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1

Using Student Submitted Questions for Practice in Answering Reference Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real questions, with no predetermined answers, were submitted by students in an introductory reference class and used to supplement instructor developed problems sets for practice in answering reference questions. The methodology and benefits are discussed. (Author/MBR)

Braunagel, Judith S.

1978-01-01

2

Reading Comprehension Student Template: Question-Answer Relationship  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This template is an instructional tool that can be used to guide elementary students (grades 2-5) through the reading strategy of questioning. The template is based on the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) approach in which students classify questions according to type and then provide answers from text. The template was designed to be used with the Feature Story, The Dance of Life, by students in grades 2-5. It is a PDF document that can be copied and distributed to students.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

3

Question Their Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by ``questioning their answers.''

Royce, Brenda

2004-10-01

4

Answering Essay Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay questions for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay questions. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay questions. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, ``Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay question?'' Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.

Debuvitz, William

2008-03-01

5

When Students Ask Questions: Teacher and Peer Answers in the Foreign Language Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on student questions in L2 classrooms has shown conflicting results. Some studies report that foreign language teachers use direct answers and others express concern about ESL teachers' overuse of ineffective display counter-questions. Here, student questions and their resolutions were analyzed in more than thirty hours of first through…

Ohta, Amy Snyder; Nakaone, Tomoko

2004-01-01

6

The Varieties of Student Experience--An Open Research Question and Some Ways to Answer It  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on meetings of the Society for Research into Higher Education's Student Experience Network over the past three years, the genuinely open research question is posed whether there is one or more undergraduate student experience within English higher education. Answering this question depends on whether what is taught or what is learnt is…

Ainley, Patrick

2008-01-01

7

Teaching Students to Ask Questions Instead of Answering Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Philosophers, cognitive scientists, anthropologists, and psychologists have argued convincingly that the act of questioning is central to thinking, to storing and communicating knowledge, even to several important types of social interaction. But while scholars of higher education have written extensively on the topic of questioning for more than…

Bowker, Matthew H.

2010-01-01

8

SOME QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS CONCERNING HOUSING FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS SURVEY INVESTIGATES HOUSING PATTERNS AND PREFERENCES FOR MARRIED AND SINGLE GRADUATE STUDENTS ATTENDING THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE. DATA WAS OBTAINED FROM 126 MARRIED STUDENTS CONCERNING (1) TYPES OF LIVING ARRANGEMENTS, (2) HOUSING COSTS, AND (3) EMPLOYMENT FACTORS. PREFERENCES FOR HOUSING TYPES INCLUDED (1) 50.3 PERCENT IN FAVOR OF…

MONTGOMERY, JAMES R.

9

What Can Standardized Reading Tests Tell Us? Question-Answer Relationships and Students' Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the comprehension subsection of Nelson-Denny Reading Test Form G (Brown, Fishco, & Hanna, 1993a) and some urban developmental students' performance on it. Three types of question-answer relations were identified using Pearson and Johnson's taxonomy. Students' performance was expressed in their scores on the three types of…

Wang, Danhua

2006-01-01

10

What causes the patterns in students' incorrect answers to physics questions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education researchers agree on one thing: the empirical finding that students often answer questions about simple physical phenomena in ways that are not only specific and contrary to the scientific view, but also remarkably similar to answers of other students. What causes these answering patterns? Most efforts focus on students' explicit reasoning, yet it still remains an open question to what extent implicit, automatic learning processes play a role. We provide evidence that such automatic cognitive mechanisms likely play an important role in student responses to science questions. For example, we find that students often choose to base their answer on the dimensions of a problem that are processed the fastest (even if the dimension is incorrect), and forcing a few-second delay can improve their performance. This suggests that respondents are capable of answering correctly, but instead they tend to answer quickly. We also provide evidence suggesting that repetitive training can shift attention to more relevant dimensions in a problem and increase performance, possibly because processing time is decreased.

Heckler, Andrew

2011-04-01

11

Shaping Faster Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In laboratory experiments, conducted with 12 college student Ss who completed programed lessons at a teaching machine during twice-per-week sessions, Ss were automatically scored separately for correctness and for speed of correct answering; their points ...

L. O. Brooks

1965-01-01

12

Americans with Disabilities Act: Responsibilities for Postsecondary Institutions Serving Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students. Questions and Answers. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides answers to questions concerning responsibilities of institutions of postsecondary education toward students who are deaf or hard of hearing under the Americans with Disabilities Act. These questions were originally received but not answered due to time constraints during two satellite conferences held by the Midwest…

Kincaid, Jeanne M.; Rawlinson, Sharaine J.

13

Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

2010-01-01

14

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

15

Do Students Know if They Answered Particular Questions Correctly on a Psychology Exam?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores students' abilities to make different metacognitive judgments about the same material. Sophomores in a psychology class indicated how confident they were that each answer on their final was correct (micro-level judgments) and pre- postdicted their overall score (macro-level judgments). Students made the series of simpler…

Rosenthal, Gary T.; Soper, Barlow; McKnight, Richard R.; Price, A. W.; Boudreaux, Monique; Rachal, K. Chris

2010-01-01

16

Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... with Cancer , Prevention/Early Detection , Prostate Cancer Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered Article date: August 29, 2009 ... your 50s, should you being getting screened for prostate cancer? Answer: Researchers still don’t know for ...

17

Investigations of Human Question Answering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

Graesser, Arthur C.

18

Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student

Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

1989-01-01

19

Instance-Based Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During recent years, question answering (QA) has grown from simple passage retrieval and information extraction to very complex approaches that incorporate deep question and document analysis, reasoning, planning, and sophisticated uses of knowledge resou...

L. V. Lita

2006-01-01

20

A Caring, Qualified, Well-Supported, and Effective Teacher for Every Student: Questions for Smart School Districts to Answer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smart school communities ask and answer hard questions about which teachers they attract and how they are developed and supported, as well as whether they reward and retain the teachers they most need to help all students achieve. Designed to provoke and inspire, the framework described in this paper offers a blueprint for how school communities…

Berry, Barnett

2007-01-01

21

Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

2007-01-01

22

Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2009-01-01

23

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

24

Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

2009-01-01

25

Mapping the Question Answering Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a trend analysis of the question answering (QA) domain. Bibliometric mapping was used to sketch the boundary of\\u000a the domain by uncovering the topics central to and peripheral to QA research in the new millennium. This paper visualizes\\u000a the evolution of concepts in the QA domain by studying the dynamics of the QA research during the periods 2000

Mohan John Blooma; Alton Yeow-kuan Chua; Dion Hoe-lian Goh

2008-01-01

26

A Combination of Hand-held Models and Computer Imaging Programs Helps Students Answer Oral Questions about Molecular Structure and Function: A Controlled Investigation of Student Learning  

PubMed Central

We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models.

Peck, Ronald F.; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

2009-01-01

27

When The Right Answer is a Question. Students as Explainers at the Exploratorium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who work at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California learn about science by explaining to the visitors from all over the world how the museum's exhibits work. The students are teen-agers who also come from all over the world to be "Explainers" for the Exploratorium. They go through a training period to learn the basics of how the…

Klages, Ellen; And Others

28

Lessons about Asking, Answering Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the web-based lessons highlighted in this article, students learn how to pose questions before, during, and after reading nonfiction, fiction, and diagrams. This reading comprehension strategy is included in the literacy column of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a free, online publication for K-5 teachers.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

29

Eight Questions in Search of an Answer: Awakening Students to the Experience of Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rationale, description, and evaluation of a course about adolescence taught to university students. This interdisciplinary approach includes materials from literature, philosophy, history, and the arts. Primary source material is extensively used. (Author/MLF)

Laidlaw, Toni Ann; Dubinsky, Lon

1980-01-01

30

Questions and Answers Related to Policy Issues about Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to provide information to North Carolina administrators and teachers on policy issues related to students with disabilities. Policy letters from the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs and the Office of Civil Rights, as well as "Analysis of Comments and Changes" and "Notice of Interpretations on IEPs" of the Federal…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Exceptional Children Div.

31

Students' Views of Their and Others' Thinking: Underlying Concepts Involved in Answering Divergent Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether preservice teachers can infer the major concepts that a subject uses in his or her thinking on complex problems if the subject thinks out loud. Twenty-six students in a teacher certification program, 17 college graduates with 5 years of full-time work experience, and 16 college graduates with 10 years of full-time work…

Martin, Ken

32

Multilingual Question\\/Answering: the DIOGENE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the DIOGENE question\\/answering system developed at ITC- Irst. The system is based on a rather standard architecture which includes three components for question processing, search and answer extraction. Linguistic processing strongly relies on MULTIWORDNET, an extended version of the English WORDNET. The system has been designed to address two promising directions: multilingual question\\/answering and question\\/answering on the

Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Roberto Prevete; Hristo Tanev

2001-01-01

33

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

34

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

35

Question Answering Based on Semantic Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability to answer complex questions posed in Natural Language depends on (1) the depth of the available semantic representations and (2) the inferential mechanisms they Support. In this paper we describe a QA architecture where questions are analyzed ...

S. Harabagiu S. Narayanan

2004-01-01

36

Is question answering an acquired skill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question answering (QA) system which learns how to detect and rank answer passages by analyzing questions and their answers (QA pairs) provided as training data. We built our system in only a few person-months using off-the-shelf components: a part-of-speech tagger, a shallow parser, a lexical network, and a few well-known supervised learning algorithms. In contrast, many of

Ganesh Ramakrishnan; Soumen Chakrabarti; Deepa Paranjpe; Pushpak Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

37

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11

38

Teaching about Immigration Issues [and] Immigration: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Interchange" contains a reading, discussion questions, activities, and ideas to help educators teach secondary students and adults about immigration issues. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading entitled "Immigration: Questions and Answers." This reading analyzes the concerns about current levels of immigration and…

Interchange (Population Education Newsletter), 1982

1982-01-01

39

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

40

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

41

Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

42

Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... About High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of ... by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. ...

43

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

44

Learning Named Entity Hyponyms for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical mismatch is a problem that con- founds automatic question answering sys- tems. While existing lexical ontologies such as WordNet have been successfully used to match verbal synonyms (e.g., beat and de- feat) and common nouns (tennis is-a sport), their coverage of proper nouns is less ex- tensive. Question answering depends sub- stantially on processing named entities, and thus it

Paul McNamee; Rion Snow; Patrick Schone; James Mayfield

45

Building a question answering test collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering (QA) Track was the first large-scale evaluation of domain-independent question answering systems. In addition to fostering research on the QA task, the track was used to investigate whether the evaluation methodology used for document retrieval is appropriate for a different natural language processing task. As with document relevance judging, assessors had legitimate differences of opinions as

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

2000-01-01

46

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

47

Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

2005-01-01

48

Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel fashion at 33 and 45 months. The measures encompassed moral emotion (guilt and empathic distress) and

Nazan Aksan; Grazyna Kochanska

2005-01-01

49

The TREC8 Question Answering Track Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering track was the first large-scale evaluation of systems that returnanswers, as opposed to lists of documents, in response to a question. As a first evaluation, it is importantto examine the evaluation methodology itself to understand any limits on the conclusions that can bedrawn from the evaluation and possibly to find ways to improve subsequent evaluations. This

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

1999-01-01

50

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a…

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2010-01-01

51

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and

Yana Weinstein; Kathleen B. McDermott; Henry L. Roediger

2010-01-01

52

Inquiry-based Learning in Plant Ecology: Students Collect the Field Data, Ask the Questions, and Propose the Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Experiment is designed to teach upper-level students in a plant ecology course how to collect data on plant populations (distribution and abundance), develop hypotheses to explain observed patterns, and write a research proposal to test their hypotheses. The Experiment describes a semester long project requiring 13 classes that are 2 ĂÂľ hours long each. The experimental setup is a 2 m X 30 m planted garden plot containing a mixture of planted (forb, grass, and legume) and volunteer plants. Students propose questions with specific measurable dependent and independent variables. Lab work typically required includes preparation and analysis of abiotic samples, such as soil samples, to measure variables such as soil moisture and soil texture.

Griffith, Alan

2010-02-16

53

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

54

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

55

Questions and Answers about CD ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…

Kuhn, Carolyn

1987-01-01

56

Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

57

A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.  

PubMed

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PMID:20853989

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

2010-09-01

58

Question Answering: Technology For Intelligence Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a former analyst’s perspective on Question Answering (QA) systems. Although the author’s background\\u000a is in intelligence analysis, he is currently engaged in sponsoring basic research in linguistic pragmatics. Given this background,\\u000a the author believes that today’s technology has the potential to help fulfil the vision of providing a highly capable tool\\u000a enabling an analyst – any analyst,

Steven Maiorano

59

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

60

Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

2012-01-01

61

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

SciTech Connect

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2012-01-01

62

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2013-05-29

63

Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?  

PubMed

It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. PMID:23591048

Brunnander, Björn

2013-09-01

64

Characteristics of Attempts To Handle Indeterminate Situations--Answering Questions: University Students and University Graduates with Work Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of the nature and characteristics of thinking examined how university students without full-time work experience and university graduates with work experience think when posed with an indeterminate situation. The focus was on such characteristics as expression tendencies, approaches to responding, thinking movements, and learning…

Martin, Ken

65

Learning How to Answer Questions Using Trivia Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine a sentence comprehension task: given a question, and an extended sentence known to answer that question, the goal is to extract the short answer to the question. As an initial solution, a novel robust statistical model is presented which combines the semantics of the expected answer with the expected context within which the answer will

Gideon S. Mann

2002-01-01

66

Conscience in childhood: old questions, new answers.  

PubMed

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel fashion at 33 and 45 months. The measures encompassed moral emotion (guilt and empathic distress) and rule-compatible conduct (internalization of maternal prohibitions and requests and of another adult's rules). Confirmatory factor analyses supported a differentiated view of conscience with 2 latent factors at both ages: Moral Emotion and Rule-Compatible Conduct. The structure of conscience was remarkably stable over time. The coherence between Moral Emotion and Rule-Compatible Conduct factors increased as children grew older. PMID:15910158

Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

2005-05-01

67

Qualitative Dimensions in Question Answering: Extending the Definitional QA Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current question answering tasks handle definitional questions by seeking answers which are factual in nature. While factual answers are a very important component in defining entities, a wealth of qualitative data is ignored. In this incipient work, we define qualitative dimensions (credibility, sentiment, contradic- tions, temporal etc.) for evaluating answers to definitional ques- tions and we explore potential benefits to

Lucian Vlad Lita; Andrew Hazen Schlaikjer; Weichang Hong; Eric Nyberg

2005-01-01

68

Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

Miller, C. C.; And Others

1982-01-01

69

The Artful Dodger: Answering the Wrong Question the Right Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens when speakers try to "dodge" a question they would rather not answer by answering a different question? In 4 studies, we show that listeners can fail to detect dodges when speakers answer similar--but objectively incorrect--questions (the "artful dodge"), a detection failure that goes hand-in-hand with a failure to rate dodgers more…

Rogers, Todd; Norton, Michael I.

2011-01-01

70

How Physicians' Answers Relate to Health Consumers' Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the semantic relationships in consumers' health-related questions, physician-provided answers, and between questions and answers with the purpose of supporting the design of health consumer question-answering systems. The information present in the text was expressed using a "pilot" ontology that was based on the semantic relationships…

Slaughter, Laura; Soergel, Dagobert

2003-01-01

71

Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers  

PubMed Central

Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology.

Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

2005-01-01

72

Improving Student Question Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

2009-01-01

73

HITIQA: A Data Driven Approach to Interactive Analytical Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the analytic question answering system HITIQA (High-Quality In- teractive Question Answering) which has been developed over the last 2 years as an advanced research tool for information analysts. HITIQA is an interactive open-domain ques- tion answering technology designed to allow analysts to pose complex exploratory ques- tions in natural language and obtain relevant information units

Sharon Small; Tomek Strzalkowski

74

Fora: Leveraging the Power of Internet Communities for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a system for searching question an- swer pairs automatically extracted from the discussions in internet communities. The system, named Fora, aggregates discussions from multiple forums and newsgroups in the same domain, automatically extracts question answer pairs from the data, and provides searches of the question answer pairs. The system also ofiers expert search, query sugges- tion, page

Gu Xu; Hang Li; Wei-Ying Ma

2008-01-01

75

The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major…

Oderman, Dale B.

76

Learning search engine specific query transformations for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method for learning query transformations that im- proves the ability to retrieve answers to questions from an informa- tion retrieval system. During the training stage the method involves automatically learning phrase features for classifying questions into different types, automatically generating candidate query transfor- mations from a training set of question\\/answer pairs, and automat- ically evaluating the candidate

Eugene Agichtein; Steve Lawrence; Luis Gravano

2001-01-01

77

How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with one’s own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 10–35 subjects completed the study. Subjects’ likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions.

Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

2011-01-01

78

What Makes a Good Answer? The Role of Context in Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question answering systems have proven to be helpful to users because they can provide succinct answers that do not require users to wade through a large number of documents. However, despite recent advances in the underlying question answering technology, the problem of designing effective interfaces has been largely unexplored. We conducted a user study to investigate this area and discovered

Jimmy J. Lin; Dennis Quan; Vineet Sinha; Karun Bakshi; David Huynh; Boris Katz; David R. Karger

2003-01-01

79

The impact of corpus size on question answering performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using our question answering system, questions from the TREC 2001 evaluation were executed over a series of Web data collections, with the sizes of the collections increasing from 25 gigabytes up to nearly a terabyte.

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; M. Laszlo; Thomas R. Lynam; Egidio L. Terra

2002-01-01

80

MAIMAI: A Question Answering System at NTCIR3 QAC-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an question answering system based on syntactic information. Our system extracts answer candidates by ranking of score which shows similarity of syntactic structure. Syntactic structure is estimated based on answer type, density of weighty words, distance between words and depth of parse tree. To analyze syntactic structure, morphological analysis, named entity extraction and parser are uti- lized.

Fumito MASUI; Masayuki MIYAGUCHI

81

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

82

99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

83

The Answerable Question and a Hierarchy of Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of a hierarchy of evidence is useful in rapid electronic searching to answer questions arising during the natural course of clinical practice. The answerable question often begins "What is the evidence that ..." and, when focused on a treatment, usually includes a population, an intervention, a comparison group, and an outcome, often…

Hamilton, John

2005-01-01

84

The role of context in question answering systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent advances in natural language question an-swering technology, the problem of designing effective user interfaces has been largely unexplored. We conducted a user study to investigate the problem and discovered that overall, users prefer a paragraph-sized chunk of text over just an exact phrase as the answer to their questions. Fur-thermore, users generally prefer answers embedded in con-text, regardless

Jimmy J. Lin; Dennis Quan; Vineet Sinha; Karun Bakshi; David Huynh; Boris Katz; David R. Karger

2003-01-01

85

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

86

Overview of the TREC 2004 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2004 Question Answering track contained a single task in which question series were used to define a set of targets. Each series contained factoid and list questions and related to a single target. The final question in the series was an \\

Ellen M. Voorhees

2004-01-01

87

Semantic representation of consumer questions and physician answers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the underlying semantics of health consumers' questions and physicians' answers in order to analyze the semantic patterns within these texts. We manually identified semantic relationships within question-answer pairs from Ask-the-Doctor Web sites. Identification of the semantic relationship instances within the texts was based on the relationship classes and structure of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Semantic Network. We calculated the frequency of occurrence of each semantic relationship class, and conceptual graphs were generated, joining concepts together through the semantic relationships identified. We then analyzed whether representations of physician's answers exactly matched the form of the question representations. Lastly, we examined characteristics of the answer conceptual graphs. We identified 97 semantic relationship instances in the questions and 334 instances in the answers. The most frequently identified semantic relationship in both questions and answers was brings_about (causal). We found that the semantic relationship propositions identified in answers that most frequently contain a concept also expressed in the question were: brings_about, isa, co_occurs_with, diagnoses, and treats. Using extracted semantic relationships from real-life questions and answers can produce a valuable analysis of the characteristics of these texts. This can lead to clues for creating semantic-based retrieval techniques that guide users to further information. For example, we determined that both consumers and physicians often express causative relationships and these play a key role in leading to further related concepts. PMID:16125448

Slaughter, Laura A; Soergel, Dagobert; Rindflesch, Thomas C

2006-07-01

88

Asking Essay Questions: Answering Contemporary Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay questions have been a stable fixture of teacher assessment activity for decades. Assessment reforms of the early 90's encouraged the development and use of "newer" forms of assessment including portfolios, performance tasks, and authentic assessments. As of late, however, there appears to be a regressive emphasis toward the use of objective…

Criswell, John R.; Criswell, Susan J.

2004-01-01

89

Answering Lord Perry's question: dissecting regulatory overfishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, in response to the distressed condition of the British fishing industry, the House of Lords held a series of hearings on “Fish Stock Conservation and Management.” Lord Perry of Walton posed the straightforward question of why regulation was not succeeding: If one takes all the management systems into account—TACs [total allowable catches, or annual quotas], number of days

Josh Eagle; Barton H Thompson

2003-01-01

90

FERRET: Interactive Question-Answering for Real-World Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes FERRET, an interac- tive question-answering (Q\\/A) system de- signed to address the challenges of inte- grating automatic Q\\/A applications into real-world environments. FERRET utilizes a novel approach to Q\\/A ń known as pre- dictive questioning ń which attempts to identify the questions (and answers) that users need by analyzing how a user inter- acts with a system

Andrew Hickl; Patrick Wang; John Lehmann; Sanda M. Harabagiu

2006-01-01

91

Response to Intervention: Questions and Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A better understanding of the basic mechanisms of the Problem-solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI) framework will help educators address students' diverse learning and behavioral needs. It will also help educators who may view PS/RtI as a compliance matter rather than an informative educational process that helps children reach their…

Monetti, David M.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; McAuley, Michael G.

