network

This dissertation motivates a new syntax and semantics for simplex and multiple wh-questions, concentrating on English and German data. The proposed theory combines Cable's (2007; 2010) Q-based syntax for wh-movement and ...

Kotek, Hadas

2014-01-01

187

Quick Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity provides an introduction to data analysis. The instructor poses a simple multiple choice question for the children to answer. Students are then prompted to answer questions about the data such as which answer is most common, which least common. Variations for presenting the data as a bar graph and using the data to make predictions are included. Students should have basic reading and writing skills.

2010-01-01

188

Provocative Questions feedback — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

189

Questionable Exercises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

1999-01-01

190

Questor's Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

2009-01-01

191

Weekly Epidemiological Record  

MedlinePLUS

... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) Menu WER Home 2015: Volume 90 2014: ... 85 2009: Volume 84 Archives The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) serves as ...

192

Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

193

MedlinePlus FAQ: Mobile Version of MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Is there a mobile version of MedlinePlus? To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Answer: Yes, there is a mobile version of MedlinePlus. You do not need a specific ...

194

MedlinePlus FAQ: Listing Your Web Site  

MedlinePLUS

... Supplements Videos & Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How do Web sites get listed in MedlinePlus? To use the ... authoritative resources. MedlinePlus uses quality guidelines to evaluate Web sites. We try to ensure that the information ...

195

Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (2007–2011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/?L CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.45–0.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

2014-01-01

196

Radiation epidemiology: Past and present  

SciTech Connect

Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amount of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.

Boice, J.D. Jr. [International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

1997-03-01

197

Mammals 'choose' sex of offspring [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]Follow Ups Post Followup WAPD Bulletin Board FAQ  

E-print Network

Mammals 'choose' sex of offspring [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]Follow Ups Post Followup WAPD Bulletin Board FAQ Posted by on 09:19:34 02/21/04Hirek Friday, 20 February, 2004, 12:46 GMT Mammals 'choose' sex mammals can adjust the sex of their offspring, according to a study by biologists. Experts from Edinburgh

West, Stuart

198

75 FR 62502 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Information for Self-Certification Under FAQ 6...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Self-Certification Under FAQ 6 of the United States--European Union Safe Harbor...requirements and ensure that personal data flows to the United States are not interrupted. In this process...into effect. The European Member States implemented the decision made...

2010-10-12

199

Abiogenesis FAQs: Articles on the Origin of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to articles that address common questions about the origins of life and refute many creationist assertions. The articles cover the probability of abiogenesis, current models of the origin of life, and a historical review of the theory of spontaneous generation. There is also an index of creationist claims with specific rebuttals. This would be a good source of background information for high school or undergraduate teachers.

The TalkOrigins Archive

200

Question, Problem, Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions and question-formulating strategies are central to science. In many ways the formulation of a question forms the basis for high-quality instruction in science. Effective questioning has a strong connection to cognitive theory. The sentence start

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

201

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health Epidemiology Seminar Series, Fall 2014  

E-print Network

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health Epidemiology Seminar Series, Fall 2014 SPECIAL DEPARTMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, BIOSTATISTICS AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH, - SEMINAR SERIES IS A SELF-APPROVED GROUP, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Director, McGill Global Health Programs Associate Director, Mc

Shoubridge, Eric

202

Satellite Frequently Asked Questions The following is a list of frequently asked questions (FAQ) regarding scientific satellite datasets with links to  

E-print Network

provided by CLASS? o How do I calibrate GOES Imager satellite data? o How do I read the cloud drift wind data? o Can GOES AREA files be used within GIS? NetCDF SSM/I and SSMIS Data o How do I read netCDF SSM output formats, some of which can be used with GIS software. Image Formats: GIF and JPG Network Common

203

2-4-2011 PQ Summary — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Twenty-six cancer researchers assembled at the Stone House on the NIH campus on February 4, 2011 for the NCI Behavioral, Population, Epidemiology, and Prevention Provocative Questions workshop. The participants were invited by the project's organizers to craft a list of interesting questions that might highlight potential new research directions among NCI-supported investigators or reinvigorate research in important areas that have been neglected, and to discuss and evaluate some of the questions submitted by the participants prior to the workshop.

204

Tales from an academic RNAi screening facility; FAQs.  

PubMed

RNAi technology is now a well-established and widely employed research technique that has been adopted by many researchers for use in large-scale screening campaigns. Here, we offer our experience of genome-wide siRNA screening from the perspective of a facility providing screening as a service to a wide range of researchers with diverse interests and approaches. We have experienced the emotional rollercoaster of screening from the exuberant early promise of a screen, the messy reality of the data through to the recognition of screen data as a potential information goldmine. Here, we use some of the questions we most frequently encounter to highlight the initial concerns of many researchers embarking on a siRNA screen and conclude that an informed view of what can be reasonably expected from a screen is essential to the most effective implementation of the technology. Along the way, we suggest that for this area of research at least, either centralization of the resources or close and open collaboration between interested parties offers distinct advantages. PMID:21527443

Jiang, Ming; Instrell, Rachael; Saunders, Becky; Berven, Haakon; Howell, Michael

2011-07-01

205

Encyclopedia Smithsonian: FAQs and Guide to Resources A - Z  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the Smithsonian Institution, gives quick answers to frequently asked questions, available at any time of day or night. Not new but always being improved upon, Encyclopedia Smithsonian includes general information such as admission fees and hours, access to Smithsonian library catalogs, and exhibition calendars. It also provides subject access to the collections of the many Smithsonian museums, without requiring that users know which museum holds the answer to a query. For example, clicking on First Ladies brings one to the U.S. Political History section of the Encyclopedia, which, in addition to listing the collection of First Ladies' gowns at the National Museum of American History, also directs users to a long list of Presidential Historic sites located in all parts of the country, and resources at the National Portrait Gallery. Arranged alphabetically, Encyclopedia Smithsonian is a good starting point for K-12 students, tourists, and anyone looking for a simple approach to the varied riches of the Smithsonian.

206

Epidemiology for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The epidemiological approach, as elaborated to accomodate multiple-causation of chronic disease, is suggested as appropriate for the size and the nature of the failure-to-learn problem faced by educators. The epidemiological approach begins with an examination of the health status of an area's population. Major problems are identified with respect…

Landsberger, Betty H.

207

Introduction to mathematical epidemiology  

E-print Network

, infectious diarrhoea Generally non-linear systems #12;3 Chronic disease epidemiology Risk Factor Health Frequently linear systems, often complex causal relationships Infectious disease e.g. pneumonia, malaria availability Etc. #12;7 Infectious disease epidemiology Infection Health Outcome #12;8 Malaria: transmission

Luchsinger, Christof

208

Epidemiology in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school classroom exercise from the Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion gives an introduction to epidemiology. Visitors will find background materials (including an introduction to epidemiology and how to investigate and outbreak) and suggestions for classroom use.

209

Study Questions for Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website hosts over fifty practice questions relating geophysics. Topics covered in these questions include gravity, earthquake waves and seismicity, Earth's structure, geochronology, anomalies, viscosity, and polar wandering.

Susan Slaymaker

210

Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.  

PubMed Central

There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

Pearce, N

1996-01-01

211

Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

2000-01-01

212

Frequently Asked Questions: Questions About Paleontology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site asks and answers questions about paleontology, fossils and dinosaurs. Paleontology questions are: What is paleontology? How does paleontology differ from anthropology and archaeology? What are the practical uses of paleontology? How do paleontologists know how old their fossils are? What training is necessary to become a paleontologist? What organizations exist for paleontologists?

2007-01-01

213

QUESTIONS IN CHINESE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS ARTICLE, BASED ON A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND CHINESE, IS DESIGNED TO BE USED IN THE PREPARATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE PRESENTATION OF QUESTIONS IN THE TEACHING OF CHINESE. QUESTIONS CAN BE CLASSIFIED INTO THREE CATEGORIES, ACCORDING TO THEIR FUNCTIONS--(1) PURE QUESTIONS, (2) RHETORICAL QUESTIONS, AND (3)…

TSAO, WEN YEN

214

Molecular epidemiology of human cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenging goal of molecular epidemiology is to identify an individual's risk of cancer. Molecular epidemiology integrates molecular biology, in vitro and in vivo laboratory models, biochemistry, and epidemiology to infer individual cancer risk. Molecular dosimetry of carcinogen exposure is an important facet of molecular epidemiology and cancer risk assessment. Carcinogen macromolecular adduct levels, cytogenetic alterations and somatic cell mutations

S. Perwez Hussain; Curtis C Harris

1998-01-01

215

Questions to Ask When Considering CAM  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Scams. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center: Herbs, Botanicals & Other Products: FAQs National Cancer Institute: Thinking About Complementary and Alternative Medicine National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM): ...

216

Laboratory Testing for Anthrax: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

217

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

218

Provocative Questions new account request — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

219

Workshops & Outcomes — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The participants of the first Provocative Questions meeting supported the idea that the format of small workshops are a useful means to engage in conversations about questions that might stimulate innovative research on various aspects of cancer.

220

SCHOLARSHIP FAQ'S How do I apply for scholarships if I'm an incoming freshman or transfer student?  

E-print Network

SCHOLARSHIP FAQ'S How do I apply for scholarships if I'm an incoming freshman or transfer student of the scholarship application. Please click on "apply for scholarships". · Complete the scholarship pages and then move to the essay section to complete your application. · Be sure to check the scholarship section

Gelfond, Michael

221

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1983-01-01

222

Improving Student Question Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

2009-01-01

223

Questions for Surveys  

PubMed Central

We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

2011-01-01

224

Community Dialog — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

View all of the questions that have been submitted and see how they have been evaluated by peers. Submit your own evaluation of a submitted question, or leave a comment about a question (commenting requires log in or creation of your own PQ account).

225

Student Questioning Educational Outreach  

E-print Network

Student Questioning Educational Outreach Dr. Dan Steinberg Kimberly Carroll #12;What is PUMA? 19 of discussing why questioning is important, how research classes(like PUMA) differ from previous science classes the development of high school students questions(PUMA) using our own rubric Teach the students the importance

Petta, Jason

226

CTRP FAQs  

Cancer.gov

In January 2004, the Director of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) established the Clinical Trials Working Group (CTWG) to advise the National Cancer Advisory Board (NCAB) on whether and in what ways the NCI-supported national clinical trials enterprise should be restructured to realize the promise of molecular medicine for advancing oncologic clinical practice in the 21st century.

227

Donation FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... to provide resources to help you make your decision, as well as appointments for additional blood tests ... collection procedure. Discomfort and side effects vary from person to person. Most marrow donors experience some side ...

228

Caregiver FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... REM sleep behavior disorder, a severe sensitivity to antipsychotic medications, or an abnormal result on a brain ... appear later in Alzheimer's disease. Severe sensitivity to antipsychotic medications used to treat hallucinations is common in ...

229

Infertility FAQ's  

MedlinePLUS

... Couples with unexplained infertility. What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)? Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes all fertility ... Top of Page How often is assisted reproductive technology (ART) successful? Success rates vary and depend on ...

230

Leishmaniasis FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Latin America, such as in Costa Rica. U.S. military personnel have become infected in various countries, such as ... include adventure travelers, ecotourists, Peace Corps volunteers, missionaries, soldiers, ornithologists (people who study birds), and other people ...

231

Registration - FAQs  

Cancer.gov

Yes, NCI is willing to work with sites on their registration process. No "link" is required. System developers and vendors can configure their applications to use NCI Enterprise Services. CTRP is working with various vendors and institutions to facilitate registration via Clinical Data Management Systems (CDMS).

232

Stillbirth FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... prevented your baby’s death. Finding a cause of death is also important for parents who would like to have another baby. Back ... stillbirth deaths as possible. Finding a cause of death through autopsy is also important for those parents that may consider another pregnancy. Back to top ...

233

Proposed Provocative Questions for the Indian PQ Workshops — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

To stimulate wider participation in the Provocative Questions Initiative, scientists may pose their own Provocative Questions (Indian "Pose a Question" link) on this website or comment on questions submitted online (Indian "Questions Submitted Online" link) from the research community.

234

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Cancer Epidemiology Greenebaum Cancer Center Population Research Program ­ Genetic Epidemiology of Cancer Associate Professor Tenuretrack Health is expanding research in Cancer Genetic Epidemiology to enrich an already robust campuswide

Weber, David J.

235

Advances in epidemiology survey methodology and techniques in schistosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Quantitative techniques are now recognized to contribute to the validity and comparability of data from epidemiological studies in schistosomiasis. These methods have been developed and tested in field investigations in areas where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic and, to a lesser extent, S. haematobium endemic areas. Carefully planned epidemiological investigations using standardized and quantitative methods have contributed to our understanding of the relationships between intensity of infection and morbidity, as well as to the development of improved control strategies relevant to these areas. This article reviews the newer parasitological techniques, methods of morbidity assessment, and data analysis procedures employed in current epidemiological studies in schistosomiasis, as well as the analytical questions involved in research on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis. PMID:6969136

Mott, K. E.; Cline, B. L.

1980-01-01

236

Questions and Questioning: Working with Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who work with early-years children often ask how young children can be encouraged to think about the events, living things, or objects they are investigating and how they can be encouraged to ask appropriate scientific questions. The authors felt that they needed to examine their own practice and that of other teachers in respect to…

Macro, Chris; McFall, Dawn

2004-01-01

237

First NCI Epidemiology Leadership Workshop: Tobacco, Diet, and Genes  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Croyle, DCCPS Director, said that this workshop is one in a series of activities to be undertaken as part of a review of the EGRP, as has occurred in other parts of DCCPS. It is an important opportunity to identify the epidemiologic questions in tobacco, diet, and genetic research that need support and facilitation and what is needed to overcome barriers.

238

Unpark Those Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

Ness, Molly

2013-01-01

239

1190 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology  

E-print Network

1190 PHYTOPATHOLOGY Epidemiology Aflatoxin Contamination of Commercial Cottonseed in South Texas-Garcia, R., and Cotty, P. J. 2003. Aflatoxin contamination of com- mercial cottonseed in South Texas. Phytopathology 93:1190-1200. Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites produced by several members of Aspergillus

Cotty, Peter J.

240

Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2%

F Sommer; U Schwarzer; G Wassmer; W Bloch; M Braun; T Klotz; U Engelmann

2002-01-01

241

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

Jenkins, C. David

1988-01-01

242

Epidemiology of Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of Turner syndrome is largely unknown. A few studies of prevalence and incidence of the syndrome have been performed based on large chromosome surveys, and based on these studies it may be estimated that Turner syndrome occur in 50 per 100,000 liveborn females. A considerable delay in diagnosis of new cases of Turner syndrome exists in all studied

Claus Højbjerg Gravholt; Kirstine Stochholm

2008-01-01

243

Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts  

Cancer.gov

Cohort studies are one of the fundamental designs for epidemiological research. Throughout the last two decades, cohort-based studies have helped researchers to better understand the complex etiology of cancer, and have provided fundamental insights into key environmental, lifestyle, clinical, and genetic determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

244

Genetic epidemiology of colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic epidemiological methods have played an integral role in the characterisation of the genetic susceptibilities to colorectal cancer. Classic epidemiological approaches, such as case-control and prospective cohort studies, that utilise family history information have laid the foundation for the more specialised family-based genetic methods, segregation analysis and linkage analysis. The genetic epidemiology of colorectal cancer can be characterised by several

G. M Petersen

1995-01-01

245

Principles of epidemiological modelling.  

PubMed

Epidemiological modelling can be a powerful tool to assist animal health policy development and disease prevention and control. Models can vary from simple deterministic mathematical models through to complex spatially-explicit stochastic simulations and decision support systems. The approach used will vary depending on the purpose of the study, how well the epidemiology of a disease is understood, the amount and quality of data available, and the background and experience of the modellers. Epidemiological models can be classified into various categories depending on their treatment of variability, chance and uncertainty (deterministic or stochastic), time (continuous or discrete intervals), space (non-spatial or spatial) and the structure of the population (homogenous or heterogeneous mixing). The increasing sophistication of computers, together with greater recognition of the importance of spatial elements in the spread and control of disease, mean that models which incorporate spatial components are becoming more important in epidemiological studies. Multidisciplinary approaches using a range of new technologies make it possible to build more sophisticated models of animal disease. New generation epidemiological models enable disease to be studied in the context of physical, economic, technological, health, media and political infrastructures. To be useful in policy development, models must be fit for purpose and appropriately verified and validated. This involves ensuring that the model is an adequate representation of the system under study and that its outputs are sufficiently accurate and precise for the intended purpose. Finally, models are just one tool for providing technical advice, and should not be considered in isolation from data from experimental and field studies. PMID:21961213

Garner, M G; Hamilton, S A

2011-08-01

246

Invited commentary: agent-based models for causal inference-reweighting data and theory in epidemiology.  

