Sample records for questions students answer

  1. Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty

    E-print Network

    Student Learning Commons Questions & Answers for Faculty What is the SFU Student Learning Commons? The Student Learning Commons (SLC), is an academic learning centre which provides peer-based assistance with library reference, computer assistance, and other student academic support services. SLC programs

  2. OSU Domestic Student Health Insurance Questions and Answers

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    OSU Domestic Student Health Insurance Questions and Answers OSU's Student Health Services Welcomes You! Here are some common questions and answers regarding OSU's Student Health Services as well as what you can expect with your OSU health insurance coverage. Does Aetna Student Health Insurance cover

  3. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  4. Reading Comprehension Student Template: Question-Answer Relationship

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    This template is an instructional tool that can be used to guide elementary students (grades 2-5) through the reading strategy of questioning. The template is based on the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) approach in which students classify questions according to type and then provide answers from text. The template was designed to be used with the Feature Story, The Dance of Life, by students in grades 2-5. It is a PDF document that can be copied and distributed to students.

  5. Hints for Students (and Examiners) on Answering MCQ Questions of the Multiple True/False Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biran, Leonard A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses some difficulties that medical students experience in taking exams containing multiple choice questions. Differentiates between multiple true/false type questions, in which several answers may be true, and one-out-of-four type, in which only one answer is correct. Provides tips for taking and making multiple choice tests. (TW)

  6. The Varieties of Student Experience--An Open Research Question and Some Ways to Answer It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Based on meetings of the Society for Research into Higher Education's Student Experience Network over the past three years, the genuinely open research question is posed whether there is one or more undergraduate student experience within English higher education. Answering this question depends on whether what is taught or what is learnt is…

  7. Evaluating Interactive Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Hersh

    This volume is filled with a variety of innovative approaches to helping users answer questions. In much of the research,\\u000a however, one part of the solution is missing, namely the user. This chapter describes evaluation of interactive question answering\\u000a with a focus on two initiatives: the Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) Interactive Track and studies in the medical domain.\\u000a As is

  8. CAT questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions.

  9. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  10. Question answering using constraint satisfaction

    E-print Network

    John Prager

    2004-01-01

    QA-by-Dossier-with-Constraints is a new approach to Question Answering whereby candidate answers ’ confidences are adjusted by asking auxiliary questions whose answers constrain the original answers. These constraints emerge naturally from the domain of interest, and enable application of real-world knowledge to QA. We show that our approach significantly improves system performance (75 % relative improvement in F-measure on select question types) and can create a “dossier ” of information about the subject matter in the original question.

  11. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Share Compartir Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers On this Page Questions about Bacteria, ... of antibiotic resistance. Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Q: What is antibiotic resistance? A: Antibiotic resistance ...

  12. Researching the Quest: Are Community College Students Motivated by Question-and-Answer Reviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavendish, Don F., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Any effort to assess the motivational techniques employed by community college faculty is complicated by the inter-connectedness of motivational techniques and teaching techniques, as improved teaching results in improved motivation. Nonetheless, this research poses a motivation-related question: Does the use of daily question-and-answer reviews…

  13. Predicting Best Answerers for New Questions in Community Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingrong Liu; Yicen Liu; Qing Yang

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Community question answering (CQA) has become a very popular web service to provide a platform for people to share knowledge.\\u000a In current CQA services, askers post their questions to the system and wait for answerers to answer them passively. This procedure\\u000a leads to several drawbacks. Since new questions are presented to all users in the system, the askers can not

  14. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  15. Automated question answering for clinical comparison questions 

    E-print Network

    Leonhard, Annette Christa

    2012-06-25

    This thesis describes the development and evaluation of new automated Question Answering (QA) methods tailored to clinical comparison questions that give clinicians a rank-ordered list of MEDLINE® abstracts targeted to ...

  16. Gehrels_Answers 311.pdf Student questions: Neil Gehrels colloquium on "Gamma Ray Bursts and the Birth of Black

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    Gehrels_Answers 311.pdf 1 Student questions: Neil Gehrels colloquium on "Gamma Ray Bursts a Gamma Ray Burst? Answ 1: The progenitor star that explodes to make the GRB is thought to be spinning habitable planet that might be near by the gamma ray burst? Answ 1: Yes, typical distance are ~10 billion

  17. Lexical validation of answers in Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Ligozat, Anne-Laure

    be given: Hypothesis: Yasser Arafat was Palestine Liber- ation Organization Chairman 2 Snippet: President Clinton appealed personally to Palestine Liberation Organization Chairman Yasser Arafat and angry of the question "Who was Yasser Arafat?" containing the answer given by a system "Palestine Liberation

  18. Nittler_Answers to student questions 414.pdf Student questions: Larry Nittler colloquium on "Exploring Mercury: Scientific Results from

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    on "Exploring Mercury: Scientific Results from the MESSENGER Mission" 4/16/14 Question 1: Since the heavier is unknown but it is not particularly higher than the other terrestrial planets. In fact, all the terrestrial surface samples? Yes!!! Question 2: What are the implications of having the higher level of Na in Mercury

  19. Blakey_Answers to student questions 314.pdf Student questions: Ronald Blakey colloquium on "Using Paleogeographic Maps to Portray

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    that are missing information are just far too great? No, this is not a problem. Question 1: Which geological time, and it's the area I know best. Question 2: You mentioned in a slide of Old Jurassic, that rivers drained: What discovery can be found by the study of the Colorado Plataeu that may influence not only your

  20. Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

  1. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  2. Rethinking Drinking: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... we will post answers to questions of general public interest. Please enter the characters you see in the box below, in order and separated by a space. This helps prevent automated programs from misusing this ...

  3. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  4. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  5. DICK'S HOUSE Questions and answers to frequently

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    DICK'S HOUSE FAQ Questions and answers to frequently asked questions at the Geisel School of Medicine Always identify yourself as a Geisel student when you contact Dick's House!! Updated: December 2013 #12;Dick's House FAQ Contents How do I find what I need quickly in this document? 2 Mental Health

  6. Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

  7. Question Answering Using Question Classification and Document Tagging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yllias Chali

    2009-01-01

    Question answering (QA) is a relatively new area of research. We took the approach of designing a question answering system that is based on question classification and document tagging. Question classification extracts useful information from the question about how to answer the question. Document tagging extracts useful information from the documents, which are used to find the answer to the

  8. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Alcohol Answering Questions About Underage Drinking Alcohol Advertising Who Can Help Reduce Underage Drinking, and How? Related Items What can you say to people who think teen drinking is not a serious problem? Despite the law, the statistics, and the science, some people still think teen ...

  9. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER

    E-print Network

    QUESTIONS & ANSWERS ABOUT LUNG CANCER Q: What are the early signs of lung cancer? How would I know I have it? A: Some of the early warning signs of lung cancer are: · A cough that doesn't go away what may be causing these symptoms. Q: How is lung cancer diagnosed? A: Your doctor may do one or more

  10. Answering the question, "what is a clinical nurse leader?": transition experience of four direct-entry master's students.

    PubMed

    Bombard, Emily; Chapman, Kimberly; Doyle, Marcy; Wright, Danielle K; Shippee-Rice, Raelene V; Kasik, Dot Radius

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the experience of students learning the clinical nurse leader (CNL) role can be useful for faculty, preceptors, staff nurses, and interdisciplinary team members who guide them. This article analyzes the experience of four direct-entry master's students in the first cohort to complete the CNL curriculum and to sit for the pilot CNL certification examination. Using action research methodology, the students worked with the clinical immersion practicum faculty and a writing consultant to develop the study purpose, collect and analyze data, and prepare a manuscript. The main theme that emerged was, answering the question, "what is a CNL?" Subthemes supporting the main theme involved coming to the edge, trusting the process, rounding the corner, and valuing becoming. The analysis confirmed the value the CNL offers as a new vision to nursing education and practice. The students offered suggestions for the CNL curriculum and practicum. PMID:21078501

  11. Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

    2005-01-01

    There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

  12. Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

    In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

  13. American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

  14. Lessons about Asking, Answering Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    Using the web-based lessons highlighted in this article, students learn how to pose questions before, during, and after reading nonfiction, fiction, and diagrams. This reading comprehension strategy is included in the literacy column of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a free, online publication for K-5 teachers.

  15. A Web-based Question Answering System

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Dell

    The Web is apparently an ideal source of answers to a large variety of questions, due to the tremendous amount of information available online. This paper describes a Web-based question answering system LAMP, which is ...

  16. Macalady_Answers 411.pdf Student questions: Jenn Macalady colloquium on "Proterozoic Underground: Searching for

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    sometimes find DNA sequences related to magnetotactic bacteria in some of our clone libraries, although have been tested other than the bacteria and hopanoids? Tested for what? Question 2: Are there any: Have you found types of bacteria that are anaerobic that existed in the Precambrian, if so what story

  17. Questions and Answers Related to Policy Issues about Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Exceptional Children Div.

    This document is designed to provide information to North Carolina administrators and teachers on policy issues related to students with disabilities. Policy letters from the U.S. Office of Special Education Programs and the Office of Civil Rights, as well as "Analysis of Comments and Changes" and "Notice of Interpretations on IEPs" of the Federal…

  18. Medical Amnesty Question and Answer Prepared by Rebecca Allen, MSU Student Health Services

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    drinking age law. These exceptions were codified under Public Act 125 and are commonly referred violation of the minimum legal drinking age if he or she: a) Voluntarily presents himself or herself, this concern has been alleviated. Students who are under the legal drinking age may now reasonably expect

  19. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  20. Probabilistic question answering on the web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

    2002-01-01

    Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

  1. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  2. What Can Be Learned from Previously Answered Questions? A Corpus-Based Approach to Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcin Skowron; Kenji Araki

    2004-01-01

    We present corpus-based approach to question answering, which en- ables our system to classify a question category, generate a query and verify answer candidates. The system uses the Internet to nd information required to provide an answer. The role of the corpus-based modules is to support the system with knowledge that provides the means to eectiv ely use previously answered

  3. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  4. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

  5. Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

  6. Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

    Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

  7. Get Answers to Common Questions About...

    Cancer.gov

    Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

  8. Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox

    MedlinePLUS

    ... QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox Download PDF version formatted for print (132 KB/2 pages) How effective is the smallpox vaccine in preventing monkeypox? Past data from Africa suggests that the smallpox vaccine is at least ...

  9. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  10. A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2010-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a…

  11. Building a question answering test collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

    2000-01-01

    The TREC-8 Question Answering (QA) Track was the first large-scale evaluation of domain-independent question answering systems. In addition to fostering research on the QA task, the track was used to investigate whether the evaluation methodology used for document retrieval is appropriate for a different natural language processing task. As with document relevance judging, assessors had legitimate differences of opinions as

  12. Ten questions and answers about superconductivity

    E-print Network

    Tian De Cao

    2012-11-13

    This work answers the basic questions of superconductivity in a question-and-answer format. We extend a basic hypothesis to various superconductors. This hypothesis is that superconductivity requires that the pairing gap locates around the Fermi level. On the basis of this hypothesis our calculations give the so-called three factor theory with which some key problems of the high temperature superconductivity are explained.

  13. Scaling question answering to the Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

    2001-01-01

    The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

  14. Scaling question answering to the web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cody Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

    2001-01-01

    The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

  15. The TREC8 Question Answering Track Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

    1999-01-01

    The TREC-8 Question Answering track was the first large-scale evaluation of systems that returnanswers, as opposed to lists of documents, in response to a question. As a first evaluation, it is importantto examine the evaluation methodology itself to understand any limits on the conclusions that can bedrawn from the evaluation and possibly to find ways to improve subsequent evaluations. This

  16. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  17. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  18. Overview of the TREC 2006 Question Answering Track

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hoa Trang Dang; Jimmy Lin; Diane Kelly

    The TREC 2006 Question Answering (QA) track contained two tasks: the main question answering task, and the complex interactive question answering (ciQA) task. In the main task, question series were used to define a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. In contrast to previous years, factoid and list answers were

  19. Using AOBP for Definitional Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junkuo Cao; Weihua Wang; Yuanzhong Shu

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This paper presents an integrated system for the task of definitional question answering. Firstly, we extract question-related\\u000a knowledge as much as possible which include 3 categories. The first is based on language model. We train our language model\\u000a on four different corpora. The second resource is the syntax dependency relations, which are extracted by Minipar. And the\\u000a third resource contains

  20. Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

  1. Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans

    E-print Network

    Question and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 September 3, 2013 Eligibility Q1 to readiness plans? A1 This solicitation is limited to readiness planning only for alternative fuels. Q2 In regards to PON-13-603 - Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans, is electricity used for transportation

  2. Children's School Research Questions and Answers

    E-print Network

    and run their own small scale studies at the Children's School. · In all cases involving direct in the Children's School, a parent must sign a consent form allowing the child to participate in approved researchChildren's School Research Questions and Answers 2012-2013 Who conducts the research? · The primary

  3. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  4. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  5. National Wetland Plant List Question and Answers

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    for the names included within the proposed list, National List of Vascular Plant Species that Occur in WetlandsNational Wetland Plant List Question and Answers May 2012 Q1: How will the updated list affect as a result of the changes to the updated plant list. Approximately 12% of the wetland plant indicator

  6. Questions and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans

    E-print Network

    Questions and Answers Alternative Fuel Readiness Plans PON-13-603 November 1, 2013 Eligibility Q1 The City of Davis is considering a partnership proposal with UC Davis in response to PON-13-603. Are campus and designating an authorized representative to sign (page 22 of PON-13-603). Application Q1 In the Scope of Work

  7. Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    : French "Internat" questions: learn answers by heart, no use for QA PZweigenbaum,APHĂ´pParis&ERM202 knowledge is about 7 years (2 years for biomedical knowledge) Continuous medical education Bibliographic in which order; which articles to read thoroughly; how thoroughly Failure of a seemingly appropriate

  8. Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    material online at medical schools Note: French ``Internat'' questions: learn answers by heart, no use knowledge) â Continuous medical education â Bibliographic databases (Medline, etc.) â Direct Web search P thoroughly; how thoroughly â Failure of a seemingly appropriate resource to cover the topic â Uncertainty

  9. Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Children answered 24 questions in 3 sections: · General knowledge ­ e.g. how many minutes month comes after August? Short-Term Tasks Children completed two computer tasks designed using Kinelab: · Sequencing: Children saw six shapes in succession, before having to indicate the order they were presented

  10. A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

    2010-09-01

    Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PMID:20853989

  11. 2011 Scholarship Awards Questions and Answers about Scholarships and Awards

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    2011 Scholarship Awards Questions and Answers about Scholarships and Awards What is the difference between scholarships and awards? The difference between scholarships and awards is that students apply for scholarships and are nominated for awards. At Cal State Fullerton, both scholarships and awards are a means

  12. Question Answering Using a Large NLP System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Elworthy

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionThere is a separate report in this volume on the Microsoft Research Cambridge participation in the Filtering and Query tracks(Robertson and Walker 2001).The Microsoft Research question-answering system for TREC-9 was based on a combination of the Okapi retrieval engine,Microsoft's natural language processing system (NLPWin), and a module for matching logical forms. There is no recentpublished account of NLPWin, although a

  13. Hazen_Answers 213.pdf Student questions: Bob Hazen colloquium on "The Mineralogical Co-Evolution of the

    E-print Network

    Shumway, John

    -Evolution of the Geosphere and Biosphere" 2/6/13 Thanks to all of you for some outstanding questions. Every one. Question 2: Could humans possibly "jump-start" a distant planet's biosphere to then influence mineral

  14. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  15. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2013-05-29

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  16. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  17. Overview of the TREC 2005 Question Answering Track

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M. Voorhees; Hoa Trang Dang

    2005-01-01

    The TREC 2005 Question Answering (QA) track contained three tasks: the main question answering task, the document ranking task, and the relationship task. In the main task, question series were used to dene a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. The nal question in the series was an ěOtherî question

  18. Questions about Driver Education and Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    Presented in question answer format, the paper answers concerns about driver education and handicapped students in North Carolina. The following questions are addressed: What is the procedure for enrolling handicapped students in driver education? How are parents involved in making decisions about driver education for their handicapped child? What…

  19. Trustworthiness and relevance in web-based clinical question answering.

    PubMed

    Cruchet, Sarah; Boyer, Célia; van der Plas, Lonneke

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems try to give precise answers to a user's question posed in natural language. It is of utmost importance that the answers returned are relevant to the user's question. For clinical QA, the trustworthiness of answers is another important issue. Limiting the document collection to certified websites helps to improve the trustworthiness of answers. On the other hand, limited document collections are known to harm the relevancy of answers. We show, however, in a comparative evaluation, that promoting trustworthiness has no negative effect on the relevance of the retrieved answers in our clinical QA system. On the contrary, the answers found are in general more relevant. PMID:22874315

  20. Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions

    PubMed Central

    Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist’s preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid–protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

  1. Model answers to lipid membrane questions.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, Ole G

    2011-09-01

    Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist's preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid-protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology. PMID:21610116

  2. Baum_Answers N12.pdf Student questions: Stefi Baum colloquium on "Turning Science and Engineering Education

    E-print Network

    Shumway, John

    a good picture. Effective evaluation is very difficult it turns out . Why Raspberry pi had been chosen among other controllers such as arduino for students to learn circuits and programming? Rasberry pi runs

  3. Named Entity Recognition in Question Answering of Speech Data

    E-print Network

    Aliod, Diego Mollá

    . This way we aim at high recall by al- lowing multiple interpretations of problematic strings that could and how it impacts on the accuracy of the final ques- tion answering system. AnswerFinder was adapted in the QAst track. AnswerFinder AnswerFinder is a question answering system that focuses on shal- low semantic

  4. Quantitative evaluation of passage retrieval algorithms for question answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Tellex; Boris Katz; Jimmy J. Lin; Aaron Fernandes; Gregory Marton

    2003-01-01

    Passage retrieval is an important component common to many question answering systems. Because most evaluations of question answering systems focus on end-to-end performance, comparison of common components becomes difficult. To address this shortcoming, we present a quantitative evaluation of various passage retrieval algorithms for question answering, implemented in a framework called Pauchok. We present three important findings: Boolean querying schemes

  5. Question/Answer Adjacency Pairs in a Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Katherine L.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the conversational structure of questions and answers in a performance appraisal interview between a manager and an employee. Results demonstrated that both the manager and employee used question-and-answer pairs to demonstrate their understanding of the expectancy to ask and answer questions and to provide sequential implicativeness and…

  6. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

  7. Overprompting Science Students Using Adjunct Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    1983-01-01

    The selective attention model was used to explain effects of overprompting students (N=170) provided with study questions adjunct to a complex flow diagram describing scientific cyclical schema. Strongly prompting students to answers of questions was less effective than an unprompted question treatment, suggesting that prompting techniques be used…

  8. VideoQA: question answering on news video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Yang; Lekha Chaisorn; Yunlong Zhao; Shi-Yong Neo; Tat-Seng Chua

    2003-01-01

    When querying a news video archive, the users are interested in retrieving precise answers in the form of a summary that best answers the query. However, current video retrieval systems, including the search engines on the web, are designed to retrieve documents instead of precise answers. This research explores the use of question answering (QA) techniques to support personalized news

  9. NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions & Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondel, A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; participants, NUFACT11

    2013-02-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large ?13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R&D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

  10. Answering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    Answering Clinical Questions with Knowledge-Based and Statistical Techniques Dina Demner physicians. Experiments on a collection of real-world clinical questions show that our approach significantly to explore complex question answering in the domain of clinical medicine. This article presents a system

  11. Learning search engine specific query transformations for question answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Agichtein; Steve Lawrence; Luis Gravano

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a method for learning query transformations that im- proves the ability to retrieve answers to questions from an informa- tion retrieval system. During the training stage the method involves automatically learning phrase features for classifying questions into different types, automatically generating candidate query transfor- mations from a training set of question\\/answer pairs, and automat- ically evaluating the candidate

  12. QuestionHolic: Hot topic discovery and trend analysis in community question answering systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongfeng Zhang; Qiudan Li

    2011-01-01

    Community question answering (CQA) has recently become a popular social media where users can post questions on any topic of interest and get answers from enthusiasts. The variation of topics in questions and answers indicate the change of users’ interests over time. It can help users focus on the most popular products or events and track their changes by exploiting

  13. Quality Circles: Answers to 100 Frequently Asked Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Donald L.

    This booklet contains frequently asked questions--and their answers--about "quality circles," a factory program first introduced in Japan in which workers participate voluntarily in quality control and management decisions through various means of communication. Following an introductory chapter, the remainder of the booklet answers questions

  14. Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Ronald E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the questions posed by reporters and the answers given by President John F. Kennedy in his formal press conferences. Concludes that questions that followed the rules for interviewing set forth by experts produced better answers than those that did not follow rules. (FL)

  15. ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS Guidelines for Asking Good Questions

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Diane

    involves critical thinking, and focuses on the substance or content of what a person has said. A question question because it involves no critical thinking on the questioner's part (however, these questions could) The critical thinking required in asking a good, substantive question involves making a careful analysis

  16. Connecting Students to Content: Student-Generated Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Students learn best by being actively engaged in the learning process. This essay describes a teaching technique where students generate their own questions about a course topic. This occurs at the beginning of each new section of a course. The instructor works with the class to answer the students' own questions throughout that section of…

  17. Question Answering in Biomedicine Pierre Zweigenbaum

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    : learn answers by heart, no use for QA PZweigenbaum,APHĂ´pParis&ERM202INSERMEACL2003NLP4QA The Task: Which for biomedical knowledge) Continuous medical education Bibliographic databases (Medline, etc.) Direct Web thoroughly; how thoroughly Failure of a seemingly appropriate resource to cover the topic Uncertainty about

  18. Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

  19. RACAI's Question Answering System at QA@CLEF2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Tufis; Dan Stefanescu; Radu Ion; Alexandru Ceausu

    2007-01-01

    We present a pattern-based question answering system for Romanian that participated in the Romanian monolingual task of the\\u000a QA@CLEF 2007 track. We aim to prove that working with a good Boolean searching engine and using question type driven answer\\u000a extraction heuristics and structural matching between the linkage representations of the question and candidate sentences,\\u000a one can achieve acceptable results (30%

  20. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  1. Negative answers to some positivity questions

    E-print Network

    Lesieutre, John

    2014-01-01

    We construct counterexamples to a number of questions related to positivity properties of line bundles on algebraic varieties. The examples are based on studying the geometry of varieties that admit pseudo automorphisms ...