2013-01-01

92

Physicians' use of computer software in answering clinical questions.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive data about the use of medical information software were gathered from physicians who were early users of these resources. Eight clinically active internists and medical subspecialists were lent a microcomputer loaded with six commercially available medical information software products. Participants used the software for two weeks to answer questions arising in their practice and completed written questionnaires. They recorded a total of 50 questions (between 3 and 11 per participant per two-week study period). Using the workstation, participants answered 20 questions (40% of the total), partially answered 16 questions (32%), and did not obtain useful information for 14 questions (28%). Participants found answers outside the workstation to 8 of the 14 questions (57%) not answered by using the software. The most common question topic was drug information (16 questions, or 32% of the total). The most common problems encountered using the workstation were retrieval of incomplete information (20 questions, or 40% of the total) and difficulty navigating the software (16 questions, or 32%). Other problems included difficulty translating clinical problems into questions, inappropriate resource selection, inadequate training for using the software, and excessive time required to access information. The study highlights several opportunities for medical librarians and others involved in clinical information management to facilitate the use of computer software for solving clinical problems.

Osheroff, J A; Bankowitz, R A

1993-01-01

93

Connecting Students to Content: Student-Generated Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students learn best by being actively engaged in the learning process. This essay describes a teaching technique where students generate their own questions about a course topic. This occurs at the beginning of each new section of a course. The instructor works with the class to answer the students' own questions throughout that section of…

Davis, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

94

Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

2011-01-01

95

Enhanced Answer Type Inference from Questions using Sequential Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question classification is an important step in factual question answering (QA) and other dialog systems. Several at- tempts have been made to apply statistical machine learning approaches, including Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with sophisticated features and kernels. Curi- ously, the payoff beyond a simple bag-of- words representation has been small. We show that most questions reveal their class through a

Vijay Krishnan; Sujatha Das; Soumen Chakrabarti

2005-01-01

96

CLVQ: cross-language video question\\/answering system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multilanguage information retrieval promotes users to browse documents in the form of their mother language, and more and more peoples interested in retrieves short answers rather than a full document. In this paper, we present a cross-language video QA system i.e. CLVQ, which could process the English questions, and find answers in Chinese videos. The main contribution of this research

Yu-Chyeh Wu; Chia-Hui Chang; Yue-Shi Lee

2004-01-01

97

Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20  

SciTech Connect

NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-05-01

98

Put It in Writing: Questions and Answers on Advance Directives  

MedlinePLUS

... Put it in Writing Questions and Answers on Advance Directives Q iii 1 Photo M any people today ... to make such decisions, through legal documents called advance directives. Before deciding what choices about your care at ...

99

Syntactic Clues and Lexical Resources in Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

CL Research's question-answering system (DIMAP-QA) for TREC-9 significantly extends its semantic relation triple (logical form) technology in which documents are fully parsed and databases built around discourse e ntities. This extension further exploits parsing output, most notably appositives and relative clauses, which are quite useful for question-answering. Further, DIMAP-QA integrated machine-readable lexical resources: a full-sized dictionary and a thesaurus with

Kenneth C. Litkowski

2000-01-01

100

Overview of the CLEF 2005 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general aim of the third CLEF Multilingual Question Answering Track was to set up a common and replicable evaluation framework to test both monolingual and cross-language Question Answering (QA) systems that process queries and documents in several European languages. Nine target languages and ten source languages were exploited to enact 8 monolingual and 73 cross-language tasks. Twenty-four groups participated

Alessandro Vallin; Bernardo Magnini; Danilo Giampiccolo; Lili Aunimo; Christelle Ayache; Petya Osenova; Anselmo Peńas; Maarten De Rijke; Bogdan Sacaleanu; Diana Santos; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

2005-01-01

101

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

SciTech Connect

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-02-14

102

Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions  

ScienceCinema

In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

Walker, Iain

2013-11-14

103

Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system*  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Despite the growing use of online databases by clinicians, there has been very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse-practitioner students to answer clinical questions using an information retrieval system. It also attempted to identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user-satisfaction factors associated with successful use of a retrieval system. Methods: Twenty-nine students completed questionnaires of clinical and computer experience as well as tests of cognitive abilities and personality type. They were then administered three clinical questions to answer in a medical library setting using the MEDLINE database and electronic and print full-text resources. Results: Medical students were able to answer more questions correctly than nurse-practitioner students before and after searching, but both had comparable improvements in the number of correct questions before and after searching. Successful ability to answer questions was also associated with having experience in literature searching and higher standardized test-score percentiles. Conclusions: Medical and nurse-practitioner students obtained comparable benefits in the ability to answer clinical questions from use of the information retrieval system. Future research must examine strategies that improve successful search and retrieval of clinical questions posed by clinicians in practice.

Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Rose, Linda; Friedman, Charles P.

2000-01-01

104

Web Based Pattern Mining and Matching Approach to Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe herein a Web based pattern mining and matching approach to question answering. For each type of questions, a lot of textual patterns can be learned from the Web automatically, using the TREC QA track data as training examples. These textual patterns are assessed by the concepts of support and confidence, which are borrowed from the data mining community.

Dell Zhang; Wee Sun Lee

2002-01-01

105

Answers to the 50 Most Important Questions about Private Mental Health Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for anyone contemplating or presently established in private mental health practice, this book provides the answers to 50 pertinent questions concerning private practice. Questions were culled from a survey of graduate students in psychology, as well as experienced psychotherapists, psychiatrists, social workers, mental health counselors,…

Forman, Bruce D.; Silverman, Wade H.

106

Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

US Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

107

Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

Not Available

1980-01-01

108

Factors Associated with Success in Searching medline and Applying Evidence to Answer Clinical Questions  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study sought to assess the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to use medline to obtain evidence for answering clinical questions and to identify factors associated with the successful answering of questions. Methods: A convenience sample of medical and nurse practitioner students was recruited. After completing instruments measuring demographic variables, computer and searching attitudes and experience, and cognitive traits, the subjects were given a brief orientation to medline searching and the techniques of evidence-based medicine. The subjects were then given 5 questions (from a pool of 20) to answer in two sessions using the Ovid medline system and the Oregon Health & Science University library collection. Each question was answered using three possible responses that reflected the quality of the evidence. All actions capable of being logged by the Ovid system were captured. Statistical analysis was performed using a model based on generalized estimating equations. The relevance-based measures of recall and precision were measured by defining end queries and having relevance judgments made by physicians who were not associated with the study. Results: Forty-five medical and 21 nurse practitioner students provided usable answers to 324 questions. The rate of correctness increased from 32.3 to 51.6 percent for medical students and from 31.7 to 34.7 percent for nurse practitioner students. Ability to answer questions correctly was most strongly associated with correctness of the answer before searching, user experience with medline features, the evidence-based medicine question type, and the spatial visualization score. The spatial visualization score showed multi-collinearity with student type (medical vs. nurse practitioner). Medical and nurse practitioner students obtained comparable recall and precision, neither of which was associated with correctness of the answer. Conclusions: Medical and nurse practitioner students in this study were at best moderately successful at answering clinical questions correctly with the assistance of literature searching. The results confirm the importance of evaluating both search ability and the ability to use the resulting information to accomplish a clinical task.

Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Friedman, Charles P.; Tidmarsh, Patricia; Mosbaek, Craig; Kraemer, Dale

2002-01-01

109

Illustrating answers: an evaluation of automatically retrieved illustrations of answers to medical questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss and evaluate a method for automatic text illustration, applied to answers to medical questions. Our method for selecting illustrations is based on the idea that similarities between the answers and picture-related text (the picture’s caption or the section\\/paragraph that includes the picture) can be used as evidence that the picture would be appropriate to illustrate

Wauter Bosma; M. Theune; C. M. J. van Hooijdonk; E. Krahmer; F. Maes

2008-01-01

110

77 FR 10662 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment and Maintenance of Records...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2011-D-0598] Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment...availability of a guidance entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Establishment...availability of a guidance entitled ``Questions and Answers Establishment and...

2012-02-23

111

Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

Auwaerter, Paul G.

2002-01-01

112

Questions and Answers on Unfair Labor Practices. A Practitioner's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An unfair labor practice is the violation of any right granted employees, unions, or employers by a collective bargaining law. This guide answers common questions about unfair labor practices in public sector labor relations. The booklet is divided into two sections, unfair employer labor practices and unfair union labor practices. The section…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

113

A Trend Analysis of the Question Answering Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a trend analysis of the question answering (QA) domain. Using bibliometric mapping, we sketched the boundary of the domain by uncovering the topics central to and peripheral to QA research in the new millennium. This paper visualizes the evolution of concepts in the QA domain by studying the dynamics of the QA research during the periods 2000 -

Mohan John Blooma; Alton Yeow-Kuan Chua; Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; Chu Keong Lee

2009-01-01

114

Overview of the CLEF 2004 Multilingual Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the pilot Question Answering Track at CLEF 2003, a new evaluation exercise for multilingual QA systems took place in 2004. This paper reports on the novelties introduced in the new campaign and on participants' results. Almost all the cross-language combinations between nine source languages and seven target languages were exploited to set up more than fifty different tasks, both

Bernardo Magnini; Alessandro Vallin; Christelle Ayache; Gregor Erbach; Anselmo Peńas; Maarten De Rijke; Paulo Rocha; Kiril Ivanov Simov; Richard F. E. Sutcliffe

2004-01-01

115

Interesting nuggets and their impact on definitional question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Current approaches to identifying definitional sentences in the con- text of Question Answering mainly,involve the use of linguistic or syntactic patterns to identify informative nuggets. This is in- sufficient as they do not address the novelty factor that a defini- tional nugget must also possess. This paper proposes to address the deficiency by building a “Human Interest Model” from

Kian-wei Kor; Tat-seng Chua

2007-01-01

116

A Study on NNS's Conference Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how nonnative speakers of English approach questions and answers posed to them to provide an explanation of how they resolve communication problems they face at an international conference. Results suggest that there are not many differences observed from Japanese and Korean querists and respondents in terms of their use of discourse…

Park, Kyung-Ja; Nakano, Michiko

2000-01-01

117

"Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

Tessuto, Girolamo

2011-01-01

118

Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

2014-01-01

119

Answers to the top ten input modeling questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this tutorial we provide answers to the top ten input-modeling questions that new simulation users ask, point out common mistakes that occur and give relevant references. We assume that commercial input-modeling software will be used when possible, and only suggest non-commercial options when there is little else available. Detailed examples will be provided in the tutorial presentation.

Bahar Biller; Barry L. Nelson

2002-01-01

120

CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)  

SciTech Connect

This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

Traceski, T.T.

1993-11-09

121

Answering the Complex Question of "How Good Is Good Enough?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine that a student--let's call him Michael--has earned a score of 55 on an examination. How well did he do? Was his score good enough for him to pass the examination, or pass the course, or be deemed at least minimally competent in whatever the exam was assessing? Michael's score alone, in the absence of any other information, cannot answer

Suskie, Linda

2007-01-01

122

Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

2010-01-01

123

Venus Express: Answered and unanswered questions on Venus (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After having orbited our sister planet for more than seven Earth years Venus Express has collected a very large data set allowing a great number of fundamental scientific questions to be addressed and answered. Most of the questions included in the mission's science requirement, as formulated in the mission proposal, have been answered. These include topics in atmospheric dynamics, structure and chemistry, clouds and hazes, surface and interior, radiation balance and greenhouse, induced magnetosphere and plasma environment, and planetary evolution. Solid results have been achieved in all these fields but with some weakness in the radiation balance measurements, mostly due to the early loss of the planetary Fourier spectrometer providing data at the mid infrared wavelengths. Naturally, due to the limited scope and budget of the Venus Express mission a number of important questions had to be left unaddressed and to be taken up by future missions. This talk will summarise the major results of Venus Express and discuss a number of questions where additional data will be needed in order to provide answers. A wish list for future missions will be provided.

Svedhem, H.; Titov, D.

2013-12-01

124

The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

2010-01-01

125

S.K. Worm - Answers to Questions on Soil & Stuff  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the basic process of soil formation and describes some of the characteristics of soils for elementary school children. The information is provided in the form of 13 questions about soil, with the final questions addressing the issue of soil conservation. Once the student has read all 13 informational sections they are awarded a Soil Diploma.

126

The MiPACQ Clinical Question Answering System  

PubMed Central

The Multi-source Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ) is a QA pipeline that integrates a variety of information retrieval and natural language processing systems into an extensible question answering system. We present the system’s architecture and an evaluation of MiPACQ on a human-annotated evaluation dataset based on the Medpedia health and medical encyclopedia. Compared with our baseline information retrieval system, the MiPACQ rule-based system demonstrates 84% improvement in Precision at One and the MiPACQ machine-learning-based system demonstrates 134% improvement. Other performance metrics including mean reciprocal rank and area under the precision/recall curves also showed significant improvement, validating the effectiveness of the MiPACQ design and implementation.

Cairns, Brian L.; Nielsen, Rodney D.; Masanz, James J.; Martin, James H.; Palmer, Martha S.; Ward, Wayne H.; Savova, Guergana K.

2011-01-01

127

"The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

Seifman, Eli

128

Questions and Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community. Updated (Includes Recent Court Decisions).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for those members of the higher education community who write and publish (and that includes both students who write research papers, faculty who produce scholarly articles, copy centers, and college stores), this easy-to-understand guide explains the requirements of United States copyright law. The guide, in question and answer format,…

Association of American Publishers, New York, NY.

129

Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

Loechler, Kathy

1999-01-01

130

Acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of question-answering skills in autistic children.  

PubMed Central

We conducted an investigation to evaluate the effects of a training strategy for teaching autistic students generalized responses to three forms of wh--questions (what, how, and why). Students were taught, using modeling and reinforcement procedures, to answer questions with magazine pictures as the referents. Each question form was divided into two or more subcomponents reflective of common social usage and was taught within the context of a modified multiple probe design across subcomponents. Following acquisition of each subcomponent, generalization to natural context and storybook questions was assessed; additional probes were conducted to assess responding over time and whether acquisition of responses to questions promoted question-asking skills. Results showed that the picture training procedure was effective in teaching a generalized response to questions for which the relevant cue was visible, whereas specific generalization programming was required for situations in which the relevant cue was not visible. All acquired responses were durable over time.

Secan, K E; Egel, A L; Tilley, C S

1989-01-01

131

Graduate Information Booklet, Spring 1986 [and] Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Graduation and Transition from School for Special Education Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Graduate Information Booklet" provides directory-type information on Montgomery County (Maryland) services for disabled students who are graduating from high school. The first section on practical information explains armed services registration, acquisition of school records, personal identification cards, social security cards, reduced-fare…

Meissner, Margit; Patton, Ellen

132

AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care.

Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

2012-01-01

133

New shipboard laboratory may answer questions about deep biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shipboard microbiology laboratory to investigate the extent and diversity of the subsurface biosphere in the ocean basins is being developed by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and may soon provide answers to some of the exciting questions about Earth's deep biosphere. The answers may also be relevant to explorations for extraterrestrial life.The oceanic subsurface biosphere may contain half of Earth's biomass [Whitman et al., 1998]. Each liter of deep sea sediment, even at depths of a kilometer below the seafloor, typically contains more than 1 billion microbes. Volcanic rocks below the sediment also appear to contain microbes at all depths investigated so far, except where the temperature exceeds 100°C. Although microbes probably contribute less than a gram of biomass per cubic meter of oceanic crust, the vast amount of oceanic sediment and rock makes the total microbial biomass globally significant.

Fisk, Martin

134

How to answer the most common zinger questions.  

PubMed

Patients are very likely to hit you with zingers--extremely tough questions that require all of your diplomacy and tact. How well you respond to the inevitable zingers depends in large part upon your preparation. This article describes what you must do to prepare yourself for your patients' zingers. It offers simple guidelines for responding to zinger questions, as well as how-to instruction that will enable you to hone your critical listening skills. This article also offers an effective strategy for preparing a list of potential zinger questions customized to your medical practice. It suggests ways to use zinger preparation as a staff training tool, relying in large part upon brainstorming, group work, and role-playing scenarios. Finally, this article presents the wrong way to answer zingers. Then, through sample dialogues, it offers much better and more effective responses that you might give your patients when you need to answer eight of the most common and difficult medical practice zingers. PMID:16471388

Hills, Laura Sachs

2005-01-01

135

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

136

On the Role of Visuals in Multimodal Answers to Medical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two experiments carried out in order to investigate the role of visuals in multimodal answer presentations for a medical question answering system. First, a production experiment was carried out to determine which modalities people choose to answer different types of questions. In this experiment, participants had to create (multimodal) presentations of answers to general medical questions. The

Hooijdonk van Charlotte; Vos de Jurry; Emiel Krahmer; Alfons Maes; Mariët Theune; Wauter Bosma

2007-01-01

137

The Answers to Questions That Teachers Most Frequently Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a teacher's responses to various real questions asked by student teachers and beginning teachers. The nine chapters are: (1) "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing: Teacher Attitude"; (2) "Who, What, When, Where, and Why, Oh Why, Me?: Organization"; (3) "A Little Song, A Little Dance, A Little Quiz Tomorrow: Delivery…

Anderson, Julie Wofford

138

PrimeAnswers: A Practical Interface for Answering Primary Care Questions  

PubMed Central

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. Results of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem.

Ketchell, Debra S.; St. Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

139

PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.  

PubMed

This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

2005-01-01

140

Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

2013-01-01

141

Model-Driven Knowledge-Based Development of Expected Answer Type Taxonomies for Restricted Domain Question Answering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Question Answering (QA) system must provide concise answers from large collections of documents to questions stated by the user in natural language. Importantly, a question should be correctly classified by means of a predefined taxonomy in order to determine which is the Expected Answer Type (EAT), thus reducing the searching space over documents, while a right answer is obtained. Designing a proper EAT taxonomy is even more crucial in restricted domain QA, since domain experts use specific terminology, thus asking more precise questions and expecting more precise answers. This paper presents a novel model-driven approach in order to ameliorate the task of designing restricted-domain EAT taxonomies by using heterogeneous knowledge resources and collection of documents. To show the applicability of our approach, a set of experiments has been carried out by defining a new EAT taxonomy for being able to answer questions about the agricultural domain.

Vila, Katia; Mazón, Jose-Norberto; Ferrández, Antonio; Gómez, José M.

142

The Crucial Questions School Board Members Must Answer--Or Have Answered for Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fundamental question facing school boards--how to balance the impelling state interest in producing a literate population with the guaranteed civil liberties of the individual--arises in eight areas: accountability, collective bargaining, curriculum, finance, governance, liability, personnel, and student rights. (Author/IRT)

Nolte, M. Chester

1978-01-01

143

MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

Julian Kupiec

1993-01-01

144

41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A...

2009-07-01

145

41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.20 What is the purpose of the question & answer format? The Q&A...

2010-07-01

146

WPL`s 12 years experience in hydrotesting answers questions  

SciTech Connect

Recently issued DOT rules requiring pressure testing of older hazardous liquid pipe lines have raised questions in the minds of many operators. Williams Pipe Line (WPL) has been testing its mainline system since 1982 and the results of testing about 6,600 mi over a 12-year period might answer some of those questions. WPL began hydrostatic testing its system by evaluating two sections of a critical line. Knowledge gained encouraged the company to enlarge the program`s scope. In the next five years, six in-service ERW seam failures occurred, one resulting in significant damage. Two lines involved had two seam failures with within a two-year period. All seam failures recorded on the WPL system were analyzed in 1987 revealing that certain lines exhibited higher structural failure rates than others. The longitudinal weld seam in the ERW pipe was made with a low-frequency weld process that left sections of the weld not completely fused. Many of these nonwelded areas eventually developed into failures after years in operation. Based on WPL`s seam-failure analysis, an agreement was made with DOT in 1987 to reduce operating pressure by 20% on lines with higher seam failure rates, establishing a 1.25 safety factor. Since the analysis also revealed several lines installed before DOT regulations required hydrostatic testing, the company decided to establish a prioritization program to test all pipe lines in its system that had not been tested since 1982. Objective was to eliminate in-service seam failures and ensure integrity of the system.

Turner, D. [Williams Pipe Line Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-06-01

147

Structural answers and persistent questions about how nicotinic receptors work  

PubMed Central

The electron diffraction structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata and the X-ray crystallographic structure of acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) are providing new answers to persistent questions about how nAChRs function as biophysical machines and as participants in cellular and systems physiology. New high-resolution information about nAChR structures might come from advances in crystallography and NMR, from extracellular domain nAChRs as high fidelity models, and from prokaryotic nicotinoid proteins. At the level of biophysics, structures of different nAChRs with different pharmacological profiles and kinetics will help describe how agonists and antagonists bind to orthosteric binding sites, how allosteric modulators affect function by binding outside these sites, how nAChRs control ion flow, and how large cytoplasmic domains affect function. At the level of cellular and systems physiology, structures of nAChRs will help characterize interactions with other cellular components, including lipids and trafficking and signaling proteins, and contribute to understanding the roles of nAChRs in addiction, neurodegeneration, and mental illness. Understanding nAChRs at an atomic level will be important for designing interventions for these pathologies.

Wells, Gregg B.

2008-01-01

148

Testis determination in mammals: more questions than answers.  

PubMed

In humans, testis development depends on a regulated genetic hierarchy initiated by the Y-linked SRY gene. Failure of testicular determination results in the condition termed 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Several components of the testis determining pathway have recently been identified though it has been difficult to articulate a cascade with the known elements of the system. It seems, however, that early gonadal development is the result of a network of interactions instead of the outcome of a linear cascade. Accumulating evidence shows that testis formation in man is sensitive to gene dosage. Haploinsufficiency of SF1, WT1 and SOX9 is responsible for 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Besides, data on SRY is consistent with possible dosage anomalies in certain cases of male to female sex reversal. 46,XY GD due to monosomy of distal 9p and 10q might also be associated with an insufficient gene dosage effect. Duplications of the locus DSS can lead to a failure of testicular development and a duplication of the region containing SOX9 has been implicated in XX sex reversal. Transgenic studies in mouse have shown, however, that this mammal is less sensitive to gene dosage than man. Here, we will try to put in place the known pieces of the jigsaw puzzle that is sex determination in mammals, as far as current knowledge obtained from man and animal models allows. We are certain that from this attempt more questions than answers will arise. PMID:11420125

Veitia, R A; Salas-Cortés, L; Ottolenghi, C; Pailhoux, E; Cotinot, C; Fellous, M

2001-06-20

149

78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1); Reopening...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision...