PubMed

The relative weights of empirical facts (data) and assumptions (theory) in causal inference vary across disciplines. Typically, disciplines that ask more complex questions tend to better tolerate a greater role of theory and modeling in causal inference. As epidemiologists move toward increasingly complex questions, Marshall and Galea () support a reweighting of data and theory in epidemiologic research via the use of agent-based modeling. The parametric g-formula can be viewed as an intermediate step between traditional epidemiologic methods and agent-based modeling and therefore is a method that can ease the transition toward epidemiologic methods that rely heavily on modeling. PMID:25480820

Hernán, Miguel A

2015-01-15

247

Ten questions about systems biology  

PubMed Central

In this paper we raise ‘ten questions’ broadly related to ‘omics’, the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist perspective about the contribution of genes and genetic variants to disease is a key reason ‘omics’ has failed to deliver the anticipated breakthroughs. We then point out the critical utility of key concepts from physiology like homeostasis, regulated systems and redundancy as major intellectual tools to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as ‘systems biology’ by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many common diseases. Finally, we attempt to integrate our critique of reductionism into a broader social framework about so-called translational research in specific and the root causes of common diseases in general. Throughout we offer ideas and suggestions that might be incorporated into the current biomedical environment to advance the understanding of disease through the perspective of physiology in conjunction with epidemiology as opposed to bottom-up reductionism alone. PMID:21224238

Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

2011-01-01

248

1 Great Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

Nethery, Carrie

2011-01-01

249

Problem of Questioning  

ScienceCinema

Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

None

2011-04-25

250

Dengue: update on epidemiology.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact. PMID:25475383

Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

2015-01-01

251

Prospects for Epigenetic Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modification can mediate environmental influences on gene expression and can modulate the disease risk associated with genetic variation. Epigenetic analysis therefore holds substantial promise for identifying mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to disease risk. The spatial and temporal variance in epigenetic profile is of particular relevance for developmental epidemiology and the study of aging, including the variable age at onset for many common diseases. This review serves as a general introduction to the topic by describing epigenetic mechanisms, with a focus on DNA methylation; genetic and environmental factors that influence DNA methylation; epigenetic influences on development, aging, and disease; and current methodology for measuring epigenetic profile. Methodological considerations for epidemiologic studies that seek to include epigenetic analysis are also discussed. PMID:19139055

Foley, Debra L.; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Morley, Ruth; Olsson, Craig J.; Dwyer, Terence; Smith, Katherine

2009-01-01

252

International Genetic Epidemiology Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Genetic Epidemiology Society (IGES) is composed of "geneticists, epidemiologists, statisticians, mathematicians, biologists, related biomedical researchers and students interested in the research of the genetic basis of the diseases, complex traits and their risk factors." Hosted by the Division of Biostatistics at Washington University School of Medicine, the IGES website provides information about annual scientific meetings; organizational information such as bylaws; the official IGES journal, _Genetic Epidemiology_; books of interest; relevant courses and training programs, and meetings for related organizations. Notably, the site posts an extensive list of available positions (at institutions in a number of countries) such as post-docs, research fellows, faculty positions, research associate positions, and more. The website links to an IGES membership directory as well.

253

The Challenge Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Then students read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for additional ideas and add them to the list. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

254

Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of the descriptive epidemiology of anxiety disorders based on recently completed surveys\\u000a of the general population. The overall prevalence of anxiety disorders is shown to be quite high, but with considerable variation\\u000a from the most prevalent (specific phobias) to the least prevalent (agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder) disorders.\\u000a Age-of-onset (AOO) of anxiety disorders

Ronald C. Kessler; Ayelet Meron Ruscio; Katherine Shear; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen

255

Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.  

PubMed Central

This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

Coon, W W

1977-01-01

256

Epidemiology of cluster headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster headache was first described over 300 years ago, but in the last century our knowledge of the disorder has exploded\\u000a through both clinical observation and epidemiological data. Although some of the data are conflicting and more need to be\\u000a obtained, much is known about the disorder. This article reviews the data to date on the prevalence and incidence of

Susan W. Broner; Joshua M. Cohen

2009-01-01

257

Cho, Hearn — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

258

Scardino, Peter — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Excellent question, made more provocative when we realize that the seminal vesicles and Cowper’s gland in the male, tissues adjacent to the prostate and under the same hormonal influences as the prostate, rarely if even harbor malignant tumors.

259

Endocrine System Clicker Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of clicker questions designed for first year nursing students in an Anatomy and Physiology course, used during the endocrine system. It can also be used for an undergraduate Physiology course.

DDS/DO Elizabeth J Kavran (Ursuline College Biology)

2009-05-01

260

Schneider, Thomas — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

261

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

262

Paternostro, Giovanni — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This question addresses a very important problem but could be slightly modified to be more provocative. For example, can we design combinatorial cancer therapies that use the same strategies as biological combinatorial control?

263

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

264

Provocative Questions Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Workshop August 2, 2011 UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, California Final Participant List Chair Edward Harlow, Ph.D Chair Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical

265

Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions Where is the SRK postdoctoral fellowship geographically located?The highly competitive program is for female postdoctoral fellows training in any of the National Cancer Institutes’ intramural research settings.  NCI facilities

266

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

267

Saha, Bratin — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

268

CAT questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions.

Not Available

1993-02-01

269

Shridhar, Krithiga — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

270

Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

271

GoodQuestions Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GoodQuestions is a pedagogical strategy designed to improve calculus instruction for higher-level students by adapting two methods developed in physics instruction: ConcepTests (conceptual multiple-choice questions) and Just-in-Time Teaching (a pedagogical strategy that blends web technology with active learning in classroom situations). The project web site includes class materials, links to math classes where the strategy is being employed, news articles, and information on the project team.

2004-04-03

272

Clinical misconceptions dispelled by epidemiological research.  

PubMed

The epidemiological approach to investigation of cardiovascular disease was innovated in 1948 by Ancel Keys' Seven Countries Study and T.R. Dawber's Framingham Heart Study. Conducted in representative samples of the general population, these investigations provided an undistorted perception of the clinical spectrum of cardiovascular disease, its incidence and prognosis, the lifestyles and personal attributes that predispose to cardiovascular disease, and clues to pathogenesis. The many insights gained corrected numerous widely held misconceptions derived from clinical studies. It was learned, for example, that the adverse consequences of hypertension do not derive chiefly from the diastolic pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy was not an incidental compensatory phenomenon, and small amounts of proteinuria were more than orthostatic trivia. Exercise was considered dangerous for cardiovascular disease candidates; smoking, cholesterol, and a fatty diet were regarded as questionable promoters of atherosclerosis. The entities of sudden death and unrecognized myocardial infarction were not widely appreciated as prominent features of coronary disease, and the disabling and lethal nature of cardiac failure and atrial fibrillation was underestimated. It took epidemiological research to coin the term "risk factor" and dispel the notion that cardiovascular disease must have a single origin. Epidemiological investigation provided health professionals with multifactorial risk profiles to more efficiently target candidates for cardiovascular disease for preventive measures. Clinicians now look to epidemiological research to provide definitive information about possible predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease and preventive measures that are justified. As a result, clinicians are less inclined to regard usual or average values as acceptable and are more inclined to regard optimal values as "normal." Cardiovascular events are coming to be regarded as a medical failure rather than the first indication of treatment. PMID:7586324

Kannel, W B

1995-12-01

273

To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions

Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

274

Practical 1: Measuring Disease Occurrence: Prevalence, incidence, incidence density Question 1: Prevalence of Caries in Belo Horizonte  

E-print Network

Practical 1: Measuring Disease Occurrence: Prevalence, incidence, incidence density Question 1: Prevalence of Caries in Belo Horizonte The BELCAP Study; background: Dental epidemiological study;Practical 1: Measuring Disease Occurrence: Prevalence, incidence, incidence density Children selected were

Boehning, Dankmar

275

ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions  

E-print Network

involves critical thinking, and focuses on the substance or content of what a person has said. A question question because it involves no critical thinking on the questioner's part (however, these questions could) The critical thinking required in asking a good, substantive question involves making a careful analysis

Wagner, Diane

276

Epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Pediatric urolithiasis has increased globally in the last few decades. There has been a change in the pattern of stone composition with an increase in the frequency of kidney stones and a decrease in bladder stones. The role of familial predisposition and environmental factors in pediatric urolithiasis is now better understood. Metabolic factors are more common in pediatric urolithiasis than in adult stone disease. This review updates on the epidemiology of pediatric urolithiasis with a focus on the changing trends in the stone disease, current spectrum of stone disease encountered in clinical practice, individual predisposition and the role of environmental factors in stone formation. PMID:21369384

Sharma, Ajay P.; Filler, Guido

2010-01-01

277

Epidemiology of cluster headache.  

PubMed

Cluster headache was first described over 300 years ago, but in the last century our knowledge of the disorder has exploded through both clinical observation and epidemiological data. Although some of the data are conflicting and more need to be obtained, much is known about the disorder. This article reviews the data to date on the prevalence and incidence of the disorder, population differences including gender and race, genetics, comorbid conditions, risk factors for development of the disorder, prognosis, and socioeconomic burden. PMID:19272280

Broner, Susan W; Cohen, Joshua M

2009-04-01

278

Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Studying the epidemiology of fibromyalgia (FM) is very important to understand the impact of this disorder on persons, families and society. The recent modified 2010 classification criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), without the need of tender points palpation, allows that larger and nationwide surveys may be done, worldwide. This article reviews the prevalence and incidence studies done in the general population, in several countries/continents, the prevalence of FM in special groups/settings, the association of FM with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, and the comorbidity of FM with others disorders, especially with headaches. PMID:23801009

Queiroz, Luiz Paulo

2013-08-01

279

Epidemiologic research in Antarctica  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

1990-01-01

280

Question answering for Biology.  

PubMed

Biologists often pose queries to search engines and biological databases to obtain answers related to ongoing experiments. This is known to be a time consuming, and sometimes frustrating, task in which more than one query is posed and many databases are consulted to come to possible answers for a single fact. Question answering comes as an alternative to this process by allowing queries to be posed as questions, by integrating various resources of different nature and by returning an exact answer to the user. We have surveyed the current solutions on question answering for Biology, present an overview on the methods which are usually employed and give insights on how to boost performance of systems in this domain. PMID:25448292

Neves, Mariana; Leser, Ulf

2014-10-28

281

Question Their Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by "questioning their answers."

Royce, Brenda

2004-10-01

282

Research Questions and Hypotheses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This first section guides students to ask testable questions, and formulate hypotheses and null hypotheses. Students also become familiar with the parts of a science research report. This structure reinforces the concepts of quantitative observations and comparative research. It also sets the stage for doing statistical testing. At the end of the first section, students are ready to ask a research question and formulate hypotheses for their Long-Term Research Projects (LTRP). Students finish the section by drafting the introduction paragraphs for their LTRP poster presentations. In this free section you will find Lesson 1--Ooze Observations, an Introduction and the Table of Contents.

Ashley Steel

2001-01-01

283

Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.  

PubMed

Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations. PMID:25526781

Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

2015-01-01

284

2014 American College of Epidemiology Annual Meeting  

Cancer.gov

The theme of the 2014 American College of Epidemiology (ACE) annual meeting is "Making Epidemiology More Consequential." Participants will focus on how epidemiology is used to directly impact the public health of communities and societies, both locally and globally.

285

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Public Health & Occupational Health 2014/2015 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2014-2015 Student

Shoubridge, Eric

286

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health SEMINAR SERIES  

E-print Network

Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health SEMINAR SERIES Summer 2011 Wacholder Senior investigator in the Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics Pine Ave. West, Room 25 ALL ARE WELCOME - Refreshments to follow - #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics

Barthelat, Francois

287

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics Occupational Health  

E-print Network

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health Student Handbook Regulations contained in this brochure pertain to the Graduate Programs in Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health 2010-2011 #12;Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health 2010-2011 Student Handbook TABLE

Barthelat, Francois

288

A Question of Character  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

Stuart, Reginald

2010-01-01

289

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ¥IS IT REAL? ¥IS IT IMPORTANT? ¥WHAT IS IT DUE TO? ¥HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND�t a cure for global warming! Aerosols only last a short while in the atmosphere, they would have

290

Some Questions on Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An educational publisher poses several questions that are related to accountability for the purpose of stimulating discussion on this topic at a national convention of social studies teachers. Is it appropriate to insist upon the verification or validation of instructional materials? Is it possible to make more money available for the purchase of…

Follett, Robert J. R.

291

Questioning and Experimentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

Mutanen, Arto

2014-01-01

292

Some Questions About Neurocognitive  

E-print Network

Some Questions About Neurocognitive Networks Steven Bressler Center for Complex Systems & Brain is a Brain Network? · A brain network is a large-scale system in the brain consisting of distributed neuronal ­ Dynamic Interdependency #12;Does The Brain Need Networks? · Serial processing, as found in the PNS, is too

Bressler, Steven L.

293

Questions English Teachers Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is based on the responses of 374 English teachers at the secondary and college levels to a letter asking them to describe the questions that most perplex them professionally. Answers are provided by 88 leaders in English education, including James R. Squire, Walter H. MacGinitie, R. Baird Shuman, Sheila Schwartz, and Ken Macrorie. The…

Shuman, R. Baird

294

De, Abhijit — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Looking at cell to cell differences within a tumor bed, contributed by either DNA mutations, epigenetic or post-translational modifications (PTM) or miRNA mediated control switches or even a combination of all these, the question rise how to best design a personalized drug trial?

295

The Compensation Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

2012-01-01

296

A Question of Choice  

PubMed Central

Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

2011-01-01

297

Asking the Right Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

Lord, Rob

2011-01-01

298

Questions about Neck Manipulation?  

MedlinePLUS

Questions About Neck Manipulation? Chiropractic is widely recognized as one of the safest drug-free, non-invasive therapies available for the treatment of ... of chiropractic, osteopaths and physical therapists provide--neck manipulation (also known as cervical manipulation)—with a certain ...

299

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

300

The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination  

E-print Network

The evolutionary epidemiology of vaccination Sylvain Gandon1,* and Troy Day2 1 Ge´ne´tique et 3N6, Canada Vaccination leads to dramatic perturbations of the environment of parasite populations for modelling the short- and long-term epidemiological and evolutionary consequences of vaccination

301

Molecular epidemiology in cancer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molecular biomarkers in epidemiological investigations brings clear advantages of economy, speed and precision. Epidemiology – the study of the factors that control the patterns of incidence of disease – normally requires large numbers of subjects and\\/or long periods of time, because what is measured (the occurrence of disease) is a rare event. Biomarkers are measurable biological parameters

Andrew R Collins

1998-01-01

302

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

303

The Epidemiology of Delirium: Challenges and Opportunities for Population Studies  

PubMed Central

Delirium is a serious and common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome that is associated with short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. However, relatively little delirium research has been conducted in unselected populations. Epidemiologic research in such populations has the potential to resolve several questions of clinical significance in delirium. Part 1 of this article explores the importance of population selection, case-ascertainment, attrition, and confounding. Part 2 examines a specific question in delirium epidemiology: What is the relationship between delirium and trajectories of cognitive decline? This section assesses previous work through two systematic reviews and proposes a design for investigating delirium in the context of longitudinal cohort studies. Such a design requires robust links between community and hospital settings. Practical considerations for case-ascertainment in the hospital, as well as the necessary quality control of these programs, are outlined. We argue that attention to these factors is important if delirium research is to benefit fully from a population perspective. PMID:23907068

Davis, Daniel H.J.; Kreisel, Stefan H.; Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Hall, Andrew J.; Morandi, Alessandro; Boustani, Malaz; Neufeld, Karin J.; Lee, Hochang Benjamin; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.; Brayne, Carol

2013-01-01

304

[Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].  

