An individual based model of fish recruitment using simple queuing theory
Baxter, Paul D.
An individual based model of fish recruitment using simple queuing theory Paul D. Baxter, ¡ Jon W, the growth process forms an § queue. ¤ Queuing theory is a well developed branch of applied probability and environmental matters, the catching and processing industry, or in tourism and development..." (Rt. Hon. Tony
Adversarial Queuing Theory ALLAN BORODIN
Kleinberg, Jon
Adversarial Queuing Theory ALLAN BORODIN University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada JON-Communication Networks]: Network Architec- ture and Design--store and forward networks; G.3 [Mathematics of Computing
Comparison of an AGV transportation system by using the queuing network theory
Satoshi HOSHINO; Jun OTA; Akiko SHINOZAKI; Hideki HASHIMOTO
2004-01-01
In this paper, we provide the comparison indicator of the AGV transportation systems. For this purpose, we propose an optimal design methodology for the AGV transportation system by using the queuing network theory. In this methodology, the queuing network theory and a simulation-based optimization method are integrated to obtain the optimal design parameters (i.e., these are the design solutions of
Simulation of Queuing Systems with Different Queuing Disciplines Based on Anylogic
Ni Zhiwei; Lu Xiaochun; Liu Dongyuan
2009-01-01
In this paper, based on Anylogic6.0 simulation software, some simulation models of queuing systems with different queuing disciplines are established, including first come first service, last come first service and random service. Compared with the theoretical values, the accuracy of the experiment data is verified. Finally, with comparative analysis of experiment data, we show that under a special condition, the
Queuing theory models for computer networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galant, David C.
1989-01-01
A set of simple queuing theory models which can model the average response of a network of computers to a given traffic load has been implemented using a spreadsheet. The impact of variations in traffic patterns and intensities, channel capacities, and message protocols can be assessed using them because of the lack of fine detail in the network traffic rates, traffic patterns, and the hardware used to implement the networks. A sample use of the models applied to a realistic problem is included in appendix A. Appendix B provides a glossary of terms used in this paper. This Ames Research Center computer communication network is an evolving network of local area networks (LANs) connected via gateways and high-speed backbone communication channels. Intelligent planning of expansion and improvement requires understanding the behavior of the individual LANs as well as the collection of networks as a whole.
Analysis of Distributed CA Model for MANETs Based on Queuing Theory
Hengjun Wang; Yadi Wang; Jihong Han; Yuchen Zhang; Min Liu
2008-01-01
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a single certificate authority (CA) node could be a security bottleneck. Multiple replica of CA is fault tolerant, but the network is as vulnerable as single CA or even worse since breaking one of the CAs means breaking all of them. Many distributed CA models based on the secret sharing scheme are proposed. In
Application of queuing theory in production-inventory optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rashid, Reza; Hoseini, Seyed Farzad; Gholamian, M. R.; Feizabadi, Mohammad
2015-07-01
This paper presents a mathematical model for an inventory control system in which customers' demands and suppliers' service time are considered as stochastic parameters. The proposed problem is solved through queuing theory for a single item. In this case, transitional probabilities are calculated in steady state. Afterward, the model is extended to the case of multi-item inventory systems. Then, to deal with the complexity of this problem, a new heuristic algorithm is developed. Finally, the presented bi-level inventory-queuing model is implemented as a case study in Electroestil Company.
Applying Queuing and Probability Theory to Predict Organizational Behaviors
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Applying Queuing and Probability Theory to Predict Organizational Behaviors Bryan Horling Multi of an organizationally-driven infor- mation retrieval network. The behavior of a search process for ap- propriate agents organizational design processes focus on either the qualitative or domain-independent features of candidate
Yong-sheng Li; Wei-li Wang; Yong-jun Qiao; Tao Jiang
2009-01-01
In order to evaluate the battle ability of missile against aircraft carrier formation, the Markov model is used to simulate the penetration effects for missiles at different altitude and different speed. Based on the particular analysis of the interception system of aircraft carrier formation, assume the raid missiles obey Poisson distribution and the interception system of the formation dispose the
Application of queuing theory in inventory systems with substitution flexibility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seyedhoseini, S. M.; Rashid, Reza; Kamalpour, Iman; Zangeneh, Erfan
2015-01-01
Considering the competition in today's business environment, tactical planning of a supply chain becomes more complex than before. In many multi-product inventory systems, substitution flexibility can improve profits. This paper aims to prepare a comprehensive substitution inventory model, where an inventory system with two substitute products with ignorable lead time has been considered, and effects of simultaneous ordering have been examined. In this paper, demands of customers for both of the products have been regarded as stochastic parameters, and queuing theory has been used to construct a mathematical model. The model has been coded by C++, and it has been analyzed due to a real example, where the results indicate efficiency of proposed model.
Queuing Network Modeling of Transcription CHANGXU WU and YILI LIU
Wu, Changxu (Sean)
. Based on the queuing network theory of human per- formance [Liu 1996; 1997] and current discoveries6 Queuing Network Modeling of Transcription Typing CHANGXU WU and YILI LIU University of Michigan in cognitive and neural science, this article extends and applies the Queuing Network-Model Human Processor (QN
Using Queuing Theory and Simulation Model to Optimize Hospital Pharmacy Performance
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Mohammadnejhad, Seyed Mohsen; Ravangard, Ramin; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan
2014-01-01
Background: Hospital pharmacy is responsible for controlling and monitoring the medication use process and ensures the timely access to safe, effective and economical use of drugs and medicines for patients and hospital staff. Objectives: This study aimed to optimize the management of studied outpatient pharmacy by developing suitable queuing theory and simulation technique. Patients and Methods: A descriptive-analytical study conducted in a military hospital in Iran, Tehran in 2013. A sample of 220 patients referred to the outpatient pharmacy of the hospital in two shifts, morning and evening, was selected to collect the necessary data to determine the arrival rate, service rate, and other data needed to calculate the patients flow and queuing network performance variables. After the initial analysis of collected data using the software SPSS 18, the pharmacy queuing network performance indicators were calculated for both shifts. Then, based on collected data and to provide appropriate solutions, the queuing system of current situation for both shifts was modeled and simulated using the software ARENA 12 and 4 scenarios were explored. Results: Results showed that the queue characteristics of the studied pharmacy during the situation analysis were very undesirable in both morning and evening shifts. The average numbers of patients in the pharmacy were 19.21 and 14.66 in the morning and evening, respectively. The average times spent in the system by clients were 39 minutes in the morning and 35 minutes in the evening. The system utilization in the morning and evening were, respectively, 25% and 21%. The simulation results showed that reducing the staff in the morning from 2 to 1 in the receiving prescriptions stage didn't change the queue performance indicators. Increasing one staff in filling prescription drugs could cause a decrease of 10 persons in the average queue length and 18 minutes and 14 seconds in the average waiting time. On the other hand, simulation results showed that in the evening, decreasing the staff from 2 to 1 in the delivery of prescription drugs, changed the queue performance indicators very little. Increasing a staff to fill prescription drugs could cause a decrease of 5 persons in the average queue length and 8 minutes and 44 seconds in the average waiting time. Conclusions: The patients' waiting times and the number of patients waiting to receive services in both shifts could be reduced by using multitasking persons and reallocating them to the time-consuming stage of filling prescriptions, using queuing theory and simulation techniques. PMID:24829791
A Queued-Code Based on LDPC Block Codes Satashu Goel, Rohit Negi
Yener, Aylin
A Queued-Code Based on LDPC Block Codes Satashu Goel, Rohit Negi satashug@ece.cmu.edu, negi@ece.cmu.edu Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Abstract-- A `queued-code' is a novel code which allows for instantaneous rate adaptation, to match the current channel state
Nico M. van Dijk
1997-01-01
This tutorial aims to address and illustrate that queuing theory has a wider potential than generally perceived, while at the same time a variety of practical problems, both in daily-life and industry, are open for fundamental research. To this end, it will: (i) Highlightbasic queuing insights for daily-life purposes. (ii) Provideexact and bounding results for queuing network applications. (iii) Present
Liu, Yili
and mental workload--a queuing network approach based on the queuing network theory of human performance, SEPTEMBER 2008 Queuing Network Modeling of a Real-Time Psychophysiological Index of Mental Workload--P300, P300, queuing network. I. INTRODUCTION MENTAL workload is one of the most important issues
Nico M. Van Dijk
Abstract This tutorial aims to address and illustrate that queuing theory has a wider potential than generally perceived, while at the same time a variety of practical problems, both in daily-life and industry, are open for fundamental research. To this end, it will: (i) Highlight basic queuing,insights,for daily-life purposes. (ii) Provide exact,and,bounding,results for queuing network applications. (iii) Present a number,of
Liu, Yili
approach based on the queuing network theory of human performance and neuroscience discoveries528 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2007 Queuing describe a new computational approach in modeling driver perfor- mance and workload--a queuing network
Capacity and backlog management in queuing-based supply chains
Edward G. Anderson; Douglas J. Morrice
2002-01-01
In this paper, we model and analyze a type of two-stage serial supply chain often found in service sector and make-to-order manufacturing industries. The chain holds no finished goods inventory at either stage. Rather, processing occurs only after an order is received and backlogs are managed solely by adjusting capacity. We model this supply chain using a tandem queuing model.
Spreadsheet Analysis Of Queuing In A Computer Network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Galant, David C.
1992-01-01
Method of analyzing responses of computer network based on simple queuing-theory mathmatical models via spreadsheet program. Effects of variations in traffic, capacities of channels, and message protocols assessed.
Queuing theory to guide the implementation of a heart failure inpatient registry program.
Zai, Adrian H; Farr, Kit M; Grant, Richard W; Mort, Elizabeth; Ferris, Timothy G; Chueh, Henry C
2009-01-01
OBJECTIVE The authors previously implemented an electronic heart failure registry at a large academic hospital to identify heart failure patients and to connect these patients with appropriate discharge services. Despite significant improvements in patient identification and connection rates, time to connection remained high, with an average delay of 3.2 days from the time patients were admitted to the time connections were made. Our objective for this current study was to determine the most effective solution to minimize time to connection. DESIGN We used a queuing theory model to simulate 3 different potential solutions to decrease the delay from patient identification to connection with discharge services. MEASUREMENTS The measures included average rate at which patients were being connected to the post discharge heart failure services program, average number of patients in line, and average patient waiting time. RESULTS Using queuing theory model simulations, we were able to estimate for our current system the minimum rate at which patients need to be connected (262 patients/mo), the ideal patient arrival rate (174 patients/mo) and the maximal patient arrival rate that could be achieved by adding 1 extra nurse (348 patients/mo). CONCLUSIONS Our modeling approach was instrumental in helping us characterize key process parameters and estimate the impact of adding staff on the time between identifying patients with heart failure and connecting them with appropriate discharge services. PMID:19390108
Queuing Theory to Guide the Implementation of a Heart Failure Inpatient Registry Program
Zai, Adrian H.; Farr, Kit M.; Grant, Richard W.; Mort, Elizabeth; Ferris, Timothy G.; Chueh, Henry C.
2009-01-01
Objective The authors previously implemented an electronic heart failure registry at a large academic hospital to identify heart failure patients and to connect these patients with appropriate discharge services. Despite significant improvements in patient identification and connection rates, time to connection remained high, with an average delay of 3.2 days from the time patients were admitted to the time connections were made. Our objective for this current study was to determine the most effective solution to minimize time to connection. Design We used a queuing theory model to simulate 3 different potential solutions to decrease the delay from patient identification to connection with discharge services. Measurements The measures included average rate at which patients were being connected to the post discharge heart failure services program, average number of patients in line, and average patient waiting time. Results Using queuing theory model simulations, we were able to estimate for our current system the minimum rate at which patients need to be connected (262 patients/mo), the ideal patient arrival rate (174 patients/mo) and the maximal patient arrival rate that could be achieved by adding 1 extra nurse (348 patients/mo). Conclusions Our modeling approach was instrumental in helping us characterize key process parameters and estimate the impact of adding staff on the time between identifying patients with heart failure and connecting them with appropriate discharge services. PMID:19390108
Wedagedera, Janak R.
T-Cell Activation: A Queuing Theory Analysis at Low Agonist Density J. R. Wedagedera* and N. J, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom ABSTRACT We analyze a simple linear triggering model of the T-cell,arobustnessanalysisshowsthatthesepropertiesaredegradedwhenthequeueparameters aresubject tovariation--for example, under stochasticity in the ligand number in the cell-cell interface
Application of queuing theory to patient satisfaction at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria
Ameh, Nkeiruka; Sabo, B.; Oyefabi, M. O.