2013-11-27

150

78 FR 55261 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1); Availability...Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1...provide updated answers to common questions from the generic drug industry...

2013-09-10

151

78 FR 29140 - Center for Devices and Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A; Draft Guidance...Health (CDRH) Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A.'' This...Radiological Health Appeals Processes: Questions and Answers About 517A'' to...

2013-05-17

152

NAEP Validity Studies: An Investigation of Why Students do not Respond to Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, we explored potential reasons behind student omission of responses to assessment questions. Understanding why students fail to answer certain questions may help inform the proper treatment of missing data during the estimation of item param...

2003-01-01

153

Wood Chemistry of Western Conifers. Questions and Answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve of the most frequent technical inquiries about western Canadian conifers have been selected, together with answers and suggestions for additional reading. These inquiries are concerned with contamination of drinking water, garden mulches, paint fai...

G. M. Barton

1973-01-01

154

Selective Benefits of Question Self-Generation and Answering for Remembering Expository Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined possible memory and metacomprehension benefits of using a combined question self-generation and answering technique, relative to rereading, as a study strategy for expository passages. In the 2 question self-generation and answering conditions (detail or conceptual questions), participants were prompted on how to…

Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

2012-01-01

155

Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

156

A Web-Based Platform for User-Interactive Question-Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A user-interactive question-answering (QA) platform named BuyAns (at www.buyans.com) is presented. The platform is a special kind of online community and mainly features a rewarding scheme for answering questions\\u000a among all users, a pattern-based user interface (UI) for questioning and answering, and a pattern-based representation and\\u000a storage scheme for accumulated question-answer pairs. The system actually proposes and promotes a C2C

Liu Wenyin; Tianyong Hao; Wei Chen; Min Feng

2009-01-01

157

Questions and answers on biotechnology permits for genetically engineered plants and microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The brochure answers questions about permits for the importation, interstate movement, or environmental release of certain genetically engineered plants and microorganisms regulated under 7 CFR Part 340.

Not Available

1991-04-01

158

Questions and Answers on Biotechnology Permits for Genetically Engineered Plants and Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The brochure answers questions about permits for the importation, interstate movement, or environmental release of certain genetically engineered plants and microorganisms regulated under 7 CFR Part 340.

1991-01-01

159

Tales of the expected: the influence of students' expectations on question validity and implications for writing exam questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:?Through classroom preparation and exposure to past papers, textbooks and practice tests students develop expectations about examinations: what will be asked, how it will be asked and how they will be judged. Expectations are also involved in the automatic process of understanding questions. Where a question and a student's expectations do not match, the student may get the answer wrong

Victoria Crisp; Ezekiel Sweiry; Ayesha Ahmed; Alastair Pollitt

2008-01-01

160

Questions and Answers on Copyright for the Campus Community. Includes Software and Internet Issues. Updated for 97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to aid members of the academic community who produce written material (this includes instructors and students) in conforming to the requirements of U.S. copyright law, this easy-to-understand guide presents a current overview of relevant sections of the Copyright Act. The guide is in question and answer format and discusses: the…

Association of American Publishers, New York, NY.

161

Getting Answers to Natural Language Questions on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that investigated the use of natural language questions on Web search engines. Highlights include query languages; differences in search engine syntax; and results of logistic regression and analysis of variance that showed aspects of questions that predicted significantly different performances, including the number of words,…

Radev, Dragomir R.; Libner, Kelsey; Fan, Weiguo

2002-01-01

162

Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

Bishop, Bradley Wade

2012-01-01

163

Questions and Answers about Memories of Childhood Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

Can a memory be forgotten and then remembered? Can a 'memory' be suggested and then remembered as true? These questions lie ... If there is so much controversy about childhood memories of abuse, should I still seek help from ...

164

Why Peer Discussion Improves Student Performance on In-Class Concept Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When students answer an in-class conceptual question individually using clickers, discuss it with their neighbors, and then revote on the same question, the percentage of correct answers typically increases. This outcome could result from gains in understanding during discussion, or simply from peer influence of knowledgeable students on their neighbors. To distinguish between these alternatives in an undergraduate genetics course, we followed the above exercise with a second, similar (isomorphic) question on the same concept that students answered individually. Our results indicate that peer discussion enhances understanding, even when none of the students in a discussion group originally knows the correct answer.

Smith, Michelle K.; Wood, William B.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.; Knight, Jennifer K.; Guild, N.

2012-07-10

165

Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

Sotiris, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

166

Can Nonprofit Management Help Answer Public Management's "Big Questions?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of nonprofit literature on board governance, volunteer management, and performance measurement shows that study of the nonprofit sector can help inform public management's "big questions": breaking the micromanagement cycle, motivating employees, and measuring performance. Nonprofit studies could enrich public administration curricula.…

Brooks, Arthur C.

2002-01-01

167

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers  

Cancer.gov

The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

168

Methods & Techniques: Techniques for Increasing Student Learning from Educational Videos: Notes Versus Guiding Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined the effectiveness of several techniques for enhancing student learning from educational videos. Introductory psychology students (N = 113) watched a video about intelligence and testing while taking notes, not taking notes, writing answers to guiding questions, or thinking about guiding questions without writing answers. Afterward,…

Lawson, Timothy J.; Bodle, James H.; McDonough, Tracy A.

2007-01-01

169

Question: Do Standardized Tests Measure General Cognitive Skills? Answer: No.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the Stanford and CTBS achievement batteries were analyzed, two major findings emerged: (1) the test items included only nine of the 22 general cognitive operations; and (2) the required general cognitive operations had little to do with student achievement on these tests. Implications and alternative assessment techniques are discussed.…

Marzano, Robert J.; Costa, Arthur L.

1988-01-01

170

Medical Rights of Minors: Some Answered and Unanswered Legal Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because school counselors work with minors they must keep up with current laws, as well as state and local school policies. Special caution is needed concerning medical rights of minors and parental consent in dealing with student pregnancy, abortion, drug abuse, and child abuse. (JAC)

Talbutt, Lou

1980-01-01

171

Reading Support: Asking the Right Questions, Getting Answers That Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, reading proficiency is being measured in terms of outcomes based data. This drive for accountability supports the growth of National Profiles, Literacy Benchmarks, and statewide assessments such as the Diagnostic Net, which record the numbers of students who fail to make the grade. In the face of widespread concerns about perceived…

Allen, Elizabeth S.

172

Grouping the Gifted and Talented: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A commentary precedes this reprint of a study that investigated the academic, psychological, and socialization effects of ability grouping on gifted learners. Conclusions drawn from 13 research syntheses supported sustained periods of instruction in like-ability groups for gifted students. The commentary discusses the research findings and…

Rogers, Karen B.

2002-01-01

173

College and University Counseling Centers: Questions in Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College and university counseling centers are being influenced by changing populations of students and the concerns of a variety of constituencies and stakeholders about mental health issues. Although counseling centers can be important institutional resources in matters of recruitment, retention, and risk management, new legal and ethical issues…

Bishop, John B.

2006-01-01

174

Why the changing American economy calls for twenty-first century learning: answers to educators' questions.  

PubMed

While struggling with the current pressures of educational reform, some educators will ask whether their efforts make economic sense. Questioning the future makeup of the nation's workforce, many wonder how the educational system should be tempered to better prepare today's youth. This chapter answers educators' and parents' questions around the effect of fluctuations in the American economy on the future of education. The authors offer reassurance that good jobs will always be available, but warn that those jobs will require a new level of skills: expert thinking and complex communication. Schools need to go beyond their current curriculum and prepare students to use reading, math, and communication skills to build a deeper and more thoughtful understanding of subject matter. To explain the implications of the nation's changing economy on jobs, technology, and therefore education, the authors address a range of vital questions. Citing occupational distribution data, the chapter explores the supply and range of jobs in the future, as well as why changes in the U.S. job distribution have taken place. As much of the explanation for the shift in job distribution over the past several decades is due to the computerization of the workforce, the authors discuss how computers will affect the future composition of the workforce. The chapter also addresses the consequences of educational improvement on earnings distribution. The authors conclude that beyond workforce preparedness, students need to learn how to be contributing members of a democracy. PMID:17017257

Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J

2006-01-01

175

Auto-Assessor: Computerized Assessment System for Marking Student's Short-Answers Automatically  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of Learning Management Systems (LMSs) exist on the market today. A subset of a LMS is the component in which student assessment is managed. In some forms of assessment, such as short-answer questions, the LMS is incapable of evaluating the students' responses and therefore human intervention is necessary. This study leverages the research conducted in recent Natural Language

Laurie Cutrone; Maiga Chang; Kinshuk

2011-01-01

176

How an enzyme answers multiple-choice questions.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the first common enzyme in the pathway for the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. Interest in the enzyme has escalated over the past 20 years since it was discovered that AHAS is the target of the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone herbicides. However, several questions regarding the reaction mechanism have remained unanswered, particularly the way in which AHAS "chooses" its second substrate. A new method for the detection of reaction intermediates enables calculation of the microscopic rate constants required to explain this phenomenon. PMID:15896736

McCourt, Jennifer A; Duggleby, Ronald G

2005-05-01

177

Green Science: Investigating greenâCreating surveys to answer questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does âbeing greenâ or âgoing greenâ mean to both you and your students? To find out, we need to make informed decisions by collecting data. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to become familiar with some of the basic steps involved in designing a survey to identify peopleâs attitudes, feelings, beliefs, or knowledge about environmental issues and being green.

Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.

2010-03-01

178

Outpatient commitment and its alternatives: questions yet to be answered.  

PubMed

This Open Forum reviews research findings on outpatient commitment and alternative approaches, such as conditional hospital release and guardianship. Despite the accumulating evidence in favor of these practices, many questions remain about their essential elements and comparative effectiveness. The authors describe the strengths and shortcomings in existing studies and propose a research strategy that would take advantage of advances in methodologies, such as instrumental variables and propensity weighting, to design studies with a level of rigor comparable to that of randomized controlled trials. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) introduces many opportunities and resources to improve care; studies should also be undertaken to investigate use of outpatient commitment and alternative approaches in the post-ACA health care environment. PMID:24881686

Morrissey, Joseph P; Desmarais, Sarah L; Domino, Marisa E

2014-06-01

179

Towards Entailment-Based Question Answering: ITC-irst at CLEF 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year, besides providing support to other groups participating in cross-language Question Answering (QA) tasks, and submitting runs both for the monolingual Ital- ian and the cross-language Italian\\/English tasks, the ITC-irst participation in the CLEF campaign concentrated on the Answer Validation Exercise (AVE). The partic- ipation in the AVE task, with an answer validation module based on textual entail- ment

Milen Kouylekov; Matteo Negri; Bernardo Magnini; Bonaventura Coppola

2006-01-01

180

A (1)-(2)-(3) Jumpstart Approach to Answer an Open-Ended Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I propose three guided questions for reflection as a jumpstart organizational formula for students with poor writing application skills to follow when responding to an open-ended question. The recipe prescribes that the student (1) understand the question design, (2) identify the intent or objective of the question, and (3) proceed to identify the…

DeFina, Anthony V.

2012-01-01

181

Children's Ability to Answer Different Types of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children answer many questions every day. The extent to which they do this in an adult-like way -- following Grice's Maxim of Quantity by providing the requested information, no more no less -- has been studied very little. In an experiment, we found that two-, three- and four-year-old children are quite skilled at answering

Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2013-01-01

182

Scalable mobile video question-answering system with locally aggregated descriptors and random projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a scalable mobile video Question-Answering system with locally aggregated descriptors and random projection using user-generated videos all around the world for ACM Multimedia 2011 Technicolor challenge: \\

Guan-Long Wu; Yu-Chuan Su; Tzu-Hsuan Chiu; Liang-Chi Hsieh; Winston H. Hsu

2011-01-01

183

North American Free Trade Negotiations: Most Frequently Asked Questions and Their Answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The packet provides general information on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and how to investigate market opportunities in Mexico and Canada. General trade statistics, answers to commonly asked questions, key contacts, and a history of the ...

1991-01-01

184

The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning…

Henderson, Allan J.

185

Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

Not Available

1983-12-01

186

Science Sampler: Thinking about students' questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asking questions is a vital component in any classroom, but it is absolutely essential in a science classroom. As science teachers, we know that questioning plays a major role in the inquiry process and has a positive impact on students' learning. This article discusses the importance of questioning skills and current research on questioning techniques. In addition, this article will present a series of lessons that were implemented by the author to improve the questioning abilities of middle school students.

Turner, Jaclyn

2006-11-01

187

Are Wikipedia Resources Useful for Discovering Answers to List Questions within Web Snippets?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents LiSnQA, a list question answering system that extracts answers to list queries from the short descriptions of web-sites returned by search engines, called web snippets. LiSnQA mines Wikipedia resources in order to obtain valuable information that assists in the extraction of these answers. The interesting facet of LiSnQA is, that in contrast to current systems, it does not account for lists in Wikipedia, but for its redirections, categories, sandboxes, and first definition sentences. Results show that these resources strengthen the answering process.

Figueroa, Alejandro

188

A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.  

PubMed

The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information. PMID:17990503

Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

2007-01-01

189

41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule...

2009-07-01

190

41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21...INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300-2.21 How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? The rule...

2010-07-01

191

Responding to Children's Answers: Questions Embedded in the Social Context of Early Childhood Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents analysis of question-answer sequences during problem inquiry between a teacher and two children in an early childhood crčche in New Zealand. Conversation analysis is used to reveal which questions the teacher asks, how children answer the questions, and the teacher's responses to the child's answers. Although…

Bateman, Amanda

2013-01-01

192

Sumlaris Program: Surface Mining and Land Reclamation Information System. Sample Questions Answered Utilizing the Sumlaris Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides sample questions that can be answered by using the SUMLARIS Indiana data base. The questions were posed by ANL and are listed in Section I. Each question is then repeated, and its answer given, in Section II. The answers are presente...

R. R. MacDonald R. L. Beck T. Heble L. Fehr

1979-01-01

193

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No...Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR ...explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

2011-01-01

194

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No...Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR ...explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

2012-01-01

195

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

...2014-01-01 false Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No...Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR ...explanatory questions and answers relating to technology and software that is...

2014-01-01

196

Effects of Regulatory Self-Questioning on Secondary-Level Students' Problem-Solving Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A randomized posttest-only control group experimental design was used to determine the effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level career and technical education students' electrical circuit theory test scores. Students who participated in the self-questioning group were asked to answer a list of regulatory questions as they solved…

Pate, Michael L.; Miller, Greg

2011-01-01

197

The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.  

PubMed

Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development. PMID:20299450

Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

2010-01-01

198

Guiding Students to Answers: Query Recommendation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a guided navigation system built on the textbook search engine developed at Anadolu University to support distance education students. The search engine uses Turkish Language specific language processing modules to enable searches over course material presented in Open Education Faculty textbooks. We implemented a guided…

Yilmazel, Ozgur

2011-01-01

199

"Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

2013-01-01

200

[Questions and answers to possible side effects of external bleaching therapies].  

PubMed

There are several questions with regard to the application and possible side effects of external bleaching therapies. The following short review gives answers to some questions regarding this topic. It might be concluded that every bleaching therapy should be preceded by a meticulous intraoral examination. To reduce the risk of adverse effects, it is mandatory to have knowledge about the mode of action of bleaching agents. PMID:18998582

Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette; Schmidlin, Patrick R

2008-01-01

201

Assessing the quality of pharmacist answers to telephone drug information questions.  

PubMed

A quality assurance (QA) program is described in which frontline pharmacists were asked test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls. The program was instituted at a university hospital that began providing decentralized pharmaceutical services in 1985. Questions were developed on the basis of a pilot study conducted to determine the types and complexity of drug information questions received by frontline pharmacists at the hospital. Data on departmental clinical productivity were used to determine the number of questions that would be posed during each shift in the various service areas. The questions were posed during a 10-day period; the pharmacists were aware of the program, but the callers did not identify their affiliation with it. In response to 105 questions asked, 86 were judged to have been answered correctly, 13 answers were deemed incomplete, and 6 were judged incorrect. Pharmacists were more likely to respond incorrectly to complex questions and questions posed during the night shift. As a result of the audit, staff members with advanced clinical knowledge were asked to help less experienced pharmacists, the position of assistant director for drug information and staff development was created, and educational programs were instituted. The QA audit has been repeated twice. Posing test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls is effective in assessing the quality of drug information provided by pharmacists in patient-care areas. PMID:2321656

Woodward, C T; Stevenson, J G; Poremba, A

1990-04-01

202

Guidance for Industry: Bar Code Label Requirements, Questions and Answers. Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FDA regulations require that certain human drug and biological product labels contain a bar code consisting of, at a minimum, the National Drug Code (NDC) number (21 CFR 201.25). This guidance provides questions and answers relating to how the bar code la...

2006-01-01

203

Using phylogenetically based comparative methods in anthropology: More questions than answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of adaptation is designed to answer questions about the evolution of organic diversity and entails, as one of its standard tools, analysis of the distribu- tion of traits across individuals, species. This comparative method, used to identify cases of convergent evolution, provides some of the strongest evidence for adaptation, and is central not only to modern biology but

Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

2001-01-01

204

Q & A: Questions and Answers for Teachers About National Board Certification, 2003.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure offers answers to questions for teachers about National Board Certification, including: what the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is; what National Board Certification (NBC) is; how involved teachers are in NBPTS; NBPTS' five core propositions; the NBPTS standards; how NBPTS standards are developed; whether…

National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Arlington, VA.

205

Are Our Kids All Right? Answers to the Tough Questions about Child Care Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining over 20 years of research findings, including the most recent research on child care and child development, this book attempts to answer the three most important questions parents have about day care: Is day care harmful? Are babies damaged by the fact that their mothers work? and, Are working parents, by being absent during most of the…

Dynerman, Susan B.

206

The CSD–450,000 answers?…?but what are the questions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief survey about the development of knowledge of crystal and molecular structure based on the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is given. The CSD may be considered as a database of answers to the question as to which polymorph will form under given crystallization conditions. The emphasis of research over the years has moved from molecular structural geometry, to intermolecular

W. D. Samuel Motherwell

2008-01-01

207

Questions and Answers on Library Law: The Freedom of Information Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers questions regarding the impact of the Freedom of Information Act on libraries. Highlights include the definition of a public body as used in the act, which public records are covered, circulation record, how to submit requests for records, and who is responsible for complying with requests for records. (LRW)

Uhler, Scott; Allison, Rinda; Petsche, Janet

1998-01-01

208

Tax Information for Refugees and Their Sponsors: Questions and Answers. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides Federal income tax information for refugees and their sponsors. Issues covered in a question and answer format include: (1) the tax status of refugees; (2) the criteria for declaring a refugee a dependent; (3) deductions for contributions to refugees or organizations that support them; (4) the distinction between resident and…

Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

209

Performance auditing, new public management and performance improvement: questions and answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that public sector auditing leads to a more efficient and effective performance of the public sector. This assumption recently has been challenged by adherents of the new public management (NPM). Describes characteristics of NPM such as freeing up controls over and devolving greater responsibility to managers. Answers the question, why should performance auditors be interested in this

Frans L. Leeuw

1996-01-01

210

Combining Linguistic Processing and Web Mining for Question Answering: ITC-irst at TREC 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the work we have been done in the last year on the DIOGENE Question Answering system developed at ITC-Irst. We present two preliminary experiments showing the possibility of integrating into DIOGENE a textual entailment engine based on entailment rules. We addressed the problem proposing both a methodology for acquiring rules from the Web and a matching algorithm

Hristo Tanev; Milen Kouylekov; Bernardo Magnini

2004-01-01

211

Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

Hively, Wells

1984-01-01

212

Reliability of Tests Used to Make Pass/Fail Decisions: Answering the Right Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional reliability coefficient and standard error of measurement are not adequate measures of reliability for tests used to make pass/fail decisions. Answering the important reliability questions requires estimation of the joint distribution of true and observed scores. Lord's "Method 20" estimates this distribution without the…

Livingston, Samuel A.

213

An Open-Ended, Short Answer, Text Question Tool: Improving Interactivity on the Web.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a study of the development of an innovative learning element designed to be implemented in a computer-facilitated learning (CFL) module. The learning element is an open-ended, short answer, text question tool (TQT) designed to be used in World Wide Web-based courses or incorporated into hybrid Web/CD-ROM systems.…

Kennedy, David M.; Eizenberg, Norm

214

Questions and Answers in Public Sector Labor Relations. A Practitioner's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this guide is to answer common questions about public sector labor relations with special emphasis on how this sector differs from the private sector. A beginning section offers general information defining and explaining public sector labor relations. A segment on labor relations law details legislation and the function of…

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

215

Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

Sima, Jozef; Sukenik, Miroslav

2002-12-01

216

The use of theorem-proving techniques in question-answering systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of this paper, a question-answering system is a computer program that has at least the following three characteristics: (1) The ability to accept statements of fact and store them in its memory (2) The ability to search stored information efficiently and to recognize items that are relevant to a particular query (3) The ability to respond appropriately

C. Cordell Green; Bertram Raphael

1968-01-01

217

Answering questions with an electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate that humans can learn to control selected electroencephalographic components and use that control to answer simple questions.Methods: Four adults (one with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) learned to use electroencephalogram (EEG) mu rhythm (8 to 12Hz) or beta rhythm (18 to 25Hz) activity over sensorimotor cortex to control vertical cursor movement to targets at the top or bottom edge

Laurie A. Miner; Dennis J. McFarland; Jonathan R. Wolpaw

1998-01-01

218

Vector measure for the intelligence of a Question-Answering (Q-A) system  

SciTech Connect

The problem of quantification of intelligence of humans, and of intelligent systems, has been a challenging and controversial topic. IQ tests have been traditionally used to quantify human intelligence based on results of test designed by psychologists. It is in general very difficult to quantify intelligence. In this paper we consider a simple Question-Answering (Q-A) system and use this to quantify intelligence. We quantify intelligence as a vector with three components. The components consist of a measure of knowledge in asking questions, effectiveness of questions asked, and correctness of deduction. We formalize these parameters and have conducted experiments on humans to measure these parameters. 20 refs.