PubMed

Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis A is a rare disease occurring sporadically, which is a consequence of improved sanitation and hygiene, hepatitides B and C are the main causes of viral hepatitis in Croatia. The introduction of universal mandatory hepatitis B vaccination of schoolchildren in 1999 resulted in a decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B, which is most pronounced in adolescents and young adults, and further decrease in the incidence and prevalence is expected as the pool of susceptible individuals decreases through vaccination. The incidence of hepatitis C is decreasing as well. In spite of a relatively favorable epidemiological situation, hepatitis B and C are still a significant public health burden with an estimated 25,000 persons chronically infected with HBV and about 40,000 persons chronically infected with HCV in Croatia. PMID:24984326

Kai?, Bernard; Vilibi?-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipovi?, Sanja Kureci?; Nemeth-Blazi?, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunovi?, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radi?, Ivan; Pavli?, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

2013-10-01

305

The Epidemiology of Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Sarcomas account for over 20% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers. The vast majority of diagnosed sarcomas will be soft tissue sarcomas, while malignant bone tumors make up just over 10% of sarcomas. The risks for sarcoma are not well-understood. We evaluated the existing literature on the epidemiology and etiology of sarcoma. Risks for sarcoma development can be divided into environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and an interaction between the two. HIV-positive individuals are at an increased risk for Kaposi’s sarcoma, even though HHV8 is the causative virus. Radiation exposure from radiotherapy has been strongly associated with secondary sarcoma development in certain cancer patients. In fact, the risk of malignant bone tumors increases as the cumulative dose of radiation to the bone increases (p for trend <0.001). A recent meta-analysis reported that children with a history of hernias have a greater risk of developing Ewing’s sarcoma (adjusted OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.9, 5.7). Bone development during pubertal growth spurts has been associated with osteosarcoma development. Occupational factors such as job type, industry, and exposures to chemicals such as herbicides and chlorophenols have been suggested as risk factors for sarcomas. A case-control study found a significant increase in soft tissue sarcoma risk among gardeners (adjusted OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.00, 14.00), but not among those strictly involved in farming. A European-based study reported an increased risk in bone tumors among blacksmiths, toolmakers, or machine-tool operators (adjusted OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08, 4.26). Maternal and paternal characteristics such as occupation, age, smoking status, and health conditions experienced during pregnancy also have been suggested as sarcoma risk factors and would be important to assess in future studies. The limited studies we identified demonstrate significant relationships with sarcoma risk, but many of these results now require further validation on larger populations. Furthermore, little is known about the biologic mechanisms behind each epidemiologic association assessed in the literature. Future molecular epidemiology studies may increase our understanding of the genetic versus environmental contributions to tumorigenesis in this often deadly cancer in children and adults. PMID:23036164

2012-01-01

306

Epidemiology of gliomas.  

PubMed

Gliomas are the most common type of primary intracranial tumors. Some glioma subtypes cause significant mortality and morbidity that are disproportionate to their relatively rare incidence. A very small proportion of glioma cases can be attributed to inherited genetic disorders. Many potential risk factors for glioma have been studied to date, but few provide explanation for the number of brain tumors identified. The most significant of these factors includes increased risk due to exposure to ionizing radiation, and decreased risk with history of allergy or atopic disease. The potential effect of exposure to cellular phones has been studied extensively, but the results remain inconclusive. Recent genomic analyses, using the genome-wide association study (GWAS) design, have identified several inherited risk variants that are associated with increased glioma risk. The following chapter provides an overview of the current state of research in the epidemiology of intracranial glioma. PMID:25468222

Ostrom, Quinn T; Gittleman, Haley; Stetson, Lindsay; Virk, Selene M; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

2015-01-01

307

Epidemiology of Peyronie's disease.  

PubMed

Francois Gigot de la Peyronie, surgeon to Louis XV of France, has become synonymous with the rather enigmatic though not uncommon condition of Peyronie's disease (PD), a localized connective tissue disorder of the penile tunica albuginea. The true prevalence of Peyronie's disease is unknown. Therefore, we decided to perform an evaluation of existing epidemiological data. A prevalence rate of 3.2% was determined in male inhabitants of the greater Cologne area. This is much higher than revealed by the data reported up to now, thus rendering the accepted prevalence rates of 0.3% to 1% untenable. The actual prevalence of Peyronie's disease may be even higher, considering many patients' reluctance to report this embarrassing condition to their physicians. Along these lines, most clinicians note that the number of Peyronie's patients has increased since the advent of oral sildenafil. Comparably high prevalences are known for diabetes and urolithiasis, suggesting a greater frequency of this rare disease than formerly believed. PMID:12454689

Sommer, F; Schwarzer, U; Wassmer, G; Bloch, W; Braun, M; Klotz, T; Engelmann, U

2002-10-01

308

Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of S. pneumoniae invasive infections in France, over the last few years, was modified by two public health measures. A nationwide campaign for the rationalization of antibiotic prescription was implemented in 2001 and vaccination of young children with the pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine in 2003. These measures led to a decrease in antibiotic resistance in S. pneumoniae strains, a lower incidence of invasive infections due to vaccine serotypes, but a higher incidence of infections due to non-vaccine serotypes, especially 7F and 19A. Despite the replacement, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections in children less than 2 years of age remains lower than it was before introducing the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. PMID:22819510

Varon, E

2012-08-01

309

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

310

Automatic Question Pattern Generation for Ontology-based Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automatic question pattern generation method for ontology-based question answering with the use of textual entailment. In this method, a set of question pat- terns, called predictive questions, which are predicted to be asked by users in a domain, were generated on the basis of a domain ontology. Their corresponding query templates, which can be used to

Shiyan Ou; Constantin Orasan; Dalila Mekhaldi; Laura Hasler

2008-01-01

311

[An epidemiological investigation of eperythrozoon infection in human and animals. A Collaborative Research Group on Eperythrozoonosis].  

PubMed

This paper reported an epidemiological investigation on human and animal Eperythrozoons infection in five districts from three provinces in China. The results showed that Eperythrozoon infection appeaned in human as well as in swines, sheep and cats. Due to geographical variations, the infectious rates showed significantly difference both in human and in animals. The infection rate in human was not associated with sex, age or occupation. Some questions related to the epidemiology of Eperythrozoonosis were discussed in this article. PMID:7648637

Shang, D Q

1995-04-01

312

Desai, Kartiki — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is a great question. Gene-based targeting has contributed significantly to decrease mortality. Despite the unexplored black box of molecular mechanisms, these drugs were highly effective as first line of therapy. However over time, a percentage of patients were either non-responders or developed resistance. Our deep knowledge of molecular mechanisms has helped redesign some of the drugs, or established diagnostic tests to stratify patients that would benefit from such drugs.

313

Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... A / Poultry Processing: Questions and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

314

The "Looting Question" Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provocatively subtitled "Web and Literary Resources on the Archaeological Politics of Private Collecting, Commercial Treasure Hunting, Looting, and 'Professional' Archaeology," this comprehensive online bibliography provides scholars and practitioners with resources related to the "looting question." The bibliography is organized by format type and focuses on North American materials. Hugh Jarvis, a doctoral candidate in Anthropology as well as a graduate student in Information and Library Studies at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, has compiled this unique, frequently updated resource.

315

Acromegaly: an epidemiological study.  

PubMed

Although morbility and mortality in acromegaly are higher than in the general population, there have been very few previous epidemiological studies. This study tries to answer "why". Seventy-four patients affected by acromegaly in Vizcaya (Spain) between 1970 and 1989 were considered for an epidemiological study. The prevalence of known cases at the end of 1989 was 60 per million inhabitants. The average incidence of newly diagnosed cases was 3.1 per million people per year. Unexpectedly, acromegaly was more frequent in women (n = 48) than in men (n = 26), with a ratio of 1.8:1. Mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher in women (46.1 +/- 2.2 yr) than in men (39.5 +/- 2.2 yr) (p < 0.05) There was a positive correlation between age at diagnosis and the estimated duration of the disease (r = 0.56, p < 0.05) and a negative one between age and basal GH serum levels (r = -0.52 p < 0.002). The age at diagnosis was significantly higher in patients with invasive tumors (grade III and IV) than in those with enclosed tumors (grade I and II) (47.7 +/- 1.8 vs 40.1 +/- 3.3 p < 0.05). In general, mortality was higher than the expected for the control population (standardized mortality ratio, SMR = 3.2, 95% confidence interval. Cl = 1.55-5.93). However, mortality was higher in men (SMR = 7, 95% Cl = 2.81-14.4) but not in women (SMR = 1.4 95% Cl = 0.29-4.17).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8514973

Etxabe, J; Gaztambide, S; Latorre, P; Vazquez, J A

1993-03-01

316

Welcome to Provocative Questions: The Unanswered Questions in Cancer Research — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 20 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI's research communities to use laboratory, clinical and population sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions.

317

The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

Chasteen, Stephanie

2012-02-01

318

VDTs: Field levels, epidemiology, and laboratory studies  

SciTech Connect

As the use of video display terminals (VDTs) has expanded, questions have been raised as to whether working at a VDT affects the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. A particular focus for these questions has been the very low frequency (VLF) magnetic field produced by a VDT's horizontal deflection coil. VDTs also produce VLF electric fields, extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields, and static electric fields, Ten studies of pregnancy outcome in VDT operators have been conducted in six countries, and with one exception, none has concluded that magnetic fields from VDTs may predispose pregnant operators to spontaneous abortion or congenital malformation. The epidemiologic studies conducted thus far do not provide a basis for concluding that VDT work and adverse pregnancy outcome are associated. Studies of fetal resorptions and malformations in rodents exposed to VLF magnetic fields have produced inconsistent findings. Two laboratories in Sweden that studied mice have reported positive results, one laboratory showing field-related malformations (but not resorptions) and the other showing field-related resorptions (but not malformations). Two Canadian laboratories have reported negative results in rats and mice. Studies of avian embryos have also yielded inconsistent results, but lacking a maternal-fetal placental interface, avian embryos are a questionable model for evaluating human reproductive risks. Finally, VLF electric and magnetic fields measured at the operator position are in compliance with field strength standards and guidelines that have been established around the world. 55 refs.

Kavet, R.; Tell, R.A. (Richard Tell Associates, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

1991-07-01

319

OpenEpi - Epidemiologic Calculators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Andrew G. Dean, Roger A. Mir and Kevin Sullivan of Open Epidemiology.com, contains calculators for use in epidemiological calculations. There are modules that can be used online and open source modules that can be downloaded and altered. Some modules include 2x2 tables, an R by C table, proportions, dose-response and trend calculator, sample size, and generation of random numbers. This is a great resource for those interested in general statistics, social statistics, public health, or more specifically, epidemiology.

Dean, Andrew G.; Mir, Roger A.; Sullivan, Kevin

2009-02-09

320

Marchetti, Dario — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

321

Lerman, Michael — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This question is highly important. Indeed, high-dose cisplatin-based chemotherapy represents a curative option for patients with testicular germ cell tumors including seminoma and nonseminomas, namely embryonal carcinoma, yolk-sac tumor, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma. The curative effect is most likely due to large growth fractions in these solid and hematological tumors and probably high expression of protein target(s) of cisplatin. At least one such protein target of cisplatin was identified in species ranging from yeast to humans. These predictions could be easily verified.

322

EGRP-Supported Epidemiology Consortia  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

323

On the epidemiology of influenza  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, \\

John J Cannell; Michael Zasloff; Cedric F Garland; Robert Scragg; Edward Giovannucci

2008-01-01

324

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)  

Cancer.gov

The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC) is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors. During the process of attaining this mission, BTEC plans to mentor junior investigators or investigators who are new to brain tumor epidemiologic research.

325

Epidemiology of pancreas cancer (1988)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This article reviews the epidemiology of cancer of the pancreas, both descriptive and analytical, at all times cognizant of\\u000a the problems of misdiagnosis, particularly underdiagnosis, of this lethal disease that continue to hinder epidemiological\\u000a studies. Pancreas cancer is consistently reported to occur more frequently in men than in women, in blacks than in whites,\\u000a and in urban rather than rural

P. Boyle; C.-C Hsieh; P. Maisonneuve; C. La Vecchia; G. J. Macfarlane; A. M. Walker; D. Trichopoulos

1989-01-01

326

Microtia: Epidemiology & Genetics  

PubMed Central

Microtia is a congenital anomaly of the ear that ranges in severity from mild structural abnormalities to complete absence of the ear, and can occur as an isolated birth defect or as part of a spectrum of anomalies or a syndrome. Microtia is often associated with hearing loss and patients typically require treatment for hearing impairment and surgical ear reconstruction. The reported prevalence varies among regions, from 0.83 to 17.4 per 10,000 births and the prevalence is considered to be higher in Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and Andeans. The etiology of microtia and the cause of this wide variability in prevalence are poorly understood. Strong evidence supports the role of environmental and genetic causes for microtia. Although some studies have identified candidate genetic variants for microtia, no causal genetic mutation has been confirmed. The application of novel strategies in developmental biology and genetics has facilitated elucidation of mechanisms controlling craniofacial development. In this paper we review current knowledge of the epidemiology and genetics of microtia, including potential candidate genes supported by evidence from human syndromes and animal models. We also discuss the possible etiopathogenesis in light of the hypotheses formulated to date: neural crest cells disturbance, vascular disruption and altitude. PMID:22106030

Luquetti, Daniela V.; Heike, Carrie L.; Hing, Anne V.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Cox, Timothy C.

2012-01-01

327

The epidemiology of favism  

PubMed Central

Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

Belsey, Mark A.

1973-01-01

328

Epidemiology of actinic keratoses.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of actinic keratoses (AKs) reflects their causation by cumulative sun exposure, with the highest prevalence seen in pale-skinned people living at low latitudes and on the most sun-exposed body sites, namely the hands, forearms and face. AKs are markers of increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, especially when they are numerous and have coalesced into an area of 'field cancerisation'. The major risk factors are male sex, advanced age, sun-sensitive complexion, high lifetime sun exposure and prolonged immunosuppression. Clinical counts of AKs enable the assessment and monitoring of AK burden, but accurate counting is notoriously difficult, especially when skin is severely sun damaged. AK counting has been repeatedly shown to be unreliable, even among expert dermatologists. Notwithstanding these challenges, qualitative assessment of the natural history of AKs shows a high turnover, with new lesions developing and with other lesions regressing. A very small proportion of AKs undergo malignant transformation, but the precise rate of transformation is unknown due to the inaccuracies in monitoring AK lesions over time. Primary prevention of AKs is achieved by limiting intense sun exposure through sun-protective behaviour, including seeking deep shade, wearing sun-protective clothing and applying sunscreen regularly to exposed skin, from an early age. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25561199

Green, Adèle C

2015-01-01

329

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I play tutorials and videos on my mobile device?  

MedlinePLUS

... Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Can I play tutorials and videos on my mobile device? To use the sharing ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: MedlinePlus has video content in different formats. MedlinePlus also links to ...

330

MedlinePlus FAQ: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer?  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: Can I download a tutorial to use on my computer? To use the ... JavaScript. Answer: You cannot download the interactive health tutorials from MedlinePlus. With permission from the producer, NLM ...

331

MedlinePlus FAQ: What's New on Medline Plus Page and Email Updates  

MedlinePLUS

... Cool Tools ESPAÑOL Question: How is the What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed different from ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Answer: The What's New on MedlinePlus page and RSS feed include alerts ...