2013-01-01
Background: Queuing theory is the mathematical approach to the analysis of waiting lines in any setting where arrival rate of subjects is faster than the system can handle. It is applicable to healthcare settings where the systems have excess capacity to accommodate random variations. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was done. Questionnaires were administered to patients who attended the general outpatient department. Observations were also made on the queuing model and the service discipline at the clinic. Questions were meant to obtain demographic characteristics and the time spent on the queue by patients before being seen by a doctor, time spent with the doctor, their views about the time spent on the queue and useful suggestions on how to reduce the time spent on the queue. A total of 210 patients were surveyed. Results: Majority of the patients (164, 78.1%) spent 2 h or less on the queue before being seen by a doctor and less than 1 h to see the doctor. Majority of the patients (144, 68.5%) were satisfied with the time they spent on the queue before being seen by a doctor. Useful suggestions proffered by the patients to decrease the time spent on the queue before seeing a doctor at the clinic included: that more doctors be employed (46, 21.9%), that doctors should come to work on time (25, 11.9%), that first-come-first served be observed strictly (32, 15.2%) and others suggested that the records staff should desist from collecting bribes from patients in order to place their cards before others. The queuing method employed at the clinic is the multiple single channel type and the service discipline is priority service. The patients who spent less time on the queue (<1 h) before seeing the doctor were more satisfied than those who spent more time (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study has revealed that majority of the patients were satisfied with the practice at the general outpatient department. However, there is a need to employ measures to respond to the suggestions given by the patients who are the beneficiaries of the hospital services. PMID:23661902
Perspectives for Practice Why queuing never vanishes
Nico M. van Dijk
This tutorial aims to address and illustrate that queuing theory has a wider potential than generally perceived, while at the same time a variety of practical problems, both in daily-life and industry, are open for fundamental research. To this end, it will: (i) Highlight basic queuing insights for daily-life purposes. (ii) Provide exact and bounding results for queuing network applications.
Muhammad Marsudi; Dzuraidah Abdul Wahab; Che Hassan Che Haron
2009-01-01
Modeling of a manufacturing system enables one to identify the effects of key design parameters on the system performance and as a result make correct decision. This paper proposes a manufacturing system modeling approach using a spreadsheet model based on queuing network theory, in which a static capacity planning model and stochastic queuing model are integrated. The model was used
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Akira; Yoshida, Susumu
A QoS support technique for easily minimizing delay in multihop wireless networks is proposed. Using a priority queue operation that reduces delays overall, the proposed technique, Reduced Congestion Queuing (RCQ), solves problems peculiar to multihops. By adding RCQ to a multihop system, base station or access point density and cost can be more effectively curtailed than by simply applying multihops to a cellular network or wireless LAN because RCQ expands the multihop service area. Due to its simplicity, the proposed technique can be used in a wide range of applications, including VoIP.
Edward G. Anderson; Douglas J. Morrice
2002-01-01
In this paper, we model and analyze a type of two-stage serial supply chain often found in service sector and make-to-order manufacturing industries. The chain holds no finished goods inventory at either stage. Rather, processing occurs only after an order is received and backlogs are managed solely by adjusting capacity. We model this supply chain using a tandem queuing model.
Optimization of wind turbine vane manufacture based on queuing theory
Qing-hui Dai; Sha Li
2011-01-01
Wind turbine vane is the key components of wind power generators effectively capture the wind. RTM is a manufacture technology of advanced composite materials, low cost, medium batch blade. Some random factors often lead to the production schedule can not be predetermined program normally. It can help reduce production costs that with the start-up costs were study of production scheduling
NEW STABILITY RESULTS FOR ADVERSARIAL QUEUING ZVI LOTKER, BOAZ PATT-SHAMIR, AND ADI ROSEN
Rosén, Adi
consider the model of "adversarial queuing theory" for packet networks intro- duced by Borodin et al. [J). Key words. adversarial queuing theory, network protocols, stability, lower bounds AMS subject makes use of the model of "adversarial queuing theory" proposed by Borodin et al. [7]. The model can
He, Xinhua
2014-01-01
This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model. PMID:24688367
Design and Implementation of High-Speed Input-Queued Switches Based on a Fair Scheduling Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Hua-An
To increase both the capacity and the processing speed for input-queued (IQ) switches, we proposed a fair scalable scheduling architecture (FSSA). By employing FSSA comprised of several cascaded sub-schedulers, a large-scale high performance switches or routers can be realized without the capacity limitation of monolithic device. In this paper, we present a fair scheduling algorithm named FSSA_DI based on an improved FSSA where a distributed iteration scheme is employed, the scheduler performance can be improved and the processing time can be reduced as well. Simulation results show that FSSA_DI achieves better performance on average delay and throughput under heavy loads compared to other existing algorithms. Moreover, a practical 64 × 64 FSSA using FSSA_DI algorithm is implemented by four Xilinx Vertex-4 FPGAs. Measurement results show that the data rates of our solution can be up to 800Mbps and the tradeoff between performance and hardware complexity has been solved peacefully.
He, Xinhua; Hu, Wenfa
2014-01-01
This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model. PMID:24688367
Li-si Cao; Zi-xian Liu
2011-01-01
The system of vehicle repair service is a problem that needs to research on the location of repair centers according to the service needs and available resource based on the maximal covering location and priority queuing theory. Considering the effect of waiting time due to rush jobs, this paper proposes a model that maximizes the service covering, and restrains the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoshkumar; Udaykumar, R. Y.
2015-04-01
The electrical vehicles (EVs) can be connected to the grid for power transaction. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) supports the grid requirements and helps in maintaining the load demands. The grid control center (GCC), aggregator and EV are three key entities in V2G communication. The GCC sends the information about power requirements to the aggregator. The aggregator after receiving the information from the GCC sends the information to the EVs. Based on the information, the interested EV owners participate in power transaction with the grid. The aggregator facilitates the EVs by providing the parking and charging slot. In this paper the queuing model for EVs connected to the grid and development of wireless infrastructure for the EV to Smart Meter communication is proposed. The queuing model is developed and simulated. The path loss models for WiMAX are analyzed and compared. Also, the physical layer of WiMAX protocol is modeled and simulated for the EV to Smart Meter communication in V2G.
Wu, Changxu (Sean)
describes a model of PRP that integrates queuing network theory (Liu, 1996, 1997) and reinforcement learningModeling Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) and Practice Effect on PRP with Queuing Networks and Reinforcement Learning Algorithms Changxu Wu (changxuw@umich.edu) Department of Industrial & Operations
Capacity Utilization Study for Aviation Security Cargo Inspection Queuing System
Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL; Brumback, Daryl L [ORNL
2010-01-01
In this paper, we conduct performance evaluation study for an aviation security cargo inspection queuing system for material flow and accountability. The queuing model employed in our study is based on discrete-event simulation and processes various types of cargo simultaneously. Onsite measurements are collected in an airport facility to validate the queuing model. The overall performance of the aviation security cargo inspection system is computed, analyzed, and optimized for the different system dynamics. Various performance measures are considered such as system capacity, residual capacity, throughput, capacity utilization, subscribed capacity utilization, resources capacity utilization, subscribed resources capacity utilization, and number of cargo pieces (or pallets) in the different queues. These metrics are performance indicators of the system s ability to service current needs and response capacity to additional requests. We studied and analyzed different scenarios by changing various model parameters such as number of pieces per pallet, number of TSA inspectors and ATS personnel, number of forklifts, number of explosives trace detection (ETD) and explosives detection system (EDS) inspection machines, inspection modality distribution, alarm rate, and cargo closeout time. The increased physical understanding resulting from execution of the queuing model utilizing these vetted performance measures should reduce the overall cost and shipping delays associated with new inspection requirements.
Modeling Patient Flows Using a Queuing Network with Blocking
KUNO, ERI; SMITH, TONY E.
2015-01-01
The downsizing and closing of state mental health institutions in Philadelphia in the 1990’s led to the development of a continuum care network of residential-based services. Although the diversity of care settings increased, congestion in facilities caused many patients to unnecessarily spend extra days in intensive facilities. This study applies a queuing network system with blocking to analyze such congestion processes. “Blocking” denotes situations where patients are turned away from accommodations to which they are referred, and are thus forced to remain in their present facilities until space becomes available. Both mathematical and simulation results are presented and compared. Although queuing models have been used in numerous healthcare studies, the inclusion of blocking is still rare. We found that, in Philadelphia, the shortage of a particular type of facilities may have created “upstream blocking”. Thus removal of such facility-specific bottlenecks may be the most efficient way to reduce congestion in the system as a whole. PMID:15782512
Jamming transition in traffic flow under the priority queuing protocol
Kim, Doochul
OFFPRINT Jamming transition in traffic flow under the priority queuing protocol K. Kim, B. Kahng: 10.1209/0295-5075/86/58002 Jamming transition in traffic flow under the priority queuing protocol K. Here we study such jamming transition when queues are operated by the priority queuing protocol
Queuing Network Models for Multi-Channel P2P Live Streaming Systems
Liu, Yong
Queuing Network Models for Multi-Channel P2P Live Streaming Systems Di Wu, Yong Liu, Keith W. Ross to calculate critical performance measures, develop an asymptotic theory to provide closed-form results when. INTRODUCTION In recent years there have been several large-scale industrial deployments of P2P live video
Queuing Models of Tertiary Storage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Theodore
1996-01-01
Large scale scientific projects generate and use large amounts of data. For example, the NASA Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project is expected to archive one petabyte per year of raw satellite data. This data is made automatically available for processing into higher level data products and for dissemination to the scientific community. Such large volumes of data can only be stored in robotic storage libraries (RSL's) for near-line access. A characteristic of RSL's is the use of a robot arm that transfers media between a storage rack and the read/write drives, thus multiplying the capacity of the system. The performance of the RSL's can be a critical limiting factor for the performance of the archive system. However, the many interacting components of an RSL make a performance analysis difficult. In addition, different RSL components can have widely varying performance characteristics. This paper describes our work to develop performance models of an RSL in isolation. Next we show how the RSL model can be incorporated into a queuing network model. We use the models to make some example performance studies of archive systems. The models described in this paper, developed for the NASA EODIS project, are implemented in C with a well defined interface. The source code, accompanying documentation, and also sample JAVA applets are available at: http://www.cis.ufl.edu/ted/
A Queuing Network Model for Book Circulation
Jon Warwick
1994-01-01
This paper describes a model that assesses the effect of the loan period, duplication policy and user borrowing capacity on the circulation of recommended texts in an academic library. The model uses the framework of a closed central server queuing network to describe how books move from a queue representing the library to others representing the users. The paper demonstrates
Belciug, Smaranda; Gorunescu, Florin
2015-02-01
Scarce healthcare resources require carefully made policies ensuring optimal bed allocation, quality healthcare service, and adequate financial support. This paper proposes a complex analysis of the resource allocation in a hospital department by integrating in the same framework a queuing system, a compartmental model, and an evolutionary-based optimization. The queuing system shapes the flow of patients through the hospital, the compartmental model offers a feasible structure of the hospital department in accordance to the queuing characteristics, and the evolutionary paradigm provides the means to optimize the bed-occupancy management and the resource utilization using a genetic algorithm approach. The paper also focuses on a "What-if analysis" providing a flexible tool to explore the effects on the outcomes of the queuing system and resource utilization through systematic changes in the input parameters. The methodology was illustrated using a simulation based on real data collected from a geriatric department of a hospital from London, UK. In addition, the paper explores the possibility of adapting the methodology to different medical departments (surgery, stroke, and mental illness). Moreover, the paper also focuses on the practical use of the model from the healthcare point of view, by presenting a simulated application. PMID:25433363
Theory-Based Stakeholder Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, Morten Balle; Vedung, Evert
2010-01-01
This article introduces a new approach to program theory evaluation called theory-based stakeholder evaluation or the TSE model for short. Most theory-based approaches are program theory driven and some are stakeholder oriented as well. Practically, all of the latter fuse the program perceptions of the various stakeholder groups into one unitary…
A Queuing Model of Multithreading: A Case Study
V. Vlassov; L-E Thorelli; A. Kraynikov
In this report we present a queuing model of a coarsely multithreaded architecture. The architecture is represented as aclosed queuing network with finite population of jobs (statistically identical threads). The network is solved for exponentiallydistributed timing parameters. The model allows rough performance prediction in the first stage of top down systemdesign. The model is validated by comparison of analytical and
Ravindran, Binoy
Brief Announcement: Queuing or Priority Queuing? On the Design of Cache-Coherence Protocols for Distributed Transactional Memory Bo Zhang ECE Dept., Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA alexzbzb transactional memory (TM) systems, both the management and consistency of a distributed transactional object
Some queuing network models of computer systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herndon, E. S.
