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1

A Queuing Theory and Systems Modeling Course Based on Unified Modeling Language (UML)

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the implementation of a new teaching method in the way that a queuing theory and systems modeling or simulation course can be done. It also presents how this method was evaluated by the teachers and the students that attended the course and answered a questionnaire. This course is based on the use of Unified Modeling Language (UML) as the mean to teach modeling of discrete event systems such as queues and networks and not on Mathematics that sometimes is too difficult for students to understand.

Perdos, Athanasios; Stephanides, George; Chatzigeorgiou, Alexander

2

An Application of Queuing Theory to Waterfowl Migration

Abstract: There has always been great interest in the migration of waterfowl and other birds. We have applied queuing theory to modelling waterfowl migration, beginning with a prototype system for the Rocky Mountain Population of trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) in Western North America. The queuing model can be classified as a D\\/BB\\/28 system, and we describe the input sources, service

Richard S. Sojda; John E. Cornely; Leigh H. Fredrickson

3

Queuing theory models for computer networks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of simple queuing theory models which can model the average response of a network of computers to a given traffic load has been implemented using a spreadsheet. The impact of variations in traffic patterns and intensities, channel capacities, and message protocols can be assessed using them because of the lack of fine detail in the network traffic rates, traffic patterns, and the hardware used to implement the networks. A sample use of the models applied to a realistic problem is included in appendix A. Appendix B provides a glossary of terms used in this paper. This Ames Research Center computer communication network is an evolving network of local area networks (LANs) connected via gateways and high-speed backbone communication channels. Intelligent planning of expansion and improvement requires understanding the behavior of the individual LANs as well as the collection of networks as a whole.

Galant, David C.

1989-01-01

4

Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Model to Optimize Hospital Pharmacy Performance

Background: Hospital pharmacy is responsible for controlling and monitoring the medication use process and ensures the timely access to safe, effective and economical use of drugs and medicines for patients and hospital staff. Objectives: This study aimed to optimize the management of studied outpatient pharmacy by developing suitable queuing theory and simulation technique. Patients and Methods: A descriptive-analytical study conducted in a military hospital in Iran, Tehran in 2013. A sample of 220 patients referred to the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital in two shifts, morning and evening, was selected to collect the necessary data to determine the arrival rate, service rate, and other data needed to calculate the patients flow and queuing network performance variables. After the initial analysis of collected data using the software SPSS 18, the pharmacy queuing network performance indicators were calculated for both shifts. Then, based on collected data and to provide appropriate solutions, the queuing system of current situation for both shifts was modeled and simulated using the software ARENA 12 and 4 scenarios were explored. Results: Results showed that the queue characteristics of the studied pharmacy during the situation analysis were very undesirable in both morning and evening shifts. The average numbers of patients in the pharmacy were 19.21 and 14.66 in the morning and evening, respectively. The average times spent in the system by clients were 39 minutes in the morning and 35 minutes in the evening. The system utilization in the morning and evening were, respectively, 25% and 21%. The simulation results showed that reducing the staff in the morning from 2 to 1 in the receiving prescriptions stage didn't change the queue performance indicators. Increasing one staff in filling prescription drugs could cause a decrease of 10 persons in the average queue length and 18 minutes and 14 seconds in the average waiting time. On the other hand, simulation results showed that in the evening, decreasing the staff from 2 to 1 in the delivery of prescription drugs, changed the queue performance indicators very little. Increasing a staff to fill prescription drugs could cause a decrease of 5 persons in the average queue length and 8 minutes and 44 seconds in the average waiting time. Conclusions: The patients' waiting times and the number of patients waiting to receive services in both shifts could be reduced by using multitasking persons and reallocating them to the time-consuming stage of filling prescriptions, using queuing theory and simulation techniques. PMID:24829791

Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Mohammadnejhad, Seyed Mohsen; Ravangard, Ramin; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan

2014-01-01

5

Spreadsheet Analysis Of Queuing In A Computer Network

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method of analyzing responses of computer network based on simple queuing-theory mathmatical models via spreadsheet program. Effects of variations in traffic, capacities of channels, and message protocols assessed.

Galant, David C.

1992-01-01

6

T-Cell Activation: A Queuing Theory Analysis at Low Agonist Density J. R. Wedagedera* and N. J, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom ABSTRACT We analyze a simple linear triggering model of the T-cell,arobustnessanalysisshowsthatthesepropertiesaredegradedwhenthequeueparameters aresubject tovariation--for example, under stochasticity in the ligand number in the cell-cell interface

Wedagedera, Janak R.

7

Modeling ad hoc network based on 802.11 DCF by queuing network analyzer

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an analytic model for evaluating the average end-to-end delay and per-node throughput in an IEEE802.11MAC DCF based wireless network. By virtue of QNA and probability generation function, we model ad hoc network as open M/G/1 queuing networks and obtain the closed form expressions for average end-to-end delay. Simulations based on NS2 validate the accuracy of our model.

Zhang, Wenbin; Zhang, Zhongzhao

2007-11-01

8

Effects of diversity and procrastination in priority queuing theory: The different power law regimes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical analyses show that after the update of a browser, or the publication of the vulnerability of a software, or the discovery of a cyber worm, the fraction of computers still using the older browser or software version, or not yet patched, or exhibiting worm activity decays as a power law ˜1/t? with 0queuing theory, of a target task which has the lowest priority compared to all other tasks that flow on the computer of an individual. We identify a “time deficit” control parameter ? and a bifurcation to a regime where there is a nonzero probability for the target task to never be completed. The distribution of waiting time T until the completion of the target task has the power law tail ˜1/t1/2 , resulting from a first-passage solution of an equivalent Wiener process. Taking into account a diversity of time deficit parameters in a population of individuals, the power law tail is changed into 1/t? , with ??(0.5,?) , including the well-known case 1/t . We also study the effect of “procrastination,” defined as the situation in which the target task may be postponed or delayed even after the individual has solved all other pending tasks. This regime provides an explanation for even slower apparent decay and longer persistence.

Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

2010-01-01

9

Empirical analyses show that after the update of a browser, or the publication of the vulnerability of a software, or the discovery of a cyber worm, the fraction of computers still using the older browser or software version, or not yet patched, or exhibiting worm activity decays as a power law approximately 1/t(alpha) with 0

Saichev, A; Sornette, D

2010-01-01

10

Intertemporal and probabilistic decision-making has been studied in psychiatry, ecology, and neuroeconomics. Because drug addicts and psycopaths often make risky decisions (e.g., drug misuse and aggression), investigation into types of impulsivity in intertemporal and probabilistic choices (delay and probability discounting) are important for psychiatric treatments. Studies in behavioral ecology proposed that delay and probability discounting are mediated by the same psychological process, because a decrease in probability of winning corresponds to an increase in delay until winning. According to this view, odds-against winning (=1/p-1) in probabilistic choice corresponds to delay in intertemporal choice. This hypothesis predicts that preference of gambling (low degree of probability discounting) may be associated with patience, rather than impulsivity or impatience, in intertemporal choice (low degree of delay discounting). However, recent empirical evidence in psychiatric research employing pathological gamblers indicates that pathological gamblers are impulsive in intertemporal choice (high degrees of delay discounting). However, a hyperbolic discounting function (usually adopted to explain intertemporal choice) with odds-against (instead of delay) explain experimental data in probabilistic choice dramatically well. Therefore, an alternative explanation is required for the hypothetical equivalence of odds-against to delay. We propose that queuing theory (often adopted for analyzing computer network traffic) under a competitive social foraging condition may explain the equivalence. Our hypothesis may help understand impulsivity of psychiatrics in social behavior (e.g., aggression and antisocial behavior) in addition to non-social impulsivity in reward-seeking (e.g., substance misuse). PMID:16574335

Takahashi, Taiki

2006-01-01

11

This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model. PMID:24688367

He, Xinhua

2014-01-01

12

The knowledge base of the electric power system engineering community continues to grow with installed capacity of wind generation in North America. While this process has certainly occurred at other times in the industry with other technologies, the relatively explosive growth, the compressed time frames from project conception to commissioning, and the unconventional characteristics of wind generation make this period in the industry somewhat unique. Large wind generation facilities are necessarily evolving to look more and more like conventional generating plants in terms of their ability to interact with the transmission network in a way that does not compromise performance or system reliability. Such an evolution has only been possible through the cumulative contributions of an ever-growing number of power system engineers who have delved into the unique technologies and technical challenges presented by wind generation. The industry is still only part of the way up the learning curve, however. Numerous technical challenges remain, and as has been found, each new wind generation facility has the potential to generate some new questions. With the IEEE PES expanding its presence and activities in this increasingly significant commercial arena, the prospects for staying "ahead of the curve" are brightened.

Miller, Nicholas [GE; Zavadil, Robert [Enenex; Ellis, Abraham [Public Service of New Mexico; Muljadi, Eduard [IEEE Industrial Applications Society; Camm, Ernst [Not Specified; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2007-01-01

13

A Comparison of Feedback Based and Fair Queuing Mechanisms for Handling Unresponsive Traffic

The stability of the current Internet depends on the end-to-end congestion control mechanism provided by TCP. Recently, popular multimedia applications (RealAudio, RLM) started using more aggressive forms of congestion control. It is not clear yet how wide uncooperation will become in Internet, but it seems dangerous to base the Internet congestion control solely on the assumption of end-host cooperation. In

Costin Iancu; Anurag Acharya

2001-01-01

14

Queuing Network Models for Aircraft Availability and Spares Management

Interactions of major activities involved in airfleet operations, maintenance, and logistics are investigated in the framework of closed queuing networks with finite number of customers. The system is viewed at three levels, namely: operations at the flying-base, maintenance at the repair-depot, and logistics for subsystems and their interactions in achieving the system objectives. Several performance measures (eg, availability of aircraft

V. Mani; V. V. S. Sarma

1984-01-01

15

Scheduling in HPC Resource Management Systems: Queuing vs. Planning

Nearly all existing HPC systems are operated by resource management systems based on the queuing approach. With the increas- ing acceptance of grid middleware like Globus, new requirements for the underlying local resource management systems arise. Features like ad- vanced reservation or quality of service are needed to implement high level functions like co-allocation. However it is dicult to realize

Matthias Hovestadt; Odej Kao; Axel Keller; Achim Streit

2003-01-01

16

The Art of Queuing: a Faster QuickPass System

Summary This paper discusses performance of queuing systems, particularly QuickPass system, as well as design optimal operation strategy to minimize time cost function of amusement park tourists. Firstly, we propose a reasonable evaluation criterion. Based on some practical regulations of FASTPASS in Disneyland, we model for two typical items in the park. The \\

Yao Xie; Chao Ma; Hao Yu; Jia Yao

17

Application of queuing model in Dubai's busiest megaplex

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a study and analysis of the extremely busy booking counters at the Megaplex in Dubai using the queuing model and simulation. Dubai is an emirate in UAE with a multicultural population. Majority of the population in Dubai is foreign born. Cinema is one of the major forms of entertainment. There are more than 13 megaplexes each with a number of screens ranging from 3 to 22. They screen movies in English, Arabic, Hindi and other languages. It has been observed that during the weekends megaplexes attract a large number of crowd resulting in long queues at the booking counters. One of the busiest megaplex was selected for the study. Queuing theory satisfies the model when tested in real time situation. The concepts of arrival rate, service rate, utilization rate, waiting time in the system, average number of people in the queue, using Little's Theorem and M/M/s queuing model along with simulation software have been used to suggest an empirical solution. The aim of the paper is twofold-To assess the present situation at the Megaplex and give recommendations to optimize the use of booking counters.

Bhagchandani, Maneesha; Bajpai, Priti

2013-09-01

18

Jamming transition in traffic flow under the priority queuing protocol

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Packet traffic in complex networks undergoes the jamming transition from free-flow to congested state as the number of packets in the system increases. Here we study such jamming transition when queues are operated by the priority queuing protocol and packets are guided by the dynamic routing protocol. We introduce a minimal model in which there are two types of packets distinguished by whether priority is assigned. Based on numerical simulations, we show that traffic is improved in the congested region under the priority queuing protocol, and it is worsened in the free-flow region. Also, we find that at the transition point, the waiting-time distribution follows a power law, and the power spectrum of traffic exhibits a crossover between two 1/f? behaviors with two different exponents ?<2 in low- and high-frequency regime, respectively. This crossover is originated from a characteristic waiting time of packets in the queue.

Kim, K.; Kahng, B.; Kim, D.

2009-06-01

19

Modeling patient flows using a queuing network with blocking.

The downsizing and closing of state mental health institutions in Philadelphia in the 1990's led to the development of a continuum care network of residential-based services. Although the diversity of care settings increased, congestion in facilities caused many patients to unnecessarily spend extra days in intensive facilities. This study applies a queuing network system with blocking to analyze such congestion processes. "Blocking" denotes situations where patients are turned away from accommodations to which they are referred, and are thus forced to remain in their present facilities until space becomes available. Both mathematical and simulation results are presented and compared. Although queuing models have been used in numerous healthcare studies, the inclusion of blocking is still rare. We found that, in Philadelphia, the shortage of a particular type of facilities may have created "upstream blocking". Thus removal of such facility-specific bottlenecks may be the most efficient way to reduce congestion in the system as a whole. PMID:15782512

Koizumi, Naoru; Kuno, Eri; Smith, Tony E

2005-02-01

20

Queuing register uses fluid logic elements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Queuing register /a multistage bit-shifting device/ uses a series of pure fluid elements to perform the required logic operations. The register has several stages of three-state pure fluid elements combined with two-input NOR gates.

1966-01-01

21

Queuing Models of Tertiary Storage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large scale scientific projects generate and use large amounts of data. For example, the NASA Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project is expected to archive one petabyte per year of raw satellite data. This data is made automatically available for processing into higher level data products and for dissemination to the scientific community. Such large volumes of data can only be stored in robotic storage libraries (RSL's) for near-line access. A characteristic of RSL's is the use of a robot arm that transfers media between a storage rack and the read/write drives, thus multiplying the capacity of the system. The performance of the RSL's can be a critical limiting factor for the performance of the archive system. However, the many interacting components of an RSL make a performance analysis difficult. In addition, different RSL components can have widely varying performance characteristics. This paper describes our work to develop performance models of an RSL in isolation. Next we show how the RSL model can be incorporated into a queuing network model. We use the models to make some example performance studies of archive systems. The models described in this paper, developed for the NASA EODIS project, are implemented in C with a well defined interface. The source code, accompanying documentation, and also sample JAVA applets are available at: http://www.cis.ufl.edu/ted/

Johnson, Theodore

1996-01-01

22

Unions and Job Queuing in Mexico's Maquiladoras

The U.S.-Mexico border region has experienced substantial economic growth over the last two decades; nonetheless, employment and wage growth has been uneven across the border cities with a high maquiladora presence. We hypothesize that these growth differences can be traced to relative labor union power. Using microdata from the 1998 National Urban Employment Survey, we find evidence of job queuing

Rafael Otero; Jose Pagan

2002-01-01

23

Theory-Based Stakeholder Evaluation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a new approach to program theory evaluation called theory-based stakeholder evaluation or the TSE model for short. Most theory-based approaches are program theory driven and some are stakeholder oriented as well. Practically, all of the latter fuse the program perceptions of the various stakeholder groups into one unitary…

Hansen, Morten Balle; Vedung, Evert

2010-01-01

24

A Fast Flow Control and Approach Queuing Monitor using FDP in Excel Environment

Flow control monitor is relating to huge amount of flight data processor (FDP) and radar data processor (RDP) message to any en-route center. Under current high flow density situations, most major airports have encountered flow control problem. Approach queuing based on the estimated time of arrival (ETA) from FDP and revised by RDP on the metering fixes in the terminal

Chin E. Lin; Shao-Gang Jian; Jerry Kao; P. Chang

2007-01-01

25

Integration of queuing network and IDEF3 for business process analysis

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a framework and prototype software to use IDEF3 descriptions as a knowledge base from which a queuing network (QN) analysis is performed to compute system performance measures as part of quick response manufacturing. This intends to help domain experts obtain informative quantitative performance measures such as resource utilization, waiting time,

Ki-Young Jeong; Hyunbo Cho; Don T. Phillips

2008-01-01

26

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this theoretical essay is to explore the limits of traditional conceptualizations of reader and text and to propose a more general theory based on the concept of a literacy agent. The proposed theoretical perspective subsumes concepts from traditional theory and aims to account for literacy online. The agent-based literacy theory…

McEneaney, John E.

2006-01-01

27

Biomass management in recirculating aquaculture systems using queuing networks

Queuing network contains a series of service facilities (in our case, culture tanks or ponds), at some or all of which, a customer (fish) must receive service; it is, therefore, necessary to study the entire network. A culture tank or pond can be seen as a queuing system in which neither a queue (“over-holding” of fish in tank A before

Ilan Halachmi

2007-01-01

28

Some queuing network models of computer systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Queuing network models of a computer system operating with a single workload type are presented. Program algorithms are adapted for use on the Texas Instruments SR-52 programmable calculator. By slightly altering the algorithm to process the G and H matrices row by row instead of column by column, six devices and an unlimited job/terminal population could be handled on the SR-52. Techniques are also introduced for handling a simple load dependent server and for studying interactive systems with fixed multiprogramming limits.

Herndon, E. S.

1980-01-01

29

Guaranteed real-time communication in packet-switched networks with FCFS queuing

In this paper, we propose a feasibility analysis of periodic hard real-time traffic in packet-switched networks using First Come First Served (FCFS) queuing but no traffic shapers. Our work constitutes a framework that can be adopted for real- time analysis of switched low-cost networks like Ethernet without modification of the standard network components. Our analysis is based on a flexible

Xing Fan; Magnus Jonsson; Jan Jonsson

2009-01-01

30

A parallelizing algorithm based on a priority queuing system is developed for solving the three-dimensional radiative transfer equation (RTE) using the discrete ordinates method (DOM) in an absorbing-emitting medium. The classical iterative method of initializing intensity values at processor boundaries and conducting iterations until convergence is very inefficient, and hence a better technique is desired. The method developed here is

Abhilash J. Chandy; David J. Glaze; Steven H. Frankel

2007-01-01

31

NQS - NETWORK QUEUING SYSTEM, VERSION 2.0 (UNIX VERSION)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Network Queuing System, NQS, is a versatile batch and device queuing facility for a single Unix computer or a group of networked computers. With the Unix operating system as a common interface, the user can invoke the NQS collection of user-space programs to move batch and device jobs freely around the different computer hardware tied into the network. NQS provides facilities for remote queuing, request routing, remote status, queue status controls, batch request resource quota limits, and remote output return. This program was developed as part of an effort aimed at tying together diverse UNIX based machines into NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulator Processing System Network. This revision of NQS allows for creating, deleting, adding and setting of complexes that aid in limiting the number of requests to be handled at one time. It also has improved device-oriented queues along with some revision of the displays. NQS was designed to meet the following goals: 1) Provide for the full support of both batch and device requests. 2) Support all of the resource quotas enforceable by the underlying UNIX kernel implementation that are relevant to any particular batch request and its corresponding batch queue. 3) Support remote queuing and routing of batch and device requests throughout the NQS network. 4) Support queue access restrictions through user and group access lists for all queues. 5) Enable networked output return of both output and error files to possibly remote machines. 6) Allow mapping of accounts across machine boundaries. 7) Provide friendly configuration and modification mechanisms for each installation. 8) Support status operations across the network, without requiring a user to log in on remote target machines. 9) Provide for file staging or copying of files for movement to the actual execution machine. To support batch and device requests, NQS v.2 implements three queue types--batch, device and pipe. Batch queues hold and prioritize batch requests; device queues hold and prioritize device requests; pipe queues transport both batch and device requests to other batch, device, or pipe queues at local or remote machines. Unique to batch queues are resource quota limits that restrict the amounts of different resources that a batch request can consume during execution. Unique to each device queue is a set of one or more devices, such as a line printer, to which requests can be sent for execution. Pipe queues have associated destinations to which they route and deliver requests. If the proper destination machine is down or unreachable, pipe queues are able to requeue the request and deliver it later when the destination is available. All NQS network conversations are performed using the Berkeley socket mechanism as ported into the respective vendor kernels. NQS is written in C language. The generic UNIX version (ARC-13179) has been successfully implemented on a variety of UNIX platforms, including Sun3 and Sun4 series computers, SGI IRIS computers running IRIX 3.3, DEC computers running ULTRIX 4.1, AMDAHL computers running UTS 1.3 and 2.1, platforms running BSD 4.3 UNIX. The IBM RS/6000 AIX version (COS-10042) is a vendor port. NQS 2.0 will also communicate with the Cray Research, Inc. and Convex, Inc. versions of NQS. The standard distribution medium for either machine version of NQS 2.0 is a 60Mb, QIC-24, .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. Upon request the generic UNIX version (ARC-13179) can be provided in UNIX tar format on alternate media. Please contact COSMIC to discuss the availability and cost of media to meet your specific needs. An electronic copy of the NQS 2.0 documentation is included on the program media. NQS 2.0 was released in 1991. The IBM RS/6000 port of NQS was developed in 1992. IRIX is a trademark of Silicon Graphics Inc. IRIS is a registered trademark of Silicon Graphics Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of UNIX System Laboratories Inc. Sun3 and Sun4 are trademarks of Sun Microsystems Inc. DEC and ULTRIX are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.

Walter, H.

1994-01-01

32

A queueing theory based model for business continuity in hospitals.

Clinical activities can be seen as results of precise and defined events' succession where every single phase is characterized by a waiting time which includes working duration and possible delay. Technology makes part of this process. For a proper business continuity management, planning the minimum number of devices according to the working load only is not enough. A risk analysis on the whole process should be carried out in order to define which interventions and extra purchase have to be made. Markov models and reliability engineering approaches can be used for evaluating the possible interventions and to protect the whole system from technology failures. The following paper reports a case study on the application of the proposed integrated model, including risk analysis approach and queuing theory model, for defining the proper number of device which are essential to guarantee medical activity and comply the business continuity management requirements in hospitals. PMID:24109839

Miniati, R; Cecconi, G; Dori, F; Frosini, F; Iadanza, E; Biffi Gentili, G; Niccolini, F; Gusinu, R

2013-01-01

33

Queuing Models of Airport Departure Processes for Emissions Reduction

of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Aircraft taxiing on the surface contribute significantly to the fuel and emissions from surface operations through a reduction of the taxi times of departing aircraft. A novel approach is proposed that models the aircraft departure process as a queuing system, and attempts to reduce

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

34

A queuing model for meteor burst packet communication systems

A discrete-time queuing model for the performance of a meteor-burst packet communication system is analyzed using matrix analytic methods. Not only is the system subject to interruptions due to the intermittence of the ionization layer, but its analysis is further complicated by the necessity to retransmit packets that have error or that occur at the tail end of a period

Y. Chandramouli; M. F. Neuts; V. Ramaswami

1989-01-01

35

FIFO Queuing of Constant Length Fully Synchronous Jobs

FIFO Queuing of Constant Length Fully Synchronous Jobs Vandy Berten, Raymond Devillers and Guy synchronous parallel jobs are submitted. In order to simplify the analysis, we assume constant length jobs In a (computational) Grid, clients submit their jobs to a job broker, who sends them to well chosen computing elements

Louchard, Guy

36

Queuing analysis of dynamic resource allocation for virtual routers

Queuing analysis of dynamic resource allocation for virtual routers M. Said Seddiki , Bilel Nefzi routers in order to allow an adaptive change in the resource allocation. In this paper, we focus on the router data plane virtualization and we explore this issue by presenting a new dynamic allocation

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

37

Scheduling algorithms for input-queued IP routers

1 1 Scheduling algorithms for input-queued IP routers Andrea Bianco Paolo Giaccone Gruppo Reti di Architectures 2011/12 2 Outline IP routers OQ routers IQ routers Scheduling Optimal algorithms Heuristic algorithms Packet-mode algorithms Networks of routers QoS support CIOQ routers Multicast traffic Conclusions

Giaccone, Paolo

38

Packet-Mode Emulation of Output-Queued Switches

packet-mode emulation. Index Terms--Internetworking, packet-switching networks, routers, sequencingPacket-Mode Emulation of Output-Queued Switches Hagit Attiya, David Hay, Member, IEEE, and Isaac Keslassy, Member, IEEE Abstract--Most common network protocols transmit variable size packets, whereas

Keslassy, Isaac

39

Theory and Theory-Driven Practices of Activity Based Intervention

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activity Based Intervention (ABI) is an approach used in many early childhood programs serving the special needs of young children and their families. The purpose of this article is to present theoretical underpinnings of ABI, and discusses theory-based ABI practices. ABI draws upon multiple and varied theories which in turn inform practice. At…

Macy, Marisa

2007-01-01

40

Modified weighted fair queuing for packet scheduling in mobile WiMAX networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase of user mobility and the need for data access anytime also increases the interest in broadband wireless access (BWA). The best available quality of experience for mobile data service users are assured for IEEE 802.16e based users. The main problem of assuring a high QOS value is how to allocate available resources among users in order to meet the QOS requirement for criteria such as delay, throughput, packet loss and fairness. There is no specific standard scheduling mechanism stated by IEEE standards, which leaves it for implementer differentiation. There are five QOS service classes defined by IEEE 802.16: Unsolicited Grant Scheme (UGS), Extended Real Time Polling Service (ertPS), Real Time Polling Service (rtPS), Non Real Time Polling Service (nrtPS) and Best Effort Service (BE). Each class has different QOS parameter requirements for throughput and delay/jitter constraints. This paper proposes Modified Weighted Fair Queuing (MWFQ) scheduling scenario which was based on Weighted Round Robin (WRR) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ). The performance of MWFQ was assessed by using above five QoS criteria. The simulation shows that using the concept of total packet size calculation improves the network's performance.

Satrya, Gandeva B.; Brotoharsono, Tri

2013-03-01

41

The Regional Meteorological Service for the Emilia-Romagna Region manages a network of automatic weather stations equipped with electronic sensors suitable for measuring meteorological parameters. The automatic stations consist of electronic instruments, which are subject to failures at more or less frequent intervals. A summary of their performance is necessary. In this paper, we compare the results of the summary, such

G. Galliani; F. Filippini; F. Screpanti

1999-01-01

42

Due to the limited resources of wireless sensor network, low efficiency of real-time communication scheduling, poor safety defects, and so forth, a queuing performance evaluation approach based on regular expression match is proposed, which is a method that consists of matching preprocessing phase, validation phase, and queuing model of performance evaluation phase. Firstly, the subset of related sequence is generated in preprocessing phase, guiding the validation phase distributed matching. Secondly, in the validation phase, the subset of features clustering, the compressed matching table is more convenient for distributed parallel matching. Finally, based on the queuing model, the sensor networks of task scheduling dynamic performance are evaluated. Experiments show that our approach ensures accurate matching and computational efficiency of more than 70%; it not only effectively detects data packets and access control, but also uses queuing method to determine the parameters of task scheduling in wireless sensor networks. The method for medium scale or large scale distributed wireless node has a good applicability.

Cui, Kai; Zhou, Kuanjiu; Yu, Yanshuo

2014-01-01

43

Due to the limited resources of wireless sensor network, low efficiency of real-time communication scheduling, poor safety defects, and so forth, a queuing performance evaluation approach based on regular expression match is proposed, which is a method that consists of matching preprocessing phase, validation phase, and queuing model of performance evaluation phase. Firstly, the subset of related sequence is generated in preprocessing phase, guiding the validation phase distributed matching. Secondly, in the validation phase, the subset of features clustering, the compressed matching table is more convenient for distributed parallel matching. Finally, based on the queuing model, the sensor networks of task scheduling dynamic performance are evaluated. Experiments show that our approach ensures accurate matching and computational efficiency of more than 70%; it not only effectively detects data packets and access control, but also uses queuing method to determine the parameters of task scheduling in wireless sensor networks. The method for medium scale or large scale distributed wireless node has a good applicability. PMID:25401151

Wang, Jie; Cui, Kai; Zhou, Kuanjiu; Yu, Yanshuo

2014-01-01

44

State-dependent M/G/1 type queuing analysis for congestion control in data networks

of the analysis: F(x) = PDF of W(t) in the stationary regime. E[Wk(t)], k 1 = Moments of W(t) in the stationary queuing model * The problem of congestion control can be seen as a queuing model: The window corresponds, Towsley, 1999] #12;11 Recursive equations for moments Steady state Kolmogorov equation: Relation between

Barakat, Chadi

45

IMPACT OF ROUTER QUEUING DISCIPLINES ON MULTIMEDIA QOE IN IPTV DEPLOYMENTS

IMPACT OF ROUTER QUEUING DISCIPLINES ON MULTIMEDIA QOE IN IPTV DEPLOYMENTS P. Calyam, P.edu {yudelei, liuying, xionglixia, yangdaoyan}@huawei.com ABSTRACT Internet television (IPTV) is rapidly health, router queu- ing discipline) factors that affect IPTV deployment. In this paper, we analyze

Calyam, Prasad

46

Duality Between Prefetching and Queued Writing with Parallel Disks

with the high latency of accessing data on disks, e?cient EM algorithms exploit locality in their design. In the I/O model, EM algorithms access a large block of B contiguous data elements in one I/O step and perform the necessary algorithmic operations..., and an internal memory of size M. All blocks have the same size B. In one I/O step, one block on each disk can be accessed in a synchronized fashion. We consider either a queued writing or a bu?ered prefetching arrangement, where a pool of m block bu?ers...

Hutchinson, David A.; Sanders, Peter; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

2005-01-01

47

A message-queuing framework for STAR's online monitoring and metadata collection

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our experience on migrating STARs Online Services (Run Control System, Data Acquisition System, Slow Control System and Subsystem Monitoring) from direct read/write database accesses to a modern non-blocking message-oriented infrastructure. Based on the Advanced Messaging Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and standards, this novel approach does not specify the message data structure, allowing great flexibility in its use. After careful consideration, we chose Google Protocol Buffers as our primary (de)serialization format for structured data exchange. This migration allows us to reduce the overall system complexity and greatly improve the reliability of the metadata collection and the performance of our online services in general. We will present this new framework through its software architecture overview, providing details about our staged and non-disruptive migration process as well as details of the implementation of pluggable components to provide future improvements without compromising stability and availability of services.

Arkhipkin, D.; Lauret, J.; Betts, W.

2011-12-01

48

Quantum field theory based on birefringent modified Maxwell theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current paper the properties of a birefringent Lorentz-violating extension of quantum electrodynamics is considered. The theory results from coupling modified Maxwell theory, which is a CPT-even Lorentz-violating extension of the photon sector, to a Dirac theory of standard spin-1/2 particles. It is then restricted to a special birefringent case with one nonzero Lorentz-violating coefficient. The modified dispersion laws of electromagnetic waves are obtained plus their phase and group velocities are considered. After deriving the photon propagator and the polarization vectors for a special momentum configuration we prove both unitarity at tree level and microcausality for the quantum field theory based on this Lorentz-violating modification. These analytical proofs are done for a spatial momentum with two vanishing components and the proof of unitarity is supported by numerical investigations in case all components are nonvanishing. The upshot is that the theory is well behaved within the framework of our assumptions where there is a possible issue for negative Lorentz-violating coefficients. The paper shall provide a basis for the future analysis of alternative birefringent quantum field theories.

Schreck, M.

2014-04-01

49

Quantum field theory based on birefringent modified Maxwell theory

In the current paper the properties of a birefringent Lorentz-violating extension of quantum electrodynamics is considered. The theory results from coupling modified Maxwell theory, which is a CPT-even Lorentz-violating extension of the photon sector, to a Dirac theory of standard spin-1/2 particles. It is then restricted to a special birefringent case with one nonzero Lorentz-violating coefficient. The modified dispersion laws of electromagnetic waves are obtained plus their phase and group velocities are considered. After deriving the photon propagator and the polarization vectors for a special momentum configuration we prove both unitarity at tree-level and microcausality for the quantum field theory based on this Lorentz-violating modification. These analytical proofs are done for a spatial momentum with two vanishing components and the proof of unitarity is supported by numerical investigations in case all components are nonvanishing. The upshot is that the theory is well-behaved within the framework of our assumptions where there is a possible issue for negative Lorentz-violating coefficients. The paper shall provide a basis for the future analysis of alternative birefringent quantum field theories.

M. Schreck

2013-10-31

50

Social queuing in animal societies: a dynamic model of reproductive skew

Previously developed models of reproductive skew have overlooked one of the main reasons why subordinates might remain in a group despite restricted opportunities to breed: the possibility of social queuing, i.e. acquiring dominant status in the future. Here, we present a dynamic ESS model of skew in animal societies that incorporates both immediate and future fitness consequences of the decisions taken by group members, based on their probability of surviving from one season to the next (when post-breeding survival probabilities drop to zero, our analysis reduces to the model produced by Reeve and Ratnieks in 1993, which considered only a single breeding season). This allows us to compare the delayed benefits of philopatry and the immediate opportunities for independent breeding. We show that delayed benefits greatly reduce the need for dominants to offer reproductive concessions to retain subordinates peacefully in the group. Moreover, this effect is strong enough that differences in survival have a much greater impact on the group structure than differences in other parameters, such as relatedness. When the possibility of acceding to dominant status is taken into account, groups where the dominant completely monopolizes reproduction can be stable, even if they consist of unrelated individuals, and even if subordinates have a reasonably high probability of winning a fight for dominance. Finally, we show that stable groups are possible even if association leads to a decrease in current productivity. Subordinates may still stand to gain from group membership under these circumstances, as acquiring breeding positions by queuing may be more efficient than the attempt to establish a new territory. At the same time, the dominant may be unable to exclude unwelcome subordinates, may enjoy increased survival when they are present, or may gain indirect benefits from allowing relatives to stay and queue for dominance. We conclude that reproductive skew in animal groups, ranging from eusocial insect colonies to mating aggregations (leks), will be strongly influenced by the future prospects of group members.

Kokko, H.; Johnstone, R. A.

1999-01-01

51

An efficient scheduling algorithm for combined input-crosspoint-queued (CICQ) switches

With today's ASIC technology, a large amount of memory can be easily implemented in a single chip. This makes the combined input-crosspoint-queued (CICQ) crossbar switch a more attractive solution than the traditional input-queued (IQ) crossbar switch because of the simplicity of the CICQ switch scheduling. We propose a shortest crosspoint buffer first (SCBF) scheme, and prove that it achieves 100%

Xiao Zhang; Laxmi N. Bhuyan

2004-01-01

52

A complexity theory based on Boolean algebra

A projection of a Boolean function is a function obtained by substituting for each of its variables a variable, the negation of a variable, or a constant. Reducibilities among computational problems under this relation of projection are considered. It is shown that much of what is of everyday relevance in Turing-machine-based complexity theory can be replicated easily and naturally in

Sven Skyum; Leslie G. Valiant

1985-01-01

53

Rank Test Based On Matrix Perturbation Theory

In this paper, we propose methods of the determination of the rank of matrix. We consider a rank test for an unobserved matrix for which an estimate exists having normal asymptotic distribution of order N1\\/2 where N is the sample size. The test statistic is based on the smallest estimated singular values. Using Matrix Perturbation Theory, the smallest singular values

Zaka Ratsimalahelo

2001-01-01

54

Jigsaw Cooperative Learning: Acid-Base Theories

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on investigating the effectiveness of jigsaw cooperative learning instruction on first-year undergraduates' understanding of acid-base theories. Undergraduates' opinions about jigsaw cooperative learning instruction were also investigated. The participants of this study were 38 first-year undergraduates in chemistry education…

Tarhan, Leman; Sesen, Burcin Acar

2012-01-01

55

Organic magnetoresistance based on hopping theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) effect, we suggest a spin-related hopping of carriers (polarons) based on Marcus theory. The mobility of polarons is calculated with the master equation (ME) and then the magnetoresistance (MR) is obtained. The theoretical results are consistent with the experimental observation. Especially, the sign inversion of the MR under different driving bias voltages found in the experiment is predicted. Besides, the effects of molecule disorder, hyperfine interaction (HFI), polaron localization, and temperature on the MR are investigated.

Yang, Fu-Jiang; Xie, Shi-Jie

2014-09-01

56

Power Control for Crossbar-based Input-Queued Switches

to reduce the power consumption. The algorithms are partic- ularly efficient in non-overloaded conditions data at increasing speed is often implemented on a single integrated circuit. The hardware design spatial density [2]. In integrated circuits, Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) [1], a classical

57

Thermal Control for Crossbar-based Input-Queued Switches

to exploit Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) techniques, quite commonly used in integrated circuit- surements. We propose a family of control algorithms to reduce the thermal power dissipation in non-overloaded the inputs to the outputs; each fabric is often implemented on a single integrated circuit. The hardware

58

Spectrally queued feature selection for robotic visual odometery

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades, research in Unmanned Vehicles (UV) has rapidly progressed and become more influenced by the field of biological sciences. Researchers have been investigating mechanical aspects of varying species to improve UV air and ground intrinsic mobility, they have been exploring the computational aspects of the brain for the development of pattern recognition and decision algorithms and they have been exploring perception capabilities of numerous animals and insects. This paper describes a 3 month exploratory applied research effort performed at the US ARMY Research, Development and Engineering Command's (RDECOM) Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) in the area of biologically inspired spectrally augmented feature selection for robotic visual odometry. The motivation for this applied research was to develop a feasibility analysis on multi-spectrally queued feature selection, with improved temporal stability, for the purposes of visual odometry. The intended application is future semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) control as the richness of data sets required to enable human like behavior in these systems has yet to be defined.