  2. A Combination of Hand-Held Models and Computer Imaging Programs Helps Students Answer Oral Questions about Molecular Structure and Function: A Controlled Investigation of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michelle A.; Peck, Ronald F.; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Kallio, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging…

  3. Asking and Answering Questions during a Programming Change Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Sillito; Gail C. Murphy; Kris De Volder

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the specific kinds of questions programmers ask when evolving a code base and how well existing tools support those questions. To better support the activity of programming, answers are needed to three broad research questions: 1) What does a programmer need to know about a code base when evolving a software system? 2) How does a

  4. Semantic Decomposition for Question Answering Sven Hartrumpf1

    E-print Network

    Helbig, Hermann

    Semantic Decomposition for Question Answering Sven Hartrumpf1 Abstract. Appeared in In Proceedings to a simpler, revised question. We present six decomposition classes, which are employed for an- notating the 996 different German QA@CLEF questions from 2004 till 2008 and trigger different decomposition methods

  5. A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  6. WRONG QUESTIONS, NO ANSWERS JASON ROSENHOUSE

    E-print Network

    Rosenhouse, Jason D.

    questions are three in number: Is it wrong to mix science and religion, or is such mixing inescapable in this light, what could it possibly mean to mix science and religion? If the world's religious traditions science and religion: As with the supposed "scientific finding" that humans have no unique moral

  7. Answering Lord Perry's question: dissecting regulatory overfishing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josh Eagle; Barton H Thompson

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, in response to the distressed condition of the British fishing industry, the House of Lords held a series of hearings on “Fish Stock Conservation and Management.” Lord Perry of Walton posed the straightforward question of why regulation was not succeeding: If one takes all the management systems into account—TACs [total allowable catches, or annual quotas], number of days

  8. Questions and Answers For PON-10-604

    E-print Network

    Questions and Answers For PON-10-604 Buy Down Incentives for Natural Gas and Propane Vehicles: For purposes of this Program Opportunity Notice (PON-10-604), the OEM is defined as the entity a dealer outside of California? ANSWER: No. For purposes of this PON, an OEM must designate a dealer

  9. Comparing Improved Language Models for Sentence Retrieval in Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Merkel; Dietrich Klakow

    A retrieval system is a very important part in a question answering framework. It reduces the number of documents to be considered for finding an answer . For further refinement, the documents are split up into smaller chunks to deal with topic variability in larger documents. In our case, we divided the documents into single sentences. Then a language model

  10. Priberam's question answering system for Carlos Amaral, Helena Figueira,

    E-print Network

    Xing, Eric P.

    Priberam's question answering system for Portuguese Carlos Amaral, Helena Figueira, Andr´e Martins, Afonso Mendes, Pedro Mendes, Cl´audia Pinto Priberam Inform´atica Av. Defensores de Chaves, 32 - 3o Esq

  11. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Carter, D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

  12. Tie strength in question answer on social network sites

    E-print Network

    Panovich, Katrina Marie

    Asking friends, colleagues, or other trusted people to help answer a question or find information is a familiar and tried-and-true concept. Widespread use of online social networks has made social information seeking easier, ...

  13. Information Extraction for Question Answering: Improving Recall Through Syntactic Patterns

    E-print Network

    Jijkoun, Valentin

    , for questions like When was Gandhi born?, typical phrases containing the answer are Gandhi was born in 1869 and Gandhi (1869--1948). These examples suggest that text patterns such as ``name was born in birth date

  14. Information Extraction for Question Answering: Improving Recall Through Syntactic Patterns

    E-print Network

    de Rijke, Maarten

    , for questions like When was Gandhi born?, typical phrases containing the answer are Gandhi was born in 1869 and Gandhi (1869­1948). These examples suggest that text patterns such as "name was born in birth date

  15. Cervical Caps or Diaphragms: Answering Your Patients' Questions

    PubMed Central

    Donlevy, Mary J.

    1987-01-01

    Cervical caps and diaphragms offer a plausible contraceptive alternative for some women. Selection of patients, advantages, disadvantages, and fitting techniques are discussed in order to help answer those difficult patient questions. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21263962

  16. NOAA Climate Service -Questions and Answers Updated: April 20, 2010

    E-print Network

    NOAA Climate Service - Questions and Answers Updated: April 20, 2010 Contents Big Picture.............................................................................................................................................2 Q: What is the NOAA Climate Service?..................................................................................................................2 Q: What will a climate service do

  17. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2013-11-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  18. Automatic Acquisition of Semantic-Based Question Reformulations for Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamileh Yousefi; Leila Kosseim

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper, we present a method for the automatic acquisition of semantic-based reformulations from natural language questions.\\u000a Our goal is to find useful and generic reformulation patterns, which can be used in our question answering system to find\\u000a better candidate answers. We used 1343 examples of different types of questions and their corresponding answers from the TREC-8,\\u000a TREC-9 and

  19. Response to Intervention: Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monetti, David M.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; McAuley, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of the basic mechanisms of the Problem-solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI) framework will help educators address students' diverse learning and behavioral needs. It will also help educators who may view PS/RtI as a compliance matter rather than an informative educational process that helps children reach their…

  20. Overprompting Science Students Using Adjunct Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    Described is an investigation of the hypothesis that students presented with strong hints or prompts to answers of comprehension questions adjunct to a flow diagram would understand less than students presented with no prompts. Also described is the study of the hypotheses that a diagram-only treatment group would outperform the prompted group and…

  1. Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Questions about how plants die leads to climate change answers March 12, 2012 How trees die in drought key to plant, climate change questions How plants die during drought is one of the largest uncertainties in determining how plants will succumb to changing climate. 3:01 Tree Death Study's Climate Change

  2. Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

  3. Question-Answering-Technique to Support Freshman and Senior Engineers in Processes of Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Constance; Hacker, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    In two experimental studies, the influence of question-based reflection on the quality of design solutions was investigated. Students and experts with different know-how and professional experience had to design an artefact that should meet a list of requirements. Subsequently, they were asked to answer a system of interrogative questions

  4. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  5. Developing Good Clinical Questions and Finding the Best Evidence to Answer Those Questions

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Patricia B.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence based medicine (EBM) involves the integration of the best scientific evidence available with physician experience and patient preferences. One of the first steps in EBM involves developing a question based on issues encountered with patients or a disease and finding evidence to answer the question. This paper is a guide to plastic surgeons in how to begin the practice of EBM by developing clinical questions and finding evidence to answer these questions. PMID:20679843

  6. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  7. Improving comprehension of science content: Generating self-explanation questions and creating explanatory answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clelland, Peggie L.

    The emphasis on learning in content area classrooms is heavily dependent on remembering facts and memorizing definitions. Because of this, students often achieve shallow levels of comprehension and are deficient in the skills necessary to achieve deeper comprehension. Teaching students to generate self-explanation questions and answers related to teacher lectures and from reading text can improve comprehension. Students who attempt to explain what the content means understand it better and at a deeper level. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of teaching students to ask self-explanation questions as a means for improving comprehension. Eighth-grade students from three heterogeneous science classrooms participated in one of the treatment or comparison groups. The first treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions while the second treatment group was taught to generate self-explanation questions and to create explanatory answers using a rubric. The comparison group received their regular science instruction. Self-explanation question/answer participants scored significantly higher than the regular instruction group more often than the self-explanation question only group, on memory and essay measures. Analyses were performed with MANCOVA on all three groups' scores as a set. ANCOVA was used to determine if differences existed between groups on each of the dependent variables, and Bonferonni's post-hoc contrasts were used to determine where differences existed among treatment and comparison groups. Results revealed that students who were taught to generate self-explanation questions and/or to create explanatory answers outperformed the regular instruction students on some of the memory and essay measures. Additionally, teaching students a self-explanation strategy resulted in improved ability to respond to essay questions two weeks following the conclusion of the study compared to students who received regular instruction.

  8. 78 FR 69671 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment; Notice AGENCY: Office...Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment that were proposed...

  9. 78 FR 16765 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment; Notice AGENCY: Office...Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment to address several...

  10. Coping With Alternate Formulations Of Questions And Answers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Grau; Olivier Ferret; Martine Hurault-Plantet; Christian Jacquemin; Laura Monceaux; Isabelle Robba; Anne Vilnat

    We present in this chapter the QALC system which has participated in the four TREC QA evaluations. We focus here on the problem\\u000a of linguistic variation in order to be able to relate questions and answers. We present first, variation at the term level\\u000a which consists in retrieving questions terms in document sentences even if morphologic, syntactic or semantic variations

  11. The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

  12. MRCPsych examination technique: the short answer question paper.

    PubMed

    Trigwell, P; Williams, C; Yeomans, D

    Many candidates expect to pass the short answer question paper of the MRCPsych Part II examination using a straightforward regurgitation of facts. They are surprised by the need for good technique in order to do well in this paper. PMID:8907879

  13. Questions and Answers from the University Librarian April 30, 2012

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Questions and Answers from the University Librarian April 30, 2012 Why re-envision the Library is the role of the librarian in a re-envisioned library? Professionally-trained library staff, such as librarians and archivists, build library collections, make those resources discoverable, and teach

  14. A Multitude of Answers: Embedded Questions in Typed Inquisitive Semantics

    E-print Network

    Amsterdam, University of

    A Multitude of Answers: Embedded Questions in Typed Inquisitive Semantics MSc Thesis is formulated is based on inquisitive semantics: it is shown how the inquisitive conception of sentence meaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 T Y P E D I N Q U I S I T I V E S E M A N T I C S 9 2.1 Basic inquisitive semantics

  15. The Effects of Daycare: Persistent Questions, Elusive Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shpancer, Noam

    2006-01-01

    Despite nearly half a century of research on the effects of daycare on children, the fundamental question of whether non-parental daycare adversely affects young children has not been answered conclusively. This article explores the conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with daycare research and how the unique socio-historical…

  16. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM WPS Regarding Health Coverage Under the

    E-print Network

    QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM WPS Regarding Health Coverage Under the Medical College of Wisconsin of Claim language and file your claim with WPS Health Insurance, P.O. Box 8190, Madison, WI 53708 for processing. Contact WPS at 1-800-221-5632. Most medical providers outside of the U.S. will require payment

  17. Questions and Answers For PON-10-604

    E-print Network

    Questions and Answers For PON-10-604 Buy Down Incentives for Natural Gas and Propane Vehicles May a dealer/distributor for purposes of this PON and may reserve buy-down incentives if the following, as specified on pages 5-6 of the PON. · The actual sale must be made at a California dealership

  18. Soft pattern matching models for definitional question answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hang Cui; Min-yen Kan; Tat-seng Chua

    2007-01-01

    We explore probabilistic lexico-syntactic pattern matching, also known as soft pattern matching, in a definitional question answering system. Most current systems use regular expression-based hard matching patterns to identify definition sentences. Such rigid surface matching often fares poorly when faced with language variations. We propose two soft matching models to address this problem: one based on bigrams and the other

  19. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  20. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  1. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  2. Answering the Complex Question of "How Good Is Good Enough?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suskie, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Imagine that a student--let's call him Michael--has earned a score of 55 on an examination. How well did he do? Was his score good enough for him to pass the examination, or pass the course, or be deemed at least minimally competent in whatever the exam was assessing? Michael's score alone, in the absence of any other information, cannot answer

  3. Public Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland

    E-print Network

    Maryland, Baltimore County, University of

    records o hospital records o student records (public schools) o medical, psychological or sociologicalPublic Records Brief: Questions and Answers on Access to Public Records in Maryland As an entity provide public access to its records unless certain exceptions apply. The following is a brief summary

  4. Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Hersh; Lynetta Sacherek; David Hickam; Linda Rose; Charles Friedman

    Context: Despite the growing use of on-line databases by clinicians, there is very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse practitioner students to answer clinical questions and attempted to identify factors associated with that ability. Objective: Identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user satisfaction factors associated with

  5. Part 1(50%) Instructions: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed.

    E-print Network

    Huang, Haimei

    Part 1(50%) Instructions: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed. Q zi; its students party animals), higher education is a major societal player. The borders between%*fAO*3 1 f % N ~ f t a i443?-# 3 W% 2 2 *%B [%%%+I m#B 1. Summarizethe main ideas of the entire passage

  6. Questions & Answers on Senate Bill 2. An Invitation to School Improvement in North Carolina, 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Questions and answers on North Carolina's Senate Bill 2, the School Improvement and Accountability Act, are presented in this booklet. General information about governance, assessment, and funding is provided in the first section. The next section explains setting specific student performance targets in the form of performance indicators. The…

  7. 9 questions: the underlined 6 questions shall be discussed, for the other 3 questions the answer is enclosed here.

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    transfer & separation technology Räkneövningar / Classroom exercises 2014-2 25.3.2014 10.15-12.00 (Ri) kurs9 questions: the underlined 6 questions shall be discussed, for the other 3 questions the answer) and Reynolds number Re: 2 53 nd D h D d f dn P Remed/with),(Re, med ömrörarens varvfrekvens n (1/s

  8. (Circle your answer to each of these questions) Time Management

    E-print Network

    ? NUMBER OF A's and B's circled _____ Your Study Environment 1. Do you regularly study at the same time? 2 D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D A B C D (Circle your answer to each of these questions) Time Management 1. Do you make a Master Schedule for each semester? 2. Do you

  9. A Constraint Grammar Based Question Answering System for Portuguese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhard Bick

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a This paper describes a linguistic, NLP based Information Extraction (IE) system for Portuguese text. The system focuses on\\u000a the natural language Question Answering task (QA) and relies on full syntactic tree parses, exploiting both lexico-semantic\\u000a information, syntactic pattern matching and named entity subtyping. Context driven Constraint Grammar rules (CG) are used\\u000a not only for PoS disambiguation, but also to assign

  10. S.K. Worm - Answers to Questions on Soil & Stuff

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site explains the basic process of soil formation and describes some of the characteristics of soils for elementary school children. The information is provided in the form of 13 questions about soil, with the final questions addressing the issue of soil conservation. Once the student has read all 13 informational sections they are awarded a Soil Diploma.

  11. Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nahyun Kwon

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

  12. AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care. PMID:21256977

  13. E-Assessment for Learning? The Potential of Short-Answer Free-Text Questions with Tailored Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sally; Mitchell, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A natural language based system has been used to author and mark short-answer free-text assessment tasks. Students attempt the questions online and are given tailored and relatively detailed feedback on incorrect and incomplete responses, and have the opportunity to repeat the task immediately so as to learn from the feedback provided. The answer

  14. Post-conditioning: Promising answers and more questions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Volatile anesthetic agents have been used for decades in the peri-operative setting. Data from the past 15 years have shown that pre-injury administration of volatile anesthetic can decrease the impact of ischemia-reperfusion injury on the heart, brain, and kidney. Recent data demonstrated that volatile agents administered shortly after injury can decrease the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several questions need to be answered to optimize this therapeutic target, but this is a promising era of secondary injury mitigation. PMID:23176148

  15. Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

    1974-01-01

    An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

  16. PrimeAnswers: A Practical Interface for Answering Primary Care Questions

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, Debra S.; St. Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. Results of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

  17. The Answers to Questions That Teachers Most Frequently Ask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie Wofford

    This book presents a teacher's responses to various real questions asked by student teachers and beginning teachers. The nine chapters are: (1) "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing: Teacher Attitude"; (2) "Who, What, When, Where, and Why, Oh Why, Me?: Organization"; (3) "A Little Song, A Little Dance, A Little Quiz Tomorrow: Delivery…

  18. Rats answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenyi; Hohmann, Andrea G.; Crysta, Jonathon D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A fundamental aspect of episodic memory is that retrieval of information can occur when encoding is incidental and memory assessment is unexpected [1–4]. These features are difficult to model in animals because behavioral training likely gives rise to well-learned expectations about the sequence of events. Thus, the possibility remains that animals may solve an episodic-memory test by using well-learned semantic rules without remembering the episode at memory assessment. Here we show that rats can answer an unexpected question after incidental encoding in a hippocampal-dependent manner, consistent with the use of episodic memory. Rats were initially trained to report about a recent event (food vs. no-food) and separately searched for food where there was no expectation of being asked about the presence of food. To test episodic memory, rats were given the opportunity to incidentally encode the presence or absence of food and were unexpectedly asked to report about the recent event. Temporary inactivation of the CA3 region of the hippocampus with bilateral infusions of lidocaine selectively eliminated the ability of rats to answer the unexpected, but not the expected, question. Our studies suggest that rats remember an earlier episode after incidental encoding based upon hippocampal-dependent episodic memory. PMID:22633809

  19. Immediate Feedback and Opportunity to Revise Answers to Open-Ended Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examine the psychometric effects of providing immediate feedback on the correctness of answers to open-ended questions, and allowing participants to revise their answers following feedback. Participants answering verbal and math questions are able to correct many of their initial incorrect answers, resulting in higher revised…

  20. Student Questioning Educational Outreach

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    a greater understanding of what is going on in class Meta cognition- evaluating ones own learning prompts four times and evaluated their questions on a scale of 0-3(Minimal to High) using a rubric we had

  1. MURAX: a robust linguistic approach for question answering using an on-line encyclopedia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Kupiec

    1993-01-01

    Robust linguistic methods are applied to the task of answering closed-class questions using a corpus of natural language. The methods are illustrated in a broad domain: answering general-knowledge questions using an on-line encyclopedia.A closed-class question is a question stated in natural language, which assumes some definite answer typified by a noun phrase rather than a procedural answer. The methods hypothesize

  2. Extraction of Correspondences between Questions and Answers from Web Message Boards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Suzuki; Hayato Yokota; Hiroyuki Sakai; Shigeru Masuyama

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to extract a lot of correspondences between questions and answers from a Web message board automatically. We use Web message boards as information sources because Web messasge boards have a lot of articles posted by general users. We extract correspondences between questions and answers that can be used in question answering systems to support natural language

  3. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  4. Optical imaging and automated melanoma detection: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, R; Bono, A; Bartoli, C; Lualdi, M; Tomatis, S; Cascinelli, N

    2002-06-01

    Early detection and prompt excision of cutaneous melanoma is of paramount importance to improve patient survival, and the clinician should be aware of the clinical features that suggest the presence of a malignant lesion. The clinical diagnosis is mainly based on observation of the colour and shape of a given skin lesion. Unfortunately, evaluation of a pigmented lesion is to a large extent subjective and is closely related to the experience of the clinician. To overcome this problem, optical imaging techniques using different instrumentation (i.e. colour video camera, epiluminescence microscopy, reflectance spectrophotometry) and computer image analysis have been proposed in an attempt to provide quantitative measurements in an objective and reproducible fashion. The different procedures employed to perform the diagnosis automatically all have a common denominator: mimicking the eye and the brain of the clinician by image processing and computerized analysis programs, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity data reported in the literature suggest that the computer-based diagnosis of melanoma does not greatly differ from the diagnostic capability of an expert clinician, and is independent of the optical acquisition method employed to analyse the lesions. Most of the computer-processed morphometric variables useful in automated diagnosis are not recognizable nor can be objectively evaluated by the human eye, except that of lesion dimension. However, several questions should be answered before assessing the actual usefulness, including the potential and limitations, of computer-based diagnostic procedures. The purpose of this study was to briefly review the different kinds of instrumentation being used to diagnose melanoma, and to raise questions and whenever possible provide answers in an attempt to establish whether there will be a future for these computerized systems. PMID:12140385

  5. If bone is the answer, then what is the question?

    PubMed Central

    HUISKES, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, several scientists attempted to relate bone trabecular morphology to its mechanical, load-bearing function. It was suggested that bone architecture was an answer to requirements of optimal stress transfer, pairing maximal strength to minimal weight, according to particular mathematical design rules. Using contemporary methods of analysis, stress transfer in bones was studied and compared with anatomical specimens, from which it was hypothesised that trabecular architecture is associated with stress trajectories. Others focused on the biological processes by which trabecular architectures are formed and on the question of how bone could maintain the relationship between external load and architecture in a variable functional environment. Wilhelm Roux introduced the principle of functional adaptation as a self-organising process based in the tissues. Julius Wolff, anatomist and orthopaedic surgeon, entwined these 3 issues in his book The Law of Bone Remodeling (translation), which set the stage for biomechanical research goals in our day. ‘Wolff's Law’ is a question rather than a law, asking for the requirements of structural optimisation. In this article, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results of stress transfer in bones, it is argued that it was the wrong question, putting us on the wrong foot. The maximal strength/minimal weight principle does not provide a rationale for architectural formation or adaptation; the similarity between trabecular orientation and stress trajectories is circumstantial, not causal. Based on computer simulations of bone remodelling as a regulatory process, governed by mechanical usage and orchestrated by osteocyte mechanosensitivity, it is shown that Roux's paradigm, conversely, is a realistic proposition. Put in a quantitative regulatory context, it can predict both trabecular formation and adaptation. Hence, trabecular architecture is not an answer to Wolff's question, in the sense of this article's title. There are no mathematical optimisation rules for bone architecture; there is just a biological regulatory process, producing a structure adapted to mechanical demands by the nature of its characteristics, adequate for evolutionary endurance. It is predicted that computer simulation of this process can help us to unravel its secrets. PMID:11005707

  6. 29 CFR 2509.75-5 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...questions and answers, relating them...Index key to question prefixes D...d) of this question, such persons...in response to question FR-1. The...employees of a corporation designate the...qualified under the laws of more...stated in the answer to FR-6...