332

Contrasting Theories of Interaction in Epidemiology and Toxicology  

PubMed Central

Background: Epidemiologists and toxicologists face similar problems when assessing interactions between exposures, yet they approach the question very differently. The epidemiologic definition of “interaction” leads to the additivity of risk differences (RDA) as the fundamental criterion for causal inference about biological interactions. Toxicologists define “interaction” as departure from a model based on mode of action: concentration addition (CA; for similarly acting compounds) or independent action (IA; for compounds that act differently). Objectives: We compared and contrasted theoretical frameworks for interaction in the two fields. Methods: The same simple thought experiment has been used in both both epidemiology and toxicology to develop the definition of “noninteraction,” with nearly opposite interpretations. In epidemiology, the “sham combination” leads to a requirement that noninteractive dose–response curves be linear, whereas in toxicology, it results in the model of CA. We applied epidemiologic tools to mathematical models of concentration-additive combinations to evaluate their utility. Results: RDA is equivalent to CA only for linear dose–response curves. Simple models demonstrate that concentration-additive combinations can result in strong synergy or antagonism in the epidemiologic framework at even the lowest exposure levels. For combinations acting through nonsimilar pathways, RDA approximates IA at low effect levels. Conclusions: Epidemiologists have argued for a single logically consistent definition of interaction, but the toxicologic perspective would consider this approach less biologically informative than a comparison with CA or IA. We suggest methods for analysis of concentration-additive epidemiologic data. The two fields can learn a great deal about interaction from each other. PMID:23014866

Webster, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

333

NCI DEA - Board of Scientific Counselors - Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology  

Cancer.gov

National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Division of Extramural Activities - Home Page Skip to Main Content Home Funding Advisory Consumer Guides FAQs & Glossary Awarded Research Division of Extramural Activities Board of Scientific

334

Ebola FAQs for Managers and Employees Ebola is not transmitted through the air, food, or water. The virus can ONLY be transmitted through  

E-print Network

Ebola FAQs for Managers and Employees Ebola is not transmitted through the air, food, or water are at risk of contracting Ebola. It is transmitted only by direct contact with the blood or bodily uids to work without fear of being exposed to Ebola virus. Do I need to wear protective gear on campus? No

335

Ebola FAQs for Masters, Deans, Parents, Students Ebola is not transmitted through the air, food, or water. The virus can ONLY be transmitted through  

E-print Network

Ebola FAQs for Masters, Deans, Parents, Students Ebola is not transmitted through the air, food of contracting Ebola, which is transmitted only by direct contact with the blood or bodily uids of an infected should go to class without fear of being exposed to Ebola virus. Can I eat in the dining hall? Go

336

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

337

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

338

Gallery Walk Questions about Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about climate. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level ...

339

Contemplative Pedagogy: Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemplative Pedagogy is a new and sometimes controversial pedagogical practice. Faculty often have basic questions about how to implement the pedagogy in their classrooms, in addition to questions that challenge the educational value and appropriateness of the practice. Assembled here are the most frequently asked questions about Contemplative…

Coburn, Tom; Grace, Fran; Klein, Anne Carolyn; Komjathy, Louis; Roth, Harold; Simmer-Brown, Judith

2011-01-01

340

Pre-Lab Questions: Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of simulation based interactive questions that were used as pre-lab questions at Kennesaw State University. The simulations in this case are based on Davidson's College Physlets. These particular questions focus on magnetism. Magnetism due to a bar magnet, a wire, a loop and a solenoid are explored.

Mzoughi, Taha

2008-07-19

341

Questions for music education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addressing the question-set ‘What questions do music education researchers need to address?’, an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the specifically educational dimensions of music education? What

Estelle R. Jorgensen

2008-01-01

342

Questions for Music Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

Jorgensen, Estelle R.

2008-01-01

343

Cosmic questions: an introduction.  

PubMed

This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle. PMID:11797741

Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

2001-12-01

344

Frontline: The Torture Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Experts and pundits continue to debate the myriad of strategies deployed by the United States in the effort to combat terrorism around the world and internally. The Frontline program on PBS has created this website to complement a special edition of their show. This show focused on the question of whether torture is a viable way to obtain effective results in combating terrorism. Visitors can dive right in by watching the program in its entirety, or they may also wish to visit one of the sections providing supplementary information. One particularly compelling area is the section that provides information on how the current administration of President George W. Bush has created a protocol for conducting such investigations. Another very useful section is titled âÂÂBehind the Wireâ and offers visitors an inside look into the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba. Perhaps the most moving and intense portion of the site is the discussion section, where visitors can leave feedback and read the impassioned opinions of others who have seen the program.

2005-01-01

345

Global epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed

Despite having the highest prevalence of any sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally, there is a dearth of data describing Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) incidence and prevalence in the general population. The lack of basic epidemiological data is an obstacle to addressing the epidemic. Once considered a nuisance infection, the morbidities associated with TV have been increasingly recognised over the past decade, highlighting the importance of this pathogen as a public health problem. Recent developments in TV diagnostics and molecular biology have improved our understanding of TV epidemiology. Improved characterisation of the natural history of TV infection has allowed us to hypothesise possible explanations for observed variations in TV prevalence with age. Direct and indirect hormonal effects on the female genital tract provide a likely explanation for the greater burden of persistent TV infection among women compared with men. Further characterisation of the global epidemiology of TV could enhance our ability to respond to the TV epidemic. PMID:23744960

Poole, Danielle N; McClelland, R Scott

2013-09-01

346

Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

2014-01-01

347

EpiBasket: how e-commerce tools can improve epidemiological preparedness  

PubMed Central

Background Should an emerging infectious disease outbreak or an environmental disaster occur, the collection of epidemiological data must start as soon as possible after the event's onset. Questionnaires are usually built de novo for each event, resulting in substantially delayed epidemiological responses that are detrimental to the understanding and control of the event considered. Moreover, the public health and/or academic institution databases constructed with responses to different questionnaires are usually difficult to merge, impairing necessary collaborations. We aimed to show that e-commerce concepts and software tools can be readily adapted to enable rapid collection of data after an infectious disease outbreak or environmental disaster. Here, the ‘customers’ are the epidemiologists, who fill their shopping ‘baskets’ with standardised questions. Methods For each epidemiological field, a catalogue of questions is constituted by identifying the relevant variables based on a review of the published literature on similar circumstances. Each question is tagged with information on its source papers. Epidemiologists can then tailor their own questionnaires by choosing appropriate questions from this catalogue. The software immediately provides them with ready-to-use forms and online questionnaires. All databases constituted by the different EpiBasket users are interoperable, because the corresponding questionnaires are derived from the same corpus of questions. Results A proof-of-concept prototype was developed for Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) surveys, which is one of the fields of the epidemiological investigation frequently explored during, or after, an outbreak or environmental disaster. The catalogue of questions was initiated from a review of the KAP studies conducted during or after the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic. Conclusion Rapid collection of standardised data after an outbreak or environmental disaster can be facilitated by transposing the e-commerce paradigm to epidemiology, taking advantage of the powerful software tools already available. PMID:24183326

Xing, Weijia; Hejblum, Gilles; Valleron, Alain-Jacques

2013-01-01

348

Nutritional Epidemiology-There's Life in the Old Dog Yet!  

PubMed

Consideration is given to the idea that the nutritional epidemiology of cancer is dead, as some in the media have claimed. The basis for the claim does not lie in science nor has anyone with relevant knowledge made such a statement-although that, too, has been claimed. Evidence is adduced for the importance of past achievements of nutritional epidemiology. Attention is similarly drawn to recent contributions. In particular, I note the state of play of cancer and plant foods, fat and breast cancer, meat and cancer, vegetarians, intervention studies, migrant studies, and westernization of diet and lifestyle. Some next steps and some currently important questions are outlined. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(2); 323-30. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25515549

Potter, John D

2015-02-01

349

Update on the epidemiology of primary biliary cirrhosis.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of primary biliary cirrhosis was described as early as the 1970s, yet decades later the true frequency of this disease and its associated risk factors are still in question. There has been a wealth of data documenting the various incidence and prevalence rates across the world, demonstrating potential risk factors inherent to geographic differences. Studies that follow primary biliary cirrhosis in a set population over time have offered the most reliable picture of disease frequency. Analysis of clustering effects through region and time has offered valuable information on the complexity of the disease development. Improved epidemiologic surveillance of primary biliary cirrhosis around the world will be necessary to provide definitive evidence on the phenomenon of clustering and its associations with proposed risk factors in the literature. PMID:21910576

Chuang, Nelson; Gross, Rebekah G; Odin, Joseph A

2011-10-01

350

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

351

Geographic boundary analysis in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology: Perspective and prospects  

PubMed Central

Geographic boundary analysis is a relatively new approach that is just beginning to be applied in spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology to quantify spatial variation in health outcomes, predictors and correlates; generate and test epidemiologic hypotheses; to evaluate health-environment relationships; and to guide sampling design. Geographic boundaries are zones of rapid change in the value of a spatially distributed variable, and mathematically may be defined as those locations with a large second derivative of the spatial response surface. Here we introduce a pattern analysis framework based on Value, Change and Association questions, and boundary analysis is shown to fit logically into Change and Association paradigms. This article addresses fundamental questions regarding what boundary analysis can tell us in public health and epidemiology. It explains why boundaries are of interest, illustrates analysis approaches and limitations, and concludes with prospects and future research directions. PMID:21218153

Jacquez, Geoffrey M.

2010-01-01

352

Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations  

Cancer.gov

In May 2014, NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) hosted Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations, a scientific symposium honoring 50 years of visionary leadership by Dr. Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., the founding Director of

353

THE COMPREHENSIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC DATA RESOURCE (CEDR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) is a Department of Energy (DOE) public-use repository of data collected for DOE-sponsored epidemiologic, environmental, and related health studies....

354

NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing  

Cancer.gov

The NCI Workshop on Broadening Epidemiologic Data Sharing, sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), was held on October 8, 2014, at the NCI Shady Grove Campus in Rockville, Maryland.

355

Phoning while driving I: a review of epidemiological, psychological, behavioural and physiological studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of cell (mobile) phone use on driving performance has been widely questioned for 20 years. This paper reviews the literature to evaluate the extent to which phoning may impact behaviour with a risk to affect safety. After analysing epidemiological studies that give an overview of cell phone use, this paper examines the experimental results and focuses on variables

C. Collet; A. Guillot; C. Petit

2010-01-01

356

The epidemiology of rape and sexual coercion in South Africa: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1999 the issue of rape in South Africa was debated at the highest levels. The epidemiology of rape has become an issue of considerable political importance and sensitivity, with President Mbeki demanding an answer to the question: how much rape is there in South Africa? The purpose of this paper is both to summarise and synthesise the findings of

Rachel Jewkes; Naeema Abrahams

2002-01-01

357

Information Technology Usage for Epidemiological Functions in U.S. State Public Health Departments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information technology (IT) use for epidemiological purposes in state public health departments has been documented only for a limited number of specific applications, leaving questions about its actual utilization and hindering IT's potential for information sharing. Communications, stages of change, and systems theories all influence the…

Stokes, Linda C.

2012-01-01

358

Radiation epidemiology: a perspective on Fukushima.  

PubMed

For nearly 100 years, epidemiologic studies of human populations exposed to ionising radiation have provided quantitative information on health risks. High dose deterministic (tissue reaction) effects result when sufficient numbers of functioning cells are killed, such as in bone marrow depression that can lead to death. Lower dose stochastic effects are probabilistic in nature and include an increased risk of cancer later in life and heritable genetic defects, although genetic conditions in the children of irradiated parents have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Radiation studies are of diverse populations and include not only the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but also patients treated with radiation for malignant and non-malignant disease; patients exposed for diagnostic purposes; persons with intakes of radionuclides; workers occupationally exposed; and communities exposed to environmental and accidentally released sources of radiation. Much is known about radiation and its risks. The major unanswered question in radiation epidemiology, however, is not whether radiation causes cancer, but what the level of risk is following low dose (<100 mSv) or low dose rate exposures. Paracelsus is credited with first articulating that the 'poison is in the dose', which for radiation epidemiology translates as 'the lower the dose, the lower the risk' and, an important corollary, the lower the dose, the greater the difficulty in detecting any increase in the number of cancers possibly attributable to radiation. In contrast to the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Fukushima reactor accident has to date resulted in no deterministic effects and no worker deaths. Estimates to date of population doses suggest very low uptakes of radioactive iodine which was a major determinant of the epidemic of thyroid cancer following childhood exposures around Chernobyl. The estimates to date of population doses are also much lower (and the distribution much narrower) than the doses for which cancer excesses have been detected among atomic bomb survivors after 60 years of follow-up. Studies of populations exposed to low doses are also limited in their ability to account for important lifestyle factors, such as cigarette smoking and medical x-ray exposures, which could distort findings. Studies of the Fukushima population should be and are being considered for reassurance and health care reasons. Apart from as regards the extreme psychological stress caused by the horrific loss of life following the tsunami and the large-scale evacuation from homes and villages, such studies have limited to no chance of providing information on possible health risks following low dose exposures received gradually over time--the estimated doses (to date) are just too small. PMID:22395193

Boice, John D

2012-03-01

359

Epidemiology and Natural History of Nephrolithiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology and natural history of nephrolithiasis comprise its incidence and prevalence; role of age, gender, and race;\\u000a risk factors, comorbidities, and course. As such, epidemiology verges into clinical features, pathogenesis, treatment, and\\u000a prognosis. Although it is well known that associations derived from epidemiological studies do not prove causal relationships,\\u000a lessons from epidemiology and natural history have been readily applied

Alan G. Wasserstein

360

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

361

Geomagnetic Field Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site the question and answer format is used to provide information about the Earth's magnetic field. Frequently asked questions are linked to detailed answers. Along with standard questions about the magnetic poles and how a compass works, there are sections about geomagnetic models, Space Weather Scales and magnetic field reversals. Links lead to a site to download the latest model as well as sites for more detailed information.

362

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WORK ON DBP EXPOSURES  

EPA Science Inventory

This effort was based on several completed or existing projects where disinfection by-products ( or DBPs) have been the primary exposure of interest. Previous epidemiologic results on reproductive or developmental risks that may be associated with consumption of disinfected drink...

363

Molecular Epidemiology of Glanders, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines. PMID:19961695

Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O’Neill, Matthew; DeShazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera

2009-01-01

364

Epidemiological studies in human radiobiology*  

PubMed Central

A meeting on the contribution of epidemiological studies to the better understanding of the effects of radiation on human health was held in Washington, D.C., from 13 to 17 December 1965. This meeting was organized and sponsored by the World Health Organization, with the co-operation of the Division of Radiological Health, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. The main emphasis of the meeting was on obtaining representative views on the epidemiological studies now in progress and on the possibilities for further studies, but past work was also briefly reviewed under such headings as leukaemia, lung and other tumours, congenital malformations and cytogenetic effects. In addition, information was presented on current concepts of the mechanism of carcinogenesis and life-shortening derived from experimental and theoretical work. Against this background an attempt was made to identify the most essential needs for epidemiological data at present and to consider how such data might be obtained. The text presented below was prepared by Professor L. F. Lamerton of the Department of Biophysics, Institute of Cancer Research (Surrey Branch), Sutton, Surrey, England, and Professor B. MacMahon of the Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., USA. It is a précis of some of the views expressed and of the information and the suggestions made. PMID:20604319

1967-01-01

365

Epidemiology of pneumothorax in England  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDLittle is known of the epidemiology of pneumothorax. Routinely available data on pneumothorax in England are described.METHODSPatients consulting in primary care with a diagnosis of pneumothorax in each year from 1991 to 1995 inclusive were identified from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Emergency hospital admissions for pneumothorax were identified for the years 1991–4 from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES)

Dheeraj Gupta; Anna Hansell; Tom Nichols; Trinh Duong; Jon G Ayres; David Strachan

2000-01-01

366

Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group  

Cancer.gov

The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group was established in 2012 to promote strategies to develop capacity to support metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as to advance the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

367

Epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiological characteristics of platelet aggregability were established in 958 participants in the Northwick Park Heart Study. The main analyses were based on the dose of adenosine diphosphate at which primary aggregation occurred at half its maximum velocity. Aggregability increased with age in both sexes, was greater in whites than blacks (particularly among men), and tended to decrease with the

T W Meade; M V Vickers; S G Thompson; Y Stirling; A P Haines; G J Miller

1985-01-01

368

The epidemiology of Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of Turner syndrome is largely unknown. A few studies of prevalence and incidence of the syndrome have been performed based on large chromosome surveys, and based on these studies it may be estimated that Turner syndrome occur in 50 per 100,000 liveborn females. A considerable delay in diagnosis of new cases of Turner syndrome exists in all studied

Claus Højbjerg Gravholt; Kirstine Stochholm

2006-01-01

369

Spatiotemporal Reasoning about Epidemiological Data  

E-print Network

in Medicine #12;1 INTRODUCTION Infectious disease outbreaks are critical threats to public health and national security [5]. With greatly expanded travel and trade, infectious diseases can quickly spread across large epidemiological data based on recursive and non- recursive SQL queries. Results. We implement a particular

Revesz, Peter

370

Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models  

SciTech Connect

Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL; Jha, Sumit Kumar [University of Central Florida

2012-01-01

371

2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course  

Cancer.gov

Mark your calendars for the 2015 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course, offered by the Radiation Epidemiology Branch, part of NCI's Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG). World renowned radiation experts will discuss basic principles and the most up-to-date thinking about the health effects of radiation exposure.