Pirozzo, David M.; Frederick, Philip A.; Hunt, Shawn; Theisen, Bernard; Del Rose, Mike

2011-01-01

59

Introduction to Queuing Networks; E. Gelenbe, G. Pujolle; Wiley, New York, 1998. ISBN 0-471-962-

networks. The book would be very suitable for graduate students in Computer Science, Computer Engineering-471-962- 945; 240 pp., Â£34.95 It is not an easy task to write a book on queuing networks when a large number of books in the topic have already been published. The authors have written a very timely book on queuing

Atiquzzaman, Mohammed

60

and Reinforcement Learning Algorithms Changxu Wu (changxuw@umich.edu) Department of Industrial & Operations in the EPIC model of PRP or drawing complex scheduling charts employed in the ACT-R/PM model of PRP. Further, by integrating queuing networks with reinforcement learning algorithms, the queuing network model successfully

Wu, Changxu (Sean)

61

Modelling pedestrian travel time and the design of facilities: a queuing approach.

Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities. PMID:23691055

Rahman, Khalidur; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Kabir Chowdhury, Md Ahmed

2013-01-01

62

A New Glauber Theory based on Multiple Scattering Theory

Glauber theory for nucleus-nucleus scattering at high incident energies is reformulated so as to become applicable also for the scattering at intermediate energies. We test validity of the eikonal and adiabatic approximations used in the formulation, and discuss the relation between the present theory and the conventional Glauber calculations with either the empirical nucleon-nucleon profile function or the modified one including the in-medium effect.

Masanobu Yahiro; Kosho Minomo; Kazuyuki Ogata; Mitsuji Kawai

2008-07-24

63

Performance Evaluation 52 (2003) 5984 Pricing in next generation networks: a queuing

Performance Evaluation 52 (2003) 59Â84 Pricing in next generation networks: a queuing model-5316(02)00180-3 #12;60 M. Yacoubi et al. / Performance Evaluation 52 (2003) 59Â84 Fig. 1. Representing the Internet a single user, corporate net- work or aggregated sub-networks) negotiates its QoS requirement, known

Gautam, Natarajan

64

MODELING HUMAN TRANSCRIPTION TYPING WITH QUEUING NETWORK-MODEL HUMAN PROCESSOR (QN-MHP)

MODELING HUMAN TRANSCRIPTION TYPING WITH QUEUING NETWORK-MODEL HUMAN PROCESSOR (QN-MHP) Changxu Wu Typing is one of the basic and prevalent activities in human machine interaction. John (1988, 1996, TYPIST can only analyze the typing phenomena along the time dimension; it can not model error and eye

Wu, Changxu (Sean)

65

, and then describes how the model simulated the two brain imaging phenomena and three behavioral phenomena in learning). In this paper we focus on modeling the learning aspect of the behavioral phenomena and brain imaging phenomenaModeling Behavioral and Brain Imaging Phenomena in Transcription Typing with Queuing Networks

Wu, Changxu (Sean)

66

The Distribution of Queuing Network States at Input and Output Instants

Queuing networks are studied at selected points in the steady state, namely, at the moments when jobs of a given class arrive into a given node (either from the outside or from other nodes) and at the moments when jobs of a given class leave a given node (either for the outside or for other nodes). The processes defined by

Kenneth C. Sevcik; Isi Mitrani

1981-01-01

67

Weighted Fair Queuing with Differential Dropping Feng Lu, Geoffrey M. Voelker, and Alex C. Snoeren

Weighted Fair Queuing with Differential Dropping Feng Lu, Geoffrey M. Voelker, and Alex C. Snoeren of efficiently allocating the buffer space to each traffic class turns out to be overwhelming, leading most is inspired by the approximate differential dropping scheme but differs substan- tially in the flow

Voelker, Geoffrey M.

68

Comparing Java, C# and Ada Monitors queuing policies : a case study and its Ada refinement

Abstract. Learning concurrency paradigms is necessary but it is not sufficient since the choice of run-time semantics may introduce subtle programming errors. It is the aim of this paper to exemplify the importance of process queuing and awaking policies resulting from possible choices of the monitor concept implementation.

Claude Kaiser; Pierre Rousseau; Cedric-cnam Paris

69

Comparing Java, C# and Ada monitors queuing policies: a case study and its Ada refinement

Learning concurrency paradigms is necessary but it is not sufficient since the choice of run-time semantics may introduce subtle programming errors. It is the aim of this paper to exemplify the importance of process queuing and awaking policies resulting from possible choices of the monitor concept implementation.The first part of the paper compares the behaviour of concurrent processes sharing a

Claude Kaiser; Jean-François Pradat-Peyre; Sami Évangelista; Pierre Rousseau

2006-01-01

70

A Starvation-free Algorithm For Achieving 100% Throughput in an Input Queued Switch

It has been recently shown that an input-queued switch with an appropriate buffering policy and scheduling algo- rithm can achieve 100% throughput for independent arrival processes. This result was shown to be true for the longest queue first (LQF) algorithm — a scheduling policy that finds the maximum weight matching on a bipartite graph, and gives preference to more backlogged

Adisak Mekkittikul; Nick McKeown

1996-01-01

71

For more than two decades, there has been a growing of interest in fast simulation techniques for estimating probabilities of rare events in queuing networks. Importance sampling is a variance reduction method for simulating rare events. The present paper carries out strict deadlines to the paper by Dupuis et al for a two node tandem network with feedback whose arrival

Ebrahim MAHDIPOUR; Amir Masoud RAHMANI; Saeed SETAYESHI

2009-01-01

72

A Theory-Based Dynamical Model of Innovation Processes

We present an agent-based model of innovation processes, based upon a theory of innovation by Lane and Maxfield. The theory inspires and constrains the features of the model, thus reducing the embarasse de richessethat is one of the major methodological problems of agent-based modelling. Artefacts are produced by agents using recipes; the basic dynamics, absent innovation, is one of production

Roberto Serra; Marco Villani; Luca Ansaloni

2005-01-01

73

Theory Based Approaches to Learning. Implications for Adult Educators.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a codification of theory-based approaches that are applicable to adult learning situations. It also lists some general guidelines that can be used when selecting a particular approach or theory as a basis for planning instruction. Adult education's emphasis on practicality and the relationship between theory and practice is…

Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Edward V.

74

language learner based on language learning research, focussing on explicit learner awarenessTHEORY-BASED SUPPORT FOR MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING: NOTICING AND RECORDING Theory-based Support for Mobile Language Learning: Noticing and Recording doi:10.3991/ijim.v3i2.740 A. Kukulska-Hulme1 and S. Bull

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

75

AN INFORMATION SYSTEMS DESIGN THEORY FOR WEB-BASED EDUCATION

An Information Systems Design Theory (ISDT) is a prescriptive theory that offers theory-based principles that can guide practitioners in the design of effective Information Systems and set an agenda for on-going research. This paper introduces the origins of the ISDT concept and describes one ISDT for Web-based Education (WBE). The paper shows how this ISDT has, over the last seven

David Jones; Teresa Lynch; Rockhampton Australia

76

Mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity— I. Theory

A mechanism-based theory of strain gradient plasticity (MSG) is proposed based on a multiscale framework linking the microscale notion of statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocations to the mesoscale notion of plastic strain and strain gradient. This theory is motivated by our recent analysis of indentation experiments which strongly suggest a linear dependence of the square of plastic flow stress

H. Gao; Y. Huang; W. D. Nix; J. W. Hutchinson

1999-01-01

77

Theory-Based University Admissions Testing for a New Millennium

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes two projects based on Robert J. Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence and designed to provide theory-based testing for university admissions. The first, Rainbow Project, provided a supplementary test of analytical, practical, and creative skills to augment the SAT in predicting college performance. The Rainbow…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2004-01-01

78

Conceptually and methodologically distinct models exist for assessing quality of parent-child relationships, but few studies contrast competing models or assess their overlap in predicting developmental outcomes. Using observational methodology, the current study examined the distinctiveness of attachment theory-based and social learning theory-based measures of parenting in predicting two key measures of child adjustment: security of attachment narratives and social acceptance in peer nominations. A total of 113 5-6-year-old children from ethnically diverse families participated. Parent-child relationships were rated using standard paradigms. Measures derived from attachment theory included sensitive responding and mutuality; measures derived from social learning theory included positive attending, directives, and criticism. Child outcomes were independently-rated attachment narrative representations and peer nominations. Results indicated that Attachment theory-based and Social Learning theory-based measures were modestly correlated; nonetheless, parent-child mutuality predicted secure child attachment narratives independently of social learning theory-based measures; in contrast, criticism predicted peer-nominated fighting independently of attachment theory-based measures. In young children, there is some evidence that attachment theory-based measures may be particularly predictive of attachment narratives; however, no single model of measuring parent-child relationships is likely to best predict multiple developmental outcomes. Assessment in research and applied settings may benefit from integration of different theoretical and methodological paradigms. PMID:24283669

Matias, Carla; O'Connor, Thomas G; Futh, Annabel; Scott, Stephen

2014-01-01

79

This paper is concerned with the properties of nonlinear equations associated with the Scheweitzer-Bard (S-B) approximate mean value analysis (MVA) heuristic for closed product-form queuing networks. Three forms of nonlinear S-B approximate MVA equations in multiclass networks are distinguished: Schweitzer, minimal, and the nearly decoupled forms. The approximate MVA equations have enabled us to: (a) derive bounds on the approximate

Krishna R. Pattipati; Michael M. Kostreva; John L. Teele

1990-01-01

80

A Multiple Constraint Queuing Model for Predicting Current and Future Terminal Area Capacities

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new queuing model is being developed to evaluate the capacity benefits of several new concepts for terminal airspace operations. The major innovation is the ability to support a wide variety of multiple constraints for modeling the scheduling logic of several concepts. Among the constraints modeled are in-trail separation, separation between aircraft landing on parallel runways, in-trail separation at terminal area entry points, and permissible terminal area flight times.

Meyn, Larry A.

2004-01-01

81

Theory of fracture mechanics based upon plasticity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theory of fracture mechanics is formulated on the foundation of continuum mechanics. Fracture surface is introduced as an unknown quantity and is incorporated into boundary and initial conditions. Surface energy is included in the global form of energy conservation law and the dissipative mechanism is formulated into constitutive equations which indicate the thermodynamic irreversibility and the irreversibility of fracture process as well.

Lee, J. D.

1976-01-01

82

Defining the Bases of Phonetic Theory.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The task of any phonetic theory is to determine the form of a phonetic component by establishing the internal and external constraints on that component. The phonetic component itself converts linguistic knowledge of the structure of the speech act into time-varying commands suitable for control of the articulatory mechanism. Performing involves…

Tatham, M. A. A.

1970-01-01

83

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, due to increased demand for using the Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks in a satisfactory manner a promised Quality of Service (QoS) is required to manage the seamless transmission of the heterogeneous handoff calls. To this end, this paper proposes an improved Call Admission Control (CAC) mechanism with prioritized handoff queuing scheme that aims to reduce dropping probability of handoff calls. Handoff calls are queued when no bandwidth is available even after the allowable bandwidth degradation of the ongoing calls and get admitted into the network when an ongoing call is terminated with a higher priority than the newly originated call. An analytical Markov model for the proposed CAC mechanism is developed to analyze various performance parameters. Analytical results show that our proposed CAC with handoff queuing scheme prioritizes the handoff calls effectively and reduces dropping probability of the system by 78.57% for real-time traffic without degrading the number of failed new call attempts. This results in the increased bandwidth utilization of the network.

Chowdhury, Prasun; Saha Misra, Iti

2014-10-01

84

A Theory of Effective Computer-Based Instruction for Adults

This study presents a theory of critical components that affect the effectiveness of computer-based instruction (CBI) for adults. The theory was developed to provide a framework for research to explain or predict effective learning by adults using a desktop computer. The five conclusions drawn from this theory are as follows: (a) the characteristics of self-directedness and computer self-efficacy of adult

Janis S. Lowe; Elwood F. Holton

2005-01-01

85

Z-scan theory based on a diffraction model

Based on Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory, a diffraction model of nonlinear optical media interacting with a Gaussian beam has been set up that can interpret the Z-scan phenomenon in a new way. This theory not only is consistent with the conventional Z-scan theory for a small nonlinear phase shift but also can be used for larger nonlinear phase shifts. Numerical computations

Baoli Yao; Liyong Ren; Xun Hou

2003-01-01

86

Current algebra based effective chiral theory of mesons and a new EW theory

A current algebra based effective chiral theory of pseudoscalar, vector, axial-vector mesons is reviewed. A new mechanism generating the masses and guage fixing terms of gauge boson is revealed from this effective theory. A EW theory without Higgs is proposed. The masses and gauge fixing terms of W and Z are dynamically generated. Three heavy scalar fields are dynamically generated too. They are ghosts.

Bing An Li

2005-09-08

87

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Techniques Based On Control Theory

Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Techniques Based On Control Theory Antony Jameson1 and Luigi for aerodynamic shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible flow. The theory is applied to a system optimization of complex configurations. 1 Introduction: Aerodynamic Design The definition of the aerodynamic

Jameson, Antony

88

Linking empirically based theory and evaluation: The family bereavement program

We have illustrated how our “small theory” (Lipsey, 1990) of bereavement guided the development and evaluation of a preventive intervention for bereaved children. Our small theory, based on prior empirical research, enabled us to identify family processes that appeared to mediate the effects of parental death on child mental health. Our intervention was designed to attempt to change these processes.

Irwin N. Sandler; Stephen G. West; Louise Baca; David R. Pillow; Joanne C. Gersten; Fred Rogosch; Lynn Virdin; Janette Beals; Kim D. Reynolds; Carl Kallgren; Jenn-Yun Tein; Gary Kriege; Eloise Cole; Rafael Ramirez

1992-01-01

89

A theory of viscoplasticity based on infinitesimal total strain

Summary A viscoplasticity theory based upon a nonlinear viscoelastic solid, linear in the rates of the strain and stress tensors but nonlinear in the stress tensor and the infinitesimal strain tensor, is being investigated for isothermal, homogeneous motions. A general anisotropic form and a specific isotropic formulation are proposed. A yield condition is not part of the theory and the

E. P. Cernocky; E. Krempl

1980-01-01

90

Theory-Based Approaches to the Concept of Life

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I argue that characterisations of life through lists of properties have several shortcomings and should be replaced by theory-based accounts that explain the coexistence of a set of properties in living beings. The concept of life should acquire its meaning from its relationships with other concepts inside a theory. I illustrate…

El-Hani, Charbel Nino

2008-01-01

91

Theory of friction based on brittle fracture

A theory of friction is presented that may be more applicable to geologic materials than the classic Bowden and Tabor theory. In the model, surfaces touch at the peaks of asperities and sliding occurs when the asperities fail by brittle fracture. The coefficient of friction, ??, was calculated from the strength of asperities of certain ideal shapes; for cone-shaped asperities, ?? is about 0.1 and for wedge-shaped asperities, ?? is about 0.15. For actual situations which seem close to the ideal model, observed ?? was found to be very close to 0.1, even for materials such as quartz and calcite with widely differing strengths. If surface forces are present, the theory predicts that ?? should decrease with load and that it should be higher in a vacuum than in air. In the presence of a fluid film between sliding surfaces, ?? should depend on the area of the surfaces in contact. Both effects are observed. The character of wear particles produced during sliding and the way in which ?? depends on normal load, roughness, and environment lend further support to the model of friction presented here. ?? 1967 The American Institute of Physics.

Byerlee, J.D.

1967-01-01

92

The Prediction of Item Parameters Based on Classical Test Theory and Latent Trait Theory

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the prediction power of the item characteristics based on the experts' predictions on conditions try-out practices cannot be applied was examined for item characteristics computed depending on classical test theory and two-parameters logistic model of latent trait theory. The study was carried out on 9914 randomly selected students…

Anil, Duygu

2008-01-01

93

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...

2010-04-01

94

95

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...

2011-04-01

96

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...

2013-04-01

97

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...

2012-04-01

98

Demystifying Theory-based Categorization Woo-kyoung Ahn

-based categorization had not been explicitly articulated. Recently, various attempts have been made to formalize in children's conceptual representations that have been grossly described under the blanket of children this mechanism can provide parsimonious accounts for many important theory-based effects found in children

Luhmann, Christian C.

99

Outcomes-Based Education: Some Insights from Complexity Theory.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a new outcomes-based teacher-education curriculum being introduced in South Africa, noting its compatibility with complexity theory, which advocates self-organization, unpredictability, and randomness. While outcomes-based education is criticized for being behavioristic, for its prescriptiveness, for its rejection of modernism's…

Claassen, C.

1998-01-01

100

A general resonance theory based on Mourre's inequality

We study the perturbation of bound states embedded in the continuous spectrum which are unstable by the Fermi Golden Rule. The approach to resonance theory based on spectral deformation is extended to a more general class of quantum systems characterized by Mourre's inequality and smoothness of the resolvent. Within the framework of perturbation theory it is still possible to give a definite meaning to the notion of complex resonance energies and of corresponding metastable states. The main result is a quasi-exponential decay estimate up to a controlled error of higher order in perturbation theory.

L. Cattaneo; G. M. Graf; W. Hunziker

2005-07-25

101

Affordance based design: a relational theory for design

After reviewing current approaches to design theory, which are based on the transformative concept of function, we argue that\\u000a this basis in function limits the scope of design problems and explanatory power of current design theories. As an alternative\\u000a with greater potential for explanatory power and a framework for solving a wider array of design problems, we propose that\\u000a a

Jonathan R. A. Maier; Georges M. Fadel

2009-01-01

102

Aerodynamic shape optimization techniques based on control theory

These Lecture Notes review the formulation and application of optimization techniques based on control theory for aerodynamic\\u000a shape design in both inviscid and viscous compressible flow. The theory is applied to a system defined by the partial differential\\u000a equations of the flow, with the boundary shape acting as the control. The Frechet derivative of the cost function is determined\\u000a via

Antony Jameson; Luigi Martinelli

103

Aviation security cargo inspection queuing simulation model for material flow and accountability

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in 2010, the U.S. will require that all cargo loaded in passenger aircraft be inspected. This will require more efficient processing of cargo and will have a significant impact on the inspection protocols and business practices of government agencies and the airlines. In this paper, we develop an aviation security cargo inspection queuing simulation model for material flow and accountability that will allow cargo managers to conduct impact studies of current and proposed business practices as they relate to inspection procedures, material flow, and accountability.

Allgood, Glenn O.; Olama, Mohammed M.; Rose, Terri A.; Brumback, Daryl

2009-05-01

104

Decoupling Delay-Bandwidth Guarantees in Hierarchical Fair Queuing

in the increasing order of their F k i . III. Modi#12;ed Fair Queueing We modify the GPS based server as follows-MGPS-D) scheme. II. Fair Queueing Fair Queueing is based on the idea of Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS) [2]. A GPS server is work conserving and operates at a #12;xed rate r. Let N be the number of sessions

Karandikar, Abhay

105

A Memory-Based Theory of Verbal Cognition

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…

Dennis, Simon

2005-01-01

106

Developing a Theory-Based, Culturally Sensitive Intervention for Adolescents

Lessons learned in designing HIV prevention programs from around the world can be shared to save valuable programmatic resources. However, programs must be adapted to meet the needs of the target population, and this can only be done through shared responsibility and participation of key individuals from the target community. In order to design culturally sensitive theory-based interventions, formative research

G. Aisha Gilliam; Agatha Eke; Felicity Aymer; Cheryl ONeil

2002-01-01

107

A control theory based framework for dynamic adaptable systems

The increasingly complex environments in which systems need to execute has lead to the need for tools and techniques to systematically design dynamically adaptable systems. A new framework for the design of these adaptive systems is proposed here. The framework, named SMART (State Model Adaptive Run Time), is based on the mathematics of control theory and system identification techniques. This

João W. Cangussu; Kendra Cooper; Changcheng Li

2004-01-01

108

Instantaneous power theory based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC)

This paper presents a novel control strategy for the case of 3-phase 3-wire Unified Power-Quality Conditioner (UPQC) based on the concepts of instantaneous active and reactive Power theory. The UPQCs is one of the major custom power solutions capable of mitigating the effect of supply voltage sags \\/ swells, distortion, unbalance voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) as

K. Palanisamy; J. S. Mishra; I. J. Raglend; D. P. Kothari

2010-01-01

109

Coupling constant of microcavity waveguides based on coupled mode theory

We analyze the microcavity waveguides and derive the coupling constant based on the coupled mode theory. The formula contains only two parameters with clear physical meanings, the quality factor of the cavity modes and the phase shift that the lightwave acquires when tunnelling between two cavities. It provides an easy way to express and modulate the properties of the waveguides.

Xu-Sheng Lin; Jun-Hu Yan

2009-01-01

110

Theory-Based Considerations Influence the Interpretation of Generic Sentences

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Under what circumstances do people agree that a kind-referring generic sentence (e.g., "Swans are beautiful") is true? We hypothesised that theory-based considerations are sufficient, independently of prevalence/frequency information, to lead to acceptance of a generic statement. To provide evidence for this general point, we focused on…

Cimpian, Andrei; Gelman, Susan A.; Brandone, Amanda C.

2010-01-01

111

Automatic Image Annotation Based on Visual Cognitive Theory

This paper presents a new method of automatic image annotation based on visual cognitive theory that improves the accuracy of image recognition by taking two semantic levels of keywords that give feedback to each other into consideration. Our system first segments an image and recognizes objects in the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). It then recognizes contexts by using them from networked

Yusuke Kamoi; Yosuke Furukawa; Tatsuya Sato; Yuya Kiwada; Tomohiro Takagi

2007-01-01

112

Formalization of Fashion Sensory Data Based on Fuzzy Set Theory

Sensory Engineering (SE) was applied in fashion industry for market exploring, consumer behavior evaluation and personalized product designing. The consumer perceptions on products were investigated and analyzed. The fashion sensory data were established for style, color, image according to the results of investigation and analysis. The expert systems based on fuzzy set theory was developed to describe the sensory on

Li-chuan Wang; Yan Chen; Ying Wang

2008-01-01

113

Qualitative model-based diagnosis using possibility theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential for the use of possibility in the qualitative model-based diagnosis of spacecraft systems is described. The first sections of the paper briefly introduce the Model-Based Diagnostic (MBD) approach to spacecraft fault diagnosis; Qualitative Modeling (QM) methodologies; and the concepts of possibilistic modeling in the context of Generalized Information Theory (GIT). Then the necessary conditions for the applicability of possibilistic methods to qualitative MBD, and a number of potential directions for such an application, are described.

Joslyn, Cliff

1994-01-01

114

Biometric-Based Authentication System Using Rough Set Theory

\\u000a In this paper we have proposed a biometric-based authentication system based on rough set theory. The system employed signature\\u000a for authentication purpose. The major functional blocks of the proposed system are presented. Information is extracted as\\u000a time functions of various dynamic properties of the signatures. We apply our methodology to global features extracted from\\u000a a 108-users database. Thirty-one features were

Hala S. Own; Waheeda Al-Mayyan; Hussein Zedan

2010-01-01

115

for publication in Electronic Letters and is subject to Institution of Engineering and Technology Copyright. The copy of record is available at IET Digital Library Optimising node selection probabilities in multi-hop M/D/1 queuing networks to reduce the latency...

Herbert, S. J.; Murdoch, S. J.; Punskaya, E.

2014-08-11

116

1 An Approach for Performance Analysis of Discrete-Time Finite Capacity Open Queuing Network in [5, 9]. We have extended the approach of [5] for the analysis of general open networks of discrete buffer queue. Approaches have been proposed for the performance analysis of discrete-time, finite buffer

Singh Yatindra Nath

117

Nano-resonator frequency response based on strain gradient theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper aims to explore the dynamic behaviour of a nano-resonator under ac and dc excitation using strain gradient theory. To achieve this goal, the partial differential equation of nano-beam vibration is first converted to an ordinary differential equation by the Galerkin projection method and the lumped model is derived. Lumped parameters of the nano-resonator, such as linear and nonlinear springs and damper coefficients, are compared with those of classical theory and it is demonstrated that beams with smaller thickness display greater deviation from classical parameters. Stable and unstable equilibrium points based on classic and non-classical theories are also compared. The results show that, regarding the applied dc voltage, the dynamic behaviours expected by classical and non-classical theories are significantly different, such that one theory predicts the un-deformed shape as the stable condition, while the other theory predicts that the beam will experience bi-stability. To obtain the frequency response of the nano-resonator, a general equation including cubic and quadratic nonlinearities in addition to parametric electrostatic excitation terms is derived, and the analytical solution is determined using a second-order multiple scales method. Based on frequency response analysis, the softening and hardening effects given by two theories are investigated and compared, and it is observed that neglecting the size effect can lead to two completely different predictions in the dynamic behaviour of the resonators. The findings of this article can be helpful in the design and characterization of the size-dependent dynamic behaviour of resonators on small scales.

Maani Miandoab, Ehsan; Yousefi-Koma, Aghil; Nejat Pishkenari, Hossein; Fathi, Mohammad

2014-09-01

118

Evolutionary game theory using agent-based methods

Evolutionary game theory is a successful mathematical framework geared towards understanding the selective pressures that affect the evolution of the strategies of agents engaged in interactions with potential conflicts. While a mathematical treatment of the costs and benefits of decisions can predict the optimal strategy in simple settings, more realistic situations (finite populations, non-vanishing mutations rates, communication between agents, and spatial interactions) require agent-based methods where each agent is modeled as an individual, carries its own genes that determine its decisions, and where the evolutionary outcome can only be ascertained by evolving the population of agents forward in time. Here we discuss the use of agent-based methods in evolutionary game theory and contrast standard results to those obtainable by a mathematical treatment. We conclude that agent-based methods can predict evolutionary outcomes where purely mathematical treatments cannot tread, but that mathematics is crucial...

Adami, Christoph; Hintze, Arend

2014-01-01

119

[Brazilian scientific production based on Orem's nursing theory: integrative review].

Integrative review, held in the databases LILACS, SciELO and BDENF from January 2005 to May 2009, aimed to summarize the Brazilian scientific production based on Orem's Nursing Theory. We obtained 23 articles, analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. It was found that 100% of the studies focused on adults. Of this total, 65,22% returned to the chronicle diseases. In 39,15% of the searches, the theory was used in full and in 34,80% one of the constructs. 91,30% of publications aimed to the construction and deployment of the structured and theoretically grounded practice of care. It was concluded that the theory has been used as theoretical and philosophical basis to justify the practice of nursing in a variety of situations in order to emphasize the role of the nurse in the care. PMID:23032347

Raimondo, Maria Lúcia; Fegadoli, Débora; Méier, Marineli Joaquim; Wall, Marilene Loewen; Labronici, Liliana Maria; Raimondo-Ferraz, Maria Isabel

2012-01-01

120

Team #32 Page 1 of 19 Modeling Toll Plaza Behavior Using Queuing Theory

on the size of highway when toll collection service rate is low. We consider the scenario where and Graphs 18 #12;Team #32 Page 3 of 19 1 Introduction Toll financing has been used throughout the history, paving the way to the Interstate system Americans now enjoy. Today developing nations such as China

Morrow, James A.

121

Infrared small target detection based on Danger Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the problem that traditional method can't detect the small objects whose local SNR is less than 2 in IR images, a Danger Theory-based model to detect infrared small target is presented in this paper. First, on the analog with immunology, the definition is given, in this paper, to such terms as dangerous signal, antigens, APC, antibodies. Besides, matching rule between antigen and antibody is improved. Prior to training the detection model and detecting the targets, the IR images are processed utilizing adaptive smooth filter to decrease the stochastic noise. Then at the training process, deleting rule, generating rule, crossover rule and the mutation rule are established after a large number of experiments in order to realize immediate convergence and obtain good antibodies. The Danger Theory-based model is built after the training process, and this model can detect the target whose local SNR is only 1.5.

Lan, Jinhui; Yang, Xiao

2009-11-01

122

Resource based view: a promising new theory for healthcare organizations

This commentary reviews a recent piece by Burton and Rycroft-Malone on the use of Resource Based View (RBV) in healthcare organizations. It first outlines the core content of their piece. It then discusses their attempts to extend RBV to the analysis of large scale quality improvement efforts in healthcare. Some critique is elaborated. The broader question of why RBV seems to be migrating into healthcare management research is considered. They conclude RBV is a promising new theory for healthcare organizations.

Ferlie, Ewan

2014-01-01

123

Improved virtual queuing and dynamic EPD techniques for TCP over ATM

It is known that TCP throughput can degrade significantly over UBR service in a congested ATM network, and the early packet discard (EPD) technique has been proposed to improve the performance. However, recent studies show that EPD cannot ensure fairness among competing VCs in a congested network, but the degree of fairness can be improved using various forms of fair buffer allocation techniques. The authors propose an improved scheme that utilizes only a single shared FIFO queue for all VCs and admits simple implementation for high speed ATM networks. The scheme achieves nearly perfect fairness and throughput among multiple TCP connections, comparable to the expensive per-VC queuing technique. Analytical and simulation results are presented to show the validity of this new scheme and significant improvement in performance as compared with existing fair buffer allocation techniques for TCP over ATM.

Wu, Y.; Siu, K.Y.; Ren, W.

1998-11-01

124

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.

Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter

1999-01-01

125

Infrared Image Simulation Based On Statistical Learning Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real-time simulation algorithm of infrared image based on statistical learning theory is presented. The method includes three contents to achieve real-time simulation of infrared image, such as acquiring the training sample, forecasting the scene temperature field value by statistical learning machine, data processing and data analysis of temperature field. The simulation result shows this algorithm based on ? - support vector regression have better maneuverability and generalization than the other method, and the simulation precision and real-time quality are satisfying.

Chaochao, Huang; Xiaodi, Wu; Wuqin, Tong

2007-12-01

126

In the past several decades, four prominent theories of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis have emerged: the toxic-metabolic theory, the oxidative stress hypothesis, the stone and duct obstruction theory, and the necrosis-fibrosis hypothesis. Although these traditional theories are formulated based on compelling scientific observations, substantial contradictory data also exist for each. Furthermore, the basic premises of some of these theories are directly

Tyler Stevens; Darwin L. Conwell; Gregory Zuccaro

2004-01-01

127

Theory based ecology (OUP Book Proposal) Page 1 OUP BOOK PROPOSAL

Theory based ecology (OUP Book Proposal) Page 1 OUP BOOK PROPOSAL Theory based Ecology a Darwinian theory. As a consequence of this recent fashion of scepticism, mathematical models are often considered for the coming generations facing escalating environmental problems. Darwin's evolutionary theory is generally

MeszÃ©na, GÃ©za

128

A New Network Robustness Topology Measure based on Information Theory

A crucial challenge in network theory is to study how robust a network is when facing failures or attacks. In this work, we propose a novel methodology to measure the topological resilience and robustness of a network based on Information Theory quantifiers. This measure can be used with any probability distribution able to represent the network's properties. In particular, we analyze the efficiency in capturing small perturbations in the network's topology when using the degree and distance distributions. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology. Although both cases show to be able to detect any single topological change, the distance distribution seems to be more consistent to reflect the network structural deviations. In all cases, the novel resilience and robustness measures computed by using the distance distribution reflect better the consequences of the failures, outperforming other methods.

Schieber, Tiago A; Frery, Alejandro C; Rosso, Osvaldo A; Pardalos, Panos M; Ravetti, Martin G

2014-01-01

129

Control theory based airfoil design using the Euler equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using the potential flow equation with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. The goal of our present work is to extend the development to treat the Euler equations in two-dimensions by procedures that can readily be generalized to treat complex shapes in three-dimensions. Therefore, we have developed methods which can address airfoil design through either an analytic mapping or an arbitrary grid perturbation method applied to a finite volume discretization of the Euler equations. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented for both the inverse problem and drag minimization problem.

Jameson, Antony; Reuther, James

1994-01-01

130

Effects of gauge theory based number scaling on geometry

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of local availability of mathematics (LAM) and space time dependent number scaling on physics and, especially, geometry are described. LAM assumes separate mathematical systems as structures at each space time point. Extension of gauge theories to include freedom of choice of scaling for number structures, and other structures based on numbers, results in a space time dependent scaling factor based on a scalar boson field. Scaling has no effect on comparison of experimental results with one another or with theory computations. With LAM all theory expressions are elements of mathematics at some reference point. Changing the reference point introduces (external) scaling. Theory expressions with integrals or derivatives over space or time include scaling factors (internal scaling) that cannot be removed by reference point change. Line elements and path lengths, as integrals over space and/or time, show the effect of scaling on geometry. In one example, the scaling factor goes to 0 as the time goes to 0, the big bang time. All path lengths, and values of physical quantities, are crushed to 0 as t goes to 0. Other examples have spherically symmetric scaling factors about some point, x. In one type, a black scaling hole, the scaling factor goes to infinity as the distance, d, between any point y and x goes to 0. For scaling white holes, the scaling factor goes to 0 as d goes to 0. For black scaling holes, path lengths from a reference point, z, to y become infinite as y approaches x. For white holes, path lengths approach a value much less than the unscaled distance from z to x.

Benioff, Paul

2013-05-01

131

A communication-theory based view on telemedical communication.

Communication theory based analysis sheds new light on the use of health telematics. This analysis of structures in electronic medical communication shows communicative structures with special features. Current and evolving telemedical applications are analyzed. The methodology of communicational theory (focusing on linguistic pragmatics) is used to compare it with its conventional counterpart. The semiotic model, the roles of partners, the respective message and their relation are discussed. Channels, sender, addressee, and other structural roles are analyzed for different types of electronic medical communication. The communicative processes are shown as mutual, rational action towards a common goal. The types of communication/texts are analyzed in general. Furthermore the basic communicative structures of medical education via internet are presented with their special features. The analysis shows that electronic medical communication has special features compared to everyday communication: A third participant role often is involved: the patient. Messages often are addressed to an unspecified partner or to an unspecified partner within a group. Addressing in this case is (at least partially) role-based. Communication and message often directly (rather than indirectly) influence actions of the participants. Communication often is heavily regulated including legal implications like liability, and more. The conclusion from the analysis is that the development of telemedical applications so far did not sufficiently take communicative structures into consideration. Based on these results recommendations for future developments of telemedical applications/services are given. PMID:15537236

Schall, Thomas; Roeckelein, Wolfgang; Mohr, Markus; Kampshoff, Joerg; Lange, Tim; Nerlich, Michael

2003-01-01

132

[Study of gene data mining based on informatics theory].

By combining with informatics theory, ta system model consisting of feature selection which is based on redundancy and correlation is presented to develop disease classification research with five gene data set (NCI, Lymphoma, Lung, Leukemia, Colon). The result indicates that this modeling method can not only reduce data management computation amount, but also help confirming amount of features, further more improve classification accuracy, and the application of this model has a bright foreground in fields of disease analysis and individual treatment project establishment. PMID:23189637

Ang, Qing; Wang, Weidong; Wang, Guojing; Peng, Fulai

2012-07-01

133

Density Functional Theory-Based Database Development and CALPHAD Automation

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report our research activities on density functional theory-based alloy thermodynamics, including method/software developments, the integration of first-principles calculations, CALPHAD modeling, and the automation of phase diagram calculations. Examples to be discussed include phonon dispersions of rhombohedral BiFeO3, the solution to the long-outstanding problem of imaginary phonon frequencies for cubic perovskites using EuTiO3 as an example, the calculation of excess specific heat for the magnetic phase transition in EuTiO3, and the automated calculation of a phase diagram for the Al-Mg system.

Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli; Chen, Long-Qing; Liu, Zi-Kui

2013-11-01

134

Identifying influential nodes in weighted networks based on evidence theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of an effective ranking method to identify influential nodes is an important problem in the study of complex networks. In this paper, a new centrality measure is proposed based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The proposed measure trades off between the degree and strength of every node in a weighted network. The influences of both the degree and the strength of each node are represented by basic probability assignment (BPA). The proposed centrality measure is determined by the combination of these BPAs. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Wei, Daijun; Deng, Xinyang; Zhang, Xiaoge; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

2013-05-01

135

Parallel constraint-based generative theories of language.

A re-evaluation of the goals and techniques of generative grammar since the mid-1960s suggests that its mentalistic/biological program for describing language is still sound and has been borne out by subsequent developments. Likewise, the idea of a generative system of combinatorial rules has led to a tremendous expansion of our understanding of linguistic phenomena. However, certain fundamental features of the versions of generative grammar based on Chomsky's work prevent the theory from making deep liaisons with related fields such as language processing and neuroscience. Perhaps the most prominent of these is the assumption that all creative aspects of language stem from syntactic structure. In this article, I propose a model of generative grammar that generalizes features of several, alternative, non-Chomskyan generative frameworks. In this model, language is seen as composed of three independent generative components (phonological, syntactic, and semantic/conceptual structure), whose respective structures are placed in correspondence by 'interface components'. Besides being able to incorporate a host of purely linguistic facts, this view leads to a more direct relationship between the theory of grammar and the theory of lexical and grammatical processing. PMID:10498930

Jackendoff

1999-10-01

136

Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.

In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk. PMID:24194413

Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

2014-02-01

137

Feature Selection with Neighborhood Entropy-Based Cooperative Game Theory

Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones.

Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng

2014-01-01

138

Feature selection with neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory.

Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones. PMID:25276120

Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng

2014-01-01

139

Similarity theory based on the Dougherty-Ozmidov length scale

Local similarity theory is suggested based on the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy instead the turbulent fluxes used in the traditional Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Based on dimensional analysis (Pi theorem), it is shown that any properly scaled statistics of the small-scale turbulence are universal functions of a stability parameter defined as the ratio of a reference height z and the Dougherty-Ozmidov length scale which in the limit of z-less stratification is linearly proportional to the Obukhov length scale. Measurements of atmospheric turbulence made at five levels on a 20-m tower over the Arctic pack ice during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean experiment (SHEBA) are used to examine the behaviour of different similarity functions in the stable boundary layer. It is found that in the framework of this approach the non-dimensional turbulent viscosity is equal to the gradient Richardson number whereas the non-dimensional turbulent thermal diffusivit...

Grachev, Andrey A; Fairall, Christopher W; Guest, Peter S; Persson, P Ola G

2014-01-01

140

Investigating the Learning-Theory Foundations of Game-Based Learning: A Meta-Analysis

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies on the issue of learning-theory foundations in game-based learning stressed the importance of establishing learning-theory foundation and provided an exploratory examination of established learning theories. However, we found research seldom addressed the development of the use or failure to use learning-theory foundations and…

Wu, W-H.; Hsiao, H-C.; Wu, P-L.; Lin, C-H.; Huang, S-H.

2012-01-01

141

Plato: A localised orbital based density functional theory code

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plato package allows both orthogonal and non-orthogonal tight-binding as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations to be performed within a single framework. The package also provides extensive tools for analysing the results of simulations as well as a number of tools for creating input files. The code is based upon the ideas first discussed in Sankey and Niklewski (1989) [1] with extensions to allow high-quality DFT calculations to be performed. DFT calculations can utilise either the local density approximation or the generalised gradient approximation. Basis sets from minimal basis through to ones containing multiple radial functions per angular momenta and polarisation functions can be used. Illustrations of how the package has been employed are given along with instructions for its utilisation. Program summaryProgram title: Plato Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 219 974 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 821 493 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/MPI and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS X Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes, up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Nature of problem: Density functional theory study of electronic structure and total energies of molecules, crystals and surfaces. Solution method: Localised orbital based density functional theory. Restrictions: Tight-binding and density functional theory only, no exact exchange. Unusual features: Both atom centred and uniform meshes available. Can deal with arbitrary angular momenta for orbitals, whilst still retaining Slater-Koster tables for accuracy. Running time: Test cases will run in a few minutes, large calculations may run for several days.

Kenny, S. D.; Horsfield, A. P.

2009-12-01

142

[11] J. Y. Hui. Switching and traffic theory for integrated broadband networks. Kluwer Academic of inputÂqueued ATM packet switches. In ProÂ ceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, pages 110 -- 115, 1992. [13] M. Karol and M. Hluchyj. Queueing in highÂ performance packetÂswitching. IEEE Journal of SeÂ lected Areas

Andrews, Matthew

143

Validating a Theory-Based Survey to Evaluate Teaching Effectiveness in Higher Education

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys to evaluate instructor effectiveness are commonly used in higher education. Yet the survey items included are often drawn from other surveys without reference to a theory of adult learning. The authors present the results from a validation study of such a theory-based survey. They evidence that an evaluation survey based on a theory that…

Amrein-Beardsley, A.; Haladyna, T.

2012-01-01

144

Development and evaluation of theory-based diabetes support services.

Technology-enabled support services for diabetes can fulfill patient demand to care for diabetes independently. Patients benefit from such services after greater adoption of the services in healthcare systems. Unfortunately, conventional service development fails to thoroughly understand patient care support, making it difficult to achieve the desired design, and posing substantial challenges in adopting these services. Thus, previously developed services in many cases are not as patients expected, as evidenced by their low acceptance among patients. To solve this problem, adequate strategies must be developed by incorporating theoretical knowledge as a solid foundation in order to improve service design. This study develops technology-enabled diabetes support services based on the self-care theory. A set of self-care service scenarios is also established and combined with theoretical concepts. The developed services consist of a nurse-led consultation service and a mobile application service. Additionally, user acceptance is confirmed by assessing patient perceptions of the diabetes support services in a group of patients with diabetes (N=27). Results of analysis reveal that patients respond favorably toward the services. Patient preference and perceived ease of use attest to their intention to use the services. Greater adoption of the services can be anticipated, owing to a higher levels of preference and higher perceived ease of use. This study demonstrated that the self-care theory can be linked to nursing informatics research and chronic care clinical practices. PMID:22968249

Guo, Sophie Huey-Ming; Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Chen, Rong-Rong; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chang, Her-Kun

2013-01-01

145

Part I of this dissertation proposes an implicature-based theory of individual-level predicates. The idea is that we cannot say '#John is sometimes tall' because the sentence triggers the scalar implicature that the ...

Magri, Giorgio, 1975-

2009-01-01

146

Intelligent control based on fuzzy logic and neural net theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the conception and design of intelligent systems, one promising direction involves the use of fuzzy logic and neural network theory to enhance such systems' capability to learn from experience and adapt to changes in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. Here, an intelligent control scheme is explored by integrating these multidisciplinary techniques. A self-learning system is proposed as an intelligent controller for dynamical processes, employing a control policy which evolves and improves automatically. One key component of the intelligent system is a fuzzy logic-based system which emulates human decision making behavior. It is shown that the system can solve a fairly difficult control learning problem. Simulation results demonstrate that improved learning performance can be achieved in relation to previously described systems employing bang-bang control. The proposed system is relatively insensitive to variations in the parameters of the system environment.

Lee, Chuen-Chien

1991-01-01

147

Theory for a gas composition sensor based on acoustic properties

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sound travelling through a gas propagates at different speeds and its intensity attenuates to different degrees depending upon the composition of the gas. Theoretically, a real-time gaseous composition sensor could be based on measuring the sound speed and the acoustic attenuation. To this end, the speed of sound was modelled using standard relations, and the acoustic attenuation was modelled using the theory for vibrational relaxation of gas molecules. The concept for a gas composition sensor is demonstrated theoretically for nitrogen-methane-water and hydrogen-oxygen-water mixtures. For a three-component gas mixture, the measured sound speed and acoustic attenuation each define separate lines in the composition plane of two of the gases. The intersection of the two lines defines the gas composition. It should also be possible to use the concept for mixtures of more than three components, if the nature of the gas composition is known to some extent.

Phillips, Scott; Dain, Yefim; Lueptow, Richard M.

2003-01-01

148

Theory of Mind and Rule-Based Reasoning.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments (sorting and theory-of-mind tasks) examined whether, for preschoolers, a particular form of reasoning applied to theory-of-mind and a set of problems requires understanding of mental states. Found that advances in theory of mind, card sorting, and causality depend on ability to switch judgments across conditions; reasoning by…

Frye, Douglas; And Others

1995-01-01

149

Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.

Nguyen, Kiet A.; Pachter, Ruth; Day, Paul N.

2014-06-01

150

A theory-based framework for evaluating exergames as persuasive technology

Exergames are video games that use exertion-based interfaces to promote physical activity, fitness, and gross motor skill development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an organizing framework based on principles of learning theory to classify and rank exergames according to embedded behavior change principles. Behavioral contingencies represent a key theory-based game design principle that can

Marc A. Adams; Simon J. Marshall; Lindsay Dillon; Susan Caparosa; Ernesto Ramirez; Justin Phillips; Greg J. Norman

2009-01-01

151

Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA. PMID:25061839

Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

2014-01-01

152

Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA. PMID:25061839

Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier

2014-01-01

153

Content-Adaptive Musical Audio Watermarking based on the Music Theory of Chords

-adaptive algorithm, designed specifically for music, which exploits musical theory to more effectively embed robustContent-Adaptive Musical Audio Watermarking based on the Music Theory of Chords Arjun Yogeswaran-adaptive music watermarking technique which uses the principles of music theory to enhance the capacity

Payeur, Pierre

154

Grounded Theory-Based Research within Exercise Psychology: A Critical Review

This article critically reviews the current body of grounded theory research within exercise psychology. Previous evidence has questioned the quality of grounded theory research within this academic domain. Guidelines for assessing grounded theory research are presented based on the common defining characteristics of the methodology and other published recommendations for assessing qualitative research. The review identified 21 articles that report

Andrew J. Hutchison; Lynne Johnston; Jeff Breckon

2011-01-01

155

Hovering Control of Unmanned Small Size Helicopter Based on Adaptive Inverse Control Theory

Adaptive inverse control (AIC) theory is introduced to inhibit interferences such as side wind during hovering control for small-sized unmanned helicopter. Based on this theory, an AIC control block diagram is improved to accommodate with the characteristics of helicopter hovering model and robust design. According to structure and fundamental theory of small-sized unmanned helicopter, a hover flight experimental platform is

Li Jin-song; Cao Xi; Yan Guo-zheng; Song Li-bo

2010-01-01

156

The Development of an Attribution-Based Theory of Motivation: A History of Ideas

The history of ideas guiding the development of an attribution-based theory of motivation is presented. These influences include the search for a “grand” theory of motivation (from drive and expectancy\\/value theory), an attempt to represent how the past may influence the present and the future (as Thorndike accomplished), and the incorporation of causes and their properties (from Heider and Rotter).

BERNARD WEINER

2010-01-01

157

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the adoption of the team-based learning (TBL) method in knowledge-based and theory-oriented journalism and mass communication (J&MC) courses. It first reviews the origin and concept of TBL, the relevant theories, and then introduces the TBL method and implementation, including procedures and assessments, employed in an…

Han, Gang; Newell, Jay

2014-01-01

158

Density functional theory-based reactivity descriptors for dioxins

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactivity descriptors based on density functional theory were used to analyse the toxicities and to predict the reactive sites of various dioxins at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. Many polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrafluoro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TFDD) and 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDD), were considered for this purpose. The present study showed that higher toxicity dioxins had a large atomic charge in their lateral part. The global softness values for the more toxic dioxins were larger than those of the less toxic dioxins and, thus, the former should be more polarizable than their less toxic counterparts. Local softness values revealed that chlorine atomic sites in the toxic dioxins had the highest electrophilicity and these sites may initiate the interaction with aromatic hydrocarbon (Ah) receptors. Interaction between dioxin and Ah receptors was studied by considering three amino acids. Reactivity descriptors for the three selected amino acids were obtained to determine the most probable sites of their interactions with the dioxins. The results revealed that dioxins were electron acceptors in their interactions with receptors. The 2,3,7,8-TFDD may be less toxic, while its brominated counterpart is at least as toxic as 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

Arulmozhiraja, Sundaram; Fujii, Toshihiro; Sato, Gen

159

Semi-supervised community detection based on discrete potential theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent studies of the complex network, most of the community detection methods only consider the network topological structure without background information. This leads to a relatively low accuracy. In this paper, a novel semi-supervised community detection algorithm is proposed based on the discrete potential theory. It effectively incorporates individual labels, the labels of corresponding communities, to guide the community detection process for achieving better accuracy. Specifically, a number of vertices with user-defined labels are first identified to act as unit elementary charges which can generate different electrostatic fields. Then, community detection can be translated into a potential transmission problem. By formulating the problem using combinational Dirichlet, labels of those unlabeled vertices can be determined by the labels for which the greatest potential is calculated. Finally, a better community partition can be obtained. Our extensive numerical experiments in both artificial and real networks lead to two key observations: first, individual labels play an important role in community detection; and second, our proposed semi-supervised community detection algorithm outperforms existing counterparts in both accuracy and time complexity, especially for obscure networks.

Liu, Dong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Wenjun; Bai, Hongyu

2014-12-01

160

Optimisation of a honeybee-colony's energetics via social learning based on queuing delays

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural selection shaped the foraging-related processes of honeybees in such a way that a colony can react to changing environmental conditions optimally. To investigate this complex dynamic social system, we developed a multi-agent model of the nectar flow inside and outside of a honeybee colony. In a honeybee colony, a temporal caste collects nectar in the environment. These foragers bring their harvest into the colony, where they unload their nectar loads to one or more storer bees. Our model predicts that a cohort of foragers, collecting nectar from a single nectar source, is able to detect changes in quality in other food sources they have never visited, via the nectar processing system of the colony. We identified two novel pathways of forager-to-forager communication. Foragers can gain information about changes in the nectar flow in the environment via changes in their mean waiting time for unloadings and the number of experienced multiple unloadings. This way two distinct groups of foragers that forage on different nectar sources and that never communicate directly can share information via a third cohort of worker bees. We show that this noisy and loosely knotted social network allows a colony to perform collective information processing, so that a single forager has all necessary information available to be able to 'tune' its social behaviour, like dancing or dance-following. This way the net nectar gain of the colony is increased.

Thenius, Ronald; Schmickl, Thomas; Crailsheim, Karl

2008-06-01

161

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living communities can be considered as complex systems, and are thus fertile grounds for studies related to statistics and dynamics. In this study we revisit the case of rhythmic applause by utilizing the model proposed by Vázquez et al (2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 036127) augmented with two opposing driving forces, namely the desires for individuality and companionship. To that end, after performing computer simulations with a large number of oscillators we propose an explanation on the following open questions: (a) Why does synchronization occur suddenly? (b) Why is synchronization observed when the clapping period (Tc) is 1.5 × Ts

Xenides, D.; Vlachos, D. S.; Simos, T. E.

2008-07-01

162

School-based theories of pupil assessment: a case study.

Case study design was used in this investigation of the pupil assessment theories of two middle school physical education teachers whose program was identified as a good program in which pupil assessment was taking place. An assumption guiding the study was that teachers' actions are rational and are designed to produce desired results. Therefore, a comparison is made only between two theories of action (espoused and enacted) rather than between theory and practice. Informal and semistructured interviews were employed to elicit teachers' espoused theories, and enacted theories were identified during field visits over a semester in which classes were observed and school documents examined. Teachers' theories of assessment are identified for the categories of participation, effort, and improvement; grading; written tests; fitness testing; performance tests; and formative recordkeeping. Espoused and enacted theories are then examined for congruency. The highest level of incongruency was found in the areas of performance tests and formative recordkeeping. Barriers to the use of pupil assessment techniques in this program include organizational, knowledge, and contextual factors. Change in the assessment practices of secondary teachers may be facilitated, however, through the identification and examination of teachers' theories of assessment by both preservice and inservice teachers. PMID:1574661

Veal, M L

1992-03-01

163

A cognitive approach to intercultural communication based on schema theory

The purpose of this study was to examine schema theory and its application to intercultural communication, especially to sojourners’ cross-cultural adaptation. Eight primary types of schemas for social interactions were extracted, and these schemas’ functions for processing information were investigated. Furthermore, fundamental functional structures of schemas were analyzed when the theory was applied to sojourners’ cross-cultural adaptation, and eleven axioms

Hiroko Nishida

1999-01-01

164

Study on graphics design based on fractal theory

The research on the fractal theory not only has theoretical significance but also has very extensive practical application value. In fashion design, furniture design, advertisement design, and other fields, the combination of computer with art has wide space in graphic design. This paper mainly studies the application of the fractal theory in computer science, especially the actual application in the

Bin Jiao

2010-01-01

165

An Approach to Theory-Based Youth Programming

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key but often overlooked aspect of intentional, out-of-school-time programming is the integration of a guiding theoretical framework. The incorporation of theory in programming can provide practitioners valuable insights into essential processes and principles of successful programs. While numerous theories exist that relate to youth development…

Duerden, Mat D.; Gillard, Ann

2011-01-01

166

Theories of Medical Decision Making and Health: An Evidence Based Approach

In this special section of Medical Decision Making, 3 developers of evidence-based theories of medical decision making and health present their approaches: Fishbein (theory of reasoned action); Prochaska (transtheoretical model); and Reyna (fuzzy-trace theory). Spring, chair of the Evidence-Based Practice Committee of the Society for Behavioral Medicine, follows with a commentary on the 3 approaches and many other topics of

Valerie F. Reyna

2009-01-01

167

A theory-based transport model with comprehensive physics

A new theory-based transport model with comprehensive physics (trapping, general toroidal geometry, fully electromagnetic, electron-ion collisions, impurity ions) has been developed. The core of the model is the new trapped-gyro-Landau-fluid (TGLF) equations, which provide a fast and accurate approximation to the linear eigenmodes for gyrokinetic drift-wave instabilities (trapped ion and electron modes, ion and electron temperature gradient modes, and kinetic ballooning modes). The new TGLF transport model is more accurate, and has an extended range of validity, compared to its predecessor GLF23. The TGLF model unifies trapped and passing particles in a single set of gyro-Landau-fluid equations. A model for the averaging of the Landau resonance by the trapped particles makes the equations work seamlessly over the whole drift-wave wave-number range from trapped ion modes to electron temperature gradient modes. A fast eigenmode solution method enables unrestricted magnetic geometry. The transport model uses the TGLF eigenmodes to compute quasilinear fluxes of energy and particles. A model for the saturated intensity of the turbulence completes the flux calculation. The intensity model is constructed to fit a large set of nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations with kinetic electrons. The TGLF model is valid in new physical regimes that GLF23 was not. These include the low aspect ratio spherical torus, which has both a high trapped fraction and strong shaping of magnetic flux surfaces. The TGLF model is also valid close to the magnetic separatrix so the transport physics of the H-mode pedestal region can be explored.

Staebler, G. M.; Kinsey, J. E.; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

2007-05-15

168

GAME-THEORY-BASED CROSS-LAYER OPTIMIZATION FOR WIRELESS DS-CDMA VISUAL SENSOR NETWORKS

- ing for the allocation of the total bit rate among several video users [5]. However, in [5GAME-THEORY-BASED CROSS-LAYER OPTIMIZATION FOR WIRELESS DS-CDMA VISUAL SENSOR NETWORKS Lisimachos P Force Research Laboratory 2 Rome, NY, USA ABSTRACT We propose a game-theory-based cross

Kondis, Lisimachos Paul

169

Development and Evaluation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Guidebook for Breast Cancer Survivors

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert…

Vallance, Jeffrey K.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Taylor, Lorian M.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Mackey, John R.

2008-01-01

170

Interactive musical visualization based on emotional and color theory

for music visualization founded on emotional analogues between visual art and music. The framework implements audio signal spectrum analysis, mood modeling, and color theory to produce pertinent data for use in visualizations. The research is manifest as a...

Bowens, Karessa Natee

2009-05-15

171

Theory of mind and rule-based reasoning

The hypothesis is tested that during the preschool period a particular form of reasoning is applied to theory of mind and a set of problems that do not require the understanding of mental states. Three experiments each provided a different piece of support for this hypothesis. Experiment 1 found similar age-related changes between three standard theory-of-mind tasks (false belief, appearance-reality

Tibor Palfai; P. D. Zelazo

1995-01-01

172

manufacturing systems; ffl service systems; ffl etc. II. In Many RealÂLife Cases, Queuing Models Lead of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083, China. IV. As A Result Of This Uncertainty, Estimated Values applied these methods to several realÂlife systems. VI. Fuzzy Approach In some cases, in addition

Kreinovich, Vladik

173

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Short term strain rate change, creep and relaxation tests were performed in an MTS computer controlled servohydraulic testing machine. Aging and recovery were found to be insignificant for test times not exceeding 30 hrs. The material functions and constants of the theory were identified from results of strain rate change tests. Numerical integration of the theory for relaxation and creep tests showed good predictive capabilities of the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress.

Krempl, E.; Lu, H.; Yao, D.

1988-01-01

174

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will help the students understand that science theories change in the face of new evidence, but those changes can be slow in coming. Students will observe how scientific theories change over time, Be introduced to the sophistication of the geocentric model and the time it took to change the theory underpinning the heliocentric model, Compare the heliocentric model to the geocentric model.

2010-01-01

175

The three dimensional theory of gravitation based on a temporal scalar field in Riemanian geometry

A new approach to the model of the universe based on work by Rippl, Romero, Tavakol is presented. We have used the scheme for relating the vacuum (D + 1) dimensional theories to D dimensional theories for setting up a correspondence between vacuum 4-dimensional Einstein theory with 3-dimensional gravity theory with temporal scalar field. These ideas we continued by using the 3-dimensional analog of Jordan, Brans-Dicke theory with temporal scalar field. As the result space and time are treated in completely different ways. For the case of a static spherically symmetric field new vacuum static solutions are found.

S. Kozyrev

2004-06-21

176

In digraphs one has a hierarchy based on the unidirectional order between the vertices of the graph. We present a method of measuring degrees of hierarchy as expressed by the inequality that exists between the vertices' hierarchical numbers. In order to do so, we need to extend the classical Lorenz theory of concentration (curves and measures) for a set of

L Egghe

2002-01-01

177

Quantum mechanical embedding theory based on a unique embedding potential

We remove the nonuniqueness of the embedding potential that exists in most previous quantum mechanical embedding schemes by letting the environment and embedded region share a common embedding (interaction) potential. To efficiently solve for the embedding potential, an optimized effective potential method is derived. This embedding potential, which eschews use of approximate kinetic energy density functionals, is then used to describe the environment while a correlated wavefunction (CW) treatment of the embedded region is employed. We first demonstrate the accuracy of this new embedded CW (ECW) method by calculating the van der Waals binding energy curve between a hydrogen molecule and a hydrogen chain. We then examine the prototypical adsorption of CO on a metal surface, here the Cu(111) surface. In addition to obtaining proper site ordering (top site most stable) and binding energies within this theory, the ECW exhibits dramatic changes in the p-character of the CO 4{sigma} and 5{sigma} orbitals upon adsorption that agree very well with x-ray emission spectra, providing further validation of the theory. Finally, we generalize our embedding theory to spin-polarized quantum systems and discuss the connection between our theory and partition density functional theory.

Chen Huang [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)

2011-04-21

178

Quantum mechanical embedding theory based on a unique embedding potential

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We remove the nonuniqueness of the embedding potential that exists in most previous quantum mechanical embedding schemes by letting the environment and embedded region share a common embedding (interaction) potential. To efficiently solve for the embedding potential, an optimized effective potential method is derived. This embedding potential, which eschews use of approximate kinetic energy density functionals, is then used to describe the environment while a correlated wavefunction (CW) treatment of the embedded region is employed. We first demonstrate the accuracy of this new embedded CW (ECW) method by calculating the van der Waals binding energy curve between a hydrogen molecule and a hydrogen chain. We then examine the prototypical adsorption of CO on a metal surface, here the Cu(111) surface. In addition to obtaining proper site ordering (top site most stable) and binding energies within this theory, the ECW exhibits dramatic changes in the p-character of the CO 4? and 5? orbitals upon adsorption that agree very well with x-ray emission spectra, providing further validation of the theory. Finally, we generalize our embedding theory to spin-polarized quantum systems and discuss the connection between our theory and partition density functional theory.

Huang, Chen; Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A.

2011-04-01

179

Theory of sampling and its application in tissue based diagnosis

Background A general theory of sampling and its application in tissue based diagnosis is presented. Sampling is defined as extraction of information from certain limited spaces and its transformation into a statement or measure that is valid for the entire (reference) space. The procedure should be reproducible in time and space, i.e. give the same results when applied under similar circumstances. Sampling includes two different aspects, the procedure of sample selection and the efficiency of its performance. The practical performance of sample selection focuses on search for localization of specific compartments within the basic space, and search for presence of specific compartments. Methods When a sampling procedure is applied in diagnostic processes two different procedures can be distinguished: I) the evaluation of a diagnostic significance of a certain object, which is the probability that the object can be grouped into a certain diagnosis, and II) the probability to detect these basic units. Sampling can be performed without or with external knowledge, such as size of searched objects, neighbourhood conditions, spatial distribution of objects, etc. If the sample size is much larger than the object size, the application of a translation invariant transformation results in Kriege's formula, which is widely used in search for ores. Usually, sampling is performed in a series of area (space) selections of identical size. The size can be defined in relation to the reference space or according to interspatial relationship. The first method is called random sampling, the second stratified sampling. Results Random sampling does not require knowledge about the reference space, and is used to estimate the number and size of objects. Estimated features include area (volume) fraction, numerical, boundary and surface densities. Stratified sampling requires the knowledge of objects (and their features) and evaluates spatial features in relation to the detected objects (for example grey value distribution around an object). It serves also for the definition of parameters of the probability function in so – called active segmentation. Conclusion The method is useful in standardization of images derived from immunohistochemically stained slides, and implemented in the EAMUS™ system . It can also be applied for the search of "objects possessing an amplification function", i.e. a rare event with "steering function". A formula to calculate the efficiency and potential error rate of the described sampling procedures is given. PMID:19220904

Kayser, Klaus; Schultz, Holger; Goldmann, Torsten; Görtler, Jürgen; Kayser, Gian; Vollmer, Ekkehard

2009-01-01

180

Property Grammars: A Fully Constraint-Based Theory Philippe Blache

, to distinguish hierarchy from linear order whereas this information is merged in classical phrase-structure to be interpreted with respect to the en- tire system. In other words, a phrase-structure rule, which is the basic description. Property Grammars is then a non-generative theory in the sense that no structure has to be build

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de

181

Renormalization group method based on the ionization energy theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proofs are developed to explicitly show that the ionization energy theory is a renormalized theory, which mathematically exactly satisfies the renormalization group formalisms developed by Gell-Mann-Low, Shankar and Zinn-Justin. However, the cutoff parameter for the ionization energy theory relies on the energy-level spacing, instead of lattice point spacing in k-space. Subsequently, we apply the earlier proofs to prove that the mathematical structure of the ionization-energy dressed electron-electron screened Coulomb potential is exactly the same as the ionization-energy dressed electron-phonon interaction potential. The latter proof is proven by means of the second-order time-independent perturbation theory with the heavier effective mass condition, as required by the electron-electron screened Coulomb potential. The outcome of this proof is that we can derive the heat capacity and the Debye frequency as a function of ionization energy, which can be applied in strongly correlated matter and nanostructures.

Arulsamy, Andrew Das

2011-03-01

182

Fabric Weave Design Based on Cellular Automata Theory

The article adopt cellular automata theory to avoid the unpredictable in process of pattern generated with the constraint of cellular automata rule, it makes the cellular automata iterate into ideal patterns. With the computer simulation we can get the three basic fabric weave patterns which are plain weave, twill, satin. Compared with the traditional fabric weave design, the fabric weave

Liu Suyi; Wan Qian; Zhang Heng

2009-01-01

183

Effective Contraceptive Use: An Exploration of Theory-Based Influences

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence oral contraceptive (OC) use among women in Iran using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and concept of self-efficacy (SE). The study sample consisted of 360 married OC users, aged 18-49 years recruited at public health centers of Mashhad, 900 km east of Tehran. SE had the strongest…

Peyman, N.; Oakley, D.

2009-01-01

184

Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Bayesian Theory

and efficient assessment of a learner's proficiency has always been a high priority for intelligent e approach. For assessing multiple skills at once, which is called for in e-learning environments because and practical basis for performing skills assessment, of which Item Response Theory (IRT) is the best recognized

Desmarais, Michel C.

185

Research on Danger Model Theory Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

Inspired from the experience of genetic and clone algorithm, propose an algorithm of danger model immune algorithm (DMIA) according to the danger model theory. It has a good performance in function optimization. From the simulation result, we can see that DMIA is valid, and also with higher efficiency than genetic algorithm.

Qingyang Xu; Xianyao Meng; Ning Wang; Chuang Zhang

2009-01-01

186

Forecasting of Customs Export Based on Gray Theory

Customs export plays a pivotal role in this countrypsilas economy and the social change. Forecasting customs export efficiently enables policy makers to plan more appropriately and thus to help to improve the balance of trade. Customs export traditionally is forecasted by using econometric methods. This paper focused on the gray theory and uses GM(1,1) model to forecast Hubei Province's export

Zhang Dabin; Zhu Hou; Zhang Jingguang

2009-01-01

187

Sensitivity theory for reactor burnup analysis based on depletion perturbation theory

The large computational effort involved in the design and analysis of advanced reactor configurations motivated the development of Depletion Perturbation Theory (DPT) for general fuel cycle analysis. The work here focused on two important advances in the current methods. First, the adjoint equations were developed for using the efficient linear flux approximation to decouple the neutron\\/nuclide field equations. And second,

Wonsik

1989-01-01

188

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even when the scoring of an examination is based on item response theory (IRT), standard-setting methods seldom use this information directly when determining the minimum passing score (MPS) for an examination from an Angoff-based standard-setting study. Often, when IRT scoring is used, the MPS value for a test is converted to an IRT-based theta…

Ferdous, Abdullah A.; Plake, Barbara S.

2008-01-01

189

[Systematic view on medicinal property theory based on self-similarity principle].

Studies on the prescription combination regularity based on medicinal tastes focus on the internal relations between the structure and hierarchy of the prescription combination system. In this paper, with the systematic and scientific self-similarity theory as the core ideology, authors systematically interpreted the self-similarity theory of medicinal properties, defined the self-similarity of prescriptions with identical or similar medicinal properties, and built the systematic view of medicinal property theory based on the prescription combination based on the entity grammar system. As a result, the system was conducive to integrating traditional Chinese medicinal knowledge of syndromes, therapeutic principles, efficacies, medicinal properties and tastes and achieving the automatic design and optimization process from symptoms to prescriptions, and providing scientific and feasible methods and technical systems for the application of the medicinal property theory, with a guiding significance to the technology, methodology and theory of decoction pieces compatibility, component compatibility and compound medicine design. PMID:25276944

Yuan, Bin; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

2014-07-01

190

Capacity and Delay Estimation for Roundabouts Using Conflict Theory

To estimate the capacity of roundabouts more accurately, the priority rank of each stream is determined through the classification technique given in the Highway Capacity Manual 2010 (HCM2010), which is based on macroscopical analysis of the relationship between entry flow and circulating flow. Then a conflict matrix is established using the additive conflict flow method and by considering the impacts of traffic characteristics and limited priority with high volume. Correspondingly, the conflict relationships of streams are built using probability theory. Furthermore, the entry capacity model of roundabouts is built, and sensitivity analysis is conducted on the model parameters. Finally, the entrance delay model is derived using queuing theory, and the proposed capacity model is compared with the model proposed by Wu and that in the HCM2010. The results show that the capacity calculated by the proposed model is lower than the others for an A-type roundabout, while it is basically consistent with the estimated values from HCM2010 for a B-type roundabout. PMID:24982982

Qu, Zhaowei; Duan, Yuzhou; Hu, Hongyu; Song, Xianmin

2014-01-01

191

Ground movement analysis based on stochastic medium theory.

In order to calculate the ground movement induced by displacement piles driven into horizontal layered strata, an axisymmetric model was built and then the vertical and horizontal ground movement functions were deduced using stochastic medium theory. Results show that the vertical ground movement obeys normal distribution function, while the horizontal ground movement is an exponential function. Utilizing field measured data, parameters of these functions can be obtained by back analysis, and an example was employed to verify this model. Result shows that stochastic medium theory is suitable for calculating the ground movement in pile driving, and there is no need to consider the constitutive model of soil or contact between pile and soil. This method is applicable in practice. PMID:24701184

Fei, Meng; Wu, Li-chun; Zhang, Jia-sheng; Deng, Guo-dong; Ni, Zhi-hui

2014-01-01

192

Ground Movement Analysis Based on Stochastic Medium Theory

In order to calculate the ground movement induced by displacement piles driven into horizontal layered strata, an axisymmetric model was built and then the vertical and horizontal ground movement functions were deduced using stochastic medium theory. Results show that the vertical ground movement obeys normal distribution function, while the horizontal ground movement is an exponential function. Utilizing field measured data, parameters of these functions can be obtained by back analysis, and an example was employed to verify this model. Result shows that stochastic medium theory is suitable for calculating the ground movement in pile driving, and there is no need to consider the constitutive model of soil or contact between pile and soil. This method is applicable in practice. PMID:24701184

Fei, Meng; Li-chun, Wu; Jia-sheng, Zhang; Guo-dong, Deng; Zhi-hui, Ni

2014-01-01

193

A superplasticity theory based on dynamic grain growth

The linear relation between dynamic grain growth rate and strain rate appears to be constant across all superplastic materials--regardless of whether the system examined is metallic or ceramic, and regardless of the stress exponent exhibited during deformation. The simplicity and universality of the dynamic grain growth law suggest it might be useful as a foundation for a theory for superplasticity. One attempt at such a theory is presented. It is argued that stress leads to the development of anisotropic grain shapes that then require recovery through directionally biased grain growth events. Once this mathematical relationship between stress and grain growth rate is developed, it is inserted into the existing dynamic grain growth--strain rate law to arrive at a phenomenological law for superplasticity.

Mayo, M.J.; Seidensticker, J.R.

2000-07-01

194

The improved algorithm of DS theory based on computer simulation

D-S Theory, as the Artificial Intelligence method of uncertainty reasoning, has become the hotspot and difficult point in Artificial Intelligence research area. Especially the inconsistent problem during the conventional D-S Sythetizing Algorithm has become the focus of many researchers and scholars. Many new and improved algorithms appeared endlessly afterwards. This paper researches on the D-S Sythetizing Algorithm with the basic

Rongli Chen; Chunyou Dong

2011-01-01

195

A New Heuristic Reduct Algorithm Base on Rough Sets Theory

\\u000a Real world data sets usually have many features, which increases the complexity of data mining task. Feature selection, as\\u000a a preprocessing step to the data mining, has been shown very effective in reducing dimensionality, removing irrelevant data,\\u000a increasing learning accuracy, and improving comprehensibility. To find the optimal feature subsets is the aim of feature selection.\\u000a Rough sets theory provides a

Jing Zhang; Jianmin Wang; Deyi Li; Huacan He; Jia-guang Sun

2003-01-01

196

A randomised control trial evaluated the effectiveness of a theory-based persuasive leaflet designed to encourage students to undertake at least one additional physical exercise session a week. Participants were 503 secondary school students attending a school in South-East England. The leaflet was written to target potentially modifiable cognitive antecedents of exercise specified by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. It was

Chloe Hill; Charles Abraham; Daniel B. Wright

2007-01-01

197

Applying cognitive load theory to the design of web-based instruction

Cognitive load theory can inform the design of web-based instruction. The basic premise of cognitive load theory is that the focus of an instructional module must be the instruction itself. Information that is adjunct to the instruction must be designed to minimize cognitive load and enhance working memory. Because the mental resources of working memory can be overloaded, any information

Susan Feinberg; Margaret Murphy

2000-01-01

198

Applying cognitive load theory to the design of Web-based instruction

Cognitive load theory can inform the design of Web-based instruction. The basic premise of cognitive load theory is that the focus of an instructional module must be the instruction itself. Information that is adjunct to the instruction must be designed to minimize cognitive load and enhance working memory. Because the mental resources of working memory can be overloaded, any information

Susan Feinberg; Margaret Murphy

2000-01-01

199

Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…

Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.

2014-01-01

200

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social…

O'Connor, Thomas G.; Matias, Carla; Futh, Annabel; Tantam, Grace; Scott, Stephen

2013-01-01

201

A Web-based Resource for Design Theory 1 Description of the project

A Web-based Resource for Design Theory 1 Description of the project We believe it is important and timely to create a comprensive world-wide-web resource for Design Theory, covering combinatorial this software to publish a database of designs on the world-wide-web, as well as publishing theoretical advances

Cameron, Peter

202

A reactive mobile robot based on a formal theory of action

One of the agenda behind research in reasoning about actions is to develop autonomous agents (robots) that can act in a dynamic world. The early attempts to use theories of reasoning about actions and planning to formulate a robot control architecture were not successful for several reasons: The early theories based on STRIPS and its extensions allowed only observations about the initial state. A robot control architecture using these theories was usually of the form: (i) make observations (ii) Use the action theory to construct a plan to achieve the goal, and (iii) execute the plan.

Baral, C. Floriano, L.; Gabaldon, A. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

203

An anti-attack model based on complex network theory in P2P networks

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex network theory is a useful way to study many real systems. In this paper, an anti-attack model based on complex network theory is introduced. The mechanism of this model is based on a dynamic compensation process and a reverse percolation process in P2P networks. The main purpose of the paper is: (i) a dynamic compensation process can turn an attacked P2P network into a power-law (PL) network with exponential cutoff; (ii) a local healing process can restore the maximum degree of peers in an attacked P2P network to a normal level; (iii) a restoring process based on reverse percolation theory connects the fragmentary peers of an attacked P2P network together into a giant connected component. In this way, the model based on complex network theory can be effectively utilized for anti-attack and protection purposes in P2P networks.

Peng, Hao; Lu, Songnian; Zhao, Dandan; Zhang, Aixin; Li, Jianhua

2012-04-01

204

Compact heat exchanger optimization tools based on volume averaging theory

Optimization of the enhancement of heat exchangers (HE), compact heat exchangers (CHE) and micro-heat exchangers by design of their basic structure is the focus of this work. A theoretical basis for heat and momentum transport equations obtained with volume averaging theory (VAT) is developed for modeling and design of heat exchangers. Using different flow regime transport models, equation sets are obtained for momentum transport and two-temperature or three-temperature heat transfer in non-isotropic heterogeneous CHE media that account for interphase exchange and micro-roughness.

Travkin, V.S.; Catton, I.