  7. Structural answers and persistent questions about how nicotinic receptors work

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Gregg B.

    2008-01-01

    The electron diffraction structure of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo marmorata and the X-ray crystallographic structure of acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP) are providing new answers to persistent questions about how nAChRs function as biophysical machines and as participants in cellular and systems physiology. New high-resolution information about nAChR structures might come from advances in crystallography and NMR, from extracellular domain nAChRs as high fidelity models, and from prokaryotic nicotinoid proteins. At the level of biophysics, structures of different nAChRs with different pharmacological profiles and kinetics will help describe how agonists and antagonists bind to orthosteric binding sites, how allosteric modulators affect function by binding outside these sites, how nAChRs control ion flow, and how large cytoplasmic domains affect function. At the level of cellular and systems physiology, structures of nAChRs will help characterize interactions with other cellular components, including lipids and trafficking and signaling proteins, and contribute to understanding the roles of nAChRs in addiction, neurodegeneration, and mental illness. Understanding nAChRs at an atomic level will be important for designing interventions for these pathologies. PMID:18508600

  8. An Analysis of Lyrics Questions on Yahoo! Answers: Implications for Lyric \\/ Music Retrieval Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Jo Cunningham; Simon Laing

    This paper analyzes 237 questions posted to Yahoo! Answers, a popular community-driven question and answer service. The questions are all natural language and are self-categorized by their poster as being related to music lyrics, and as such they provide a rich context for understanding lyrics- related information behavior outside the constraints imposed by specific lyrics retrieval systems. We categorize the

  9. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...following questions and answers relate to withholding...Amendments of 1992 (Public Law 102- 318, 106 Stat...respectively. List of Questions Q-1: What are...rollover? Questions and Answers Q-1: What are...securities of the employer corporation within the meaning...

  10. Selective Benefits of Question Self-Generation and Answering for Remembering Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined possible memory and metacomprehension benefits of using a combined question self-generation and answering technique, relative to rereading, as a study strategy for expository passages. In the 2 question self-generation and answering conditions (detail or conceptual questions), participants were prompted on how to…

  11. A weighted string pattern matching-based passage ranking algorithm for video question answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-chieh Wu; Jie-chi Yang; Yue-shi Lee

    2008-01-01

    Video question answering aims to pinpoint answers in response to user's specified questions. However, most question answering tech- nologies involve in integrating rich specific external knowledge such as syntactic parsers, which are often unavailable for many languages. In this paper, we present a new string pattern matching-based passage ranking algorithm for extending traditional text Q\\/A toward videoQ\\/A. Users interact with

  12. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  13. Use of social network sites for question and answer behavior

    E-print Network

    Panovich, Katrina (Katrina Marie)

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we look at the behavior of posting questions as status updates on popular social network sites like Twitter and Facebook. This question asking behavior is similar to the use of search engines, question and ...

  14. Getting Ready for the "School of the Future": Key Questions and Tentative Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Michela; Pozzi, Francesca

    This paper explores some key aspects of "today's school", as opposed to those that have characterized "yesterday's school", with the final aim of shedding light on "tomorrow's school". In this direction, the paper puts forward tentative answers to some key questions related to the new characteristics and roles of teachers and students (main actors of the learning process) and the new features/ potentialities of contemporary educational tools which, in turn, require the enactment of innovative pedagogical approaches and educational methods. The emerging picture of the present learning landscape helps in figuring out a future situation where learning possibilities are substantially increased.

  15. Extraction of Correspondences between Questions and Answers from Web Message Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Yokota, Hayato; Sakai, Hiroyuki; Masuyama, Shigeru

    We propose a method to extract a lot of correspondences between questions and answers from a Web message board automatically. We use Web message boards as information sources because Web messasge boards have a lot of articles posted by general users. We extract correspondences between questions and answers that can be used in question answering systems to support natural language sentence input. At first, our proposed method classifies messages of a Web message board into either questions or others. Next, our method extracts a set of root-node pairs from the thread tree of a Web message board, where we define the thread tree when the root is an article classified as a question, and nodes are articles classified as answer candidates. Our method finds correspondences between questions and answers using two clues, (1)similarity between their articles, (2)link count between their articles. We experimented the proposed method, discussed results, and analyzed errors.

  16. Accessing heterogeneous sources of evidence to answer clinical questions.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, E A; Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B; Seol, Y H

    2001-04-01

    The large and rapidly growing number of information sources relevant to health care, and the increasing amounts of new evidence produced by researchers, are improving the access of professionals and students to valuable information. However, seeking and filtering useful, valid information can be still very difficult. An online information system that conducts searches based on individual patient data can have a beneficial influence on the particular patient's outcome and educate the healthcare worker. In this paper, we describe the underlying model for a system that aims to facilitate the search for evidence based on clinicians' needs. This paper reviews studies of information needs of clinicians, describes principles of information retrieval, and examines the role that standardized terminologies can play in the integration between a clinical system and literature resources, as well as in the information retrieval process. The paper also describes a model for a digital library system that supports the integration of clinical systems with online information sources, making use of information available in the electronic medical record to enhance searches and information retrieval. The model builds on several different, previously developed techniques to identify information themes that are relevant to specific clinical data. Using a framework of evidence-based practice, the system generates well-structured questions with the intent of enhancing information retrieval. We believe that by helping clinicians to pose well-structured clinical queries and including in them relevant information from individual patients' medical records, we can enhance information retrieval and thus can improve patient-care. PMID:11515415

  17. Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

    This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

  18. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR THE "AT-RISK" EMPLOYEE

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    1 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS FOR THE "AT-RISK" EMPLOYEE The following are 21 questions and answers specifically for employees who have been placed "at risk" by their State Of Wisconsin employer of the information regarding at risk situations. What does it mean to be at risk? Employees may be designated

  19. Data-Intensive Question Answering Eric Brill, Jimmy Lin, Michele Banko, Susan Dumais and Andrew Ng

    E-print Network

    Ng, Andrew Y.

    . For instance, it is not difficult to match the question "Who killed Abraham Lincoln" with the text "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln," but it is more challenging to find the answer to this question the bullet that ended Abraham Lincoln's life." #12;The TREC corpus has considerably less answer redundancy

  20. Acquisition of Intraverbal Behavior: Teaching Children with Autism to Mand for Answers to Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Hollobaugh, Tatia

    2010-01-01

    Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2…

  1. ASQA: Academia Sinica Question Answering System for NTCIR-5 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12

    E-print Network

    Day, Min-Yuh

    ASQA: Academia Sinica Question Answering System for NTCIR-5 CLQA Cheng-Wei Lee12 , Cheng-Wei Shih1 , Shih-Hung Wu3 , Wen-Lian Hsu1§ 1 Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taiwan, R.O.C 2 C-C (Cross Language Question Answering from Chinese to Chinese) Task. Our system, the Academia

  2. Questions and Answers about AFTERSCHOOL CARE: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Afterschool Care, and answers the following questions about afterschool programs: (1) How does afterschool care help children?; (2) How…

  3. Web Question Answering by Exploiting Wide-Coverage Lexical Resources

    E-print Network

    Narasayya, Vivek

    are parsed, e.g.: "By 1832 Samuel FB Morse had invented the telegraph." Because the system knows where- ceding "had", thus: "Samuel FB Morse" For the given example, the system was able to find the correct, exact answer and the open proposition from above can now be completed: invent_272(Cognizer = "Samuel FB

  4. SPECIMEN ANSWERS TO INSURANCE/INDEMNITY QUESTIONS ON IRAS APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    on 01225 385129 Only use these answers if University of Bath is the research sponsor and it is not a drugs (Other insurance or indemnity arrangements will apply) and add: The University of Bath has arranged staff (including the Trust's responsibility for University of BATH employees acting in connection

  5. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers. In addition to answering questions about the screening tests, the PLCO asked questions about many aspects of the study participants’ health and collected biospecimens (blood and some tissues) to answer many other questions about cancer.

  6. Answering definitional question by dependency-based knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junkuo Cao; Xuanjing Huang

    2008-01-01

    Most current systems apply flat pattern and flat centroid words, which are extracted only by relative position to question target, to identify definition sentences. In contrast to the flat knowledge, we propose dependency-based knowledge, including dependency pattern and dependency centroid word, which are extracted by dependency relation to question target. Specifically, we use the improved ultraconservative online algorithm, binary margin

  7. Agree or Disagree? Cognitive Processes in Answering Contrastive Survey Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Mak, Pim; Sanders, Ted; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2011-01-01

    Survey designers have long assumed that respondents who disagree with a negative question ("This policy is bad.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale) will agree with an equivalent positive question ("This policy is good.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale). However, experimental evidence has proven otherwise: Respondents are more likely to disagree with…

  8. Answers to Sample Questions for the Chemistry Placement Exam

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    acid, is a strong acid. NH3, ammonia, is a weak base. In a solution of NaHCO3, sodium hydrogenF3H according to the following reaction? GeH4 + GeF4 4 GeF3H Answer a) 2.00 b) 4.00 c) 8.00 d) 16 the elements in the fluorine column are nonmetals. 5. Which of the following species is neither acidic nor

  9. Discourse Processing for Context Question Answering Based on Linguistic Knowledge

    E-print Network

    is Hawaii located? Q2: What is the state fish? Q3: Is it endangered? Q4: Any other endangered species? We endangered species in Hawaii. This example in- dicates that each of these questions needs to be interpreted

  10. Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions - Duration: 6:50.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

  11. More questions and Answers I've continued to be flooded with questions. Here are a few more responses

    E-print Network

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    23.4.14 More questions and Answers I've continued to be flooded, in the question we are given changes in a local temperatures. Using the three) Finally there is a specific problem with the Greenland cores in the last 10000

  12. A combined IR\\/NLP approach to question answering against large text collections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Gaisauskas; Kevin Humphreys

    2000-01-01

    We describe an approach to finding literal answer strings to natural language questions in large text collections. The approach involves linking an IR system with an NLP system that performs reasonably thorough linguistic analysis. The IR system treats the question as a query and returns a set of t op ranked documents or passages. The NLP system parses the question

  13. ES2A7 -Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III)

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Peter J.

    ES2A7 - Fluid Mechanics Example Classes Model Answers to Example Questions (Set III) Question 1 10610 40031.8 -- Ă?=Ă?= Ă? Ă? == APN RT d Question 2: Type of Fluid #12;Consider 2 identical vertical tubes are filled with the same height of fluid: A Newtonian fluid is used with tube X whereas a non-Newtonian fluid

  14. Using Separate Answer Sheets with Grade 3 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Thomas; O'Malley, Kimberly; Ragland, Shelley; Young, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the performance of third-grade students testing on answer sheets with those testing on machine-scored test booklets. The 1,832 students in the nationally representative sample were assigned at the campus level to complete the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition in 1 of 4 conditions: (a) Form A answer sheet, (b)…

  15. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

  16. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  17. Question Answering Techniques for the World Wide Web

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    ? QA Techniques for the WWW: Introduction Different Types of Questions Gone with the Wind (1939) was directed by George Cukor, Victor Fleming, and Sam Wood. What does Cog look like? Who directed Gone with the Wind? How many cars left the garage yesterday between noon and 1pm? What were the causes of the French

  18. Organizer Influence on Children's Answers to Questions of Physical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, James; Jones, Howard

    1972-01-01

    There were no differences in the types of responses given by children in response to the question What makes clouds move?'' whether they were interviewed by telephone, by a person in normal dress, or by someone wearing clerical dress. The responses were similar to those reported by Piaget. (AL)

  19. Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

  20. Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN

    E-print Network

    Agichtein, Eugene

    Learning to Find Answers to Questions on the Web EUGENE AGICHTEIN Columbia University STEVE (answers.- google.com) facilitate interaction with human experts. Authors' addresses: Eugene Agichtein (eugene@cs.columbia.edu), Steve Lawrence (lawrence@necmail.com), Luis Gravano (gravano

  1. An automatic question answering and knowledge summarization approach for Q&A services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    With regard to the drastic development of information technologies, the communication channels between enterprises and customers have become more and more complicated. Many enterprises have realized that electronic CRM mechanisms can provide efficient and cost?effective customer services. In order to automatically answer customer queries via contact centers, this paper proposes an integrated model with automatic question answering and knowledge summarization

  2. Recruiting Students into Nursing: Prior Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Opal S.

    1983-01-01

    Raises fundamental questions regarding student recruitment: (1) why recruit students into nursing? (2) what are the issues that determine whether a school should have a nursing program? and (3) what are students being recruited into? (JOW)

  3. 76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...Docket No. OP-1431] FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION [RIN 3064-ZA00] FARM...Questions and Answers Regarding Flood Insurance AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller...Reserve System (Board); Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC); Farm Credit...

  4. Questions and Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Reporters Media Contacts Questions & Answers about the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes (DPPOS) Study Page Content October 2009 What is the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)? The DPP was a randomized, ...

  5. 78 FR 44483 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...production systems that provide laying hens with access to the outdoors, including questions and answers...www.regulations.gov. IV. Electronic Access Persons with access to the Internet may obtain the draft guidance at...

  6. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  7. Brig. Gen. Richard F. Abel and Col. Natan J. Lindsay answering questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Brigadier General Richard F. Abel, right, director of public affairs for the Air Force, and Colonel Nathan J. Lindsay of the USAF's space division, answer questions concerning STS-4 during a press conference at JSC on May 20, 1982.

  8. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-D-0260...Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of...

  9. The E-Learning Question and Answer Book: A Survival Guide for Trainers and Business Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Allan J.

    This book answers more than 70 key questions that business managers and trainers ask about using e-learning in their company as a business tool. Chapters 1 and 3-11 are comprised of questions and answers related to these topics: what e-learning is all about; what e-learning costs; applying e-learning to the business; what today's e-learning…

  10. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION...6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Underpayments § 301.6621-2T Questions and answers relating to the increased...temporary). The following questions and answers relate to the increased...that was incurred by an S corporation, any deduction...

  13. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Questions and answers relating to the treatment...Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.165-13T Questions and answers relating to the treatment...the Act restates existing law applicable to...

  14. Actions, Answers, and Uncertainty: A Decision-Making Perspective on Web-Based Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    David Azari Computer Science & Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA 98195-2350 azari is an extended version of the conference article, D. Azari, E. Horvitz, S. Dumais, E. Brill. Web-based question

  15. Science Sampler: Thinking about students' questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jaclyn Turner

    2006-11-01

    Asking questions is a vital component in any classroom, but it is absolutely essential in a science classroom. As science teachers, we know that questioning plays a major role in the inquiry process and has a positive impact on students' learning. This article discusses the importance of questioning skills and current research on questioning techniques. In addition, this article will present a series of lessons that were implemented by the author to improve the questioning abilities of middle school students.

  16. Magna Carta at 800: Ten Key Questions Answered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Howard

    2014-01-01

    2015 marks the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta. For Americans, this iconic document is a formative element of our own legal and political heritage. This "Lessons on the Law" column offers an overview of the "Great Charter," why it is significant, and what students and teachers should know about it. The article also highlights…

  17. Ethanol-BDNF interactions: Still More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Margaret I.

    2008-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has emerged as a regulator of development, plasticity and, recently, addiction. Decreased neurotrophic activity may be involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in the adult brain and in the etiology of alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders. This can occur through decreased expression of BDNF or through inability of the receptor to transduce signals in the presence of ethanol. In contrast, recent studies implicate region-specific up-regulation of BDNF and associated signaling pathways in anxiety, addiction and homeostasis after ethanol exposure. Anxiety and depression are precipitating factors for substance abuse and these disorders also involve region-specific changes in BDNF in both pathogenesis and response to pharmacotherapy. Polymorphisms in the genes coding for BDNF and its receptor TrkB are linked to affective, substance abuse and appetitive disorders and therefore may play a role in the development of alcoholism. This review summarizes historical and pre-clinical data on BDNF and TrkB as it relates to ethanol toxicity and addiction. Many unresolved questions about region-specific changes in BDNF expression and the precise role of BDNF in neuropsychiatric disorders and addiction remain to be elucidated. Resolution of these questions will require significant integration of the literature on addiction and comorbid psychiatric disorders that contribute to the development of alcoholism. PMID:18394710

  18. Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions

    PubMed Central

    Accad, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance. PMID:24899737

  19. Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions.

    PubMed

    Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hollobaugh, Tatia

    2010-03-01

    Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2 participants. For 1 participant, tangible reinforcement resulted in increased frequency of correct answers, and direct prompting of correct answers was eventually conducted for the final participant. The IDKPTM response generalized to untargeted unknown questions with 3 participants. Results of person and setting generalization probes varied, but some generalization eventually occurred for all participants following additional training or interspersal of probe trials with training trials. PMID:20808492

  20. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  1. Where To Go For Answers Question Who to See Where to Go Contact

    E-print Network

    Julius, Anak Agung

    Where To Go For Answers Question Who to See Where to Go Contact Jeannie Steigler Sage 2106 x 6269 Archway x 6636 #12;Question Who to See Where to Go Contact Registrar Academy Hall 2000 level x 6231 Grades level x 6231 Undergraduate Admissions Admissions Staff Admissions Office x 6216 Undergraduate Research

  2. Data-Intensive Question Answering Eric Brill, Jimmy Lin, Michele Banko, Susan Dumais and Andrew Ng

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    . For instance, it is not difficult to match the question "Who killed Abraham Lincoln" with the text "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln," but it is more challenging to find the answer to this question the bullet that ended Abraham Lincoln's life." In Proceedings of the Tenth Text REtrieval Conference (TREC

  3. The Big Story: Ten Questions and Answers about the Booming Career Field of Journalism and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigma Delta Chi, Chicago, IL.

    Ten questions about careers in journalism and communications are asked and answered in this booklet. The questions are: Is journalism mainly newspaper work? What opportunities are there today? How is the pay in journalism? Are there incentives besides pay? What about working conditions? What about opportunities for women? What about advancement in…

  4. Mathematical Communication through Student-Constructed Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Ramakrishnan

    1996-01-01

    Discusses three types of student-constructed responses that use expressive rather than receptive modes of communication. These types are constructing questions given some information, constructing word problems for peers, and asking questions related to a problem. (MKR)

  5. "Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

  6. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in adults: more questions than answers?