Srivastava, A.; Rajaraman, V. [Novell India R & D Cent, Bangalore (India)] [Novell India R & D Cent, Bangalore (India)

1995-05-01

219

Peer interaction through student-made questions: does it facilitate reading comprehension?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to compare the effect of text simplification versus peer interaction generated by student-made questions on the reading comprehension of 83 Iranian adult English as a foreign language students. Three groups of participants were involved in the study. The first experimental group read two unmodified reading passages and answered 15 multiple-choice comprehension questions. They were

Sasan Baleghizadeh

2011-01-01

220

The Effectiveness of a Question-Exploration Routine for Enhancing the Content Learning of Secondary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a question-exploration routine and an associated graphic organizer on students' ability to think about and answer complex questions. Participants were 116 students of diverse abilities in seven 7th grade classes. The effects of the routine were compared with the effects of a traditional…

Bulgren, Janis A.; Marquis, Janet G.; Lenz, B. Keith; Deshler, Donald D.; Schumaker, Jean B.

2011-01-01

221

An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and

Martijn DF Rhebergen; Carel TJ Hulshof; Annet F Lenderink; Frank JH van Dijk

2010-01-01

222

Adding question answering to an e-tutor for programming languages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control over a closed domain of textual material removes many question answering issues, as does an ontology that is closely intertwined with its sources. This pragmatic, shallow approach to many challenging areas of research in adaptive hypermedia, question answering, intelligent tutoring and humancomputer interaction has been put into practice at Cambridge in the Computer Science undergraduate course to teach the hardware description language Veri/og. This language itself poses many challenges as it crosses the interdisciplinary boundary between hardware and software engineers, giving rise to severalhuman ontologies as well as theprogramming language itself We present further results from ourformal and informal surveys. We look at further work to increase the dialogue between studentand tutor and export our knowledge to the Semantic Web.

Taylor, Kate; Moore, Simon

223

CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

Mako.

2001-01-01

224

Measurement and Modeling of A Web-based Question Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question-answering (QA) is one of the most natural and effective channels for specific information acquisition. QA systems emerged several decades back. In this paper, we perform a measurement study of a popular, large scale Web-QA system, i.e. iAsk, and systematically investigate various behavior patterns and the system performance. To evaluate such a Web-QA system, we propose three performance metrics, namely

Chunyi Peng; Zaoyang Gong; Guobin Shen

2006-01-01

225

Exploiting Linguistic Indices and Syntactic Structures for Multilingual Question Answering: ITC-irst at CLEF 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year we participated at 4 Question Answering tasks at CLEF: the Italian mono- lingual (I), Italian-English (I\\/E), Bulgarian monolingual (B), and Bulgarian-English (B\\/E) bilingual task. While we did not change the approach in the Italian task (I), we experimented with several new approaches based on linguistic structures and statistics in the B, I\\/E, and B\\/E tasks.

Hristo Tanev; Milen Kouylekov; Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Kiril Ivanov Simov

2005-01-01

226

EBM apps that help you search for answers to your clinical questions.  

PubMed

In the age of smartphones and tablets, it has become common place to find apps that help you do or find almost anything. The quality and breadth of medical apps has improved greatly in recent years. You can now find medical apps that recreate textbooks, search for current articles, calculate likelihood ratios and find point-of-care answers to clinical questions. This article describes and reviews apps aimed at helping clinicians search for evidence to support the practice of EBM. PMID:24530997

Windish, Donna

2014-06-01

227

Vidiam: Corpus-based Development of a Dialogue Manager for Multimodal Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter describes the Vidiam project, which covered the development of a dialogue management system for multimodal question\\u000a answering (QA) dialogues, as carried out in the IMIX project. The approach followed was datadriven, i.e., corpus-based. Since\\u000a research in QA dialogue of multimodal information retrieval is still new, no suitable corpora were available to base a system\\u000a on. This chapter reports

Schooten van Boris; Akker op den Rieks; Bosch van den Antal; Gosse Bouma

2011-01-01

228

Using Student-Generated Questions for Student-Centred Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In small groups, medical students were involved in generating questions to contribute to an online item bank. This study sought to support collaborative question-writing and enhance students' metacognitive abilities, in particular, their ability to self-regulate learning and moderate understanding of subject material. The study focused on…

Papinczak, Tracey; Peterson, Raymond; Babri, Awais Saleem; Ward, Kym; Kippers, Vaughan; Wilkinson, David

2012-01-01

229

Get Answers: Using Student Response Systems to See Students' Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Imagine if teachers could view their students' thinking, like peeking inside a pot of cooking stew to see if it is done. Wouldn't it be nice if they could know what their students were learning, while they were teaching them? Most teachers use a variety of classroom techniques to understand what their students know and can do. Tests, quizzes,…

Johnson, David; McLeod, Scott

2005-01-01

230

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement...Questions and AnswersâTechnology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement...and answers relating to technology and software that is subject to the EAR....

2013-01-01

231

Verbal Paradata and Survey Error: Respondent Speech, Voice, and Question-Answering Behavior Can Predict Income Item Nonresponse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Income nonresponse is a significant problem in survey data, with rates as high as 50%, yet we know little about why it occurs. It is plausible that the way respondents answer survey questions (e.g., their voice and speech characteristics, and their question- answering behavior) can predict whether they will provide income data, and will reflect…

Jans, Matthew E.

2010-01-01

232

What recruiters can't/won't tell you. 6 questions that good headhunters won't answer.  

PubMed

If you're frustrated because a headhunter won't give you certain information about a hiring organization, get over it. There are some very good reasons why a respectable recruiter won't answer particular questions from job candidates. Find out the questions and why they won't answer them. PMID:11806241

Kennedy, Marilyn Moats

2002-01-01

233

Explorative search of distributed bio-data to answer complex biomedical questions  

PubMed Central

Background The huge amount of biomedical-molecular data increasingly produced is providing scientists with potentially valuable information. Yet, such data quantity makes difficult to find and extract those data that are most reliable and most related to the biomedical questions to be answered, which are increasingly complex and often involve many different biomedical-molecular aspects. Such questions can be addressed only by comprehensively searching and exploring different types of data, which frequently are ordered and provided by different data sources. Search Computing has been proposed for the management and integration of ranked results from heterogeneous search services. Here, we present its novel application to the explorative search of distributed biomedical-molecular data and the integration of the search results to answer complex biomedical questions. Results A set of available bioinformatics search services has been modelled and registered in the Search Computing framework, and a Bioinformatics Search Computing application (Bio-SeCo) using such services has been created and made publicly available at http://www.bioinformatics.deib.polimi.it/bio-seco/seco/. It offers an integrated environment which eases search, exploration and ranking-aware combination of heterogeneous data provided by the available registered services, and supplies global results that can support answering complex multi-topic biomedical questions. Conclusions By using Bio-SeCo, scientists can explore the very large and very heterogeneous biomedical-molecular data available. They can easily make different explorative search attempts, inspect obtained results, select the most appropriate, expand or refine them and move forward and backward in the construction of a global complex biomedical query on multiple distributed sources that could eventually find the most relevant results. Thus, it provides an extremely useful automated support for exploratory integrated bio search, which is fundamental for Life Science data driven knowledge discovery.

2014-01-01

234

The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

2005-01-01

235

Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed knowledge of the greenhouse effect (e.g. direction of re-emission of infrared energy from greenhouse gas) are significantly more likely to be answered correctly by students who also produce expert-like concept sketch items than by students who don't include this aspect in their sketch and don't answer the multiple choice questions correctly. This difference is not as apparent for less technical multiple-choice questions (e.g. type of radiation emitted by Sun). Our findings explore the formation of student's mental models throughout different interventions and how well the different assessment techniques used in this study represent the student understanding of the overall concept.

Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

2013-12-01

236

Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

Olson, B.M.

1985-01-01

237

Analysis of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions in General Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The percentage of students choosing the correct answer (PSCA) on 17 multiple-choice algorithmic questions taken from general chemistry exams is analyzed. PSCAs for these questions varied from 47 to 93%, and a decrease of 4.5% in PSCA was observed with each additional step in the algorithm required for solving the problem (R[superscript 2] = 0.80).…

Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Lin, Shirley

2011-01-01

238

Testing Historical Knowledge: Standards, Multiple-Choice Questions and Student Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the reasoning employed by high school students to answer a set of multiple-choice history questions. The questions come from New York State's Global History and Geography Regents exam. The Regents exams, together with a particularly well-regarded and ambitious set of content standards, are the cornerstone of the state's…

Reich, Gabriel A.

2009-01-01

239

Top Official Answers American Questions about Higher-Education Changes in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responses are presented by the Soviet Union's Minister of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education to questions about proposed changes in the Soviet higher education system, the system's strengths and problems, Soviet perceptions of the American system, and efforts to encourage student and faculty initiative in academic planning and curricular…

Jacobson, Robert L.

1988-01-01

240

Peer generation of multiple-choice questions: student engagement and experiences.  

PubMed

A free online system for generation of multiple-choice questions (PeerWise) was implemented in three courses (course A, B, and C) in two different years (second and third year) of a veterinary degree program. Students were asked to author questions, and answer and rate each other's questions. Student experiences of the system were explored using an online survey. The majority of students in both years either agreed or strongly agreed that both authoring and answering questions was helpful for their studies and wanted to use the system again in future courses. Thematic analysis highlighted students' views that engaging with the resource increased breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding and was very useful for revision purposes. There was a statistically significant difference between students in second and third year regarding whether students felt it was necessary for academic staff to be involved in the review process. Thematic analysis of this aspect identified issues relating to confidence in the ability of the peer group and the need for reassurance in the second-year group. Student engagement with the system was correlated with examination performance. In courses A and B there was a positive correlation between number of questions answered and examination performance, in course C there was no correlation. This study highlights the benefits of peer activity around question generation and proposes that such activities are an efficient and effective means to support student learning. PMID:23187030

Rhind, Susan M; Pettigrew, Graham W

2012-01-01

241

How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

2012-01-01

242

Randomized trial for answers to clinical questions: Evaluating a pre-appraised versus a MEDLINE search protocol  

PubMed Central

Objective: The paper compares the speed, validity, and applicability of two different protocols for searching the primary medical literature. Design: A randomized trial involving medicine residents was performed. Setting: An inpatient general medicine rotation was used. Participants: Thirty-two internal medicine residents were block randomized into four groups of eight. Main Outcome Measures: Success rate of each search protocol was measured by perceived search time, number of questions answered, and proportion of articles that were applicable and valid. Results: Residents randomized to the MEDLINE-first (protocol A) group searched 120 questions, and residents randomized to the MEDLINE-last (protocol B) searched 133 questions. In protocol A, 104 answers (86.7%) and, in protocol B, 117 answers (88%) were found to clinical questions. In protocol A, residents reported that 26 (25.2%) of the answers were obtained quickly or rated as “fast” (<5 minutes) as opposed to 55 (51.9%) in protocol B, (P = 0.0004). A subset of questions and articles (n = 79) were reviewed by faculty who found that both protocols identified similar numbers of answer articles that addressed the questions and were felt to be valid using critical appraisal criteria. Conclusion: For resident-generated clinical questions, both protocols produced a similarly high percentage of applicable and valid articles. The MEDLINE-last search protocol was perceived to be faster. However, in the MEDLINE-last protocol, a significant portion of questions (23%) still required searching MEDLINE to find an answer.

Patel, Manesh R.; Schardt, Connie M.; Sanders, Linda L.; Keitz, Sheri A.

2006-01-01

243

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

244

Violations of information structure: An electrophysiological study of answers to wh-questions  

PubMed Central

This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position elicited a large positivity (P3b) characteristic of sentence-final constituents, as did the final words of these sentences, which suggests that focused elements may trigger integration effects like those seen at sentence end. Second, the focusing of an inappropriate referent elicited a smaller, N400-like effect. The results show that comprehenders actively use structural focus cues and discourse-level restrictions during online sentence processing. These results, based on visual stimuli, were different from the brain response to auditory focus violations indicated by pitch-accent (Hruska et al. 2000), but similar to brain responses to newly introduced discourse referents (Bornkessel et al. 2003).

Cowles, H. Wind; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

2014-01-01

245

Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.  

SciTech Connect

Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1995-06-01

246

Some Cross-Linguistic Generalizations About Yes-No Questions and Their Answers. Working Papers on Language Universals, No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four hypotheses concerning the linguistic structure of yes-no questions and their answers are considered as hypotheses relating to the abstract structure of yes-no questions and to this abstract structure in all human languages. The universal base hypotheses are the following: (1) The abstract representation of all yes-no questions includes two…

Moravcsik, Edith A.

247

Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

2014-05-01

248

Towards Answering Opinion Questions: {S}eparating Facts from Opinions and Identifying the Polarity of Opinion Sentences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion question answering is a challenging task for natural language processing. In this paper, we discuss a necessary component for an opinion ques- tion answering system: separating opinions from fact, at both the document and sentence level. We present a Bayesian classifier for discriminating be- tween documents with a preponderance of opinions such as editorials from regular news stories, and

Hong Yu; Vasileios Hatzivassiloglou

2003-01-01

249

Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers.  

PubMed

Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature. PMID:23076394

Ben-Porath, Yossef S

2012-11-01

250

Changing Answers on Multiple-Choice Examinations Taken by Baccalaureate Nursing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The answer sheets of 122 nursing students showed that 119 changed at least 1 answer; 93.3% of those who changed answers either gained or did not lose points by changing; changing answers on psychiatric nursing exams made more difference than on medical-surgical tests. However, those who made the smallest number of changes tended to have higher…

Nieswiadomy, Rose M.; Arnold, Wilda K.; Garza, Chris

2001-01-01

251

To Change or Not to Change: Investigating the Value of MCQ Answer Changing for Gulf Arab Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether the practice of answer changing on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) is beneficial to Gulf Arab students' overall test performance. The proficiency exam used in this study is the Michigan English Language Institute College English Test - Grammar, Cloze, Vocabulary, Reading (MELICET-GCVR), which was developed using…

Al-Hamly, Mashael; Coombe, Christine

2005-01-01

252

Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

2009-01-01

253

Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers  

PubMed Central

Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics.

Kurz, Matthias

2008-01-01

254

Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Emergence of Animal Models to Answer Clinical ?Questions  

PubMed Central

Decades of experiments in small animals had tipped the balance of opinion away from antibodies as a cause of transplant rejection, but clinical experience, especially with sensitized patients, has convinced basic immunologists of the need to develop models to investigate mechanisms underlying antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). This resurgent interest has resulted in several new rodent models to investigate antibody-mediated mechanisms of heart and renal allograft injury, but satisfactory models of chronic AMR remain more elusive. Nevertheless, these new studies have begun to reveal many insights into the molecular and pathological sequelae of antibody binding to the allograft endothelium. In addition, complement-independent and –dependent effects of antibodies on endothelial cells have been identified in vitro. As small animals models become better defined, it is anticipated that they will be more widely used to answer further questions concerning mechanisms of antibody-mediated tissue injury as well as to design therapeutic interventions.

Baldwin, William M.; Valujskikh, Anna; Fairchild, Robert L.

2010-01-01

255

Net Improvement of Correct Answers to Therapy Questions After PubMed Searches: Pre/Post Comparison  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. Objective To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). Methods We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. Results We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. Conclusions PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers.

Keepanasseril, Arun

2013-01-01

256

Progressive Questioning: Improving Students' Critical-Thinking, Logic, and Problem-Solving Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The senior-level course Water Pollution and Purification for environmental science majors at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore requires students to use interdisciplinary knowledge, critical-thinking, logic, and problem-solving skills. Starting with a unit on surfacewater versus groundwater pollution, students acquire these skills through continuously answering progressive questions; they use audiovisual aids, do library assignments, and perform case studies. The process improved students' test performance and overall interest in addressing real-life problems.

Gupta, Gian

2005-01-01

257

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

March 29, 2005 EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life Exposure to Carcinogens Questions and Answers The following questions ...

258

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Question C(1): I teach a university graduate...Do I need a license to teach this course? Answer...make any difference if I talk about recent and as yet...Question C(6): We teach proprietary courses on...research group. We have no way of guaranteeing...

2006-01-01

259

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Question C(1): I teach a university graduate...Do I need a license to teach this course? Answer...make any difference if I talk about recent and as yet...Question C(6): We teach proprietary courses on...research group. We have no way of guaranteeing...

2008-01-01

260

15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Question C(1): I teach a university graduate...Do I need a license to teach this course? Answer...make any difference if I talk about recent and as yet...Question C(6): We teach proprietary courses on...research group. We have no way of guaranteeing...

2007-01-01

261

Interteach Preparation: A Comparison of the Effects of Answering versus Generating Study Guide Questions on Quiz Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within an interteaching context, an alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of answering versus writing study guide questions on quiz performance in a 10-week methods course in special education. Results indicated quiz performance was not substantially influenced by the type of preparation, but that writing questions led to…

Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Axe, Judah B.; Parker, Edward D.

2009-01-01

262

Point of View: Questions From the Edge: Using Informal Surveys to Build Rapport With Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Astronomy helps us answer the ultimate question of human existence," and "Astronomy helps us understand the meaning of our own existence." These thoughts caught the attention of one professor who wondered what students thought about the meaning of their existence. The results of surveying students on this and two other questions have supplied information that is not only interesting in its own right for insights into student interests, but has also provided opportunities to foster rapport with students through discussions related to their responses.

Hedin, Eric

2007-01-01

263

Over-Answering Yes-No Questions: Extended Responses in a NL Interface to a Vision System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of over-answering yes-no questions, i.e. of generating extended responses that provide additional information to yes-no questions that pragmatically must be interpreted as wh-questions. Although the general notion of extended responses has already been explored, our paper reports on the first attempt to build a NL system able to elaborate on a response as a result

Wolfgang Wahlster; Heinz Marburger; Anthony Jameson; Stephan Busemann

1983-01-01

264

Examining Eighth Grade Kuwaiti Students' Recognition and Interpretation of Reasonable Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research documents Kuwaiti eighth grade students' performance in recognizing reasonable answers and the strategies they used to determine reasonableness. The results from over 200 eighth grade students show they were generally unable to recognize reasonable answers. Students' performance was consistently low across all three number domains…

Alajmi, Amal Hussain; Reys, Robert

2010-01-01

265

Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation.

Meghan Groome

2007-01-01

266

Does the medical literature contain the evidence to answer the questions of primary care physicians? Preliminary findings of a study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of information retrieved in MEDLINE searches performed to answer clinical questions of primary care physicians. SETTING: Ambulatory rural and nonrural practices. PARTICIPANTS: Active, non-academic primary care physicians; professional medical librarians, a general internist. DESIGN: Descriptive study in 3 stages: 1) Office Interviews, to record questions that arise in primary care practice; 2) Online Searches, to locate information that might answer these questions; and 3) Critical Appraisal to determine the quality of the information contained in the articles retrieved. MAIN RESULTS: Of 74 articles judged by clinicians to be relevant to their questions, 2 were critical reviews, 14 reported results of randomized controlled trials, and 4 reported results of cohort studies. The remainder contained weaker evidence: 1 reported results of a case-control study, 6 were longitudinal case series, 13 were cross-sectional descriptions of disease, 12 were cross-sectional descriptions of diagnostic testing, and 22 were review articles which did not meet criteria for a critical review. CONCLUSION: Searching the medical literature to answer the questions of primary care physicians was successful in retrieving recent, relevant information, and often provided "a clear answer" to the question, but the cost of using bibliographic retrieval was high, and fewer than a third of the articles retrieved contained high quality evidence.

Gorman, P.

1993-01-01

267

A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

NONE

1995-03-01

268

STS-103 Commander Brown answers question during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. answers a question from the media about the mission. As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

269

Questions and Answers on Quality, the ISO 9000 Standard Series, Quality System Registration, and Related Issues. More Questions and Answers on the ISO 9000 Standard Series and Related Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides information on the development, content and application of the ISO 9000 standards to readers who are unfamiliar with these aspects of the standards. It attempts to answer some of the most commonly asked questions on quality; quality sy...

M. Breitenberg

1993-01-01

270

Climate Change Science Instruction using a Model: Students Asking Quantitative Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The act of asking a question is arguably the most important part of the scientific process as it is the starting point of the scientific inquiry. And while students learn much from asking questions, they are often reticent to do so in the class-room and more often than not the instructor asks the questions while the students answer them. Here we present results from an investigation of quantitative scientific questions asked by students in an undergraduate course about climate change science about one of the main processes driving climate and climate change: radiative forcing. This course is an inquiry-based course in which questions are explicitly solicited from students in different forms. One topic of relevance to the concept of radiative forcing (effects of clouds, greenhouse gases, aerosols and land-use changes on climate) is studied each week. Students, after much preparation and scaffolding, must produce a research-level question that can be addressed by an up-to-date, accurate radiative transfer model with which they have become familiar at the beginning of the course. Students must then run, analyze and present results from an experiment they design for the model to address their scientific question. Our presentation will address how the nature of students' questions evolved over the six weeks dedicated to the applications of the radiative forcing concept, based on weekly submitted individual questions and group's question. Our analysis will look at both individual and class asking-question characteristics. We will analyze the relationships between the individual questions and the quality of group's question and look at the influence of group dynamics on the nature and quality of the groups' questions.