1999-07-01

205

Community-Based Research: From Practice to Theory and Back Again.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the theoretical strands being combined in community-based research--charity service learning, social justice service learning, action research, and participatory research. Shows how different models of community-based research, based in different theories of society and different approaches to community work, may combine or conflict. (EV)

Stoecker, Randy

2003-01-01

206

Efficient Color-theory-based Dynamic Localization for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Location information is critical to mobile wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. With the help of location information,\\u000a for example, routing can be performed more efficiently. In this paper, we propose a novel localization approach, Color-theory based Dynamic Localization (CDL), which is based on color theory to exploit localization in mobile WSNs. CDL makes use of the broadcast information, such as

Shen-Hai Shee; Tzu-Chien Chang; Kuochen Wang; Yi-Ling Hsieh

2011-01-01

207

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computation of interlaminar stresses from the higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory and the refined zigzag theory was performed using the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative. The Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative was proposed as an efficient method for determining through-the-thickness variations of interlaminar stresses from one- and two-dimensional analysis by integration of the equilibrium equations of three-dimensional elasticity. However, the use of traditional equivalent single layer theories often results in inaccuracies near the boundaries and when the lamina have extremely large differences in material properties. Interlaminar stresses in symmetric cross-ply laminated beams were obtained by solving the higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory and the refined zigzag theory with the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative. Interlaminar stresses and bending stresses from the present approach were compared with a detailed finite element solution obtained by ABAQUS/Standard. The results illustrate the ease with which the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative can be used to obtain the through-the-thickness distributions of interlaminar stresses from the beam theories. Moreover, the results indicate that the refined zigzag theory is a substantial improvement over the Timoshenko beam theory due to the piecewise continuous displacement field which more accurately represents interlaminar discontinuities in the strain field. The higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory more accurately captures the interlaminar stresses at the ends of the beam because it allows transverse normal strain. However, the continuous nature of the displacement field requires a large number of monomial terms before the interlaminar stresses are computed as accurately as the refined zigzag theory.

Slemp, Wesley C. H.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Tessler, Alexander

2010-01-01

208

Theory and Applications of the Double-Base Number System

In this paper we analyze some of the main properties of a double base number system, using bases 2 and 3; in particular we emphasize the sparseness of the representation. A simple geometric interpretation allows an efficient implementation of the basic arithmetic operations and we introduce an index calculus for logarithmic-like arithmetic with consid- erable hardware reductions in look-up table

Vassil S. Dimitrov; Graham A. Jullien; William C. Miller

1999-01-01

209

Determination of the Sediment Carrying Capacity Based on Perturbed Theory

According to the previous studies of sediment carrying capacity, a new method of sediment carrying capacity on perturbed theory was proposed. By taking into account the average water depth, average flow velocity, settling velocity, and other influencing factors and introducing the median grain size as one main influencing factor in deriving the new formula, we established a new sediment carrying capacity formula. The coefficients were determined by the principle of dimensional analysis, multiple linear regression method, and the least square method. After that, the new formula was verified through measuring data of natural rivers and flume tests and comparing the verified results calculated by Cao Formula, Zhang Formula, Li Formula, Engelung-Hansen Formula, Ackers-White Formula, and Yang Formula. According to the compared results, it can be seen that the new method is of high accuracy. It could be a useful reference for the determination of sediment carrying capacity. PMID:25136652

Ni, Zhi-hui; Zeng, Qiang; Li-chun, Wu

2014-01-01

210

Monotonicity Reasoning in Formal Semantics Based on Modern Type Theories

mono- tonicity reasoning can be dealt in MTTs, so that it can contribute to NLI based on the MTT-semantics. We show that subtyping is crucial in mono- tonicity reasoning in MTTs because CNs are interpreted

Luo, Zhaohui

211

Rough Cluster Quality Index Based on Decision Theory

Quality of clustering is an important issue in application of clustering techniques. Most traditional cluster validity indices are geometry-based cluster quality measures. This paper proposes a cluster validity index based on the decision-theoretic rough set model by considering various loss functions. Experiments with synthetic, standard, and real-world retail data show the usefulness of the proposed validity index for the evaluation

Pawan Lingras; Min Chen; Duoqian Miao

2009-01-01

212

Building the college cost control system based on game theory

On the base of basic problems analysis of scheme cost control and progress control, it builds mixed strategic gaming analysis model of imperfect information between the scheme cost and progress control for college cost control, points out the college manager need does optimization decisions to the cost and progress target and does composite control, which will improve the construction benefits

Cai Jingjing; Jin Zhihong

2009-01-01

213

Integrated Models of School-Based Prevention: Logic and Theory

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based prevention programs can positively impact a range of social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Yet the current climate of accountability pressures schools to restrict activities that are not perceived as part of the core curriculum. Building on models from public health and prevention science, we describe an integrated approach to…

Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Embry, Dennis; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

2010-01-01

214

Learning Trajectory Based Instruction: Toward a Theory of Teaching

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we propose a theoretical connection between research on learning and research on teaching through recent research on students' learning trajectories (LTs). We define learning trajectory based instruction (LTBI) as teaching that uses students' LTs as the basis for instructional decisions. We use mathematics as the context for our…

Sztajn, Paola; Confrey, Jere; Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia

2012-01-01

215

VSS Theory Based Training of a Fuzzy Motion Control System

This paper presents a novel training algorithm for adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems. The algorithm combines the error backpropagation algorithm with variable structure systems approach. Expressing the parameter update rule as a dynamic system in continuous time and applying sliding mode control (SMC) method to the dynamic model of the gradient based training procedure results in the parameter stabilizing part of

M. Onder Efe; A. Murat Fiskiran; Okyay Kaynak; Imre J. Rudas

216

Content Based Image Retrieval and Information Theory: A General Approach.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an alternative real valued representation of color based on the information theoretic concept of entropy. A theoretical presentation of image entropy is accompanied by a practical description of the merits and limitations of image entropy compared to color histograms. Results suggest that image entropy is a promising approach to image…

Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.; Barhen, Jacob

2001-01-01

217

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current interest in the assessment of measurement equivalence emphasizes two methods of analysis, linear, and nonlinear procedures. This study simulated data using the graded response model to examine the performance of linear (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA) and nonlinear (item-response-theory-based differential item function or IRT-Based…

Flowers, Claudia P.; Raju, Nambury S.; Oshima, T. C.

218

A Consumption Base Theory of Development: An Application to the Rural Cultural Economy

Export base theory, which posits that overall regional growth is a function of external sales of locally produced goods and services, dominates economic development practice. But the consumption base can also serve as a growth driver, especially in small towns and rural areas. Local investments may induce residents to divert expenditures into local purchases, attract new and footloose residents and

Ann Markusen

2007-01-01

219

DNA-BASED SELF-ASSEMBLY AND NANOROBOTICS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENTS

DNA-BASED SELF-ASSEMBLY AND NANOROBOTICS: THEORY AND EXPERIMENTS by Sudheer Sahu Department AND EXPERIMENTS by Sudheer Sahu Department of Computer Science Duke University Date: Approved: John Reif Sahu All rights reserved #12;Abstract We study the following fundamental questions in DNA-based self

Reif, John H.

220

A simple agent-based social impact theory model of student STEM selection

There is a growing body of knowledge describing the economic and social challenge faced by the United States because of the small (14%) and decreasing number of students pursuing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. We propose a simple two-period, agent-based simulation based on social impact theory to predict the % yield of STEM majors. The model indicates that

Theodore T. Allen; Nixon Davis

2010-01-01

221

SRF theory for voltage and frequency control of IAG based wind power generation

This paper deals with the control of voltage and frequency of an autonomous wind power generation based on isolated asynchronous generator (IAG) feeding three-phase four-wire loads. The proposed control scheme is using the synchronous reference frame (SRF) theory based current detection. The proposed voltage and frequency controller (VFC) consists of a three leg voltage source converter (VSC) with a battery

Bhim Singh; Shailendra Sharma

2009-01-01

222

Applying Item Response Theory Methods to Design a Learning Progression-Based Science Assessment

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning progressions are used to describe how students' understanding of a topic progresses over time and to classify the progress of students into steps or levels. This study applies Item Response Theory (IRT) based methods to investigate how to design learning progression-based science assessments. The research questions of this study are: (1)…

Chen, Jing

2012-01-01

223

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper documents the initial development and validation of a brief quantitative measure of career development influences based on the Systems Theory Framework (STF) of career development (McMahon & Patton, 1995; Patton & McMahon, 1997, 1999, 2006). Initial exploratory factor analyses of pilot study data revealed a six-factor structure based on…

Bridgstock, Ruth

2007-01-01

224

Scale-invariant entropy-based theory for dynamic ordering.

Dynamically Ordered self-organized dissipative structure exists in various forms and at different scales. This investigation first introduces the concept of an isolated embedding system, which embeds an open system, e.g., dissipative structure and its mass and/or energy exchange with its surroundings. Thereafter, scale-invariant theoretical analysis is presented using thermodynamic principles for Order creation, existence, and destruction. The sustainability criterion for Order existence based on its structured mass and/or energy interactions with the surroundings is mathematically defined. This criterion forms the basis for the interrelationship of physical parameters during sustained existence of dynamic Order. It is shown that the sufficient condition for dynamic Order existence is approached if its sustainability criterion is met, i.e., its destruction path is blocked. This scale-invariant approach has the potential to unify the physical understanding of universal dynamic ordering based on entropy considerations. PMID:25273200

Mahulikar, Shripad P; Kumari, Priti

2014-09-01

225

Microscopic theory of anomalous diffusion based on particle interactions.

We present a master equation formulation based on a Markovian random walk model that exhibits subdiffusion, classical diffusion, and superdiffusion as a function of a single parameter. The nonclassical diffusive behavior is generated by allowing for interactions between a population of walkers. At the macroscopic level, this gives rise to a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. The diffusive behavior is reflected not only in the mean squared displacement [

Lutsko, James F; Boon, Jean Pierre

2013-08-01

226

Microscopic theory of anomalous diffusion based on particle interactions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a master equation formulation based on a Markovian random walk model that exhibits subdiffusion, classical diffusion, and superdiffusion as a function of a single parameter. The nonclassical diffusive behavior is generated by allowing for interactions between a population of walkers. At the macroscopic level, this gives rise to a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation. The diffusive behavior is reflected not only in the mean squared displacement [

Lutsko, James F.; Boon, Jean Pierre

2013-08-01

227

Research on e-learning services based on ontology theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

E-learning services can realize network learning resource sharing and interoperability, but they can't realize automatic discovery, implementation and integration of services. This paper proposes a framework of e-learning services based on ontology, the ontology technology is applied to the publication and discovery process of e-learning services, in order to realize accurate and efficient retrieval and utilization of e-learning services.

Liu, Rui

2013-07-01

228

Content-Based Image Retrieval: Theory and Applications

Advances in data storage and image acquisition technologies have enabled the cre- ation of large image datasets. In this scenario, it is necess ary to develop appropri- ate information systems to efficiently manage these collect ions. The commonest ap- proaches use the so-called Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems . Basically, these systems try to retrieve images similar to a user-define

Ricardo Da Silva Torres; Alexandre X. Falcão

2006-01-01

229

Transient response of lattice structures based on exact member theory

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program BUNVIS-RG, which treats vibration and buckling of lattice structures using exact member stiffness matrices, has been extended to calculate the exact modal mass and stiffness quantities that can be used in a conventional transient response analysis based on modes. The exact nature of the development allows inclusion of local member response without introduction of any interior member nodes. Results are given for several problems in which significant interaction between local and global response occurs.

Anderson, Melvin S.

1989-01-01

230

Elevator Group Dynamic Dispatching System Based on Artificial Intelligent Theory

Elevator group control is a multi-input and multi-output decision-making problem. It is very difficult to obtain high quality performance by using traditional control method due to the uncertainty of traffic flow and complexity of elevator control. A dynamic dispatching system for elevator group based on artificial intelligent technology is presented in this paper. This system includes traffic pattern identify module

Liting Cao; Shiru Zhou; Shuo Yang

2008-01-01

231

The boundaries of instance-based learning theory for explaining decisions from experience.

Most demonstrations of how people make decisions in risky situations rely on decisions from description, where outcomes and their probabilities are explicitly stated. But recently, more attention has been given to decisions from experience where people discover these outcomes and probabilities through exploration. More importantly, risky behavior depends on how decisions are made (from description or experience), and although prospect theory explains decisions from description, a comprehensive model of decisions from experience is yet to be found. Instance-based learning theory (IBLT) explains how decisions are made from experience through interactions with dynamic environments (Gonzalez et al., 2003). The theory has shown robust explanations of behavior across multiple tasks and contexts, but it is becoming unclear what the theory is able to explain and what it does not. The goal of this chapter is to start addressing this problem. I will introduce IBLT and a recent cognitive model based on this theory: the IBL model of repeated binary choice; then I will discuss the phenomena that the IBL model explains and those that the model does not. The argument is for the theory's robustness but also for clarity in terms of concrete effects that the theory can or cannot account for. PMID:23317827

Gonzalez, Cleotilde

2013-01-01

232

A web exercise in evidence-based medicine using cognitive theory

Our aim was to improve clinical reasoning skills by applying an established theory of memory, cognition, and decision making\\u000a (fuzzy-trace theory) to instruction in evidence-based medicine. Decision-making tasks concerning chest pain evaluation in\\u000a women were developed for medical students and internal medicine residents. The fuzzy-trace theory guided the selection of\\u000a online sources (e.g., target articles) and decision-making tasks. Twelve students

Farrell J. Lloyd; Valerie F. Reyna

2001-01-01

233

The identification of nonlinear aeroelastic systems based on the Volterra theory of nonlinear systems is presented. Recent applications of the theory to problems in computational and experimental aeroelasticity are reviewed. Computational results include the development of computationally efficient reduced-order models (ROMs) using an Euler\\/Navier–Stokes flow solver and the analytical derivation of Volterra kernels for a nonlinear aeroelastic system. Experimental results

W. Silva

2005-01-01

234

Study on the measurement of customer value based on means-end chain theory

Woodruff proposed the definition of customer value based on the theory of Means-end chain reveals the nature of customer value very well, its detailed and profound discussion about learning and using the theory of customer value has far-reaching and guiding significance on the practice of business. After reviewing the literature on customer value, Means-end chain and laddering method, this research

Gao He; Pan Chi

2010-01-01

235

Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.

Zhang, Xubo

236

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phenomenological theory for contracting muscle based on irreversible thermodynamics and the sliding filament theory is developed. The individual cross bridges, considered as submits, are viewed as linear energy converters with constant transport coeffic...

W. J. Bornhorst, J. E. Minardi

1969-01-01

237

The theory of shell-based Q-mappings in geometric function theory

Open, discrete Q-mappings in R{sup n}, n{>=}2, Q element of L{sup 1}{sub loc}, are proved to be absolutely continuous on lines, to belong to the Sobolev class W{sub loc}{sup 1,1}, to be differentiable almost everywhere and to have the N{sup -1}-property (converse to the Luzin N-property). It is shown that a family of open, discrete shell-based Q-mappings leaving out a subset of positive capacity is normal, provided that either Q has finite mean oscillation at each point or Q has only logarithmic singularities of order at most n-1. Under the same assumptions on Q it is proved that an isolated singularity x{sub 0} element of D of an open discrete shell-based Q-map f:D/{l_brace}x{sub 0{r_brace}{yields}}R-bar{sup n} is removable; moreover, the extended map is open and discrete. On the basis of these results analogues of the well-known Liouville, Sokhotskii-Weierstrass and Picard theorems are obtained. Bibliography: 34 titles.

Salimov, Ruslan R; Sevost'yanov, Evgenii A [Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Donetsk (Ukraine)

2010-08-12

238

Lyapunov-based Fuzzy Queue Scheduling for Internet Routers

Quality of Service (QoS) in the Internet depends on queuing and sophisticated scheduling in routers. In this paper, we address the issue of managing traffic flows with different priorities. In our reference model, incoming packets are first classified based on their priority, placed into different queues with different capacities, and then multiplexed onto one router link. The fuzzy nature of

Hyun Cheol Cho; M. Sami Fadali; Jin Woo Lee; Young Jin Lee; Kwon Soon Lee

2007-01-01

239

An Efficacious Theory-Based Intervention for Stepfamilies

This article evaluates the efficacy of the Oregon model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) in the stepfamily context. Sixty-seven of 110 participants in the Marriage and Parenting in Stepfamilies (MAPS) program received a PMTO-based intervention. Participants in the randomly assigned experimental group displayed a large effect in benefits to effective parenting practices with resultant decreases in child noncompliance and in home and school problem behaviors. MAPS findings replicate and extend those of the Oregon Divorce Study with single mothers while employing a similar multiple-method, multiple-measure randomized design, with Intent-to-Treat and structural equation modeling analyses. We discuss direct and indirect effects on distal outcomes and the generalizability of PMTO to differing family contexts. PMID:16718303

Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.; Beldavs, Zintars G.

2006-01-01

240

Tire grip identification based on strain information: Theory and simulations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel technique for the identification of the tire-road grip conditions is presented. This is based on the use of strain information inside the tire, from which relevant characteristics of the tire-road contact can be extracted also through a factor named area slip ratio. This process forms the basis of a technology for grip identification that requires a new model of the tire dynamics. The model permits to determine closed form analytical relationships between the measured strain and the area slip ratio. On this basis, a procedure that can extract the contact kinematic parameter from the time history of the internal strain of the rolling tire is presented. Numerical simulations offer the chance to validate the identification algorithm.

Carcaterra, A.; Roveri, N.

2013-12-01

241

Derivative Trade Optimizing Model Utilizing GP Based on Behavioral Finance Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposed a new technique which makes the strategy trees for the derivative (option) trading investment decision based on the behavioral finance theory and optimizes it using evolutionary computation, in order to achieve high profitability. The strategy tree uses a technical analysis based on a statistical, experienced technique for the investment decision. The trading model is represented by various technical indexes, and the strategy tree is optimized by the genetic programming(GP) which is one of the evolutionary computations. Moreover, this paper proposed a method using the prospect theory based on the behavioral finance theory to set psychological bias for profit and deficit and attempted to select the appropriate strike price of option for the higher investment efficiency. As a result, this technique produced a good result and found the effectiveness of this trading model by the optimized dealings strategy.

Matsumura, Koki; Kawamoto, Masaru

242

Microfluidic, Bead-Based Assay: Theory and Experiments

Microbeads are frequently used as a solid support for biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids in heterogeneous microfluidic assays. However, relatively few studies investigate the binding kinetics on modified bead surfaces in a microfluidics context. In this study, a customized hot embossing technique is used to stamp microwells in a thin plastic substrate where streptavidin-coated agarose beads are selectively placed and subsequently immobilized within a conduit. Biotinylated quantum dots are used as a label to monitor target analyte binding to the bead's surface. Three-dimensional finite element simulations are carried out to model the binding kinetics on the bead's surface. The model accounts for surface exclusion effects resulting from a single quantum dot occluding multiple receptor sites. The theoretical predictions are compared and favorably agree with experimental observations. The theoretical simulations provide a useful tool to predict how varying parameters affect microbead reaction kinetics and sensor performance. This study enhances our understanding of bead-based microfluidic assays and provides a design tool for developers of point-of-care, lab-on-chip devices for medical diagnosis, food and water quality inspection, and environmental monitoring. PMID:19766545

Thompson, Jason A.; Bau, Haim H.

2009-01-01

243

[Modeling continuous scaling of NDVI based on fractal theory].

Scale effect was one of the very important scientific problems of remote sensing. The scale effect of quantitative remote sensing can be used to study retrievals' relationship between different-resolution images, and its research became an effective way to confront the challenges, such as validation of quantitative remote sensing products et al. Traditional up-scaling methods cannot describe scale changing features of retrievals on entire series of scales; meanwhile, they are faced with serious parameters correction issues because of imaging parameters' variation of different sensors, such as geometrical correction, spectral correction, etc. Utilizing single sensor image, fractal methodology was utilized to solve these problems. Taking NDVI (computed by land surface radiance) as example and based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image, a scheme was proposed to model continuous scaling of retrievals. Then the experimental results indicated that: (a) For NDVI, scale effect existed, and it could be described by fractal model of continuous scaling; (2) The fractal method was suitable for validation of NDVI. All of these proved that fractal was an effective methodology of studying scaling of quantitative remote sensing. PMID:24059189

Luan, Hai-Jun; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Yu, Tao; Hu, Xin-Li; Huang, Yan; Du, Ling-Tong; Zhao, Li-Min; Wei, Xi; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhou-Wei; Li, Shao-Peng

2013-07-01

244

Boundary based on exchange symmetry theory for multilevel simulations. I. Basic theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we lay the foundations for a new method that allows multilevel simulations of a diffusive system, i.e., a system where a flux of particles through the boundaries might disrupt the primary region. The method is based on the use of flexible restraints that maintain the separation between inner and outer particles. It is shown that, by introducing a bias potential that accounts for the exchange symmetry of the system, the correct statistical distribution is preserved. Using a toy model consisting of non-interacting particles in an asymmetric potential well, we prove that the method is formally exact, and that it could be simplified by considering only up to a couple of particle exchanges without a loss of accuracy. A real-world test is then made by considering a hybrid MM*/MM calculation of cesium ion in water. In this case, the single exchange approximation is sound enough that the results superimpose to the exact solutions. Potential applications of this method to many different hybrid QM/MM systems are discussed, as well as its limitations and strengths in comparison to existing approaches.

Shiga, Motoyuki; Masia, Marco

2013-07-01

245

The third-order shear deformation plate theory (TPT) is employed to solve the axisymmetric bending and buckling problems of functionally graded circular plates. Relationships between the TPT solutions of axisymmetric bending and buckling of functionally graded circular plates and those of isotropic circular plates based on the classical plate theory (CPT) are presented, from which one can easily obtain the TPT

L. S. Ma; T. J. Wang

2004-01-01

246

Comments on observables for identity-based marginal solutions in Berkovits' superstring field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct an analytic solution for tachyon condensation around identity-based marginal solutions in Berkovits' WZW-like open superstring field theory. Using this, which is a kind of wedge-based solution, the gauge invariant overlaps for the identity-based marginal solutions can be calculated analytically. This is a straightforward extension of a method in bosonic string field theory, which has been elaborated by the authors, to superstring. We also comment on a gauge equivalence relation between the tachyon vacuum solution and its marginally deformed one. From this viewpoint, we can find the vacuum energy of the identity-based marginal solutions to be zero, which agrees with the previous result as a consequence of ? zero mode counting.

Kishimoto, Isao; Takahashi, Tomohiko

2014-07-01

247

Comments on Observables for Identity-Based Marginal Solutions in Berkovits' Superstring Field Theory

We construct an analytic solution for tachyon condensation around identity-based marginal solutions in Berkovits' WZW-like open superstring field theory. Using this, which is a kind of wedge-based solution, the gauge invariant overlaps for the identity-based marginal solutions can be calculated analytically. This is a straightforward extension of a method in bosonic string field theory, which has been elaborated by the authors, to superstring. We also comment on a gauge equivalence relation between the tachyon vacuum solution and its marginally deformed one. From this viewpoint, we can find the vacuum energy of the identity-based marginal solutions to be zero, which agrees with the previous result as a consequence of $\\xi$ zero mode counting.

Isao Kishimoto; Tomohiko Takahashi

2014-04-17

248

Comments on Observables for Identity-Based Marginal Solutions in Berkovits' Superstring Field Theory

We construct an analytic solution for tachyon condensation around identity-based marginal solutions in Berkovits' WZW-like open superstring field theory. Using this, which is a kind of wedge-based solution, the gauge invariant overlaps for the identity-based marginal solutions can be calculated analytically. This is a straightforward extension of a method in bosonic string field theory, which has been elaborated by the authors, to superstring. We also comment on a gauge equivalence relation between the tachyon vacuum solution and its marginally deformed one. From this viewpoint, we can find the vacuum energy of the identity-based marginal solutions to be zero, which agrees with the previous result as a consequence of $\\xi$ zero mode counting.

Kishimoto, Isao

2014-01-01

249

Wheel-soil interaction model for rover simulation based on plasticity theory

A novel approach is proposed for the modeling of rigid-wheel and soft-soil interaction using infinitesimal plasticity theory. Our motivation is the need to have a model compatible with dynamic models of multibody systems. The idea is to use a prescribed velocity field in the vicinity of the contact area based on the physics of the problem, and find the changes

Ali Azimi; Jozsef Kovecses; Jorge Angeles

2011-01-01

250

A Game Theory-based Approach to Reducing Interference in Dense Deployments of Home

A Game Theory-based Approach to Reducing Interference in Dense Deployments of Home Wireless Networks Josephina Antoniou and Andreas Pitsillides Department of Computer Science University of Cyprus P behaviour of each unit. We propose a protocol where each unit operates in an equilibrium of a cooperative

Libman, Lavy

251

Effects of a Theory-Based, Peer-Focused Drug Education Course.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes innovative, theory-based, peer-focused college drug education academic course and its effect on perceived levels of risk associated with the use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine. Evaluation of the effects of the course indicated the significant effect on perceived risk of cocaine, but not alcohol or marijuana. (Author/ABL)

Gonzalez, Gerardo M.

1990-01-01

252

Author's personal copy Unified nano-mechanics based probabilistic theory of quasibrittle

Author's personal copy Unified nano-mechanics based probabilistic theory of quasibrittle. Examples include concrete, fiber composites, coarse- grained or toughened ceramics, rocks, sea ice, rigid foams and bone, as well as many materials used in nano- and microscale devices. This study presents

Bazant, Martin Z.

253

Density functional theory based calculations of the vibrational properties of chlorophyll-a

Density functional theory based calculations of the vibrational properties of chlorophyll-a Ruili in revised form 8 March 2007; accepted 13 March 2007 Available online 23 March 2007 Abstract Chlorophyll organisms, such as plants algae and cyanobacteria. To study the chlorophyll-a species at the heart

Hastings, Gary

254

Time-dependent self-consistent-field dynamics based on a reaction path Hamiltonian. I. Theory

Time-dependent self-consistent-field dynamics based on a reaction path Hamiltonian. I. Theory Jian the time-dependent self-consistent-field TDSCF method with the reaction path Hamiltonian RPH derived is shown to reduce to a one-dimensional numerical time propagation. When the reaction path curvature

Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

255

The second-order spatial subwavelength interference pattern is observed in a modified Michelson interferometer with single-mode continuous-wave laser beams. By analyzing our subwavelength interference experiment based on Feynman's path integral theory, a unified interpretation for all the second-order subwavelength interference is suggested.

Liu Jianbin; Zhang Guoquan [MOE Key Laboratory of Weak Light Nonlinear Photonics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300457 (China) and Photonics Center, School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2010-07-15

256

Progression and Heterogeneity in Colorectal Cancer A Model Based on The Kinetic Theory for Active

action exerted by T-lymphocytes, if supported by exter- nal drugs, against cancer cells is found, whichProgression and Heterogeneity in Colorectal Cancer Dynamics A Model Based on The Kinetic Theory of a mathematical model describing col- orectal cancer dynamics at cellular scale within the mathematical frameworks

Ceragioli, Francesca

257

Research on risk assessment for security system based on effectiveness evaluation theory

With the development of security system information degree and protection capability format, it is important to evaluate its effectiveness precisely to prevention and control of social order based on these changes. According to the operational characteristics of security system, protection format is divided into personal protection, physical protection, and electronic protection. Effectiveness evaluation theory is used to measure how the

Yujie Zheng

2010-01-01

258

Production planning system in clothing enterprises based on Drum-Buffer-Rope theory

To solve the problem with low Due Date Performance (DDP) and throughput in clothing enterprises, we propose a new bottleneck scheduling algorithm, design and implement production planning system with a core of the algorithm based on Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR) theory. Firstly, Shipping Buffer model is built for typical clothing enterprises; secondly, some problems of traditional scheduling for the bottleneck are discussed,

Xiu-Quan Xu; Yi-Hong Ru; Ling-Feng Liu

2010-01-01

259

The impact of prospect theory based framing tactics on advertising effectiveness

Among the most important decisions managers make is the determination of the most effective advertising strategies (and their associated tactics) and the determination of the market segments for which each strategy will be effective. Little research has explored the application of prospect theory based framing tactics (described in the text) to advertising. In this research we empirically test three framing

Paul D Berger; Gerald E Smith

1998-01-01

260

Transdiagnostic Theory and Application of Family-Based Treatment for Youth with Eating Disorders

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the transdiagnostic theory and application of family-based treatment (FBT) for children and adolescents with eating disorders. We review the fundamentals of FBT, a transdiagnostic theoretical model of FBT and the literature supporting its clinical application, adaptations across developmental stages and the diagnostic spectrum…

Loeb, Katharine L.; Lock, James; Greif, Rebecca; le Grange, Daniel

2012-01-01

261

With the multimedia and network technology widely using in teaching, the multiple intelligence theory was proposed. It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is too limited. It provides a new perspective for the curriculum development, implementation and evaluation in the multimedia and network environment. From the perspective of the curriculum reform, this paper analyzes the

Li Qingsheng; Wang Aimin; Kai Jinyu; Wang Jipeng

2010-01-01

262

Subscores Based on Classical Test Theory: To Report or Not to Report

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an increasing interest in reporting subscores, both at examinee level and at aggregate levels. However, it is important to ensure reasonable subscore performance in terms of high reliability and validity to minimize incorrect instructional and remediation decisions. This article employs a statistical measure based on classical test theory…

Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby; Puhan, Gautam

2007-01-01

263

An intervention for delirium superimposed on dementia based on cognitive reserve theory

Delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) accelerates the trajectory of functional decline and results in prolonged hospitalization, re-hospitalization, premature nursing home placement, and death. In this article we propose a theory-based intervention for DSD that is derived from the literature on cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. We begin by defining cognitive reserve, the guiding framework for our hypothesis. We review the pathophysiology

Ann M. Kolanowski; Donna M. Fick; Linda Clare; Barbara Therrien; David J. Gill

2010-01-01

264

Supporting Self-Regulated Personalised Learning through Competence-Based Knowledge Space Theory

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents two current research trends in e-learning that at first sight appear to compete. Competence-Based Knowledge Space Theory (CBKST) provides a knowledge representation framework which, since its invention by Doignon & Falmagne, has been successfully applied in various e-learning systems (for example, Adaptive Learning with…

Steiner, Christina M.; Nussbaumer, Alexander; Albert, Dietrich

2009-01-01

265

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers applications of decision theory to the problem of instructional decision-making in computer-based adaptive instructional systems, using the Minnesota Adaptive Instructional System (MAIS) as an example. The first section indicates how the problem of selecting the appropriate amount of instruction in MAIS can be situated within…

Vos, Hans J.

266

Evidence-Based Practice in Kinesiology: The Theory to Practice Gap Revisited

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As evidence-based practice sweeps the applied health professions, it is a good time to evaluate the generation of knowledge in Kinesiology and its transmission to professionals and the public. Knowledge transmission has been debated in the past from the perspectives of the theory-to-practice gap and the discipline versus profession emphasis.…

Knudson, Duane

2005-01-01

267

Spatial load forecasting based on generalized support vector machines and cellular automaton theory

A method of spatial load forecasting based on support vector machines (SVM) and cellular automata (CA) is proposed in this paper. Spatial load forecasting can be regarded as a complex problem considering many kinds of factors, while the theory of CA fully reflects the idea \\

Li Cong; Zhang Jian-hua; Zhang Guo-hua; Jin Cong-you; Zhang Jie-chao

2009-01-01

268

Supply chain risk is dynamic and conductivity. The process of supply chain risk conduction has the characteristic of self-organizing. The dissipation characteristic, cooperation characteristic and coupling characteristic in the process of supply chain risk conduction are discussed in detail based on the self-organization theory, which can help to take precautions against supply chain risk, improve efficiency of supply chain risk

Xiaohui Zhao; Jianfeng Liang; Xiaoe Zhao

2011-01-01

269

Assessment of Prevalence of Persons with Down Syndrome: A Theory-Based Demographic Model

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable empirical data in relation to the development of birth and population prevalence of Down syndrome. For the UK and Ireland there are more historical empirical data available. A theory-based model is developed for predicting Down syndrome prevalence in the Netherlands from the 1950s onwards. It is…

de Graaf, Gert; Vis, Jeroen C.; Haveman, Meindert; van Hove, Geert; de Graaf, Erik A. B.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

2011-01-01

270

Coping with Drought: Towards a Multilevel Understanding Based on Conservation of Resources Theory

There is substantial research on psychological consequences of disasters. However, most disaster studies to date have focused on acute disasters, ignoring slow-onset chronic hazards, such as extreme climate conditions and pollution. Using a multilevel theoretical framework based on the Conservation of Resources theory (S. E. Hobfoll, The Ecology of Stress, Hemisphere, New York, 1988; Stress, Culture, and Community: The Psychology

Gh. H. Zamani; Marjan J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn; Kiumars Zarafshani

2006-01-01

271

The potential of attribution theory is, by far, not exhausted to understand how causal attributions of stakeholders arise and how they influence their perceptions of organizations under crisis conditions. Therefore, a theoretical framework for explaining covariation-based causal inferences will be proposed for crisis communication research. Illustrated by several crisis scenarios, basic assumptions of Kelley's covariation principle will be outlined and

Andreas Schwarz

2008-01-01

272

This study explores whether mental representations based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) can predict engagement in rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI). A scale was developed to measure: treatment outcome beliefs, perceived barriers, subjective norm, and control cognitions. Other adjustment factors that are often seen as important in predicting engagement, e.g., denial and anger, were also measured using

Baljinder Bains; Theresa Powell; Louise Lorenc

2007-01-01

273

English Textbooks Based on Research and Theory--A Possible Dream.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research based text materials will probably never dominate the textbook market. To begin with, translating theory and research into practice is a chancy business. There are also creative problems such as the inherent oversimplification involved in textbook writing. Every textbook writer who has been a classroom teacher will acknowledge that such…

Suhor, Charles

1984-01-01

274

VLSI implementation for Epileptic Seizure Prediction System based on wavelet and chaos theory

This paper presents a very large scale integration (VLSI) circuit implementation for Epileptic Seizure Prediction System based combination of wavelet and chaos theory. The system consists with operation units of discrete wavelet transform (DWT), correlation dimension (CD), and correlation coefficient. This work discovered by certain bandwidth of signal extraction with DWT, and the combination with Chaotic features analysis, it can

Shao-Hang Hung; Chih-Feng Chao; Shu-Kai Wang; Bor-Shyh Lin; Chin-Teng Lin

2010-01-01

275

Portuguese Public University Student Satisfaction: A Stakeholder Theory-Based Approach

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In accordance with the importance of the student stakeholder to universities, the objective of this research project was to evaluate student satisfaction at Portuguese public universities as regards their self-expressed core expectations. The research was based both on stakeholder theory itself and on previous studies of university stakeholders.…

Mainardes, Emerson; Alves, Helena; Raposo, Mario

2013-01-01

276

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

2010-01-01

277

Ceramic slurry concentration measurement based on the theory of particle backscattering

For the present, the concentration of ceramic slurry is measured using the traditional physical method. The measuring accuracy of this method is not high and the efficiency is low. In order to measure the concentration of ceramic slurry quickly and easily, a new type of detection equipment need to be developed. Based on Mie scattering theory, the integral formula of

Lixiu Ma; Cuixia Sheng; Tianze Li

2010-01-01

278

A Cognitive Model of Crowd Behavior Based on Social Comparison Theory

- mentation of SCT in the Soar cognitive architecture, and the question this implementation raisesA Cognitive Model of Crowd Behavior Based on Social Comparison Theory Gal A. Kaminka and Natalie as to the role of social reasoning in cognitive architectures. Introduction Modeling crowd behavior

Kaminka, Gal A.

279

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…

Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

2014-01-01

280

Analysis and engineering of coupled cavity waveguides based on coupled-mode theory

The analytical expression for the transmission spectra of coupled cavity waveguides (CCWs) in photonic crystals (PCs) is derived based on the coupled-mode theory (CMT). Parameters in the analytical expression can be extracted by simple numerical simulations. We reveal that it is the phase shift between the two adjacent PC defects that uniquely determines the flatness of the impurity bands of

Xu-Sheng Lin; Xiong-Wen Chen; Sheng Lan

2005-01-01

281

Assessing Instructional Reform in San Diego: A Theory-Based Approach

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the approach, methodology, and key findings from a theory-based evaluation of the district-led instructional reform effort in San Diego City Schools, under the leadership of Alan Bersin and Anthony Alvarado, that began in 1998. Beginning with an analysis of the achievement trends in San Diego relative to other…

O'Day, Jennifer; Quick, Heather E.

2009-01-01

282

Human errors reliability analysis in coal mine accidents based on Gray Relational Theory

Human errors which have been affecting safety accidents are one of the main reasons in coal mine. So these Accidents can be pre vented and reduced through analyzing human errors affecting factors. This paper has made elaborate analysis of the relative affecting factors which cause human errors through applying the Gray Relational Theory in coal mine accidents. Based upon this

Jianyi Lan; Meiying Qiao

2010-01-01

283

Information-theory-based band selection and utility evaluation for reflective spectral systems

We have developed a methodology for wavelength band selection. This methodology can be used in system design studies to provide an optimal sensor cost, data reduction, and data utility trade-off relative to a specific application. The methodology combines an information theory- based criterion for band selection with a genetic algorithm to search for a near-optimal solution. We have applied this

Sylvia S. Shen; Edward M. Bassett

2002-01-01

284

Magnetometer Bias Calibration Based on Relative Angular Position: Theory and Experimental for esti- mating the sensor bias of three-axis magnetometers (or any other field sensor). Our approach employs relative angular position measurements to estimate the three-axis magnetometer measurement bias

Eustice, Ryan

285

Within the Twilight Zone: A Sensitive Profile-Profile Comparison Tool Based on Information Theory

Within the Twilight Zone: A Sensitive Profile-Profile Comparison Tool Based on Information Theory similarities that fall within the twilight zone of sequence similarity. # 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. Keywords are useful to detect similarities between sequences that have not diverged greatly, beyond the twilight zone

Levitt, Michael

286

Research on the management innovation of student affairs based on the social work theory

It is uneven on the level of operation and development in management mechanism of Chinese college student affairs. Through the elaboration of the ways on social work, and based on the social theory, we do some research on the management innovation of student, methods of setting goal, establishing ideal and achieving, which can consummate the management mechanism, enhance and improve

Zhenping Liu; Jindong Li; Qingyuan Zhou

2010-01-01

287

Interpretation-Based Processing: A Unified Theory of Semantic Sentence Comprehension

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present interpretation-based processing--a theory of sentence processing that builds a syntactic and a semantic representation for a sentence and assigns an interpretation to the sentence as soon as possible. That interpretation can further participate in comprehension and in lexical processing and is vital for relating the sentence to the…

Budiu, Raluca; Anderson, John R.