    PubMed

    Aricň, M

    2004-07-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) may affect patients of any age but in adults the features of this disease are still poorly defined. Most reports are based on single-specialty experience and there are only a few describing relatively large series of patients. Although child and adult patients share several features of the disease, and may either have localised or disseminated disease, the proportion of cases with lung involvement is much higher in adults and is partly explained by cigarette smoking. Persisting uncertainty about the pathogenesis of LCH has certainly limited current treatment alternatives. In particular, no clinical trial has been conducted in adults so far and most information derives from description of one or a few cases, often reported retrospectively. On the basis of the background provided by the data collected in its International Registry, the Histiocyte Society is about to start the first prospective, cooperative adult LCH study, aimed at: (a) establishing a common platform for clinical evaluation; (b) testing in adult patients the efficacy of the best standard chemotherapy regimen for children-a combination of prednisone and vinblastine-developed by the Society's trials; (c) describing the natural history of the disease, the impact of cigarette smoking withdrawal and the efficacy of steroid monotherapy in pulmonary LCH. Research studies, ancillary to this trial, offer unique opportunities of addressing some of the open questions in LCH including: the genetic component of the disease as supported by evidence of familial clustering and chromosomal instability, the issue of 'LCH cells' clonality, the relation between pulmonary disease, cigarette smoking, and immune system polymorphisms that might increase individual susceptibility to LCH. A concerted joint effort between paediatricians and adult specialists could be the key to the development of insights into LCH in all age groups affected by this distressing and often debilitating condition. PMID:15196529

  7. Cerebrovascular disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: more questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Carolyn; Gatenby, Paul; Tuck, Roger; Danta, Gytis; Andrews, Colin

    2006-01-01

    Neurological syndromes occur in a significant number of patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. The optimal management for these patients however remains uncertain. Our study is a descriptive analysis looking retrospectively at 45 patients who presented to the principal tertiary referral centre in the Australian Capital Territory, with either cerebral arterial or venous thrombosis for which there was no obvious cause for their presentation when initially reviewed. The diagnosis was based on the clinical findings made by one of three neurologists attached to our centre. Radiological findings and the presence of either IgM or IgG anticardiolipin antibodies, IgG anti-beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies or a lupus anticoagulant were then documented. In this group of patients three subgroups were identified: 1. Individuals that fulfilled the Sapporo Classification Criteria 2. Individuals with transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies and 3. Individuals with persistently low positive antiphospholipid antibodies. The most interesting of these three groups are those individuals with transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. A potential cause for presentation was identified in only one patient of this group with documented infective endocarditis and bacteraemia. Comparison with the other two groups suggested that there was little in terms of clinical presentation, radiological findings or intercurrent risk factors for thrombotic disease to distinguish between them. With disappearance of antiphospholipid antibodies, the individuals within this group have not had further thrombotic events. Our observations emphasise the problems that continue to exist in relation to the occurrence of cerebrovascular disease in the context of antiphospholipid antibodies and the optimal management of these stratified groups. Our findings also raise an as yet unanswered question as to the signficance of these transiently positive antiphospholipid antibodies. In the absence of significant intercurrent risk factors our findings would suggest that in the group we describe that they are likely to be of clinical significance. PMID:16573816

  8. Automatically Acquiring Causal Expression Patterns from Relation-annotated Corpora to Improve Question Answering for why-Questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuichiro Higashinaka; Hideki Isozaki

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our approach for answering why-questions that we initially introduced at NTCIR-6 QAC-4. The approach automatically acquires causal expression patterns from relation- annotated corpora by abstracting text spans annotated with a causal relation and by mining syntactic patterns that are useful for distinguishing sentences annotated with a causal relation from those annotated with other relations. We use these

  9. Part II: Short Answer Questions. Write a brief, but complete answer to each question, confining your answer to the space provided.

    E-print Network

    Viola, Ronald

    cans) improve the efficiency of your fuel consumption (better gas mileage or hybrid car, better home your answer to the space provided. (8) 1. Coal is the major fuel used to produce electricity in the U. mechanical energy (energy provided by steam to turn the turbine) 4. electrical energy (energy produced

  10. Chinese Automatic Question Answering System of Specific-domain Based on Vector Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiqing; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    In order to meet the demand to acquire necessary information efficiently from large electronic text, the Question and Answering (QA) technology to show a clear reply automatically to a question asked in the user's natural language has widely attracted attention in recent years. Although the research of QA system in China is later than that in western countries and Japan, it has attracted more and more attention recently. In this paper, we propose a Question-Answering construction, which synthesizes the answer retrieval to the questions asked most frequently based on common knowledge, and the document retrieval concerning sightseeing information. In order to improve reply accuracy, one must consider the synthetic model based on statistic VSM and the shallow semantic analysis, and the domain is limited to sightseeing information. A Chinese QA system about sightseeing based on the proposed method has been built. The result is obtained by evaluation experiments, where high accuracy can be achieved when the results of retrieval were regarded as correct, if the correct answer appeared among those of the top three resemblance degree. The experiments proved the efficiency of our method and it is feasible to develop Question-Answering technology based on this method.

  11. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene E Harris; Avelin A Malyango

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe

  12. Elementary school teachers' techniques of responding to student questions regarding sexuality issues.

    PubMed

    Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A; Kirchofer, Gregg; Telljohann, Susan K

    2003-01-01

    Fifth- and sixth-grade elementary school teachers' (n = 277) techniques of responding to students' human sexuality-related questions were assessed. Few teachers (34%) reported receiving formal training in sexuality education. The most commonly asked student questions dealt with STDs, puberty, homosexuality, pregnancy, and abortion. Teachers' willingness to answer sexually-related questions in front of the class varied (73% to 14%) by content of the question. There were no questions on the questionnaire in which more than one in five teachers would choose not to answer. The most common questions the teachers identified they would not respond to dealt with topics such as abortion, masturbation, homosexuality, and issues about the male genitals. Finally, none of the questions was perceived by more than one in eight of the teachers as questions they would not be allowed to answer. PMID:12621718

  13. The five underlined questions shall be discussed, for the two other questions the answer is enclosed.

    E-print Network

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    and air can be expressed as yA = 2,53 xA, with acetone mole fraction in air yA and in water xA. a) What component. Svar/answer: 1.38 bar; yT = 0.387; yB = 0.436; yX = 0.177 Värme- och strömningsteknik / Thermal benzen (B), 40 %- mol toluen (T) och 40 %-mol xylen (X). Beräkna totaltrycket av gasen som är i jämvikt

  14. The Effectiveness of a Question-Exploration Routine for Enhancing the Content Learning of Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgren, Janis A.; Marquis, Janet G.; Lenz, B. Keith; Deshler, Donald D.; Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a question-exploration routine and an associated graphic organizer on students' ability to think about and answer complex questions. Participants were 116 students of diverse abilities in seven 7th grade classes. The effects of the routine were compared with the effects of a traditional…

  15. Analysis of the question–answer service of the Emma Children’s Hospital information centre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frea H. Kruisinga; Richard C. Heinen; Hugo S. A. Heymans

    2010-01-01

    The information centre of the Emma Children’s Hospital AMC (EKZ AMC) is a specialised information centre where paediatric\\u000a patients and persons involved with the patient can ask questions about all aspects of disease and its social implications.\\u000a The aim of the study was to evaluate the question–answer service of this information centre in order to determine the role\\u000a of a

  16. Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

    This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

  17. Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION

    E-print Network

    Questions and Answers About Kidney CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What is kidney cancer? Kidney cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the cells of the kidney It accounts for only about 2% of all cancers in the U.S. There are three main types of kidney cancer: renal cell

  18. The Use of Electronic Question and Answer Forums in Mathematics Teacher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Schuck

    Many mathematics educators share a view of mathematics as a social and cultural phenomenon and believe that the learning of mathematics concepts is developed and enhanced through the use of learning communities. Electronic discussion boards provide one avenue for supporting such social learning. This paper discusses the use of a Question and Answer section of a discussion board in a

  19. Olympian Parents Answer the Question of How Parents Contribute towards Their Child's Academic Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed

    2011-01-01

    How do parents contribute toward their child's academic productivity? This article analyzes studies conducted over the last 30 years on this topic. During these three decades a number of theories and theoretical frameworks have been developed to answer this fundamental question. There have been nine national studies published and six reviews of…

  20. The CSD–450,000 answers?…?but what are the questions?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. D. Samuel Motherwell

    2008-01-01

    A brief survey about the development of knowledge of crystal and molecular structure based on the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is given. The CSD may be considered as a database of answers to the question as to which polymorph will form under given crystallization conditions. The emphasis of research over the years has moved from molecular structural geometry, to intermolecular

  1. Answers to Commonly-Asked Questions Regarding the UF Cardiothoracic Patient Breach

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    a UF Cardiothoracic surgeon who sent patient social security numbers to a national database sponsored by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS). Disclosures of patient social security numbers have been madeAnswers to Commonly-Asked Questions Regarding the UF Cardiothoracic Patient Breach Q: What happened

  2. Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    Who Wants to Know? Question-asking and Answering Practices among Facebook Users Rebecca Gray1@umd.edu ABSTRACT Research has identified a link between Facebook use and bridging social capital, which speaks through which Facebook may help individuals mobilize these embedded informational and support resources

  3. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  4. Low-Level Annotations and Summary Representations of Opinions for Multi-Perspective Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Cardie, Claire

    Department of Computer Science Cornell University Intelligent Systems Program Ithaca, NY 14850, USA of import to the Intelligence Community which includes but is not limited to the CIA, DIA, NSA, NIMA, and NRO. #12;techniques to support the answering of opinion-based questions of the following sort: · What

  5. Questions and Answers About Female Breast CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION

    E-print Network

    Questions and Answers About Female Breast CancerCENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION What. What are the early signs of breast cancer? Some of the warning signs of breast cancer include: · A lump provides the best means of reducing the risk of dying from breast cancer. What is a mammogram? A screening

  6. A 3D Audio-Visual Animated Agent for Expressive Conversational Question Answering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-C. Martin; C. Jacquemin; L. Pointal; B. Katz; C. d'Alessandro; A. Max; M. Courgeon

    This paper reports on the ACQA (Animated agent for Conversational Question Answering) project conducted at LIMSI. The aim is to design an expressive animated conversational agent (ACA) for conducting research along two main lines: 1\\/ perceptual experiments (eg perception of expressivity and 3D movements in both audio and visual channels): 2\\/ design of human-computer interfaces requiring head models at different

  7. A Questioning-Answering Program for Simple Kernel Sentences (QUE2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Bill

    QUE2 is a recently devised, natural language, questioning-answering program written in LISP1-5. It deals in simple, kernel sentences and employs the theory that the semantic content of a sentence is the set of relationships between conceptual objects (represented by the words in it), which the sentence and its structure imply. The data base of the…

  8. Questions and Answers for March 8, 2012 PON11609: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure

    E-print Network

    1 Questions and Answers for March 8, 2012 PON11609: Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Renewable Hydrogen 1. What if a proposal meets (or exceeds) the renewable hydrogen content requirement through for renewable hydrogen, does there have to be a physical pathway, or can there be credits that can be traded

  9. Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below.

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Out of State Employee Report Complete this document if you answer no to both questions below their work outside of Montana. (This could be their state or another state or a foreign country.) This form must also be completed if a current employee changes residency status from Montana to another state

  10. Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention Answers the Most Frequently Asked Questions About Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention, Washington, DC.

    This booklet attempts to provide clear answers to many of the questions currently being raised about the abuse of drugs, and to assist Americans of all ages to inform themselves about this critical problem. Issued by the Federal Government, it contains statements by President Nixon and Jerome H. Jaffe, M.D., Director of the Special Office for Drug…

  11. A Rule-Based Semiautomated Approach to Building Natural Language Question Answering (NLQA) Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaushik Krishnasamy; Brian P. Butz; Michael Duarte

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a rule-based approach to natural language question answering that can be easily implemented for any domain. We discuss the framework in the context of a National Science Foundation funded project - Universal Virtual Laboratory (UVL). UVL is a virtual electrical engineering (EE) laboratory for able and disabled individuals to construct, simulate and understand the characteristics of basic

  12. Robust Question Answering over the Web of Linked Data Mohamed Yahya, Klaus Berberich,

    E-print Network

    are a user-friendly mode of tap- ping this wealth of knowledge and data. However, question answering SPARQL queries, with text predicates attached to triple pat- terns. Our solution is based on a novel growing wealth of structured data on the Web: large knowledge bases like dbpedia.org, free- base

  13. MAS329 TOPOLOGY MID-TERM TEST 2005 ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS.

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Bill

    MAS329 TOPOLOGY MID-TERM TEST 2005 ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS. The use of calculators is NOT permitted axioms that T must satisfy in order to be a topology on X. [3] (b) Suppose that T is a topology on X and Z X. Define the subspace topology TZ induced on Z by T and prove that TZ is, indeed, a topology

  14. Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding oF sexUal

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    A Q Answers to Your Questions For a Better Understanding oF sexUal orientation & Homosex is designed to provide accurate information for those who want to better understand sexual orientation and the impact of prejudice and discrimination on those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. What is sexual

  15. 2/25/2014 Page 1 of 4 PON-13-610 Questions, Answers, and Clarifications

    E-print Network

    2/25/2014 Page 1 of 4 PON-13-610 Q&A Questions, Answers, and Clarifications Natural Gas Vehicle Incentives PON-13-610 Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program California Energy Statistics on the remaining amount of funding available through PON-13-610 can be found at: http

  16. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Cost Share PIER Questions and Answers from the Geothermal Workshop

    E-print Network

    PON08011 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Cost Share PIER Questions and Answers from in nature and likely to be of value to all applicants for PON 08011. 1. What are the dates and requirements carefully in both the FOA topic area that you are responding to and the PON08011 solicitation

  17. Microsoft Word - App 2-4 Answers to Participant Questions.doc

    Cancer.gov

    1 Lung Screening Study Version 3.0 Manual of Operations and Procedures 11/15/00 Appendix 2–4 Lung Screening Study Answers to Potential Participant Questions Participation: 1. Why should I participate? The study is designed to determine

  18. Retirement Plan Questions and Answers What changes are being made to my retirement plan?

    E-print Network

    Carter, John

    a retirement plan as well as measures of sustained investment capability which were applied to the very largeRetirement Plan Questions and Answers What changes are being made to my retirement plan? Fidelity Investments has been selected as the recordkeeper for the University's retirement plan effective June 1, 2012

  19. Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities Solicitation

    E-print Network

    Questions, Answers and Clarifications Commercial Scale Advanced Biofuels Production Facilities biofuels production facility? A.1 An existing biofuels facility is an existing facility that, as of the application due date of PON-13-601, produces (or did produce) biofuels in California. Q.2 Must an eligible

  20. ProteinTomographyTM--answering prevailing scientific questions in therapeutic-antibody research and

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ProteinTomographyTM--answering prevailing scientific questions in therapeutic-antibody research the antibody-antigen complex and possible associated proteins look like. ProteinTomographyTM makes it possible assays. The resulting three-dimensional (3D) tomograms can be compared to visualize target conformation

  1. How to Evaluate Your Question Answering System Every Day ... and Still Get Real Work Done

    E-print Network

    Breck, Eric

    . Breck, John D. Burger, Lisa Ferro, Lynette Hirschman, David House, Marc Light, Inderjeet Mani The MITRE, light, imani}@mitre.org Abstract In this paper, we report on Qaviar, an experimental automated evaluation system for question answering applications. The goal of our research was to find an automatically

  2. Questions and Answers related to a Potential Child Care Center Closure Due to Government Shutdown

    E-print Network

    Questions and Answers related to a Potential Child Care Center Closure Due to Government Shutdown September 25, 2013 1. In the event of a Government shutdown will the NIST Child Care Center be open? No to a government-wide shutdown. 2. Will families have to pay tuition during a shutdown? Yes and No. The Parent

  3. Guiding Students to Answers: Query Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmazel, Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a guided navigation system built on the textbook search engine developed at Anadolu University to support distance education students. The search engine uses Turkish Language specific language processing modules to enable searches over course material presented in Open Education Faculty textbooks. We implemented a guided…

  4. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  5. Performance Improvement in Automatic Question Answering System Based on Dependency Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianxing; Yuan, Xiaojie; Yu, Shitao; Ning, Hua; Wang, Chenying

    Automatic Question Answering (QA) system has become quite popular in recent years, especially since the QA tracks appeared at Text REtrieval Conference (TREC). However, using only lexical information, the keyword-based information retrieval cannot fully describe the characteristics of natural language, thus the system performance cannot make people satisfied. It is proposed in this paper a definition of dependency term, based on the dependency grammar, employing the natural language dependency structure, as the improvement of the term, to support the typical information retrieval models. It is in fact a solution for a special application in XML information retrieval (XML IR) field. Experiments show that: dependency-term-based information retrieval model effectively describes the characteristics of natural language questions, and improves the performance of automatic question answering system.

  6. Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.

    2008-12-01

    Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

  7. Fermi Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Math Forum

    2001-01-01

    Fermi questions emphasize estimation, numerical reasoning, communicating in mathematics, and questioning skills. Students often believe that word problems have one exact answer and that the answer is derived in a unique manner. Fermi questions encourage multiple approaches, emphasize process rather than the answer, and promote non-traditional problem solving strategies. The a href= /workshops/sum96/interdisc/sheila3.html Fermi Questions Library/a features classic Fermi questions with annotated solutions, a list of Fermi questions for use with students, Fermi questions with a Louisiana twist, and Fermi activities for the K-12 classroom. A Louisiana Lessons Web Activity.

  8. 78 FR 55261 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...guidance for industry entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Answers (Revision 1).'' The Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012...

  9. 77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...guidance for industry entitled ``Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers.'' The Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012...

  10. Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.

    E-print Network

    EAT SMART Cancer Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T the information from this program. # I have or have had cancer. YES NO As you answer each question, think about

  11. CSShark Answers Frequently Asked Questions: The CSS Know-How Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MaKo.

    Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content. This product is not an adapted tool from print or programming; rather, it is a means of enhancing HTML. For users interested in learning more about this tool, this informative and well-constructed site answers some of those frequently asked questions regarding CSS. In addition, the site explains some of the basics of CSS, provides tips and tricks for tackling the problems with Netscape 4, offers a tutorial concerning positioning with CSS (CSS-P, Web design without tables), and gives various resource links to other related sites. In short, for those with questions concerning CSS and its functions, the CSShark is ready to provide answers.

  12. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  13. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  14. Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

  15. Verbal Paradata and Survey Error: Respondent Speech, Voice, and Question-Answering Behavior Can Predict Income Item Nonresponse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jans, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    Income nonresponse is a significant problem in survey data, with rates as high as 50%, yet we know little about why it occurs. It is plausible that the way respondents answer survey questions (e.g., their voice and speech characteristics, and their question- answering behavior) can predict whether they will provide income data, and will reflect…

  16. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  17. Using Student-Generated Questions for Student-Centred Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papinczak, Tracey; Peterson, Raymond; Babri, Awais Saleem; Ward, Kym; Kippers, Vaughan; Wilkinson, David

    2012-01-01

    In small groups, medical students were involved in generating questions to contribute to an online item bank. This study sought to support collaborative question-writing and enhance students' metacognitive abilities, in particular, their ability to self-regulate learning and moderate understanding of subject material. The study focused on…

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(a)(31)-1 - Requirement to offer direct rollover of eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... The following questions and answers relate to...of 1992, Public Law 102-318, 106...respectively. List of Questions Q-1: What... Questions and Answers Q-1: What...Trustee of XYZ Corporation Savings Plan...

  19. Developing Student Ability to Ask Scientific Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kaatje Kraft

    This activity is a two-part (three week) lab in which students initially develop a claim (non-scientific) and learn how to use evidence to support a claim. They then are provided with a scientific research question for which they need to make a claim supported with evidence from their own models (river/stream tables). Based on their results, they then ask a new research question, design the model, carry out their tests and report their results.

  20. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  1. Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

  2. Explorative search of distributed bio-data to answer complex biomedical questions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The huge amount of biomedical-molecular data increasingly produced is providing scientists with potentially valuable information. Yet, such data quantity makes difficult to find and extract those data that are most reliable and most related to the biomedical questions to be answered, which are increasingly complex and often involve many different biomedical-molecular aspects. Such questions can be addressed only by comprehensively searching and exploring different types of data, which frequently are ordered and provided by different data sources. Search Computing has been proposed for the management and integration of ranked results from heterogeneous search services. Here, we present its novel application to the explorative search of distributed biomedical-molecular data and the integration of the search results to answer complex biomedical questions. Results A set of available bioinformatics search services has been modelled and registered in the Search Computing framework, and a Bioinformatics Search Computing application (Bio-SeCo) using such services has been created and made publicly available at http://www.bioinformatics.deib.polimi.it/bio-seco/seco/. It offers an integrated environment which eases search, exploration and ranking-aware combination of heterogeneous data provided by the available registered services, and supplies global results that can support answering complex multi-topic biomedical questions. Conclusions By using Bio-SeCo, scientists can explore the very large and very heterogeneous biomedical-molecular data available. They can easily make different explorative search attempts, inspect obtained results, select the most appropriate, expand or refine them and move forward and backward in the construction of a global complex biomedical query on multiple distributed sources that could eventually find the most relevant results. Thus, it provides an extremely useful automated support for exploratory integrated bio search, which is fundamental for Life Science data driven knowledge discovery. PMID:24564278

  3. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  4. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  5. [Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].