Gautier, C.

2004-12-01

271

Common drugs and treatments for cancer and age-related diseases: revitalizing answers to NCI's provocative questions  

PubMed Central

In 2011, The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has announced 24 provocative questions on cancer. Some of these questions have been already answered in “NCI's provocative questions on cancer: some answers to ignite discussion” (published in Oncotarget, 2011, 2: 1352.) The questions included “Why do many cancer cells die when suddenly deprived of a protein encoded by an oncogene?” “Can we extend patient survival by using approaches that keep tumors static?” “Why are some disseminated cancers cured by chemotherapy alone?” “Can we develop methods to rapidly test interventions for cancer treatment or prevention?” “Can we use our knowledge of aging to enhance prevention or treatment of cancer?” “What is the mechanism by which some drugs commonly and chronically used for other indications protect against cancer?” “How does obesity contribute to cancer risk?” I devoted a single subchapter to each the answer. As expected, the provocative questions were very diverse and numerous. Now I choose and combine, as a single problem, only three last questions, all related to common mechanisms and treatment of age-related diseases including obesity and cancer. Can we use common existing drugs for cancer prevention and treatment? Can we use some targeted “cancer-selective” agents for other diseases and … aging itself.

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2012-01-01

272

Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions about Reinspections under the AHERA Asbestos-In-Schools Rule.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was prepared in response to inquiries that have been received by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning the reinspection requirements and related provisions of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulations. The answers developed represent the Agency's responses to the 15 most frequently asked questions to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

273

26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

2013-04-01

274

Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of…

Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

2005-01-01

275

`Did you have permission to smash your neighbour's door?' Silly questions and their answers in police—suspect interrogations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the asking and answering of `silly questions' (SQs) (for example, `might sound a bit silly, but do you know whose window it is?') in British police interviews with suspects, the courses of action SQs initiate, and the institutional contingencies they are designed to manage. We show how SQs are asked at an important juncture toward the ends of

Elizabeth Stokoe; Derek Edwards

2008-01-01

276

Can Simply Answering Research Questions Change Behaviour? Systematic Review and Meta Analyses of Brief Alcohol Intervention Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundParticipant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed

Jim McCambridge; Kypros Kypri; Peter McCulloch

2011-01-01

277

26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.105-1 Questions and answers...a) and (c) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1566): Q-1: What effect...annuity provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 are effective for taxable years...

2013-04-01

278

26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers...to furnish information regarding tax shelters. Penalties for Failure To...

2009-04-01

279

26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers...to furnish information regarding tax shelters. Penalties for Failure To...

2010-04-01

280

26 CFR 301.6707-1T - Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. 301.6707-1T Section 301.6707-1T...failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters. The following questions and answers...to furnish information regarding tax shelters. Penalties for Failure To...

2013-04-01

281

Supporting Argumentation through Students' Questions: Case Studies in Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores how student-generated questions can support argumentation in science. Students were asked to discuss which of two graphs showing the change in temperature with time when ice is heated to steam was correct. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years, from two countries, first wrote questions about the phenomenon. Then, working…

Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

2010-01-01

282

Moving Students' Questions out of the Parking Lot  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides teachers with ideas on how to address students' self-generated questions. Following a third-grade classroom, the article explores the use of a "parking lot" -- a repository for the seemingly off-task questions which curious students naturally pose. As students encounter informational text with genuine purposes,…

Ness, Molly

2014-01-01

283

How to Help Students Confront Life's "Big Questions"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many college students are interested in spirituality and the "big questions" about life's meaning and values, but many professors seem not to know how to respond to that interest. In this article, the author offers several strategies to help students confront the "big questions". One way is to structure assignments and discussions so that students

Walvoord, Barbara E.

2008-01-01

284

Does the man in the moon ever sleep? An analysis of student answers about simple astronomical events: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the answers provided by 98, 12-year-old students to questions included in an end-of-year science examination are analysed. Almost all of the students are able to explain day and night, but the reason why the Moon always presents the same face to the Earth is less well understood. Estimations of the time in Earth days from sunrise to sunrise on the Moon vary. Most students can explain the apparent movement of stars across the night-sky, but their direction is less certain. Implications of the findings for teaching and learning are addressed.

Dove, Jane

2002-08-01

285

Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

Stafford, Tish

2009-01-01

286

Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include trainings with hands-on activities the teachers can take back to their classroom.

Asplund, S.

2010-12-01

287

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

2009-04-01

288

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE…

Flint Board of Education, MI.

289

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper

Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

2011-01-01

290

Semi-Automatic Grading of Students' Answers Written in Free Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct grading of free text answers to exam questions during an assessment process is time consuming and subject to fluctuations in the application of evaluation criteria, particularly when the number of answers is high (in the hundreds). In consequence of these fluctuations, inherent to human nature, and largely determined by emotional…

Escudeiro, Nuno; Escudeiro, Paula; Cruz, Augusto

2011-01-01

291

Curriculum Integration: Meaningful Learning Based on Students' Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Curriculum integration is defined as students choosing topics to study based on their questions. Several middle schools throughout the United States offer students the opportunity to develop the curriculum during the year based on their questions about themselves and about the world. The author provides the rationale, the developmental reasons…

Brown, Dave F.

2011-01-01

292

Tearing Down Walls To Promote Student-Generated Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite nearly universal agreement that students need to do more, think more, and be more active in the classroom, most classrooms are still firmly teacher centered. While teachers use various questioning strategies to develop and enhance critical thinking, historically they are the generators of the questioning process. Thus, many students are…

Supon, Viola; Wolf, Pat

293

The Effects of Teaching Questioning Skills to College Literature Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of classroom instruction about questioning skills on students' question-asking behaviors, as well as to inquire about student reactions to being taught "process" in a "content" course. Two sophomore college literature classes were involved as experimental and control groups in the study. The…

Bellman, Stewart Andrew

294

International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations; Geriatrics; Questions and Answers; availability. Notice.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled ``E7 Studies in Support of Special Populations: Geriatrics; Questions and Answers.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses special considerations for the design and conduct of clinical trials of drugs likely to have significant use in the elderly. The Q&As are intended to provide guidance on the use of geriatric data to adequately characterize and represent the safety and efficacy of a drug for a marketing application, including data collected postmarketing. PMID:22379685

2012-02-21

295

Beyond Questions and Answers: Prompting Reflections and Deepening Understandings of Mathematics Using Multiple-Entry Logs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes using multiple-entry logs in which students reflect on mathematics problems as a focal point for teacher-student interactions during office hour tutoring. Other benefits cited include increased mathematical confidence and awareness; improved connections involving mathematical concepts; improved teacher-student communications and…

Powell, Arthur B.; Ramnauth, Mahendra

1992-01-01

296

``Aristotelian'' was given as the answer, but what was the question?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students come to physics instruction, in Newtonian mechanics, with naive ideas about how and why things move; for example, many believe that force causes motion and, conversely, that in the absence of a force things are necessarily at rest. Moreover, such preconceived ideas interfere with the ability of students to learn, and function within, the Newtonian paradigm. These student ideas

Jean Lythcott

1985-01-01

297

Use of key feature questions in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students  

PubMed Central

Purpose To prove the hypothesis that procedural knowledge might be tested using Key Feature (KF) questions in written exams, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation (TiHo) pioneered this format in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students. Exams in veterinary medicine are either tested orally, practically, in written form or digitally in written form. The only question formats which were previously used in the written e-exams were Type A Single-choice Questions, Image Analysis and Short Answer Questions. E-exams are held at the TiHo using the electronic exam system Q [kju:] by CODIPLAN GmbH. Methods In order to examine less factual knowledge and more procedural knowledge and thus the decision-making skills of the students, a new question format was integrated into the exam regulations by the TiHo and some examiner used this for the first time in the computer based assessment. Following a successful pilot phase in formative e-exams for students, KF questions were also introduced in summative exams. A number of multiple choice questions were replaced by KF questions in four computer based assessment in veterinary medicine. The subjects were internal medicine, surgery, reproductive medicine and dairy science. Results The integration and linking of KF questions into the computer based assessment system Q [kju:] went without any complications. The new question format was well received both by the students and the teaching staff who formulated the questions. Conclusion The hypothesis could be proven that Key Feature questions represent a practicable addition to the existing e-exam question formats for testing procedural knowledge. The number of KF questions will be therefore further increased in examinations in veterinary medicine at the TiHo.

2013-01-01

298

Principles of asking effective questions during student problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using effective teaching practices is a high priority for educators. One important pedagogical skill for computer science instructors is asking effective questions. This paper presents a set of instructional principles for effective question asking during guided problem solving. We illustrate these principles with results from classifying the questions that untrained human tutors asked while working with students solving an introductory

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer; William Lahti; Robert Phillips; Michael D. Wallis; Mladen A. Vouk; James C. Lester

2010-01-01

299

Moving from answer finding to sensemaking: Supporting middle school students' online inquiry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Online inquiry, use of the Web as an information source to conduct inquiry for a scientific question, has become increasingly common in middle schools in recent years. However, while valuable Web resources provide unprecedented learning opportunities, easy access to information does not guarantee learning. Previous research has found that middle school students tend to use the Web in a superficial manner. To address the challenges that students face in online inquiry, this study explored several supporting strategies implemented in Digital IdeaKeeper, a scaffolded software tool to help students move from passively finding a ready-made answer to actively making sense of the information they encounter through support for inquiry planning, information search, analysis, and synthesis. This study examined the differences and similarities between regular online inquiry and supported online inquiry performed by several sixth-graders in real classroom settings. Four pairs from a sixth grade class used IdeaKeeper for their online inquiry project, and another four pairs from a different sixth grade class taught by the same teacher used regular online search engines only. Both groups worked on the same science topic-water, and the entire project lasted about four weeks. During that time, students in both groups used computers for about 10-14 days to conduct online research. Multiple sources of data were collected, including video recordings of students' computer activities and conversations, students' artifacts, log files and student final writings. Several themes emerged from the data analysis. First, the findings refer to the importance of providing a structure for students' online inquiry, to promote a more integrated, efficient, continuous, metacognitive and engaging online inquiry. In addition, guidance is important to promote more careful, thorough, and purposeful online reading, Overall, the results suggest that middle school students' online inquiry needs to be structured and their online reading needs to be guided. However, challenges still remain to engage students in high-level critical thinking in online inquiry, because some prompts designed to guide students' reading do not seem effective. Implications of the research findings are discussed.

Zhang, Meilan

300

"Hot Seat" Questioning: A Technique to Promote and Evaluate Student Dialogue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several approaches have been proposed to include students in classroom dialogue, including "think-pair-share" and "talk to your neighbor." I recently implemented an additional technique in which four students answer questions in a "Hot Seat" at the front of the classroom. An unforeseen by-product of this was student-initiated peer instruction outside of the classroom. A small case study (approximately 50 students) on the effect of the Hot Seat using the midterm exam showed that students were 9.5 +/- 3.2% more likely to correctly answer a question related to material covered while they occupied the Hot Seat. Analysis of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test revealed that they were twice as likely to learn their Hot Seat material. A survey revealed one likely reason: Students typically spent 15-60 additional minutes preparing for class on their two assigned Hot Seat dates. Curiously, students received no significant benefit (2.2 +/- 3.6%) from their second turn in the Hot Seat, possibly reflecting student immunization to its motivational pressure.

Crider, Anthony

301

The Role of Perceptual Availability and Discourse Context in Young Children's Question Answering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three- and four-year-old children were asked predicate-focus questions ("What's X doing?") about a scene in which an agent performed an action on a patient. We varied: (i) whether (or not) the preceding discourse context, which established the patient as given information, was available for the questioner; and (ii) whether (or not) the patient was…

Salomo, Dorothe; Graf, Eileen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

2011-01-01

302

Questions Students Ask: The Frequencies of Metal Locators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers a question about operating frequency of metal locators, discussing signal attenuation due to inverse square law and interaction with conducting media. Compares frequency to conductivity for various media and resultant penetration of media by signal, relating to transmission of extremely low frequency signals for submarine communications by…

Mills, Roger E.

1984-01-01

303

Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

2009-01-01

304

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604âQuestions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2010-07-01

305

29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604âQuestions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

2009-07-01

306

Who Really Answers the Questions? Using Glasser's Quality School Model in an Undergraduate Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss the effectiveness of the Quality School model and active learning in an undergraduate classroom setting. They compare performance levels of students in two course sections of Principles of Macroeconomics and two sections of Managerial Communications. Students are given an opportunity to help shape the structure of the…

Logan, Jennifer; Plumlee, Gerald L.

2012-01-01

307

Key Words in Instruction. Sift and Sort: The Answers Are in the Questions!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing time and guidance to students as they "sift and sort" background information on a potential inquiry topic is important at any level of investigation, from grade school to graduate school. As the inquiring student moves through new information, discusses ideas with teachers and peers and, most of all, has time to reflect on the initial…

Kramer, Kym; Largent, Connie

2005-01-01

308

Security Clearance Process: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions, September 9, 2013.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a primer on some of the fundamental aspects of the security clearance process, using a Frequently Asked Questions format. A security clearance is a determination that an individualwhether a direct federal employee or a private contrac...

F. M. Kaiser M. D. Christensen

2013-01-01

309

Using Questioning to Assess and Foster Student Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questioning can be used to probe for understanding, to initiate inquiry, and to promote development of understanding. The results from questioning, listening, and assessment also can be used by teachers to promote their own growth as professionals. This chapter presents a transcript of a class discussion in which questioning is used to assess and foster student thinking. After developing this context for questioning, the authors discuss purposes and kinds of questions, then revisit the context to demonstrate how the results of assessment through questioning can be used to guide the adaptation of curriculum and instruction.

Van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim

2003-01-01

310

Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.  

PubMed

How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors. PMID:24319131

McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

2013-12-01

311

NAEP Questions Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool from the National Center for Educational Statistics provides assessment questions used on the NAEP since 1990. Question searches may be limited by subject, grade, year, or type. Questions returned show their assessed difficulty and the percentage of students that answered correctly. Additionally, each question gives its scoring guide, a sample of student responses, and scoring demographics.

Tool, Naep A.

2006-10-30

312

Is aFederal Mandate the Answer? If So, What Was the Question?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article questions whether advocacy efforts in gifted education have been misguided by over emphasis on achieving a federal mandate. It uses the creative problem solving framework to redefine the problem as one of availability of gifted and talented programs and emphasizes the importance of state financial solutions to existing inequities.…

Baker, Bruce D.; Friedman-Nimz, Reva

2002-01-01

313

Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

Boyle, Philip

1989-01-01

314

Can the First Pregnancy of a Young Adolescent Be Prevented? A Question Which Must Be Answered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature on adolescent cognitive development and issues related to the prevention of teenage pregnancy are briefly discussed. The author outlines relevant questions which should be understood by professionals working in sex education and human services programs, and presents implications for research. (GDC)

Baizerman, Michael

1977-01-01

315

Securing and Managing Child Care Subsidies--Questions and Answers for Centers Considering Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of a mail survey concerning day care providers' motivation and experiences when participating in subsidized day care. Probes definition of subsidized day care, reasons for joining and continuing participation, learning about and becoming a participant, and problems encountered in the program. Lists 11 questions to ask before…

Bordin, Judith

2001-01-01

316

Questions in the Answers to Primary School Educational Reconstruction in Sierra Leone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to review current issues in pre- and primary school reform and to pose questions on the long-term implications of present day solutions. Such an exercise will open up discussion on the probable effects of educational policy decisions with a view to minimize negative effects brought on by new policies. Because data…

Hinton, Samuel

2009-01-01

317

These Two Cases Raise Key Questions (But Offer Ambiguous Answers) about School Desegregation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedural burden-of-proof issues led Federal Circuit Courts to affirm changes in pupil assignment systems in Norfolk, Virginia, but reject changes in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The Supreme Court's decision not to review the Virginia case leaves school boards and federal courts without guidance on questions raised by resegregation. (MLF)

Sendor, Benjamin

1987-01-01

318

Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

Foubert, John D.

2011-01-01

319

The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2008-01-01

320

The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically.

P. Hardegger; J. T. Sausgruber; H. O. Schiegg

2009-01-01

321

Response to Intervention for Reading Difficulties in the Primary Grades: Some Answers and Lingering Questions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to describe the current research base and identify research needs related to response to intervention (RTI) frameworks in primary-grade reading. Research is reviewed on early reading instruction and intervention, the implementation of multitiered reading interventions, and the determination of intervention responsiveness. Areas identified as in need of research include (a) the conditions under which early reading interventions are most effective in RTI contexts, (b) multitiered interventions for students with limited English proficiency, (c) reading instruction for students who make limited progress in Tier 3 intensive interventions, (d) criteria for determining intervention responsiveness, and (e) the effects of fully implemented RTI frameworks. Although RTI research may be expensive and difficult to implement, it may contribute to improved reading outcomes for many students who are otherwise at risk of serious negative life consequences.

Denton, Carolyn A.

2012-01-01

322

Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

2011-01-01

323

The Move to Mass Higher Education in the UK: Many Questions and Some Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the course and causes of the expansion of higher education in the UK since the 1960s. The number of university students from modest social backgrounds has increased, but they comprise much the same proportion of the university population as they did 40 years ago. Though personal rates of return from higher education are…

Mayhew, Ken; Deer, Cecile; Dua, Mehak

2004-01-01

324

Why the Changing American Economy Calls for Twenty-First Century Learning: Answers to Educators' Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As American educators struggle to meet the unprecedented challenge of preparing all students to master the skills embodied in state learning standards, some wonder whether their efforts make economic sense. After all, the newspapers are full of reports of jobs being outsourced to lower-wage countries and jobs being done by computers. If more and…

Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J.

2006-01-01

325

When Writing Professors Teach Literature: Shaping Questions, Finding Answers, Effecting Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article explores writing-centered pedagogies that deepen student learning in literature survey courses. More broadly, the article also responds to Richard Fulkerson and Maureen Daly Goggin, who challenge professors of English studies to find disciplinary unity within the diverse epistemologies of rhetoric. (Contains 5 notes.)

Raymond, Richard C.

2008-01-01

326

Questions and Answers About the Effects of Septic Systems on Water Quality in the La Pine Area, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrate levels in the ground-water aquifer underlying the central Oregon city of La Pine and the surrounding area are increasing due to contamination from residential septic systems. This contamination has public health implications because ground water is the sole source of drinking water for area residents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Deschutes County and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, studied the movement and chemistry of nitrate in the aquifer and developed computer models that can be used to predict future nitrate levels and to evaluate alternatives for protecting water quality. This fact sheet summarizes the results of that study in the form of questions and answers.

Williams, John S.; Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

2007-01-01

327

SMP-SoC is the Answer if You Ask the Right Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

With growing interest in multiprocessor system-on-chip (SoC) designs and the increasing number of multicore designs at the high to medium end of the desktop and server markets, the question arises as to whether there should be convergence of the two concepts. This paper explores design principles for SoC multiprocessors and relates them to more general system requirements. It makes a

PHILIP MACHANICK

2006-01-01

328

Exploring the Validity of Assessment in Anatomy: Do Images Influence Cognitive Processes Used in Answering Extended Matching Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment is an important aspect of medical education because it tests students' competence and motivates them to study. Various assessment methods, with and without images, are used in the study of anatomy. In this study, we investigated the use of extended matching questions (EMQs). To gain insight into the influence of images on the…

Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Bouter, Shifra T.; van den Hurk, Marianne M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

2014-01-01

329

Answering the ultimate question "What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?"  

PubMed Central

Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging?

Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

2012-01-01

330

The need for a lunar base - Answering basic questions about planetary science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After assessing the state of current understanding of the planetological characteristics of the moon, attention is given to numerous questions that have arisen about the history of the moon and to prospective methods for their investigation through lunar exploration. One such exploratory mission will be that of the unmanned Lunar Geoscience Observer; the greatest prospects for important discoveries, however, are foreseen in manned lunar exploration. More sophisticated instruments and preliminary analyses are noted to be possible in manned exploration, although the possibility of contamination of samples is greater.

Taylor, G. J.

1985-01-01

331

The Phenomenon of Questioning as Perceived by Visual Arts Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of questioning and its relationship to researching, problem solving, and experimentation are central to visual arts education policy in Queensland, Australia. Students are introduced to the world of visual arts within the context of the late 20th century, diversity, and postmodernism. This challenges students as it demands awareness…

Seidel, Julie

332

Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.  

PubMed

The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This document contains the questions and answers prepared by experts who comprise the Environmental Assessment Panel. It is based mainly on the 2006 report of the Panel but also contains information from previous assessments. Readers who need detailed information on any question should consult the full reports for a more complete scientific discussion. This set of questions refers mainly to the environmental effects of ozone depletion and climate change. The report of the Scientific Assessment Panel contains questions and answers related to the other scientific issues addressed by that Panel. All these reports can be found on the UNEP website (http://ozone.unep.org). PMID:17344966

Aucamp, Pieter J

2007-03-01

333

Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form  

PubMed Central

Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose.

2012-01-01

334

A text of two titles: Kant's 'A renewed attempt to answer the question: "is the human race continually improving"?  