2004-01-01

288

From Theory to Practice: Concept-Based Inquiry in a High School Art Classroom

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines what an emerging educational theory looks like when put into practice in an art classroom. It explores the teaching methodology of a high school art teacher who has utilized concept-based inquiry in the classroom to engage his students in artmaking and analyzes the influence this methodology has had on his adolescent students.…

Walker, Margaret A.

2014-01-01

289

Ninter-Networked Interaction: Theory-based Cases in Teaching and Learning.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the pedagogical framework of an interdisciplinary, international project entitled NINTER (Networked Interaction: Theory-Based Cases in Teaching and Learning). Discusses a pedagogical model for teacher and staff development programs in a networked environment; distributed cognition; cognitive apprenticeship; challenges for educational…

Saarenkunnas, Maarit; Jarvela, Sanna; Hakkinen, Paivi; Kuure, Leena; Taalas, Peppi; Kunelius, Esa

2000-01-01

290

Nonlinear scattering based imaging in elastic media: Theory, theorems, and imaging conditions

Nonlinear scattering based imaging in elastic media: Theory, theorems, and imaging conditions recording devices in land and marine ocean-bottom seismic ac- quisition, elastic imaging may become mainstream in coming years. We have derived new, nonlinear, elastic imaging condi- tions. A correlation

291

Science Teaching Based on Cognitive Load Theory: Engaged Students, but Cognitive Deficiencies

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To improve science learning under demanding conditions, we designed an out-of-school lesson in compliance with cognitive load theory (CLT). We extracted student clusters based on individual effectiveness, and compared instructional efficiency, mental effort, and persistence of learning. The present study analyses students' engagement. 50.0% of our…

Meissner, Barbara; Bogner, Franz X.

2012-01-01

292

Longitudinal Study of Chinese Online Shopping Diffusion Process Based on Actor Net-Work Theory

While online shopping has many advantages, it did not diffuse as fast as people's forecasting. In this paper, we conduct content analyses to some news reports from 1998-2007 based on actor network theory in order to explain how online shopping developed and diffused in China and what technological and social factors attributed to the adoption process of online shopping. By

Dahai Dong; Rishuang Wang; Yanhong Guo

2010-01-01

293

Applications of Cognitive Load Theory to Multimedia-Based Foreign Language Learning: An Overview

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the multimedia instructional design literature based on cognitive load theory (CLT) in the context of foreign language learning. Multimedia are of particular importance in language learning materials because they incorporate text, image, and sound, thus offering an integrated learning experience of the four language skills…

Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Yen-Chang

2009-01-01

294

Theory-based Health Education Activities for Third to Sixth Grade Children.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight educational activities based on social learning and social support theory were used as part of a comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction program for families with children in the elementary grades. Activities focused on changing behavior with regard to diet and exercise. (Author/PP)

Jaycox, Sharon; And Others

1983-01-01

295

Patterns as a paradigm for theory in community-based learning

Patterns as a paradigm for theory in community-based learning John M. Carroll & Umer Farooq, USA e-mail: jcarroll@ist.psu.edu #12;Introduction Most adult learning occurs in informal contexts 2007 # International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc.; Springer Science + Business Media, LLC

Carroll, John M.

296

Simulations of minerals using density-functional theory based on atomic orbitals for linear scaling

The use of quantum mechanics methods within the formalism of density functional theory requires a method to represent the electron wave functions. We compare the use of strictly localized basis functions based on atomic orbitals with the use of plane waves for the study of mineral properties and behaviour. Strictly localized functions enable the computational resources to scale linearly with

M. S. Craig; M. C. Warren; M. T. Dove; J. D. Gale; D. Sanchez-Portal; P. Ordejon; J. M. Soler; E. Artacho

2004-01-01

297

A progressive failure theory for woven polymer-based composites subjected to dynamic loading

A progressive failure approach, applicable to woven polymer-based composites is developed and validated with experiments. Constitutive equations are formulated to characterize the mechanical response for fully non-linear, rate dependent, anisotropic behavior under dynamic loading. A mechanistic fiber failure theory is implemented, while a degradation model describes the stiffness reductions after failure. The approach is implemented in the Abaqus finite element

David R. Hufner; Michael L. Accorsi

2009-01-01

298

Fuzzy theory-based best generation mix considering renewable energy generators

This paper proposes a fuzzy linear programming (LP) based solution approach for the long term multistages best generation mix (BGM) problem considering wind turbine generators (WTG) and solar cell generators (SCG), and CO2 emissions constraints. The proposed method uses fuzzy set theory to consider the uncertain circumstances ambiguities associated with budgets and reliability criterion level. The proposed approach provides a

Liang Wu; Jaeseok Choi; Junmin Cha; A. A. El-Keib; J. Watada

2009-01-01

299

Dynamic awareness of network security situation based on stochastic game theory

Stochastic game theory is proposed to apply in the research on network security situational awareness (NSSA), which is a research focus in network security field at present. A novel dynamic awareness method of network security situation (NSS) based on analyses of network service states is proposed in this paper. Realizing situation awareness is a dynamic process, and the diverse states

Liang Ying; Li Bingyang; Wang Huiqiang

2010-01-01

300

Image coding based on a fractal theory of iterated contractive image transformations

The author proposes an independent and novel approach to image coding, based on a fractal theory of iterated transformations. The main characteristics of this approach are that (i) it relies on the assumption that image redundancy can be efficiently exploited through self-transformability on a block-wise basis, and (ii) it approximates an original image by a fractal image. The author refers

Arnaud E. Jacquin

1992-01-01

301

Poverty Lines Based on Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Application to Malaysian Data

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defining the poverty line has been acknowledged as being highly variable by the majority of published literature. Despite long discussions and successes, poverty line has a number of problems due to its arbitrary nature. This paper proposes three measurements of poverty lines using membership functions based on fuzzy set theory. The three…

Abdullah, Lazim

2011-01-01

302

Reducing Skin Cancer Risk: An Intervention Based on Protection Motivation Theory

Caucasian college students who intentionally tanned participated in a brief skin cancer intervention based on protection motivation theory (PMT). This intervention targeted skin appearance and consisted of brief lectures, a comprehensive essay, video clips about a young man who died of melanoma, and short discussions. Compared to a waitlist control group, the intervention group showed increases on PMT variables and

Brian T. McClendon; Steven Prentice-Dunn

2001-01-01

303

Power management strategy based on game theory for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles

In this paper, we present an integrated system approach based on game theory for automotive electrical power and energy management systems. We apply this approach to a case study fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FC-HEV) by using the Simulink-based simulator ADVISOR. The case study fuel cell vehicle is rated at 80 kW peak and 25 kW average propulsion power, and

Michael J. Gielniak; Z. John Shen

2004-01-01

304

Simple Models for Airport Delays During Transition to a Trajectory-Based Air Traffic System

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now widely recognised that a paradigm shift in air traffic control concepts is needed. This requires state-of-the-art innovative technologies, making much better use of the information in the air traffic management (ATM) system. These paradigm shifts go under the names of NextGen in the USA and SESAR in Europe, which inter alia will make dramatic changes to the nature of airport operations. A vital part of moving from an existing system to a new paradigm is the operational implications of the transition process. There would be business incentives for early aircraft fitment, it is generally safer to introduce new technologies gradually, and researchers are already proposing potential transition steps to the new system. Simple queuing theory models are used to establish rough quantitative estimates of the impact of the transition to a more efficient time-based navigational and ATM system. Such models are approximate, but they do offer insight into the broad implications of system change and its significant features. 4D-equipped aircraft in essence have a contract with the airport runway and, in return, they would get priority over any other aircraft waiting for use of the runway. The main operational feature examined here is the queuing delays affecting non-4D-equipped arrivals. These get a reasonable service if the proportion of 4D-equipped aircraft is low, but this can deteriorate markedly for high proportions, and be economically unviable. Preventative measures would be to limit the additional growth of 4D-equipped flights and/or to modify their contracts to provide sufficient space for the non-4D-equipped flights to operate without excessive delays. There is a potential for non-Poisson models, for which there is little in the literature, and for more complex models, e.g. grouping a succession of 4D-equipped aircraft as a batch.

Brooker, Peter

305

Research on intelligent electroacupuncture technique based on the symbolized measurement theory.

This thesis puts forward an intelligent electroacupuncture(EA) technique that imitates traditional chinese medical (TCM) acupuncture technique. In order to solute the difficulty of the fusion between TCM acupuncture technique and engineering technology instruments, the symbolized measurement theory proposed by author has been applied in the imitated approach, which make use of the problem mapping among different domains and scientize the mapping from the TCM acupuncture technique to electric parameter domain. The hardware diagram and the software flow chart of the intelligent acupuncture instrument based on the symbolized measurement theory have been given. PMID:17281174

Wenxue, Hong; Liqiang, Wang; Jialin, Song; Xin, Li; Hui, Meng

2005-01-01

306

Learning control system design based on 2-D theory - An application to parallel link manipulator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach to iterative learning control system design based on two-dimensional system theory is presented. A two-dimensional model for the iterative learning control system which reveals the connections between learning control systems and two-dimensional system theory is established. A learning control algorithm is proposed, and the convergence of learning using this algorithm is guaranteed by two-dimensional stability. The learning algorithm is applied successfully to the trajectory tracking control problem for a parallel link robot manipulator. The excellent performance of this learning algorithm is demonstrated by the computer simulation results.

Geng, Z.; Carroll, R. L.; Lee, J. D.; Haynes, L. H.

1990-01-01

307

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a new risk assessment method based on the attribute reduction theory of rough set and multiclass SVM classification. Rough set theory is introduced for data attribute reduction and multiclass SVM is used for automatic assessment of risk levels. Redundant features of data are deleted that can reduce the computation complexity of multiclass SVM and improve the learning and the generalization ability. Multiclass SVM trained with the empirical data can predict the risk level. Experiment shows that the predict result has relatively high precision, and the method is validity for power network risk assessment.

He, Xi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Ji, Yong

308

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, two methodological perspectives are used to elaborate on the value of cognitive load theory (CLT) as a scientific theory. According to the more traditional critical rationalism of Karl Popper, CLT cannot be considered a scientific theory because some of its fundamental assumptions cannot be tested empirically and are thus not…

Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Cierniak, Gabriele

2009-01-01

309

Is social projection based on simulation or theory? Why new methods are needed for differentiating

The literature on social cognition reports many instances of a phenomenon titled ‘social projection’ or ‘egocentric bias’. These terms indicate egocentric predictions, i.e., an over-reliance on the self when predicting the cognition, emotion, or behavior of other people. The classic method to diagnose egocentric prediction is to establish high correlations between our own and other people's cognition, emotion, or behavior. We argue that this method is incorrect because there is a different way to come to a correlation between own and predicted states, namely, through the use of theoretical knowledge. Thus, the use of correlational measures is not sufficient to identify the source of social predictions. Based on the distinction between simulation theory and theory theory, we propose the following alternative methods for inferring prediction strategies: independent vs. juxtaposed predictions, the use of ‘hot’ mental processes, and the use of participants’ self-reports. PMID:23209342

Bazinger, Claudia; Kuhberger, Anton

2012-01-01

310

We present a proposal for a versatile cold-atom-based quantum simulator of relativistic fermionic theories and topological insulators in arbitrary dimensions. The setup consists of a spin-independent optical lattice that traps a collection of hyperfine states of the same alkaline atom, to which the different degrees of freedom of the field theory to be simulated are then mapped. We show that the combination of bi-chromatic optical lattices with Raman transitions can allow the engineering of a spin-dependent tunneling of the atoms between neighboring lattice sites. These assisted-hopping processes can be employed for the quantum simulation of various interesting models, ranging from non-interacting relativistic fermionic theories to topological insulators. We present a toolbox for the realization of different types of relativistic lattice fermions, which can then be exploited to synthesize the majority of phases in the periodic table of topological insulators.

Leonardo Mazza; Alejandro Bermudez; Nathan Goldman; Matteo Rizzi; Miguel Angel Martin-Delgado; Maciej Lewenstein

2011-05-04

311

A comparison of design variables for control theory based airfoil optimization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work in the area it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using either the potential flow or the Euler equations with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. We have also explored three-dimensional extensions of these formulations recently. The goal of our present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the control theory approach by designing airfoils using both Hicks-Henne functions and B-spline control points as design variables. The research also demonstrates that the parameterization of the design space is an open question in aerodynamic design.

Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony

1995-01-01

312

A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:24795535

Liu, Yanbin; Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua

2014-01-01

313

Analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms based on linear systems theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review and update a recently published formalism for the theory of linear Phase Shifting Algorithms (PSAs) based on linear filtering (systems) theory, mainly using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF). The FTF has been for decades the standard tool in Electrical Engineering to analyze and synthesize their linear systems. Given the well defined FTF approach (matured over the last century), it clarifies, in our view, many not fully understood properties of PSAs. We present easy formulae for the spectra of the PSAs (the FTF magnitude), their Signal to Noise (S/N) power-ratio gain, their detuning robustness, and their harmonic rejection in terms of the FTF. This paper has more practical appeal than previous publications by the same authors, hoping to enrich the understanding of this PSA's theory as applied to the analysis and synthesis of temporal interferometry algorithms in Optical Metrology.

Servin, M.; Estrada, J. C.

2012-08-01

314

Theoretic Analysis & Study on Automobile EMC Based on the Synergetics Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the microelectronic application in the automobile of equipment increases, and the electromagnetic environment of external world worsens day by day, it is important to study the problems of the auto EMC. The traditional researching approaches of EMC have already become riper, but because of the complicated characteristics of the automobile's complex electronic system, there is no simple mathematical model to describe and analyze the auto EMC. The traditional methods mostly proceed with parameters of the circuits, and they have not risen to the system grade. They are based on the thought of reduction. As a kind of brand-new theory, synergetics pay more attention to the cooperation and competition between subsystems, and then it can reach harmonious stability from the whole. This paper investigates a new thought about applying the synergetics theory to the EMC' s analysis of the complex system like the Automobile's, thus received corresponding theory support.

Gao, Y. H.; Chang, X.; He, L. Q.; Tian, X. L.

2006-10-01

315

Power of Place-Based Pedagogy: Theory and Practice of Place-Based Education

This senior thesis investigates the utility of place-based learning techniques and pedagogy to improve student engagement in historical inquiry, their local community, and enhance their knowledge of community resources and partners. Place-based learning is a term used to describe an educational worldview based on development of curriculum centered on the local social, economic, and ecological resources of a community. The

Julia Rachel Kleederman

2009-01-01

316

The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors' energy consumption in order to prolong sensors' battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351

Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

2011-01-01

317

The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351

Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

2011-01-01

318

Personality and Psychopathology: a Theory-Based Revision of Eysenck's PEN Model

The principal aim of this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to create a personality taxonomy of clinical relevance out of Eysenck’s original PEN model by repairing the various shortcomings that can be noted in Eysenck’s personality theory, particularly in relation to P or Psychoticism. Addressing three approaches that have been followed to answer the question ‘which personality factors are basic?’, arguments are listed to show that particularly the theory-informed approach, originally defended by Eysenck, may lead to scientific progress. However, also noting the many deficiencies in the nomological network surrounding P, the peculiar situation arises that we adhere to Eysenck’s theory-informed methodology, but criticize his theory. These arguments and criticisms led to the replacement of P by three orthogonal and theory-based factors, Insensitivity (S), Orderliness (G), and Absorption (A), that together with the dimensions E or Extraversion and N or Neuroticism, that were retained from Eysenck’s PEN model, appear to give a comprehensive account of the main vulnerability factors in schizophrenia and affective disorders, as well as in other psychopathological conditions. PMID:20498694

van Kampen, Dirk

2009-01-01

319

Membrane-Based Characterization of a Gas Component -- A Transient Sensor Theory

Based on a multi-gas solution-diffusion problem for a dense symmetrical membrane this paper presents a transient theory of a planar, membrane-based sensor cell for measuring gas from both initial conditions: dynamic and thermodynamic equilibrium. Using this theory, the ranges for which previously developed, simpler approaches are valid will be discussed; these approaches are of vital interest for membrane-based gas sensor applications. Finally, a new theoretical approach is introduced to identify varying gas components by arranging sensor cell pairs resulting in a concentration independent gas-specific critical time. Literature data for the N2, O2, Ar, CH4, CO2, H2 and C4H10 diffusion coefficients and solubilities for a polydimethylsiloxane membrane were used to simulate gas specific sensor responses. The results demonstrate the influence of (i) the operational mode; (ii) sensor geometry and (iii) gas matrices (air, Ar) on that critical time. Based on the developed theory the case-specific suitable membrane materials can be determined and both operation and design options for these sensors can be optimized for individual applications. The results of mixing experiments for different gases (O2, CO2) in a gas matrix of air confirmed the theoretical predictions. PMID:24608004

Lazik, Detlef

2014-01-01

320

Glossodynia, or tongue pain, is resistant to conventional therapies. Kampo medicines were evaluated in patients suffering from incurable glossodynia. Patients were diagnosed by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory in order to determine the appropriate herbal prescriptions. Five Japanese females (50-76 years old) with glossodynia refractory to conventional therapy were enrolled in this study. Small portions of rikkunshito, jiinkokato, hachimijiogan and ryutanshakanto worked for a female diagnosed with "Spleen" and "Heart" Yin deficiency, "Kidney" Yang deficiency and "Liver" Qi stagnation producing heat syndrome. Seishoekkito and bakumondoto were effective for a patient diagnosed with "Spleen Qi" deficiency and "Stomach" Yin deficiency producing heat syndrome. Rikkunshito, kamikihito and chikujountanto worked for a patient diagnosed with "Spleen Qi" and "Heart Yin" deficiency, stagnation of "Liver" Qi producing fire and "Gallbladder" Qi deficiency. Rokumijiogan, kamishoyosan and kambakutaisoto were effective for a patient with Yang rise based on Yin deficiency of "Kidney" and "Liver," and restless organ disorder based on Yin deficiency of 5 viscera. A patient diagnosed with "Spleen" Yang deficiency responded to a combination of anchusan and hangeshashinto. These patients with glossodynia had resolution of pain within 1 month of treatment. Herbal mixtures containing Ganoderam lucidum, not prescribed based on TCM theory, but effective for herpes virus infection, worked for a female suffering from glossodynia for 1 year after artificial teeth were placed, but required about 5 months to note improvement. Kampo medicines, properly prescribed based on TCM theory, quickly resolved the pain of refractory glossodynia. PMID:19051351

Hijikata, Yasuyo; Makiura, Noriko; Kano, Takashi; Higasa, Kumi; Shimizu, Masahiko; Kawata, Kayoko; Mine, Takashi

2008-01-01

321

The Circuit Theory Behind Coupled-Mode Magnetic Resonance-Based Wireless Power Transmission

Inductive coupling is a viable scheme to wirelessly energize devices with a wide range of power requirements from nanowatts in radio frequency identification tags to milliwatts in implantable microelectronic devices, watts in mobile electronics, and kilowatts in electric cars. Several analytical methods for estimating the power transfer efficiency (PTE) across inductive power transmission links have been devised based on circuit and electromagnetic theories by electrical engineers and physicists, respectively. However, a direct side-by-side comparison between these two approaches is lacking. Here, we have analyzed the PTE of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors via reflected load theory (RLT) and compared it with a method known as coupled-mode theory (CMT). We have also derived PTE equations for multiple capacitively loaded inductors based on both RLT and CMT. We have proven that both methods basically result in the same set of equations in steady state and either method can be applied for short- or midrange coupling conditions. We have verified the accuracy of both methods through measurements, and also analyzed the transient response of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors. Our analysis shows that the CMT is only applicable to coils with high quality factor (Q) and large coupling distance. It simplifies the analysis by reducing the order of the differential equations by half compared to the circuit theory. PMID:24683368

Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2014-01-01

322

AN AGENT-BASED APPROACH TO IMPROVING RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN THE DUTCH YOUTH HEALTH CARE

AN AGENT-BASED APPROACH TO IMPROVING RESOURCE ALLOCATION IN THE DUTCH YOUTH HEALTH CARE SECTOR is used for analyzing different queuing strategies in the youth health care sector. The simulation model-stationary Poisson arrival process, and a preference algorithm to include a care provider's case preference

Ketter, Wolfgang

323

Using importance sampling to simulate queuing networks with heavy-tailed service time distributions

Characterization of steady-state queue length distributions using direct simulation is generally computationally prohibitive. We develop a fast simulation method by using an importance sampling approach based on a change ...

Liman-Tinguiri, Karim

2011-01-01

324

[Applicability of ICNP® based on the theory of modeling and role-modeling].

This study aimed to analyze the proposal of educational plan organized through the Nursing Process, using the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®), based on the Theory of Modeling and Role Modeling, to one group of women in Maracanaú-CE, Brazil. A case study was carried out in an educational group of women. A qualitative approach conducted the data production guided by the Creative and Sensitive Method. Two main diagnoses emerged from the needs presented by the group: compromised health and adequate knowledge, as well as formulation of results and nursing interventions. This study indicates the possibility of Nursing Process supported by INCP® and educational activities based on the Theory of Modeling and Role Modeling. PMID:25054707

Coelho, Manuela de Mendonça Figueirêdo; Miranda, Karla Corrêa Lima; Guedes, Maria Vilaní Cavalcante; Monteiro, Ana Ruth Macêdo; da Silva, Lúcia de Fátima; Leite, Ana Claúdia de Souza

2014-01-01

325

Design of Flexure-based Precision Transmission Mechanisms using Screw Theory

This paper enables the synthesis of flexure-based transmission mechanisms that possess multiple decoupled inputs and outputs of any type (e.g. rotations, translations, and/or screw motions), which are linked by designer-specified transmission ratios. A comprehensive library of geometric shapes is utilized from which every feasible concept that possesses the desired transmission characteristics may be rapidly conceptualized and compared before an optimal concept is selected. These geometric shapes represent the rigorous mathematics of screw theory and uniquely link a body's desired motions to the flexible constraints that enable those motions. This paper's impact is most significant to the design of nano-positioners, microscopy stages, optical mounts, and sensors. A flexure-based microscopy stage was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the utility of the theory.

Hopkins, J B; Panas, R M

2011-02-07

326

A theory-based logic model for innovation policy and evaluation.

Current policy and program rationale, objectives, and evaluation use a fragmented picture of the innovation process. This presents a challenge since in the United States officials in both the executive and legislative branches of government see innovation, whether that be new products or processes or business models, as the solution to many of the problems the country faces. The logic model is a popular tool for developing and describing the rationale for a policy or program and its context. This article sets out to describe generic logic models of both the R&D process and the diffusion process, building on existing theory-based frameworks. Then a combined, theory-based logic model for the innovation process is presented. Examples of the elements of the logic, each a possible leverage point or intervention, are provided, along with a discussion of how this comprehensive but simple model might be useful for both evaluation and policy development.

Jordan, Gretchen B.

2010-04-01

327

Finding theory- and evidence-based alternatives to fear appeals: Intervention Mapping.

Fear arousal-vividly showing people the negative health consequences of life-endangering behaviors-is popular as a method to raise awareness of risk behaviors and to change them into health-promoting behaviors. However, most data suggest that, under conditions of low efficacy, the resulting reaction will be defensive. Instead of applying fear appeals, health promoters should identify effective alternatives to fear arousal by carefully developing theory- and evidence-based programs. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol helps program planners to optimize chances for effectiveness. IM describes the intervention development process in six steps: (1) assessing the problem and community capacities, (2) specifying program objectives, (3) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical applications, (4) designing and organizing the program, (5) planning, adoption, and implementation, and (6) developing an evaluation plan. Authors who used IM indicated that it helped in bringing the development of interventions to a higher level. PMID:24811880

Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay; Parcel, Guy S; Gottlieb, Nell H; Fernández, María E

2014-04-01

328

Web-Based Learning Environment: A Theory-Based Design Process for Development and Evaluation

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Web-based courses and programs have increasingly been developed by many academic institutions, organizations, and companies worldwide due to their benefits for both learners and educators. However, many of the developmental approaches lack two important considerations needed for implementing Web-based learning applications: (1) integration of the…

Nam, Chang S.; Smith-Jackson, Tonya L.

2007-01-01

329

Testing a self-determination theory-based teaching style intervention in the exercise domain

Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT), this study examined the effect of an autonomy supportive, well structured and interpersonally involving teaching style on exercise class participants' psychological need satisfaction, motivational regulations, exercise behaviour, behavioural intention and affect. Female exercise class participants enrolled in a 10-week exercise program were exposed to an SDT-based (i.e. SDTc; n ¼ 25) or typical (i.e. control

Jemma Edmunds; Nikos Ntoumanis; Joan L Duda

2008-01-01

330

Generalized constitutive relations for metamaterials based on the quasi-static Lorentz theory

This paper presents a method of calculating the elements of the generalized matrix representation of the macroscopic constitutive relations for a three-dimensional (3-D) array of non-magnetic inclusions with arbitrary shape. The derivation is based on the quasi-static Lorentz theory and the inclusions are represented by electric and magnetic dipole moments. The 6×6 constitutive relation matrix is expressed in terms of

Akira Ishimaru; Seung-Woo Lee; Yasuo Kuga; Vikram Jandhyala

2003-01-01

331

A Validation-Structure-Based Theory of Plan Modification and Reuse

Kambhampati, S. and J.A. Hendler, A validation-structure-based theory of plan modifica- tion and reuse, Artificial Intelligence 55 (1992) 193-258. The ability to modify existing plans to accommodate a variety of externally imposed constraints (such as changes in the problem specification, the expected world state, or the structure of the plan) is a valuable tool for improving efficiency of planning by

Subbarao Kambhampati; James A. Hendler

1992-01-01

332

Total-energy method based on the exact muffin-tin orbitals theory

I present a total-energy method based on the exact muffin-tin orbitals (EMTO) theory and the full charge density (FCD) technique. The FCD-EMTO method combines the accuracy of the full-potential method and the efficiency of the muffin-tin potential method. The one-electron Kohn-Sham equations are solved exactly for the overlapping muffin-tin potential and from the self-consistent solutions the full charge density is

L. Vitos

2001-01-01

333

The triarchic theory of intelligence and computer-based inquiry learning

Sternberg's (1985) triarchic theory of human intelligence distinguished among three types of intellectual abilities: analytic,\\u000a creative, and practical. Our study explored the relationships between student abilities and the cognitive and attitudinal\\u000a outcomes that resulted from student immersion in a computer-based inquiry environment. In particular, we examined outcome\\u000a variables related to content understanding, problem solving, and science-related attitudes.\\u000a \\u000a Results indicated that

Bruce C. Howard; Steven McGee; Namsoo Shin; Regina Shia

2001-01-01

334

Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Building Energy Efficiency Based on Rough Sets Theory

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. VI-3-1 Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Building Energy Efficiency Based on Rough Sets Theory Lixing Ding Xiuying Ruan Jingyuan Huang Yueming... on the comprehensive index mathematics model of enterprises economical efficiency [J]. Application of statistics and management, 1990, (3): 49-55 (In Chinese) [4] Peng J, Chen Y, Huang R. Gray and multiple method of economic efficiency evaluation [J...

Ding, L.; Ruan, X.; Huang, J.; Li, Y.

2006-01-01

335

An optimization of frame structures with exact dynamic constraints based on Timoshenko beam theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity analyses of eigensolutions and eigenfunctions of 3-D frame structures using the exact frequency equation from the transfer dynamic stiffness matrix that was derived on Timoshenko beam theory were developed in this paper. Based on the sensitivity data of frame structures, the minimum weight design with an exact frequency constraint can be carried out efficiently. Three examples that demonstrated the results obtained by the proposed method, are in good agreement with those computed by ANSYS.

Yu, Jen-Fang; Wang, B. P.

2004-01-01

336

A vehicle traveling time prediction method based on grey theory and linear regression analysis

Vehicle traveling time prediction is an important part of the research of intelligent transportation system. By now, there\\u000a have been various kinds of methods for vehicle traveling time prediction. But few consider both aspects of time and space.\\u000a In this paper, a vehicle traveling time prediction method based on grey theory (GT) and linear regression analysis (LRA) is\\u000a presented. In

Jun Tu; Yan-ming Li; Cheng-liang Liu

2009-01-01

337

Evaluation of a Preschool Nutrition Education Program Based on the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

This report describes the evaluation of a preschool nutrition education program based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Forty-six nutrition educators provided a series of 12 lessons to 6102 preschool-age children. The program was evaluated using a pretest\\/post-test design to assess differences in fruit and vegetable identification, healthy snack choices, willingness to taste foods, and eating behaviors. Subjects showed significant

Katherine L. Cason

2001-01-01

338

This paper describes how the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory can be combined with adaptive techniques to improve individualised\\u000a teaching in an Intelligent Learning Environment (ILE). The ILE is called Web F-SMILE, it operates over the Web and is meant\\u000a to help novice users learn basic skills of computer use. Tutoring is dynamically adapted to the individual learner based on\\u000a the learner

Katerina Kabassi; Maria Virvou

2006-01-01

339

DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY-BASED INSTRUMENT REGARDING ADOLESCENT ATHLETES AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

Development of a Theory-based Instrument Regarding Adolescent Athletes and Dietary Supplements: Dietary supplement use is a well-documented practice among adult and adolescent athletes. Most recently the popular press was as interested in professional baseball player Mark McGwire's use of the dietary supplement Androstenedione as they were in his record-breaking homerun season. As a whole, athletes continue to use dietary supplements

Michael A. Perko

340

A tennis serve and upswing learning robot based on bi-directional theory

We experimented on task-level robot learning based on bi-directional theory. The via-point representation was used for 'learning by watching'. In our previous work, we had a robot learn kendama (a Japanese game) in order to demonstrate a single simple task. Our approach can be applied to a wide variety of motor behavior. However, some difficulties still remain. In this paper,

Hiroyuki Miyamoto; Mitsuo Kawato

1998-01-01

341

[Clinical investigation on administration method of gatifloxacin based on PK/PD theory].

There have not been sufficient clinical studies based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) theory, on which many clinical doctors have recently focused. To consider the optimized administration method based on PK/PD theory for gatifloxacin (GFLX), which was one of the oral fluoroquinolone antibacterial, we influenzae investigated clinical efficacies and adverse events for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in giving GFLX daily 400 mg divided twice a day or four times a day. The number of leukocyte and the value of CRP were significantly reduced by chemotherapy in twice a day group, compared with four times a day group. We were able to measure the blood level in 4 cases. The AUC/MIC values for presumption causative bacteria (causative bacteria in both cases: Escherichia coli) in cured patients were 142.28 and 280.16, however, in therapy-failed patients, the AUC/MIC value to presumption causative bacterium were 4.10 (causative bacteria: Prevotella bivia) and 4.35 (causative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa). These results suggested the importance of the therapeutic method based on PK/PD theory. PMID:17180805

Mikamo, Hiroshige; Tanaka, Kaori; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Izumi, Koji

2006-10-01

342

Predicting magnetorheological fluid flow behavior using a multiscale kinetic theory-based model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetorheological (MR) fluids have rheological properties, such as the viscosity and yield stress that can be altered by an external magnetic field. The design of novel devices utilizing the MR fluid behavior in multi-degree of freedom applications require three dimensional models characterizing the coupling of magnetic behavior to mechanical behavior in MR fluids. A 3-D MR fluid model based on multiscale kinetic theory is presented. The kinetic theory-based model relates macroscale MR fluid behavior to a first-principle description of magnetomechanical coupling at the microscale. A constitutive relation is also proposed that accounts for the various forces transmitted through the fluid. This model accounts for the viscous drag on the spherical particles as well as Brownian forces. Interparticle forces due to magnetization and external magnetic forces applied to ferrous particles are considered. The tunable rheological properties of the MR fluids are studied using a MR rheological instrument. High and low viscosity carrier fluids along with small and large carbonyl iron particles are used to make and study the behavior of four different MR fluids. Experiments measuring steady, and dynamic oscillatory shear response under a range of magnetic field strengths are performed. The rheological properties of the MR fluid samples are investigated and compared to the proposed kinetic theory-based model. The storage (G') and loss (G") moduli of the MR fluids are studied as well.

Mahboob, Monon; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Kagarise, Christopher; Washington, Gregory; Bechtel, Stephen; Koelling, Kurt

2009-03-01

343

Traffic management for an ATM switch with per-VC queuing: concept and implementation

The services to be supported by an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)-based multiservice network differ significantly in terms of their traffic characteristics and required quality of service. During the last few years it has been broadly accepted that efficient use of transmission capacity is not possible unless these differences are reflected in the way the related traffic streams are handled within

U. Briem; E. Wallmeier; C. Beck; F. Matthiesen

1998-01-01

344

Characterizations of MV-Algebras Based on the Theory of Falling Shadows

Based on the falling shadow theory, the concept of falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals as a generalization of that of a T ?-fuzzy (implicative) ideal is proposed in MV-algebras. The relationships between falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals and T-fuzzy (implicative) ideals are discussed, and conditions for a falling fuzzy (implicative) ideal to be a T ?-fuzzy (implicative) ideal are provided. Some characterizations of falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals are presented by studying proprieties of them. The product ? and the up product ? operations on falling shadows and the upset of a falling shadow are established, by which T-fuzzy ideals are investigated based on probability spaces. PMID:25258743

Yang, Yongwei; Xin, Xiaolong; He, Pengfei

2014-01-01

345

A Research of Weapon System Storage Reliability Simulation Method Based on Fuzzy Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aimed at the problem of the new, complicated weapon equipment system storage reliability analyze, the paper researched on the methods of fuzzy fault tree analysis and fuzzy system storage reliability simulation, discussed the path that regarded weapon system as fuzzy system, and researched the storage reliability of weapon system based on fuzzy theory, provided a method of storage reliability research for the new, complicated weapon equipment system. As an example, built up the fuzzy fault tree of one type missile control instrument based on function analysis, and used the method of fuzzy system storage reliability simulation to analyze storage reliability index of control instrument.

Shi, Yonggang; Wu, Xuguang; Chen, Haijian; Xu, Tingxue

346

Value-at-risk estimation with wavelet-based extreme value theory: Evidence from emerging markets

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces wavelet-based extreme value theory (EVT) for univariate value-at-risk estimation. Wavelets and EVT are combined for volatility forecasting to estimate a hybrid model. In the first stage, wavelets are used as a threshold in generalized Pareto distribution, and in the second stage, EVT is applied with a wavelet-based threshold. This new model is applied to two major emerging stock markets: the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) and the Budapest Stock Exchange (BUX). The relative performance of wavelet-based EVT is benchmarked against the Riskmetrics-EWMA, ARMA-GARCH, generalized Pareto distribution, and conditional generalized Pareto distribution models. The empirical results show that the wavelet-based extreme value theory increases predictive performance of financial forecasting according to number of violations and tail-loss tests. The superior forecasting performance of the wavelet-based EVT model is also consistent with Basel II requirements, and this new model can be used by financial institutions as well.

Cifter, Atilla

2011-06-01

347

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we aim to develop a version of the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT)-? equation of state (EOS) that is compatible with united-atom force fields, rather than experimental data. We rely on the accuracy of the force fields to provide the relation to experimental data. Although, our objective is a transferable theory of interfacial properties for soft and fused heteronuclear chains, we first clarify the details of the SAFT-? approach in terms of site-based simulations for homogeneous fluids. We show that a direct comparison of Helmholtz free energy to molecular simulation, in the framework of a third order Weeks-Chandler-Andersen perturbation theory, leads to an EOS that takes force field parameters as input and reproduces simulation results for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE) calculations. For example, saturated liquid density and vapor pressure of n-alkanes ranging from methane to dodecane deviate from those of the Transferable Potential for Phase Equilibria (TraPPE) force field by about 0.8% and 4%, respectively. Similar agreement between simulation and theory is obtained for critical properties and second virial coefficient. The EOS also reproduces simulation data of mixtures with about 5% deviation in bubble point pressure. Extension to inhomogeneous systems and united-atom site types beyond those used in description of n-alkanes will be addressed in succeeding papers.

Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard

2013-12-01

348

In this work, we aim to develop a version of the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT)-? equation of state (EOS) that is compatible with united-atom force fields, rather than experimental data. We rely on the accuracy of the force fields to provide the relation to experimental data. Although, our objective is a transferable theory of interfacial properties for soft and fused heteronuclear chains, we first clarify the details of the SAFT-? approach in terms of site-based simulations for homogeneous fluids. We show that a direct comparison of Helmholtz free energy to molecular simulation, in the framework of a third order Weeks-Chandler-Andersen perturbation theory, leads to an EOS that takes force field parameters as input and reproduces simulation results for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE) calculations. For example, saturated liquid density and vapor pressure of n-alkanes ranging from methane to dodecane deviate from those of the Transferable Potential for Phase Equilibria (TraPPE) force field by about 0.8% and 4%, respectively. Similar agreement between simulation and theory is obtained for critical properties and second virial coefficient. The EOS also reproduces simulation data of mixtures with about 5% deviation in bubble point pressure. Extension to inhomogeneous systems and united-atom site types beyond those used in description of n-alkanes will be addressed in succeeding papers. PMID:24359349

Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F; Elliott, J Richard

2013-12-21

349

An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functional theory, providing a useful tool to gain insights on intermolecular interactions that would otherwise be difficult to obtain using the delocalized Kohn–Sham DFT. These features allow broad applications of the BLW method to energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis for intermolecular interactions. In this perspective, we outline theoretical aspects of the BLW-ED method, and illustrate its applications in hydrogen-bonding and ?–cation intermolecular interactions as well as metal–carbonyl complexes. Future prospects on the development of a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) are presented, making use of block-localized electronic states as the basis configurations. PMID:21369567

Bao, Peng

2013-01-01

350

In this work, we aim to develop a version of the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT)-? equation of state (EOS) that is compatible with united-atom force fields, rather than experimental data. We rely on the accuracy of the force fields to provide the relation to experimental data. Although, our objective is a transferable theory of interfacial properties for soft and fused heteronuclear chains, we first clarify the details of the SAFT-? approach in terms of site-based simulations for homogeneous fluids. We show that a direct comparison of Helmholtz free energy to molecular simulation, in the framework of a third order Weeks-Chandler-Andersen perturbation theory, leads to an EOS that takes force field parameters as input and reproduces simulation results for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE) calculations. For example, saturated liquid density and vapor pressure of n-alkanes ranging from methane to dodecane deviate from those of the Transferable Potential for Phase Equilibria (TraPPE) force field by about 0.8% and 4%, respectively. Similar agreement between simulation and theory is obtained for critical properties and second virial coefficient. The EOS also reproduces simulation data of mixtures with about 5% deviation in bubble point pressure. Extension to inhomogeneous systems and united-atom site types beyond those used in description of n-alkanes will be addressed in succeeding papers.

Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard, E-mail: elliot1@uakron.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325 (United States)

2013-12-21

351

Perturbation theory based on the Variational Nodal Transport method in X-Y-Z geometry

A perturbation method based on the Variational Nodal Method (VNM) of solving the neutron transport equation is developed for three-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The method utilizes the solution of the corresponding adjoint transport equation to calculate changes in the critical eigenvalue due to changes in cross sections. Both first order and exact perturbation theory expressions are derived. The adjoint solution algorithm has been formulated and incorporated into the VNM option of the Argonne National Laboratory DEF3D production code. The perturbation method is currently implemented as a post-processor to the VNM option of the DIF3D code. To demonstrate the efficacy of the method, example perturbations are applied to the Takeda Benchmark Model 1. In the first perturbation example, the thermal capture cross section is increased within the core region. For the second perturbation example, the increase in the thermal capture cross section is applied in the control rod region. The resulting changes in the critical eigenvalue are obtained by direct calculation in the VNM and compared to the change approximated by the first order and exact theory expressions from the perturbation method. Exact perturbation theory results are inexcellent agreement with the actual eigenvalue differences calculated in the VNM. First order theory holds well for sufficiently small perturbations.

Laurin-Kovitz, K.F.; Lewis, E.E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-07-01

352

A new probability distribution model of turbulent irradiance based on Born perturbation theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subject of the PDF (Probability Density Function) of the irradiance fluctuations in a turbulent atmosphere is still unsettled. Theory reliably describes the behavior in the weak turbulence regime, but theoretical description in the strong and whole turbulence regimes are still controversial. Based on Born perturbation theory, the physical manifestations and correlations of three typical PDF models (Rice-Nakagami, exponential-Bessel and negative-exponential distribution) were theoretically analyzed. It is shown that these models can be derived by separately making circular-Gaussian, strong-turbulence and strong-turbulence-circular-Gaussian approximations in Born perturbation theory, which denies the viewpoint that the Rice-Nakagami model is only applicable in the extremely weak turbulence regime and provides theoretical arguments for choosing rational models in practical applications. In addition, a common shortcoming of the three models is that they are all approximations. A new model, called the Maclaurin-spread distribution, is proposed without any approximation except for assuming the correlation coefficient to be zero. So, it is considered that the new model can exactly reflect the Born perturbation theory. Simulated results prove the accuracy of this new model.

Wang, Hongxing; Liu, Min; Hu, Hao; Wang, Qian; Liu, Xiguo

2010-10-01

353

Paying for express checkout: competition and price discrimination in multi-server queuing systems.

We model competition between two firms selling identical goods to customers who arrive in the market stochastically. Shoppers choose where to purchase based upon both price and the time cost associated with waiting for service. One seller provides two separate queues, each with its own server, while the other seller has a single queue and server. We explore the market impact of the multi-server seller engaging in waiting cost-based-price discrimination by charging a premium for express checkout. Specifically, we analyze this situation computationally and through the use of controlled laboratory experiments. We find that this form of price discrimination is harmful to sellers and beneficial to consumers. When the two-queue seller offers express checkout for impatient customers, the single queue seller focuses on the patient shoppers thereby driving down prices and profits while increasing consumer surplus. PMID:24667809

Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O; Mongrain, Steeve

2014-01-01

354

Game Theory Based Dynamic Bit-Rate Adaptation for H.264 Scalable Video Transmission in 4G

Game Theory Based Dynamic Bit-Rate Adaptation for H.264 Scalable Video Transmission in 4G Wireless adaptation game based on the quasi-concavity of the net video utility function. Existence of Nash equilibrium based services such as video conferencing, interactive gaming and subscription based broadcast

Jagannatham, Aditya K.

355

Impact of an evidence-based medicine curriculum based on adult learning theory

Objective To develop and implement an evidence-based medicine (EBM) curriculum and determine its effectiveness in improving residents’\\u000a EBM behaviors and skills.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Description of the curriculum and a multifaceted evaluation, including a pretest-posttest controlled trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting University-based primary care internal medicine residency program.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants Second-and third-year internal medicine residents (N=34).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Interventions A 7-week EBM curriculum in which residents work through the steps of evidence-based decisions

Michael L. Green; Peter J. Ellis

1997-01-01

356

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of a sector-based stability theory approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant, multivariable systems is explored. A review of basic sector properties and sector-based approach are presented first. The sector-based approach is then applied to several general forms of parameter uncertainty to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results indicate that the sector uncertainty bound can be used effectively to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model. Inherent conservatism is a potential limitation of the sector-based approach, especially for highly dependent uncertain parameters. In addition, the representation of the system dynamics can affect the amount of conservatism reflected in the sector bound. Careful application of the model can help to reduce this conservatism, however, and the solution approach has some degrees of freedom that may be further exploited to reduce the conservatism.

Waszak, Martin R.

1992-01-01

357

/meanings of the variables. 2. Description of the program, including the data structures, message format, and the calling and the rectangular shapes represent (input) buffers into which messages are sent by the LPs. You will simulate. Partition the queuing network (as indicated above) and add message passing via MPI. If you are new to MPI

Tropper, Carl

358

Creating a Technology-Based Entrepreneurial Economy: A Resource Based Theory Perspective

Academic research has identified a broad array of resources that exist in communities that have an established technology-based entrepreneurial venture population. These studies have focused upon well-known areas such as the Silicon Valley, the 128 loop in Boston and Austin, Texas. Yet even in these relatively homogeneous environments the studies have been highly inconsistent in their findings as to what

G. Page West III; Charles E. Bamford

2005-01-01

359

Lattice Boltzmann method for Lennard-Jones fluids based on the gradient theory of interfaces.

In the present study we propose a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model derived from density gradient expansions of the discrete BBGKY evolution equations. The model is based on the mechanical approach of the gradient theory of interfaces. The basic input is the radial distribution function, which is related exclusively to the molecular interaction potential, rather than semiempirical equations of state used in previous LBE models. This function can be provided from independent molecular simulations or from approximate theories. Evidently the accuracy of the interaction potential, and thus the radial distribution function, reflects on the accuracy of the thermodynamic properties and consistency of the derived LBE model. We have applied the proposed model to obtain equilibrium bulk and interfacial properties of a Lennard-Jones fluid at different temperatures, T, close to critical, T(c). The results demonstrate that the LBE model is in excellent agreement with gradient theory as well as with independent literature results based on different molecular simulation approaches. Hence the proposed LBE model can recover accurately bulk and interfacial thermodynamics for a Lennard Jones fluid at T/T(c)>0.9. PMID:21230617

Kikkinides, E S; Kainourgiakis, M E; Yiotis, A G; Stubos, A K

2010-11-01

360

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the spare multipath property of the channel, a channel estimation method, which is based on partial superimposed training sequence and compressed sensing theory, is proposed for line of sight optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication systems. First, a continuous training sequence is added at variable power ratio to the cyclic prefix of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing symbols at the transmitter prior to transmission. Then the observation matrix of compressed sensing theory is structured by the use of the training symbols at receiver. Finally, channel state information is estimated using sparse signal reconstruction algorithm. Compared to traditional training sequences, the proposed partial superimposed training sequence not only improves the spectral efficiency, but also reduces the influence to information symbols. In addition, compared with classical least squares and linear minimum mean square error methods, the proposed compressed sensing theory based channel estimation method can improve both the estimation accuracy and the system performance. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

Zhao, Hui; Li, Minghui; Wang, Ruyan; Liu, Yuanni; Song, Daiping

2014-09-01

361

A weighted-fair-queuing (WFQ)-based dynamic request scheduling approach in a multi-core system

A popular website is expected to simultaneously deal with a large number of dynamic requests in the reasonable mean response time. The performance of websites mainly depends on hardware performance and the processing strategy of dynamic requests. In order to improve the hardware performance, more and more web servers are adopting multi-core CPUs. Moreover, the scheduling algorithm of requests on

Guohua You; Ying Zhao

362

Social judgment theory based model on opinion formation, polarization and evolution

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamical origin of opinion polarization in the real world is an interesting topic that physical scientists may help to understand. To properly model the dynamics, the theory must be fully compatible with findings by social psychologists on microscopic opinion change. Here we introduce a generic model of opinion formation with homogeneous agents based on the well-known social judgment theory in social psychology by extending a similar model proposed by Jager and Amblard. The agents’ opinions will eventually cluster around extreme and/or moderate opinions forming three phases in a two-dimensional parameter space that describes the microscopic opinion response of the agents. The dynamics of this model can be qualitatively understood by mean-field analysis. More importantly, first-order phase transition in opinion distribution is observed by evolving the system under a slow change in the system parameters, showing that punctuated equilibria in public opinion can occur even in a fully connected social network.

Chau, H. F.; Wong, C. Y.; Chow, F. K.; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred

2014-12-01

363

Control theory based airfoil design for potential flow and a finite volume discretization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for two-dimensional profiles in which the shape is determined by a conformal transformation from a unit circle, and the control is the mapping function. The goal of our present work is to develop a method which does not depend on conformal mapping, so that it can be extended to treat three-dimensional problems. Therefore, we have developed a method which can address arbitrary geometric shapes through the use of a finite volume method to discretize the potential flow equation. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented, where both target speed distributions and minimum drag are used as objective functions.

Reuther, J.; Jameson, A.

1994-01-01

364

Free vibration of size-dependent magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the free vibration of magnetoelectro-elastic (MEE) nanoplates is investigated based on the nonlocal theory and Kirchhoff plate theory. The MEE nanoplate is assumed as all edges simply supported rectangular plate subjected to the biaxial force, external electric potential, external magnetic potential, and temperature rise. By using the Hamilton's principle, the governing equations and boundary conditions are derived and then solved analytically to obtain the natural frequencies of MEE nanoplates. A parametric study is presented to examine the effect of the nonlocal parameter, thermo-magneto-electro-mechanical loadings and aspect ratio on the vibration characteristics of MEE nanoplates. It is found that the natural frequency is quite sensitive to the mechanical loading, electric loading and magnetic loading, while it is insensitive to the thermal loading.

Ke, Liao-Liang; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Yang, Jie; Kitipornchai, Sritawat

2014-08-01

365

We discuss the general conditions ensuring relativistic causality in an effective theory based on the derivative expansion. Relativistic causality implies that the Green function vanishes in the space-like region. It is known that a naive derivative expansion violates causality in some cases such as the first-order relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics. We note that the Lorentz covariance, and the equal order of time and space derivatives do not ensure causality. We derive the general conditions for causality that should be satisfied by any effective theories respecting special relativity. The conditions are the followings: (i) the imaginary part of poles of the Green function is bounded at the large momentum limit, (ii) the front velocity is smaller than the speed of light, and (iii) the coefficient of the highest-order time derivative does not include space derivatives.

Yuki Minami; Yoshimasa Hidaka

2013-12-30

366

Kinetic theory of binary nucleation based on a first passage time analysis.

The binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) is based on the Gibbsian thermodynamics and applies the macroscopic concept of surface tension to nanosize clusters. This leads to severe inconsistencies and large discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experimental results regarding the nucleation rate. We present an alternative approach to the kinetics of binary nucleation which avoids the use of classical thermodynamics for clusters. The new approach is an extension to binary mixtures of the kinetic theory previously developed by Narsimhan and Ruckenstein and Ruckenstein and Nowakowski [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 128, 549 (1989); 137, 583 (1990)] for unary nucleation which is based on molecular interactions and in which the rate of emission of molecules from a cluster is determined via a mean first passage time analysis. This time is calculated by solving the single-molecule master equation for the probability distribution of a "surface" molecule moving in a potential field created by the cluster. The starting master equation is a Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution of a surface molecule with respect to its phase coordinates. Owing to the hierarchy of characteristic time scales in the evolution of the molecule, this equation can be reduced to the Smoluchowski equation for the distribution function involving only the spatial coordinates. The new theory is combined with density functional theory methods to determine the density profiles. This is essential for nucleation in binary systems particularly when one of the components is surface active. Knowing these profiles, one can determine the potential fields created by the cluster, its rate of emission of molecules, and the nucleation rate more accurately than by using the uniform density approximation. The new theory is illustrated by numerical calculations for a model binary mixture of Lennard-Jones monomers and rigidly bonded dimers of Lennard-Jones atoms. The amphiphilic character of the dimer component (i.e., its surface activity) is induced by the asymmetry in the interaction between a monomer and the two different sites of a dimer. The inconsistencies of the BCNT are avoided in the new theory. PMID:16599711

Djikaev, Yuri; Ruckenstein, Eli

2006-03-28

367

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have utilized the National Youth Survey (NYS) data to test a variety of theoretical explanations of criminal behavior. Here, the authors offer an assessment of scales used in tests of criminological theory based on NYS data. The authors conducted this assessment to provide results informing future tests of theory. Their analyses focus…

Armstrong, Todd A.; Lee, Daniel R.; Armstrong, Gaylene S.

2009-01-01

368

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

2008-01-01

369

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

2011-01-01

370

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

2012-01-01

371

Volume Averaging Theory (VAT) based modeling and closure evaluation for fin-and-tube heat exchangers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fin-and-tube heat exchanger was modeled based on Volume Averaging Theory (VAT) in such a way that the details of the original structure was replaced by their averaged counterparts, so that the VAT based governing equations can be efficiently solved for a wide range of parameters. To complete the VAT based model, proper closure is needed, which is related to a local friction factor and a heat transfer coefficient of a Representative Elementary Volume (REV). The terms in the closure expressions are complex and sometimes relating experimental data to the closure terms is difficult. In this work we use CFD to evaluate the rigorously derived closure terms over one of the selected REVs. The objective is to show how heat exchangers can be modeled as a porous media and how CFD can be used in place of a detailed, often formidable, experimental effort to obtain closure for the model.

Zhou, Feng; Catton, Ivan

2012-10-01

372

A Density Functional Theory Study of the Non-local Correlations between Nucleic Acid Base Pairs

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of nucleic acid bases are fundamentally important in determining the behavior and structure of biologically important molecules such as DNA and RNA. However, the stacking of nucleic acid bases in a strand of genetic material involves significant van der Waals forces, which are often inaccurately represented or too expensive to compute in many modern theoretical methods. In this paper, we use Density Functional Theory (DFT) with a non-local van der Waals correlation functional to study the stacking interactions of nucleic acid base pairs. This method correctly and seamlessly accounts for the long-range interactions present among isolated fragments through a density-density interaction formula. Since this technique is implemented within DFT it has the advantage of being able to draw on the speed, efficiency and accuracy of this ab initio method. M. Dion, H. Rydberg, E. Schröder, D. C. Langreth and B. I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 24601-1 (2004).

Cooper, Valentino R.; Thonhauser, Timo; Langreth, David C.

2006-03-01

373

Theory of tunneling across hydrogen-bonded base pairs for DNA recognition and sequencing

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of first-principles calculations for the electron tunnel current through hydrogen-bonded DNA base pairs and for (deoxy)nucleoside-nucleobase pairs. Electron current signals either through a base pair or through a deoxynucleoside-nucleobase pair are a potential mechanism for recognition or identification of the DNA base on a single-stranded DNA polymer. Four hydrogen-bonded complexes are considered: guanine-cytosine, diaminoadenine-thymine, adenine-thymine, and guanine-thymine. First, the electron tunneling properties are examined through their complex band structure (CBS) and the metal contact’s Fermi-level alignment. For gold contacts, the metal Fermi level lies near the highest occupied molecular orbital for all DNA base pairs. The decay constant determined by the complex band structure at the gold Fermi level shows that tunnel current decays more slowly for base pairs with three hydrogen bonds (guanine-cytosine and diaminoadenine-thymine) than for base pairs with two hydrogen bonds (adenine-thymine and guanine-thymine). The decay length and its dependence on hydrogen-bond length are examined. Second, the conductance is computed using density functional theory Green’s-function scattering methods and these results agree with estimates made from the tunneling decay constant obtained from the CBS. Changing from a base pair to a deoxynucleoside-nucleobase complex shows a significant decrease in conductance. It also becomes difficult to distinguish the current signal by only the number of hydrogen bonds.

Lee, Myeong H.; Sankey, Otto F.

2009-05-01

374

Theory of tunneling across hydrogen-bonded base pairs for DNA recognition and sequencing.

We present the results of first-principles calculations for the electron tunnel current through hydrogen-bonded DNA base pairs and for (deoxy)nucleoside-nucleobase pairs. Electron current signals either through a base pair or through a deoxynucleoside-nucleobase pair are a potential mechanism for recognition or identification of the DNA base on a single-stranded DNA polymer. Four hydrogen-bonded complexes are considered: guanine-cytosine, diaminoadenine-thymine, adenine-thymine, and guanine-thymine. First, the electron tunneling properties are examined through their complex band structure (CBS) and the metal contact's Fermi-level alignment. For gold contacts, the metal Fermi level lies near the highest occupied molecular orbital for all DNA base pairs. The decay constant determined by the complex band structure at the gold Fermi level shows that tunnel current decays more slowly for base pairs with three hydrogen bonds (guanine-cytosine and diaminoadenine-thymine) than for base pairs with two hydrogen bonds (adenine-thymine and guanine-thymine). The decay length and its dependence on hydrogen-bond length are examined. Second, the conductance is computed using density functional theory Green's-function scattering methods and these results agree with estimates made from the tunneling decay constant obtained from the CBS. Changing from a base pair to a deoxynucleoside-nucleobase complex shows a significant decrease in conductance. It also becomes difficult to distinguish the current signal by only the number of hydrogen bonds. PMID:19518484

Lee, Myeong H; Sankey, Otto F

2009-05-01

375

This paper proposes a feature extraction method based on information theory for fault diagnosis of reciprocating machinery. A method to obtain symptom parameter waves is defined in the time domain using the vibration signals, and an information wave is presented based on information theory, using the symptom parameter waves. A new way to determine the difference spectrum of envelope information waves is also derived, by which the feature spectrum can be extracted clearly and machine faults can be effectively differentiated. This paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional Hilbert-transform-based envelope detection and with a wavelet analysis technique. Practical examples of diagnosis for a rolling element bearing used in a diesel engine are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the bearing faults that typically occur in rolling element bearings, such as outer-race, inner-race, and roller defects, can be effectively identified by the proposed method, while these bearing faults are difficult to detect using either of the other techniques it was compared to. PMID:22574021

Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng

2009-01-01

376

I INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 1 1 4 5 1.1 Background ............................................................................................ 1.2... TENSOR BASED ON A SIMPLIFED STRAIN GRADIENT ELASTICITY THEORY ......................... 8 8 9 13 18 23 2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................ 2.2 Simplified...

Ma, Hemei

2011-08-08

377

A non-mark theory methodology for investigating crime scenes is proposed. A back propagation network model is used to analyze suspicion factors in order to setup a dynamic knowledge based to help investigators

C. Kou; J.-M. Shih; C.-H. Lin; Zen-Dah Lee

1993-01-01

378

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is relatively little theory on how psychotherapy clients self-heal since most theories of therapy stress the magic of the therapist's interventions. Of the theories that exist, this paper briefly discusses Carl Rogers' theory of self-actualization; and the dialectical theories of Greenberg and his colleagues, Jenkins, and Rychlak. Gendlin's…

Bohart, Arthur C.

379

Theory-based active ingredients of effective treatments for substance use disorders

This paper describes four related theories that specify common social processes that protect individuals from developing substance use disorders and may underlie effective psychosocial treatments for these disorders: social control theory, behavioral economics and behavioral choice theory, social learning theory, and stress and coping theory. It then provides an overview of the rationale and evidence for four effective psychosocial treatments

Rudolf H. Moos

2007-01-01

380

A classification framework of online learning activities: based on grounded theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to set up a classification framework of online learning activities. Fifty-nine online learning activity cases were collected from seven disciplines. Open coding, axial coding, and selective coding were conducted according to Grounded Theory. After step-by-step validation, the classification framework consists of six core categories (Argumentation, Resource Sharing, Collaboration, Inquiry, Evaluation, and Social Network) has been set up. Further study is needed to get more insight into each category and establish effective activity-based instruction models.

Zhan, Zehui

2011-12-01

381

Data Collection Method for Mobile Sensor Networks Based on the Theory of Thermal Fields

Many sensor applications are aimed for mobile objects, where conventional routing approaches of data delivery might fail. Such applications are habitat monitoring, human probes or vehicular sensing systems. This paper targets such applications and proposes lightweight proactive distributed data collection scheme for Mobile Sensor Networks (MSN) based on the theory of thermal fields. By proper mapping, we create distribution function which allows considering characteristics of a sensor node. We show the functionality of our proposed forwarding method when adapted to the energy of sensor node. We also propose enhancement in order to maximize lifetime of the sensor nodes. We thoroughly evaluate proposed solution and discuss the tradeoffs. PMID:22164011

Macuha, Martin; Tariq, Muhammad; Sato, Takuro

2011-01-01

382

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.

Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei

383

Filtering of multichannel video sequences distorted by noise, based on the fuzzy-set theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach based on the fuzzy-set theory is proposed, which allows detection of object motion from frame to frame of video sequences and filtering of images distorted by additive noise. New fuzzy rules and membership functions introduced in the study make it possible to perform efficient filtering of video sequences using the correlation between channels and in video sequence neighboring frames. Simulation of the proposed and known algorithms of video sequence processing shows the advantage of the new filtering scheme in terms of conventional PSNR, MAE, NCD, SSIM criteria and visual comparison of filtered video sequences.

Kravchenko, V. F.; Ponomaryov, V. I.; Pustovoit, V. I.

2013-10-01

384

On a consistent finite-strain plate theory based on 3-D energy principle

This paper derives a finite-strain plate theory consistent with the principle of stationary three-dimensional (3-D) potential energy under general loadings with a third-order error. Staring from the 3-D nonlinear elasticity (with both geometrical and material nonlinearity) and by a series expansion, we deduce a vector plate equation with three unknowns, which exhibits the local force-balance structure. The success relies on using the 3-D field equations and bottom traction condition to derive exact recursion relations for the coefficients. Associated weak formulations are considered, leading to a 2-D virtual work principle. An alternative approach based on a 2-D truncated energy is also provided, which is less consistent than the first plate theory but has the advantage of the existence of a 2-D energy function. As an example, we consider the pure bending problem of a hyperelastic block. The comparison between the analytical plate solution and available exact one shows that the plate theory gives second-order...

Dai, Hui-Hui

2014-01-01

385

Exploring Three-dimensional Higher-Spin Supergravity based on sl(N |N - 1) Chern-Simons theories

We investigate various aspects of higher-spin anti-de Sitter supergravity in three dimensions as described by Chern-Simons theory based on the finite-dimensional superalgebra sl(N |N - 1), with the particular case of N = 3 as our prime example. This class of theories serves as a natural supersymmetrization of the higher-spin gravity theory based on sl(N) Chern-Simons theories. We demonstrate explicitly that the asymptotic symmetry algebra contains the N = 2 superconformal algebra in each sector. The appropriate Killing spinor equations are derived and used to classify existing and new classical solutions. We also discuss holonomy conditions, higher-spin black holes and conical defect spacetimes in this class of theories.

H. S. Tan

2012-08-10

386

Exploring three-dimensional higher-spin supergravity based on sl( N| N - 1) Chern-Simons theories

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate various aspects of higher-spin anti-de Sitter supergravity in three dimensions as described by Chern-Simons theory based on the finite-dimensional superalgebra sl( N| N - 1), with the particular case of N = 3 as our prime example. This class of theories serves as a natural supersymmetrization of the higher-spin gravity theory based on sl( N) Chern-Simons theories. We demonstrate explicitly that the asymptotic symmetry algebra contains the {N}=2 superconformal algebra in each sector. The appropriate Killing spinor equations are derived and used to classify existing and new classical solutions. We also discuss holonomy conditions, higher-spin black holes and conical defect spacetimes in this class of theories.

Tan, Hai Siong

2012-11-01

387

Exploring Three-dimensional Higher-Spin Supergravity based on sl(N |N - 1) Chern-Simons theories

We investigate various aspects of higher-spin anti-de Sitter supergravity in three dimensions as described by Chern-Simons theory based on the finite-dimensional superalgebra sl(N |N - 1), with the particular case of N = 3 as our prime example. This class of theories serves as a natural supersymmetrization of the higher-spin gravity theory based on sl(N) Chern-Simons theories. We demonstrate explicitly that the asymptotic symmetry algebra contains the N = 2 superconformal algebra in each sector. The appropriate Killing spinor equations are derived and used to classify existing and new classical solutions. We also discuss holonomy conditions, higher-spin black holes and conical defect spacetimes in this class of theories.

Tan, H S

2012-01-01

388

The Advancement of Family Therapy Theory Based on the Science of Self-Organizing Complex Systems.

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem. The purpose of this study was to review the literature which presents the latest advancements in the field of family therapy theory. Since such advancement has relied on the scientific developments in the study of autopoietic self-organizing complex systems, then the review began with an historical overview of the development of these natural scientific concepts. The study then examined how the latest scientific concepts have been integrated with family therapy practice. The document is built on the theory that individuals are living, complex, self-organizing, autopoietic systems. When individual systems interact with other individual systems (such as in family interaction, or in interaction between therapist and client), then a third system emerges, which is the relationship. It is through interaction in the relationship that transformation of an individual system can occur. Method. The historical antecedents of the field of family therapy were outlined. It was demonstrated, via literature review, that the field of family therapy has traditionally paralleled developments in the hard sciences. Further, it was demonstrated via literature review that the newest understandings of the development of individuals, family systems, and therapeutic systems also parallel recent natural science developments, namely those developments based on the science of self-organizing complex systems. Outcome. The results of the study are twofold. First, the study articulates an expanded theory of the therapist, individual, and family as autopoietic self-organizing complex systems. Second, the study provides an expanded hypothesis which concerns recommendations for future research which will further advance the latest theories of family therapy. More precisely, the expanded hypothesis suggests that qualitative research, rather than quantitative research, is the method of choice for studying the effectiveness of phenomenological therapy.

Ramsey-Kemper, Valerie Ann

1995-01-01

389

A general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency: its implications for diseases.

We propose a general theory of evolution based on energy efficiency. Life represents an emergent property of energy. The earth receives energy from cosmic sources such as the sun. Biologic life can be characterized by the conversion of available energy into complex systems. Direct energy converters such as photosynthetic microorganisms and plants transform light energy into high-energy phosphate bonds that fuel biochemical work. Indirect converters such as herbivores and carnivores predominantly feed off the food chain supplied by these direct converters. Improving energy efficiency confers competitive advantage in the contest among organisms for energy. We introduce a term, return on energy (ROE), as a measure of energy efficiency. We define ROE as a ratio of the amount of energy acquired by a system to the amount of energy consumed to generate that gain. Life-death cycling represents a tactic to sample the environment for innovations that allow increases in ROE to develop over generations rather than an individual lifespan. However, the variation-selection strategem of Darwinian evolution may define a particular tactic rather than an overarching biological paradigm. A theory of evolution based on competition for energy and driven by improvements in ROE both encompasses prior notions of evolution and portends post-Darwinian mechanisms. Such processes may involve the exchange of non-genetic traits that improve ROE, as exemplified by cognitive adaptations or memes. Under these circumstances, indefinite persistence may become favored over life-death cycling, as increases in ROE may then occur more efficiently within a single lifespan rather than over multiple generations. The key to this transition may involve novel methods to address the promotion of health and cognitive plasticity. We describe the implications of this theory for human diseases. PMID:16122878

Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Doux, John D; Conley, Buford R

2006-01-01

390

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A macromechanics analysis is presented for the in-plane, anisotropic time-dependent behavior of metal matrix laminates. The small deformation, orthotropic viscoplasticity theory based on overstress represents lamina behavior in a modified simple laminate theory. Material functions and constants can be identified in principle from experiments with laminae. Orthotropic invariants can be repositories for tension-compression asymmetry and for linear elasticity in one direction while the other directions behave in a viscoplastic manner. Computer programs are generated and tested for either unidirectional or symmetric laminates under in-plane loading. Correlations with the experimental results on metal matrix composites are presented.

Krempl, Erhard; Hong, Bor Zen

1989-01-01

391

Control Theory based Shape Design for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design method for shape optimization in incompressible turbulent viscous flow has been developed and validated for inverse design. The gradient information is determined using a control theory based algorithm. With such an approach, the cost of computing the gradient is negligible. An additional adjoint system must be solved which requires the cost of a single steady state flow solution. Thus, this method has an enormous advantage over traditional finite-difference based algorithms. The method of artificial compressibility is utilized to solve both the flow and adjoint systems. An algebraic turbulence model is used to compute the eddy viscosity. The method is validated using several inverse wing design test cases. In each case, the program must modify the shape of the initial wing such that its pressure distribution matches that of the target wing. Results are shown for the inversion of both finite thickness wings as well as zero thickness wings which can be considered a model of yacht sails.

Cowles, G.; Martinelli, L.

2003-12-01

392

Multi-source remote sensing image fusion classification based on DS evidence theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new adaptive remote sensing image fusion classification based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is presented. This method uses a limited number of prototypes as items of evidence, which is automatically generated by modified Fuzzy Kohonen Clustering Network (FKCN). The class fuzzy membership of each prototype is also determined using reference pattern set. For each input vector a basic probability assignment (BPA) function are computed based on these distances and on the degree of membership of prototypes to each class. And lastly this evidence is combined using Dempster's rule. This proposed method can be implemented in a modified FKCN with specific architecture consisting of one input layer, a prototype layer, a BPA layer, a combination and output layer, and decision layer. The experimental results show that the excellent performance of classification as compared to existing FKCN and basic DS fusion techniques.

Liu, Chunping; Ma, Xiaohu; Cui, Zhiming

2007-11-01

393

The feasibility of using cucurbituril host molecule as a probable actinyl cation binders candidate is investigated through density functional theory based calculations. Various possible binding sites of the cucurbit[5]uril host molecule to uranyl are analyzed and based on the binding energy evaluations, ?(5)-binding is predicted to be favored. For this coordination, the structure, vibrational spectra, and binding energies are evaluated for the binding of three actinyls in hexa-valent and penta-valent oxidation states with functionalized cucurbiturils. Functionalizing cucurbituril with methyl and cyclohexyl groups increases the binding affinities of actinyls, whereas fluorination decreases the binding affinities as compared to the native host molecule. Surprisingly hydroxylation of the host molecule does not distinguish the oxidation state of the three actinyls. PMID:22471316

Sundararajan, Mahesh; Sinha, Vivek; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar; Ghosh, Swapan K

2012-05-01

394

Conductance of molecular wires and transport calculations based on density-functional theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental value for the zero bias conductance of organic molecules coupled by thiol-groups to gold electrodes tends to be much smaller than the theoretical result based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, often by orders of magnitude. To address this puzzle we have analyzed the regime within which the approximations made in these calculations are valid. Our results suggest that a standard step in DFT based transport calculations, namely approximating the exchange-correlation potential in quasistatic nonequilibrium by its standard equilibrium expression, is not justified at weak coupling. We propose, that the breakdown of this approximation is the most important source for overestimating the width of the experimentally observed conductance peak and therefore also of the zero bias conductance. We present a numerical study on the conductance of an organic molecule that has recently been studied in experiments that fully agrees with this conclusion.

Evers, F.; Weigend, F.; Koentopp, M.

2004-06-01

395

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonlinear and bifurcation buckling equations for elastic, stiffened, geometrically perfect, right-circular cylindrical, anisotropic shells subjected to combined loads are presented that are based on Sanders' shell theory. Based on these equations, a three-parameter approximate Rayleigh-Ritz solution and a classical solution to the buckling problem are presented for cylinders with simply supported edges. Extensive comparisons of results obtained from these solutions with published results are also presented for a wide range of cylinder constructions. These comparisons include laminated-composite cylinders with a wide variety of shell-wall orthotropies and anisotropies. Numerous results are also given that show the discrepancies between the results obtained by using Donnell's equations and variants of Sanders' equations. For some cases, nondimensional parameters are identified and "master" curves are presented that facilitate the concise representation of results.

Nemeth, Michael P.

2014-01-01

396

The microstructure of Portland cement-based materials: Computer simulation and percolation theory

Portland cement-based materials are usually composites, where the matrix consists of portland cement paste. Cement paste is a material formed from the hydration reaction of portland cement, usually a calcium silicate material, with water. The microstructure of cement paste changes drastically over a time period of about one week, with slower changes occurring over subsequent weeks to months. The effect of this hydration process on the changing microstructure can be represented using computer simulation techniques applied to three dimensional digital image-based models. Percolation theory can be used to understand the evolving microstructure in terms of the three percolation thresholds that are of importance in the cement past microstructure: the set point, capillary porosity percolation, and the percolation of the C-S-H phase.

Garboczi, E.J.; Bentz, D.P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1998-12-31

397

Unit Template Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Based Control Algorithm for DSTATCOM

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article proposes new and simplified unit templates instead of standard phase locked loop (PLL) for Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Control Algorithm (SRFT). The extraction of synchronizing components (sin? and cos?) for parks and inverse parks transformation using standard PLL takes more execution time. This execution time in control algorithm delays the extraction of reference source current generation. The standard PLL not only takes more execution time but also increases the reactive power burden on the Distributed Static Compensator (DSTATCOM). This work proposes a unit template based SRFT control algorithm for four-leg insulated gate bipolar transistor based voltage source converter for DSTATCOM in distribution systems. This will reduce the execution time and reactive power burden on the DSTATCOM. The proposed DSTATCOM suppress harmonics, regulates the terminal voltage along with neutral current compensation. The DSTATCOM in distribution systems with proposed control algorithm is modeled and simulated using MATLAB using SIMULINK and Simpower systems toolboxes.

Bangarraju, J.; Rajagopal, V.; Jayalaxmi, A.

2014-04-01

398

Coupled mode theory analysis for circular photonic crystal ring resonator-based add-drop filter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two-dimensional circular photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR)-based add-drop filter (ADF) is designed for ITU-T G.694.2 eight-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems. The resonant wavelength and pass-band width of the ADF are 1491 and 13 nm, respectively. Close to 100% of coupling and dropping efficiencies and a 114.69 quality factor are observed through simulation. Then the coupled mode theory (CMT) analysis of circular PCRR-based ADF is attempted to compare obtained CMT response into simulated finite difference time domain method response. The overall size of the device is much smaller; that is, 11.4×11.4 ?m, which is highly suitable for photonic integrated circuits and all optical photonic network applications.

Robinson, Savarimuthu; Nakkeeran, Rangaswamy

2012-11-01

399

Massive Yang-Mills theory based on the nonlinearly realized gauge group

We propose a subtraction scheme for a massive Yang-Mills theory realized via a nonlinear representation of the gauge group [here SU(2)]. It is based on the subtraction of the poles in D-4 of the amplitudes, in dimensional regularization, after a suitable normalization has been performed. Perturbation theory is in the number of loops, and the procedure is stable under iterative subtraction of the poles. The unphysical Goldstone bosons, the Faddeev-Popov ghosts, and the unphysical mode of the gauge field are expected to cancel out in the unitarity equation. The spontaneous symmetry breaking parameter is not a physical variable. We use the tools already tested in the nonlinear sigma model: hierarchy in the number of Goldstone boson legs and weak-power-counting property (finite number of independent divergent amplitudes at each order). It is intriguing that the model is naturally based on the symmetry SU(2){sub L} local x SU(2){sub R} global. By construction the physical amplitudes depend on the mass and on the self-coupling constant of the gauge particle and moreover on the scale parameter of the radiative corrections. The Feynman rules are in the Landau gauge.