1980-01-01
Queuing network models of a computer system operating with a single workload type are presented. Program algorithms are adapted for use on the Texas Instruments SR-52 programmable calculator. By slightly altering the algorithm to process the G and H matrices row by row instead of column by column, six devices and an unlimited job/terminal population could be handled on the SR-52. Techniques are also introduced for handling a simple load dependent server and for studying interactive systems with fixed multiprogramming limits.
Transportation planning and design of the urban road intersection based on IE ideas
Fu-yu Wang; He-ping Wang
2010-01-01
Based on survey to the intersection of the main roads in Maanshan City, the paper combines the Industry Engineering theories and methods, gathers data and information about the intersection by the Work Sampling and Stopwatch to Time method, determines the average waiting time of vehicles by the M\\/D\\/1 model of queuing theory, carries out the comprehensive improvement to the existing
Queuing analysis of polling models
Hideaki Takagi
1988-01-01
A polling model is a system of multiple queues accessed by a single server in cyclic order. Polling models provide performance evaluation criteria for a variety of demand-based, multiple-access schemes in computer and communication systems. This paper presents an overview of the state of the art of polling model analysis, as well as an extensive list of references. In particular,
Constant Delay Queuing for Jitter-Sensitive IPTV Distribution on Home Network
Kazuhiro Kamimura; Haruo Hoshino; Yoshiaki Shishikui
2008-01-01
This paper presents a renovative priority queuing algorithm for jitter-sensitive MPEG-2 Transport Stream distribution on home network. Upon the dissemination of broadband access networks, there are many technical studies of IP-based video distribution (IPTV). In addition, it is becoming common for individual residences to use Ethernet home networks to interconnect PCs and home appliances. Under these circumstances, the home network
Research on collaboration of before production logistics based on manufacturing industry
Zhanzhong Wang; Zhiyong Chen; Hongguo Xu; Jiabin Zheng; Zhuoqi Zhang
2008-01-01
This paper studies the collaboration of material supply and production, using queuing theory, constructs forklifts allocation model in cargo receiving area of manufacturing enterprises based on production plans, schedules dynamic logistics timetables of suppliers, and uses eM-Plant software to simulate the model. This study solves the receiving area bottlenecks caused by the implementation of synchronous supply, achieves the collaboration of
Connectivity in vehicular ad hoc networks in presence of wireless mobile base-stations
. Keywords: VANETs, Connectivity, Base-stations, Infinite Server Queuing System. I. INTRODUCTION Vehicular Ad and industry commu- nity. The US FCC has allocated seven 10 MHZ channels in the 5.9 GHz band for Dedicated. The relationship between basic parameters in traffic theory challenges. So in a near future, vehicles may benefit
An application of a queuing model for sea states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loffredo, L.; Monbaliu, J.; Anderson, C.
2012-04-01
Unimodal approaches in design practice have shown inconsistencies in terms of directionality and limitations for accurate sea states description. Spectral multimodality needs to be included in the description of the wave climate. It can provide information about the coexistence of different wave systems originating from different meteorological events, such as locally generated wind waves and swell systems from distant storms. A 20 years dataset (1989-2008) for a location on the North Sea (K13, 53.2°N 3.2°E) has been retrieved from the ECMWF ERA- Interim re-analysis data archive, providing a consistent and homogeneous dataset. The work focuses on the joint and conditional probability distributions of wind sea and swell systems. For marine operations and design applications, critical combinations of wave systems may exist. We define a critical sea state on the basis of a set of thresholds, which can be not necessarily extreme, the emphasis is given to the dangerous combination of different wave systems concerning certain operations (i.e. small vessels navigation, dredging). The distribution of non-operability windows is described by a point process model with random and independent events, whose occurrences and lengths can be described only probabilistically. These characteristics allow to treat the emerging patterns as a part of a queuing system. According to this theory, generally adopted for several applications including traffic flows and waiting lines, the input process describes the sequence of requests for a service and the service mechanism the length of time that these requests will occupy the facilities. For weather-driven processes at sea an alternating renewal process appears as a suitable model. It consists of a sequence of critical events (period of inoperability), each of random duration, separated by calms, also of random durations. Inoperability periods and calms are assumed independent. In this model it is not possible more than one critical event occurring at the same time. The analysis is carried out taking into account the thresholds' selection and the seasonality.
Mean-Value Analysis of Closed Multichain Queuing Networks
Martin Reiser; Stephen S. Lavenberg
1980-01-01
It is shown that mean queue sizes, mean waiting times, and throughputs in closed multiple-chain queuing networks which have product-form solution can be computed recursively without computing product terms and normalization constants. The resulting computational procedures have improved properties (avoidance of numerical problems and, in some cases, fewer operations) compared to previous algorithms. Furthermore, the new algorithms have a physically
FIFO Queuing of Constant Length Fully Synchronous Jobs
Louchard, Guy
FIFO Queuing of Constant Length Fully Synchronous Jobs Vandy Berten, Raymond Devillers and Guy synchronous parallel jobs are submitted. In order to simplify the analysis, we assume constant length jobs In a (computational) Grid, clients submit their jobs to a job broker, who sends them to well chosen computing elements
Space Efficient Fair Queuing by Stochastic Memory Multiplexing
Afek, Yehuda
Space Efficient Fair Queuing by Stochastic Memory Multiplexing Yehuda Afek \\Lambda Yishay Mansour y,mansour,ostfeldg@math.tau.ac.il February 6, 1998 Abstract We propose a new scheme for multiplexing buffer space between flows contending implementation and achieves high buffer space utilization (by taking advantage of statistical multiplexing
Predictive Control applied Queuing Strategy in Networked Control Systems
Liming Lu; Shanan Zhu; Jun Meng; Yangyong Jiang
2006-01-01
Networked control systems (NCSs) is drawn a lot of attention recently. A new method is proposed in this paper, which involves the predictive control algorithm. A queuing strategy is presented for coping with the networked delay, so that NCSs can be stabilized and achieve quite a good dynamic performance for both linear and nonlinear plants. The advantages of this method
Performance of ship queuing rules at coal export terminals
T. Tengku-Adnan; D. Sier; R. N. Ibrahim
2009-01-01
Shipping of bulk products such as coal, ore, grain and petrochemical products is an important part of maritime logistics. We study the port operations at two coal export terminals that have experienced substantial queuing in recent years. Both terminals are operated by a single port operator and service ships that come to pick up different brands of coal. The present
Modified weighted fair queuing for packet scheduling in mobile WiMAX networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satrya, Gandeva B.; Brotoharsono, Tri
2013-03-01
The increase of user mobility and the need for data access anytime also increases the interest in broadband wireless access (BWA). The best available quality of experience for mobile data service users are assured for IEEE 802.16e based users. The main problem of assuring a high QOS value is how to allocate available resources among users in order to meet the QOS requirement for criteria such as delay, throughput, packet loss and fairness. There is no specific standard scheduling mechanism stated by IEEE standards, which leaves it for implementer differentiation. There are five QOS service classes defined by IEEE 802.16: Unsolicited Grant Scheme (UGS), Extended Real Time Polling Service (ertPS), Real Time Polling Service (rtPS), Non Real Time Polling Service (nrtPS) and Best Effort Service (BE). Each class has different QOS parameter requirements for throughput and delay/jitter constraints. This paper proposes Modified Weighted Fair Queuing (MWFQ) scheduling scenario which was based on Weighted Round Robin (WRR) and Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ). The performance of MWFQ was assessed by using above five QoS criteria. The simulation shows that using the concept of total packet size calculation improves the network's performance.
Priority queuing models for hospital intensive care units and impacts to severe case patients.
Hagen, Matthew S; Jopling, Jeffrey K; Buchman, Timothy G; Lee, Eva K
2013-01-01
This paper examines several different queuing models for intensive care units (ICU) and the effects on wait times, utilization, return rates, mortalities, and number of patients served. Five separate intensive care units at an urban hospital are analyzed and distributions are fitted for arrivals and service durations. A system-based simulation model is built to capture all possible cases of patient flow after ICU admission. These include mortalities and returns before and after hospital exits. Patients are grouped into 9 different classes that are categorized by severity and length of stay (LOS). Each queuing model varies by the policies that are permitted and by the order the patients are admitted. The first set of models does not prioritize patients, but examines the advantages of smoothing the operating schedule for elective surgeries. The second set analyzes the differences between prioritizing admissions by expected LOS or patient severity. The last set permits early ICU discharges and conservative and aggressive bumping policies are contrasted. It was found that prioritizing patients by severity considerably reduced delays for critical cases, but also increased the average waiting time for all patients. Aggressive bumping significantly raised the return and mortality rates, but more conservative methods balance quality and efficiency with lowered wait times without serious consequences. PMID:24551379
Cui, Kai; Zhou, Kuanjiu; Yu, Yanshuo
2014-01-01
Due to the limited resources of wireless sensor network, low efficiency of real-time communication scheduling, poor safety defects, and so forth, a queuing performance evaluation approach based on regular expression match is proposed, which is a method that consists of matching preprocessing phase, validation phase, and queuing model of performance evaluation phase. Firstly, the subset of related sequence is generated in preprocessing phase, guiding the validation phase distributed matching. Secondly, in the validation phase, the subset of features clustering, the compressed matching table is more convenient for distributed parallel matching. Finally, based on the queuing model, the sensor networks of task scheduling dynamic performance are evaluated. Experiments show that our approach ensures accurate matching and computational efficiency of more than 70%; it not only effectively detects data packets and access control, but also uses queuing method to determine the parameters of task scheduling in wireless sensor networks. The method for medium scale or large scale distributed wireless node has a good applicability. PMID:25401151
Queuing and Scheduling on Rosa Scheduling policies and increasing your job throughput
Queuing and Scheduling on Rosa Scheduling policies and increasing your job throughput #12;Batch · This includes the replacement for the "yod" job launcher on the Cray XT3/4 machines Your ability to get jobs of a queuing job Other commands of use are qhold and qrls 3 qsub is the command to submit jobs Many op4ons
Anuj Kumar; Rabi N. Mahapatra
2005-01-01
This paper addresses scheduling and memory management in input queued switches having finite buffer with the objective of improving the performance in terms of throughput and average delay. Most of the prior works on scheduling related to input queued switches assume infinite buffer space. In practice, buffer space being a finite resource, special memory management scheme becomes essential. Maximum weighted
Anuj Kumar; Rabi N. Mahapatra
2005-01-01
This paper addresses scheduling and memory management in input queued switches having finite buffer space to improve the performance in terms of throughput and average delay. Most of the prior works on scheduling related to input queued switches assume infinite buffer space. In practice, buffer space being a finite resource, special memory management scheme becomes essential. We introduce a buffer
The affects of different queuing disciplines over FTP, video and VoIP performance
Mitko Gospodinov
2004-01-01
The objective of the paper is presentation of research the affects of different queuing disciplines on packet delivery for three applications: FTP, Video and VoIP. For modelling, simulation and analysing on these applications is used OPNET (Optimised Network Engineering Tool) environment. In the paper is investigated how the choice of the queuing discipline can affect the applications and utilization of
Modeling Short-Lived TCP Connections with Open Multiclass Queuing Networks
Michele Garetto; Renato Lo Cigno; Michela Meo; E. Alessio; Marco Ajmone Marsan
2002-01-01
In this paper we develop an open multiclass queuing network model to describe the behavior of short-lived TCP connections sharing a common IP net- work for the transfer of TCP segments. The queuing network model is paired with a simple model of the IP network, and the two models are solved through an iter- ative procedure. The combined model needs
Modeling ShortLived TCP Connections with Open Multiclass Queuing Networks ?