PubMed

The essay, 'A renewed attempt to answer the question: "Is the human race continually improving?"' appeared as Part II of Kant's 1798 publication, The conflict of the faculties, where it was subordinated under a second title: 'The conflict of the philosophy faculty with the faculty of law'. How did this new situation (and title) affects the meaning of the essay? My argument considers first, the conflict of the faculty of philosophy with the faculty of law; second, the earlier philosophy of history Kant had developed; and, finally, the revision of this position in 'A renewed attempt'. The situation of his argument in the contest between the philosophical and the legal faculties points to other veins of argumentation in Kant's political theory, particularly his appeal to a principle of publicity, but they hardly achieve the theoretical clarity or the systematic centrality they should command. They are displaced in the quest for prediction of the future history of mankind. The question of human progress exceeds the frame of the coordination of the university, and the main question must remain: what was new in Kant's approach to the question of human progress, and was it in fact an enhancement of his philosophy of history? In those terms, 'A renewed attempt' must be regarded a distinct failure. Its innovations prove problematic. Its retreats and equivocations, moreover, threaten to undermine the grander vision of Kant's philosophical history and his political theory, entangling them in an unacceptably theological recourse. PMID:19391372

Zammito, John H

2008-12-01

335

Varying the Cognitive Levels of Classroom Questions: An Analysis of Student Teachers' Questions and Pupil Achievement in Elementary Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine whether student teachers' questioning strategy can be modified to increase their use of higher level cognitive questions and also whether student achievement was higher in classes where the teacher asked more high level questions. Subjects of the study were 20 student teachers assigned to fifth-grade classes in…

Rogers, Virginia; David, O. L.

336

Return to competitive football after major knee surgery: more questions than answers?  

PubMed

Abstract Despite significant advances in the diagnostics and treatment of knee injuries over the last decade, several challenges related to the subject "return to sport" remain largely unknown. For example, how should "return to sport" be defined precisely? What is the optimal timing and progression to enable a return to sport? Which criteria should be used during this process? What type of training is indicated? Which measurements can support the decision-making process? How do we optimally prepare athletes for competition without risking re-injury? This paper critically addresses these questions, and proposes a return to play model to prepare football players to compete after major knee surgery (anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, cartilage repair). The goal is to re-integrate the player gradually into the game, taking into account his individual characteristics. Several evidence-based and empirical criteria are needed to plan and monitor the efficient return to competitive football. Injury-prevention education should be part of this process to maximise the chance of a durable career and decrease the risk of re-injury. However, because of the paucity of research on "return to sport", further research is more than warranted. PMID:24783969

Bizzini, Mario; Silvers, Holly Jacinda

2014-07-01

337

The evolution of centipede venom claws - open questions and possible answers.  

PubMed

The maxilliped venom claw is an intriguing structure in centipedes. We address open questions concerning this structure. The maxillipeds of fossil centipedes from the Carboniferous (about 300 million years old) have been described, but not been depicted previously. Re-investigation demonstrates that they resemble their modern counterparts. A Jurassic geophilomorph centipede (about 150 million years old) was originally described as possessing a rather leg-like maxilliped. Our re-investigation shows that the maxilliped is, in fact, highly specialized as in modern Geophilomorpha. A scenario for the evolution of the centipede maxilliped is presented. It supports one of the two supposed hypotheses of centipede phylogeny, the Pleurostigmophora hypothesis. Although this hypothesis appears now well established, many aspects of character evolution resulting from this phylogeny remain to be told in detail. One such aspect is the special joint of the maxilliped in some species of Cryptops. Cryptops is an in-group of Scolopendromorpha, but its maxilliped joint can resemble that of Lithobiomorpha or even possess a mixture of characters between the both. Detailed investigation of fossils, larger sample sizes of extant species, and developmental data will be necessary to allow further improvements of the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of centipedes. PMID:24211515

Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Schweigert, Günter; Sombke, Andy

2014-01-01

338

Eye tracking research to answer questions about augmentative and alternative communication assessment and intervention.  

PubMed

Recently, eye tracking technologies (i.e., technologies that automatically track the point of an individual's gaze while that person views or interacts with a visual image) have become available for research purposes. Based on the sampling of the orientation of the individual's eyes, researchers can quantify which locations within the visual image were fixated (viewed), for how long, and how many times. These automated eye tracking research technologies open up a wealth of avenues for investigating how individuals with developmental or acquired communication disabilities may respond to aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. In this paper, we introduce basic terminology and explore some of the special challenges of conducting eye tracking research with populations with disabilities who might use AAC, including challenges of inferring attention from the presence of fixation and challenges related to calibration that may result from participant characteristics, behavioral idiosyncracies, and/or the number of calibration points. We also examine how the technology can be applied to ask well-structured experimental questions that have direct clinical relevance, with a focus on the unique contributions that eye tracking research can provide by (a) allowing evaluation of skills in individuals who are difficult to assess via traditional methods, and (b) facilitating access to information on underlying visual cognitive processes that is not accessible via traditional behavioral measures. PMID:24758526

Wilkinson, Krista M; Mitchell, Teresa

2014-06-01

339

STS-103 M.S. Mike Foale answers question during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) (at right) responds to a question from the media about the mission during an interview at Launch Pad 39B. Next to him is Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

340

STS-103 Pilot Kelly answers questions during interview at Pad 39B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an interview at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly responds to a question from the media about the mission. Standing with him are the remainder of the crew: (left to right) Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. As a preparation for launch, they have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

1999-01-01

341

Basic Visual Merchandising. Second Edition. [Student's Manual and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student's manual that features content needed to do tasks related to visual merchandising is intended for students in co-op training stations and entry-level, master employee, and supervisory-level employees. It contains 13 assignments. Each assignment has questions covering specific information and also features activities in which students

Luter, Robert R.

342

Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science content knowledge during line graph interpretation, highlighted the importance of heuristics and mathematics procedural knowledge, and documented the importance of perception attentions, motivation, and students' self-generated questions. Recommendations were made for future research in line graph interpretation in mathematics and science education and for improving instruction in this area.

Keller, Stacy Kathryn

343

Student-generated questions: a meaningful aspect of learning in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to (a) identify the types of questions that students ask during science learning, (b) explicate the role of students' questions in the knowledge construction process, particularly in educational discourse, (c) investigate the relationship between students' questions and approaches to learning and (d) discuss some emergent issues related to student questioning. Six Grade 8 students were observed

Christine Chin; David E. Brown

2002-01-01

344

La Frontera: Student Achievement in Texas Border and Nonborder Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 027  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contrasts the characteristics of border and nonborder districts in Texas from both a demographic and student achievement standpoint. The information in this report should also inform and strengthen border initiatives, such as those emphasized at the 2006 U.S.-Mexico Border Governors Conference. The study sought to answer three…

Sloat, Edward F.; Makkonen, Reino; Koehler, Paul

2007-01-01

345

What is the Right Answer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to introduce students to the concept that sometimes there is no one "right" answer to a question or measurement. Students learn to be careful when searching for a right answer to questions such as 'What time is it?' by comparing multiple measurements of the time of day. Students gain an intuitive understanding of the characteristics of imperfect measurements. Using different clocks, students simultaneously record the displayed times. The resulting time measurements are converted from minutes and seconds to seconds. These measurements are plotted to illustrate the mathematical techniques of averages and deviations from an average.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

346

Providing Real-Time Captioning, C-Print Speech To Print Transcription, Assistive Listening Devices and Other Technologies: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides questions and answers for postsecondary educational institutions concerning provision of access and accommodations to individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing. Questions are about assistive listening devices (ALDs), C-Print technology, real-time captioning, and policy issues. Preliminary information concerns the mission…

Davis, Cheryl; Francis, Pamela; Harlan, Denese

347

Student performance on conceptual questions: Does instruction matter?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction (if any) could, in principle, affect student performance on these questions. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be "essentially the same" in all classes. With data available from a large number of classes, it is possible to characterize the typical variation quantitatively. In this paper three questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. For each question, we examine the variation in student performance across all classes. We also compare subsets categorized according to the amount of relevant prior instruction each class had received. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.

Heron, Paula R.

2013-08-31

348

Rubella: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... in 1967, followed by the rubella vaccine in 1969. These three vaccines were combined in 1971 to ... outbreak of any of the diseases, regardless of birth date. Who recommends this vaccine? The Centers for ...

349

Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... public health agency in the U.S. Department of Agriculture responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply ...

350

Salmonella Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is addressing the problems of Salmonella contamination ...

351

Campylobacter Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture About FSIS District Offices Careers Contact Us Ask ... Inspection Service (FSIS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is addressing the problems of " Campylobacter " contamination ...

352

Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... symptoms. Pneumococcal pneumonia (lung disease) is the most common disease caused by pneumococcal bacteria. It is estimated that ... as the organism remains in respiratory secretions. How common is pneumococcal disease in the United States? Healthcare providers are not ...

353

Tetanus: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... vaccine first become available for diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis? The first inactivated toxin, or toxoid, against diphtheria ... armed services during World War II. The first pertussis vaccine was developed in the 1930s and was ...

354

Answering the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

2011-01-01

355

Perchlorate Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... were selected for the survey based on their high water content, relatively high consumption, and early indications of perchlorate ... spinach, and cantaloupe, FDA collected samples of other high water content foods, including fruits and fruit juices such as ...

356

Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... therapies, people with tuberous sclerosis can expect improved health care. Since there is no cure, what can be done? Early intervention is helping to overcome developmental delays. Advancements in ...

357

The Physics Questions in Student Selection Examination and Physics Curriculum and the Effect of Those Questions in Students' Success in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Success of high school students in solving physics questions of student selection examination (OSS) that has to be taken by high school students before entering the Turkish universities have been investigated with regard to these questions to be solved by students and suitability to high school physics curriculum and factors affecting students

Demirci, Neset

2007-01-01

358

Data Mining Student Answers with Moodle to Investigate Learning Pathways in an Introductory Geohazards Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent growth of online learning in higher education is primarily motivated by a desire to (a) increase the availability of learning experiences for learners who cannot, or choose not, to attend traditional face-to-face offerings, (b) assemble and disseminate instructional content more cost-efficiently, or (c) enable instructors to handle more students while maintaining a learning outcome quality that is equivalent to that of comparable face-to-face instruction. However, a less recognized incentive is that online learning also provides an opportunity for data mining, or efficient discovery of non-obvious valuable patterns from a large collection of data, that can be used to investigate learning pathways as opposed to focusing solely on assessing student outcomes. Course management systems that enable online courses provide a means to collect a vast amount of information to analyze students' behavior and the learning process in general. One of the most commonly used is Moodle (modular object-oriented developmental learning environment), a free learning management system that enables creation of powerful, flexible, and engaging online courses and experiences. In order to examine student learning pathways, the online learning modules we are constructing take advantage of Moodle capabilities to provide immediate formative feedback, verifying answers as correct or incorrect and elaborating on knowledge components to guide students towards the correct answer. By permitting multiple attempts in which credit is diminished for each incorrect answer, we provide opportunities to use data mining strategies to assess thousands of students' actions for evidence of problem solving strategies and mastery of concepts. We will show preliminary results from application of this approach to a ~90 student introductory geohazard course that is migrating toward online instruction. We hope more continuous assessment of students' performances will help generate cognitive models that can inform instructional redesign, improve overall efficiency of student learning, and, potentially, be used to create an intelligent tutoring system.

Sit, S. M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Colella, H. V.

2012-12-01

359

Drawing on Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines observations and research on question-answer interaction between client and therapist, and teacher and student. Discusses Patton's six-question instrument which provides categories of question options, with application for the art therapist. Argues that effective formulation of questions provides the clinician, educator, and researcher…

Bloomgarden, Joan

2000-01-01

360

Questions Students Ask: Bridging the Gap between Scientists and Students in a Research Institute Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with…

France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

2010-01-01

361

Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers  

SciTech Connect

George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

1995-01-01

362

Open-ended questions: An alternative mode to assess the students' performance in concept development and use of scientific vocabulary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important reform movements across the nation recognize that improved science performance, language development, and alternative assessment are national priorities. This study examined the effect of two modes of alternative assessment on students' performance in in-depth concept development (IDC) and use of scientific vocabulary (VOC). The research questions asked for significant differences in students' performance in IDC and VOC across time regarding: (1) mode of assessment, (2) science achievement level, and classes. The study also investigated what are the: (1) students' opinions and feelings about the assessment modes (2) similarities and differences between OE-W and OE-D groups regarding the quality of IDC and VOC used. The sample of convenience included one hundred and four fifth grade LEP students randomly assigned to two groups. Students in both groups were asked to answer the same open-ended question at three assessment times during the study of a chapter on electricity and magnetism. Students in group one were asked to answer the question by writing paragraphs and students in group two answered the same question by making drawings. Results from a four-way repeated measures analysis showed that students in the OE-D mode, especially above-average performed better in in-depth concept development than those in the writing mode across time. The non-significant four-way interaction suggests that the differences in assessment mode across time are not influenced by science achievement level and the classes. The results suggest that although the OE-D mode in general yielded better scores, both modes of assessment could be used to assess Spanish-dominant LEP students' conceptual development and scientific vocabulary use. In general, students expressed preference for OE-D because they felt more confident and comfortable answering questions by drawing. Most of the statistical results were supported by the qualitative analysis for both dependent variables. Small size of the sample, single geographic location in which the study was conducted, and teaching process in three different classrooms, may be considered limitations of the study.

Agairre-Ortiz, Maria

1998-10-01

363

CAA of Short Non-MCQ Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for the computer-assisted assessment (CAA) of non- multiple choice questions (Non-MCQ) type and short answers given by students. The technique is developed for the assessment of text contents of free text answers to questions of factual disciplines. The Automated Text Marker (ATM) prototype automatically breaks down an expertly written model answer, to a closed-ended

David Callear; Jenny Jerrams-Smith; Victor Soh

2001-01-01

364

Tales of the Expected: The Influence of Students' Expectations on Question Validity and Implications for Writing Exam Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Through classroom preparation and exposure to past papers, textbooks and practice tests students develop expectations about examinations: what will be asked, how it will be asked and how they will be judged. Expectations are also involved in the automatic process of understanding questions. Where a question and a student's expectations…

Crisp, Victoria; Sweiry, Ezekiel; Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

2008-01-01

365

I Didn't Know Oxygen Could Boil! What Preservice and Inservice Elementary Teachers' Answers to "Simple" Science Questions Reveals about Their Subject Matter Knowledge. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected…

Rice, Diana C.

2005-01-01

366

How To Talk to Your Kids about Really Important Things: For Children Four to Twelve. Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things To Say.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help parents find the words they need to talk to their children and answer their children's practical questions, this book offers practical guidance on a wide range of life's experiences, from family changes such as divorce and remarriage, to controversial subjects such as child abuse and AIDS. The major focus is on children ages 4 to…

Schaefer, Charles E.; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

367

Unexpected Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical situations where the probabilities or outcomes might not be what is first expected. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities motivated by the idea of unexpected answers. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with an introduction to probability and unexpected answers in probability.

Shodor

2012-03-30

368

The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

Shaw, Jason

369

A Quest to Improve: Helping Students Learn How to Pose Investigable Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions are powerful tools that are central to scientific inquiry. Given the importance of investigable questions to scientific inquiry, what can teachers do to help students learn how to generate them? Possibilities the author explores in this article are (a) demonstrating to students that we value their questions, (b) providing students with…

Sharkawy, Azza

2010-01-01

370

A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students asked about laboratory activities, 2) whether the types

Elena L. Keeling; Kelly M. Polacek; Ella L. Ingram

2009-01-01

371

Exploring Relationship between Students' Questioning Behaviors and Inquiry Tasks in an Online Forum through Analysis of Ideational Function of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we explored questioning behaviors among elementary students engaging in inquiry science using the "Knowledge Forum", a computer-supported collaborative learning tool. Adapting the theory of systemic functional linguistics, we developed the Ideational Function of Question (IFQ) analytical framework by means of inductive analysis of…

Tan, Seng-Chee; Seah, Lay-Hoon

2011-01-01

372

Responding to Questions to Continue Classroom Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the importance of questioning techniques in the instruction of learning disabled students. Factors affecting students' responses to questions are the strengths and weaknesses of the learner and the type and difficulty of the question asked. A systematic method of providing or following up on students answers, termed…

Bachor, Dan G.

373

Using the Web to Encourage Student-generated Questions in Large-Format Introductory Biology Classes  

PubMed Central

Students rarely ask questions related to course content in large-format introductory classes. The use of a Web-based forum devoted to student-generated questions was explored in a second-semester introductory biology course. Approximately 80% of the enrolled students asked at least one question about course content during each of three semesters during which this approach was implemented. About 95% of the students who posted questions reported reading the instructor's response to their questions. Although doing so did not contribute to their grade in the course, approximately 75% of the students reported reading questions posted by other students in the class. Approximately 60% of the students reported that the Web-based question-asking activity contributed to their learning of biology.

Olson, Joanne K.; Clough, Michael P.

2007-01-01

374

Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid tests.  

PubMed

Retrieval practice improves meaningful learning, and the most frequent way of implementing retrieval practice in classrooms is to have students answer questions. In four experiments (N=372) we investigated the effects of different question formats on learning. Students read educational texts and practised retrieval by answering short-answer, multiple-choice, or hybrid questions. In hybrid conditions students first attempted to recall answers in short-answer format, then identified answers in multiple-choice format. We measured learning 1 week later using a final assessment with two types of questions: those that could be answered by recalling information verbatim from the texts and those that required inferences. Practising retrieval in all format conditions enhanced retention, relative to a study-only control condition, on both verbatim and inference questions. However, there were little or no advantages of answering short-answer or hybrid format questions over multiple-choice questions in three experiments. In Experiment 4, when retrieval success was improved under initial short-answer conditions, there was an advantage of answering short-answer or hybrid questions over multiple-choice questions. The results challenge the simple conclusion that short-answer questions always produce the best learning, due to increased retrieval effort or difficulty, and demonstrate the importance of retrieval success for retrieval-based learning activities. PMID:24059563

Smith, Megan A; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

2014-10-01

375

Are All Wrong FCI Answers Equivalent?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been efficiently used to assess conceptual learning in mechanics. Each FCI question has one Newtonian answer and four wrong answers (distracters). Researchers and practitioners most frequently use measures of total score to assess learning. Yet, are all wrong answers equivalent? We conducted Latent Markov Chain Modeling (LMCM) analyses of all choices (right and wrong) on a subset of four FCI questions. LMCM assesses whether there are groups of students sharing similar patterns of responses. We infer that students sharing similar patterns also share similar reasoning. Our results show seven reasoning-groups. LMCM also computes probabilities of transition from one reasoning-group to another after instruction. Examining transitions between groups, we note a clear hierarchy. Groups at the top of the hierarchy are comprised of students that use Newtonian thinking more consistently but also choose certain wrong answers more frequently; suggesting that not all wrong answers are equivalent.

Dedic, Helena; Rosenfield, Steven; Lasry, Nathaniel

2011-01-01

376

Questioning Student Learning: An Exploration of Student's Views on Learning to Become Independent Nurse Prescribers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This illuminative evaluation study gives insights into attitudes to learning, interaction and the perceived roles of theory, evidence, reading and previous experience. These insights lead us to question some aspects of the course as currently presented. Students indicated that they found the course material stimulating but prior guidance on the…

Banning, Maggi; Cortazzi, Martin

2004-01-01

377

Encouraging and analyzing student questions in a large physics course: Meaningful patterns for instructors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large introductory physics course, structured weekly journals (weekly reports) regularly encouraged students to ask questions about the material. The resulting questions were collected for one quarter and coded based on difficulty and topic. Students also took several conceptual tests during the quarter. The reports contained more questions than typically observed in a college classroom, but the number of

Kathleen A. Harper; Eugenia Etkina; Yuhfen Lin

2003-01-01

378

Encouraging and Analyzing Student Questions in a Large Physics Course: Meaningful Patterns for Instructors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a large introductory physics course, structured weekly journals (weekly reports) regularly encouraged students to ask questions about the material. The resulting questions were collected for one quarter and coded based on difficulty and topic. Students also took several conceptual tests during the quarter. The reports contained more questions

Harper, Kathleen A.; Etkina, Eugenia; Lin, Yuhfen

2003-01-01

379

Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children.…

Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

2012-01-01

380

Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project  

PubMed Central

Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF) established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2) evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3) explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p < 0.001) while only slight agreement was observed for the grades of the formal quality (mean kappa value 0.105 ± 0.024, p < 0.001). The quality of expert answers was rated high (four language zones) or satisfactory (two language zones) and did not change over time. Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness.

2012-01-01

381

Improving Communication Skills in Student Music Teachers. Part Two: Questioning Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is concerned with examining ways of alerting student teachers to the importance of developing questioning skills in their teaching. A survey of the literature on questioning skills revealed a wealth of examples for student teachers of traditionally "academic" subjects, and a corresponding lack of available material for student teachers…

Hughes, Jenny

2005-01-01

382

Improving communication skills in student music teachers. Part Two: questioning skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with examining ways of alerting student teachers to the importance of developing questioning skills in their teaching. A survey of the literature on questioning skills revealed a wealth of examples for student teachers of traditionally ‘academic’ subjects, and a corresponding lack of available material for student teachers of practical subjects, where there may be different issues,

Jenny Hughes

2005-01-01

383

Questioning the Author: An Approach for Enhancing Student Engagement with Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that elementary-school students often fail to understand many of the ideas presented in school textbooks, this book presents the Questioning the Author (QtA) strategy, which is designed to establish student interactions with text and build greater understanding by teaching students to question the ideas presented in the text while they are…

Beck, Isabel L.; And Others

384

Answering the Big Questions in Neuroscience: DoD's Experimental Research Wing Takes on Massive, High-Risk Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds

Leslie Mertz

2012-01-01

385

Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

ScienceCinema

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-09-01

386

Answering Gauguin’s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?  