Bettinelli, D.; Ferrari, R.; Quadri, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

2008-02-15

400

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-12-01

401

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-01-01

402

Theory of chemical kinetics and charge transfer based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

Advances in the fields of catalysis and electrochemical energy conversion often involve nanoparticles, which can have kinetics surprisingly different from the bulk material. Classical theories of chemical kinetics assume independent reactions in dilute solutions, whose rates are determined by mean concentrations. In condensed matter, strong interactions alter chemical activities and create variations that can dramatically affect the reaction rate. The extreme case is that of a reaction coupled to a phase transformation, whose kinetics must depend not only on the order parameter but also on its gradients at phase boundaries. Reaction-driven phase transformations are common in electrochemistry, when charge transfer is accompanied by ion intercalation or deposition in a solid phase. Examples abound in Li-ion, metal-air, and lead-acid batteries, as well as metal electrodeposition-dissolution. Despite complex thermodynamics, however, the standard kinetic model is the Butler-Volmer equation, based on a dilute solution approximation. The Marcus theory of charge transfer likewise considers isolated reactants and neglects elastic stress, configurational entropy, and other nonidealities in condensed phases. The limitations of existing theories recently became apparent for the Li-ion battery material LixFePO4 (LFP). It has a strong tendency to separate into Li-rich and Li-poor solid phases, which scientists believe limits its performance. Chemists first modeled phase separation in LFP as an isotropic "shrinking core" within each particle, but experiments later revealed striped phase boundaries on the active crystal facet. This raised the question: What is the reaction rate at a surface undergoing a phase transformation? Meanwhile, dramatic rate enhancement was attained with LFP nanoparticles, and classical battery models could not predict the roles of phase separation and surface modification. In this Account, I present a general theory of chemical kinetics, developed over the past 7 years, which is capable of answering these questions. The reaction rate is a nonlinear function of the thermodynamic driving force, the free energy of reaction, expressed in terms of variational chemical potentials. The theory unifies and extends the Cahn-Hilliard and Allen-Cahn equations through a master equation for nonequilibrium chemical thermodynamics. For electrochemistry, I have also generalized both Marcus and Butler-Volmer kinetics for concentrated solutions and ionic solids. This new theory provides a quantitative description of LFP phase behavior. Concentration gradients and elastic coherency strain enhance the intercalation rate. At low currents, the charge-transfer rate is focused on exposed phase boundaries, which propagate as "intercalation waves", nucleated by surface wetting. Unexpectedly, homogeneous reactions are favored above a critical current and below a critical size, which helps to explain the rate capability of LFP nanoparticles. Contrary to other mechanisms, elevated temperatures and currents may enhance battery performance and lifetime by suppressing phase separation. The theory has also been extended to porous electrodes and could be used for battery engineering with multiphase active materials. More broadly, the theory describes nonequilibrium chemical systems at mesoscopic length and time scales, beyond the reach of molecular simulations and bulk continuum models. The reaction rate is consistently defined for inhomogeneous, nonequilibrium states, for example, with phase separation, large electric fields, or mechanical stresses. This research is also potentially applicable to fluid extraction from nanoporous solids, pattern formation in electrophoretic deposition, and electrochemical dynamics in biological cells. PMID:23520980

Bazant, Martin Z

2013-05-21

403

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental observations have shown the size-dependent residual surface stresses on spherical nanoparticles and their influence on the effective modulus of heterogeneous nanostructures. Based on these experimental findings, this paper proposes a new interface stress theory that considers the curvature effect on the interfacial energy. To investigate this curvature-dependent interfacial energy, we use the Green elasticity theory to describe the nonlinear constitutive relation of the interface at finite deformation, thus explicitly demonstrating the curvature-dependent nature of the interface stress and bending moment. By introducing a fictitious stress-free configuration, we then propose a new energy functional for heterogeneous hyperelastic solids with interfaces. For the first time, both the Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions of the generalized Young-Laplace equation, which describes the intrinsic flexural resistance of the interface, are derived from the newly developed energy functional. This new interface stress theory is then used to investigate the residual elastic field in a heterogeneous hyperelastic solid containing interfaces. The present theory differs from the existing theories in that it takes fully into account both the curvature-dependence of the interfacial energy and the interfacial energy-induced residual elastic field in the bulk solid. Furthermore, the fundamental equations of the interface are given in Lagrangian description, which are preferable when considering the effects of residual interface stress, residual interface bending moment and interface elasticity. Finally, two examples are presented to shed light on the significance of this new interface stress theory. A more detailed analysis and applications of the new theory will be presented in Part (II) of this paper.

Gao, Xiang; Huang, Zhuping; Qu, Jianmin; Fang, Daining

2014-05-01

404

Programmatic assessment of competency-based workplace learning: when theory meets practice

Background In competency-based medical education emphasis has shifted towards outcomes, capabilities, and learner-centeredness. Together with a focus on sustained evidence of professional competence this calls for new methods of teaching and assessment. Recently, medical educators advocated the use of a holistic, programmatic approach towards assessment. Besides maximum facilitation of learning it should improve the validity and reliability of measurements and documentation of competence development. We explored how, in a competency-based curriculum, current theories on programmatic assessment interacted with educational practice. Methods In a development study including evaluation, we investigated the implementation of a theory-based programme of assessment. Between April 2011 and May 2012 quantitative evaluation data were collected and used to guide group interviews that explored the experiences of students and clinical supervisors with the assessment programme. We coded the transcripts and emerging topics were organised into a list of lessons learned. Results The programme mainly focuses on the integration of learning and assessment by motivating and supporting students to seek and accumulate feedback. The assessment instruments were aligned to cover predefined competencies to enable aggregation of information in a structured and meaningful way. Assessments that were designed as formative learning experiences were increasingly perceived as summative by students. Peer feedback was experienced as a valuable method for formative feedback. Social interaction and external guidance seemed to be of crucial importance to scaffold self-directed learning. Aggregating data from individual assessments into a holistic portfolio judgement required expertise and extensive training and supervision of judges. Conclusions A programme of assessment with low-stakes assessments providing simultaneously formative feedback and input for summative decisions proved not easy to implement. Careful preparation and guidance of the implementation process was crucial. Assessment for learning requires meaningful feedback with each assessment. Special attention should be paid to the quality of feedback at individual assessment moments. Comprehensive attention for faculty development and training for students is essential for the successful implementation of an assessment programme. PMID:24020944

2013-01-01

405

Family-based approaches to pediatric obesity treatment are considered the ‘gold-standard,’ and are recommended for facilitating behavior change to improve child weight status and health. If family-based approaches are to be truly rooted in the family, clinicians and researchers must consider family process and function in designing effective interventions. To bring a better understanding of family complexities to family-based treatment, two relevant reviews were conducted and are presented: (1) a review of prominent and established theories of the family that may provide a more comprehensive and in-depth approach for addressing pediatric obesity; and (2) a systematic review of the literature to identify the use of prominent family theories in pediatric obesity research, which found little use of theories in intervention studies. Overlapping concepts across theories include: families are a system, with interdependence of units; the idea that families are goal-directed and seek balance; and the physical and social environment imposes demands on families. Family-focused theories provide valuable insight into the complexities of families. Increased use of these theories in both research and practice may identify key leverage points in family process and function to prevent the development of or more effectively treat obesity. The field of family studies provides an innovative approach to the difficult problem of pediatric obesity, building on the long-established approach of family-based treatment. PMID:22531090

Skelton, JA; Buehler, C; Irby, MB; Grzywacz, JG

2014-01-01

406

A Neurosemantic Theory of Concrete Noun Representation Based on the Underlying Brain Codes

This article describes the discovery of a set of biologically-driven semantic dimensions underlying the neural representation of concrete nouns, and then demonstrates how a resulting theory of noun representation can be used to identify simple thoughts through their fMRI patterns. We use factor analysis of fMRI brain imaging data to reveal the biological representation of individual concrete nouns like apple, in the absence of any pictorial stimuli. From this analysis emerge three main semantic factors underpinning the neural representation of nouns naming physical objects, which we label manipulation, shelter, and eating. Each factor is neurally represented in 3–4 different brain locations that correspond to a cortical network that co-activates in non-linguistic tasks, such as tool use pantomime for the manipulation factor. Several converging methods, such as the use of behavioral ratings of word meaning and text corpus characteristics, provide independent evidence of the centrality of these factors to the representations. The factors are then used with machine learning classifier techniques to show that the fMRI-measured brain representation of an individual concrete noun like apple can be identified with good accuracy from among 60 candidate words, using only the fMRI activity in the 16 locations associated with these factors. To further demonstrate the generativity of the proposed account, a theory-based model is developed to predict the brain activation patterns for words to which the algorithm has not been previously exposed. The methods, findings, and theory constitute a new approach of using brain activity for understanding how object concepts are represented in the mind. PMID:20084104

Just, Marcel Adam; Cherkassky, Vladimir L.; Aryal, Sandesh; Mitchell, Tom M.

2010-01-01

407

The purpose of this study was to build a theoretical framework to understand the delivery of video-based performance analysis by youth soccer coaches in England. Data were collected from interviews with 14 English youth soccer coaches, who had used video-based performance analysis for more than 3 years in their coaching practice. Using a grounded theory methodology (Strauss & Corbin, 1998),

Ryan Groom; Christopher Cushion; Lee Nelson

2011-01-01

408

The Hard Soft Acid Base (HSAB) theory is introduced as a new tool to select or design sensitive materials for carbon dioxide detection with SAW-BAW (Surface Acoustic Waves - Bulk Acoustic Waves) devices. According to HSAB, CO2 is hard acid, thus small organic or inorganic molecules, or polymers which can act as hard bases could be suitable candidates as sensing

B. Serban; A. K. Sarin Kumar; C. Cobianu; O. Buiu; S. Costea; C. Bostan; N. Varachiu

2010-01-01

409

This paper theoretically examines the interplay between cognition and bodily involvement in relation to nature-based therapy and proposes implications for practice. With support from theory within embodied cognition and neuroscientific studies, it is argued that explicit learning is actively supported by bodily involvement with the environment. This argument is placed in the context of ‘nature-based therapy’, which can be perceived

Sus S. Corazon; Theresa S. S. Schilhab; Ulrika K. Stigsdotter

2011-01-01

410

Cartographic generalization of urban street networks based on gravitational field theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automatic generalization of urban street networks is a constant and important aspect of geographical information science. Previous studies show that the dual graph for street-street relationships more accurately reflects the overall morphological properties and importance of streets than do other methods. In this study, we construct a dual graph to represent street-street relationship and propose an approach to generalize street networks based on gravitational field theory. We retain the global structural properties and topological connectivity of an original street network and borrow from gravitational field theory to define the gravitational force between nodes. The concept of multi-order neighbors is introduced and the gravitational force is taken as the measure of the importance contribution between nodes. The importance of a node is defined as the result of the interaction between a given node and its multi-order neighbors. Degree distribution is used to evaluate the level of maintaining the global structure and topological characteristics of a street network and to illustrate the efficiency of the suggested method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can be used in generalizing street networks and retaining their density characteristics, connectivity and global structure.

Liu, Gang; Li, Yongshu; Li, Zheng; Guo, Jiawei

2014-05-01

411

Grand unification and proton stability based on a chiral SU(8) theory

A grand-unified model of the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions is presented based on a local SU(8)/sub L/ X SU(8)/sub R/ gauge theory that possesses a global U(8)/sub L/ X U(8)/sub R/ invariance. The model is spontaneously broken by the recently introduced neutrino pairing mechanism, in which a Higgs field that transforms like a pair of right-handed neutrinos acquires a vacuum expectation value. This neutrino pairing breaks the model down to the standard Weinberg-Salam phenomenology. Further, the neutrino pairing causes the two initial global currents of the model, fermion number and axial fermion number, to mix with the non-Abelian local currents to leave unbroken two new global currents, namely, baryon number and a particular lepton number that counts charged leptons and left-handed neutrinos only. The exact conservations of these two resulting currents ensure the absolute stability of the proton, the masslessness of the observed left-handed neutrinos, and the standard lepton number conservation of the usual weak interactions. A further feature of the model is the simultaneous absence of both strong CP violations and of observable axions. The model has a testable prediction, namely, the existence of an absolutely stable, relatively light, massive neutral lepton generated entirely from the right-handed neutrino sector of the theory. 1 table.

Deshpande, N.G.; Mannheim, P.D.

1980-06-01

412

General Formalism of Decision Making Based on Theory of Open Quantum Systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the general formalism of decision making which is based on the theory of open quantum systems. A person (decision maker), say Alice, is considered as a quantum-like system, i.e., a system which information processing follows the laws of quantum information theory. To make decision, Alice interacts with a huge mental bath. Depending on context of decision making this bath can include her social environment, mass media (TV, newspapers, INTERNET), and memory. Dynamics of an ensemble of such Alices is described by Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation. We speculate that in the processes of evolution biosystems (especially human beings) designed such "mental Hamiltonians" and GKSL-operators that any solution of the corresponding GKSL-equation stabilizes to a diagonal density operator (In the basis of decision making.) This limiting density operator describes population in which all superpositions of possible decisions has already been resolved. In principle, this approach can be used for the prediction of the distribution of possible decisions in human populations.

Asano, M.; Ohya, M.; Basieva, I.; Khrennikov, A.

2013-01-01

413

Robust method for infrared small-target detection based on Boolean map visual theory.

In this paper, we present an infrared small target detection method based on Boolean map visual theory. The scheme is inspired by the phenomenon that small targets can often attract human attention due to two characteristics: brightness and Gaussian-like shape in the local context area. Motivated by this observation, we perform the task under a visual attention framework with Boolean map theory, which reveals that an observer's visual awareness corresponds to one Boolean map via a selected feature at any given instant. Formally, the infrared image is separated into two feature channels, including a color channel with the original gray intensity map and an orientation channel with the orientation texture maps produced by a designed second order directional derivative filter. For each feature map, Boolean maps delineating targets are computed from hierarchical segmentations. Small targets are then extracted from the target enhanced map, which is obtained by fusing the weighted Boolean maps of the two channels. In experiments, a set of real infrared images covering typical backgrounds with sky, sea, and ground clutters are tested to verify the effectiveness of our method. The results demonstrate that it outperforms the state-of-the-art methods with good performance. PMID:24979425

Qi, Shengxiang; Ming, Delie; Ma, Jie; Sun, Xiao; Tian, Jinwen

2014-06-20

414

Parametric study of cylindrical converging shock waves generated based on shock dynamics theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous work, the technique of generating cylindrical converging shock waves based on shock dynamics theory was proposed. In the present work, a further study is carried out to assess the influence of several parameters including the converging angle ?0, the incident planar shock Mach number M0, and the shock tube height h on the wall profile and the converging shock wave. Combining the high-speed schlieren photography and the numerical simulation with the shock dynamics theory, the characteristics of wall profiles, cylindrical converging shock waves, and thermodynamic properties for different controllable parameters are analyzed. It is found that these parameters have great effects on shapes of the wall profile and experimental investigation favors large values of M0 and h and moderate ?0. The experimental sequences of schlieren images indicate that the shocks moving in the converging part are of circular shapes, which further verifies the method in our previous work. In addition, the changes of the shock Mach number, pressure, temperature, and density are obtained quantitatively. The results show that higher pressure and temperature can be reached in the converging part at the same distance to the center of convergence for larger incident shock Mach numbers, larger shock tube heights, or smaller converging angles. All the database will be useful for understanding the shock focusing and further investigating the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability induced by the converging shock waves.

Zhai, Zhigang; Si, Ting; Luo, Xisheng; Yang, Jiming; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Duowang; Zou, Liyong

2012-02-01

415

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes research performed under NASA contract NCC 2-531 toward generalization of constraint-based scheduling theories and techniques for application to space telescope observation scheduling problems. Our work into theories and techniques for solution of this class of problems has led to the development of the Heuristic Scheduling Testbed System (HSTS), a software system for integrated planning and scheduling. Within HSTS, planning and scheduling are treated as two complementary aspects of the more general process of constructing a feasible set of behaviors of a target system. We have validated the HSTS approach by applying it to the generation of observation schedules for the Hubble Space Telescope. This report summarizes the HSTS framework and its application to the Hubble Space Telescope domain. First, the HSTS software architecture is described, indicating (1) how the structure and dynamics of a system is modeled in HSTS, (2) how schedules are represented at multiple levels of abstraction, and (3) the problem solving machinery that is provided. Next, the specific scheduler developed within this software architecture for detailed management of Hubble Space Telescope operations is presented. Finally, experimental performance results are given that confirm the utility and practicality of the approach.

Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Steven S.

1996-01-01

416

This paper presents harmonic and reactive power compensation based on a generalized theory of instantaneous reactive power for three-phase power systems. This new theory gives a generalized definition of instantaneous reactive power, which is valid for sinusoidal or nonsinusoidal, balanced or unbalanced, three-phase power systems with or without zero-sequence currents and\\/or voltages. The properties and physical meanings of the newly

Fang Zheng Peng; George W. Ott; D. J. Adams

1997-01-01

417

Study on corporate social responsibility evaluation system based on stakeholder theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been attracting the attention from many disciplines such as economics, management, laws, sociality and philosophy since last century. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of CSR on performance and develop a CSR evaluation system. Building on the definition of CSR and Stakeholder theory, this article built a path-relationship model of CSR and business operation performance. The paper also constructed CSR evaluation system based on KLD index, GRJ report, CSR accounting account, SA8000, ISO14000 etc. The research provides a basis for future studies about the relationship between CSR and business performance and shed some light on the evaluation of CSR practices.

Ma, J.; Deng, Liming

2011-10-01

418

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) coupling processes in unsaturated soils are very important in both theoretical researches and engineering applications. A coupled formulation based on hybrid mixture theory is derived to model the THM coupling behavior of unsaturated soils. The free-energy and dissipative functions for different phases are derived from Taylor's series expansions. Constitutive relations for THM coupled behaviors of unsaturated soils, which include deformation, entropy change, fluid flow, heat conduction, and dynamic compatibility conditions on the interfaces, are then established. The number of field equations is shown to be equal to the number of unknown variables; thus, a closure of this coupling problem is established. In addition to modifications of the physical conservation equations with coupling effect terms, the constitutive equations, which consider the coupling between elastoplastic deformation of the soil skeleton, fluid flow, and heat transfer, are also derived.

Cai, Guo-Qing; Zhao, Cheng-Gang; Sheng, Dai-Chao; Zhou, An-Nan

2014-08-01

419

AAA gunnermodel based on observer theory. [predicting a gunner's tracking response

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Luenberger observer theory is used to develop a predictive model of a gunner's tracking response in antiaircraft artillery systems. This model is composed of an observer, a feedback controller and a remnant element. An important feature of the model is that the structure is simple, hence a computer simulation requires only a short execution time. A parameter identification program based on the least squares curve fitting method and the Gauss Newton gradient algorithm is developed to determine the parameter values of the gunner model. Thus, a systematic procedure exists for identifying model parameters for a given antiaircraft tracking task. Model predictions of tracking errors are compared with human tracking data obtained from manned simulation experiments. Model predictions are in excellent agreement with the empirical data for several flyby and maneuvering target trajectories.

Kou, R. S.; Glass, B. C.; Day, C. N.; Vikmanis, M. M.

1978-01-01

420

Design and control of the precise tracking bed based on complex electromechanical design theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precise tracking technology is wide used in astronomical instruments, satellite tracking and aeronautic test bed. However, the precise ultra low speed tracking drive system is one high integrated electromechanical system, which one complexly electromechanical design method is adopted to improve the efficiency, reliability and quality of the system during the design and manufacture circle. The precise Tracking Bed is one ultra-exact, ultra-low speed, high precision and huge inertial instrument, which some kind of mechanism and environment of the ultra low speed is different from general technology. This paper explores the design process based on complex electromechanical optimizing design theory, one non-PID with a CMAC forward feedback control method is used in the servo system of the precise tracking bed and some simulation results are discussed.

Ren, Changzhi; Liu, Zhao; Wu, Liao; Chen, Ken

2010-05-01

421

A Method of Incorporating Matrix Theory to Create Mathematical Function-Based Music

This paper attempts to look for a mathematical method of composing music by incorporating Schonbergs idea of tone rows and matrix theory from linear algebra. The elements of a note set S are considered as the integer values for the natural notes based on the C Major Scale and rational numbers for semitones. The elements of S are effectively mapped by a polynomial function to another note set T. To accomplish this, S is treated as a column vector, applied to the matrix equation Ax equals b, where x denotes the vector S, b denotes the resulting set T, and A represents a square matrix. This method yields functions capable of mapping input note sets to others, thereby creating collections of sets that can be permuted in any order to form musical harmonies.

Sidarth Jayadev

2014-09-28

422

Semianalytical estimation of the four-wave mixing noise based on extreme value theory.

Four-wave mixing (FWM) is one the limiting factors for existing and future wavelength division multiplexed optical networks. A semianalytical method based on Monte Carlo and Extreme Value theory is proposed and applied to study the influence of the FWM noise on the performance of WDM systems. The statistical behavior of the FWM noise is investigated while the Bit-Error rate is calculated for various combinations of the design parameters and for both single and multiple span WDM systems. The semianalytical method is also compared to the Multicanonical Monte Carlo (MCMC) method showing the same efficiency and accuracy with the former providing however the advantage of deriving closed-form approximations for the cumulative distribution functions of the photocurrents in the mark and the space state and the BER. PMID:24104223

Neokosmidis, Ioannis; Marakis, Stylianos; Varoutas, Dimitris

2013-10-01

423

Nonlinear diffusion in two-dimensional ordered porous media based on a free volume theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuum nonlinear diffusion model is developed to describe molecular transport in ordered porous media. An existing generic van der Waals equation of state based free volume theory of binary diffusion coefficients is modified and introduced into the two-dimensional diffusion equation. The resulting diffusion equation is solved numerically with the alternating-direction fully implicit method under Neumann boundary conditions. Two types of pore structure symmetries are considered, hexagonal and cubic. The former is modeled as parallel channels while in case of the latter equal-sized channels are placed perpendicularly thus creating an interconnected network. First, general features of transport in both systems are explored, followed by the analysis of the impact of molecular properties on diffusion inside and out of the porous matrix. The influence of pore size on the diffusion-controlled release kinetics is assessed and the findings used to comment recent experimental studies of drug release profiles from ordered mesoporous silicates.

Godec, A.; Gaberscek, M.; Jamnik, J.; Merzel, F.

2009-12-01

424

Nucleosome is the elementary structural unit of eukaryotic chromatin. Instability of nucleosome positioning plays critical roles in chromatin remodeling in differentiation and disease. In this study, we investigated nucleosome dynamics in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using a geometric model based on Z curve theory. We identified 52,941 stable nucleosomes and 7607 dynamic nucleosomes, compiling them into a genome-wide nucleosome dynamic positioning map and constructing a user-friendly visualization platform (http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/nucleosome). Our approach achieved a sensitivity of 90.31% and a specificity of 87.76% for S. cerevisiae. Analysis revealed transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) were enriched in linkers. And among the sparse nucleosomes around TFBSs, dynamic nucleosomes were slightly preferred. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that stable and dynamic nucleosomes were enriched on genes involved in different biological processes and functions. This study provides an approach for comprehending chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of genes. PMID:23958656

Wu, Xueting; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hongbo; Su, Jianzhong; Lv, Jie; Cui, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yan

2013-11-01

425

Detection and control of combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an online method of detecting combustion instability based on the concept of dynamical system theory, including the characterization of the dynamic behavior of combustion instability. As an important case study relevant to combustion instability encountered in fundamental and practical combustion systems, we deal with the combustion dynamics close to lean blowout (LBO) in a premixed gas-turbine model combustor. The relatively regular pressure fluctuations generated by thermoacoustic oscillations transit to low-dimensional intermittent chaos owing to the intermittent appearance of burst with decreasing equivalence ratio. The translation error, which is characterized by quantifying the degree of parallelism of trajectories in the phase space, can be used as a control variable to prevent LBO.

Gotoda, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Yuta; Kobayashi, Masaki; Okuno, Yuta; Tachibana, Shigeru

2014-02-01

426

Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.

This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example. PMID:25197706

Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

2014-01-01

427

The Model of Lake Operation in Water Transfer Projects Based on the Theory of Water- right

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the lake operation is a very important content in Water Transfer Projects. The previous studies have not any related to water-right and water- price previous. In this paper, water right is divided into three parts, one is initialization waterright, another is by investment, and the third is government's water- right re-distribution. The water-right distribution model is also build. After analyzing the cost in water transfer project, a model and computation method for the capacity price as well as quantity price is proposed. The model of lake operation in water transfer projects base on the theory of water- right is also build. The simulation regulation for the lake was carried out by using historical data and Genetic Algorithms. Water supply and impoundment control line of the lake was proposed. The result can be used by south to north water transfer projects.

Bi-peng, Yan; Chao, Liu; Fang-ping, Tang

428

A High Precision Feature Based on LBP and Gabor Theory for Face Recognition

How to describe an image accurately with the most useful information but at the same time the least useless information is a basic problem in the recognition field. In this paper, a novel and high precision feature called BG2D2LRP is proposed, accompanied with a corresponding face recognition system. The feature contains both static texture differences and dynamic contour trends. It is based on Gabor and LBP theory, operated by various kinds of transformations such as block, second derivative, direct orientation, layer and finally fusion in a particular way. Seven well-known face databases such as FRGC, AR, FERET and so on are used to evaluate the veracity and robustness of the proposed feature. A maximum improvement of 29.41% is achieved comparing with other methods. Besides, the ROC curve provides a satisfactory figure. Those experimental results strongly demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the new feature and method. PMID:23552103

Xia, Wei; Yin, Shouyi; Ouyang, Peng

2013-01-01

429

A Game Theory-Based Obstacle Avoidance Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes. PMID:22163698

Guan, Xin; Wu, Huayang; Bi, Shujun

2011-01-01

430

A game theory-based obstacle avoidance routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

The obstacle avoidance problem in geographic forwarding is an important issue for location-based routing in wireless sensor networks. The presence of an obstacle leads to several geographic routing problems such as excessive energy consumption and data congestion. Obstacles are hard to avoid in realistic environments. To bypass obstacles, most routing protocols tend to forward packets along the obstacle boundaries. This leads to a situation where the nodes at the boundaries exhaust their energy rapidly and the obstacle area is diffused. In this paper, we introduce a novel routing algorithm to solve the obstacle problem in wireless sensor networks based on a game-theory model. Our algorithm forms a concave region that cannot forward packets to achieve the aim of improving the transmission success rate and decreasing packet transmission delays. We consider the residual energy, out-degree and forwarding angle to determine the forwarding probability and payoff function of forwarding candidates. This achieves the aim of load balance and reduces network energy consumption. Simulation results show that based on the average delivery delay, energy consumption and packet delivery ratio performances our protocol is superior to other traditional schemes. PMID:22163698

Guan, Xin; Wu, Huayang; Bi, Shujun

2011-01-01

431

Objective To develop, implement and test an innovative, theory-based classroom media intervention known as Get Moving! to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviors in predominantly Latina middle school girls. Research methods and procedures School-based intervention on five to seven consecutive school days in seven schools (four intervention and three control) with high Latino populations (above 60%). Intervention schools were matched to control schools by ethnic makeup and socioeconomic status (SES). Measures conducted 3 months before and 3 months after intervention included height, weight, percentage body fat (bioimpedance analysis), physical activity and psychosocial aspects of activity by questionnaire. Subjects were middle school girls, mean age 12.5 years old, 73% Latina (N=459 girls). Results Get Moving! significantly reduced time spent on sedentary behavior (?± standard error, SE=?0.27±0.14, p<0.05) and significantly increased intrinsic motivation (?±SE=0.11±0.05, p<0.05). There was a trend for mediation effects of intrinsic motivation, but this did not reach significance. Discussion Get Moving! is a promising school-based approach that specifically targets physical activity and sedentary behavior in Latina girls, a population at high risk for obesity and related diseases. PMID:19023773

SPRUIJT-METZ, DONNA; NGUYEN-MICHEL, SELENA T.; GORAN, MICHAEL I.; CHOU, CHIH-PING; HUANG, TERRY T-K.

2010-01-01

432

Nanobatteries in redox-based resistive switches require extension of memristor theory

Redox-based nanoionic resistive memory cells are one of the most promising emerging nanodevices for future information technology with applications for memory, logic and neuromorphic computing. Recently, the serendipitous discovery of the link between redox-based nanoionic-resistive memory cells and memristors and memristive devices has further intensified the research in this field. Here we show on both a theoretical and an experimental level that nanoionic-type memristive elements are inherently controlled by non-equilibrium states resulting in a nanobattery. As a result, the memristor theory must be extended to fit the observed non-zero-crossing I–V characteristics. The initial electromotive force of the nanobattery depends on the chemistry and the transport properties of the materials system but can also be introduced during redox-based nanoionic-resistive memory cell operations. The emf has a strong impact on the dynamic behaviour of nanoscale memories, and thus, its control is one of the key factors for future device development and accurate modelling. PMID:23612312

Valov, I.; Linn, E.; Tappertzhofen, S.; Schmelzer, S.; van den Hurk, J.; Lentz, F.; Waser, R.

2013-01-01

433

Background Non-adherence to clinical guidelines has been identified as a consistent finding in general practice. The purpose of this study was to develop theory-informed, computer-delivered interventions to promote the implementation of guidelines in general practice. Specifically, our aim was to develop computer-delivered prompts to promote guideline adherence for antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections (RTIs), and adherence to recommendations for secondary stroke prevention. Methods A qualitative design was used involving 33 face-to-face interviews with general practitioners (GPs). The prompts used in the interventions were initially developed using aspects of social cognitive theory, drawing on nationally recommended standards for clinical content. The prompts were then presented to GPs during interviews, and iteratively modified and refined based on interview feedback. Inductive thematic analysis was employed to identify responses to the prompts and factors involved in the decision to use them. Results GPs reported being more likely to use the prompts if they were perceived as offering support and choice, but less likely to use them if they were perceived as being a method of enforcement. Attitudes towards using the prompts were also related to anticipated patient outcomes, individual prescriber differences, accessibility and presentation of prompts and acceptability of guidelines. Comments on the prompts were largely positive after modifying them based on participant feedback. Conclusions Acceptability and satisfaction with computer-delivered prompts to follow guidelines may be increased by working with practitioners to ensure that the prompts will be perceived as valuable tools that can support GPs' practice. PMID:21087469

2010-01-01

434

Electromagnetic information theory and subspace-based signal processing applications in imaging

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first part of the dissertation investigates the information-theoretic characterization, via Shannon's information capacity, of wave radiation and wireless propagation systems. Specifically, this part of the dissertation derives, from the fundamental physical point of view of Maxwell's equations describing electromagnetic fields, the Shannon information capacity of space-time wireless channels formed by electromagnetic sources and receivers in a known background medium. The theory is developed first for the case of sources working at a fixed frequency and is expanded later to the more general case of temporally bandlimited systems. In the bandlimited case we consider separately the two cases of time-limited and essentially bandlimited systems and of purely bandlimited systems. The developments take into account the physical radiated power constraint in addition to a constraint in the source L2 norm. Based on such radiated power and current L2 norm constraints we derive the Shannon information capacity of canonical wireless and antenna systems in free space, for a given additive Gaussian noise level, as well as an associated number of degrees of freedom resulting from such capacity calculations. The derived results also illustrate, from a new information-theoretic point of view, the transition from near to far fields. The second part of the dissertation describes a novel technique for the shape reconstruction of extended scatterers from the measurement of the scattering or response matrix based on prior work co-authored by the present author. These previous results are shown to be related to the concepts of angles and distances between subspaces and are used to propose new imaging and shape reconstruction approaches of the support of a unknown extended scatterer assuming the exact scattering theory. Initially we present a modification of the conventional MUSIC imaging approach that avoids the need to determine the numerical rank of the scattering matrix. Then we consider a different problem where given a grid we try to determine whether each of the points of the grid is inside the support of the scatterer or not. In this last application we consider two approaches: one based on the modified MUSIC imaging and the other based on the level set method.

Gruber, Fred K.

435

Multi-Input Multi-Output Repetitive Control Theory And Taylor Series Based Repetitive Control Design

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitive control (RC) systems aim to achieve zero tracking error when tracking a periodic command, or when tracking a constant command in the presence of a periodic disturbance, or both a periodic command and periodic disturbance. This dissertation presents a new approach using Taylor Series Expansion of the inverse system z-transfer function model to design Finite Impulse Response (FIR) repetitive controllers for single-input single-output (SISO) systems, and compares the designs obtained to those generated by optimization in the frequency domain. This approach is very simple, straightforward, and easy to use. It also supplies considerable insight, and gives understanding of the cause of the patterns for zero locations in the optimization based design. The approach forms a different and effective time domain design method, and it can also be used to guide the choice of parameters in performing in the frequency domain optimization design. Next, this dissertation presents the theoretical foundation for frequency based optimization design of repetitive control design for multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. A comprehensive stability theory for MIMO repetitive control is developed. A necessary and sufficient condition for asymptotic stability in MIMO RC is derived, and four sufficient conditions are created. One of these is the MIMO version of the approximate monotonic decay condition in SISO RC, and one is a necessary and sufficient condition for stability for all possible disturbance periods. An appropriate optimization criterion for direct MIMO is presented based on minimizing a Frobenius norm summed over frequencies from zero to Nyquist. This design process is very tractable, requiring only solution of a linear algebraic equation. An alternative approach reduces the problem to a set of SISO design problems, one for each input-output pair. The performances of the resulting designs are studied by extensive examples. Both approaches are seen to be able to create RC designs with fast monotonic decay of the tracking error. Finally, this dissertation presents an analysis of using an experiment design sequence for parameter identification based on the theory of iterative learning control (ILC), a sister field to repetitive control. This is suggested as an alternative to the results in optimal experiment design. Modified ILC laws that are intentionally non-robust to model errors are developed, as a way to fine tune the use of ILC for identification purposes. The non-robustness with respect to its ability to improve identification of system parameters when the model error is correct is studied. It is demonstrated that in many cases the approach makes the learning particularly sensitive to relatively small parameter errors in the model, but sensitivity is sometimes limited to parameter errors of a specific sign.

Xu, Kevin

436

Numerically-based ducted propeller design using vortex lattice lifting line theory

This thesis used vortex lattice lifting line theory to model an axisymmetrical-ducted propeller with no gap between the duct and the propeller. The theory required to model the duct and its interaction with the propeller ...

Stubblefield, John M

2008-01-01

437

The pathogenesis and treatments based on meridian differentiation of senile dementia are discussed through analyses and researches on the theory of "cerebral collaterals injury by toxins" and "collateral diseases". The symptoms of "Cerebral collaterals injury by toxins" are preliminary characterized by toxins and blood stasis occluding brain collaterals. "Cerebral collateral injury by toxins" and "Governor Vessel occlusion by blood stasis" are taken as the major pathogeneses of senile dementia. And the treatment should be focused on clearing the collaterals. Clearance acting as reinforcing as well as to clear and modify the Governor Vessel are taken as crucial sections in the treatment of senile dementia based on meridian differentiation. It is also the application of acupuncture-moxibustion intervention in senile dementia based on the theory of "cerebral collateral injury by toxins", which expands the application of the theory concerning "collateral diseases" in disease prevention and treatment with acupuncture-moxibustion. PMID:23213997

Zhou, Li; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Hou, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Hui

2012-11-01

438

Decision theory formally solves the problem of rational agents in uncertain worlds if the true environmental probability distribution is known. Solomono's theory of universal induction formally solves the problem of sequence prediction for unknown distributions. We unify both theories and give strong arguments that the resulting universal AI model behaves optimally in any computable environment. The major drawback of the

Marcus Hutter

2001-01-01

439

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Einstein[Dover(03)] critical-slowing-down(CSD)[Pais, Subtle in The Lord; Life & Sci. of Albert Einstein(81)] is Siegel CyberWar denial-of-access(DOA) operations-research queuing theory/pinning/jamming//Read [Aikido, Aikibojitsu & Natural-Law(90)]/Aikido(!!!) phase-transition critical-phenomenon via Siegel DIGIT-Physics (Newcomb[Am.J.Math. 4,39(1881)]-Planck[(1901)]-Einstein[(1905)])-Poincare[Calcul Probabilités(12)-p.313]-Weyl [Goett.Nachr.(14); Math.Ann.77,313 (16)]-Bose[(24)-Einstein[(25)]-Fermi[(27)]-Dirac[(1927)]-``Benford''[Proc.Am.Phil.Soc. 78,4,551 (38)]-Kac[Maths.Stat.-Reasoning(55)]-Raimi[Sci.Am. 221,109 (69);]-Jech[preprint, PSU(95)]-Hill[Proc.AMS 123,3,887(95)]-Browne[NYT(8/98)]-Antonoff-Smith-Siegel[AMS Joint-Mtg.,S.-D.(02)] algebraic-inversion to yield ONLY BOSE-EINSTEIN QUANTUM-statistics (BEQS) with ZERO-digit Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION(BEC) ``INTERSECTION''-BECOME-UNION to Barabasi[PRL 876,5632(01); Rev.Mod.Phys.74,47(02);] Network /Net/GRAPH(!!!)-physics BEC: Strutt/Rayleigh(1881)-Polya(21)-``Anderson''(58)-Siegel[J.Non-crystalline-Sol.40,453(80);

Buick, Otto; Falcon, Pat; Alexander, G. K.; Carl-Ludwig Siegel, Edward

2013-03-01

440

Law of Large Numbers: the Theory, Applications and Technology-based Education

Modern approaches for technology-based blended education utilize a variety of recently developed novel pedagogical, computational and network resources. Such attempts employ technology to deliver integrated, dynamically-linked, interactive-content and heterogeneous learning environments, which may improve student comprehension and information retention. In this paper, we describe one such innovative effort of using technological tools to expose students in probability and statistics courses to the theory, practice and usability of the Law of Large Numbers (LLN). We base our approach on integrating pedagogical instruments with the computational libraries developed by the Statistics Online Computational Resource (www.SOCR.ucla.edu). To achieve this merger we designed a new interactive Java applet and a corresponding demonstration activity that illustrate the concept and the applications of the LLN. The LLN applet and activity have common goals – to provide graphical representation of the LLN principle, build lasting student intuition and present the common misconceptions about the law of large numbers. Both the SOCR LLN applet and activity are freely available online to the community to test, validate and extend (Applet: http://socr.ucla.edu/htmls/exp/Coin_Toss_LLN_Experiment.html, and Activity: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/SOCR_EduMaterials_Activities_LLN). PMID:21603584

Dinov, Ivo D.; Christou, Nicolas; Gould, Robert

2011-01-01

441

Intention to use hearing aids: a survey based on the theory of planned behavior

Objective To determine the intention to use hearing aids (HAs) by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Design The TPB is a widely used decision-making model based on three constructs hypothesized to influence the intention to perform a specific behavior; namely, “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. The survey was based on a TPB-specific questionnaire addressing factors relevant to HA provision. Study sample Data from 204 individuals reporting hearing problems were analyzed. Different subgroups were established according to the stage of their hearing help-seeking. Results The TPB models’ outcome depended on the subgroup. The intention of those participants who had recognized their hearing problems but had not yet consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist was largely dominated by the “subjective norm” construct, whereas those who had already consulted an ear, nose, and throat specialist or had already tried out HAs were significantly influenced by all constructs. The intention of participants who already owned HAs was clearly less affected by the “subjective norm” construct but was largely dominated by their “attitude toward HAs”. Conclusion The intention to use HAs can be modeled on the basis of the constructs “attitude toward the behavior”, “subjective norm”, and “behavioral control”. Individual contribution of the constructs to the model depends on the patient’s stage of hearing help-seeking. The results speak well for counseling strategies that explicitly consider the individual trajectory of hearing help-seeking.