    PubMed

    Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

    2014-04-01

    A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching. PMID:24630169

  6. Question Vetting: The Process to Ensure Quality in Assessment of Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Udayshankar, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, medical schools have made new efforts to provide accurate, reliable, and timely assessments of the competence of trainees. All methods of assessment have strengths and intrinsic flaws. Written examination questions forms an important item in knowledge assessment and are typically classified according to whether they are open-ended or multiple choices. At present questions are prepared casually just before the examination and are not put through any quality check to correct any possible mistakes or ambiguity in the questions. This may lead to confusion or wrong understanding of the questions by the students which will be reflected in their answers as well. Question Vetting is the process when an expert person examines or evaluates and edits questions to make it free of any mistakes. The importance of vetting and re-vetting of examination questions cannot be overstated in the present scenario of medical education. There is a prescribed structure and protocol of question setting and vetting for examinations in medical education programmes. The areas that need to be examined during question vetting are for technical accuracy, content level and language aspects. The use of the prescribed structure and protocol of question vetting ensures a consistently high standard of question presentation during examinations which will help the students to understand the questions better and to answer them correctly. This article is intended to highlight the importance of introducing question vetting in our medical education scenario in order to improve the quality of assessment of medical students. PMID:25386509

  7. Question vetting: the process to ensure quality in assessment of medical students.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S; Udayshankar, P M

    2014-09-01

    Over the past decade, medical schools have made new efforts to provide accurate, reliable, and timely assessments of the competence of trainees. All methods of assessment have strengths and intrinsic flaws. Written examination questions forms an important item in knowledge assessment and are typically classified according to whether they are open-ended or multiple choices. At present questions are prepared casually just before the examination and are not put through any quality check to correct any possible mistakes or ambiguity in the questions. This may lead to confusion or wrong understanding of the questions by the students which will be reflected in their answers as well. Question Vetting is the process when an expert person examines or evaluates and edits questions to make it free of any mistakes. The importance of vetting and re-vetting of examination questions cannot be overstated in the present scenario of medical education. There is a prescribed structure and protocol of question setting and vetting for examinations in medical education programmes. The areas that need to be examined during question vetting are for technical accuracy, content level and language aspects. The use of the prescribed structure and protocol of question vetting ensures a consistently high standard of question presentation during examinations which will help the students to understand the questions better and to answer them correctly. This article is intended to highlight the importance of introducing question vetting in our medical education scenario in order to improve the quality of assessment of medical students. PMID:25386509

  8. Learning Biology through Research Papers: A Stimulus for Question-Asking by High-School Students

    PubMed Central

    Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2003-01-01

    Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers suitable for high-school students. Since a scientific paper poses a research question, demonstrates the events that led to the answer, and poses new questions, we attempted to examine the effect of studying through research papers on students' ability to pose questions. Students were asked before, during, and after instruction what they found interesting to know about embryonic development. In addition, we monitored students' questions, which were asked orally during the lessons. Questions were scored according to three categories: properties, comparisons, and causal relationships. We found that before learning through research papers, students tend to ask only questions of the properties category. In contrast, students tend to pose questions that reveal a higher level of thinking and uniqueness during or following instruction with research papers. This change was not observed during or following instruction with a textbook. We suggest that learning through research papers may be one way to provide a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students and results in higher thinking levels and uniqueness. PMID:14673492

  9. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  10. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  11. Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy A Mirtz; Leon Greene

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In addition this paper aims to provide a step-by-step guide for chiropractors and osteopaths on how to ask and answer a clinical question using

  12. Web-Based Question Answering: A Decision-Making Perspective David Azari Eric Horvitz Susan Dumais Eric Brill

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, Eric

    Web-Based Question Answering: A Decision-Making Perspective David Azari Eric Horvitz Susan Dumais, Washington Redmond, Washington Redmond, Washington Redmond, Washington azari@cs.washington.edu horvitz

  13. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SCOPE OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...Publication of technology and exports and reexports of technology...Publication Question A(1): I plan to publish in a foreign...abroad? Answer: No. This export transaction is not...

  18. Reference Question Answered: Bibliographic Sources for the Ukrainian Periodical Press in the 1840’s: Encyclopedias, Bibliographies, Guides, and Library Catalogs

    E-print Network

    Giullian, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The author answers a reference question on the bibliographic sources for the Ukrainian periodical press from 1840-1850. Helpful publications include bibliographies, guides, and library catalogs that can be used to identify ...

  19. A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

    Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British…

  20. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  1. Generating Exact- and Ranked Partially-Matched Answers to Questions in Advertisements

    E-print Network

    Qumsiyeh, Rani; Ng, Yiu-Kai

    2011-01-01

    Taking advantage of the Web, many advertisements (ads for short) websites, which aspire to increase client's transactions and thus profits, offer searching tools which allow users to (i) post keyword queries to capture their information needs or (ii) invoke form-based interfaces to create queries by selecting search options, such as a price range, filled-in entries, check boxes, or drop-down menus. These search mechanisms, however, are inadequate, since they cannot be used to specify a natural-language query with rich syntactic and semantic content, which can only be handled by a question answering (QA) system. Furthermore, existing ads websites are incapable of evaluating arbitrary Boolean queries or retrieving partiallymatched answers that might be of interest to the user whenever a user's search yields only a few or no results at all. In solving these problems, we present a QA system for ads, called CQAds, which (i) allows users to post a natural-language question Q for retrieving relevant ads, if they exi...

  2. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  3. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

  4. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

  5. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

  6. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

  7. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...1604—Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555...President Carter signed into law the Pregnancy Discrimination Act (Pub. L....

  8. Teaching Critical Questions about Argumentation through the Revising Process: Effects of Strategy Instruction on College Students' Argumentative Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yi; Ferretti, Ralph P.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of self-regulated strategy development revising instruction for college students that targeted the use of argumentation schemes and critical questions were assessed in three conditions. In the first condition, students were taught to revise their essays by asking and answering critical questions about the "argument from consequences"…

  9. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS: EPA'S GUIDELINES FOR CARCINOGEN RISK ASSESSMENT AND SUPPLEMENTAL GUIDANCE FROM ASSESSING SUSCEPTIBILITY FROM EARLY-LIFE EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    March 29, 2005 EPA's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment And Supplemental Guidance from Assessing Susceptibility from Early-life Exposure to Carcinogens Questions and Answers The following questions ...

  10. Progressive Questioning: Improving Students' Critical-Thinking, Logic, and Problem-Solving Skills

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gian Gupta

    2005-01-01

    The senior-level course Water Pollution and Purification for environmental science majors at the University of Maryland-Eastern Shore requires students to use interdisciplinary knowledge, critical-thinking, logic, and problem-solving skills. Starting with a unit on surfacewater versus groundwater pollution, students acquire these skills through continuously answering progressive questions; they use audiovisual aids, do library assignments, and perform case studies. The process improved students' test performance and overall interest in addressing real-life problems.

  11. ``Aristotelian'' was given as the answer, but what was the question?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lythcott, Jean

    1985-05-01

    Students come to physics instruction, in Newtonian mechanics, with naive ideas about how and why things move; for example, many believe that force causes motion and, conversely, that in the absence of a force things are necessarily at rest. Moreover, such preconceived ideas interfere with the ability of students to learn, and function within, the Newtonian paradigm. These student ideas have been labeled ``Aristotelian,'' a catchy label that has rapidly become widely accepted. This paper shows that these student beliefs are not like those of Aristotle, questions the hypothesis that generated the label, and describes a danger, to the sound growth of knowledge, inherent in the use of theory-ladened nomenclature. The purpose of the paper is to suggest that the label be abandoned so that this important line of research, with its profound implications for teachers, may develop unhindered by the weight of incorrect, theory-driven nomenclature.

  12. Tips for giving a memorable presentation, part VI: the effective use of questions by a speaker, and answering questions from listeners.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2012-12-01

    Previous articles in this series have focused on tips for educators and leaders in giving a presentation, followed by articles on composing the talk and PowerPoint slides. This article focuses on how a speaker can effectively use questions to engage the audience and answer questions from the listeners, including members of the media. Additional comments will be given on how to give a clear presentation so that many questions will not be necessary. PMID:23154476

  13. Long-term follow-up of echolalia and question answering.

    PubMed Central

    Foxx, R M; Faw, G D

    1990-01-01

    A long-term follow-up of echolalia and correct question answering was conducted for 6 subjects from three previously published studies. The follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 57 months. In a training site follow-up, subjects were exposed to baseline/posttraining conditions in which the original trainer and/or a novel person(s) presented trained and untrained questions. Four subjects displayed echolalia below baseline levels, and another did so in some assessments. Overall, echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6% of the follow-ups. Five subjects displayed correct responding above baseline levels. No clear differences were noted in correct responding or echolalia between the trainer and novel-person presentations or between trained and untrained questions. In a follow-up in a natural environment conducted by a novel person, lower than baseline levels of echolalia were displayed by 3 subjects; 2 subjects displayed lower than baseline levels in some assessments. Two subjects consistently displayed correct responding above baseline, and 3 did so occasionally. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. PMID:2249974

  14. Problem-based learning: Using students' questions to drive knowledge construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

    2004-09-01

    This study employed problem-based learning for project work in a year 9 biology class. The purpose of the study was to investigate (a) students' inspirations for their self-generated problems and questions, (b) the kinds of questions that students asked individually and collaboratively, and (c) how students' questions guided them in knowledge construction. Data sources included observation and field notes, students' written documents, audiotapes and videotapes of students working in groups, and student interviews. Sources of inspiration for students' problems and questions included cultural beliefs and folklore; wonderment about information propagated by advertisements and the media; curiosity arising from personal encounters, family members' concerns, or observations of others; and issues arising from previous lessons in the school curriculum. Questions asked individually pertained to validation of common beliefs and misconceptions, basic information, explanations, and imagined scenarios. The findings regarding questions asked collaboratively are presented as two assertions. Assertion 1 maintained that students' course of learning were driven by their questions. Assertion 2 was that the ability to ask the right'' questions and the extent to which these could be answered, were important in sustaining students' interest in the project. Implications of the findings for instructional practice are discussed.

  15. The ContactFinder agent: Answering bulletin board questions with referrals

    SciTech Connect

    Krulwich, B.; Burkey, C. [Center for Strategic Technology Research, Northbrook, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    ContactFinder is an intelligent agent whose approach to assisting users is valuable and innovative in the following four ways. First, ContactFinder operates proactively in reading and responding to messages on electronic bulletin boards rather than acting in response to user queries. Second, ContactFinder assists users by referring them to other people who can help them, rather than attempting to find information that directly answers the user`s specific question. Third, ContactFinder categorizes messages and extracts their topic areas using a set of heuristics that are very efficient and demonstrably highly effective. Fourth, ContactFinder posts its referrals back to the bulletin boards rather than simply communicating with specific users, to increase the information density and connectivity of the system. This paper discusses these aspects of the system and demonstrates their effectiveness in over six months of use on a large-scale internal bulletin board.

  16. Recognizing Questions and Answers in EMR Templates Using Natural Language Processing.

    PubMed

    Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Carter, Marjorie E; Redd, Andrew; Forbush, Tyler; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew H; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2014-01-01

    Templated boilerplate structures pose challenges to natural language processing (NLP) tools used for information extraction (IE). Routine error analyses while performing an IE task using Veterans Affairs (VA) medical records identified templates as an important cause of false positives. The baseline NLP pipeline (V3NLP) was adapted to recognize negation, questions and answers (QA) in various template types by adding a negation and slot:value identification annotator. The system was trained using a corpus of 975 documents developed as a reference standard for extracting psychosocial concepts. Iterative processing using the baseline tool and baseline+negation+QA revealed loss of numbers of concepts with a modest increase in true positives in several concept categories. Similar improvement was noted when the adapted V3NLP was used to process a random sample of 318,000 notes. We demonstrate the feasibility of adapting an NLP pipeline to recognize templates. PMID:25000038

  17. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  18. Answering orientation questions and following single-step verbal commands: effect on aspiration status.

    PubMed

    Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M; Lisitano Warner, Heather

    2009-09-01

    In the acute-care setting patients with altered mental status as a result of such diverse etiologies as stroke, traumatic brain injury, degenerative neurologic impairments, dementia, or alcohol/drug abuse are routinely referred for dysphagia testing. A protocol for dysphagia testing was developed that began with verbal stimuli to determine patient orientation status and ability to follow single-step verbal commands. Although unknown, it would be beneficial to ascertain if this information on mental status was predictive of aspiration risk. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there was a difference in odds for aspiration based upon correctly answering specific orientation questions, i.e., 1. What is your name? 2. Where are you right now? and 3. What year is it?, and following specific single-step verbal commands, i.e., 1. Open your mouth. 2. Stick out your tongue. and 3. Smile. In a consecutive retrospective manner data from 4070 referred patients accrued between 1 December 1999 and 1 January 2007 were analyzed. The odds of liquid aspiration were 31% greater for patients not oriented to person, place, and time (odds ratio [OR] = 1.305, 95% CI = 1.134-1.501). The odds of liquid aspiration (OR = 1.566, 95% CI = 1.307-1.876), puree aspiration (OR = 1.484, 95% CI = 1.202-1.831), and being deemed unsafe for any oral intake (OR = 1.688, 95% CI = 1.387-2.054) were, respectively, 57, 48, and 69% greater for patients unable to follow single-step verbal commands. Being able to answer orientation questions and follow single-step verbal commands provides information on odds of aspiration for liquid and puree food consistencies as well as overall eating status prior to dysphagia testing. Knowledge of potential increased odds of aspiration allows for individualization of dysphagia testing thereby optimizing swallowing success. PMID:19263106

  19. Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-08-01

    Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed.

  20. Students' questions: a potential resource for teaching and learning science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Chin; Jonathan Osborne

    2008-01-01

    Students' questions play an important role in meaningful learning and scientific inquiry. They are a potential resource for both teaching and learning science. Despite the capacity of students' questions for enhancing learning, much of this potential still remains untapped. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to examine and review the existing research on students' questions and to explore ways

  1. Climate Change Science Instruction using a Model: Students Asking Quantitative Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.

    2004-12-01

    The act of asking a question is arguably the most important part of the scientific process as it is the starting point of the scientific inquiry. And while students learn much from asking questions, they are often reticent to do so in the class-room and more often than not the instructor asks the questions while the students answer them. Here we present results from an investigation of quantitative scientific questions asked by students in an undergraduate course about climate change science about one of the main processes driving climate and climate change: radiative forcing. This course is an inquiry-based course in which questions are explicitly solicited from students in different forms. One topic of relevance to the concept of radiative forcing (effects of clouds, greenhouse gases, aerosols and land-use changes on climate) is studied each week. Students, after much preparation and scaffolding, must produce a research-level question that can be addressed by an up-to-date, accurate radiative transfer model with which they have become familiar at the beginning of the course. Students must then run, analyze and present results from an experiment they design for the model to address their scientific question. Our presentation will address how the nature of students' questions evolved over the six weeks dedicated to the applications of the radiative forcing concept, based on weekly submitted individual questions and group's question. Our analysis will look at both individual and class asking-question characteristics. We will analyze the relationships between the individual questions and the quality of group's question and look at the influence of group dynamics on the nature and quality of the groups' questions.

  2. An Online Partner for Holocaust Remembrance Education: Students Approaching the Yahoo! Answers Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Alon; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Holocaust education has gained increased importance in recent decades and attention has latterly been directed to the role of the Internet within the field. Of major importance within the virtual space are Question and Answer communities. We investigated the interactions taking place within the Yahoo! Answers community following questions posted…

  3. Examining Eighth Grade Kuwaiti Students' Recognition and Interpretation of Reasonable Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alajmi, Amal Hussain; Reys, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This research documents Kuwaiti eighth grade students' performance in recognizing reasonable answers and the strategies they used to determine reasonableness. The results from over 200 eighth grade students show they were generally unable to recognize reasonable answers. Students' performance was consistently low across all three number domains…

  4. Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro-oxidant effects of dietary polyphenols observed in vitro have any relevance in vivo, especially in the potential anticancer effect of dietary polyphenols? Apparently, more carefully-designed in vivo studies are needed to answer these questions. PMID:22035889

  5. To appear in: Jess Aguilar & Andrei A. Buckareff (eds.), Philosophy of Action: 5 Questions, Automatic My answers to five questions on agency

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Automatic Press/VIP My answers to five questions on agency Joëlle Proust (Institut Jean-Nicod) EHESS & ENS, CNRS, Paris 1. Why were you initially drawn to theorizing about action and agency? I had been perturbations of agency awareness. At the beginning of the nineties, I was conducting research on such general

  6. Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good questions--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential questions that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…

  7. An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on

    E-print Network

    Redmiles, David F.

    Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues Poynter Center Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues http

  8. Using LQCD to answer questions about hadronic interactions: a perspective from a traditional nuclear theorist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    As computational resources increase and better algorithms are implemented, LQCD calculations of hadronic interaction observables become less of a pipe dream, and more of a reality, and will eventually become the status quo. One of the greatest strengths of LQCD calculations in the realm of low-energy nuclear physics comes from its predictive capability, as many hadronic systems not accessible by experiments can be calculated on the lattice. These calculations in turn have direct implications to nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, and nuclear astrophysics, as well as the broader nuclear physics community. Thus the import of LQCD on low-energy nuclear physics cannot be overlooked, nor understated. In this talk I discuss current and ongoing efforts to extract hadronic interaction parameters from LQCD, enumerating current difficulties placed by available computer resources and algorithm limitations. I will also talk about future possibilities coming from increased computer resources and algorithm development, giving examples of how such calculations can answer longstanding questions in traditional nuclear physics. Finally, I will discuss the role that national labs can and should play in the area of LQCD as applied to low-energy nuclear physics.

  9. Ten Common Questions (and Their Answers) About Off-label Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Burkle, Christopher M.; Lanier, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients. PMID:22877654

  10. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  11. Brief Report: Attitudes About Responding to Survey Questions Concerning Childhood Sexual Abuse by Hispanic Female College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick A. Ernst; Nancy I. Salinas; Natalie Perez

    2009-01-01

    In no studies have research participants been asked how they feel about answering questions concerning childhood sexual abuse. We have performed searches from two different search engines again and have found nothing published which specifically addresses this question in the way we have. A questionnaire about childhood sexual abuse was administered to a sample of Mexican-American female college students. Over

  12. Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

    This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"…

  13. Questions and Answers about Ten Formal Methods Pieter Hartel, Michael Butler, Andrew Currie, Peter Henderson, Michael Leuschel,

    E-print Network

    Walters, Robert

    Questions and Answers about Ten Formal Methods Pieter Hartel, Michael Butler, Andrew Currie, Peter Henderson, Michael Leuschel, Andrew Martin, Adrian Smith, Ulrich Ultes­Nitsche, and Bob Walters Declarative methods as follows: 1. One of us presented the rational reconstruction (sam­ ple specification

  14. NATURE CHEMISTRY | VOL 3 | NOVEMBER 2011 | www.nature.com/naturechemistry 831 There is no simple answer to this question,

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    There is no simple answer to this question, and it may depend on one's role in the peer- review process. An author probably hopes for a report that is returned quickly and is positive, or at least constructively critical the review, clearly stating how the work is viewed by the referee and highlighting any problematic

  15. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the...

  18. Template for NSF Data Management Plan In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    Template for NSF Data Management Plan In general, the data management plan should answer these two questions: 1) What data is generated by your project? 2) What is your plan for managing the data? 1 those posted on a website or made available to a public database. Describe your plans, if any

  19. Combining Peer Discussion with Instructor Explanation Increases Student Learning from In-Class Concept Questions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M.K.; Wood, W.B.; Krauter, K.; Knight, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Use of in-class concept questions with clickers can transform an instructor-centered “transmissionist” environment to a more learner-centered constructivist classroom. To compare the effectiveness of three different approaches using clickers, pairs of similar questions were used to monitor student understanding in majors’ and nonmajors’ genetics courses. After answering the first question individually, students participated in peer discussion only, listened to an instructor explanation only, or engaged in peer discussion followed by instructor explanation, before answering a second question individually. Our results show that the combination of peer discussion followed by instructor explanation improved average student performance substantially when compared with either alone. When gains in learning were analyzed for three ability groups of students (weak, medium, and strong, based on overall clicker performance), all groups benefited most from the combination approach, suggesting that peer discussion and instructor explanation are synergistic in helping students. However, this analysis also revealed that, for the nonmajors, the gains of weak performers using the combination approach were only slightly better than their gains using instructor explanation alone. In contrast, the strong performers in both courses were not helped by the instructor-only approach, emphasizing the importance of peer discussion, even among top-performing students. PMID:21364100

  20. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions. Q&A network tools can be an addition to existing information facilities in the field of OSH, but also to other healthcare fields struggling with how to answer questions from people in practice with high quality information. In the near future, we will focus on the use of the tool and its effects on information and knowledge dissemination. PMID:20969777

  1. Students' conceptions and reasoning models of the electric force and field related questions in the interviewed CSEM test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Saarelainen; A Laaksonen; P E Hirvonen

    This study explores undergraduate students' conceptions and reasoning models of electric forces and fields. It is based on their answers and explanations given in the interviewed CSEM test questions 6 and 13. The results indicate that the students are able to apply Coulombian force only in relatively simple problems, but they fail in using appropriate electric field models in cases

  2. Effects of Wh-Question Graphic Organizers on Reading Comprehension Skills of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethune, Keri S.; Wood,Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorders often have difficulty with reading comprehension. This study used a delayed multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of graphic organizers on the accuracy of wh-questions answered following short passage reading. Participants were three elementary-age students with autism spectrum…

  3. The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

  4. Any Questions? Want to Stimulate Student Curiosity? Let Them Ask Questions!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight scientific practices highlighted in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas," the first is for students to develop abilities to ask questions and define problems (NRC 2012). Constructing a range of questions about an object or phenomenon validates not only what students have…

  5. Use of key feature questions in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To prove the hypothesis that procedural knowledge might be tested using Key Feature (KF) questions in written exams, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation (TiHo) pioneered this format in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students. Exams in veterinary medicine are either tested orally, practically, in written form or digitally in written form. The only question formats which were previously used in the written e-exams were Type A Single-choice Questions, Image Analysis and Short Answer Questions. E-exams are held at the TiHo using the electronic exam system Q [kju:] by CODIPLAN GmbH. Methods In order to examine less factual knowledge and more procedural knowledge and thus the decision-making skills of the students, a new question format was integrated into the exam regulations by the TiHo and some examiner used this for the first time in the computer based assessment. Following a successful pilot phase in formative e-exams for students, KF questions were also introduced in summative exams. A number of multiple choice questions were replaced by KF questions in four computer based assessment in veterinary medicine. The subjects were internal medicine, surgery, reproductive medicine and dairy science. Results The integration and linking of KF questions into the computer based assessment system Q [kju:] went without any complications. The new question format was well received both by the students and the teaching staff who formulated the questions. Conclusion The hypothesis could be proven that Key Feature questions represent a practicable addition to the existing e-exam question formats for testing procedural knowledge. The number of KF questions will be therefore further increased in examinations in veterinary medicine at the TiHo. PMID:23497425