372

About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program  

Cancer.gov

Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally with funding through the extramural Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) and other Programs in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

373

Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Question 1.3  

E-print Network

Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Question 1.3 What is the Greenhouse Effect? The Sun by the atmosphere, including clouds, and reradiated back to Earth. This is called the greenhouse effect. The glass, but through a different physical process, the Earth's greenhouse effect warms the surface of the planet

374

Donating Blood Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Back to top Questions about Individuals Diagnosed with Hemochromatosis and Blood Donations Is it true that individuals diagnosed with hemochromatosis can now donate? FDA has always allowed individuals ...

375

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

376

Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.  

PubMed

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to learn from this unique phenomenon of migration medicine. PMID:12615370

Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

2003-02-01

377

Epidemiological designs for vaccine safety assessment: methods and pitfalls.  

PubMed

Three commonly used designs for vaccine safety assessment post licensure are cohort, case-control and self-controlled case series. These methods are often used with routine health databases and immunisation registries. This paper considers the issues that may arise when designing an epidemiological study, such as understanding the vaccine safety question, case definition and finding, limitations of data sources, uncontrolled confounding, and pitfalls that apply to the individual designs. The example of MMR and autism, where all three designs have been used, is presented to help consider these issues. PMID:21985898

Andrews, Nick

2012-09-01

378

The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.  

PubMed

Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes. PMID:25416451

Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

2015-02-01

379

Tutorial Questions in Caretaker Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical analyses of the incidence of "what"-questions requiring variably complex responses are presented. The responses were asked of a bilingual child by different sets of caretakers in English and German over a one-year period starting at age 16 months. Results show that the caretakers' questions are geared first toward the child's…

Forner, Monika

380

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

Kalichman, Seth C.

381

Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

John C. Butler

382

The Geography of Virtual Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions

Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

2009-01-01

383

Asking Questions, All the Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to ask and answer questions while reading is essential to comprehension. This article discusses instructional strategies used to teach questioning and provides many online resources. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which explores the seven essential principles of the climate sciences for teachers in k-grade 5 classrooms.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

384

Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides answers to common questions regarding cosmology. Questions include the Universe's age, its origin, its fate, and its physical properties. It is part of an in depth cosmology tutorial covering some of the history of scientific cosmology, observations, curvature, inflation, and the age of the universe.

Wright, Edward

2007-05-15

385

The genetic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have implicated an interplay between genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a familial recurrence rate of approximately 15%. Meta-analysis of the recurrence risk shows that the rate is highest overall for siblings, then parents and children, with lower rates in second- and third-degree relatives. Recurrence is highest for monozygotic twins. Conversely, the frequency in adoptees is similar to the population lifetime risk. The age-adjusted risk for half siblings is also less than for full siblings. Recurrence is higher in the children of conjugal pairs with MS than the offspring of single affected. These classical genetic observations suggest that MS is a complex trait in which susceptibility is determined by several genes acting independently or epistatically. Comparisons between co-affected sibling pairs provide no evidence for correlation with age or year at onset and mode of presentation or disability. Thus far, the identification of susceptibility genes has proved elusive but genetic strategies are now in place which should illuminate the problem. The main dividend will be an improved understanding of the pathogenesis. To date, population studies have demonstrated an association between the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles DR15 and DQ6 and their corresponding genotypes. An association with DR4, with or without the primary DR15 link, is seen in some Mediterranean populations. Candidate gene approaches have otherwise proved unrewarding. Four groups of investigators have undertaken a systematic search of the genome. In common with most other complex traits, no major susceptibility gene has been identified but regions of interest have been provisionally identified. These genetic analyses are predicated on the assumption that MS is one disease. Genotypic and phenotypic analyses are beginning to question this assumption. A major part of future studies in the genetics of MS will be to resolve the question of disease heterogeneity. PMID:10603615

Compston, A

1999-01-01

386

The genetic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have implicated an interplay between genetic and environmental factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a familial recurrence rate of approximately 15%. Meta-analysis of the recurrence risk shows that the rate is highest overall for siblings, then parents and children, with lower rates in second- and third-degree relatives. Recurrence is highest for monozygotic twins. Conversely, the frequency in adoptees is similar to the population lifetime risk. The age-adjusted risk for half siblings is also less than for full siblings. Recurrence is higher in the children of conjugal pairs with MS than the offspring of single affected. These classical genetic observations suggest that MS is a complex trait in which susceptibility is determined by several genes acting independently or epistatically. Comparisons between co-affected sibling pairs provide no evidence for correlation with age or year at onset and mode of presentation or disability. Thus far, the identification of susceptibility genes has proved elusive but genetic strategies are now in place which should illuminate the problem. The main dividend will be an improved understanding of the pathogenesis. To date, population studies have demonstrated an association between the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles DR15 and DQ6 and their corresponding genotypes. An association with DR4, with or without the primary DR15 link, is seen in some Mediterranean populations. Candidate gene approaches have otherwise proved unrewarding. Four groups of investigators have undertaken a systematic search of the genome. In common with most other complex traits, no major susceptibility gene has been identified but regions of interest have been provisionally identified. These genetic analyses are predicated on the assumption that MS is one disease. Genotypic and phenotypic analyses are beginning to question this assumption. A major part of future studies in the genetics of MS will be to resolve the question of disease heterogeneity. PMID:10603615

Compston, A

1999-10-29

387

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

Aviles, L

2001-01-01

388

Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

Scarth, John; And Others

1986-01-01

389

Sarcopenia: Definition, Epidemiology, and Pathophysiology  

PubMed Central

The epidemiological trends that characterize our generation are the aging of the population. Aging results in a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, which is Greek for 'poverty of flesh'. Sarcopenia could lead to functional impairment, physical disability, and even mortality. Today, sarcopenia is a matter of immense public concern for aging prevention. Its prevalence continues to rise, probably as a result of increasing elderly populations all over the world. This paper addressed the definition and epidemiology of sarcopenia and its underlying pathophysiology. In addition, we summarized the abundant information available in the literature related to sarcopenia, together with results from Korean sarcopenic obesity study (KSOS) that we performed. PMID:24524049

Kim, Tae Nyun

2013-01-01

390

[The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].  

PubMed

We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

2015-01-01

391

Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval  

PubMed Central

Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23805178

Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

2013-01-01

392

Current Epidemiology of Genitourinary Trauma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This article reviews recent publications evaluating the current epidemiology of urologic trauma. It begins by providing a brief explanation of databases that have been recently used to study this patient population, then proceeds to discuss each genitourinary organ individually, discussing the most relevant and up to date information published for each one. The conclusion of the article briefly discusses possible future research and development areas pertaining to the topic. PMID:23905930

McGeady, James B.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

2013-01-01

393

Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

2012-01-01

394

G Proteins Go Green: A Plant G Protein Signaling FAQ Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses G protein signal transduction in plants and animals. Plants, like animals, use signal transduction pathways based on heterotrimeric guanine nucleotideâ??binding proteins (G proteins) to regulate many aspects of development and cell signaling. Some components of G protein signaling are highly conserved between plants and animals and some are not. This Viewpoint compares key aspects of G protein signal transduction in plants and animals and describes the current knowledge of this system in plants, the questions that still await exploration, and the value of research on plant G proteins to scientists who do not study plants. Pathways in Science's Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment Connections Maps database provide details about the emerging roles of G proteins in several cellular processes of plants.

Sarah Assmann (Pennsylvania State University; Biology Department)

2005-10-07

395

Extraction of Questions Behind Messages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

396

OSHA Frequently Asked Questions: HAZWOPER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OSHA web page provides answers to many of the more common questions regarding the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) regulation. Many of the answers provided are regarding the HAZWOPER training requirements.

2007-09-21

397

Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

1988-01-01

398

Frequently Asked Questions - Community Sites  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Updated Frequently Asked Questions on Community and Minority/ Underserved Community Sites Request for Application (RFA) Select a category by clicking on its title below. How to search the content of the

399

Frequently Asked Questions about Immunizations  

MedlinePLUS

... for answers to some common questions. What do immunizations do? Vaccines work by preparing the body to ... the immune response to another disease. Will the immunization give someone the very disease it's supposed to ...

400

Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

Mather, John C.

2013-01-01

401

Indoor Air Quality Frequent Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... of this site. Frequent Questions Indoor Air Quality Mold and Moisture Radon Asthma La Calidad del Aire ... guidance? Are there Federal regulations or standards regarding mold? Are there Indoor airPLUS labels, plaques, and certificates? ...

402

Birds: Old Questions and New.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

Flannery, Maura C.

2002-01-01

403

Automatic Generation of Trivia Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a (nearly) domain-independent approach to mining trivia questions from a database. Generated questions are ranked\\u000a and are more “interesting” if they have a modest number of solutions and may reasonably be solved (but are not too easy).\\u000a Our functional model and genetic approach have several advantages: they are tractable and scalable, the hypothesis space size\\u000a is limited, and

Matthew Merzbacher

2002-01-01

404

On Clickers, Questions, and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this paper is to review the procedures used to help students become learning victors. Specifically, this paper will discuss the process used to integrate classroom-response-system technology and question-driven instruction into an introductory anatomy and physiology course for pre-nursing/allied health students at a community college. Emphasis is placed on a systematic process for developing effective questions. Student reaction to this strategy is also discussed.

Skinner, Steven

2009-03-01

405

Faculty Profiles PhD Program in Epidemiology  

E-print Network

, health disparities and social determinants of health, chronic disease epidemiology, obesity prevention at Fudan University) in Shanghai, China. He obtained a Ph.D. in epidemiology and a MS in statistics from epidemiology, obesity and physical activity, and cancer epidemiology. He has worked on large epidemiology

Dasgupta, Dipankar

406

Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Mitochondrial DNA mutations are associated with numerous chronic diseases, including cancer. EGRP-hosted a meeting on September 7-8, 2006, in Bethesda, MD, to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology. The meeting was sponsored by NCI's Analytic Epidemiology Research Branch (AERB), Epidemiology and Genetics Research Program (EGRP), Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences (DCCPS).

407

Some open questions in hydrodynamics  

E-print Network

When speaking of unsolved problems in physics, this is surprising at first glance to discuss the case of fluid mechanics. However, there are many deep open questions that come with the theory of fluid mechanics. In this paper, we discuss some of them that we classify in two categories, the long term behavior of solutions of equations of hydrodynamics and the definition of initial (boundary) conditions. The first set of questions come with the non-relativistic theory based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Starting from smooth initial conditions, the purpose is to understand if solutions of Navier-Stokes equations remain smooth with the time evolution. Existence for just a finite time would imply the evolution of finite time singularities, which would have a major influence on the development of turbulent phenomena. The second set of questions come with the relativistic theory of hydrodynamics. There is an accumulating evidence that this theory may be relevant for the description of the medium created in high energy heavy-ion collisions. However, this is not clear that the fundamental hypotheses of hydrodynamics are valid in this context. Also, the determination of initial conditions remains questionable. The purpose of this paper is to explore some ideas related to these questions, both in the non-relativistic and relativistic limits of fluid mechanics. We believe that these ideas do not concern only the theory side but can also be useful for interpreting results from experimental measurements.

Mateusz Dyndal; Laurent Schoeffel

2014-09-08

408

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.DESIGNThis article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador,Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse

L A Avilés

2001-01-01

409

The New Epidemiology--A Challenge to Health Administration. Issues in Epidemiology for Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of epidemiology in health administration is considered in 11 articles, and three course descriptions and a bibliography are provided. Titles and authors include the following: "The Need for Creative Managerial Epidemiology" (Gary L. Filerman); "The Growing Role of Epidemiology in Health Administration" (Maureen M. Henderson, Robin E.…

Crichton, Anne, Ed.; Neuhauser, Duncan, Ed.

410

Forming Scientific Questions What is a scientific question?  

E-print Network

? ­ There are many of different types of plastic. Pick a few types to compare. · Rewrite the question as a class PC, other polycarbonate 7 water jugs, sunglasses, DVDs not usually Types of Plastics #12;Toxic be? ­ It's hard to make one. ­ There is a real answer, but it's almost impossible to find. · Rewrite

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

411

Quick Questions: Create a Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will conduct an open-ended survey, and then organize and analyze results. What languages does everyone speak? Whatâs the most common? the least common? Do you think weâd get the same results if we asked this question in a different neighborhood? Start out by posing an open-ended question. Everyone writes answers on stick-on notes and sticks them on a large piece of paper. Explore ways to organize the responses to make sense of them. For instance, if the question is about languages, one approach is to put all the stick-on notes with the same language together. A further step could involve grouping related languages (Eastern European, Southeast Asian, etc.). Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

412

Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will look at world health data using GIS. The students will be compare malaria and cholera death data from different years and predict if there exist the conditions for an epidemic. Students will take on the role of an epidemiologist and identify the region of the world where deaths are the highest and recommend to the World Health Organization where they should concentrate their relief efforts. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Vollmer-Buhl, Brian

2011-09-15

413

Global Warming: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This global warming site contains questions commonly addressed to climate scientists and brief replies (based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports and other research). The questions concern the greenhouse effect and its impact on our climate, whether greenhouse gases are increasing and the climate warming, the relation of El Nino to global warming, change in the hydrological cycle (evaporation and precipitation) and atmospheric/oceanic circulation, climate becoming more variable and extreme, the importance of these changes in a longer-term context, the rise of sea levels, whether the observed changes can be explained by natural variability, and the future of global warming.

David Easterling

414

The dynamics of tuberculosis epidemiology.  

PubMed

A conceptual framework to study the epidemiologic basis of tuberculosis control is provided. The basic model to discuss the epidemiology of tuberculosis is based on a classification of tuberculosis based on its pathogenesis with exposure, latent infection, tuberculosis, and death from tuberculosis, showing the conditional probabilities leading from one to the next step in the chain of events. Historical data are utilized to demonstrate how the dynamics of tuberculosis over multiple decades have contributed to shape the present. It is shown that the key concept to understand the dynamics is related to current and past incidence and prevalence of latent infection with M. tuberculosis. The dynamics of the epidemic are shaped both by the behaviour of the causative organism of tuberculosis as well as the population structure and changes that take place in parallel in which M. tuberculosis thrives. Both the present and the future shape of the epidemic, as well as the principles applied to its control lie very much in the past of a society. While new risk factors such as HIV or diabetes have been or are emerging more strongly, it is noted that the majority of all new cases emerging cannot be pinned to one or the other such factor. It is the historical experience of a population that offers the most valuable key to understanding the present and the future. PMID:24640341

Rieder, Hans L

2014-01-01

415

Epidemiology of yaws: an update  

PubMed Central

Yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 through large-scale mass-treatment programs of endemic communities. A key determinant for the success of the eradication campaign is good understanding of the disease epidemiology. We did a review of historical trends and new information from endemic countries, with the aim of assessing the state of knowledge on yaws disease burden. Transmission of yaws is now present in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific. At least 12 countries are known to harbor yaws cases and 21 to 42 million people live in endemic areas. Between 2008 and 2012 more than 300,000 new cases were reported to the World Health Organization. Yaws presented high geographical variation within a country or region, high seasonality for incidence of active disease, and evidence that low standards of hygiene predispose to suffering of the disease. Key data issues include low levels of reporting, potential misdiagnosis, and scarce documentation on prevalence of asymptomatic infections. Currently available data most likely underestimates the magnitude of the disease burden. More effort is needed in order to refine accuracy of data currently being reported. A better characterization of the epidemiology of yaws globally is likely to positively impact on planning and implementation of yaws eradication. PMID:24729728

Kazadi, Walter M; Asiedu, Kingsley B; Agana, Nsiire; Mitjà, Oriol

2014-01-01

416

Compositional epistasis: an epidemiologic perspective.  