Meister, Hartmut; Grugel, Linda; Meis, Markus

2014-01-01

442

Several approaches have been proposed for computing term information content (IC) and semantic similarity scores within the gene ontology (GO) directed acyclic graph (DAG). These approaches contributed to improving protein analyses at the functional level. Considering the recent proliferation of these approaches, a unified theory in a well-defined mathematical framework is necessary in order to provide a theoretical basis for validating these approaches. We review the existing IC-based ontological similarity approaches developed in the context of biomedical and bioinformatics fields to propose a general framework and unified description of all these measures. We have conducted an experimental evaluation to assess the impact of IC approaches, different normalization models, and correction factors on the performance of a functional similarity metric. Results reveal that considering only parents or only children of terms when assessing information content or semantic similarity scores negatively impacts the approach under consideration. This study produces a unified framework for current and future GO semantic similarity measures and provides theoretical basics for comparing different approaches. The experimental evaluation of different approaches based on different term information content models paves the way towards a solution to the issue of scoring a term's specificity in the GO DAG. PMID:24078912

Mazandu, Gaston K.; Mulder, Nicola J.

2013-01-01

443

Reducing absenteeism in hospital cleaning staff: pilot of a theory based intervention

Aims: To develop, pilot, and evaluate a workplace intervention to reduce sickness absence, based on a demand-control-support model of job strain. Methods: Changes in the working arrangements of hospital cleaning staff were introduced with the aim of increasing their control over work and the support received at work. The study design was quasi-experimental, with 221 cleaning staff in the intervention group and 91 catering staff in the control group. The dependent variable was the difference in percentage monthly sickness absence between the 12 months preceding and following the intervention. Differences in sickness absence between staff groups for each month after the intervention were compared with differences between staff groups for the equivalent month one year prior to it. Results: There was a significant reduction in the difference in sickness absence rates between the intervention and control group of 2.3% in the six months after the intervention, compared to the six months before. The difference was not maintained at 12 months. Conclusions: These results suggest that a workplace intervention aimed at increasing control and support at work has a small effect on reducing sickness absence among hospital cleaning staff in the short term. Future research should seek to replicate this effect in larger, experimental studies, analyse postulated mediators of such theory based interventions, and develop interventions that maintain improvement. PMID:15031393

Michie, S; Wren, B; Williams, S

2004-01-01

444

A cDNA microarray gene expression data classifier for clinical diagnostics based on graph theory.

Despite great advances in discovering cancer molecular profiles, the proper application of microarray technology to routine clinical diagnostics is still a challenge. Current practices in the classification of microarrays' data show two main limitations: the reliability of the training data sets used to build the classifiers, and the classifiers' performances, especially when the sample to be classified does not belong to any of the available classes. In this case, state-of-the-art algorithms usually produce a high rate of false positives that, in real diagnostic applications, are unacceptable. To address this problem, this paper presents a new cDNA microarray data classification algorithm based on graph theory and is able to overcome most of the limitations of known classification methodologies. The classifier works by analyzing gene expression data organized in an innovative data structure based on graphs, where vertices correspond to genes and edges to gene expression relationships. To demonstrate the novelty of the proposed approach, the authors present an experimental performance comparison between the proposed classifier and several state-of-the-art classification algorithms. PMID:20855919

Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Politano, Gianfranco

2011-01-01

445

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrometric information constitutes the fundamental input for planning, design, operation, and management of water resources systems. How to optimally site monitoring gauges such that they are effective and efficient in gathering the hydrometric information or data has received considerable attention. This paper presents a generic approach for the design (or evaluation) of hydrometric networks. First, an entropy theory-based criterion, named as maximum information minimum redundancy (MIMR), is proposed. The MIMR criterion maximizes the joint entropy of stations within the optimal set, and the transinformation between stations within and outside of the optimal set. Meanwhile, it insures that the optimal set contains minimum duplicated information. An easy-to-implement greedy ranking algorithm is developed to accomplish the MIMR selection. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the applicability of MIMR in hydrometric network evaluation and design. We also compare the MIMR selection with another entropy-based approach. Results illustrate that MIMR is apt at finding stations with high information content, and locating independent stations. The proposed approach is suitable for design (or evaluation) of any type of hydrometric network.

Li, Chao; Singh, Vijay P.; Mishra, Ashok K.

2012-05-01

446

Theory-based model for H-mode pedestal and ELMs in tokamak plasmas

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previous theory-based model for the pedestal and ELMs [1] is developed further to follow the formation of an edge transport barrier in tokamaks, the subsequent transition between an ELM-free and ELMy H-mode, and the dynamics of ELMs. The pedestal model is based on the magnetic and flow shear reduction of anomalous transport. The onset of each ELM crash is triggered by either a pressure-driven or a current-driven MHD instability [2]. The model predicts self-consistently the width and height of the H-mode pedestal, the shape of plasma profiles in pedestal region and the ELM frequency. The ASTRA code [3] is used to investigate the scaling of pedestal temperature as a function of plasma parameters such as pedestal density, heating power, isotope mass and magnetic field. [1] G.W. Pacher et al., Nucl. Fusion 43 (2003) 188. [2] P.B. Snyder, et al., Phys. Plasmas 9 (2002) 2037. [3] G. Pereverzev, P.N. Yushmanov, Report IPP 5/98, 2002. Supported by DOE DE-FG02-92-ER-54141.

Voitsekhovitch, I.; Pankin, A.; Onjun, T.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Pacher, G. W.; Pacher, H. D.; Janeschitz, G.; Pereverzev, G.

2003-10-01

447

Based on the nonlocal elastic theory, small scale effects are considered in the investigation of the mechanical properties of protein microtubules. A new prediction formula for the persistence lengths of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect is presented. Subsequently, the buckling of microtubules is studied based on a nonlocal elastic beam model. The predicted results of our model indicate that the length-dependence of persistence length is related not only to the shear terms, but also to the small scale effect. The Eular beam model, which is always considered unable to explain the length-dependence of microtubules, can capture the length-dependence of the persistence length of microtubules with the consideration of the small scale effect. The elastic buckling behaviors of microtubules in viscoelastic surrounding cytoplasm are also considered using the nonlocal Timoshenko beam model in this paper, and the results indicate that the small scale effect of microtubules also plays an important role in the buckling of microtubules.

Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lei, Fang-Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Western Disaster and Environment, Ministry of Education, Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2009-09-25

448

Orthogonal-state-based cryptography in quantum mechanics and local post-quantum theories

In contrast to the well-known quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, which encode secret bits in non-orthogonal states, orthogonal-state-based protocols for QKD transmit secret bits deterministically. Even though secure, such a protocol cannot be used to transmit a secret message directly, because an eavesdropper is not prevented from learning something about the direct message before being detected. A quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme satisfies this stronger security requirement. In this work, we study the relationship between security in QKD and QSDC. We show that replacing qubit streaming in a QKD scheme by block-encoding of qubits, we can construct a QSDC scheme. This forms the basis for reducing the security of a QSDC scheme to that of aQKD scheme, in the sense that if the latter is secure, then so is the QSDC scheme built on top of it. We refer to this as \\textit{block reduction}. Further, we show that the security of QKD reduces to that of QSDC, in the sense that if a QSDC protocol is secure, then by sending a random key as the direct message, the corresponding QKD protocol is also secure. This procedure we call as \\textit{key reduction}. Finally, we propose an orthogonal-state-based deterministic key distribution (KD) protocol which is secure in some local post-quantum theories. Its security arises neither from geographic splitting of a code state nor from Heisenberg uncertainty, but from post-measurement disturbance.

S. Arvinda; Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak; R. Srikanth

2014-09-30

449

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a microscopic theory for the dc Josephson current, based on the construction of a coherent temperature Green's function in the tight-binding approximation, in junctions with multiband superconductors. This theory is applied to junctions with a multiband Fe-based superconductor (FeBS) described by s+/- -wave and s++ -wave order parameter symmetries, which is probably realized in FeBS. For the first time, phase dependences of the Josephson current have been calculated for different directions of an interface with respect to crystallographic axes of FeBS. The present approach is also suitable for a consistent description of the Josephson transport in structures with topological superconductors.

Burmistrova, A. V.; Devyatov, I. A.

2014-09-01

450

Ligand-field theory-based analysis of the adsorption properties of ruthenium nanoparticles.

The experimental design of improved nanocatalysts is usually based on shape control and is surface-ligand dependent. First-principle calculations can guide their design, both in terms of activity and selectivity, provided that theoretical descriptors can be defined and used in a prescreening process. As a consequence of the Sabatier principle and of the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi relationship, an important prerequisite before optimizing the catalytic properties of nanoparticles is the knowledge of the selective adsorption strengths of reactants at their surface. We report here adsorption energies of X (H, CH3) and L (PH3, CO) ligands at the surface of bare ruthenium nanoclusters Run (n = 55 and 147) calculated at the DFT level. Their dependence on the topology of the adsorption sites as well as on the size and shape of the nanoparticles (NPs) is rationalized with local descriptors derived from the so-called d-band center model. Defining the descriptors involves the determination of the energy of effective d atomic orbitals for each surface atom. Such a ligand field theory-like model is in close relation with frontier molecular orbital theory, a cornerstone of rational chemical synthesis. The descriptors are depicted as color maps which straightforwardly yield possible reactivity spots. The adsorption map of a large spherical hcp cluster (Ru288) nicely confirms the remarkable activity of steps, the so-called B5 sites. The predictive character of this conceptual DFT approach should apply to other transition metal NPs and it could be a useful guide to the design of efficient nanocatalysts bearing sites with a specific activity. PMID:24083468

Del Rosal, Iker; Mercy, Maxime; Gerber, Iann C; Poteau, Romuald

2013-11-26

451

Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20??mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5??mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime scenes. PMID:23986392

Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

2013-08-01

452

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 m at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.

Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

2013-08-01

453

Background Psychological models can be used to understand and predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. However, they have not been consistently applied to health professional behaviours, and the contribution of differing theories is not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological theories to predict health professional behaviour relating to management of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) without antibiotics. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of general practitioners (GPs) in Scotland. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (using antibiotic prescription rates as a proxy indicator), behavioural simulation (scenario-based decisions to managing URTI with or without antibiotics) and behavioural intention (general intention to managing URTI without antibiotics). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the following theories: Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Stage Model (SM), and knowledge (a non-theoretical construct). For each outcome measure, multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictive value of each theoretical model individually. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross theory' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all significant individual constructs across theories. Results All theories were tested, but only significant results are presented. When predicting behaviour, at the theory level, OLT explained 6% of the variance and, in a cross theory analysis, OLT 'evidence of habitual behaviour' also explained 6%. When predicting behavioural simulation, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 31%; SCT, 26%; II, 6%; OLT, 24%. GPs who reported having already decided to change their management to try to avoid the use of antibiotics made significantly fewer scenario-based decisions to prescribe. In the cross theory analysis, perceived behavioural control (TPB), evidence of habitual behaviour (OLT), CS-SRM cause (chance/bad luck), and intention entered the equation, together explaining 36% of the variance. When predicting intention, at the theory level, the proportion of variance explained was: TPB, 30%; SCT, 29%; CS-SRM 27%; OLT, 43%. GPs who reported that they had already decided to change their management to try to avoid the use of antibiotics had a significantly higher intention to manage URTIs without prescribing antibiotics. In the cross theory analysis, OLT evidence of habitual behaviour, TPB attitudes, risk perception, CS-SRM control by doctor, TPB perceived behavioural control and CS-SRM control by treatment entered the equation, together explaining 49% of the variance in intention. Conclusion The study provides evidence that psychological models can be useful in understanding and predicting clinical behaviour. Taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain. PMID:17683558

Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Johnston, Marie; Steen, Nick; Pitts, Nigel B; Thomas, Ruth; Glidewell, Elizabeth; Maclennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Walker, Anne

2007-01-01

454

A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach

The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to each professional role. As an application, we present the simulation of the discussed error, e.g. the unchecked extraction of the control rods during a power variation maneuver and we show how the effect of human errors can affect the performance function, giving rise to different countermeasures which could call different operator figures into play, potentially not envisaged in the standard procedure. (authors)

Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniv. Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepielli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)

2012-07-01

455

Based on Chinese culture, this paper conducted an empirical research on the relationship between pay gap and firm performance to correct the former research results. Our research results indicated that under the incentive and constrain conditions of collectivism and great power distance, the relationship between pay gap of different organizational levels and firm performance was positive, which was a conic

Wang Yong-le; Li Mei-xiang

2010-01-01

456

Conspectus In chemical and biological systems, various interactions that govern the chemical and physical properties of molecules, assembling phenomena, and electronic transport properties compete and control the microscopic structure of materials. The well-controlled manipulation of each component can allow researchers to design receptors or sensors, new molecular architectures, structures with novel morphology, and functional molecules or devices. In this Account, we describe the structures and electronic and spintronic properties of ?-molecular systems that are important for controlling the architecture of a variety of carbon-based systems. Although DFT is an important tool for describing molecular interactions, the inability of DFT to accurately represent dispersion interactions has made it difficult to properly describe ?-interactions. However, the recently developed dispersion corrections for DFT have allowed us to include these dispersion interactions cost-effectively. We have investigated noncovalent interactions of various ?-systems including aromatic-?, aliphatic-?, and non-? systems based on dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D). In addition, we have addressed the validity of DFT-D compared with the complete basis set (CBS) limit values of coupled cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] and Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (MP2). The DFT-D methods are still unable to predict the correct ordering in binding energies within the benzene dimer and the cyclohexane dimer. Nevertheless, the overall DFT-D predicted binding energies are in reasonable agreement with the CCSD(T) results. In most cases, results using the B97-D3 method closely reproduce the CCSD(T) results with the optimized energy-fitting parameters. On the other hand, vdW-DF2 and PBE0-TS methods estimate the dispersion energies from the calculated electron density. In these approximations, the interaction energies around the equilibrium point are reasonably close to the CCSD(T) results but sometimes slightly deviate from them because interaction energies were not particularly optimized with parameters. Nevertheless, because the electron cloud deforms when neighboring atoms/ions induce an electric field, both vdW-DF2 and PBE0-TS seem to properly reproduce the resulting change of dispersion interaction. Thus, improvements are needed in both vdW-DF2 and PBE0-TS to better describe the interaction energies, while the B97-D3 method could benefit from the incorporation of polarization-driven energy changes that show highly anisotropic behavior. Although the current DFT-D methods need further improvement, DFT-D is very useful for computer-aided molecular design. We have used these newly developed DFT-D methods to calculate the interactions between graphene and DNA nucleobases. Using DFT-D, we describe the design of molecular receptors of ?-systems, graphene based electronic devices, metalloporphyrin half-metal based spintronic devices as graphene nanoribbon (GNR) analogs, and graphene based molecular electronic devices for DNA sequencing. DFT-D has also helped us understand quantum phenomena in materials and devices of ?-systems including graphene. PMID:25338296

Cho, Yeonchoo; Cho, Woo Jong; Youn, Il Seung; Lee, Geunsik; Singh, N Jiten; Kim, Kwang S

2014-11-18

457

Investigating the Slope Stability Based on Uncertainty by Using Fuzzy Possibility Theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the slope stability condition by using fuzzy estimation method based on fuzzy possibility theory. Due to use of this theory, the inaccuracy, ambiguity and uncertainty in input parameters are considered and therefore, the calculated factor of safety (FOS) is highly reliable. In this research, first, the input parameters of slope stability analysis, based on statistical characteristics and grade of membership concept, as a fuzzy numbers are defined. Then the performance function of slope behavior is defined and by using the fuzzy parameters, the FOS is calculated. In next step, by using the several ? - cut, the calculated FOS is defined as a fuzzy form and subsequently, the slope stability condition based on fuzzy presentation of FOS is evaluated. The results show that, although based on deterministic analysis the studied slope is stable but based on fuzzy interpretation of FOS, the slope stability condition is scare. The fuzzy analysis of slope stability condition, by applying the uncertainty in calculating the FOS and defining the grade of membership for each unknown input parameters in model, a more realistic interpretation of slope stability condition is provided. In addition, the fuzzy presentation of the FOS, allowing more accurate judgments about slope stability condition. Celem pracy jest zbadanie warunku stabilno?ci skarpy w oparciu o metody szacunkowe wykorzystuj?ce elementy logiki rozmytej i teorii prawdopodobie?stwa. Z uwagi na zastosowanie tych teorii w parametrach wej?ciowych uwzgl?dniono niedok?adno??, niepewno?? i niejednoznaczno??, dlatego te? obliczone wspó?czynniki bezpiecze?stwa uzna? mo?na za wysoce wiarygodne. W pierwszym etapie pracy zdefiniowano parametry wej?ciowe do analizy stabilno?ci skarpy w oparciu o charakterystyki statystyczne i przyj?te funkcje przynale?no?ci, i okre?lone parametry rozmyte. Nast?pnie zdefiniowano zachowanie zbocza skarpy w oparciu o parametry rozmyte i obliczono wspó?czynnik bezpiecze?stwa. W kolejnym kroku przy za?o?eniu wielokrotnego wybierania przy za?o?onym k?cie ? (? - cut), obliczono wspó?czynnik bezpiecze?stwa w formie rozmytej i zbadano warunek stabilno?ci skarpy oparty na wspó?czynniku bezpiecze?stwa w formie rozmytej. Wyniki wskazuj?, ?e pomimo i? zbocze badane w oparciu o analizy deterministyczne wydaje si? stabilne, to wspó?czynnik bezpiecze?stwa w uj?ciu rozmytym sugeruje, ?e warunek stabilno?ci zbocza b?dzie spe?niony w niewielkim stopniu. Analiza warunku stabilno?ci zbocza wykorzystuj?ce elementy logiki rozmytej uwzgl?dniaj?ca zagadnienie niepewno?ci przy obliczaniu wspó?czynnika bezpiecze?stwa i przy okre?laniu stopnia funkcji przynale?no?ci dla poszczególnych parametrów wej?ciowych modelu pozwala bardziej realistycznie okre?li? warunek bezpiecze?stwa. Ponadto, przedstawienie warunku bezpiecze?stwa w postaci rozmytej pozwala na bardziej dok?adn? ocen? warunków stabilno?ci.

Hosseini, Navid; Gholinejad, Mehran

2014-03-01

458

Analytical satellite theories based on a new set of canonical elements

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new analytical satellite theory is presented. Instead of the 6 classical elements of Delaunay, a set of 8 canonical elements is used. Whereas the time is the independent variable in classical theory, the true anomaly is the independent variable in the new theory. The new approach has four features: (1) The amount of formulas in the solution is reduced considerably. (2) The first order results are almost as accurate as second order results in classical theory. (3) The theory is easier to understand from a didactical point of view. (4) The problems connected with the inaccuracy of the mean motion that are typical for classical satellite theory are no longer present. The new elements are applied to analytical solutions of the zonal oblateness problem and to the problem of the 24 hour satellite.

Scheifele, G.; Graf, O.

1974-01-01

459

Fuzzy soil mapping based on prototype category theory Feng Qi a,, A-Xing Zhu b,c

Fuzzy soil mapping based on prototype category theory Feng Qi a,, A-Xing Zhu b,c , Mark Harrower c component of soil mapping is classification, a process of assigning spatial soil entities to predefined categories (classes). However, by their nature soils exist as a continuum both in the spatial and attribute

Zhu, A-Xing

460

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research provides a direct comparison of effect size estimates based on structural equation modeling (SEM), item response theory (IRT), and raw scores. Differences between the SEM, IRT, and raw score approaches are examined under a variety of data conditions (IRT models underlying the data, test lengths, magnitude of group differences, and…

Willse, John T.; Goodman, Joshua T.

2008-01-01

461

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed at designing a program based on the Pragmatic theory to develop grammatical structure comprehension skills for foreign learners of Arabic and examining its effectiveness. Hence, the problem of the study has been summarized in the weakness of grammatical structure comprehension skills for foreign learners of Arabic and in the need…

Elsamman, Marwan

2014-01-01

462

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reacts to the three core articles in the Scientific Forum of the May 2005 issue of "The Counseling Psychologist" about institutional research productivity, the use of theory-driven research, and the application of structural equation modeling to research in counseling psychology. To have a research base that maximizes divergent…

Kahn, Jeffrey H.

2005-01-01

463

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a basic development model for an intelligent tutoring system that includes the interface, the expert and learner models, and the pedagogical model. Possibilities for more extensive integration of cognitive learning theories into computer-based instruction (CBI) are illustrated, and two examples of CBI designed from this perspective are…

Orey, Michael A.; Nelson, Wayne A.

1993-01-01

464

The ratcheting behavior of the unsymmetric two-bar system was investigated by numerical experiments. The two bars are restrained to the same length and are subjected to a constant load. One bar sees cyclic temperature variations, while the other bar is kept at constant temperature. The material models employed are rate-independent plasticity (kinematic hardening) and the viscoplasticity theory based on overstress

T. Nakamura; E. Krempl

1997-01-01

465

Computer science is the study of design, theory, and application of computers. It is a continuously evolving field based on electronics, linguistics, logic, mathematics, and systems engineering. The computer science program emphasizes the development of software and the use of computers focusing around

Hemmers, Oliver

466

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a process for integrating health behavior and social science theories with practice-based insights using participatory systems thinking and diagramming methods largely inspired by system dynamics methods. This integration can help close the gap between research and practice in health education and health behavior by offering…

Gillen, Emily M.; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Yeatts, Karin B.; Hernandez, Michelle L.; Smith, Timothy W.; Lewis, Megan A.

2014-01-01

467

The present study investigated the usability of whole and partial report of briefly displayed letter arrays as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of attentional functions. The tool is based on Bundesen's (1990, 1998, 2002; Bundesen et al., 2005) theory of visual attention (TVA), which assumes four separable attentional components: processing speed, working memory storage capacity, spatial distribution of attention,

KATHRIN FINKE; PETER BUBLAK; JOSEPH KRUMMENACHER; SØREN KYLLINGSBÆK; HERMANN J. MÜLLER; WERNER X. SCHNEIDER

2005-01-01

468

In this study, the profiles based on multiple intelligences theory of a total of 908 potential teachers studying in Science, Social Sciences, Mathematics, Music, Art and Physical Education at Ondokuz May?s University are compared. Multiple intelligences inventory which was taken from Saban has been used to determine the intelligence areas of the potential teachers. The collected data has been evaluated

Hasan Sözen; Merve Sözen; Atilla Tekat

2009-01-01

469

In light of China's logistics industry, the location selection of distribution center is one of the most important issues. The objective of this research is to present a location-selection model of logistics distribution center based on fuzzy multi-criteria decision making theory. With the model, the candidate evaluation programs of the logistics distribution center location are simulated and tested by the

Lin Bai; Xiao-rong Chen

2010-01-01

470

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory-based intervention programmes to support health-related behaviour change aim to increase health impact and improve understanding of mechanisms of behaviour change. However, the science of intervention development remains at an early stage. We present a causal modelling approach to developing complex interventions for evaluation in…

Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Griffin, Simon; Johnston, Marie; White, Anthony; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise

2005-01-01

471

A study on the effects of the transit parking time on traffic flow based on cellular automata theory

This paper mainly deals with the effects of transit stops on vehicle speeds and conversion lane numbers in a mixed traffic lane. Based on thorough research of traffic flow and cellular automata theory, it calibrates the cellular length and the running speed. Also, a cellular automata model for mixed traffic flow on a two-lane system under a periodic boundary condition

Yong-Sheng Qian; Pei-Ji Shi; Qiong Zeng; Chang-Xi Ma; Fang Lin; Peng Sun; Hai-Long Wang

2010-01-01

472

In recent years, defendants have proffered a multitude of novel theories of criminal defense in seeking to explain their criminal behavior in terms of internal and external influences beyond their control, including biological processes, chemical reactions, intra-psychic dynamics, social conditions, and cross cultural stresses. This Article focuses on one subset of this burgeoning class of defenses: those based upon the

Patricia J Falk

1996-01-01

473

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes empirical results reported earlier on relations between students' problem stages (mental model) in writing research proposals for a masters' thesis and the information sought, choice of search terms, and relevance assessments; refines Kuhlthau's model of the information search process; and proposes a theory of a task-based information…

Vakkari, Pertti

2001-01-01

474

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation rationalizes the best use of Web-based instruction (WBI) for teaching music theory to private piano students in the later primary grades. It uses an integrative research methodology for defining, designing, and implementing a curriculum that includes WBI. Research from the fields of music education, educational technology,…

Carney, Robert D.

2010-01-01

475

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article examines how teachers read and respond to their students' Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT 10) scores with the goal of investigating the assumption that data-based teaching practice is more "objective" and less susceptible to divergent teacher interpretation. The study uses reader response theory to frame…

Atkinson, Becky M.

2012-01-01

476

Beta-adrenoceptor-blocking agents (?-blockers) are on the list of the top selling drugs. Pindolol is a representative of this type of compound, either from the structural point of view, or as reference for comparison of the pharmacokinetic properties of the ?-blockers. A study of the pindolol structure based on infrared spectroscopy and natural bond orbital (NBO) theory is the main aim

Ricardo A. E. Castro; João Canotilho; Sandra C. C. Nunes; M. Ermelinda S. Eusébio; J. Simões Redinha

2009-01-01

477

Interaction potential for water dimer from symmetry-adapted perturbation theory based on density potential for the water dimer has been obtained by fitting interaction energies computed at 2510 geometries-rotation-tunneling spectrum, and structure of liquid water computed with the new potential are in very good agreement

478

Nishizawa, K. and Power, J. (2009) Lawvere theories enriched over a general base. Journal of Pure://opus.bath.ac.uk/ This version is made available in accordance with publisher policies. Please cite only the published version using the reference above. See http://opus.bath.ac.uk/ for usage policies. Please scroll down to view

McCusker, Guy

479

A Computational Model based on Gross' Emotion Regulation Theory1 Tibor Bosse (tbosse@few.vu.nl)

of Artificial Intelligence De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Abstract Emotion regulation can be used in the field of Artificial Intelligence; see e.g., (Bates, 1994; Hudlicka, 2008A Computational Model based on Gross' Emotion Regulation Theory1 Tibor Bosse (tbosse

Treur, Jan

480

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using longitudinal data on South Korean youth, the authors addressed limitations of previous tests of general strain theory (GST), focusing on the relationships among key strains, situational- and trait-based negative emotions, conditioning factors, and delinquency. Eight types of strain previously shown most likely to result in delinquency,…

Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; McCluskey, Cynthia Perez; Hwang, Hye-Won

2009-01-01

481

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study is to collect the opinions of Turkish Language and Literature teachers at secondary schools about the Curriculum of the Turkish Literature Course based on the constructivist learning theory. To this end, the descriptive method was employed to collect teacher opinions. Structured interview was used as a data…

Epcacan, Cahit

2013-01-01

482

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical models to date have fallen short of accounting for the alarming worldwide rates of HIV infection in women through heterosexual contact. In this article, social dominance theory and the four bases of gendered power--force, resource control, social obligations, and consensual ideologies--are used to organize and explain international…

Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R.

2010-01-01

483

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Drug use has been noted among students in Taiwan during the past decade and schools have a role in preventing or delaying students' drug use. We developed and evaluated a school-based, drug-use prevention program integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and life skills for junior high school students. Methods: We recruited…

Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chien, Li-Yin; Cheng, Chin-Feng; Guo, Jong-Long

2012-01-01

484

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent educational standards have refocused the goals of foreign language (FL) instruction on "the purpose of communication" (ACTFL, 2012, p. 1) across the three modes of communication (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational). To this end, this article considers a linguistically based genre theory as a means of enhancing…

Troyan, Francis J.

2014-01-01

485

A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion. PMID:22385751

2012-01-01

486

Optical color image encryption based on computer generated hologram and chaotic theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel technique of optical color image encryption and decryption based on computer generated hologram (CGH) and chaotic theory is proposed. The tri-color separated images of an image to be encrypted are encoded with three random phase arrays constructed by a chaotic sequence of the deterministic non-linear system, respectively. Then Burch's encoding method using the modified off-axis reference beam is adopted to fabricate the CGH as the encryption image. A clear original color image can be reconstructed as long as the correct initial value of chaotic sequence and the correct system parameters are given. The initial value of chaotic function with a very small change will lead to the generation of an entirely different chaotic sequences. As a result, the random phase array changes dramatically and the original image cannot be recovered rightly. Serving as the secret keys, the initial values of chaotic sequence and system parameters reduce the amount of the key data. And the digital encryption image is also more favorable to be stored and transmitted. The feasibility and its robustness against occlusion and noise attacks are verified by numerical simulations.

Liu, Jian; Jin, Hongzhen; Ma, Lihong; Li, Yong; Jin, Weimin

2013-10-01

487

Enhancing electrical capacitance tomographic sensor design using fuzzy theory based quantifiers

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical capacitance tomography is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses measured capacitances to recover the unknown permittivity distribution in the medium. A new method using fuzzy theory and quantifiers in enhancing the ECT sensor system design and the associated data fusion is presented. Unlike the traditional methods that set a single indicator as the optimization objective, the method presented in the paper provides a way to integrate multiple evaluation criteria (some may conflict with others) of ECT sensors into a single comparable index. The uniformity index, the correlation coefficient and combinatorial fuzzy index of ECTs are set as the optimization objectives respectively at the experimental stage to evaluate the validity of the method. The experiments are set up based on multi-index orthogonal design and the experimental results indicate that the fuzzy optimization method can derive an optimized sensor structure with an evenly distributed sensitivity field and a better imaging reconstruction result at the same time. It proves the method is intuitive, reliable, and practical.

Li, Nan; Yang, Xiangdong; Gong, Yu; Wang, Pai

2014-12-01

488

Actinide electronic structure based on the Dirac equation and density functional theory

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally predictive basis for predicting the structural properties of actinides. Although available approximations to the exchange/correlation functional provide accurate predictions for many materials, they fail qualitatively and sometimes quantitatively when applied to actinides. Major contributors to this deficiency are an inadequate treatment of confinement physics and an incomplete treatment of relativity in the underlying equations. The development of a functional correctly incorporating confinement physics with a proper treatment of relativity would provide definitive, internally consistent predictions of actinide properties. To enable the development of such a functional and quantify the predictions of currently available functionals, we have developed an efficient first-principles electronic structure method based on the Dirac equation. Results are compared with current methods, and the implications for relativistic density functionals discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Wills, John M.; Mattsson, Ann E.

2013-03-01

489

Wavelet-Based Linear-Response Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory

Linear-response time-dependent (TD) density-functional theory (DFT) has been implemented in the pseudopotential wavelet-based electronic structure program BigDFT and results are compared against those obtained with the all-electron Gaussian-type orbital program deMon2k for the calculation of electronic absorption spectra of N2 using the TD local density approximation (LDA). The two programs give comparable excitation energies and absorption spectra once suitably extensive basis sets are used. Convergence of LDA density orbitals and orbital energies to the basis-set limit is significantly faster for BigDFT than for deMon2k. However the number of virtual orbitals used in TD-DFT calculations is a parameter in BigDFT, while all virtual orbitals are included in TD-DFT calculations in deMon2k. As a reality check, we report the x-ray crystal structure and the measured and calculated absorption spectrum (excitation energies and oscillator strengths) of the small organic molecule N-cyclohexyl-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidaz...

Natarajan, Bhaarathi; Casida, Mark E; Deutsch, Thierry; Burchak, Olga N; Philouze, Christian; Balakirev, Maxim Y

2011-01-01

490

A novel algorithm for implementing general type of multireference coupled-cluster (MRCC) theory based on the Jeziorski-Monkhorst exponential Ansatz [B. Jeziorski, H.J. Monkhorst, Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] is introduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes processor groups to calculate the equations for the MRCC amplitudes. In the basic formulation each processor group constructs the equations related to a specific subset of references. By flexible choice of processor groups and subset of reference-specific sufficiency conditions designated to a given group one can assure optimum utilization of available computing resources. The performance of this algorithm is illustrated on the examples of the Brillouin-Wigner and Mukherjee MRCC methods with singles and doubles (BW-MRCCSD and Mk-MRCCSD). A significant improvement in scalability and in reduction of time to solution is reported with respect to recently reported parallel implementation of the BW-MRCCSD formalism [J.Brabec, H.J.J. van Dam, K. Kowalski, J. Pittner, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 347 (2011)].

Brabec, Jiri; Pittner, Jiri; van Dam, Hubertus JJ; Apra, Edoardo; Kowalski, Karol

2012-02-01

491

Information-theory-based band selection and utility evaluation for reflective spectral systems

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a methodology for wavelength band selection. This methodology can be used in system design studies to provide an optimal sensor cost, data reduction, and data utility trade-off relative to a specific application. The methodology combines an information theory- based criterion for band selection with a genetic algorithm to search for a near-optimal solution. We have applied this methodology to 612 material spectra from a combined database to determine the band locations for 6, 9, 15, 30, and 60- band sets in the 0.42 to 2.5 microns spectral region that permit the best material separation. These optimal bands sets were then evaluated in terms of their utility related to anomaly ddetection and material identification using multi-band data cubes generated from two HYDICE cubes. The optimal band locations and their corresponding entropies are given in this paper. Our optimal band locations for the 6, 9, and 15-band sets are compared to the bands of existing multi-band systems such as Landsat 7, Multispectral Thermal Imager, Advanced Land Imager, Daedalus, and M7. Also presented are the anomaly detection and material identification results obtained from our generalted multi- band data cubes. Comparisons are made between these exploitation results with those obtained from the original 210-band HYDICE data cubes.

Shen, Sylvia S.; Bassett, Edward M., III

2002-08-01

492

Three-dimensional theory of quantum memories based on Lambda-type atomic ensembles

We develop a three-dimensional theory for quantum memories based on light storage in ensembles of Lambda-type atoms, where two long-lived atomic ground states are employed. We consider light storage in an ensemble of finite spatial extent and we show that within the paraxial approximation the Fresnel number of the atomic ensemble and the optical depth are the only important physical parameters determining the quality of the quantum memory. We analyze the influence of these parameters on the storage of light followed by either forward or backward read-out from the quantum memory. We show that for small Fresnel numbers, the forward memory provides higher efficiencies, whereas for large Fresnel numbers, the backward memory is advantageous. The optimal light modes to store in the memory are presented together with the corresponding spin-waves and outcoming light modes. We show that for high optical depths such Lambda-type atomic ensembles allow for highly efficient backward and forward memories even for small Fresnel numbers $F\\gtrsim 0.1$.

Emil Zeuthen; Anna Grodecka-Grad; Anders S. Sørensen

2011-05-13

493

Bargaining over an international water resource based on cooperative game theory concepts

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Caspian Sea was peacefully shared by Iran and the USSR, based on the two historic treaties between Iran (Persia) and Russia. Collapse of the USSR gave birth to one of the world's serious conflicts over international water resources. Since then, the five littoral states of the Caspian Sea, namely Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have been negotiating over finding an appropriate allocation scheme for sharing the sea and its valuable energy and environmental resources. Although several solution methods have been proposed, the negotiating parties have been unsuccessful in developing a compromise solution. A range of bargaining solutions are used here to show how cooperative game theory can be used to develop fair and efficient allocation schemes to resolve the Caspian Sea conflict. It is also examined how the negotiators may use their powers to change their shares from the Caspian Sea resources. Finally, the stability of the suggested game theoretic solutions are tested to find the solution which is more acceptable by the negotiating parties.

Madani, K.; Gholizadeh, S.

2011-12-01