  6. An audience response system may influence student performance on anatomy examination questions.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Amy; McNulty, John A; Gruener, Gregory; Chandrasekhar, Arcot; Espiritu, Baltazar; Ensminger, David; Price, Ron; Naheedy, Ross

    2010-01-01

    This study integrated an in-house audience response system (ARS) in the human anatomy course over two years to determine whether students performed better on high-stakes examinations following exposure to similar interactive questions in a large lecture format. Questions in an interactive ARS format were presented in lectures via PowerPoint presentations. Students who chose to participate in the anonymous ARS sessions submitted answers via their personal wireless devices (e.g., laptops, smartphones, PDAs, etc). Students were surveyed for feedback. Student participation in ARS activities was greatest (65-80%) in the first lecture. The number of students who actively participated in ARS activities decreased over the next four sessions, and then slightly increased in the last two sessions. This trend was the same for both years. Use of the ARS did not dramatically enhance overall student performance on examination questions that dealt with content similar to content presented in the ARS sessions. However, students who scored in the lower quartile of the examination performed better on the examination questions after the ARS was implemented. Accordingly, our findings suggest that the effect of ARS to improve student performance on examinations was not uniform. The overall benefit of an ARS to enhance the lecture experience was confirmed by student surveys. PMID:20890951

  7. Semi-Automatic Grading of Students' Answers Written in Free Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escudeiro, Nuno; Escudeiro, Paula; Cruz, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    The correct grading of free text answers to exam questions during an assessment process is time consuming and subject to fluctuations in the application of evaluation criteria, particularly when the number of answers is high (in the hundreds). In consequence of these fluctuations, inherent to human nature, and largely determined by emotional…

  8. Probing decisive answers to dark energy questions from cosmic complementarity and lensing tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Mustapha

    2005-10-01

    We study future constraints on dark energy parameters determined from several combinations of cosmic microwave background experiments, supernova data, and cosmic-shear surveys with and without tomography. In this analysis, we look in particular for combinations of experiments that will bring the uncertainties to a level of precision tight enough (a few per cent) to answer decisively some of the questions regarding dark energy. In view of the parametrization dependence problems, we probe the dark energy using two variants of its equation of state w(z), and its energy density ?de(z). For the latter, we model ?de(z) as a continuous function interpolated using dimensionless parameters . We consider a large set of 13 cosmological and systematic parameters, and assume reasonable priors on the lensing and supernova systematics. For the CMB, we consider future constraints from eight years of data from WMAP, one year of data from Planck, and one year of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). We use two sets of 2000 supernovae with zmax= 0.8 and 1.5 respectively, and consider various cosmic-shear reference surveys: a wide ground-based-like survey, covering 70 per cent of the sky, and with successively two and five tomographic bins; and a deep-space-based-like survey with 10 tomographic bins and various sky coverages. The 1? constraints found are {?(w0) = 0.086, ?(w1) = 0.069}, {?(w0) = 0.088, ?(wa) = 0.11}, and from Planck, supernovae and the ground-based-like lensing survey with two bins. When five bins are used within the same combination the constraints reduce to {?(w0) = 0.04, ?(w1) = 0.034}, {?(w0) = 0.041, ?(wa) = 0.056}, and . Finally, when the deep lensing survey with 10 per cent coverage of the sky and 10 tomographic bins is used along with Planck and the deep supernova survey, the constraints reduce to {?(w0) = 0.032, ?(w1) = 0.027}, {?(w0) = 0.033, ?(wa) = 0.04}, and . Other coverages of the sky and other combinations of experiments are explored as well. Although some worries remain about other systematics, our study shows that, after the combination of the three probes, lensing tomography with many redshift bins and large coverages of the sky has the potential to add key improvements to the dark energy parameter constraints. However, the fact that very ambitious and sophisticated surveys are required in order to achieve some of these constraints or to improve them suggests the need for new tests to probe the nature of dark energy in addition to constraining its equation of state.

  9. Using Chat and Text Technologies to Answer Sexual and Reproductive Health Questions: Planned Parenthood Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Leslie M; Levine, Deborah S; Arons, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Background Teens and young adults in the United States are in need of sexual and reproductive health information, as evidenced by elevated rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and births among this population. In-person sexuality education programs are helpful, but they are unlikely to rapidly accommodate teens and young adults in a moment of crisis. Evidence suggests that technologies such as instant messaging (IM) and text messaging may be effective ways to provide teens and young adults with sexual and reproductive health information. In September 2010, Planned Parenthood Federation of America launched a text and IM program designed to provide immediate answers to urgent sexual and reproductive health questions from a reliable and confidential source and to link young people to sexual and reproductive health services if needed. Objective To assess whether this program is successful in reaching the target population, whether user characteristics vary by mode (IM vs text), and whether mode is associated with reaching individuals with high levels of worry or reducing worry postchat. Methods Data were collected from prechat and postchat surveys for all IM and text message conversations between September 2010 and August 2011. A bivariate analysis was conducted using chi-square tests for differences in the main covariates by mode of conversation. In the multivariable analysis, logistic regression was used to identify factors that were independently associated with prechat levels of worry and changes in worry postchat. Results A total of 32,589 conversations occurred during the program’s first year. The odds of feeling very worried prechat were highest for IM users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.72), users 17 years and younger (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.50-1.74), Latino/Hispanic users (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.27-1.46), and black users (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.30-1.50). After controlling for the study covariates, there was no significant difference in the odds of feeling better (less worried) postchat between IM and text message users. Feeling better postchat was associated with being younger (?17 years: AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.17-1.72; 18-24 years: AOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.42), being Latino/Hispanic (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10-1.55), reporting that the service was very helpful (AOR 3.47, 95% CI 3.24-4.32), and asking about emergency contraception (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.61). The odds of feeling better were lowest for users with questions about STIs (AOR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.78). Conclusions The results from the process evaluation suggest that the program was able to provide informational support to vulnerable groups, such as teens and racial minorities, in moments of particular worry. Differences between the IM and text message users reveal that each mode appeals to a different population and that both are necessary to reach a diverse audience. PMID:24055754

  10. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple" compatibility. 100% protection against the 100 year event shows to be the optimal degree of protection. Consequently, impacts statistically less frequent than once in 100 year are accepted as the remaining risk. Such floods and debris flows respectively cause a fan of propagation which is substantially reduced due to the protection measures against the 100 year event. III) The "triple loss distribution" shows the monetized triple damage, dependent on its probability. The monetization is performed by the social process of participation of the impacted interests, if not, by official experts in representation. The triple loss distribution rises in time mainly due to the rise in density and value of precious goods. A comparison of the distributions of the triple loss and the triple risk, behaving in opposite direction, is shown and explained within the project. IV) The recommended yearly reserves to be stocked for restoration and compensation of losses, caused by debris flows, amount to € 70'000.- according to the approach of the "technical risk premium". The discrepancy in comparison with the much higher amounts according to the common approaches of natural hazards engineering are discussed. V) The sustainable mix of hydraulic and forestry measures with the highest return on investment at lowest risk is performed according to the portfolio theory (Markowitz), based on the triple value curves, generated by the method of TripelBudgetierung®. Accordingly, the optimum mix of measures to protect the community of Inzing against the natural hazard of debris flow, thus, the most efficient allocation of resources equals to 2/3 for hydraulic, 1/3 for forestry measures. In detail, the results of the research pilot project "Nachhaltiges Risikomanagement - Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria" may be consulted under www.ibu.hsr.ch/inzing.

  11. Postreading Questioning and Middle School Students' Understanding of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Lauren Aimonette; Watkins, Naomi M.; Graves, Michael F.; Hosp, John

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a "story map," a questioning technique (Beck & McKeown, 1981) for improving students' understanding of literature. Though the story map idea was widely adopted as a student-initiated strategy, the original story map--a teacher-generated, postreading questioning framework--was never empirically tested. This…

  12. Questions Students Ask: The Frequencies of Metal Locators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Roger E.

    1984-01-01

    Answers a question about operating frequency of metal locators, discussing signal attenuation due to inverse square law and interaction with conducting media. Compares frequency to conductivity for various media and resultant penetration of media by signal, relating to transmission of extremely low frequency signals for submarine communications by…

  13. Assessing the Quality of a Student-Generated Question Repository

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we…

  14. The Use of Selected Sediment Analyses to Answer Lake Management Questions: A Case Study for Lake Panasoffkee, Florida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. V. Belanger; H. H. Heck; M. Sohn; P. R. Sweets; M. A. Morris; N. Julien

    1995-01-01

    Selected analyses were performed on Lake Panasoffkee sediment to answer critical cause\\/effect lake management questions, and the collected data indicate their usefulness for similar assessments. Sediment depths in Lake Panasoffkee are very deep (>6.1 m) in most places, but Pb-210 dating indicates sedimentation rates have historically been low (0.04 ? 0.6 g-dry wt\\/cm?yr). Increasing lake shallowness is more likely related

  15. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE…

  16. Debugging reinvented: asking and answering why and why not questions about program behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Jensen Ko; Brad A. Myers

    2008-01-01

    When software developers want to understand the reason for a program's behavior, they must translate their questions about the behavior into a series of questions about code, speculating about the causes in the process. The Whyline is a new kind of debugging tool that avoids such speculation by instead enabling developers to select a question about program output from a

  17. Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groome, Meghan

    This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate questioning. This data should be shared with teachers and teacher educators to inform them how to increase and use student questions as well as alternate participation methods that strive for "science for all". Future research should focus on how students act as "gatekeepers" for the participation and potential ways to shift underrepresented students into the STEM pipeline.

  18. Participatory learning and knowledge assessment with a game-based method relying on student-generated questions

    E-print Network

    Abad, Enrique; Gil, Julia

    2015-01-01

    A game based on student-generated multiple-choice questions (MCQs) was used to promote participatory learning and as a knowledge assessment tool in the framework of an elementary course in Photonics. Under the instructor's guidance, students were asked to author MCQs, including both question stems and four possible answers (three distractors and one correct answer). They were told that good enough questions would enter a repository from which MCQs for the final exam could be drawn. The student-generated MCQs were then reviewed by the instructor, who discarded unsuitable questions and made amendments to ensure quality standards. The resulting repository (with the key to the correct answers) was made available to the students, whereupon a subset of questions were selected by the instructor to set the MCQ test for the final exam (consisting of a MCQ test based on student-generated questions and a problem-solving part set entirely by the instructor). The MCQ repository was large enough to ensure that rote learnin...

  19. An English language question answering system for a large relational database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Waltz

    1978-01-01

    By typing requests in English, casual users will be able to obtain explicit answers from a large relational database of aircraft flight and maintenance data using a system called PLANES. The design and implementation of this system is described and illustrated with detailed examples of the operation of system components and examples of overall system operation. The language processing portion

  20. Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Marianne

    This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book…

  1. Assessing the quality of a student-generated question repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find that students produce questions of high quality. More than three-quarters of questions fall into categories beyond simple recall, in contrast to similar studies of student-authored content in different subject domains. Similarly, the quality of student-authored explanations for questions was also high, with approximately 60% of all explanations classified as being of high or outstanding quality. Overall, 75% of questions met combined quality criteria, which we hypothesize is due in part to the in-class scaffolding activities that we provided for students ahead of requiring them to author questions. This work presents the first systematic investigation into the quality of student produced assessment material in an introductory physics context, and thus complements and extends related studies in other disciplines.

  2. Student Engagement Research in Higher Education: Questioning an Academic Orthodoxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that student engagement research is not often investigated critically. It attempts to change this. After briefly outlining a conceptual framework for student engagement, it explores three critical questions about it. First, it asks whether in trying to be all things in teaching and learning, student engagement focuses too…

  3. Petroleum, Convenience, & Automotive Marketing [Student Book and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozek, Ed; Faught, Suzanne G.

    This student manual and answer book/teacher's guide focus on the industry-specific information and skills needed by students who plan to enter, or who may already be receiving, training in a petroleum-related business, such as a full-service gas station, convenience store, or automotive specialty service shop. The student manual contains 16…

  4. Identification and presentation of student answers to in-class exercises in classroom learning partner

    E-print Network

    Jó?wiak, Martyna Anna

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis. we present a user interface to be used by teachers in K-12 math and science classrooms. Our system collects answers sent by students for in-class exercises and allows the teacher to browse through these ...

  5. Moving from answer finding to sensemaking: Supporting middle school students' online inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meilan

    Online inquiry, use of the Web as an information source to conduct inquiry for a scientific question, has become increasingly common in middle schools in recent years. However, while valuable Web resources provide unprecedented learning opportunities, easy access to information does not guarantee learning. Previous research has found that middle school students tend to use the Web in a superficial manner. To address the challenges that students face in online inquiry, this study explored several supporting strategies implemented in Digital IdeaKeeper, a scaffolded software tool to help students move from passively finding a ready-made answer to actively making sense of the information they encounter through support for inquiry planning, information search, analysis, and synthesis. This study examined the differences and similarities between regular online inquiry and supported online inquiry performed by several sixth-graders in real classroom settings. Four pairs from a sixth grade class used IdeaKeeper for their online inquiry project, and another four pairs from a different sixth grade class taught by the same teacher used regular online search engines only. Both groups worked on the same science topic-water, and the entire project lasted about four weeks. During that time, students in both groups used computers for about 10-14 days to conduct online research. Multiple sources of data were collected, including video recordings of students' computer activities and conversations, students' artifacts, log files and student final writings. Several themes emerged from the data analysis. First, the findings refer to the importance of providing a structure for students' online inquiry, to promote a more integrated, efficient, continuous, metacognitive and engaging online inquiry. In addition, guidance is important to promote more careful, thorough, and purposeful online reading, Overall, the results suggest that middle school students' online inquiry needs to be structured and their online reading needs to be guided. However, challenges still remain to engage students in high-level critical thinking in online inquiry, because some prompts designed to guide students' reading do not seem effective. Implications of the research findings are discussed.

  6. The Role of Perceptual Availability and Discourse Context in Young Children's Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Graf, Eileen; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Three- and four-year-old children were asked predicate-focus questions ("What's X doing?") about a scene in which an agent performed an action on a patient. We varied: (i) whether (or not) the preceding discourse context, which established the patient as given information, was available for the questioner; and (ii) whether (or not) the patient was…

  7. The Answer Book: Job Search Strategies for Students with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane

    This manual on job search strategies for students with disabilities was developed as part of the EASE (Equal Access for Students to Education and Experience) Project at seven community colleges in northeastern Minnesota. The manual contains text, questionnaires, worksheets, checklists, examples, and lists of suggested resources to help students

  8. Discussing the diagnosis of HPV-OSCC: common questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Fakhry, Carole; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a rising proportion of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers (OSCC). HPV-positive OSCCs (HPV-OSCC) are associated with oral HPV infection and sexual behavior. Patient questions regarding risk factors, prognosis and implications for past, present and future relationships often arise. This manuscript addresses frequently asked questions by patients with HPV-OSCC and their families. A framework for clinicians to address these conversations and the limitations of our present knowledge base is also presented. PMID:23876627

  9. Student and Teacher Questioning during Conversations about Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily H.; Iwasyk, Marletta; Kurose, Akiko; Simpson, Dorothy; Wild, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes case studies developed by a group of collaborating educators. Investigates ways of speaking that encourage students to formulate insightful questions about science topics and express their own ideas during reflective discussions. (Contains 68 references.) (Author/YDS)

  10. Technology Is the Answer, But What Was the Question? Audiotape vs. Videotape for Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabachnick, Barbara Gerson; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In an evaluation of supplementary learning aids students were assigned to one of four learning conditions: (1) videotape plus worksheet, (2) audiotape plus worksheet, (3) combination of audio- and videotape plus worksheet, and (4) worksheet only. Results reported include test scores and ratings of helpfulness, as well as student preferences and…

  11. Who Really Answers the Questions? Using Glasser's Quality School Model in an Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer; Plumlee, Gerald L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss the effectiveness of the Quality School model and active learning in an undergraduate classroom setting. They compare performance levels of students in two course sections of Principles of Macroeconomics and two sections of Managerial Communications. Students are given an opportunity to help shape the structure of the…

  12. Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders. PMID:25455580

  13. Technical Assistance For Eligible Solar Equipment Lists Pre-Bid Conference Questions and Answers

    E-print Network

    , or subsidiary thereof who has been awarded a consulting services Agreement may submit a bid for, nor be awarded and unfettered review, assessment and certification processing? We would agree to contract language specifying One and Two. #12;Question #5: Who is currently providing these services for the CEC? Why is the CEC

  14. Is Crossbreeding the Answer to Questions of Dairy Breed Utilization?1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. McAllister

    2002-01-01

    The current interest in crossbreeding in the commer- cial dairy industry, even though it is quite limited, raises questions of breed utilization. Fewer than 5% of US dairy cattle are other than purebred or grade Holsteins.ThelargeadvantageofHolsteinsforadditive genetic merit for lactation milk yield is apparently re- sponsible for this trend. Why, then, this interest in crossbreeding? The economic importance of traits

  15. [The answers to the questions. The difficult academic and professional equilibrium in pre-European Spain].

    PubMed

    Medina Moya, José Luis

    2005-10-01

    After the sweep of the three preceding articles, the author responds to the questions posed in the first article, concluding that a turn towards a practical-reflexive position can, over the medium term, solve the tensions which the positivist conceptions have created between knowledge and professional action. A bibliography for all four articles is included. PMID:16304828

  16. Meta-Knowledge Annotation for Efficient Natural-Language Question-Answering

    E-print Network

    Veale, Tony

    a tight integration of natural language processing (NLP), information retrieval (IR) and information question Q, generate a natural-language representation nlp(Q) 2. From nlp(Q), generate an information-retrieval query ir(nlp(Q)) #12;3. Use ir(nlp(Q)) to retrieve D documents from an authoritative text archive 4

  17. Multiple-Engine Question Answering in TextMap Abdessamad Echihabi, Ulf Hermjakob, Eduard Hovy,

    E-print Network

    Marcu, Daniel

    the following reformulations: Question: How did Mahatma Gandhi die? Reformulation patterns: · Mahatma Gandhi died ? · Mahatma Gandhi died of ? · Mahatma Gandhi lost his life in ? · Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated? · Mahatma Gandhi committed suicide? · ... plus 40 other reformulations ... #12;The fourth

  18. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  19. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  20. Answers to questions at public meetings regarding implementation of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 on operators' licenses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This document presents questions and answers based on the transcripts of four public meetings (and from written questions submitted after the meetings) conducted from April 9 to April 20, 1987 by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The meetings discussed implementation of the Commission's final rule governing Operators' Licenses and Conforming Amendments (10 CFR Parts 55 and 50). The rule became effective May 26, 1987 and is intended to clarify the regulations for issuing licenses to operators and senior operators; revise the requirements and scope of written examinations and operating tests for operators and senior operators, require a simulation facility; clarify procedures for administering requalification examinations; and describe the form and content for operator license applications.

  1. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems, science data to be analyzed, or they were confused and had to guess. A second set of findings corroborated how science background knowledge affected graph interpretation: correct science knowledge supported students' reasoning, but it was not necessary to answer any question correctly; correct science knowledge could not compensate for incomplete mathematics knowledge; and incorrect science knowledge often distracted students when they tried to use it while answering a question. Finally, using Roth and Bowen's (2001) two-stage semiotic model of reading graphs, representative vignettes showed emerging patterns from the study. This study added to our understanding of the role of science content knowledge during line graph interpretation, highlighted the importance of heuristics and mathematics procedural knowledge, and documented the importance of perception attentions, motivation, and students' self-generated questions. Recommendations were made for future research in line graph interpretation in mathematics and science education and for improving instruction in this area.

  2. Viterbi Student-Alumni Mentoring Program (VSAMP) FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    Viterbi Student-Alumni Mentoring Program (VSAMP) FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS What is mentoring? Mentoring, in the context of VSAMP, is a voluntary, reciprocal agreement between an alumnus/mentor and a student/mentee. The Mentor takes an active interest in promoting the development of the Mentee

  3. Reference Question Answered: Discussion of Russian funeral rites as depicted in V posikakh schast’ia (In Search of Happiness), Film, 2006

    E-print Network

    Giullian, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The author answers a reference question on the depictionof a funeral in the 2006 Russian documentary film V poiskakh schast’ia (In Search of Happiness), which takes place in the Jewish Autonomous Region in Siberia. ...