Modeling ShortLived TCP Connections with Open Multiclass Queuing Networks ? M. Garetto, R. Lo of shortlived TCP connections sharing a common IP network for the transfer of TCP segments. The queuing an iterative procedure. The combined model needs as inputs only the primitive network parameters, and produces
Equilibrium in Servicing Industries: An Economic Application of Queuing Theory
Carl Davidson
1988-01-01
The purpose of this article is to investigate the nature of equilibrium in markets in which service an d waiting time play an important role. The author shows that if consu mers do not know which firms are charging which prices, all firms cha rge the same price. If firms reveal their prices by advertising, the market separates with consumers
Performance Analysis and Enhancement for Priority Based IEEE 802.11 Network
Lingzhi Sheng; Wen Lei; Wei Huangfu; Xinyun Zhou; Weiming Cheng; Zhimei Wu; Limin Sun
2006-01-01
In this paper, a novel non-saturation analytical model for priority based IEEE 802.11 network is introduced. Unlike previous work that is focused on MAC backoff for saturation stations, this model uses Markov and M\\/ M\\/1\\/K theories to predict MAC and queuing service time and loss. Then a performance prediction based enhancement scheme is proposed. By dynamic tuning of protocol options,
NAS Requirements Checklist for Job Queuing/Scheduling Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, James Patton
1996-01-01
The increasing reliability of parallel systems and clusters of computers has resulted in these systems becoming more attractive for true production workloads. Today, the primary obstacle to production use of clusters of computers is the lack of a functional and robust Job Management System for parallel applications. This document provides a checklist of NAS requirements for job queuing and scheduling in order to make most efficient use of parallel systems and clusters for parallel applications. Future requirements are also identified to assist software vendors with design planning.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Haoran
1997-12-01
This dissertation presents the concepts, principles, performance, and implementation of input queuing and cell-scheduling modules for the Illinois Pulsar-based Optical INTerconnect (iPOINT) input-buffered Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) testbed. Input queuing (IQ) ATM switches are well suited to meet the requirements of current and future ultra-broadband ATM networks. The IQ structure imposes minimum memory bandwidth requirements for cell buffering, tolerates bursty traffic, and utilizes memory efficiently for multicast traffic. The lack of efficient cell queuing and scheduling solutions has been a major barrier to build high-performance, scalable IQ-based ATM switches. This dissertation proposes a new Three-Dimensional Queue (3DQ) and a novel Matrix Unit Cell Scheduler (MUCS) to remove this barrier. 3DQ uses a linked-list architecture based on Synchronous Random Access Memory (SRAM) to combine the individual advantages of per-virtual-circuit (per-VC) queuing, priority queuing, and N-destination queuing. It avoids Head of Line (HOL) blocking and provides per-VC Quality of Service (QoS) enforcement mechanisms. Computer simulation results verify the QoS capabilities of 3DQ. For multicast traffic, 3DQ provides efficient usage of cell buffering memory by storing multicast cells only once. Further, the multicast mechanism of 3DQ prevents a congested destination port from blocking other less- loaded ports. The 3DQ principle has been prototyped in the Illinois Input Queue (iiQueue) module. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices, SRAM modules, and integrated on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), iiQueue can process incoming traffic at 800 Mb/s. Using faster circuit technology, the same design is expected to operate at the OC-48 rate (2.5 Gb/s). MUCS resolves the output contention by evaluating the weight index of each candidate and selecting the heaviest. It achieves near-optimal scheduling and has a very short response time. The algorithm originates from a heuristic strategy that leads to 'socially optimal' solutions, yielding a maximum number of contention-free cells being scheduled. A novel mixed digital-analog circuit has been designed to implement the MUCS core functionality. The MUCS circuit maps the cell scheduling computation to the capacitor charging and discharging procedures that are conducted fully in parallel. The design has a uniform circuit structure, low interconnect counts, and low chip I/O counts. Using 2 ?m CMOS technology, the design operates on a 100 MHz clock and finds a near-optimal solution within a linear processing time. The circuit has been verified at the transistor level by HSPICE simulation. During this research, a five-port IQ-based optoelectronic iPOINT ATM switch has been developed and demonstrated. It has been fully functional with an aggregate throughput of 800 Mb/s. The second-generation IQ-based switch is currently under development. Equipped with iiQueue modules and MUCS module, the new switch system will deliver a multi-gigabit aggregate throughput, eliminate HOL blocking, provide per-VC QoS, and achieve near-100% link bandwidth utilization. Complete documentation of input modules and trunk module for the existing testbed, and complete documentation of 3DQ, iiQueue, and MUCS for the second-generation testbed are given in this dissertation.
Optimal Floating and Queuing Strategies: The Logic of Territory Choice.
Pen; Weissing
2000-04-01
This is a response to a recent article by Hanna Kokko and William J. Sutherland (American Naturalist 152:354-366), who consider evolutionarily stable territory acceptance rules for animals that face the decision between settling on a poor territory now (which is then retained for life) or waiting for better habitat to become available later (taking a chance of dying before reproducing). In contrast to these authors, we argue that the evolutionarily stable threshold quality above which territories are acceptable does depend on whether individuals compete for a single territory (queuing) or for multiple territories (floating) and also on whether access to territories is determined by a hierarchy among waiting individuals. More specifically, we show the following: First, if the choice is between floating and settling, the evolutionarily stable acceptance threshold is such that threshold territories yield an expected lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of 1-µF, the survival probability of a floater. Second, if the choice is between queuing and settling, the evolutionarily stable threshold may correspond to any LRS between 1-µF and unity. Third, the number of nonbreeding individuals in the population is maximized at a threshold of unity. In other words, the evolutionarily stable threshold does not maximize the nonbreeding fraction of the population. We argue that models of territory choice should carefully specify the mechanism of choice because some choice processes (e.g., indiscriminate habitat use above the threshold) do not admit an evolutionarily stable acceptance rule. PMID:10753078
Computer-based theory of strategies
Findler, N.V.
1983-01-01
Some of the objectives and working tools of a new area of study, tentatively called theory of strategies, are described. It is based on the methodology of artificial intelligence, decision theory, utility theory, operations research and digital gaming. The latter refers to computing activity that incorporates model building, simulation and learning programs in conflict situations. The author also discusses three long-term projects which aim at automatically analyzing and synthesizing strategies. 27 references.
Second Evaluation of Job Queuing/Scheduling Software. Phase 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, James Patton; Brickell, Cristy; Chancellor, Marisa (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The recent proliferation of high performance workstations and the increased reliability of parallel systems have illustrated the need for robust job management systems to support parallel applications. To address this issue, NAS compiled a requirements checklist for job queuing/scheduling software. Next, NAS evaluated the leading job management system (JMS) software packages against the checklist. A year has now elapsed since the first comparison was published, and NAS has repeated the evaluation. This report describes this second evaluation, and presents the results of Phase 1: Capabilities versus Requirements. We show that JMS support for running parallel applications on clusters of workstations and parallel systems is still lacking, however, definite progress has been made by the vendors to correct the deficiencies. This report is supplemented by a WWW interface to the data collected, to aid other sites in extracting the evaluation information on specific requirements of interest.
Evaluation of Job Queuing/Scheduling Software: Phase I Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, James Patton
1996-01-01
The recent proliferation of high performance work stations and the increased reliability of parallel systems have illustrated the need for robust job management systems to support parallel applications. To address this issue, the national Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) supercomputer facility compiled a requirements checklist for job queuing/scheduling software. Next, NAS began an evaluation of the leading job management system (JMS) software packages against the checklist. This report describes the three-phase evaluation process, and presents the results of Phase 1: Capabilities versus Requirements. We show that JMS support for running parallel applications on clusters of workstations and parallel systems is still insufficient, even in the leading JMS's. However, by ranking each JMS evaluated against the requirements, we provide data that will be useful to other sites in selecting a JMS.
Quantum field theory based on birefringent modified Maxwell theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreck, M.
2014-04-01
In the current paper the properties of a birefringent Lorentz-violating extension of quantum electrodynamics is considered. The theory results from coupling modified Maxwell theory, which is a CPT-even Lorentz-violating extension of the photon sector, to a Dirac theory of standard spin-1/2 particles. It is then restricted to a special birefringent case with one nonzero Lorentz-violating coefficient. The modified dispersion laws of electromagnetic waves are obtained plus their phase and group velocities are considered. After deriving the photon propagator and the polarization vectors for a special momentum configuration we prove both unitarity at tree level and microcausality for the quantum field theory based on this Lorentz-violating modification. These analytical proofs are done for a spatial momentum with two vanishing components and the proof of unitarity is supported by numerical investigations in case all components are nonvanishing. The upshot is that the theory is well behaved within the framework of our assumptions where there is a possible issue for negative Lorentz-violating coefficients. The paper shall provide a basis for the future analysis of alternative birefringent quantum field theories.
Theory-based causal induction.
Griffiths, Thomas L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B
2009-10-01
Inducing causal relationships from observations is a classic problem in scientific inference, statistics, and machine learning. It is also a central part of human learning, and a task that people perform remarkably well given its notorious difficulties. People can learn causal structure in various settings, from diverse forms of data: observations of the co-occurrence frequencies between causes and effects, interactions between physical objects, or patterns of spatial or temporal coincidence. These different modes of learning are typically thought of as distinct psychological processes and are rarely studied together, but at heart they present the same inductive challenge-identifying the unobservable mechanisms that generate observable relations between variables, objects, or events, given only sparse and limited data. We present a computational-level analysis of this inductive problem and a framework for its solution, which allows us to model all these forms of causal learning in a common language. In this framework, causal induction is the product of domain-general statistical inference guided by domain-specific prior knowledge, in the form of an abstract causal theory. We identify 3 key aspects of abstract prior knowledge-the ontology of entities, properties, and relations that organizes a domain; the plausibility of specific causal relationships; and the functional form of those relationships-and show how they provide the constraints that people need to induce useful causal models from sparse data. PMID:19839681
Game Theory Based Optimization of Security Configuration
Jin Shi; Yin Lu; Li Xie
2007-01-01
How to make a trade off between the security of sys- tems and the usability of users is an important issue in network security configuration. To resolve this problem, an optimization method of security configuration based on game theory is proposed. Firstly, a security configuration model based on non-cooperative game is built which in- fers the optimal strategy of systems
Basing quantum theory on information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnum, Howard
2008-03-01
I consider information-based derivations of the quantum formalism, in a framework encompassing quantum and classical theory and a broad spectrum of theories serving as foils to them. The most ambitious hope for such a derivation is a role analogous to Einstein's development of the dynamics and kinetics of macroscopic bodies, and later of their gravitational interactions, on the basis of simple principles with clear operational meanings and experimental consequences. Short of this, it could still provide a principled understanding of the features of quantum mechanics that account for its greater-than-classical information-processing power, helping guide the search for new quantum algorithms and protocols. I summarize the convex operational framework for theories, and discuss information-processing in theories therein. Results include the fact that information that can be obtained without disturbance is inherently classical, generalized no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems, exponentially secure bit commitment in all non-classical theories without entanglement, properties of theories that allow teleportation, and properties of theories that allow ``remote steering'' of ensembles using entanglement. Joint work with collaborators including Jonathan Barrett, Matthew Leifer, Alexander Wilce, Oscar Dahlsten, and Ben Toner.
A complexity theory based on Boolean algebra
Sven Skyum; Leslie G. Valiant
1985-01-01
A projection of a Boolean function is a function obtained by substituting for each of its variables a variable, the negation of a variable, or a constant. Reducibilities among computational problems under this relation of projection are considered. It is shown that much of what is of everyday relevance in Turing-machine-based complexity theory can be replicated easily and naturally in
Spectrally queued feature selection for robotic visual odometery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pirozzo, David M.; Frederick, Philip A.; Hunt, Shawn; Theisen, Bernard; Del Rose, Mike
2011-01-01
Over the last two decades, research in Unmanned Vehicles (UV) has rapidly progressed and become more influenced by the field of biological sciences. Researchers have been investigating mechanical aspects of varying species to improve UV air and ground intrinsic mobility, they have been exploring the computational aspects of the brain for the development of pattern recognition and decision algorithms and they have been exploring perception capabilities of numerous animals and insects. This paper describes a 3 month exploratory applied research effort performed at the US ARMY Research, Development and Engineering Command's (RDECOM) Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) in the area of biologically inspired spectrally augmented feature selection for robotic visual odometry. The motivation for this applied research was to develop a feasibility analysis on multi-spectrally queued feature selection, with improved temporal stability, for the purposes of visual odometry. The intended application is future semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) control as the richness of data sets required to enable human like behavior in these systems has yet to be defined.
Application of queuing models to electronic toll collection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarrillo, Marguerite L.; Radwan, A. E.; Al-Deek, H. M.
1998-01-01
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) via Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) technology has significantly altered traffic operations during toll collection. In particular, the value of the average processing rate of a lane providing both ETC service as well as a traditional service, fluctuates over the rush hour between the average value of the processing rate of the traditional service and the capacity of the ETC service. This study develops a queuing model to address the changing processing rates for the different mixed lanes. The model is applied to the westbound 9-lane portion of the Holland East Plaza in Orlando, FLorida. Data is evaluated for 6 different rush hours that include 3 different configuration patterns implemented over a period of 3 years. In the first configuration, only the traditional toll collection services are provided. In another configuration, all traditional lanes become mixed to include ETC except for the center lane, which becomes a lane dedicated solely to ETC service. In a final configuration, two lanes become dedicated to ETC service.
A hybrid approach of physical laws and data-driven modeling for estimation: the example of queuing
A hybrid approach of physical laws and data-driven modeling for estimation: the example of queuing laws and data-driven modeling for estimation: the example of queuing networks by Aude Hofleitner Doctor to lists, requires prior specific permission. #12;A hybrid approach of physical laws and data
Modelling pedestrian travel time and the design of facilities: a queuing approach.