PubMed

Under Bateson's original conception, the term "epistasis" is used to describe the situation in which the effect of a genetic factor at one locus is masked by a variant at another locus. Epistasis in the sense of masking has been termed "compositional epistasis." In general, statistical tests for interaction are of limited use in detecting compositional epistasis. Using recently developed epidemiological methods, however, it has been shown that there are relations between empirical data patterns and compositional epistasis. These relations can sometimes be exploited to empirically test for certain forms of compositional epistasis, by using alternative nonstandard tests for interaction.Using the counterfactual framework, we show conditions that can be empirically tested to determine whether there are individuals whose phenotype response patterns manifest epistasis in the sense of masking. Only under some very strong assumptions would tests for standard statistical interactions correspond to compositional epistasis. Even without such strong assumptions, however, one can still test whether there are individuals of phenotype response type representing compositional epistasis. The empirical conditions are quite strong, but the conclusions which tests of these conditions allow may be of interest in a wide range of studies. This chapter highlights that epidemiologic perspectives can be used to shed light on underlying mechanisms at the genetic, molecular, and cellular levels. PMID:25403534

Suzuki, Etsuji; VanderWeele, Tyler J

2015-01-01

417

Measles - The epidemiology of elimination.  

PubMed

Tremendous progress has been made globally to reduce the contribution of measles to the burden of childhood deaths and measles cases have dramatically decreased with increased two dose measles-containing vaccine coverage. As a result the Global Vaccine Action Plan, endorsed by the World Health Assembly, has targeted measles elimination in at least five of the six World Health Organisation Regions by 2020. This is an ambitious goal, since measles control requires the highest immunisation coverage of any vaccine preventable disease, which means that the health system must be able to reach every community. Further, while measles remains endemic in any country, importations will result in local transmission and outbreaks in countries and Regions that have interrupted local endemic measles circulation. One of the lines of evidence that countries and Regions must address to confirm measles elimination is a detailed description of measles epidemiology over an extended period. This information is incredibly valuable as predictable epidemiological patterns emerge as measles elimination is approached and achieved. These critical features, including the source, size and duration of outbreaks, the seasonality and age-distribution of cases, genotyping pointers and effective reproduction rate estimates, are discussed with illustrative examples from the Region of the Americas, which eliminated measles in 2002, and the Western Pacific Region, which has established a Regional Verification Commission to review progress towards elimination in all member countries. PMID:25444814

Durrheim, David N; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Strebel, Peter M

2014-12-01

418

Applying question classification to Yahoo! Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question classification is an important part in modern Question Answering systems. Most approaches to question classification are based on handcrafted rules. Recent studies classify simple questions using machine learning techniques and recommends SVM as on of the best performing classifiers. This study applies a hierarchical classifier based on the SVM machine learning algorithm on questions posed by users, drawn from

Mohan John Blooma; Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; A. Chua; Zhiquan Ling

2008-01-01

419

MEASURING RISKS IN HUMANS: THE PROMISE AND PRACTICE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiology has been considered the fundamental science of public health policy. The use of epidemiologic data in environmental health policy has been limited particularly in the environmental regulatory arena. Epidemiologic risk assessment (ERA) is different from risk ass...

420

MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY: POTENTIAL IMPACTS ON THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction The term "molecular epidemiology" has been used to cover a broad range of scientific activities, often without specific reference to epidemiology. In fact, as noted by Foxman and Riley [1],molecular epidemiology has often been described almost exclusively in...

421

Solar Physics: The Big Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes unanswered questions about the sun. These include the coronal heating process, the nature of solar flares, the origin of the sunspot cycle, and missing neutrinos. In each case the problem is stated along with what is known to date. The text includes links to further information.

Hathaway, David

2007-06-25

422

A Question of Competing Paradigms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are some fundamental--i.e., "essential"--differences between conceptual change theory and a rigorously applied discourse approach to the question of what and how people know. In this rejoinder, I suggest that the differences are paradigmatic because, among others, the units of analysis used and the data constructed are irreconcilably…

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2008-01-01

423

Questions to Ask Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... opinion doctor be at a different medical center/group. Write out your questions before each appointment. Keep a notebook where you can record doctor comments, appointment dates, symptoms, and other important information. Get copies of important scan reports, and start a file for yourself at ...

424

Practice Questions for Business Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a list of sample questions that can be used when teaching basic probability concepts, probability distributions, data collection methods, inferential statistics, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, regression analysis, or problem sensing related to descriptive statistics. Links to the answers are also provided. Application is not limited to business.

Schott, Brian

425

Questions about Influenza Designing Turbulence  

E-print Network

in 1943 to build the first atomic bomb. it remains a premier scientific laboratory, dedicated to nationalQuestions about Influenza Designing Turbulence Los Alamos Institutes Atoms from Nothingness 1663. The enormous project cost about $2 billion but produced atomic weapons that helped end the war in the Pacific

426

Questions and Answers about Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. When a stroke occurs, brain ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

427

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

428

Kast, Wijbe Martin — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is such a relevant question. Especially as evidence from animal models is mounting that therapeutic vaccines can be used very effectively in the cancer preventive setting while they do not work well in the cancer therapeutic setting. It is time to change the paradigm. Don't watchful wait, Vaccinate!

429

Salvaging Timber: Frequently Asked Questions  

E-print Network

ER-036 5-06 Salvaging Timber: Frequently Asked Questions Eric L. Taylor, Extension Specialist, and C. Darwin Foster, Associate Department Head and Extension Program Leader for Forestry, The Texas A&M University System Who can I contact for help...

Taylor, Eric; Foster, C. Darwin

2005-10-19

430

Ten Practical Questions about Branding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

2004-01-01

431

Looming Questions in Performance Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

Gratz, Donald B.

2010-01-01

432

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER  

E-print Network

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

433

Four Questions to Ask Yourself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

2007-01-01

434

Management Questions Tidal Marsh Restoration  

E-print Network

Answering Management Questions about Tidal Marsh Restoration Using Tidal Marsh Biosentinels Tidal Marsh Mudflat Goals Project 1999 #12;Goals Project 1999 South Baylands ~1800 Future1998 Tidal Marsh Mudflat #12;A8A8 South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project WetlandTracker.org #12;Q1: How should

435

BOMB THREAT Questions to Ask  

E-print Network

BOMB THREAT CHECKLIST Questions to Ask: 1. Where is the bomb going to explode? 2. Where is it right now? 3. What does it look like? 4. What kind of bomb is it? 5. What will cause it to explode? 6. Did you place the bomb? 7. Why? 8. What is your address? 9. What is your name? Sex of caller: Age: Race

Ravikumar, B.

436

For Research Questions to ask  

E-print Network

CT Scans For Research Questions to ask: 1. Is this CT being done specifically for the research for educational purposes and is not intended to provide medical advice. Talk with your doctor or research team before acting on any information contained herein for advice specific to your situation. Common Research

Church, George M.

437

ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

438

Epidemiology, Science as Inquiry and Scientific Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent worldwide SARS outbreak has put the science of epidemiology into the headlines once again. Epidemiology is "... the study of the distribution and the determinants of health-related states or events and the application of these methods to the control of health problems" (Gordis 2000). In this context, the authors have developed a…

Kaelin, Mark; Huebner, Wendy

2003-01-01

439

[Work and sterility. State of epidemiological research].  

PubMed

Among the factors of man or woman sterility some of them may be due to occupation. The identification of these factors may be performed through epidemiological studies; the fertility indices taken into account and the epidemiological strategies used are briefly described. As examples the results of studies on man hypofertility induced by dibromochloropropane and ionising radiations are presented. PMID:8261012

Mur, J M; Martin, C

1993-09-01

440

Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly trans- ferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent

Hamish I. McCallum; Armand Kuris; C. Drew Harvell; Kevin. D. Lafferty; Garriet W. Smith; James Porter

2004-01-01

441

Genetic Epidemiology Branch Presentations (2 of 2)  

Cancer.gov

October 18, 2012 10:30 AM - 11:30 AM + Add to Outlook Calendar Speaker TBD Topic Genetic Epidemiology Branch Research Presentations (Part 2 of 2) Location EPN C - F Print This Page Genetic Epidemiology Branch Presentations (2 of 2) News & Events

442

Life course epidemiology and infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a traditional view that divided epidemiology into infectious and chronic diseases. Since we now know that at least 15% of cancers worldwide are caused by infections,1 that infections frequently have a natural history lasting decades and that the same epidemiological methods can be applied to both infectious and non-infectious diseases, this view can be considered purely historical.

Andrew J Hall; Leland J Yee; Sara L Thomas

2002-01-01

443

Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in UK cats.  

PubMed

Rotaviruses are leading causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many species. Molecular epidemiological studies in children suggest that interspecies transmission contributes to rotavirus strain diversity in people. However, population-based studies of rotaviruses in animals are few. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors for infection and genetic diversity of Rotavirus A in a cross-sectional survey of cats housed within twenty-five rescue catteries across the UK. Morning litter tray faecal samples were collected during winter and summer 2012 from all pens containing kittens and a random sample of those housing adult cats. Group A rotavirus RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and positive samples were G and P genotyped using nested VP4 and VP7 PCR assays. A total of 1727 faecal samples were collected from 1105 pens. Overall, rotavirus prevalence was 3.0% (95% CI 1.2-4.9). 52% (13/25; CI 31.3-72.2) centres housed at least one rotavirus-positive cat. Prevalence was associated with season, odds ratio 14.8 (CI 1.1-200.4), p=0.04, but not age or diarrhoea. It was higher during the summer (4.7% CI 1.2-8.3) than winter (0.8%, CI 0.2-1.5). Asymptomatic epidemics of infection were detected in two centres. G genotypes were characterised for 19 (33.3%) of the 57 rotavirus positive samples and P genotypes for 36 (59.7%). Two rotavirus genotypes were identified: G3P[9] and G6P[9]. This is the first population-based study of rotavirus in cats and the first report of feline G6P[9], which questions the previous belief that G6P[9] in people was of bovine origin. PMID:25411173

German, A C; Iturriza-Gómara, M; Dove, W; Sandrasegaram, M; Nakagomi, T; Nakagomi, O; Cunliffe, N; Radford, A D; Morgan, K L

2014-11-19

444

Epidemiology's contribution to health service management and planning in developing countries: a missing link.  

PubMed Central

Two hypotheses are examined in the light of experience and the literature: (1) health service planning requires little epidemiological information, and (2) health services rarely get useful answers to relevant epidemiological questions. In the first hypothesis, the theoretical robustness of the concept of a minimum package of activities common to all facilities belonging to the same level of the system and the extent to which it is unaffected by variations in the frequencies of most diseases are examined. Semi-quantitative analyses and analysis of routine entries and participation suffice to adapt this package to the local context. Some of the methods which give a fundamental role to epidemiological information are criticized. With regard to the second hypothesis, the pertinent contributions epidemiology may make to health service organization are reviewed. These include identification of diseases that justify special activities (health maps and interepidemic surveillance), determination of the activities that should be added to the health centres, the political usefulness of rare impact assessments, and the relevant demographic elements. Finally an epidemiological agenda is proposed for specialized centres, districts, universities, and the central decision-making level of health ministries in developing countries. PMID:1394783

Unger, J. P.; Dujardin, B.

1992-01-01

445

Epidemiologic studies of ionizing radiation and cancer: past successes and future challenges.  

PubMed Central

The health effects of radiation have been a focus for research since early in the 20th century. As the century ends, extensive experimental and epidemiologic evidence has been accumulated that addresses the adverse consequences of radiation exposure; epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed groups from the general population and specific occupational groups provide quantitative estimates of the cancer risks associated with exposure. This report provides a perspective on the extensive epidemiologic evidence on the health effects of ionizing radiation and on likely needs for further epidemiologic research on radiation and health. Epidemiologic studies have proved informative on the quantitative risks of radiation-caused cancer but we now face the challenges of more precisely characterizing risks at lower levels of exposure and also of assessing modifiers of the risks, including dose rate, genetic susceptibility, and other environmental exposures. This report considers investigative approaches, such as pooled analysis of multiple data sets, that can be used to address these complex questions and the limitations of these approaches for addressing societal concerns about the risks of radiation exposure. PMID:9255575

Samet, J M

1997-01-01

446

[EpiInfo as a research and teaching tool in epidemiology and statistics: strengths and weaknesses].  

PubMed

EpiInfo is a free software developed in 1988 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta to facilitate field epidemiological investigations and statistical analysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the software represents, in the Italian biomedical field, an effective analytical research tool and a practical and simple epidemiology and biostatistics teaching tool. A questionnaire consisting of 20 multiple-choice and open questions was administered to 300 healthcare workers, including doctors, biologists, nurses, medical students and interns, at the end of a CME course in epidemiology and biostatistics. Sixty-four percent of participants were aged between 26 and 45 years, 52% were women and 73% were unmarried. Results show that women are more likely to utilize EpiInfo in their research activities with respect to men (p = 0.023), as are individuals aged 26-45 years with respect to the older and younger age groups (p = 0.023) and unmarried participants with respect to those married (p = 0.010). Thirty-one percent of respondents consider EpiInfo to be more than adequate for analysis of their research data and 52% consider it to be sufficiently so. The inclusion of an EpiInfo course in statistics and epidemiology modules facilitates the understanding of theoretical concepts and allows researchers to more easily perform some of the clinical/epidemiological research activities. PMID:22507994

Mannocci, Alice; Bontempi, Claudio; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Chiaradia, Giacomina; de Waure, Chiara; Sferrazza, Antonella; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Antonio; La Torre, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

447

Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries.  

PubMed

The oral region comprises 1% of the total body area, yet it accounts for 5% of all bodily injuries. In preschool children, oral injuries make up as much as 17% of all bodily injuries. The incidence of traumatic dental injuries is 1%-3%, and the prevalence is steady at 20%-30%. The annual cost of treatment is US $2-$5 million per 1 million inhabitants. Etiologic factors vary between countries and with age groups. Important public health implications such as how to best organize emergency dental care and how to prevent dental injuries, decrease cost, and increase lay knowledge are important factors needed to change epidemiologic data toward more favorable figures in the future. PMID:23635975

Andersson, Lars

2013-01-01

448

Epidemiology of traumatic dental injuries.  

PubMed

The oral region comprises 1% of the total body area, yet it accounts for 5% of all bodily injuries. In preschool children, oral injuries make up as much as 17% of all bodily injuries. The incidence of traumatic dental injuries is 1%-3%, and the prevalence is steady at 20%-30%. The annual cost of treatment is US $2-$5 million per 1 million inhabitants. Etiologic factors vary between countries and with age groups. Important public health implications such as how to best organize emergency dental care and how to prevent dental injuries, decrease cost, and increase lay knowledge are important factors needed to change epidemiologic data toward more favorable figures in the future. PMID:23439040

Andersson, Lars

2013-03-01

449

Social Network Visualization in Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological investigations and interventions are increasingly focusing on social networks. Two aspects of social networks are relevant in this regard: the structure of networks and the function of networks. A better understanding of the processes that determine how networks form and how they operate with respect to the spread of behavior holds promise for improving public health. Visualizing social networks is a key to both research and interventions. Network images supplement statistical analyses and allow the identification of groups of people for targeting, the identification of central and peripheral individuals, and the clarification of the macro-structure of the network in a way that should affect public health interventions. People are inter-connected and so their health is inter-connected. Inter-personal health effects in social networks provide a new foundation for public health. PMID:22544996

Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

2010-01-01

450

[Bayesian statistics in spatial epidemiology].  