SciTech Connect

Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

John Ellis

2010-05-26

387

The Challenge Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They are asked to write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Students then read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for any additional ideas and add them to the list they produced already. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

388

Using the Web to Encourage Student-generated Questions in Large-Format Introductory Biology Classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students rarely ask questions related to course content in large-format introductory classes. The use of a Web-based forum devoted to student-generated questions was explored in a second- semester introductory biology course. Approximately 80% of the enrolled students asked at least one question about course content during each of three semesters during which this approach was implemented. About 95% of the

James T. Colbert; Joanne K. Olson; Michael P. Clough

2007-01-01

389

Investigating Turkish Primary School Students’ Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students’ interest in science by using their self-generated\\u000a questions. We investigated students’ interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among\\u000a them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample\\u000a may represent a group of students who have a

Gultekin Cakmakci; Hatice Sevindik; Meryem Pektas; Asli Uysal; Fatma Kole; Gamze Kavak

2011-01-01

390

English Language Proficiency Levels of Limited English Proficient Students in Idaho. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 125  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the proficiency levels of limited English proficient (LEP) students and LEP student subgroups on the Idaho English Language Assessment (IELA). The report addresses two research questions: (1) What is the distribution of LEP students across proficiency levels on the total IELA scale and its five domains?; and (2) How does the…

Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur; Deussen, Theresa

2012-01-01

391

English Language Proficiency Levels of Limited English Proficient Students in Idaho. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 125  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the proficiency levels of limited English proficient (LEP) students and LEP student subgroups on the Idaho English Language Assessment (IELA). The report addresses two research questions: (1) What is the distribution of LEP students across proficiency levels on the total IELA scale and its five domains?; and (2) How does the…

Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur; Deussen, Theresa

2012-01-01

392

The Use of Student Questions as a Partial Format for Instruction Regarding Smoking and Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective smoking and health unit must be multidimensional in nature. Use of student questions as a prescursor to such a unit can assist the health educator in developing learning opportunities which are meaningful to the student participants. (Author)

Brooks, Robert W.

1970-01-01

393

A Student Questions How Much Protesters Are Really Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At age 27, the author became a chairwoman of the Board of Directors of a $75-million conglomerate, the largest student-governed business in the nation. At Associated Students UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles), four undergraduate and four graduate students serve on the board, which oversees the several bookstores, dozens of…

Ho, Melanie

2008-01-01

394

Puzzling questions about excited superdeformed rotational bands of atomic nuclei are answered by the two-revolving-cluster model.  

PubMed Central

The two-revolving-cluster model provides explanations of several questions about excited superdeformed bands: restriction to the lanthanons and the Hg-Tl-Pb region and to the smaller values of the neutron number for each element, truncation of the gamma-ray cascades, differences in shape of the lanthanon and Hg-Tl-Pb bands, alignment of quantified spins, and the existence of pairs of bands with nearly identical gamma-ray sequences. A previously unrecognized kind of pairing (intercalation of gamma-ray values) is also reported and a discussion is given of the values of electric quadrupole moments.

Pauling, L

1992-01-01

395

Selective attentional effects of textbook study questions on student learning in science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A selective attentional model used to explain recent mathemagenic and related research findings also predicted that textbook study questions adjunct to a flow diagram focus students' attention more upon questioned information and less upon nonquestioned information. Furthermore, the chances of such dysfunctional selective attention are increased when students are provided with a mere sampling (partial set) of study questions covering only portions of the diagram and are decreased when students are provided with a population (complete set) of questions or a no-question treatment. As predicted, using the Newman-Keuls procedure (p <0.05), the population and no-question treatment groups outperformed the sampling-question group which, in turn, outperformed a placebo-control group. It was concluded that researchers and teachers should be aware that encouraging students to concentrate on selective portions of critical information can result in inadequate processing of such specialized science materials as flow diagrams.

Holliday, William G.

396

Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample may represent a group of students who have a higher level of motivation to seek sources of information outside their formal education and have more access to resources than the students of low social classes. To overcome this problem, 739 students were asked to write a question that they wanted to learn from a scientist and as a result 878 questions were gathered. Those students were selected from 13 different schools at 9 cities in Turkey. These schools were selected to represent a mixture of socioeconomic areas and also to cover different students' profile. Students' questions were classified into two main categories: the field of interest and the cognitive level of the question. The results point to the popularity of biology, astrophysics, nature of scientific inquiry, technology and physics over other science areas, as well as indicating a difference in interest according to gender, grade level and the setting in which the questions were asked. However, our study suggests that only considering questions submitted to informal learning environments, such as popular science magazines or Ask-A-Scientist Internet sites has limitations and deficiencies. Other methodologies of data collection also need to be considered in designing teaching and school science curriculum to meet students' needs and interest. The findings from our study tend to challenge existing thinking from other studies. Our results show that self-generated questions asked in an informal and a formal setting have different patterns. Some aspects of students' self-generated questions and their implications for policy, science curriculum reform and teaching are discussed in this paper.

Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

2012-06-01

397

Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

2011-01-01

398

Learning Biology through Research Papers: A Stimulus for Question-Asking by High-School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers…

Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

2003-01-01

399

What's in a domain: Understanding how students approach questioning in history and science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During their education, students are presented with information across a variety of academic domains. How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of age and prior knowledge on the ways students approach questioning across history and science content. In two studies, students read history and science passages and then generated questions they would ask to make sense of the content. Nine categories of questions were identified to discern patterns of inquiry across both domains. Results indicate that while age and prior knowledge may play a role in the way students ask questions by domain there are persistent main effects of domain across both studies. Specifically, across both studies students ask questions regarding the purpose or function of ideas in science passages, whereas history passage are more regularly met with questions for supplemental information to complete a student's understanding. In contrast to extant research on developmental status or experience within a content area, current work suggests that domains themselves hold unique properties, which may influence how students approach questioning across domains.

Portnoy, Lindsay Blau

400

Multiple Peer-Assessment Modes to Augment Online Student Question-Generation Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of the current theoretical and empirical support for a student-generated questions approach to learning along with the advantageous features of network technology, several online student question-generation learning systems with a peer-assessment component have been developed. Despite this, all existing systems are limited in terms of the…

Yu, Fu-Yun

2011-01-01

401

Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.  

PubMed

When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

Mertz, Leslie

2012-01-01

402

Asking the Right Questions: Helping Mainstream Students Understand Other Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two common tendencies that lead many mainstream students to misinterpret other cultures are the combative response and the exoticizing response. These misinterpretations, however, can be excellent learning moments for helping students understand the constructed nature of culture and the contextual nature of learning. Transformational multicultural…

Taylor, Jefferey H.

403

Questioning Assumptions about Students' Expectations for Technology in College Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, Sarah Lohnes and Charles Kinzer argue for a more nuanced understanding of Net Generation students and their technology practices than received wisdom currently offers. The realization by college and university administrators that Net Generation students, having grown up digital, will learn differently and make new demands of their…

Lohnes, Sarah; Kinzer, Charles

2007-01-01

404

Pace: An Alternative Measure of Student Question Response Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some professions, speed and accuracy are as important as acquired requisite knowledge and skills. The availability of computer-based testing now facilitates examination of these two important aspects of student performance. We found that student response times in a conventional non-speeded multiple-choice test, at both the global and individual…

Thompson, James J.; Yang, Tong; Chauvin, Sheila W.

2009-01-01

405

Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer  

PubMed Central

Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronized discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations' role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e., a “positive” role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e., “negative”) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were; if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit. In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: “broadband” and “narrowband,” which have very different properties (and likely roles). We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address these.

Sedley, William; Cunningham, Mark O.

2013-01-01

406

Teacher Question and Student Response with Regard to Cognition and Language Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, we focus on teacher-student discourse in Pre-K science activities, with particular attention to teacher questioning. Videotaped classroom observations and teacher interviews served as the corpus of data. Overall, teachers asked mostly closed-ended questions, but used more open-ended questions when experiments were being…

Lee, Youngju; Kinzie, Mable B.

2012-01-01

407

Evidence of epistemological framing in survey question misinterpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics students' views about what kinds of learning and knowledge-generating activities are expected in class, their epistemological framing, influences their reasoning and what they learn. [1,2] In previous work, we observed that students' likelihood of correctly answering a kinematics question easily solved through common sense depended on whether preceding questions on the survey were designed to prime ``sense-making'' or schoolish ``answer-making''. [3] To get insight into students' reasoning we collected 24 think-alouds. [4] The think-aloud data indicate that some participants who incorrectly answered the question misinterpreted the physical situation it describes. On its face this observation might be seen as evidence that inferring answer-making from an incorrect answer lacks validity. However, analysis indicates that students misinterpret the question because of how they frame their approach to answering it. So, misinterpretation of the kinematics question is a signal of epistemological framing, not an impediment to seeing it.

Hutchison, Paul; Elby, Andrew

2013-01-01

408

A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

2012-01-01

409

A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in Maryland. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 128  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes limited English proficient (LEP) student enrollment and achievement trends in Maryland. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of LEP students in Maryland public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage scoring at the proficient or advanced level) on…

O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

2012-01-01

410

Knowledge Engineer as Student: Metacognitive Bases for Asking Good Questions,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Knowledge engineers are efficient, active learners. They systematically approach domains and acquire knowledge to solve routine, practical problems. By modeling their methods, we may develop a basis for teaching other students how to direct their own lear...

W. J. Clancey

1987-01-01

411

The Use of Question Types to Match Questions in FAQFinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

One useful way to find the answer to a question is to search a library of previously-answered questions. This is the idea behind FAQFinder, a Web-based natural language question- answering system which uses Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) files to answer users' questions. FAQFinder tries to answer a user's question by retrieving a similar FAQ ques- tion, if one exists, and

Steven L. Lytinen; Noriko Tomuro

2002-01-01

412

The Princess Storyteller, Clara Clarifier, Quincy Questioner, and the Wizard: Reciprocal Teaching Adapted for Kindergarten Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the author adapted reciprocal teaching strategies for use with her kindergarten students. Using puppets to help model strategies, she implemented a series of lessons that showed students how to retell, ask questions, and predict what would happen in a story that was read aloud. The purpose was to provide students with comprehension…

Myers, Pamela Ann

2005-01-01

413

Questions Students Ask: The Red-Eye Effect.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the question of why a dog's eyes appear red and glow when a flash photograph is taken. Conditions for the red-eye effect, light paths involved, structure of the eye, and typical cameras and lenses are discussed. Also notes differences between the eyes of nocturnal animals and humans. (JN)

Physics Teacher, 1985

1985-01-01

414

PDI: Knowing What They Know: Writing Assessment Questions That Reveal Student Thinking, New Orleans, Louisiana; March 18, 2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Consider this scenario... After a unit on seasons, a science teacher asked students the following item on a test: Which of the following locations would you expect to have the least temperature variation throughout the year? Toronto, Canada London, England Sydney, Australia Manta, Ecuador The teacher had done a thorough job teaching the unit, and based on student responses to questions she asked during class, she was confident they would recognize a location on the equator as the correct answer. She was disappointed and confused when three-fourths of the class missed the item. As she returned the tests, she asked several students why they got the question wrong. Almost without exception, each student asked, "Where's Ecuador?" Most teachers have probably had a moment of realization similar to this teacher's. They write a test item they are sure is crystal clear, only to find later that students lacked some prerequisite knowledge, or that students interpreted the item differently than intended. As a result, the item reveals little or nothing of what students understand about the science. For the last several years, we at Horizon Research, Inc. (HRI) have been developing assessment items and tests for students through a project funded by the National Science Foundation. Through this work and through workshops we have conducted around the country, we have had the opportunity to compile item-writing principles from several sources and to add our own. In this PDI, teachers will have focused, practical experience applying these principles by writing and revising assessment items in a collaborative setting. The PDI will involve participants in a process for developing questions that uncover what students understand about science concepts. The process begins with a clear focus on the science content being assessed and continues with drafting and revising items, continuously evaluating them against the principles discussed. Individual teachers can use the process, and it is especially well suited for collaborative item writing. It serves as an effective form of ongoing, collegial professional development. The PDI is intended for any K-12 science teacher. It will focus on writing multiple-choice items, but the principles apply equally well to open-ended or constructed response questions. Each teacher who attends will have access to the items written during the PDI. We encourage teachers to bring laptop computers to the session, but they are not required.

1900-01-01

415

The Courage To Question: Women's Studies and Student Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents case studies of the Women's Studies programs at seven institutions of higher education in the United States focusing on how and what students learn in Women's Studies programs. An introduction describes the development of Women's Studies as an academic discipline, the recent criticism of such programs, the development of the…

Musil, Caryn McTighe, Ed.

416

Questions Arise about Algebra 2 for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Should all students take Algebra 2? Florida seemed to say "no" this spring with the passage of a law striking it from graduation requirements. Texas said much the same in legislation Republican Gov. Rick Perry signed this week that also backs away from Algebra 2 for all. Those steps come as the Common Core State Standards for math set the…

Robelen, Erik W.

2013-01-01

417

HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... 452-9622 Will HPV vaccination be covered by health insurance? Most health insurance plans cover recommended vaccines. But there may be ... American Indian, or Alaska Native or have no health insurance. "Underinsured" children who have health insurance that does ...

418

Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... product. The Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984, more commonly known as the ... market for prescription drugs, and innovator companies gained restoration of patent life of their products lost during ...

419

Questions and Answers about Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... the sale of infected prairie dogs. CDC laboratory testing of some animals by using PCR and virus isolation demonstrated that ... to assist with the investigation. Conducted extensive laboratory testing on specimens from humans and animals thought to have been exposed to monkeypox. Issued ...

420

Bone Cancer: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... of Oncology. Vol. 2. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004. Pizzo P, Poplack DG, editors. ... Practice of Pediatric Oncology . 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002. Ries LAG, Smith MA, Gurney ...

421

Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and ... A virus is spread by getting infected fecal matter into a person’s mouth who has never had ...

422

Greenland: More Questions than Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Journal entries, reflections, and interviews from a phenomenological study indicate the benefits experienced by 70 British youth participating in a six-week Greenland expedition. Themes emerging from the data include reflection on values, life and career plans, friendships and relationships, connectedness to self and society, environmental…

Allison, Pete

1998-01-01

423

Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... other health care provider. Based on the drinking pattern results from your web site, my friends and ... it's safest to quit. According to the drinking patterns quiz, men have an increased risk of a ...

424

Questions and Answers about TB  

MedlinePLUS

... TB Print page ? Listen to audio/Podcast Espańol (Spanish) Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Laws Publications & Products Fact Sheets General Fact sheets - Spanish TB - General Information The Difference Between Latent TB ...

425

Medical Questions? Medline has Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the electronic version of "Index Medicus," Medline is the world's largest collection of published medical knowledge. Discussion includes accessing Medline (cost-free) with a Web browser, librarians as links between patients and physicians; and examples of Medline searches. (AEF)

Modlin, Melanie

1998-01-01

426

Learn to Answer Tough Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... you were tempted to try alcohol and why underage drinking is dangerous. You could even give your child ... why can’t I? Remind your child that underage drinking is against the law – for good reason. Point ...

427

Get Your Medicare Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... and through your State Health Insurance Assistance Program (SHIP). SHIPs are state programs that get money from the ... local health insurance counseling to people with Medicare. SHIPs are independent and not connected to any insurance ...

428

Questions and Answers about PKU  

MedlinePLUS

... Protein Diet and Hair Falling Out PKU and Aggression PKU and Arm Twitching Vomiting PKU Formula PKU ... your dietitian for advice on formula. PKU and Aggression Q. Is there a relationship between PKU and ...

429

Folic Acid Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... defects of the brain and spine ( anencephaly and spina bifida ) happen in the first few weeks of pregnancy; ... materials » Q: I already have a child with spina bifida. Should I do anything different to prepare for ...

430

Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... and infection, particularly in the elderly. So, a flu shot given during one season, or an infection acquired ... Drug Resistance Cell-based Flu Vaccines Febrile Seizures Flu Shot Flublok Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal ...

431

Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students

Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

2010-01-01

432

Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students

Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

2010-01-01

433

Heterosexism in High School and Victimization Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined relationships between perceived heterosexism in high school policies and programs, social environments,\\u000a and victimization rates among lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning (LGBQ) students. Secondary analyses of Internet survey\\u000a data from a large cohort of LGBQ students (N = 2037; 76% male, 82% White; mean age = 16.07; 56% gay or lesbian; 28% bisexual; 16% questioning) yielded moderate correlations\\u000a between perceptions of

Daniel Chesir-Teran; Diane Hughes

2009-01-01

434

Merchandise Display, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This revised manual in basic merchandise display for trainees in distributive education, together with a separate answer key, contains 23 self-study assignments, each with training objectives, questions to answer, and student projects. Developed by a distributive education coordinator, these assignments cover a wide range of topics, from the…

Hatchett, Melvin S.

435

Student-generated questions during chemistry lectures: Patterns, self-appraisals, and relations with motivational beliefs and achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-generated questions are a central mechanism for learning, yet students' questions are often infrequent during classroom instruction. As a result, little is known about the nature of student questioning during typical instructional contexts such as listening to a lecture, including the extent and nature of student-generated questions, how students evaluate their questions, and the relations among questions, motivations, and achievement. This study examined the questions undergraduate students (N = 103) generated during 8 lectures in an introductory chemistry course. Students recorded and appraised their question in daily question logs and reported lecture-specific self-efficacy beliefs. Self-efficacy, personal interest, goal orientations, and other motivational self-beliefs were measured before and after the unit. Primary analyses included testing path models, multiple regressions, and latent class analyses. Overall, results indicated that several characteristics of student questioning during lectures were significantly related to various motivations and achievement. Higher end-of-class self-efficacy was associated with fewer procedural questions and more questions that reflected smaller knowledge deficits. Lower exam scores were associated with questions reflecting broader knowledge deficits and students' appraisals that their questions had less value for others than for themselves. Individual goal orientations collectively and positively predicted question appraisals. The questions students generated and their relations with motivational variables and achievement are discussed in light of the learning task and academic context.

Bergey, Bradley W.

436

An Audience Response System May Influence Student Performance on Anatomy Examination Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study integrated an in-house audience response system (ARS) in the human anatomy course over two years to determine whether students performed better on high-stakes examinations following exposure to similar interactive questions in a large lecture format. Questions in an interactive ARS format were presented in lectures via PowerPoint…

Hoyt, Amy; McNulty, John A.; Gruener, Gregory; Chandrasekhar, Arcot; Espiritu, Baltazar; Ensminger, David; Price, Ron, Jr.; Naheedy, Ross

2010-01-01

437

The Meaning of Student Inquiry Questions: A Teacher's Beliefs and Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores an American high school chemistry teacher's perspective on the meaning of student questions that originate from curiosity and engagement with the subject matter. Uses ethnographic analysis of a teacher's reflective processes and decision making approach and suggests that questions hold contradictory meaning as powerful, conflicting…

Rop, Charles J.

2002-01-01

438

Textbook Publishers' Website Objective Question Banks: Does Their Use Improve Students' Examination Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the findings of a survey of students' usage of the objective question bank section of an academic publisher's textbook website. The findings are based on a survey of 239 business and management undergraduates conducted using a quantitative research methodology. The results suggest that increased use of the objective question

Johnston, Scott Paul; Huczynski, Andrzej

2006-01-01

439

The Use of Microteaching Techniques to Train Student-Teachers in Stimulating Learners' Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the use of microteaching techniques to train student teachers in stimulating learners' questions. Research was carried out at the Gordon Teachers Training College, Haifa, Israel. A rating scale, including teaching patterns stimulating learners' questions, was prepared from the existing literature and the analysis of pilot…

Perlberg, Arye; Kremer, Lya

440

Evidence of epistemological framing in survey question misinterpretation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics students' views about what kinds of learning and knowledge-generating activities are expected in class, their epistemological framing, influences their reasoning and what they learn. In previous work, we observed that students' likelihood of correctly answering a kinematics question easily solved through common sense depended on whether preceding questions on the survey were designed to prime "sense-making" or schoolish "answermaking". To get insight into students' reasoning we collected 24 think-alouds. The think-aloud data indicate that some participants who incorrectly answered the question misinterpreted the physical situation it describes. On its face this observation might be seen as evidence that inferring answer-making from an incorrect answer lacks validity. However, analysis indicates that students misinterpret the question because of how they frame their approach to answering it. So, misinterpretation of the kinematics question is a signal of epistemological framing, not an impediment to seeing it.

Hutchison, Paul; Elby, Andrew

2013-08-10

441

Students' Questions and Discursive Interaction: Their Impact on Argumentation during Collaborative Group Discussions in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential of students' written and oral questions both as an epistemic probe and heuristic for initiating collaborative argumentation in science. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years from two countries, were asked to discuss which of two graphs best represented the change in temperature as ice was heated to steam.…

Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

2010-01-01

442

The Effect of Guiding Questions on Students' Performance and Attitude towards Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In this study, the effect of guidance on students' performance was investigated. This effect was hypothesized to be manifested through a reduction of cognitive load and enhancement of self-explanations. Aim: The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of guiding questions on students' understanding of statistics. Sample and…

Bude, Luc; van de Wiel, M. W. J.; Imbos, Tjaart; Berger, Martijn P. F.

2012-01-01

443

To Risk or Not to Risk It: Student (Non-)Engagement with Seen Examination Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study explores students' perceptions of seen examination questions about topics not covered by the formal curriculum of a final-year economics module and of the associated group support sessions. Eight semi-structured interviews with a total of 13 students were analysed. Contrary to expectations, learners taking a strategic approach to…

Reimann, Nicola

2011-01-01

444

Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using…

Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

2013-01-01

445

Questioning the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

2010-01-01

446

The accuracy of inferring left ventricular volume from dimension depends on the frequency of information needed to answer a given question.  