Rahman, Khalidur; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Mustafa, Adli; Kabir Chowdhury, Md Ahmed
2013-01-01
Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities. PMID:23691055
The Scope of Usage-Based Theory
Ibbotson, Paul
2013-01-01
Usage-based approaches typically draw on a relatively small set of cognitive processes, such as categorization, analogy, and chunking to explain language structure and function. The goal of this paper is to first review the extent to which the “cognitive commitment” of usage-based theory has had success in explaining empirical findings across domains, including language acquisition, processing, and typology. We then look at the overall strengths and weaknesses of usage-based theory and highlight where there are significant debates. Finally, we draw special attention to a set of culturally generated structural patterns that seem to lie beyond the explanation of core usage-based cognitive processes. In this context we draw a distinction between cognition permitting language structure vs. cognition entailing language structure. As well as addressing the need for greater clarity on the mechanisms of generalizations and the fundamental units of grammar, we suggest that integrating culturally generated structures within existing cognitive models of use will generate tighter predictions about how language works. PMID:23658552
Harmonic-Oscillator-Based Effective Theory
W. C. Haxton
2006-08-06
I describe harmonic-oscillator-based effective theory (HOBET) and explore the extent to which the effects of excluded higher-energy oscillator shells can be represented by a contact-gradient expansion in next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). I find the expansion can be very successful provided the energy dependence of the effective interaction, connected with missing long-wavelength physics associated with low-energy breakup channels, is taken into account. I discuss a modification that removes operator mixing from HOBET, simplifying the task of determining the parameters of an NNLO interaction.
SYNCHRONOUS QUEUING: A CO-ALLOCATION MECHANISM FOR MULTIMEDIA ENABLED GRIDS
Manitoba, University of
to the same task. Section 2 presents the notation and mathematically defines the co-allocation problemSYNCHRONOUS QUEUING: A CO-ALLOCATION MECHANISM FOR MULTIMEDIA ENABLED GRIDS FARAG AZZEDIN allocate the resources including predetermined capacities from the interconnecting networks
RFQ: Redemptive Fair Queuing Ajay Gulati1 and Peter Varman2
RFQ: Redemptive Fair Queuing Ajay Gulati1 and Peter Varman2 1 VMware Inc, Palo Alto, CA 2 Department of ECE and Computer Science Rice University, Houston TX 77005, USA agulati@vmware.com, pjv their contracted service without losing future performance guarantees, if doing so will not penalize well
A Queuing Network Model with Blocking: Analysis of Congested Patient Flows in Mental Health Systems
Smith, Tony E.
for Mental Health Policy Services Research Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University & Information Technology of the University of Maryland and Dr. Aileen Rothbard at the Center for Mental Health;2 A Queuing Network Model with Blocking: Analysis of Congested Patient Flows in Mental Health Systems ABSTRACT
The Distribution of Queuing Network States at Input and Output Instants
Kenneth C. Sevcik; Isi Mitrani
1981-01-01
Queuing networks are studied at selected points in the steady state, namely, at the moments when jobs of a given class arrive into a given node (either from the outside or from other nodes) and at the moments when jobs of a given class leave a given node (either for the outside or for other nodes). The processes defined by
Wu, Changxu (Sean)
Modeling Behavioral and Brain Imaging Phenomena in Transcription Typing with Queuing Networks, 48109 USA Abstract Transcription typing is one of the basic visual-motor control tasks with practical importance. Brain imaging studies (fMRI and PET) have discovered 2 phenomena related to transcription typing
MODELING HUMAN TRANSCRIPTION TYPING WITH QUEUING NETWORK-MODEL HUMAN PROCESSOR (QN-MHP)
Wu, Changxu (Sean)
MODELING HUMAN TRANSCRIPTION TYPING WITH QUEUING NETWORK-MODEL HUMAN PROCESSOR (QN-MHP) Changxu Wu Typing is one of the basic and prevalent activities in human machine interaction. John (1988, 1996 of the 31 behavioral phenomena in transcription typing (Salthouse, 1986, 1987; Gentner, 1983). However
Mahmud, Syed Masud
PerformanceAnalysisof AsynchronousHierarchical-Bus MultiprocessorSystems Using Closed Queuing performance of asynchronous packet switched hierarchi- cal and multiplc-bus multiprocessor systems. The perfor. The performance of a hierarchical bus system has been found to be far better than that of an equivalent multiple-bus
Flocculation control study based on fractal theory*
Chang, Ying; Liu, Qian-jun; Zhang, Jin-song
2005-01-01
A study on flocculation control based on fractal theory was carried out. Optimization test of chemical coagulant dosage confirmed that the fractal dimension could reflect the flocculation degree and settling characteristics of aggregates and the good correlation with the turbidity of settled effluent. So that the fractal dimension can be used as the major parameter for flocculation system control and achieve self-acting adjustment of chemical coagulant dosage. The fractal dimension flocculation control system was used for further study carried out on the effects of various flocculation parameters, among which are the dependency relationship among aggregates fractal dimension, chemical coagulant dosage, and turbidity of settled effluent under the conditions of variable water quality and quantity. And basic experimental data were obtained for establishing the chemical coagulant dosage control model mainly based on aggregates fractal dimension. PMID:16187420
A resource-based theory of sustainable rents
Joseph T. Mahoney
2001-01-01
This paper summarizes and comments on Conner (1991) that contributes to the strategic management area by providing an historical comparison of resource-based theory and five schools of thought within industrial organization economics. Conner (1991) argues that the fundamental distinction between resource-based theory and transaction costs theory is that resource-based theory focuses on the deployment and combination of specific inputs while
A New Glauber Theory based on Multiple Scattering Theory
Masanobu Yahiro; Kosho Minomo; Kazuyuki Ogata; Mitsuji Kawai
2008-09-26
Glauber theory for nucleus-nucleus scattering at high incident energies is reformulated so as to become applicable also for the scattering at intermediate energies. We test validity of the eikonal and adiabatic approximations used in the formulation, and discuss the relation between the present theory and the conventional Glauber calculations with either the empirical nucleon-nucleon profile function or the modified one including the in-medium effect.
Towards a Faith-Based Program Theory: A Reconceptualization of Program Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harden, Mark G.
2006-01-01
A meta-program theory is proposed to overcome the limitations and improve the use of program theory as an approach to faith-based program evaluation. The essentials for understanding religious organizations, their various programs, and faith and spirituality are discussed to support a rationale for developing a faith-based program theory that…
Combining Knowledge Bases Consisting of First Order Theories
Baral, Chitta
Combining Knowledge Bases Consisting of First Order Theories is enco* *ded into a knowledge base. Then the process of combining the knowledge inconsistencies in such knowledge bases. * *We also provide algorithms for implementing these techniques
Doubly Special Relativity theories as different bases of $?$--Poincaré algebra
J. Kowalski-Glikman; S. Nowak
2002-03-05
Doubly Special Relativity (DSR) theory is a theory with two observer-independent scales, of velocity and mass (or length). Such a theory has been proposed by Amelino--Camelia as a kinematic structure which may underline quantum theory of relativity. Recently another theory of this kind has been proposed by Magueijo and Smolin. In this paper we show that both these theories can be understood as particular bases of the $\\kappa$--Poincar\\'e theory based on quantum (Hopf) algebra. This observation makes it possible to construct the space-time sector of Magueijo and Smolin DSR. We also show how this construction can be extended to the whole class of DSRs. It turns out that for all such theories the structure of space-time commutators is the same. This results lead us to the claim that physical predictions of properly defined DSR theory should be independent of the choice of basis.
MODELING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FOR AVIATION SECURITY CARGO INSPECTION QUEUING SYSTEM
Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Rose, Terri A [ORNL; Brumback, Daryl L [ORNL
2009-01-01
Beginning in 2010, the U.S. will require that all cargo loaded in passenger aircraft be inspected. This will require more efficient processing of cargo and will have a significant impact on the inspection protocols and business practices of government agencies and the airlines. In this paper, we conduct performance evaluation study for an aviation security cargo inspection queuing system for material flow and accountability. The overall performance of the aviation security cargo inspection system is computed, analyzed, and optimized for the different system dynamics. Various performance measures are considered such as system capacity, residual capacity, and throughput. These metrics are performance indicators of the system s ability to service current needs and response capacity to additional requests. The increased physical understanding resulting from execution of the queuing model utilizing these vetted performance measures will reduce the overall cost and shipping delays associated with the new inspection requirements.
Discrete-time Queuing Analysis of Opportunistic Spectrum Access: Single User Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin-long; Xu, Yu-hua; Gao, Zhan; Wu, Qi-hui
2011-11-01
This article studies the discrete-time queuing dynamics of opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) systems, in which the secondary user seeks spectrum vacancies between bursty transmissions of the primary user to communicate. Since spectrum sensing and data transmission can not be performed simultaneously, the secondary user employs a sensing-then-transmission strategy to detect the presence of the primary user before accessing the licensed channel. Consequently, the transmission of the secondary user is periodically suspended for spectrum sensing. To capture the discontinuous transmission nature of the secondary user, we introduce a discrete-time queuing subjected to bursty preemption to describe the behavior of the secondary user. Specifically, we derive some important metrics of the secondary user, including secondary spectrum utilization ratio, buffer length, packet delay and packet dropping ratio. Finally, simulation results validate the proposed theoretical model and reveal that the theoretical results fit the simulated results well.
Theory Based Approaches to Learning. Implications for Adult Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Edward V.
This paper presents a codification of theory-based approaches that are applicable to adult learning situations. It also lists some general guidelines that can be used when selecting a particular approach or theory as a basis for planning instruction. Adult education's emphasis on practicality and the relationship between theory and practice is…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, Prasun; Saha Misra, Iti
2014-10-01
Nowadays, due to increased demand for using the Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks in a satisfactory manner a promised Quality of Service (QoS) is required to manage the seamless transmission of the heterogeneous handoff calls. To this end, this paper proposes an improved Call Admission Control (CAC) mechanism with prioritized handoff queuing scheme that aims to reduce dropping probability of handoff calls. Handoff calls are queued when no bandwidth is available even after the allowable bandwidth degradation of the ongoing calls and get admitted into the network when an ongoing call is terminated with a higher priority than the newly originated call. An analytical Markov model for the proposed CAC mechanism is developed to analyze various performance parameters. Analytical results show that our proposed CAC with handoff queuing scheme prioritizes the handoff calls effectively and reduces dropping probability of the system by 78.57% for real-time traffic without degrading the number of failed new call attempts. This results in the increased bandwidth utilization of the network.
Feature-Based Binding and Phase Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antonenko, Andrei
2012-01-01
Current theories of binding cannot provide a uniform account for many facts associated with the distribution of anaphors, such as long-distance binding effects and the subject-orientation of monomorphemic anaphors. Further, traditional binding theory is incompatible with minimalist assumptions. In this dissertation I propose an analysis of…
Surface coding based on Morse theory
Yoshihisa Shinagawa; Tosiyasu L. Kunii; Yannick L. Kergosien
1991-01-01
Coding system requirements are briefly discussed. Classical Morse theory, which was primarily motivated by the calculus of variations, is reviewed. The limits of the theory are examined, and an extension that enables 3-D surfaces to be accurately reconstructed from cross sections is presented. The resulting coding works interactively with a range of surface reconstruction systems. The prototype coding system is
Mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity— I. Theory
H. Gao; Y. Huang; W. D. Nix; J. W. Hutchinson
1999-01-01
A mechanism-based theory of strain gradient plasticity (MSG) is proposed based on a multiscale framework linking the microscale notion of statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocations to the mesoscale notion of plastic strain and strain gradient. This theory is motivated by our recent analysis of indentation experiments which strongly suggest a linear dependence of the square of plastic flow stress
Continuing Bonds in Bereavement: An Attachment Theory Based Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, Nigel P.; Gao, Beryl; Paderna, Lisa
2005-01-01
An attachment theory based perspective on the continuing bond to the deceased (CB) is proposed. The value of attachment theory in specifying the normative course of CB expression and in identifying adaptive versus maladaptive variants of CB expression based on their deviation from this normative course is outlined. The role of individual…
Bull, Susan
THEORY-BASED SUPPORT FOR MOBILE LANGUAGE LEARNING: NOTICING AND RECORDING Theory-based Support for Mobile Language Learning: Noticing and Recording doi:10.3991/ijim.v3i2.740 A. Kukulska-Hulme1 and S. Bull, United Kingdom Abstract--This paper considers the issue of 'noticing' in second language acquisition
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
...2013-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
...2012-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
...2011-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
...2014-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...2010-04-01 false Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds? 661...PROGRAM § 661.43 Can other sources of funds be used to finance a queued project in advance of receipt of IRRBP funds?...