PubMed

Through the multi-stage hierarchical Bayesian model and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, Bayesian statistics can be used in dependent spatial data analysis, including disease mapping in small areas, disease clustering, and geographical correlation studies. Recently, Bayesian spatial models have been developed with many types, which have made considerable progress in data analysis. This paper introduces several approaches that have been fully developed and applied, such as BYM model,joint model, semi-parameter model, moving average model and so on. Recently,many studies focused on the comparison work through Deviance Information criterion. Those results show that BYM model and MIX model of semi-parameter model could obtain better results. As more research going on, Bayesian statistics will have more space in applications of spatial epidemiology. PMID:19084965

Zheng, Wei-jun; Li, Xiu-yang; Chen, Kun

2008-11-01

451

On the epidemiology of influenza  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining why influenza is, as Gregg said, "seemingly unmindful of traditional infectious disease behavioral patterns." Recent discoveries indicate vitamin D upregulates the endogenous antibiotics of innate immunity and suggest that the incongruities explored by Hope-Simpson may be secondary to the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency. We identify – and attempt to explain – nine influenza conundrums: (1) Why is influenza both seasonal and ubiquitous and where is the virus between epidemics? (2) Why are the epidemics so explosive? (3) Why do they end so abruptly? (4) What explains the frequent coincidental timing of epidemics in countries of similar latitude? (5) Why is the serial interval obscure? (6) Why is the secondary attack rate so low? (7) Why did epidemics in previous ages spread so rapidly, despite the lack of modern transport? (8) Why does experimental inoculation of seronegative humans fail to cause illness in all the volunteers? (9) Why has influenza mortality of the aged not declined as their vaccination rates increased? We review recent discoveries about vitamin D's effects on innate immunity, human studies attempting sick-to-well transmission, naturalistic reports of human transmission, studies of serial interval, secondary attack rates, and relevant animal studies. We hypothesize that two factors explain the nine conundrums: vitamin D's seasonal and population effects on innate immunity, and the presence of a subpopulation of "good infectors." If true, our revision of Edgar Hope-Simpson's theory has profound implications for the prevention of influenza. PMID:18298852

Cannell, John J; Zasloff, Michael; Garland, Cedric F; Scragg, Robert; Giovannucci, Edward

2008-01-01

452

Schizophrenia: from Epidemiology to Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objective: We discuss recent evidences about schizophrenia (frequency, onset, course, risk factors and genetics) and their influences to some epidemiological myths about schizophrenia diffuse between psychiatric and psychopathology clinicians. The scope is to evaluate if the new acquisitions may change the rehabilitation approaches to schizophrenia modifying the balance about the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia accepting that the cognitive deficits are produced by errors during the normal development of the brain (neurodevelopmental hypothesis) that remains stable in the course of illness and the neurodegenerative hypothesis according of which they derived from a degenerative process that goes on inexorably. Research Method/Design: A review of the literature about epidemiology of schizophrenia has been performed and the contributions of some of these evidence to neurodevelopmental hypothesis and to rehabilitation has been described. Results: It cannot be definitively concluded for or against the neurodevelopmental or degenerative hypothesis, but efforts in understanding basis of schizophrenia must go on. Until now, rehabilitation programs are based on the vulnerability-stress model: supposing an early deficit that go on stable during the life under favorable circumstances. So, rehabilitation approaches (as neuro-cognitive approaches, social skill training, cognitive-emotional training) are focused on the individual and micro-group coping skills, aiming to help people with schizophrenia to cope with environmental stress factors. Conclusions/Implications: Coping of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may represents the starting-point for further research on schizophrenia, cohort studies and randomized trials are necessary to defined the range of effectiveness and the outcome of the treatments. PMID:22962559

Mura, Gioia; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Bhat, Krishna M; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

2012-01-01

453

Frequently Asked Questions: NRSA Fellowships  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The NIH supports various Individual Fellowship Programs, all of which have transitioned to the electronic application submission process through grants.gov with the August 2009 application receipt dates. While most programs are funded under the authority for National Research Service Awards or NRSA (e.g., F30, F31, F32, F33), there are non-NRSA programs (e.g., F05, F37) that may vary in the applicant institution and fellow eligibility requirements, funding amounts, and specific program related issues (see the NIH F Kiosk). Each NIH fellowship program is announced as a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts. This document represents frequently asked questions and answers to many questions fielded by the Office of Extramural Programs (OEP).

2010-09-15

454

PBS: The Question of God  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS may not have cornered the entire market on thoughtful and intelligent television programming, but they certainly have garnered the lion's share of this type of material. One of the network's most recent programs (and this website which accompanies it), The Question of God, is certainly proof positive of this fact. The four-hour series (based on a popular Harvard course taught by Dr. Armand Nicholi) explores some of the basic questions of humanity, such as "What is happiness?" and "How do we find meaning and purpose in our lives?" The program itself does this by looking through the lens of the eyes of two of the 20th century's most well-known intellectuals, Sigmund Freud, who was a strong critic of religious belief, and C.S. Lewis, who was a strong proponent of "faith based on reason." On the site, visitors can learn about the lives of Freud and Lewis through excerpts from their own writings, read synopses of the programs, and read other perspectives on the question of God from such individuals as Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and D.T. Suzuki. Additionally, visitors can watch clips from the program and listen in on roundtable conversations moderated by Dr. Nicholi.

455

Exertional sickling: questions and controversy.  

PubMed

Sickle cell trait (SCT) occurs in about 8% of African-Americans and is often described to be of little clinical consequence. Over time, a number of risks have emerged, and among these are rare but catastrophic episodes of sudden death in athletes and other individuals associated with physical activities which is often described as exercise collapse associated with sickle trait (ECAST). Despite an epidemiologic link between SCT and sudden death as well as numerous case reports in both medical literature and lay press, no clear understanding of the key pathophysiologic events has been identified. Strategies for identification of individuals at risk and prevention of ECAST have been both elusive and controversial. Stakeholders have advocated for different approaches to this issue particularly with regard to screening for hemoglobin S. Furthermore, the recommendations and guidelines that are in place for the early recognition of ECAST and the prevention and treatment of the illness are not well defined and remain fragmented. Among the cases identified, those in collegiate football players in the United States are often highlighted. This manuscript examines these case studies and the current recommendations to identify areas of consensus and controversy regarding recommendations for prevention, recognition and treatment of ECAST. PMID:25568759

Blinder, Morey A; Russel, Sarah

2014-11-19

456

Exertional sickling: questions and controversy  

PubMed Central

Sickle cell trait (SCT) occurs in about 8% of African-Americans and is often described to be of little clinical consequence. Over time, a number of risks have emerged, and among these are rare but catastrophic episodes of sudden death in athletes and other individuals associated with physical activities which is often described as exercise collapse associated with sickle trait (ECAST). Despite an epidemiologic link between SCT and sudden death as well as numerous case reports in both medical literature and lay press, no clear understanding of the key pathophysiologic events has been identified. Strategies for identification of individuals at risk and prevention of ECAST have been both elusive and controversial. Stakeholders have advocated for different approaches to this issue particularly with regard to screening for hemoglobin S. Furthermore, the recommendations and guidelines that are in place for the early recognition of ECAST and the prevention and treatment of the illness are not well defined and remain fragmented. Among the cases identified, those in collegiate football players in the United States are often highlighted. This manuscript examines these case studies and the current recommendations to identify areas of consensus and controversy regarding recommendations for prevention, recognition and treatment of ECAST. PMID:25568759

Blinder, Morey A.; Russel, Sarah

2014-01-01

457

Committee on Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs  

SciTech Connect

The Committee on DoE Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs was originally established in response to the needs of the Office of Health and Envirorunental Research, Office of Energy Research in the Department of Energy (DoE). Following a reorganization of DoE health related programs in 1990, the committee now advises the Office of Epidemiology and Health Surveillance which is under the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. These administrative changes have not altered the committee concerns but have served to focus the committee's attention on helping DoE plan for an effective system of worker health surveillance as well as an epidemiologic research program.

Mahlum, D.D.

1992-06-01

458

Epidemiology and bioethics: a plea for reconnecting with the public.  

PubMed

The author takes the position that both epidemiology and bioethics, as practiced within academic establishments, have largely although not entirely abstracted the public context of health and well-being from their respective disciplines. It is argued that by and large both disciplines have been highly successful at what they do. However, this success can in part be attributed to each limiting its ability to look beyond its respective academic niche and thus embrace challenges which are socially challenging, politically charged, and academically messy. This narrow focus has become self-serving and ultimately detracts from fundamental remits of both disciplines in protecting the public from harm. Furthermore, it may re-enforce the inequalities of research into health overall, whereby the greatest concentration of effort remains firmly focused upon those who already have the most. Currently marginalized approaches to each of these disciplines - such as social epidemiology, global bioethics, and critical bioethics - provide us with platforms that challenge mainstream academic epidemiologists and bioethicists to seek out and reconnect their expertise with questions that are more relevant to real-world situations. PMID:21485959

Outram, Simon M

2011-01-01

459

Terra and Aqua: new data for epidemiology and public health  

PubMed Central

Earth-observing satellites have only recently been exploited for the measurement of environmental variables of relevance to epidemiology and public health. Such work has relied on sensors with spatial, spectral and geometric constraints that have allowed large-area questions associated with the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases to be addressed. Moving from pretty maps to pragmatic control tools requires a suite of satellite-derived environmental data of higher fidelity, spatial resolution, spectral depth and at similar temporal resolutions to existing meteorological satellites. Information derived from sensors onboard the next generation of moderate-resolution Earth-observing sensors may provide the key. The MODIS and ASTER sensors onboard the Terra and Aqua platforms provide substantial improvements in spatial resolution, number of spectral channels, choices of bandwidths, radiometric calibration and a much-enhanced set of pre-processed and freely available products. These sensors provide an important advance in moderate-resolution remote sensing and the data available to those concerned with improving public health. PMID:22545030

Tatem, Andrew J.; Goetz, Scott J.; Hay, Simon I.

2012-01-01

460

Question answering system based on Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background and system frame of the question answering system are presented. A new approach is explored in which questions are analyzed based on the detection of question focus chunk, semantic chunk and question template. Then vectors are used for the whole semantic representation. With the elicitation of ontology and semantic Web, a domain ontology is built up. Ontology and

Qinglin Guo

2008-01-01

461

[Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

462

Needs of occupational exposure sampling strategies for compliance and epidemiology.  

PubMed Central

Although a great deal of occupational exposure data is collected, it is probably insufficient to truly answer the question of legislative compliance, ill directed in terms of real workplace risks, and is of little subsequent use for epidemiological research. This paper is an attempt to summarise the more important components and requirements of a sampling strategy, and it is therefore aimed at those with this responsibility. Perhaps, all too frequently, the more esoteric nature of these issues and their research means that they are published in journals outside the normal sphere of readership, or when it is within that sphere the quantity of statistical nomenclature and content makes it too daunting to attempt to read. By simplifying and summarising, this paper is intended to help justify a change in the sampling programme and to initiate debate. PMID:8535488

Gardiner, K

1995-01-01

463

Epidemiology of asthma: prevalence and burden of disease.  

PubMed

While clinical guidelines clearly define mechanisms for asthma diagnosis based upon history, lung function testing, symptoms, and physical examination, surveillance for asthma is much less straightforward. Epidemiologists have long debated the best means of assessing the scope and burden of asthma, seeking to reduce the potential for confounding introduced by differential means of diagnosis and even slight differences in surveillance questions, both of which can bias surveillance results such that we over- or undercount cases. This chapter will provide an overview of asthma epidemiology in the USA and internationally, as well as review of the data and findings from the major surveillance systems, a discussion of a networked approach to the science and evaluation of therapeutic treatments using the exemplar of the Inner-City Asthma Network, and assessment of public health implications. PMID:24162900

Croisant, Sharon

2014-01-01

464

Alcohol Measurement Methodology in Epidemiology: Recent Advances and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Aim To review and discuss measurement issues in survey assessment of alcohol consumption for epidemiological studies. Methods The following areas are considered: implications of cognitive studies of question answering like self-referenced schemata of drinking, reference period and retrospective recall, as well as the assets and liabilities of types of current (e.g., food frequency, quantity frequency, graduated frequencies, and heavy drinking indicators) and lifetime drinking measures. Finally we consider units of measurement and improving measurement by detailing the ethanol content of drinks in natural settings. Results and conclusions Cognitive studies suggest inherent limitations in the measurement enterprise, yet diary studies show promise of broadly validating methods that assess a range of drinking amounts per occasion; improvements in survey measures of drinking in the life course are indicated; attending in detail to on and off-premise drink pour sizes and ethanol concentrations of various beverages shows promise of narrowing the coverage gap plaguing survey alcohol measurement. PMID:18422826

Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.

2009-01-01

465

Epidemiological consequences of an ineffective Bordetella pertussis vaccine  

E-print Network

The recent increase in Bordetella pertussis incidence (whooping cough) presents a challenge to global health. Recent studies have called into question the effectiveness of acellular B. pertussis vaccination in reducing transmission. Here we examine the epidemiological consequences of an ineffective B. pertussis vaccine. Using a dynamic transmission model, we find that: 1) an ineffective vaccine can account for the observed increase in B. pertussis incidence; 2) asymptomatic infections can bias surveillance and upset situational awareness of B. pertussis; and 3) vaccinating individuals in close contact with infants too young to receive vaccine (so called "cocooning" unvaccinated children) may be ineffective. Our results have important implications for B. pertussis vaccination policy and paint a complicated picture for achieving herd immunity and possible B. pertussis eradication.

Althouse, Benjamin M

2014-01-01

466

Science Sampler : Thinking about students' questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asking questions is a vital component in any classroom, but it is absolutely essential in a science classroom. As science teachers, we know that questioning plays a major role in the inquiry process and has a positive impact on students' learning. This article discusses the importance of questioning skills and current research on questioning techniques. In addition, this article will present a series of lessons that were implemented by the author to improve the questioning abilities of middle school students.

Turner, Jaclyn

2006-01-01

467

Epidemiology of urolithiasis: an update  

PubMed Central

Background & Aim. Changing socio-economic conditions generated changes in the prevalence, incidence and distribution for age, sex and type of urolithiasis in terms of both the site and the chemical-physical composition of the calculi. In the latter part of the 20th century the prevalence of upper urinary tract stones was increasing in Western countries whereas endemic infantile bladder stone disease was fairly widespread in huge areas of developing countries. The aim of this paper was to update previous epidemiological reports of urolithiasis by reviewing the more recent literature. Methods. Citations were extracted using PubMed database from January 2003 through December 2007 on the basis of the key words epidemiology AND urinary calculi. Results. An increase in the prevalence and incidence of urolithiasis was described in Germany whereas data from the United States were contradictory with stone disease rates increased only for women with a change of male-to-female ratio. Prevalence figures of stone disease observed in some developing country in tropical regions were similar to rates of Western countries with incidence of renal colic particularly high in warm months. African Americans had a reduced risk of stone disease compared to other racial groups but in renal stone patients all racial groups demonstrated a similarity in the incidence of underlying metabolic abnormalities. Upper urinary tract stones in children were associated more frequently with metabolic disturbances rather than with urinary tract anomalies and infection. Endemic childhood bladder stones are still present in some developing countries. Dietary risk factors for stone disease were shown different by age and sex. In particular in younger women dietary calcium, phytate and fluid intake were associated with a reduced risk of stone formation whereas animal protein and sucrose increased the risk of stone incidence. In older adults there was no association between dietary calcium and stone formation whereas magnesium, potassium and fluid intakes decreased and total vitamin C intake increased the risk of symptomatic nephrolithiasis. Animal protein was associated with risk only in men with a body mass index < 25 kg/m2. Type 2 diabetes and several other coronary heart disease risk factors, including hypertension and obesity are associated with nephrolithiasis. PMID:22460989

Trinchieri, Alberto

2008-01-01

468

Epidemiology of pneumothorax in England  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Little is known of the epidemiology of pneumothorax. Routinely available data on pneumothorax in England are described.?METHODS—Patients consulting in primary care with a diagnosis of pneumothorax in each year from 1991 to 1995 inclusive were identified from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Emergency hospital admissions for pneumothorax were identified for the years 1991-4 from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data. Mortality data for England & Wales were obtained for 1950-97. Analyses of pneumothorax rates by age and sex were performed for all data sources. Seasonal and geographical analyses were carried out for the HES data.?RESULTS—The overall person consulting rate for pneumothorax (primary and secondary combined) in the GPRD was 24.0/100 000 each year for men and 9.8/100 000 each year for women. Hospital admissions for pneumothorax as a primary diagnosis occurred at an overall incidence of 16.7/100 000 per year and 5.8/100 000 per year for men and women, respectively. Mortality rates were 1.26/million per year for men and 0.62/million per year for women. The age distribution in both men and women showed a biphasic distribution for both GP consultations and hospital admissions. Deaths showed a single peak with highest rates in the elderly. There was an urban-rural trend observed for hospital admissions in the older age group (55+ years) with admission rates in the conurbations significantly higher than in the rural areas. Analysis for trends in mortality data for 1950-97 showed a striking increase in the death rate for pneumothorax in those aged 55+ years between 1960and 1990, with a steep decline in the 1990s. Mortality in the younger age group (15-34 years) remained low and constant.?CONCLUSION—There is evidence of two epidemiologically distinct forms of spontaneous pneumothorax in England. The explanation for the rise and fall in mortality for secondary pneumothorax is obscure.?? PMID:10899243

Gupta, D.; Hansell, A.; Nichols, T.; Duong, T.; Ayres, J.; Strachan, D.