  4. Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity) (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  5. Questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity: answers from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-06-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary in order to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  6. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  7. Automatic Question Generation and Answer Judging: A Q&A Game for Language Learning

    E-print Network

    analysis [1]. More recently, Kunichika et al. developed a multimedia language learning system for teaching by speech, so that comprehensive reading, listening and speaking ability can be practiced. This paper a real human tutor, but also crucial in that it creates chances for the students to practice speaking

  8. Tough Questions and Straight Answers: Educating Technical Communicators in the Next Decade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southard, Sherry G.; Reaves, Rita

    1995-01-01

    Uses information from the 1994 Education and Research Professional Interest Committee Focus Group of the Society for Technical Communication (STC) and from questionnaires to outline educational goals and to suggest ways in which STC members and the Society can prepare undergraduate students for careers in technical communication in the next…

  9. Questions and Answers General Questions

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    have to pay for this? All but one Hoo's Well@ program is currently available at no cost to you. Weight Watchers® participation does require payment from you. Will retirees be eligible to participate blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, high and low density

  10. University of Phoenix Lets Students Find Answers Virtually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about a software designed by the University of Phoenix for its business, information-technology, education, and health-care courses. Through the university's "virtual organizations"--online teaching tools designed to simulate the experience of working at a typical corporation, school, or government agency, Phoenix students can…

  11. What is the Right Answer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to introduce students to the concept that sometimes there is no one "right" answer to a question or measurement. Students learn to be careful when searching for a right answer to questions such as 'What time is it?' by comparing multiple measurements of the time of day. Students gain an intuitive understanding of the characteristics of imperfect measurements. Using different clocks, students simultaneously record the displayed times. The resulting time measurements are converted from minutes and seconds to seconds. These measurements are plotted to illustrate the mathematical techniques of averages and deviations from an average.

  12. A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students. PMID:21948507

  13. Thalamic relay or cortico-thalamic processing? Old question, new answers.

    PubMed

    Ahissar, Ehud; Oram, Tess

    2015-04-01

    What are the functions implemented by neurons in the sensory nuclei of the thalamus? It seems that this question has accompanied cortical and thalamic studies since their onset some 6 decades ago. Over the years, the simplistic, traditional view of thalamic neurons as mere relays of sensory information has given way to more sophisticated views, of which several alternative hypotheses have been proposed. This commentary briefly reviews the 2 current major hypotheses and shows how a new, pioneering experiment, published in Cerebral Cortex by Groh, Acsady and colleagues, discriminates between them. The commentary further elaborates on the thalamo-cortical processing suggested by the new findings, the general sensory-motor scheme to which these findings may be relevant, and the possible roles such thalamo-cortical processing may have in sensory-motor control. PMID:24214242

  14. Health care reform, 2014: no matter what the question, mission is the answer.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Parinda

    2014-06-01

    In this column, the president of the Collaborative Family Healthcare Association (CFHA) addresses the lack of understanding and agreement to the question What is health care reform? It is a daunting task to understand, let alone redesign, the most expensive (but not most effective or most efficient) health care system in the world. In this critical window of opportunity, influencing positive movement through leadership, communication, and teamwork is a strategic priority of the CFHA and its journal, Family Systems & Health. The emphases on comprehensive, coordinated, and cost-effective care, although novel concepts for many, have been core features of CFHA's philosophy for almost two decades (see CFHA's mission statement). As we mark the halfway point in this pivotal year in health care reform, we continue to struggle. CFHA can help illuminate the path of what health care reform can be and what it can do for each citizen in our communities. PMID:24955698

  15. Answering the ultimate question “What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?”

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging? PMID:23425777

  16. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to the research was 'an invaluable experience.' Conceptual models of QUEST's philosophy will be distributed at our presentation to encourage audience members interested in starting their own field-based educator professional development project. Through our presentation of this unique program, we will share how we have successfully incorporated real scientific research into classrooms through teachers' experiences, and discuss the lessons learned regarding replication and sustainability of educator-scientist collaborations.

  17. Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jřrgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

    2014-08-01

    The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems. PMID:25017157

  18. Moving Beyond the Answer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beverly Ford

    2013-02-01

    This page from AIMS "Sandbox" blog presents Beverly Ford's view that asking good questions of students as the lesson is progressing promotes connections and deeper understanding. Also included is a 17-minute video that features Phil Daro talking about the tendency of American teachers to teach “answer-getting techniques” instead of teaching to focus on the mathematics the way Japanese teachers do.

  19. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...corporation to another corporation, 11 percent of the...owned by the first corporation, will not constitute...hands of the second corporation by reason of section...and (D). (c) Questions applying section 267...following questions and answers deal with the...

  20. Wisconsin statutes regarding HIV testing in primary care: frequent questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Vergeront, J M; Reiser, W J; Druckenmiller, J K; Krchnavek, K A; Davis, J P

    1998-12-01

    The authors review Wisconsin statutes related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in primary care, including the areas of written informed consent, documentation of consent, testing without consent, testing of minors, disclosure of test results without the consent of the test subject, reporting requirements, discrimination, access by insurance companies and third-party payors to HIV test results, and civil liabilities and criminal penalties associated with violation of HIV-related state statutes. During the course of the HIV epidemic in Wisconsin, many individuals (service providers, legislators, consumers and advocates) supported the enactment of HIV-related legislation. Today, Wisconsin has some of the nation's most comprehensive HIV legislation. These laws have set a legal framework that balances the rights of individuals with protection of public's health. The relatively low seroprevalence of HIV infection in Wisconsin can be attributed, in part, to the state's HIV-related legislation. While Wisconsin HIV legislation is broadly focused, much of it is concerned with HIV testing. This article examines common questions as they pertain to HIV testing in primary care and to the following areas addressed by state statutes: counseling and referral for health and support services [Wisconsin statute s. 252 14(3)] informed consent for testing or disclosure [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] written consent to disclose [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(3) & (4)] testing without consent of the test subject [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] confidentiality of an HIV test [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(5)] reporting of positive test results [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(7)] discrimination [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(2)] civil and criminal liabilities [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(4); 252.15(8) & (9)]. PMID:9894441

  1. STS-103 Pilot Kelly answers questions during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During an interview at Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly responds to a question from the media about the mission. Standing with him are the remainder of the crew: (left to right) Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is also with ESA. As a preparation for launch, they have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  2. STS-103 M.S. Mike Foale answers question during interview at Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) (at right) responds to a question from the media about the mission during an interview at Launch Pad 39B. Next to him is Mission Specialist John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). As a preparation for launch, the crew have been participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities at KSC. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. Other crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  3. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: a bifactor answer to a two-factor question?

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Boduszek, Daniel; Harvey, Séamus A

    2014-01-01

    Despite its long-standing and widespread use, disagreement remains regarding the structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). In particular, concern remains regarding the degree to which the scale assesses self-esteem as a unidimensional or multidimensional (positive and negative self-esteem) construct. Using a sample of 3,862 high school students in the United Kingdom, 4 models were tested: (a) a unidimensional model, (b) a correlated 2-factor model in which the 2 latent variables are represented by positive and negative self-esteem, (c) a hierarchical model, and (d) a bifactor model. The totality of results including item loadings, goodness-of-fit indexes, reliability estimates, and correlations with self-efficacy measures all supported the bifactor model, suggesting that the 2 hypothesized factors are better understood as "grouping" factors rather than as representative of latent constructs. Accordingly, this study supports the unidimensionality of the RSES and the scoring of all 10 items to produce a global self-esteem score. PMID:24940657

  4. The Physics Questions in Student Selection Examination and Physics Curriculum and the Effect of Those Questions in Students' Success in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2007-01-01

    Success of high school students in solving physics questions of student selection examination (OSS) that has to be taken by high school students before entering the Turkish universities have been investigated with regard to these questions to be solved by students and suitability to high school physics curriculum and factors affecting students

  5. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  6. Prism : an answer projection system

    E-print Network

    Wu, Lynn, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Prism is an answer projection system that combines the best attributes of traditional and Web-based question answering systems. Traditional question answering systems retrieve answers with pinpoint accuracy but limited ...

  7. Data Mining Student Answers with Moodle to Investigate Learning Pathways in an Introductory Geohazards Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sit, S. M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Colella, H. V.

    2012-12-01

    The recent growth of online learning in higher education is primarily motivated by a desire to (a) increase the availability of learning experiences for learners who cannot, or choose not, to attend traditional face-to-face offerings, (b) assemble and disseminate instructional content more cost-efficiently, or (c) enable instructors to handle more students while maintaining a learning outcome quality that is equivalent to that of comparable face-to-face instruction. However, a less recognized incentive is that online learning also provides an opportunity for data mining, or efficient discovery of non-obvious valuable patterns from a large collection of data, that can be used to investigate learning pathways as opposed to focusing solely on assessing student outcomes. Course management systems that enable online courses provide a means to collect a vast amount of information to analyze students' behavior and the learning process in general. One of the most commonly used is Moodle (modular object-oriented developmental learning environment), a free learning management system that enables creation of powerful, flexible, and engaging online courses and experiences. In order to examine student learning pathways, the online learning modules we are constructing take advantage of Moodle capabilities to provide immediate formative feedback, verifying answers as correct or incorrect and elaborating on knowledge components to guide students towards the correct answer. By permitting multiple attempts in which credit is diminished for each incorrect answer, we provide opportunities to use data mining strategies to assess thousands of students' actions for evidence of problem solving strategies and mastery of concepts. We will show preliminary results from application of this approach to a ~90 student introductory geohazard course that is migrating toward online instruction. We hope more continuous assessment of students' performances will help generate cognitive models that can inform instructional redesign, improve overall efficiency of student learning, and, potentially, be used to create an intelligent tutoring system.

  8. Science Sampler: Mail time! Addressing student questions in science class

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Amos Simms-Smith

    2006-12-01

    How can you encourage students to question and explore their day-to-day encounters with science and still get through the curriculum for the year? At a local hardware store--you'll discover the solution--a big metal mailbox. It has all the trimmings: a flip door, a red flag on the side, even the approval of the Postmaster General. This is the birth of the mailbox question. This strategy is sure to "deliver" inquiry based learning into your science curriculum.

  9. Answering the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

    2011-01-01

    As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

  10. Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Images Flu Prevention Toolkit Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ... stomach or intestinal disease. Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To receive ...

  11. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... major conditions caused by pneumococci: pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. They are all caused by infection with the ... Pneumococci cause 50% of all cases of bacterial meningitis (infection of the covering of the brain or ...

  12. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a rapid, sensitive, and specific ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (IC-MS/MS) method for determining perchlorate in ... Perchlorate Anion in Foods by Ion Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry ," describing FDA's method has been published in the ...

  13. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 22(14):895-906. Â Top of Page File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ...

  14. XMRV: Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    Retroviruses are found in a wide range of mammals, and may contribute to the development of cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma, and neurological diseases. The first of two human retroviruses identified, HTLV-1 has been found to cause adult T cell leukemia and HTLV-II is not associated with any disease. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, is a different type of retrovirus.

  15. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

  16. Poultry Processing: Questions & Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

  17. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ... Site Map A-Z Index Help Topics Careers Data Collection and Reports Fact Sheets Food Defense and Emergency ...

  18. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may cause thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) at the rate of about 1 case per 30,000 to 40,000 vaccinated people. Cases are almost always temporary and not life-threatening. More severe reactions, including allergic reactions, are rare. Other severe problems ( ...

  19. Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cure TSC. Online registration now open. The 2015 International Research Conference on TSC will be held September 10-12 in Windsor, UK. Learn about clinical trials and see a list of current trials/studies related to TSC. Enroll now in ...

  20. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficult to kill as they are resistant to heat and many chemical agents. How does tetanus spread? ... the children who received the vaccine developed local reactions such as redness, swelling, and pain at the ...

  1. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... antibodies to rabies virus) and a series of rabies vaccinations. More detailed information about the vaccine can be ... They should also be given a series of rabies vaccinations. The first dose should be given as soon ...

  2. Answer first: Applying the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to examine student intuitive thinking in the context of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel

    2014-12-01

    We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics students fail to build reasoning chains from fundamental principles even though they possess the required knowledge and skills to do so. Instead, they often rely on a variety of intuitive reasoning strategies. In this study, we developed and employed a methodology that allowed for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding and reasoning approaches through the use of sequences of related questions. We have shown that the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning can be used to account for, in a mechanistic fashion, the observed inconsistencies in student responses. In particular, we found that students tended to apply their correct ideas in a selective manner that supported a specific and likely anticipated conclusion while neglecting to employ the same ideas to refute an erroneous intuitive conclusion. The observed reasoning patterns were consistent with the heuristic-analytic theory, according to which reasoners develop a "first-impression" mental model and then construct an argument in support of the answer suggested by this model. We discuss implications for instruction and argue that efforts to improve student metacognition, which serves to regulate the interaction between intuitive and analytical reasoning, is likely to lead to improved student reasoning.

  3. Hoffman_Answers to student questions 814.pdf Student questions: Jeffrey Hoffman colloquium on "EVA Walking and Working in the

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    . With the push towards the commercialization of space travel, do you foresee NASA transitioning into a more on "EVA ­ Walking and Working in the Vacuum of Space" 8/27/14 How many hours of free time did you have factor of ~100 less than what is anticipated to be required for a human mission. It should operate

  4. Manning_Answers to student questions O14.pdf Student questions: Robert Manning colloquium on "The Challenges of Exploring Mars

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    that the JPL Morse code section of the wheels looks to be holding up quite well on all 6 wheels. Would the 2020's wheels potentially be all Morse code pattern? Or is there a significant addition of cosmetic in the manner of the odometry pattern (Morse Code area) would do the trick and probably a lot more (with

  5. Minitti_Answers to student questions 914.pdf Student questions: Michelle Minitti colloquium on "MAHLI at Gale Crater: Science and

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    was looking for a team member with experience with igneous rocks, and asked me if I would be interested to discern from orbital data. The bottom 1 km of the mound is where the best exposures of layered rocks-portraits at all our major sampling stops. Are the sedimentary rocks on Mars only confined to basins within craters

  6. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Porter, S.W. Jr. [Porter Consultants, Inc., Ardmore, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  7. Answering the big questions about differential response in Colorado: safety and cost outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Marc; Ellis, Raquel; Drury, Ida; Rogers, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, jurisdictions across the United States have implemented differential response (DR), which provides child protective services with the flexibility to tailor their response to reports of child abuse or neglect based on the level of risk. Given the widespread adoption of DR, there has been an increasing demand from policymakers, practitioners, and community stakeholders to build the evidence base for this innovative child welfare approach. This study was designed to answer the big questions regarding the effect of differential response on child welfare outcomes and costs using a randomized controlled trial in five Colorado counties. Specifically, the study examined the safety outcomes and costs of families who were randomly assigned to either a family assessment response (FAR) or an investigation response (IR). According to the regression results, there were no differences between the tracks on measures of system re-involvement. However, survival analysis findings indicate that FAR families were 18% less likely, over time, to have a high risk assessment after their initial accepted referral than were IR families. The cost study revealed no differences between the tracks on initial costs for caseworker contacts, services, and out-of-home placements. However, the results suggest that follow-up costs for IR cases were significantly higher (p<0.001) than for FAR cases. The authors discuss policy and practice implications for jurisdictions considering DR. PMID:24997071

  8. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary). 31.3306(b)-1T Section 31.3306(b)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  9. Effective intraverbal training of children with autism to mand for questions to answers via the “I don’t know please tell me” response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan D. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This review provides a summary and appraisal commentary on the treatment review by Ingvarsson, E. T., & Hollobaugh, T. (2010). Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: Teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43, 1–17.Source of funding and disclosure of interest: No source of funding reported, and the original authors of this research report

  10. Guidance for Implementation of the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Amendments of 1992; Questions and Answers. Field Memorandum No. 34-93, Change 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Barbara Ann

    This paper provides additional guidance to states in the form of supplemental questions and answers to facilitate the development of policy for service delivery areas (SDAs) and other subrecipients of funding under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Amendments, which took effect on July 1, 1993. Topics covered are the following: definitions,…

  11. Answers to Questions Commonly Asked by Families, Professionals, and Members of the Community. Information Pages for People Involved in the Lives of Individuals with Deaf-Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    This packet contains six information pages providing basic answers to questions commonly asked by people involved with individuals who are deaf blind. The first one is on understanding deaf-blindness and addresses what the condition is, its impact on the ability to receive information, how the condition affects caregiver strategies, and what it is…

  12. The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Jason

    Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations did so largely in non-critical thinking problems. Although, when this subset of students is analyzed by class level it appears that sophomores reverse the pattern and improve much more in critical thinking type questions than their upper classmen. The implications of this are discussed.

  13. Unexpected Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shodor

    2012-03-30

    This lesson is designed to introduce students to statistical situations where the probabilities or outcomes might not be what is first expected. The lesson provides links to discussions and activities motivated by the idea of unexpected answers. Finally, the lesson provides links to follow-up lessons designed for use in succession with an introduction to probability and unexpected answers in probability.

  14. Student-generated reading questions: diagnosing student thinking with diverse formative assessments.

    PubMed

    Offerdahl, Erika G; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Formative assessment has long been identified as a critical element to teaching for conceptual development in science. It is therefore important for university instructors to have an arsenal of formative assessment tools at their disposal which enable them to effectively uncover and diagnose all students' thinking, not just the most vocal or assertive. We illustrate the utility of one type of formative assessment prompt (reading question assignment) in producing high-quality evidence of student thinking (student-generated reading questions). Specifically, we characterized student assessment data using three distinct analytic frames to exemplify their effectiveness in diagnosing student learning in relationship to three sample learning outcomes. Our data will be useful for university faculty, particularly those engaged in teaching upper-level biochemistry courses and their prerequisites, as they provide an alternative mechanism for uncovering and diagnosing student understanding. PMID:24343750

  15. Students' Questions: Building a Bridge between Kolb's Learning Styles and Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesus, Helena T. Pedrosa; Almeida, Patricia Albergaria; Teixeira-Dias, Jose Joaquim; Watts, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the types of questions that students ask during the learning of chemistry; discuss the role of students' questions in the process of constructing knowledge, and investigate the relationship between students' questions, approaches to learning, and learning styles. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  16. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations...answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...for determining the unrelated business income tax of voluntary employees...benefit trusts (SUBs) and group legal service...

  17. Utilizing Right and Wrong Answers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this professional development video excerpted from Getting Results, a community college instructor explains how he reviews a test with his students by having his students work in groups to discuss answers. The instructor explains that while tests can reveal to him what hasn't been grasped, this group review helps his students reflect on the rationale behind each answer. In addition, the tests help him discover whether goals are met, whether there are other benefits to the lesson, and whether he was successful in teaching the lesson. Once he has discovered the answers to these questions, he can decide whether to adjust the course design.The video runs 3:40 and is accompanied by a background essay and discussion questions. Users who sign up for a free account can save the resource and download the video as well.

  18. ASTR 202 -EXAM 1 (10 Question, 6 pages) Please write short answers in complete sentences directly below each question where applicable.

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    the following student comments during our in-class Astrology activity. Are any of the following statements valid. Student #1: If astrology does not work at all, then nobody should have picked the correct Star Sign that astrology works some of the time. Student #3: Statistics can't prove or disprove anything. Student #4

  19. What You Need to Know Before You Register! Please have answers ready for the questions in RED.

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    . Registration Should my family register? The Family Weekend program provides a convenient opportunity Panther Ticket Office 800-643- PITT. Student section tickets / students sitting with family Do I want my student to sit with our family...and does my student want to sit with our family? A student section ticket

  20. Exploring Relationship between Students' Questioning Behaviors and Inquiry Tasks in an Online Forum through Analysis of Ideational Function of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Seng-Chee; Seah, Lay-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    In this study we explored questioning behaviors among elementary students engaging in inquiry science using the "Knowledge Forum", a computer-supported collaborative learning tool. Adapting the theory of systemic functional linguistics, we developed the Ideational Function of Question (IFQ) analytical framework by means of inductive analysis of…

  1. 78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions...Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012:...

  2. Understanding School Climate and Interventions for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Students

    E-print Network

    Hutton, Stacy Lynn

    2014-08-31

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) high school students tend to experience more physical bullying and verbal harassment than heterosexual students. In addition, LGBTQ students are at an increased ...

  3. The Challenge Question

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

    Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Then students read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for additional ideas and add them to the list. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

  4. AskMSR: Question Answering Using the Worldwide Web Michele Banko, Eric Brill, Susan Dumais, Jimmy Lin

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    Abraham Lincoln?" from a source which contains only the text "John Wilkes Booth altered history with a bullet. He will forever be known as the man who ended Abraham Lincoln's life," versus one that also contains the transparent answer string, "John Wilkes Booth killed Abraham Lincoln." Even when no obvious

  5. Viewing the Web as a Virtual Database for Question Answering Boris Katz, Sue Felshin, Jimmy Lin, and Gregory Marton

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jimmy

    like "Who was Abraham Lincoln married to?". He or she might locate a resource with the answer say an object (Abraham Lincoln), which contains values for many properties. #12;Katz, Felshin, Lin, and Marton 3 Web site about presidents find the section for Abraham Lincoln (Figure 1), and look up information

  6. Question-writing as a learning tool for students – outcomes from curricular exams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Writing exam questions can be a valuable learning tool. We asked students to construct multiple choice questions for curricular exams in Internal Medicine. The questions for the particular exams were chosen from a pool of at least 300 student-written questions. The uncorrected pool was accessible to all students. We studied the influence of this approach on the students’ learning habits and their test results. We hypothesized that creating a pool of their own questions for the exams could encourage students to discuss the learning material. Methods All students had to pass 4 exams in 7 fields of Internal Medicine. Three exams were comprised of 20 questions, and we applied the new method in one of these exams. The fourth exam was comprised of 30 questions, 15 of which were chosen from a students’ pool. After all exams had been completed we asked the students to fill in a web-based questionnaire on their learning habits and their views on the new approach. The test-results were compared to the results of the lecturers’ questions that defined high and low performing students. Results A total of 102 students completed all four exams in a row, 68 of whom filled in the questionnaire. Low performing students achieved significantly better results in the studentsquestions. There was no difference in the number of constructed questions between both groups of students. The new method did not promote group work significantly. However, high performing students stated a stronger wish to be rewarded by good performance. Conclusions Creating a curricular exam by choosing questions from a pool constructed by students did not influence the learning habits significantly and favored low performing students. Since the high performing students sought to be rewarded for their efforts, we do not consider the approach applied in our study to be appropriate. PMID:23787038

  7. Distinguishing among Declarative, Descriptive and Causal Questions to Guide Field Investigations and Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Bell, Clare V.