COMBINING KNOWLEDGE BASES CONSISTING OF FIRST-ORDER THEORIES
Kraus, Sarit
COMBINING KNOWLEDGE BASES CONSISTING OF FIRST-ORDER THEORIES CHITTA BARAL,SARITKRAUS, JACKMINKER expert is encoded into a knowledge base. Then the process of combining the knowledge of these different bases. We also provide algorithms for implementing these techniques. Key words: knowledge bases, first
Theory of fracture mechanics based upon plasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, J. D.
1976-01-01
A theory of fracture mechanics is formulated on the foundation of continuum mechanics. Fracture surface is introduced as an unknown quantity and is incorporated into boundary and initial conditions. Surface energy is included in the global form of energy conservation law and the dissipative mechanism is formulated into constitutive equations which indicate the thermodynamic irreversibility and the irreversibility of fracture process as well.
Confining Effective Theories Based on Instantons and Merons
F. Lenz; J. W. Negele; M. Thies
2007-08-13
An effective theory based on ensembles of either regular gauge instantons or merons is shown to produce confinement in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. When the scale is set by the string tension, the action density, topological susceptibility and low-lying glueball spectrum are similar to those arising in lattice QCD. The physical mechanism producing confinement is explained, and a number of analytical insights into the effective theory are presented.
Current algebra based effective chiral theory of mesons and a new EW theory
Bing An Li
2005-09-08
A current algebra based effective chiral theory of pseudoscalar, vector, axial-vector mesons is reviewed. A new mechanism generating the masses and guage fixing terms of gauge boson is revealed from this effective theory. A EW theory without Higgs is proposed. The masses and gauge fixing terms of W and Z are dynamically generated. Three heavy scalar fields are dynamically generated too. They are ghosts.
Supersonic Flutter Analysis Based on a Local Piston Theory
Liu, Feng
Supersonic Flutter Analysis Based on a Local Piston Theory Wei-Wei Zhang, Zheng-Yin Ye, and Chen-piston theory is presented for the prediction of inviscid unsteady pressure loads at supersonic and hypersonic used extensively in supersonic and hypersonic aeroelasticity. Its ease of application and acceptable
Theory-Based Approaches to the Concept of Life
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
El-Hani, Charbel Nino
2008-01-01
In this paper, I argue that characterisations of life through lists of properties have several shortcomings and should be replaced by theory-based accounts that explain the coexistence of a set of properties in living beings. The concept of life should acquire its meaning from its relationships with other concepts inside a theory. I illustrate…
Toward a Theory-Based Approach to Instructional Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merrill, M. David
Instructional development should be based on theory rather than raw empiricism. The dimensions and possible form of an instructional theory are outlined in three premises. It was presumed that a limited set of behavior categories exist and that all behaviors can be calssed into one or more of these categories. It was also presumed that for each…
Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Bayesian Theory
Desmarais, Michel C.
personalized instruction at reasonable cost. With a personalized study plan designed by an e-learning systemMultidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Bayesian Theory Abstract - Effective and practical basis for performing skills assessment, of which Item Response Theory (IRT) is the best recognized
Ontology-Based Data Access: From Theory to Practice
Calvanese, Diego
Ontology-Based Data Access: From Theory to Practice Diego Calvanese KRDB Research Centre-DBMS architecture: Data Source Application Data Source Data Source Application Application Ideal architecture based on a DBMS: Application DBMS Application Application Diego Calvanese (FUB) Ontology-Based Data Access: From
Aviation security cargo inspection queuing simulation model for material flow and accountability
Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Rose, Terri A [ORNL; Brumback, Daryl L [ORNL
2009-01-01
Beginning in 2010, the U.S. will require that all cargo loaded in passenger aircraft be inspected. This will require more efficient processing of cargo and will have a significant impact on the inspection protocols and business practices of government agencies and the airlines. In this paper, we develop an aviation security cargo inspection queuing simulation model for material flow and accountability that will allow cargo managers to conduct impact studies of current and proposed business practices as they relate to inspection procedures, material flow, and accountability.
Unifying ecology and macroevolution with individual-based theory
Rosindell, James; Harmon, Luke J; Etienne, Rampal S
2015-01-01
A contemporary goal in both ecology and evolutionary biology is to develop theory that transcends the boundary between the two disciplines, to understand phenomena that cannot be explained by either field in isolation. This is challenging because macroevolution typically uses lineage-based models, whereas ecology often focuses on individual organisms. Here, we develop a new parsimonious individual-based theory by adding mild selection to the neutral theory of biodiversity. We show that this model generates realistic phylogenies showing a slowdown in diversification and also improves on the ecological predictions of neutral theory by explaining the occurrence of very common species. Moreover, we find the distribution of individual fitness changes over time, with average fitness increasing at a pace that depends positively on community size. Consequently, large communities tend to produce fitter species than smaller communities. These findings have broad implications beyond biodiversity theory, potentially impacting, for example, invasion biology and paleontology. PMID:25818618
A theory-based computer training program.
Messmer, P R; Kurtyka, D; Kelley, C P
1992-01-01
Using Kolb's learning theory resulted in an effective method of implementing a computer training program. The variety of teaching strategies provided an environment for nurses and other health care providers with different learning styles to understand and use the computer system successfully. The comprehensive training program was critical to the successful conversion to a new computer system in this large public teaching hospital. This project reinforces the need for nursing education and research departments to use teaching strategies that accommodate a variety of learning styles in a heterogenous group. The results of this project suggest one approach to stimulate adult learning and facilitate an effective learning environment. Nurses and other computer users have demonstrated effectiveness of this training program through successful activation of the new computer system. PMID:1613605
Mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity— I. Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, H.; Huang, Y.; Nix, W. D.; Hutchinson, J. W.
1999-04-01
A mechanism-based theory of strain gradient plasticity (MSG) is proposed based on a multiscale framework linking the microscale notion of statistically stored and geometrically necessary dislocations to the mesoscale notion of plastic strain and strain gradient. This theory is motivated by our recent analysis of indentation experiments which strongly suggest a linear dependence of the square of plastic flow stress on strain gradient. While such linear dependence is predicted by the Taylor hardening model relating the flow stress to dislocation density, existing theories of strain gradient plasticity have failed to explain such behavior. We believe that a mesoscale theory of plasticity should not only be based on stress-strain behavior obtained from macroscopic mechanical tests, but should also draw information from micromechanical, gradient-dominant tests such as micro-indentation or nano-indentation. According to this viewpoint, we explore an alternative formulation of strain gradient plasticity in which the Taylor model is adopted as a founding principle. We distinguish the microscale at which dislocation interaction is considered from the mesoscale at which the plasticity theory is formulated. On the microscale, we assume that higher order stresses do not exist, that the square of flow stress increases linearly with the density of geometrically necessary dislocations, strictly following the Taylor model, and that the plastic flow retains the associative structure of conventional plasticity. On the mesoscale, the constitutive equations are constructed by averaging microscale plasticity laws over a representative cell. An expression for the effective strain gradient is obtained by considering models of geometrically necessary dislocations associated with bending, torsion and 2-D axisymmetric void growth. The new theory differs from all existing phenomenological theories in its mechanism-based guiding principles, although the mathematical structure is quite similar to the theory proposed by Fleck and Hutchinson. A detailed analysis of the new theory is presented in Part II of this paper.
Ground reaction curve based upon block theory
Yow, J.L. Jr.; Goodman, R.E.
1985-09-01
Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender.
Theory of Model-Based Geophysical Survey and Experimental Design
1 Theory of Model-Based Geophysical Survey and Experimental Design Part B Nonlinear Problems Design (SED a field of statistics) within which model- based survey and experimental design problems Parts A and B this tutorial provides a theoretical framework from the field of Statistical Experimental
Toward a Compositional Theory of Sensor-Based Robotic Systems
Bobadilla, Leonardo
Toward a Compositional Theory of Sensor-Based Robotic Systems Leonardo Bobadilla, Oscar Sanchez, lavalle}@uiuc.edu INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION Sensor-based robotic systems hold the promise to make broad, agriculture, secu- rity. They perform tasks such as tracking, counting, moni- toring, pursuit
Bertini, Robert L.
with the conduct and completion of this proposal, data collection and associated activity. 7. Deliverables o ExcelProposal for 2007 ITE Data Collection Projects Type of Project: Special Parking, Trip, and Queuing Data Collection Downtown TOD Data Collection Trip and Parking Generation 1. Data Collection Proposal
Hamdi, Mounir
Abstract--High-speed routers rely on well-designed packet buffers that support multiple queuing, large capacity and short response times. Some researchers suggested a combined SRAM/DRAM hierarchical buffer architecture to meet these challenges. However, both the SRAM and DRAM need to maintain a large
A Scalable Cloud-based Queueing Service with Improved Consistency Levels
Kim, Minkyong
Kim, Hui Lei IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 19 Skyline Drive, Hawthorne, NY 10532 {chenhan, fanye continues to gain traction, a number of vendors currently operate cloud-based shared queuing services
Combined Field Integral Equation Based Theory of Characteristic Mode
Qi I. Dai; Qin S. Liu; Hui Gan; Weng Cho Chew
2015-03-04
Conventional electric field integral equation based theory is susceptible to the spurious internal resonance problem when the characteristic modes of closed perfectly conducting objects are computed iteratively. In this paper, we present a combined field integral equation based theory to remove the difficulty of internal resonances in characteristic mode analysis. The electric and magnetic field integral operators are shown to share a common set of non-trivial characteristic pairs (values and modes), leading to a generalized eigenvalue problem which is immune to the internal resonance corruption. Numerical results are presented to validate the proposed formulation. This work may offer efficient solutions to characteristic mode analysis which involves electrically large closed surfaces.
Rock mechanics modeling based on soft granulation theory
Owladeghaffari, H
2008-01-01
This paper describes application of information granulation theory, on the design of rock engineering flowcharts. Firstly, an overall flowchart, based on information granulation theory has been highlighted. Information granulation theory, in crisp (non-fuzzy) or fuzzy format, can take into account engineering experiences (especially in fuzzy shape-incomplete information or superfluous), or engineering judgments, in each step of designing procedure, while the suitable instruments modeling are employed. In this manner and to extension of soft modeling instruments, using three combinations of Self Organizing Map (SOM), Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (NFIS), and Rough Set Theory (RST) crisp and fuzzy granules, from monitored data sets are obtained. The main underlined core of our algorithms are balancing of crisp(rough or non-fuzzy) granules and sub fuzzy granules, within non fuzzy information (initial granulation) upon the open-close iterations. Using different criteria on balancing best granules (information pock...
IOE 616 Queueing Theory Fall, 2002 Instructor: Professor Robert L. Smith
Smith, Robert L.
IOE 616 Queueing Theory Fall, 2002 Instructor: Professor Robert L. Smith Department of Industrial on the theoretical foundations, models and techniques of queueing theory. Elementary through advanced queueing Gail, Queuing Systems: Problems and Solutions, Wiley Interscience, NY, 1996. Sheldon Ross, Applied
Improved virtual queuing and dynamic EPD techniques for TCP over ATM
Wu, Y.; Siu, K.Y.; Ren, W.
1998-11-01
It is known that TCP throughput can degrade significantly over UBR service in a congested ATM network, and the early packet discard (EPD) technique has been proposed to improve the performance. However, recent studies show that EPD cannot ensure fairness among competing VCs in a congested network, but the degree of fairness can be improved using various forms of fair buffer allocation techniques. The authors propose an improved scheme that utilizes only a single shared FIFO queue for all VCs and admits simple implementation for high speed ATM networks. The scheme achieves nearly perfect fairness and throughput among multiple TCP connections, comparable to the expensive per-VC queuing technique. Analytical and simulation results are presented to show the validity of this new scheme and significant improvement in performance as compared with existing fair buffer allocation techniques for TCP over ATM.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Long, Dou; Lee, David; Johnson, Jesse; Gaier, Eric; Kostiuk, Peter
1999-01-01
This report describes an integrated model of air traffic management (ATM) tools under development in two National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs -Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) and Advanced Air Transport Technologies (AATT). The model is made by adjusting parameters of LMINET, a queuing network model of the National Airspace System (NAS), which the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) developed for NASA. Operating LMINET with models of various combinations of TAP and AATT will give quantitative information about the effects of the tools on operations of the NAS. The costs of delays under different scenarios are calculated. An extension of Air Carrier Investment Model (ACIM) under ASAC developed by the Institute for NASA maps the technologies' impacts on NASA operations into cross-comparable benefits estimates for technologies and sets of technologies.
Theory-Based Considerations Influence the Interpretation of Generic Sentences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cimpian, Andrei; Gelman, Susan A.; Brandone, Amanda C.