2000-01-01

469

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

2012-12-12

470

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Board of Directors  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

471

The epidemiology of bovine dermatophilosis in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine dermatophilosis (Senkobo disease) has been reported annually in Zambia for many years. However, its epidemiology under Zambian conditions had never been adequately studied. Officially the disease has never been recognized as being of any economic consequence.

K. L. Samui; M. E. Hugh-Jones

1990-01-01

472

Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)  

Cancer.gov

The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB) focuses on etiologic and genomic factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development among individuals with underlying diseases and conditions.

473

Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans  

PubMed Central

A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives. PMID:23091702

Matos, Olga; Lobo, Maria Luisa; Xiao, Lihua

2012-01-01

474

Synergizing Epidemiologic Research on Rare Cancers  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

475

2011 Radiation Epidemiology and Dosimetry Course  

Cancer.gov

2011 - Three-day course intended for people with backgrounds in epidemiology who are interested in learning about the health effects of radiation exposure–particularly the relationship between ionizing radiation and cancer.

476

Culturally Safe Epidemiology: Oxymoron or Scientific Imperative.  

PubMed

Since the early 20th Century, epidemiological research has brought benefits and burdens to Aboriginal communities in Canada. Many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit continue to view Western research with distrust; quantitative methods are perceived as especially inconsistent with indigenous ways of knowing. There is increasing recognition, however, that rigorous epidemiological research can produce evidence that draws attention and resources to pressing health issues in Aboriginal communities. We present a framework for culturally safe epidemiology, from the identification of research priorities, through fieldwork and analysis, to communication and use of evidence. Modern epidemiology and indigenous knowledge are not inherently discordant; many public health opportunities arise at this interface and good science must begin here too. PMID:20975852

Cameron, Mary; Andersson, Neil; McDowell, Ian; Ledogar, Robert J

2010-01-01

477

DESIGN OF EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will describe the following items: (1) London daily air pollution and deaths that demonstrate how time series epidemiology can indicate that air pollution caused death; (2) Sophisticated statistical models required to establish this relationship for lower pollut...

478

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Advisory Board  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

479

Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Annual Meetings  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Epidemiology and Genomics Research In NCI's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences Menu Search EGRP Site: EGRP Home About the Program Mission & Vision Organizational

480

Les questions de migrations internationales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

Samman, Mouna Liliane

1993-03-01

481

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03

482

Evaluative Conditioning: The “How” Question  

PubMed Central

Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “how” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains. PMID:22241936

Jones, Christopher R.; Olson, Michael A.; Fazio, Russell H.

2011-01-01

483

The Urban Institute: Five Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the mid-1960s, President Johnson saw the need for independent nonpartisan analysis of the problems facing America's cities and their residents. The President created a blue-ribbon commission of civic leaders who recommended chartering a center to do that work and in 1968, the Urban Institute became that center. Today the Urban Institute analyzes policies, evaluates programs, and informs community development to "improve social, civic, and economic well-being." Working in all 50 states and abroad, the Institute shares its research with policymakers, business leaders, and academics. On this site, visitors can enjoy the Institute's series of interviews entitled "Five Questions For"" which poses five questions to the people behind the Urban Institute's research. Here, experts talk about the nature of their work and offer insights on what they've learned. The collection allows visitors to browse a chronological list of this series of interviews and each interview is easily emailed and is also available in a printer friendly format.

484

Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations  

Cancer.gov

The symposium honored the visionary leadership of Dr. Fraumeni, the founding director of the NCI Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics. The conference provided an opportunity for scientific exchange by the leading experts in cancer epidemiology. Speakers highlighted critical findings made over the past 50 years, as well as opportunities for future research that have the potential to significantly advance our understanding of the causes of cancer.

485

Epidemiology and Genomics Research Funding Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) provides funding support for research in human populations to understand the causes of cancer and related outcomes. EGRP is the largest funder of cancer epidemiology grants nationally and worldwide. In addition to supporting investigator-initiated research grants, EGRP sponsors or co-sponsors a variety of targeted funding opportunity announcements (FOAs). Here we provide a listing of funding opportunities that are currently accepting applications.

486

Synergizing Epidemiologic Research on Rare Cancers  

Cancer.gov

EGRP and NIH's Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) cosponsored a workshop to stimulate epidemiologic research on rare cancers in May on the NIH Campus in Bethesda, MD. Many current and former EGRP grantees expert in epidemiologic research on rare cancers attended along with scientists from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and other components of NIH, survivors of rare cancers, and representatives of foundations devoted to supporting research and education on these cancers. View meeting agenda.

487

Epidemiology and Genomics Research Funding & Grants  

Cancer.gov

The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) provides funding support for research in human populations to understand the causes of cancer and related outcomes. EGRP is the largest funder of cancer epidemiology grants nationally and worldwide. In addition to supporting investigator-initiated research grants, EGRP sponsors or co-sponsors a variety of targeted funding opportunity announcements (FOAs). EGRP also offers grantsmanship advice to individual investigators from the pre-submission phase through the end of NCI grants.

488

Epidemiological basis of tuberculosis eradication  

PubMed Central

As knowledge of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Greenland has increased, it has become evident that the majority of cases develop long after the primary infection and that it would therefore be valuable from the public health point of view if the disease rate among naturally infected persons could be reduced. To examine the possibility of achieving this, a double-blind drug trial with isoniazid and a placebo was conducted among some 70% of the adult population of western Greenland. The results show that throughout the six years of the study the incidence of tuberculosis was lower in the group treated with isoniazid and that this reduction occurred whether the initial X-rays pictures were normal or showed suspicious or healed lesions. It is concluded that chemoprophylaxis programmes should probably be administered only to selected groups of the population. The delimitation of such groups is discussed on the basis of their tuberculosis risk and of the expected yield in terms of reduction in tuberculosis prevalence. PMID:5335457

Horwitz, Ole; Payne, Penelope G.; Wilbek, Erik

1966-01-01

489

Trichloroethylene and cancer: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed Central

Trichloroethylene is an organic chemical that has been used in dry cleaning, for metal degreasing, and as a solvent for oils and resins. It has been shown to cause liver and kidney cancer in experimental animals. This article reviews over 80 published papers and letters on the cancer epidemiology of people exposed to trichloroethylene. Evidence of excess cancer incidence among occupational cohorts with the most rigorous exposure assessment is found for kidney cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.7), liver cancer (RR = 1.9, 95% CI(1.0-3.4), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.3) as well as for cervical cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and multiple myeloma. However, since few studies isolate trichloroethylene exposure, results are likely confounded by exposure to other solvents and other risk factors. Although we believe that solvent exposure causes cancer in humans and that trichloroethylene likely is one of the active agents, we recommend further study to better specify the specific agents that confer this risk and to estimate the magnitude of that risk. PMID:10807550

Wartenberg, D; Reyner, D; Scott, C S

2000-01-01

490

Global epidemiology of atrial fibrillation.  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major public health burden worldwide, and its prevalence is set to increase owing to widespread population ageing, especially in rapidly developing countries such as Brazil, China, India, and Indonesia. Despite the availability of epidemiological data on the prevalence of AF in North America and Western Europe, corresponding data are limited in Africa, Asia, and South America. Moreover, other observations suggest that the prevalence of AF might be underestimated-not only in low-income and middle-income countries, but also in their high-income counterparts. Future studies are required to provide precise estimations of the global AF burden, identify important risk factors in various regions worldwide, and take into consideration regional and ethnic variations in AF. Furthermore, in response to the increasing prevalence of AF, additional resources will need to be allocated globally for prevention and treatment of AF and its associated complications. In this Review, we discuss the available data on the global prevalence, risk factors, management, financial costs, and clinical burden of AF, and highlight the current worldwide inadequacy of its treatment. PMID:25113750

Rahman, Faisal; Kwan, Gene F; Benjamin, Emelia J

2014-11-01

491

Epidemiology of neurologically disabling disorders.  

PubMed

Neurological disorders place a considerable burden upon individuals, their families, and society. Some like stroke are common, while others like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are much rarer. Some conditions such as multiple sclerosis are reported to vary by latitude, while others such as traumatic brain injury can vary considerably by locality. Depending upon the nature of the lesion, and factors such as time since onset, the consequences to the individual may also vary considerably, not just among different disorders, but within a given disorder. Consequently the patterns of disease incidence, its prevalence, and its consequences are complex and may vary not just because of the condition itself, but also because, for example, case ascertainment may vary from study to study. The cumulative annual incidence of disabling neurological disorders is likely to exceed 1000 per 100000, or 1% of the population. The incidence is characterized by significant variation, which is mediated by genetic, geographical, demographic, and environmental factors. While useful comparisons can be made through standardization techniques, planning for local services should be based upon local epidemiology, whenever available. PMID:23312632

Tennant, Alan

2013-01-01

492

Epidemiology of HBV subgenotypes D.  

PubMed

The natural history of hepatitis B virus infection is not uniform and affected from several factors including, HBV genotype. Genotype D is a widely distributed genotype. Among genotype D, several subgenotypes differentiate epidemiologically and probably clinically. D1 is predominant in Middle East and North Africa, and characterized by early HBeAg seroconversion and low viral load. D2 is seen in Albania, Turkey, Brazil, western India, Lebanon, and Serbia. D3 was reported from Serbia, western India, and Indonesia. It is a predominant subgenotype in injection drug use-related acute HBV infections in Europe and Canada. D4 is relatively rare and reported from Haiti, Russia and Baltic region, Brazil, Kenya, Morocco and Rwanda. Subgenotype D5 seems to be common in Eastern India. D6 has been reported as a rare subgenotype from Indonesia, Kenya, Russia and Baltic region. D7 is the main genotype in Morocco and Tunisia. D8 and D9 are recently described subgenotypes and reported from Niger and India, respectively. Subgenotypes of genotype D may have clinical and/or viral differences. More subgenotype studies are required to conclude on subgenotype and its clinical/viral characteristics. PMID:25037178

Ozaras, Resat; Inanc Balkan, Ilker; Yemisen, Mucahit; Tabak, Fehmi

2015-02-01

493

Epidemiology of cancer in children  

SciTech Connect

The epidemiologic features of cancers among children have stimulated abundant descriptive and analytic investigation. The descriptive work has demonstrated consistent differences in the incidence rates of these cancers by anatomic site, age, race, and gender. It is clear that the various forms of cancer during childhood have distinctive patterns of occurrence. To a large extent, the characteristic population distributions of these diseases may represent differences in the underlying etiologic processes. Analytic studies of cancer during childhood have addressed possible genetic and environmental risk factors for these diseases. The demonstration of cancers induced by transplacental exposure to diethylstilbestrol has confirmed the speculation that the prenatal environment may influence subsequent carcinogenesis. Although possible leukemogenic effects of intrauterine diagnostic irradiation remain controversial, the issue may become unimportant clinically as prenatal irradiation is replaced by other diagnostic modalities (194). To date, studies of prenatal ultrasound have provided no evidence of an overall excess of subsequent malignancies. Postnatal exposure to high doses of irradiation is known to produce considerable excesses of leukemias and other cancers. At present, there are insufficient data available to reach a firm conclusion on the possible carcinogenic effects of exposure during childhood to low doses of irradiation, fringe magnetic fields, or chemicals.

Greenberg, R.S.; Shuster, J.L. Jr.

1985-01-01

494

Epidemiology 766 Discussion Guide: Readings 1  

E-print Network

, consider the following points for discussion: a). What is/are the scientific questions being asked? What would be the ideal data for answering the scientific question(s)? b) What is the nature of measurements affect the investigators options for analyzing the data and the type of scientific questions

Zhang, Daowen

495

Epidemiology 766 Discussion Guide: Readings 1  

E-print Network

for discussion: a). What is/are the scientific questions being asked by the investigators? Be as precise data for answering the scientific question(s)? b) What is the nature of the data being analyzed? 1 the investigators options for analyzing the data and the type of scientific questions that could be answered? e

Zhang, Daowen

496

10/16/2014 Prepared by the Purdue Public Health Emergency Planning Committee. For the latest information, please see www.cdc.gov/ebola Ebola Virus Disease FAQ for the Purdue Community  

E-print Network

.g., antiviral drug) is available for Ebola. Experimental vaccines and treatments for Ebola are under development information: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/treatment/index.html What is the incubation period for Ebola information, please see www.cdc.gov/ebola Ebola Virus Disease FAQ for the Purdue Community What is Ebola

Ginzel, Matthew

497

Networks and the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease  

PubMed Central

The science of networks has revolutionised research into the dynamics of interacting elements. It could be argued that epidemiology in particular has embraced the potential of network theory more than any other discipline. Here we review the growing body of research concerning the spread of infectious diseases on networks, focusing on the interplay between network theory and epidemiology. The review is split into four main sections, which examine: the types of network relevant to epidemiology; the multitude of ways these networks can be characterised; the statistical methods that can be applied to infer the epidemiological parameters on a realised network; and finally simulation and analytical methods to determine epidemic dynamics on a given network. Given the breadth of areas covered and the ever-expanding number of publications, a comprehensive review of all work is impossible. Instead, we provide a personalised overview into the areas of network epidemiology that have seen the greatest progress in recent years or have the greatest potential to provide novel insights. As such, considerable importance is placed on analytical approaches and statistical methods which are both rapidly expanding fields. Throughout this review we restrict our attention to epidemiological issues. PMID:21437001

Danon, Leon; Ford, Ashley P.; House, Thomas; Jewell, Chris P.; Keeling, Matt J.; Roberts, Gareth O.; Ross, Joshua V.; Vernon, Matthew C.

2011-01-01

498

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we plan for? · Should we separate uranium? · If we separate uranium, should we recycle it, store it or dispose of it? · Is it practical to plan to fabricate and handle “hot” fuel? · Which transuranic elements (TRU) should be separated and transmuted? · Of those TRU separated, which should be transmuted together? · Should we separate and/or transmute Cs and Sr isotopes that dominate near-term repository heating? · Should we separate and/or transmute very long-lived Tc and I isotopes? · Which separation technology? · What mix of transmutation technologies? · What fuel technology best supports the above decisions?

Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2003-10-01

499

John Snow: Pioneer of Epidemiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from Rx for Survival, actors portray how John Snow, a London physician, traced a major outbreak of cholera in the 1850s to its source. Using logic, statistics, and mapping, Snow rejected the idea that cholera was carried in a cloud of bad air. Instead, he believed contaminated water was responsible for spreading the disease among the local population. Snowâs surveillance and response tactics would become a foundation of modern epidemiologyâthe science of public health that is built on a working knowledge of probability, statistics, and sound research methods. A background essay, discussion questions, and standards correlations are also provided.

2010-08-31

500

Epidemiology, Etiology, and Public Health  

SciTech Connect

Veterinary oncology has seen tremendous growth since the first textbook devoted to the subject in the late 1970s. Cancer is usually at the top of the list when owners ask about health concerns for their pets (and it remains the leading cause of death among dogs and cats). The volume, Veterinary Oncology Secrets, joins others in the series by presenting in question and answer format the type of information so important to veterinary students, interns and residents, general practitioners, and specialists in a number of clinical fields.

Weller, Richard E.

2000-02-23