    2011-01-01

    Teachers as well as students often have difficulty formulating good research questions because not all questions lend themselves to scientific investigation. The following is a guide for high-school and college life-science teachers to help students define question types central to biological field studies. The mayfly nymph was selected as the…

  8. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children.…

  9. Questioning as Thinking: A Metacognitive Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Nance S.; Smetana, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Questioning as Thinking (QAT), a metacognitive framework that helps teachers and students focus on performance. QAT combines components of three widely-used strategies: Think-Alouds, Question Answer Relationships (QAR), and Self-Questioning. Together, these three strategies give students and teachers the…

  10. Questioning Student Learning: An Exploration of Student's Views on Learning to Become Independent Nurse Prescribers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banning, Maggi; Cortazzi, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This illuminative evaluation study gives insights into attitudes to learning, interaction and the perceived roles of theory, evidence, reading and previous experience. These insights lead us to question some aspects of the course as currently presented. Students indicated that they found the course material stimulating but prior guidance on the…

  11. Relationship of Students' Prior Knowledge and Order of Questions on Tests to Students' Test Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papp, Klara K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study examined whether students beginning a cell biology course with prior knowledge of its three areas (genetics, histology, and biochemistry) would retain that advantage throughout the course and whether achievement was influenced by the order of questions in a test. (MSE)

  12. The Effects of Student Question-Generation with Online Prompts on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Pan, Kuan-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the effects of student-question generation with online prompts on student academic achievement, question-generation performance, learning satisfaction and learning anxiety. This study adopted a quasi-experimental research design. Two classes of eighth grade students (N = 64) from one middle school…

  13. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  14. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau

    2013-01-01

    During their education, students are presented with information across a variety of academic domains. How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of age and prior knowledge on the ways students approach questioning across history and…

  15. Top 10 Common Questions about Labor Evaluations QUESTION #1

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    into the final evaluation and place this comment in the Job Specific comment field: "This student no longer works is in May. If a student leaves the job at the end of the fall term and all you have completed is the midyear. ......................................................................................................................................................................... QUESTION #3: Someone else supervises a student assigned to me. What do I do? ANSWER: There are many reasons

  16. Batting 1,000: Questioning Techniques in Student-Centered Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robin Lee

    2000-01-01

    Argues that questioning used artfully can transform a classroom from a traditional lecture setting into a lively student-centered community. Outlines three different kinds of questions. Compares learning to ask good questions with learning to bat in professional baseball, and discusses several elements involved in developing excellent questioning

  17. Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check (T) in front of the answer.

    E-print Network

    EAT SMART Heart Health Evaluation The following questions are about today's program. Place a check not planning to use the information in this program. # I have heart disease or high blood pressure. YES

  18. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...members of the board of directors of the employer fiduciaries with respect to the...In addition, if the directors are made named fiduciaries of the plan, their...to carry out certain fiduciary duties, see question...

  19. Optimising Marks Obtained in Multiple Choice Question Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study designed to determine if the amount of time allocated for answering multiple true/false type questions affects the grades of the medical students taking the tests. Students who had 2-1/4 minutes to answer each question scored significantly better than those who had 1-1/2 minutes or 3 minutes. (TW)

  20. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    PubMed

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade <6), moderate (grade 6-8) and excellent (grade ?8) students. Therefore, we compared the discriminatory properties of extended matching questions (EMQs) versus multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and identified the role of sex, age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ?8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ?20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ?18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice. PMID:24203858

  1. Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question

    E-print Network

    Mirtz, Timothy A.; Greene, Leon

    2005-04-11

    studies. The references of papers retrieved were also reviewed, as were key texts and references. This section is devoted to presenting the concepts of evi- dence-based practice (EBP) to demonstrate to the reader the discovery process for finding a... possible link between obesity and low back pain. The EBP method used is shown in Table 1. The first step in this process is "asking an answerable ques- tion." In this paper we assume a patient has asked whether being overweight can cause low back pain...

  2. Olum_Answers 113.pdf Student questions: Ken Olum colloquium on "Cosmic Strings in 3D"

    E-print Network

    Shumway, John

    affect extremely massive objects such as black holes?, such as a long straight string, is larger than the size of the observable universe at a certain time that cosmic strings can cross paths/interact with things besides other cosmic strings (e.g. matter, black

  3. Lisse_Answers 313.pdf Student questions: Carey Lisse colloquium on "Prospects for Life & Human Habitability

    E-print Network

    Shumway, John

    has about an 80 IQ according to the National Zoo, and cannot vocalize words. Would the example will the data obtained from that benefit your research/analysis of extra-solar comets such as those in Eta Corvi

  4. Anbar_Answers 311.pdf Student questions: Anbar colloquium on "And now for something completely different

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    as a treatment? No. It is just a measurement of status, like taking a blood pressure measurement. However of the interior of the station to induce both exercise and some artificial acceleration (in place of gravity). I that more structured exercise (e.g., biking, treadmilling) is deemed more effective since it can be done

  5. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

  6. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

  7. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

  8. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section...under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions...Act of 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is...

  9. Answering Gauguin’s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?

    SciTech Connect

    John Ellis

    2010-05-26

    Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

  10. Potter, Wielandt, and Drazin on the matrix equation $AB=\\\\omega BA$, with some new answers to old questions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Holtz; Volker Mehrmann; Hans Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In this partly historical and partly research oriented note, we display a page of an unpublished mathematical diary of Helmut Wielandt's for 1951. There he gives a new proof of a theorem due to H. S. A. Potter on the matrix equation $AB = \\\\omega BA$, which is related to the $q$-binomial theorem, and asks some further questions, which we

  11. Answering Gauguin?s Questions: Where Are We Coming From, Where Are We Going, and What Are We?

    ScienceCinema

    John Ellis

    2010-09-01

    Ellis discusses how the knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, known as the Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions, for example: What is the origin of the matter in the Universe, how does its mass originate, what is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe, and are there additional dimensions of space?

  12. Screening, assessment, and treatment of osteoporosis for the nurse practitioner: Key questions and answers for clinical practice—A Canadian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Peggy; Mehan, Upender; Hamilton, Celeste; Kim, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using a case-based approach, we review key clinical questions relevant to nurse practitioners (NPs) regarding the screening, assessment, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures in a Canadian general practice setting. Data sources A case presentation with relevant questions and answers to guide management of a patient. Conclusions Osteoporosis is a common condition in both the aging male and female populations. Screening, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis is lagging behind relative to other chronic disease states. NPs have a unique opportunity to help reduce this care gap by playing an integral role in the identification, risk stratification, and treatment of patients at risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Implications for practice This case highlights the important role an NP can have in screening a patient previously not diagnosed or managed for osteoporosis. Performing a focused history and physical exam of the patient to determine appropriate screening tests and fracture risk will help in guiding treatment decisions. PMID:24911524

  13. English Language Proficiency Levels of Limited English Proficient Students in Idaho. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur; Deussen, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the proficiency levels of limited English proficient (LEP) students and LEP student subgroups on the Idaho English Language Assessment (IELA). The report addresses two research questions: (1) What is the distribution of LEP students across proficiency levels on the total IELA scale and its five domains?; and (2) How does the…

  14. English Language Proficiency Levels of Limited English Proficient Students in Idaho. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishioka, Vicki; Burke, Arthur; Deussen, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the proficiency levels of limited English proficient (LEP) students and LEP student subgroups on the Idaho English Language Assessment (IELA). The report addresses two research questions: (1) What is the distribution of LEP students across proficiency levels on the total IELA scale and its five domains?; and (2) How does the…

  15. question_1296786512 — Provocative Questions

    Cancer.gov

    An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

  16. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample may represent a group of students who have a higher level of motivation to seek sources of information outside their formal education and have more access to resources than the students of low social classes. To overcome this problem, 739 students were asked to write a question that they wanted to learn from a scientist and as a result 878 questions were gathered. Those students were selected from 13 different schools at 9 cities in Turkey. These schools were selected to represent a mixture of socioeconomic areas and also to cover different students' profile. Students' questions were classified into two main categories: the field of interest and the cognitive level of the question. The results point to the popularity of biology, astrophysics, nature of scientific inquiry, technology and physics over other science areas, as well as indicating a difference in interest according to gender, grade level and the setting in which the questions were asked. However, our study suggests that only considering questions submitted to informal learning environments, such as popular science magazines or Ask-A-Scientist Internet sites has limitations and deficiencies. Other methodologies of data collection also need to be considered in designing teaching and school science curriculum to meet students' needs and interest. The findings from our study tend to challenge existing thinking from other studies. Our results show that self-generated questions asked in an informal and a formal setting have different patterns. Some aspects of students' self-generated questions and their implications for policy, science curriculum reform and teaching are discussed in this paper.

  17. Using Open-Ended Questions to Diagnose Students' Understanding of Inter- and Intramolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rompayom, Patcharee; Tambunchong, Chinda; Wongyounoi, Somson; Dechsri, Precharn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Grade 10 Thai students about their understanding on inter- and intramolecular forces. Sixty four students were elicited by administered open-ended questions after finishing normal instruction on chemical bonding topics. The instrument was in a set of open-ended questions which contained a number of…

  18. Multiple Peer-Assessment Modes to Augment Online Student Question-Generation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    In view of the current theoretical and empirical support for a student-generated questions approach to learning along with the advantageous features of network technology, several online student question-generation learning systems with a peer-assessment component have been developed. Despite this, all existing systems are limited in terms of the…

  19. Selective Attentional Effects of Textbook Study Questions on Student Learning in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports results of a study testing a selective attentional model which predicted that textbook study questions adjunct to a flow diagram will focus students' attention more upon questioned information and less upon nonquestioned information. A picture-word diagram describing biogeochemical cycles to high school biology students (N=176) was used.…

  20. Anchor Essays for Critical Thinking The following sample responses are intended to represent student answers to Critical

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Anchor Essays for Critical Thinking The following sample responses are intended to represent student answers to Critical Thinking assignments that reflect the various levels of proficiency identified@buffalostate.edu. In addition, as campuses continue to develop instruments to assess critical thinking a pool of assignments

  1. From Question to Answer: The Genre of the Problem-Based Learning Tutorial at the University of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, Miranda

    2007-01-01

    In 1997, the Medical Faculty at Hong Kong University adopted a predominantly problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. At the same time, a sizeable PBL component was added to an already established English as a Second Language (ESL) Course for Medicine to help first-year students develop PBL discussion skills. However, it was felt that not enough…

  2. Asking a Question: Diversity in Student Learning Styles

    E-print Network

    Bates, Rebecca A.

    of a research question. Well, really, more than one question. But only one researcher... What I Needed to Learn! What is measurable? What is available in my context? Local Impact Big Picture What theory will support Diversity Approach One week crash course · Theory · Qualitative & quantitative methods · Community Support

  3. A Student Questions How Much Protesters Are Really Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    At age 27, the author became a chairwoman of the Board of Directors of a $75-million conglomerate, the largest student-governed business in the nation. At Associated Students UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles), four undergraduate and four graduate students serve on the board, which oversees the several bookstores, dozens of…

  4. The Overseas Student Question. Studies for a Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Peter, Ed.

    Britain's role and policies with regard to foreign students is examined with the intention of gathering facts about the composition and characteristics of the foreign student body and the cost to the British economy, exploring the various dimensions of British obligations in having the students, and discussing the basis for a long-term policy…

  5. The Effects of Features of Examination Questions on the Performance of Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria; Johnson, Martin; Novakovic, Nadezda

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated whether features of examination questions influence students with dyslexia differently to others, potentially affecting whether they have a fair opportunity to show their knowledge, understanding and skills. A number of science examination questions were chosen. For some questions two slightly different versions were…

  6. Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John C. Butler

    This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

  7. Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

  8. Learning Biology through Research Papers: A Stimulus for Question-Asking by High-School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilat Brill; Anat Yarden

    2003-01-01

    Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers suitable for high-school students. Since a scientific paper poses a research

  9. Parity of Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Women in Brazil: Does the Reported Number of Children Born Depend upon Who Answers National Census Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Ventura Santos, Ricardo; Luiz Bastos, Joăo; Gonçalves Cruz, Oswaldo; de Barros Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira; Flowers, Nancy May; de Oliveira Martins Pereira, Nilza

    2015-01-01

    Taking parity as the main analytic variable, the objective of this study is to investigate whether the patterns of response to national census questions in Brazil differ when Indigenous and non-Indigenous women are compared, taking into consideration whether the information was provided by the women directly or by a proxy respondent (another household member or a non-resident). We use data on children ever born to Indigenous and non-Indigenous women from two Brazilian regions, the Northeast and the North. Data on the number of household members, total household rooms, interviewee’s color/race, educational attainment, age, parity, and type of respondent were obtained from the 2010 Brazilian census. The relation between color/race and reported parity, as well as the impact of the type of respondent on this association were assessed with the Zero-inflated Negative Binomial regression, stratified by region (North and Northeast) and urban/rural status. Just over half of census interviewees answered directly the census questions (51.2% in the North and 54.4% in the Northeast). Indigenous women in the North region had the highest percentage of interviews carried out with a non-resident (12.7% total; 15.0% and 3.0% in rural and urban areas, respectively). Regardless of color/race, parity means were considerably higher when the question was answered by the woman directly (93.5%-101.4% and 15.6%-21.7% higher, compared co-resident and non-resident based answers, respectively). Parity underreporting was particularly strong in Indigenous women living in the rural North (16.0% less in comparison to White women). Proxy respondents tend to underestimate the count of children, particularly among Indigenous women from the North. The implementation of certain methodological alternatives in the Brazilian national censuses, such as the selection and training of census takers to work specifically in Indigenous territories, might be a productive means to improve data collection. PMID:25874712

  10. Teaching Students to Visualize: Nine Key Questions for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Laura A.

    2009-01-01

    The seemingly simple task associated with formal reading instruction may be problematic for many students with speech and language delays who often enter school with meager literacy experiences (B. K. Gunn, D. C. Simmons, & E. J. Kame'enui, 1999). However, the challenges that students face may be reduced when reading instruction includes…

  11. Pace: An Alternative Measure of Student Question Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James J.; Yang, Tong; Chauvin, Sheila W.

    2009-01-01

    In some professions, speed and accuracy are as important as acquired requisite knowledge and skills. The availability of computer-based testing now facilitates examination of these two important aspects of student performance. We found that student response times in a conventional non-speeded multiple-choice test, at both the global and individual…

  12. Asking the Right Questions: Helping Mainstream Students Understand Other Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jefferey H.

    Two common tendencies that lead many mainstream students to misinterpret other cultures are the combative response and the exoticizing response. These misinterpretations, however, can be excellent learning moments for helping students understand the constructed nature of culture and the contextual nature of learning. Transformational multicultural…

  13. Making the Classics Matter to Students through Digital Literacies and Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostenson, Jonathan; Gleason-Sutton, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how to make the classics matter to students through digital literacies and essential questions. The authors share their experiences with planning and delivering a unit that ultimately gave "The Scarlet Letter" real meaning for their students--and helped them do the same for other classics they taught. Students read "The…

  14. Who goes there. A dialogue of questions and answers about benign hacking. [Securing access to computer from outside sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    On August 23, 1986, it was noticed that the accounting files for one of LBL's computing systems failed to balance. On August 24, we received word that an unauthorized person was attempting entry into a US Navy computer from LBL. Preliminary investigation indicated that LBL was the victim of a benign hacker, where ''benign'' is used in the medical sense. It was thought that the perpetrator was a graduate student from a neighboring university, and that it would provide a useful object lesson to other such folk if he were caught and admonished. LBL therefore embarked upon a journey of detection and containment instead of prevention. That journey continues today, having led first across the country, then across the Atlantic. In the course of the journey we have gathered a number of observations that should be of interest to anyone running a computer with any connection to the outside world.

  15. Answering the big questions in neuroscience: DoD's experimental research wing takes on massive, high-risk projects.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    When the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) asks research questions, it goes big. This is, after all, the same agency that put together teams of scientists and engineers to find a way to connect the worlds computers and, in doing so, developed the precursor to the Internet. DARPA, the experimental research wing of the U.S. Department of Defense, funds the types of research queries that scientists and engineers dream of tackling. Unlike a traditional granting agency that conservatively metes out its funding and only to projects with a good chance of success, DARPA puts its money on massive, multi-institutional projects that have no guarantees, but have enormous potential. In the 1990s, DARPA began its biological and medical science research to improve the safety, health, and well being of military personnel, according to DARPA program manager and Army Colonel Geoffrey Ling, Ph.D., M.D. More recently, DARPA has entered the realm of neuroscience and neurotechnology. Its focus with these projects is on its prime customer, the U.S. Department of Defense, but Ling acknowledged that technologies developed in its programs "certainly have potential to cascade into civilian uses." PMID:22344946

  16. Chiropractic care and public health: answering difficult questions about safety, care through the lifespan, and community action.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Claire; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Côté, Pierre; Hestbaek, Lise; Injeyan, H Stephen; Puhl, Aaron; Green, Bart; Napuli, Jason G; Dunn, Andrew S; Dougherty, Paul; Killinger, Lisa Zaynab; Page, Stacey A; Stites, John S; Ramcharan, Michael; Leach, Robert A; Byrd, Lori D; Redwood, Daniel; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah R

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this collaborative summary is to document current chiropractic involvement in the public health movement, reflect on social ecological levels of influence as a profession, and summarize the relationship of chiropractic to the current public health topics of: safety, health issues through the lifespan, and effective participation in community health issues. The questions that are addressed include: Is spinal manipulative therapy for neck and low-back pain a public health problem? What is the role of chiropractic care in prevention or reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in children? What ways can doctors of chiropractic stay updated on evidence-based information about vaccines and immunization throughout the lifespan? Can smoking cessation be a prevention strategy for back pain? Does chiropractic have relevance within the VA Health Care System for chronic pain and comorbid disorders? How can chiropractic use cognitive behavioral therapy to address chronic low back pain as a public health problem? What opportunities exist for doctors of chiropractic to more effectively serve the aging population? What is the role of ethics and the contribution of the chiropractic profession to public health? What public health roles can chiropractic interns perform for underserved communities in a collaborative environment? Can the chiropractic profession contribute to community health? What opportunities do doctors of chiropractic have to be involved in health care reform in the areas of prevention and public health? What role do citizen-doctors of chiropractic have in organizing community action on health-related matters? How can our future chiropractic graduates become socially responsible agents of change? PMID:23069244

  17. Do cortical gamma oscillations promote or suppress perception? An under-asked question with an over-assumed answer

    PubMed Central

    Sedley, William; Cunningham, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical gamma oscillations occur alongside perceptual processes, and in proportion to perceptual salience. They have a number of properties that make them ideal candidates to explain perception, including incorporating synchronized discharges of neural assemblies, and their emergence over a fast timescale consistent with that of perception. These observations have led to widespread assumptions that gamma oscillations' role is to cause or facilitate conscious perception (i.e., a “positive” role). While the majority of the human literature on gamma oscillations is consistent with this interpretation, many or most of these studies could equally be interpreted as showing a suppressive or inhibitory (i.e., “negative”) role. For example, presenting a stimulus and recording a response of increased gamma oscillations would only suggest a role for gamma oscillations in the representation of that stimulus, and would not specify what that role were; if gamma oscillations were inhibitory, then they would become selectively activated in response to the stimulus they acted to inhibit. In this review, we consider two classes of gamma oscillations: “broadband” and “narrowband,” which have very different properties (and likely roles). We first discuss studies on gamma oscillations that are non-discriminatory, with respect to the role of gamma oscillations, followed by studies that specifically support specifically a positive or negative role. These include work on perception in healthy individuals, and in the pathological contexts of phantom perception and epilepsy. Reference is based as much as possible on magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) studies, but we also consider evidence from invasive recordings in humans and other animals. Attempts are made to reconcile findings within a common framework. We conclude with a summary of the pertinent questions that remain unanswered, and suggest how future studies might address these. PMID:24065913

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Delaware. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Delaware public schools from 2002/03 to 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Delaware public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage scoring at…

  19. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

  20. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in Maryland. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes limited English proficient (LEP) student enrollment and achievement trends in Maryland. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of LEP students in Maryland public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage scoring at the proficient or advanced level) on…