2010-01-01
Under what circumstances do people agree that a kind-referring generic sentence (e.g., "Swans are beautiful") is true? We hypothesised that theory-based considerations are sufficient, independently of prevalence/frequency information, to lead to acceptance of a generic statement. To provide evidence for this general point, we focused on…
Electrician Theories and Electronics Technique Curriculum Reform Based on CDIO
Qun Yu; Junhui Huang; Jian Qin
2011-01-01
Practice teaching is an important progress of training talent in engineering course and education. Based on the concept interpretation of CDIO model, the Electrician Theories and the Electronics Technique curriculum model with higher flexibility and location is put forward. Aiming at some problems, such as the course content are miscellaneous and numerous but class period is few , and so
Bases for spin systems and qudits from angular momentum theory
Maurice R. Kibler
2008-10-24
Spin bases of relevance for quantum systems with cyclic symmetry as well as for quantum information and quantum computation are constructed from the theory of angular momentum. This approach is connected to the use of generalized Pauli matrices (in dimension d) arising from a polar decomposition of the group SU(2). Numerous examples are given for d=2, 3 and 4.
Quantum-Based Theories of Condensed Matter Emily A. Carter
Simons, Jack
and energetics Metals, ceramics, semiconductors, zeolites, etc. Reaction pathways and transition states Materials & Spin-Dependent Pseudopotential Theory for Open-Shell and Magnetic Systems - Materials Applications - Quantum-Based Multiscale Modeling of Materials For talk #1, thanks to: Dr. Vincent Cocula (COMSOL, Inc
Spectrum Investment with Uncertainty Based on Prospect Theory
Huang, Jianwei
Spectrum Investment with Uncertainty Based on Prospect Theory Junlin Yu, Man Hon Cheung, and Jianwei Huang Abstract--We study a secondary wireless operator's spectrum investment problem under is uncertain. We formulate such a hybrid spectrum investment problem as a two-stage optimization prob- lem
A Natural Teaching Method Based on Learning Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smilkstein, Rita
1991-01-01
The natural teaching method is active and student-centered, based on schema and constructivist theories, and informed by research in neuroplasticity. A schema is a mental picture or understanding of something we have learned. Humans can have knowledge only to the degree to which they have constructed schemas from learning experiences and practice.…
Information Security Problem Research Based on Game Theory
Wei Sun; Xiangwei Kong; Dequan He; Xingang You
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to resolve information security problem in the mobile electronic commerce industry chain. We analyze information security based on evolutionary game theory. In this paper, we set up the information security game model with penalty parameter, calculate replicator dynamics, and analyze the evolutionary stable strategy of the game model. The result reveals that reducing the
A Privacy Data Release Method Based on Game Theory
Yi Ren; Zhiting Xiao
2010-01-01
The current privacy-preserving researches focus on the privacy release control method. However, the current release control methods only consider the protection of privacy without taking the usability of privacy into account. In this paper, a release method based on game theory is proposed to ensure both the protection and the usability of privacy.
RAMANUJAN'S THEORIES OF ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS TO ALTERNATIVE BASES
Garvan, Frank
RAMANUJAN'S THEORIES OF ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS TO ALTERNATIVE BASES Bruce C. Berndt, S. Bhargava, and Frank G. Garvan Contents 1. Introduction 2. Ramanujan's Cubic Transformation, the Borweins' Cubic Theta Hypergeometric Transformations 13. Concluding Remarks 1. Introduction In his famous paper [Ramanujan1
Chemical Organization Theory as a Theoretical Base for Chemical Computing
Dittrich, Peter
Chemical Organization Theory as a Theoretical Base for Chemical Computing NAOKI MATSUMARU, FLORIAN-07743 Jena, Germany http://www.minet.uni-jena.de/csb/ Submitted 14 November 2005 In chemical computing- gramming chemical systems a theoretical method to cope with that emergent behavior is desired
ERP Implementation Based on Risk Management Theory: Empirical Validation
Guang-hui Chen; Yun-xiu Sai; Juang Zhang
2009-01-01
The study is to empirically explore the enterprise resources planning (ERP) implementation strategies based on risk management theory. Five risks are proposed, namely: system risk, implementation risk, change risk, organization risk, staff risk after widely literature review. A survey is developed to collected data from ERP suppliers and firms in Xi'an to test the proposed model. The results from our
A Memory-Based Theory of Verbal Cognition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dennis, Simon
2005-01-01
The syntagmatic paradigmatic model is a distributed, memory-based account of verbal processing. Built on a Bayesian interpretation of string edit theory, it characterizes the control of verbal cognition as the retrieval of sets of syntagmatic and paradigmatic constraints from sequential and relational long-term memory and the resolution of these…
What Gets Recycled: An Information Theory Based Model for
Gutowski, Timothy
What Gets Recycled: An Information Theory Based Model for Product Recycling J E F F R E Y B . D A H focuses on developing a concise representation of the material recycling potential for products at end for the two different applications. Cost estimates for product recycling systems are developed using Shannon
Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Renkl, Alexander
2014-01-01
Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from…
Voxel-based Surface Area Estimation: From Theory to Practice
Kiryati, Nahum
Voxel-based Surface Area Estimation: From Theory to Practice G. Windreich N. Kiryati Department of voxels. How can one estimate the (original, continuous) area of a region of interest on the surface, the surface area of a digital voxel world is generally very different than the area of the underlying
Crime Location Prediction Based on the Maximum-Likelihood Theory
Su Mingche; Li Hanyu; Qin Yiming; Zhang Xiaohang
\\u000a In this paper, we are required to construct models to predict the offender’s location. Initially, we take a rough anchor point\\u000a locating based on psychological analysis of offenders. Then we construct a mathematical model based on the maximum-likelihood\\u000a theory to make accurate predictions about the anchor point and next crime locations. Then we choose an actual crime cases\\u000a to test
Qualitative model-based diagnosis using possibility theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joslyn, Cliff
1994-01-01
The potential for the use of possibility in the qualitative model-based diagnosis of spacecraft systems is described. The first sections of the paper briefly introduce the Model-Based Diagnostic (MBD) approach to spacecraft fault diagnosis; Qualitative Modeling (QM) methodologies; and the concepts of possibilistic modeling in the context of Generalized Information Theory (GIT). Then the necessary conditions for the applicability of possibilistic methods to qualitative MBD, and a number of potential directions for such an application, are described.
An Integrated Model of Patient and Staff Satisfaction Using Queuing Theory
Komashie, Alexander; Mousavi, Ali; Clarkson, P. John; Young, Terry
2015-02-06
and Peterborough NHS Foun- dation Trust. We also give special thanks to the following persons for their various contributions to this work: Justin Gore for being a co-supervisor of the project; Professors Lorraine De Souza of Brunel University and Janet Smart...
Modeling the emergency cardiac in-patient flow: an application of queuing theory.
de Bruin, Arnoud M; van Rossum, A C; Visser, M C; Koole, G M
2007-06-01
This study investigates the bottlenecks in the emergency care chain of cardiac in-patient flow. The primary goal is to determine the optimal bed allocation over the care chain given a maximum number of refused admissions. Another objective is to provide deeper insight in the relation between natural variation in arrivals and length of stay and occupancy rates. The strong focus on raising occupancy rates of hospital management is unrealistic and counterproductive. Economies of scale cannot be neglected. An important result is that refused admissions at the First Cardiac Aid (FCA) are primarily caused by unavailability of beds downstream the care chain. Both variability in LOS and fluctuations in arrivals result in large workload variations. Techniques from operations research were successfully used to describe the complexity and dynamics of emergency in-patient flow. PMID:17608054
costs due to added travel time, wasted fuel2 and increased traffic accidents [33]. An accurate, reliable. Historically, the design of highway4 traffic monitoring systems relied mostly on dedicated sensing flow models7 developed in the literature [26, 31, 12]. However, for the secondary network or highways
Optimization of queuing theory wait time through multi-skilled worker assignments
A. J. Brown; F. Badurdeen
2011-01-01
Operator allocation is a key aspect of manufacturing with both direct and indirect implications on system performance. Resource capacity must be managed carefully while still considering human factors like probability of operator error, job satisfaction, and worker (and skill) retention. In many cases human resources are flexible in their ability to handle various types of jobs, and this condition is
A. Raviv
1995-01-01
A major concern of management in the ultra expensive environment of semiconductor fabs and test floors is optimal utilization of equipment. Proper staffing of clean room operators and maintenance technicians in the manufacturing cells and clusters plays a major role in maximizing equipment utilization and overall throughput. This paper is about a more scientific and pro-active approach to the staffing
Ayatollah Karamouzian; Ebrahim Teimoury; Mohammad Modarres
2011-01-01
This paper deals with decision making in a remanufacturing facility where returned products arrive according to a Poisson\\u000a process. Arrivals have different routings among the facility stations since they have different defects and need different\\u000a operations. A returned product is either accepted for remanufacturing or sold at a salvage value without working on it in\\u000a order to reduce congestion. The
Evidence for an expectancy-based theory of avoidance behaviour.
Declercq, Mieke; De Houwer, Jan; Baeyens, Frank
2008-01-01
In most studies on avoidance learning, participants receive an aversive unconditioned stimulus after a warning signal is presented, unless the participant performs a particular response. Lovibond (2006) recently proposed a cognitive theory of avoidance learning, according to which avoidance behaviour is a function of both Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. In line with this theory, we found that avoidance behaviour was based on an integration of acquired knowledge about, on the one hand, the relation between stimuli and, on the other hand, the relation between behaviour and stimuli. PMID:18609382
Theory-based Bayesian models of inductive learning and reasoning.
Tenenbaum, Joshua B; Griffiths, Thomas L; Kemp, Charles
2006-07-01
Inductive inference allows humans to make powerful generalizations from sparse data when learning about word meanings, unobserved properties, causal relationships, and many other aspects of the world. Traditional accounts of induction emphasize either the power of statistical learning, or the importance of strong constraints from structured domain knowledge, intuitive theories or schemas. We argue that both components are necessary to explain the nature, use and acquisition of human knowledge, and we introduce a theory-based Bayesian framework for modeling inductive learning and reasoning as statistical inferences over structured knowledge representations. PMID:16797219
Evolutionary game theory using agent-based methods
Adami, Christoph; Hintze, Arend
2014-01-01
Evolutionary game theory is a successful mathematical framework geared towards understanding the selective pressures that affect the evolution of the strategies of agents engaged in interactions with potential conflicts. While a mathematical treatment of the costs and benefits of decisions can predict the optimal strategy in simple settings, more realistic situations (finite populations, non-vanishing mutations rates, communication between agents, and spatial interactions) require agent-based methods where each agent is modeled as an individual, carries its own genes that determine its decisions, and where the evolutionary outcome can only be ascertained by evolving the population of agents forward in time. Here we discuss the use of agent-based methods in evolutionary game theory and contrast standard results to those obtainable by a mathematical treatment. We conclude that agent-based methods can predict evolutionary outcomes where purely mathematical treatments cannot tread, but that mathematics is crucial...
Biophysics of risk aversion based on neurotransmitter receptor theory
Takahashi, Taiki
2011-01-01
Decision under risk and uncertainty has been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and neuroendocrinology of decision-making. This paper demonstrated that the neurotransmitter receptor theory-based value (utility) function can account for human and animal risk-taking behavior. The theory predicts that (i) when dopaminergic neuronal response is efficiently coupled to the formation of ligand-receptor complex, subjects are risk-aversive (irrespective of their satisfaction level) and (ii) when the coupling is inefficient, subjects are risk-seeking at low satisfaction levels, consistent with risk-sensitive foraging theory in ecology. It is further suggested that some anomalies in decision under risk are due to inefficiency of the coupling between dopamine receptor activation and neuronal response. Future directions in the application of the model to studies in neuroeconomics of addiction and neuroendocrine modulation of risk-taking behavior are discussed.
[Brazilian scientific production based on Orem's nursing theory: integrative review].
Raimondo, Maria Lúcia; Fegadoli, Débora; Méier, Marineli Joaquim; Wall, Marilene Loewen; Labronici, Liliana Maria; Raimondo-Ferraz, Maria Isabel
2012-01-01
Integrative review, held in the databases LILACS, SciELO and BDENF from January 2005 to May 2009, aimed to summarize the Brazilian scientific production based on Orem's Nursing Theory. We obtained 23 articles, analyzed by simple descriptive statistics. It was found that 100% of the studies focused on adults. Of this total, 65,22% returned to the chronicle diseases. In 39,15% of the searches, the theory was used in full and in 34,80% one of the constructs. 91,30% of publications aimed to the construction and deployment of the structured and theoretically grounded practice of care. It was concluded that the theory has been used as theoretical and philosophical basis to justify the practice of nursing in a variety of situations in order to emphasize the role of the nurse in the care. PMID:23032347
Infrared small target detection based on Danger Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Jinhui; Yang, Xiao
2009-11-01
To solve the problem that traditional method can't detect the small objects whose local SNR is less than 2 in IR images, a Danger Theory-based model to detect infrared small target is presented in this paper. First, on the analog with immunology, the definition is given, in this paper, to such terms as dangerous signal, antigens, APC, antibodies. Besides, matching rule between antigen and antibody is improved. Prior to training the detection model and detecting the targets, the IR images are processed utilizing adaptive smooth filter to decrease the stochastic noise. Then at the training process, deleting rule, generating rule, crossover rule and the mutation rule are established after a large number of experiments in order to realize immediate convergence and obtain good antibodies. The Danger Theory-based model is built after the training process, and this model can detect the target whose local SNR is only 1.5.