PubMed

Left ventricular volume is an important variable in cardiovascular physiology. Because volume cannot be transduced directly, by necessity people measure one or more cardiac dimensions, then implicitly or explicitly estimate volume. Despite its common use, this practice has never been adequately justified. Previous validations of the use of left ventricular dimensions to infer volume have ignored the complexity of the relation between dimensions and volume, particularly over a broad range of hemodynamic states, and have not considered the frequency content of the volume signal needed to answer a given physiological question. We show that, strictly speaking, the assumptions underlying this practice are false. The resulting errors are of little practical consequence under many circumstances, whereas they can be quite important under other circumstances. We consider the frequency content of the volume signal to organize our examples and findings. In this general framework, we find that, for most assessments of volume change from dimension change at or below a frequency of about the heart rate (e.g., beat-to-beat end-diastolic volume), there is no limitation, provided all relevant dimensions are measured. However, for information at frequencies above the heart rate (i.e., rapid changes in volume or dimension), it is probably not possible to draw accurate conclusions about left ventricular volume from dimension data. PMID:3971498

Slinker, B K; Glantz, S A

1985-02-01

447

Modifying Meanings: Modality and Argumentation in Students' Written Answers to a Legal Problem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates certain modal choices made by law students when writing in an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) adjunct class, illustrating areas of concern and instances of successful development of ideas in extracts from first-year undergraduate law students' essays on a problem in tort law. The study compares judgements of teachers…

Allison, Desmond

1995-01-01

448

Unexpected Answers: Case Study of a Student Teacher Derailing in a Math Lesson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of a student teacher's lesson in multiplication for Norwegian second graders explored why the lesson did not succeed. Two interpretive frameworks were used to analyze the lesson: teaching as a complex cognitive activity and teaching as improvisation. The student teacher, Marte, believed in child-centered education and tried to create…

Nilssen, Vivi; And Others

449

Questioning Techniques of Fifth and Sixth Grade Reading Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asking questions is a powerful way for students to learn. They use questions as a "pathway to wandering and wondering" and as a tool to turn confusing curriculum into meaningful learning. In this way, "student generated questions may lead to more demanding study, particularly when the prescribed curriculum is too often preoccupied with answers to…

Bintz, William P.; Williams, Lynne

2005-01-01

450

Brief Report: Attitudes about Responding to Survey Questions Concerning Childhood Sexual Abuse by Hispanic Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In no studies have research participants been asked how they feel about answering questions concerning childhood sexual abuse. We have performed searches from two different search engines again and have found nothing published which specifically addresses this question in the way we have. A questionnaire about childhood sexual abuse was…

Ernst, Frederick A.; Salinas, Nancy I.; Perez, Natalie

2009-01-01

451

Elementary students' responses to questions about plant identification: Response strategies in children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine sixth-grade students were asked to identify plants seen in a set of slides and examined in two outdoor field trips. When the students did not know the correct common name for a plant (e.g., oak, dandelion), they relied on a variety of response strategies to deal with their lack of knowledge. Three patterns of response emerged when students lacked knowledge of names for plants. Student responses may represent avoidance strategies: avoidance of admission of ignorance, avoidance of being wrong, or avoidance of giving a name more abstract than the common name (e.g., tree, wildflower). These strategies did not result in names that would be acceptable to a science teacher, but the strategies had the effect of hiding the students' lack of knowledge or preventing a wrong answer. The study demonstrated that students prefer to identify plants at the generic level (e.g., calling a plant oak rather than tree), which suggests that elementary students should be introduced to the concept of genus (e.g., oak, lily) before being introduced to the more abstract levels of the botanical classification scheme (e.g., class monocot, dicot).

Tull, Delena

452

Registering Students from Language Backgrounds Other Than English. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 025  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report seeks to alert administrators, school staff, and database managers to variations in the naming systems of other cultures; to help these groups accommodate other cultures and identify students consistently in school databases; and to provide knowledge of other cultures' naming conventions and forms of address to assist in interacting…

Marcus, Nicole; Adger, Carolyn Temple; Arteagoitia, Igone

2007-01-01

453

Lower College Costs and Improved Student Learning: Real Answers Missing from the Spellings Commission Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Secretary of Education's Commission on the Future of Higher Education too often focused on what's wrong with American higher education and too seldom offered real solutions to vexing problems. In this article, the author, as a Commission member, takes a look at how two issues in particular, high costs and inadequate student learning, might…

Zemsky, Robert

2007-01-01

454

The First College Journalism Students: Answering Robert E. Lee's Offer of a Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first class of journalism students ever assembled at a college or university enrolled at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in 1869-70. Studying Washington College's efforts shows that much of the promise and the shortcomings of this discipline were clearly evident more than 125 years ago. During the 1700s and 1800s the…

Mirando, Joseph A.

455

What Is a Reasonable Answer? Ways for Students to Investigate and Develop Their Number Sense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although number sense is difficult to define, it involves having a good intuition about numbers and their relationships, including the ability to have a "feel" for the relative size of numbers and to make reasonable estimations. Students with good number sense typically recognise the relative magnitude of numbers, appreciate the effect of…

Muir, Tracey

2012-01-01

456

Using IF-AT Based Questions to Reinforce Lectures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Short sets of multiple choice questions that require students to apply course concepts to new situations or circumstances are used as an active learning exercise in lecture settings. Answer keys in the form of IF-AT scratch-off sheets are provided so students have instant feedback once their group has decided on an answer.

Kirkby, Kent

457

When Web Sites Post Test Answers, Professors Worry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several Web sites have emerged in recent years that encourage students to upload old exams to build a bank of test questions and answers that can be consulted by other students. This article reports that some professors have raised concerns about these sites, arguing that these could be used to cheat, especially if professors reuse old tests.…

Young, Jeffrey R.

2008-01-01

458

Student Interaction Characteristics during Collaborative Group Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used collaborative testing in a veterinary physiology course (65 students) to answer the following questions: 1) do students with individual correct responses or students with individual incorrect responses change their answers during group testing? and 2) do high-performing students make the decisions, that is, are low-performing students

Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2009-01-01

459

Algorithmic, LOCS and HOCS (Chemistry) Exam Questions: Performance and Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the performance of freshmen biology and physics-mathematics majors and chemistry majors as well as pre- and in-service chemistry teachers at two Israeli universities on algorithmic (ALG), lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) chemistry exam questions. Finds that students in both universities…

Zoller, Uri

2002-01-01

460

Critical Questions and Argument Stratagems: A Framework for Enhancing and Analyzing Students' Reasoning Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the concepts of "critical questions" (from D. N. Walton, 1996) and "integrative" and "refutational argument stratagems" as an approach for teaching argumentation and critical thinking. A study was conducted for 6 months in 3 sections of a 7th-grade social studies classroom in which 30 students discussed and wrote about…

Nussbaum, E. Michael; Edwards, Ordene V.

2011-01-01

461

School Counselors and Social Justice Advocacy for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) students often face considerable isolation, discrimination, and violence at school, which can exacerbate the acute psychosocial and academic problems they already encounter. The purpose of this article is to introduce gay-straight alliances (GSAs) as a social justice and advocacy approach…

Bidell, Markus P.

2011-01-01

462

Peer Instruction Enhanced Student Performance on Qualitative Problem-Solving Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tested the hypothesis that peer instruction enhances student performance on qualitative problem-solving questions. To test this hypothesis, qualitative problems were included in a peer instruction format during our Physiology course. Each class of 90 min was divided into four to six short segments of 15 to 20 min each. Each short segment was…

Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

2006-01-01

463

Urban Service Providers' Perspectives on School Responses to Gay, Lesbian, and Questioning Students: An Exploratory Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives regarding bullying of gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were obtained from 16 school and community service providers in this exploratory study. Insights were gained regarding in-school responses to homophobic bullying threats beyond traditional punishments (e.g., suspension). Barriers to developing safe schools for GLQ…

Varjas, Kris; Graybill, Emily; Mahan, Will; Meyers, Joel; Dew, Brian; Marshall, Megan; Singh, Anneliese; Birckbichler, Lamar

2007-01-01

464

Critical Questions and Argument Stratagems: A Framework for Enhancing and Analyzing Students' Reasoning Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the concepts of critical questions (from D. N. Walton, 1996) and integrative and refutational argument stratagems as an approach for teaching argumentation and critical thinking. A study was conducted for 6 months in 3 sections of a 7th-grade social studies classroom in which 30 students discussed and wrote about current events. One section served as a comparison

E. Michael Nussbaum; Ordene V. Edwards

2011-01-01

465

Students' Comprehension of Science Textbooks Using a Question-Based Reading Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the heavy reliance on textbooks in college courses, research indicates that college students enrolled in first-year science courses are not proficient at comprehending informational text. The present study investigated a reading comprehension questioning strategy with origins in clinical research based in elaboration interrogation theory,…

Smith, Betty Lou; Holliday, William G.; Austin, Homer W.

2010-01-01

466

Ranking community answers via analogical reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the lexical gap between questions and answers, automati- cally detecting right answers becomes very challenging for com- munity question-answering sites. In this paper, we propose an analogical reasoning-based method. It treats questions and an- swers as relational data and ranks an answer by measuring the analogy of its link to a query with the links embedded in previous

Xudong Tu; Xin-jing Wang; Dan Feng; Lei Zhang

2009-01-01

467

Society for College Science Teachers: Grade Inflation -- Is Ranking Students the Answer?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, several solutions have been proposed at various institutions nationwide to curb the phenomena of "grade inflation". Solutions include limiting the number of A's awarded, converting to a +/- system, publishing the class GPA next to each grade, or publishing an index based on the grades typically awarded in the class (Johnson 2003). With the many variations, exceptions and ranking systems being debated, the fundamental issue remains, whether students should be ranked as a means to contend with the effects of grade inflation.

French, Donald P.

2005-05-01

468

Improving Learning in Computer-Based Instruction through Questioning and Grouping Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the comparative effects of adjunct questions, student self-generated questions, and note taking on learning from a multimedia database. High school students worked individually or in cooperative dyads on a computer-based multimedia unit using a study guide to answer either adjunct questions, generate self-questions, or take…

Niemczyk, Mary; Savenye, Wilhelmina

2010-01-01

469

Four Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

2013-01-01

470

Looming Questions in Performance Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

Gratz, Donald B.

2010-01-01

471

On the Uncertainty of Conservation: Responses to Misleading Conservation Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies of preadolescents and college students found that many children and adults failed to give logically correct answers when presented with misleading weight conservation questions. The results show the importance of suggestibility and context. (MDM)

Winer, Gerald A.; McGlone, Chadd

1993-01-01

472

Single-Concept Clicker Question Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students typically use electronic polling systems, or clickers, to answer individual questions. Differing from this tradition, we have developed a new clicker methodology in which multiple clicker questions targeting the same underlying concept but with different surface features are grouped into a sequence. Here we present the creation,…

Lee, Albert; Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Bao, Lei

2011-01-01

473

The effect of differing Audience Response System question types on student attention in the veterinary medical classroom.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of specific types of multiple-choice questions delivered using an Audience Response System (ARS) to maintain student attention in a professional educational setting. Veterinary students (N=324) enrolled in the first three years of the professional curriculum were presented with four different ARS question types (knowledge base, discussion, polling, and psychological investment) and no ARS questions (control) during five lectures presented by 10 instructors in 10 core courses. Toward the end of the lecture, students were polled to determine the relative effectiveness of specific question types. Student participation was high (76.1%+/-2.0), and most students indicated that the system enhanced the lecture (64.4%). Knowledge base and discussion questions resulted in the highest student-reported attention to lecture content. Questions polling students about their experiences resulted in attention rates similar to those without use of ARS technology. Psychological investment questions, based on upcoming lecture content, detracted from student attention. Faculty preparation time for three ARS questions was shorter for knowledge base questions (22.3 min) compared with discussion and psychological investment questions (38.6 min and 34.7 min, respectively). Polling questions required less time to prepare (22.2 min) than discussion questions but were not different from other types. Faculty stated that the investment in preparation time was justified on the basis of the impact on classroom atmosphere. These findings indicate that audience response systems enhance attention and interest during lectures when used to pose questions that require application of an existing knowledge base and allow for peer interaction. PMID:20576903

Rush, Bonnie R; Hafen, McArthur; Biller, David S; Davis, Elizabeth G; Klimek, Judy A; Kukanich, Butch; Larson, Robert L; Roush, James K; Schermerhorn, Thomas; Wilkerson, Melinda J; White, Brad J

2010-01-01

474

Questions and answers on the use of dabigatran and perspectives on the use of other new oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation. A consensus document of the Italian Federation of Thrombosis Centers (FCSA).  

PubMed

Dabigatran and other new oral anticoagulants (OAC) represent a step forward in stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). They indeed have been shown to be an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) without the burden of laboratory control. However, these new drugs compete with an effective and well-established therapy, thus bringing about a series of questions and doubts. In this report members of the board of the Italian Federation of Thrombosis Centers (FCSA) answer some questions every clinician might be confronted with. PMID:21946939

Pengo, V; Crippa, L; Falanga, A; Finazzi, G; Marongiu, F; Palareti, G; Poli, D; Testa, S; Tiraferri, E; Tosetto, A; Tripodi, A; Manotti, C

2011-11-01

475

Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Instructional Value of Analogies, Summaries and Answering Questions in Life Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meaningful learning is the fundamental process that underlies the acquisition of useful information and the construction of new knowledge. By creating meaningful relations, learners are able to organize the information in bigger and more organized chunks of information; an organization that reduces memory overload and increases processing…

BouJaoude, Saouma; Tamim, Rana

2008-01-01

476

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara; Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean

2010-12-02

477

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

478

Student-Generated Reading Questions: Diagnosing Student Thinking with Diverse Formative Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Formative assessment has long been identified as a critical element to teaching for conceptual development in science. It is therefore important for university instructors to have an arsenal of formative assessment tools at their disposal which enable them to effectively uncover and diagnose all students' thinking, not just the most vocal or…

Offerdahl, Erika G.; Montplaisir, Lisa

2014-01-01

479

Community College Student Success Courses: The Student Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores student success courses from the student perspective to answer three questions: What topics do students find the most useful? What teaching methods do the students find most helpful? How can these courses be customized to better serve the students? The purpose of this study is to interview students from a number of community…

Duggan, Molly H.; Williams, Mitchell R.

2011-01-01

480

Student-Posed Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of weekly reports,1 structured journals in which students answer three standard questions each week, they respond to the prompt, If I were the instructor, what questions would I ask or problems assign to determine if my students understood the material? An initial analysis of the results shows that some student-generated problems indicate fundamental misunderstandings of basic physical concepts.

Kathleen A. Harper; Eugenia Etkina

2002-01-01

481

Examining Teachers' Instructional Moves Aimed at Developing Students' Ideas and Questions in Learner-Centered Science Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered environmental biology unit. The unit materials included features meant to support teachers in eliciting and working with students' ideas and questions as a source for student-led investigations. We present three contrasting cases of teachers to highlight evidence that shows teachers' differing strategies for eliciting students' ideas and questions, and for developing their ideas, questions and questioning skills. Results from our cross case analysis provide insight into the ways in which teachers' enactments enabled them to work with students' ideas and questions to help advance learning. Consistent with other studies, we found that teachers could readily elicit ideas and questions but experienced challenges in helping students develop them. Findings suggest a need for more specified supports, such as specific discourse strategies, to help teachers attend to student thinking. We explore implications for curricular tools and discuss a need for more examples of effective discourse moves for use by teachers in orchestrating scientific discourse.

Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.

2012-11-01

482

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

483

Do Highly Gifted Students Really Have Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the question whether highly gifted students have particular school-related problems. To answer this question, 4 categories of gifted students are compared, consisting of above-average intelligent students (IQ between 110-119), mildly gifted students (IQ between 120-129), moderately gifted students (IQ between 130-144), and…

Guldemond, Henk; Bosker, Roel; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje

2007-01-01

484

The Effects of the Use of the Question Exploration Routine on Student Performance in Secondary Content Classrooms. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tenth in a series of studies investigating the educational context and outcomes for high school students with disabilities (SWDs), this study explored the use of a Question Exploration Routine as a means of enhancing the performance of students with disabilities in ninth-grade inclusive content classes. Participants were 134 students, with and…

Bulgren, Janis A.; Lenz, B. Keith; Marquis, Janet; Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.

485

Student/Parent Conferences: A New Generation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an approach to parent-teacher conferences that involves fifth graders as equal partners with their parents and teacher. Students update their portfolios for the student-parent-teacher conferences, ask and answer questions about their achievements, and discuss their work with their parents. Parents are expected to answer questions about…

Kasse, Stacy

1994-01-01

486

Driven to Distraction: Does the Infamous Earth Shadow Distractor Divert Student Attention in the Cause of the Phases of the Moon Question?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of the cause of the phases of the Moon is one that is well known to be a problem for astronomy students, with a large fraction thinking incorrectly that the phases are caused by the shadow of the Earth. I have typically repeated this question from the first exam in the two-semester Introductory Astronomy course, through the final exam of the second semester, for a total of 8 appearances. It occurred to me that the inclusion of the shadow distractor in these multiple choice questions may actually reinforce the misconception by repeatedly distracting the student to the familiar but wrong answer. I am running an experiment to see if this is happening. I am giving different forms of the question to half the class for exams 2 and 3 of the first semester, exams 1-3 of the second, with half the class not getting the shadow distractor. I then am offering the shadow distractor to the whole class for the two semesters’ final exams. The early results of this experiment will be discussed.

Caton, Daniel B.

2014-01-01

487

Playing Forty Questions: Responding to Justice Roberts' Concerns in Caperton and Some Tentative Answers About Operationalizing Judicial Recusal and Due Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chief Justice of the United States would probably have excelled as a negative debater in high school forensics competitions. Good negative debaters are, as my high school English teacher put it, “great point-pickers” in that they frequently challenge affirmative proposals with a series of “what if?” or “how about?” or “what would you do if?” questions designed to leave

Jeffrey W. Stempel

2009-01-01

488

If ‘Something Works’ is the Answer, What is the Question?Supporting Pluralist Evaluation in Community Corrections in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the paper are to present the argument for pluralistic evaluation, by outlining and assessing the various measures that have been and might be used in the United Kingdom, and to question the value of relying on reconviction rates. Most evaluation studies of offender programmes in the community and in prison have been based on single measures, mostly

Mark Israel; Wing Hong Chui

2006-01-01

489

Do Workshops in Evidence-Based Practice Equip Participants to Identify and Answer Questions Requiring Consideration of Clinical Research? A Diagnostic Skill Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence-based practice (EBP) requires practitioners to identify and formulate questions in response to patient encounters, and to seek, select, and appraise applicable clinical research. A standardized workshop format serves as the model for training of medical educators in these skills. We developed an evaluation exercise to assess the ability…

Wyer, Peter C,; Naqvi, Zoon; Dayan, Peter S.; Celentano, James J.; Eskin, Barnet; Graham, Mark J.

2009-01-01

490

A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in the District of Columbia. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 131  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment trends between 2002/03 and 2008/09 and achievement trends between 2006/07 and 2008/09 in the District of Columbia. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in District of Columbia public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and…

O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

2012-01-01

491

A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in Maryland. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 128  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes limited English proficient (LEP) student enrollment and achievement trends in Maryland. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of LEP students in Maryland public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage scoring at the proficient or advanced level) on…

O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

2012-01-01

492

A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in the District of Columbia. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 131  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment trends between 2002/03 and 2008/09 and achievement trends between 2006/07 and 2008/09 in the District of Columbia. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in District of Columbia public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and…

O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

2012-01-01

493

A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

2012-01-01

494

Promoting Pre-Experimental Activities in High-School Chemistry: Focusing on the Role of Students' Epistemic Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In high-school chemistry the pre-experimental phase of inquiry cycles often remains neglected. According to a procedural model, which is described in the text, this phase begins with an observation that stimulates students' prior factual knowledge, the formulation of a research question for further elaboration (epistemic questions), the…

Neber, Heinz; Anton, Michael

2008-01-01

495

The Answer Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

Feldman, Susan

2000-01-01

496

Guiding Students to the Right Questions: Adaptive Navigation Support in an E-Learning System for Java Programming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapid growth of the volume of interactive questions available to the students of modern E-Learning courses placed the problem of personalized guidance on the agenda of E-Learning researchers. Without proper guidance, students frequently select too simple or too complicated problems and ended either bored or discouraged. This paper explores a…

Hsiao, I.-H.; Sosnovsky, S.; Brusilovsky, P.

2010-01-01

497

Generating Students' Information Seeking Questions in the Scholar Lab: What Benefits Can We Expect from Inquiry Teaching Approaches?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physics teachers use experimental devices to show students how scientific concepts, principles, and laws are applied to understand the real world. This paper studies question generation of secondary and under-graduate university students when they are confronted with experimental devices in different but usual teaching situations: reading about…

Torres, Tarcilo; Milicic, Beatriz; Soto, Carlos; Sanjose, Vicente

2013-01-01

498

When Do Secondary School Graduates Go on to Post-Secondary Education? Research Question 2. Student Transition Project Highlights  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of this newsletter is Student Transitions Project Research Question #2: What is the nature and distribution of the transition of students from the kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) education system into B.C. public post-secondary institutions over a multi-year period? (For secondary school graduates of 2001/02 to 2003/04 and post-secondary…

Heslop, Joanne

2006-01-01

499

Examining Teachers' Instructional Moves Aimed at Developing Students' Ideas and Questions in Learner-Centered Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research has shown that orchestrating scientific discourse in classrooms is difficult and takes a great deal of effort on the part of teachers. In this study, we examined teachers' instructional moves to elicit and develop students' ideas and questions as they orchestrated discourse with their fifth grade students during a learner-centered…

Harris, Christopher J.; Phillips, Rachel S.; Penuel, William R.

2012-01-01

500

Open-ended questions: An alternative mode to assess the students' performance in concept development and use of scientific vocabulary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important reform movements across the nation recognize that improved science performance, language development, and alternative assessment are national priorities. This study examined the effect of two modes of alternative assessment on students' performance in in-depth concept development (IDC) and use of scientific vocabulary (VOC). The research questions asked for significant differences in students' performance in IDC and VOC across time

Maria Agairre-Ortiz

1998-01-01