Ensemble method: Community detection based on game theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.
2014-08-01
Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.
Order Formation in Search Task based on Evolutionary Game Theory
Mamoru Saito; Takeshi Hatanaka; Masayuki Fujita
In this paper we consider a search problem for a group of agents to find a target which appears randomly and stays for a fixed time interval. Each agent has two options on search area and chooses either them. For this problem, we propose a probabilistic decision-making model of search strategy based on evolutionary game theory and Win-Stay, Lose-Shift rule.
Gohm, Rolf
Quantum Control: Approach based on Scattering Theory for Non-commutative Markov Chains Theory to problems in the rapidly developing interdisciplinary field of Quantum Control. The proposal between these fields, and to combine them in a new way toward de- veloping a systematic theory of quantum
Theory based ecology (OUP Book Proposal) Page 1 OUP BOOK PROPOSAL
Meszéna, Géza
Theory based ecology (OUP Book Proposal) Page 1 OUP BOOK PROPOSAL Theory based Ecology a Darwinian theory. As a consequence of this recent fashion of scepticism, mathematical models are often considered for the coming generations facing escalating environmental problems. Darwin's evolutionary theory is generally
Uncertainty analysis of groundwater modeling based on information entropy theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, X.; Wu, J.
2013-12-01
Because of groundwater conceptualization uncertainty, multi-model methods are usually used and the corresponding uncertainties are estimated by integrating generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) methods.As for uncertainty assessment, it is crucial to select appropriate theory to define and measure uncertainty. Generally, variance method is traditionally applied to measure the uncertainties of BMA prediction. The total variance of ensemble prediction is decomposed into within-model and between-model variances, which represent theuncertainties fromparameter and conceptual model, respectively. However, variance is not a perfect method for measuring the uncertainty of a probability distribution. Furthermore, the overlapped parameter uncertaintyderived from the combination of multi-model's predictions cannot be appropriatelyrepresented by variance method. A new measuring method based on information entropy theory is developed in this study.The information entropy is ageneral method for measuring the uncertainty of a predictive distribution, and the predictive uncertainty of BMA ensemble prediction is appropriately partitioned by this method. Based on a synthetical groundwater model, variance and information entropy methods are used to assess groundwater modeling uncertainties. The compared results indicate that information entropy method is more informative and authentic for measuring groundwater modeling uncertainty than variance method. Variance method is characterized by clear mechanism, easy computation, and easy understandable assessment result.Information entropy methodstrengths lie inreliable theory foundation and rational derivation to the partition of BMA predictive uncertainty.
Effective contraceptive use: an exploration of theory-based influences.
Peyman, N; Oakley, D
2009-08-01
The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence oral contraceptive (OC) use among women in Iran using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and concept of self-efficacy (SE). The study sample consisted of 360 married OC users, aged 18-49 years recruited at public health centers of Mashhad, 900 km east of Tehran. SE had the strongest association with the intent to use after the clinic visit (r = 0.784) and with actual use (r = 0.452). Family planning self-efficacy combined with TPB variables accounted for 65% of the variance for intent and 27% of the variance in behavior. The results provide support for a theory-based approach to improved family planning care that specifically addresses more effective use. Development and evaluation of culturally appropriate public education and changes in clinical efforts designed to enhance the sense of SE are discussed. PMID:19047649
Quantum Game Theory Based on the Schmidt Decomposition
Tsubasa Ichikawa; Izumi Tsutsui; Taksu Cheon
2013-01-30
We present a novel formulation of quantum game theory based on the Schmidt decomposition, which has the merit that the entanglement of quantum strategies is manifestly quantified. We apply this formulation to 2-player, 2-strategy symmetric games and obtain a complete set of quantum Nash equilibria. Apart from those available with the maximal entanglement, these quantum Nash equilibria are extensions of the Nash equilibria in classical game theory. The phase structure of the equilibria is determined for all values of entanglement, and thereby the possibility of resolving the dilemmas by entanglement in the game of Chicken, the Battle of the Sexes, the Prisoners' Dilemma, and the Stag Hunt, is examined. We find that entanglement transforms these dilemmas with each other but cannot resolve them, except in the Stag Hunt game where the dilemma can be alleviated to a certain degree.
Effects of gauge theory based number scaling on geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benioff, Paul
2013-05-01
Effects of local availability of mathematics (LAM) and space time dependent number scaling on physics and, especially, geometry are described. LAM assumes separate mathematical systems as structures at each space time point. Extension of gauge theories to include freedom of choice of scaling for number structures, and other structures based on numbers, results in a space time dependent scaling factor based on a scalar boson field. Scaling has no effect on comparison of experimental results with one another or with theory computations. With LAM all theory expressions are elements of mathematics at some reference point. Changing the reference point introduces (external) scaling. Theory expressions with integrals or derivatives over space or time include scaling factors (internal scaling) that cannot be removed by reference point change. Line elements and path lengths, as integrals over space and/or time, show the effect of scaling on geometry. In one example, the scaling factor goes to 0 as the time goes to 0, the big bang time. All path lengths, and values of physical quantities, are crushed to 0 as t goes to 0. Other examples have spherically symmetric scaling factors about some point, x. In one type, a black scaling hole, the scaling factor goes to infinity as the distance, d, between any point y and x goes to 0. For scaling white holes, the scaling factor goes to 0 as d goes to 0. For black scaling holes, path lengths from a reference point, z, to y become infinite as y approaches x. For white holes, path lengths approach a value much less than the unscaled distance from z to x.
Improved network convergence and quality of service by strict priority queuing of routing traffic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balandin, Sergey; Heiner, Andreas P.
2002-07-01
During the transient period after a link failure the network cannot guarantee the agreed service levels to user data. This is due to the fact that forwarding tables in the network are inconsistent. Moreover, link states can inadvertently be advertised wrong due to protocol time outs, which may result in persistent route flaps. Reducing the probability of wrongly advertised link states, and the time during which the forwarding tables are inconsistent, is therefore of eminent importance to provide consistent and high level QoS to user data. By queuing routing traffic in a queue with strict priority over all other (data) queues, i.e. assigning the highest priority in a Differentiated Services model, we were able to reduce the probability of routing data loss to almost zero, and reduce flooding times almost to their theoretical limit. The quality of service provided to user traffic was considerable higher than without the proposed modification. The scheme is independent of the routing protocol, and can be used with most differentiated service models. It is compatible with the current OSPF standard, and can be used in conjunction with other improvements in the protocol with similar objectives.
Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.
2014-12-01
Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.
A communication-theory based view on telemedical communication.
Schall, Thomas; Roeckelein, Wolfgang; Mohr, Markus; Kampshoff, Joerg; Lange, Tim; Nerlich, Michael
2003-01-01
Communication theory based analysis sheds new light on the use of health telematics. This analysis of structures in electronic medical communication shows communicative structures with special features. Current and evolving telemedical applications are analyzed. The methodology of communicational theory (focusing on linguistic pragmatics) is used to compare it with its conventional counterpart. The semiotic model, the roles of partners, the respective message and their relation are discussed. Channels, sender, addressee, and other structural roles are analyzed for different types of electronic medical communication. The communicative processes are shown as mutual, rational action towards a common goal. The types of communication/texts are analyzed in general. Furthermore the basic communicative structures of medical education via internet are presented with their special features. The analysis shows that electronic medical communication has special features compared to everyday communication: A third participant role often is involved: the patient. Messages often are addressed to an unspecified partner or to an unspecified partner within a group. Addressing in this case is (at least partially) role-based. Communication and message often directly (rather than indirectly) influence actions of the participants. Communication often is heavily regulated including legal implications like liability, and more. The conclusion from the analysis is that the development of telemedical applications so far did not sufficiently take communicative structures into consideration. Based on these results recommendations for future developments of telemedical applications/services are given. PMID:15537236
Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs.
Govaerts, M J B; Van de Wiel, M W J; Schuwirth, L W T; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Muijtjens, A M M
2013-08-01
Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and person perception, we explored raters' implicit performance theories, use of task-specific performance schemas and the formation of person schemas during WBA. We used think-aloud procedures and verbal protocol analysis to investigate schema-based processing by experienced (N = 18) and inexperienced (N = 16) raters (supervisor-raters in general practice residency training). Qualitative data analysis was used to explore schema content and usage. We quantitatively assessed rater idiosyncrasy in the use of performance schemas and we investigated effects of rater expertise on the use of (task-specific) performance schemas. Raters used different schemas in judging trainee performance. We developed a normative performance theory comprising seventeen inter-related performance dimensions. Levels of rater idiosyncrasy were substantial and unrelated to rater expertise. Experienced raters made significantly more use of task-specific performance schemas compared to inexperienced raters, suggesting more differentiated performance schemas in experienced raters. Most raters started to develop person schemas the moment they began to observe trainee performance. The findings further our understanding of processes underpinning judgment and decision making in WBA. Raters make and justify judgments based on personal theories and performance constructs. Raters' information processing seems to be affected by differences in rater expertise. The results of this study can help to improve rater training, the design of assessment instruments and decision making in WBA. PMID:22592323
Analyzing the Performance of Greedy Maximal Scheduling via Local Pooling and Graph Theory
Chudnovsky, Maria
Analyzing the Performance of Greedy Maximal Scheduling via Local Pooling and Graph Theory Berk Engineering Department of Industrial Engineering and Operations Research Columbia University, New York, NY theoretical methods, we show that in all bipartite graphs (i.e., input-queued switches) of size up to 7 × n
Tuning RED Parameters in Satellite Networks Using Control Theory Mukundan Sridharana
Durresi, Arjan
Tuning RED Parameters in Satellite Networks Using Control Theory Mukundan Sridharana , ArjanS, Congestion control, AQM. 1. INTRODUCTION The rapid globalization of the telecommunications industry is closer to, or even above, maxth. As a result, the average queuing delay in RED is sensitive
Analysis of color gamut for hardcopy based on Neugebauer theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanamori, Katsuhiro; Kotera, Hiroaki
1990-06-01
The gamut of color in digital color printer is discussed with a simple color mixing model based on Neugebauer theory. A colored halftone area is composed of at most 8 colored dots: Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Red, Green, Blue, White, and Black. It is shown that a color gamut and a color-locus change by the 2 colored dot overlay method. Typical color changes in thermal transfer printer were observed experimentally in coincidence with theotretical estimations. The dot allocation of dither matrix causes the significant changes in the hue of red tone and the gamut of bluish colors.
Transportation optimization with fuzzy trapezoidal numbers based on possibility theory.
He, Dayi; Li, Ran; Huang, Qi; Lei, Ping
2014-01-01
In this paper, a parametric method is introduced to solve fuzzy transportation problem. Considering that parameters of transportation problem have uncertainties, this paper develops a generalized fuzzy transportation problem with fuzzy supply, demand and cost. For simplicity, these parameters are assumed to be fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. Based on possibility theory and consistent with decision-makers' subjectiveness and practical requirements, the fuzzy transportation problem is transformed to a crisp linear transportation problem by defuzzifying fuzzy constraints and objectives with application of fractile and modality approach. Finally, a numerical example is provided to exemplify the application of fuzzy transportation programming and to verify the validity of the proposed methods. PMID:25137239
Resource based view: a promising new theory for healthcare organizations
Ferlie, Ewan
2014-01-01
This commentary reviews a recent piece by Burton and Rycroft-Malone on the use of Resource Based View (RBV) in healthcare organizations. It first outlines the core content of their piece. It then discusses their attempts to extend RBV to the analysis of large scale quality improvement efforts in healthcare. Some critique is elaborated. The broader question of why RBV seems to be migrating into healthcare management research is considered. They conclude RBV is a promising new theory for healthcare organizations. PMID:25396211
A model of resurgence based on behavioral momentum theory.
Shahan, Timothy A; Sweeney, Mary M
2011-01-01
Resurgence is the reappearance of an extinguished behavior when an alternative behavior reinforced during extinction is subsequently placed on extinction. Resurgence is of particular interest because it may be a source of relapse to problem behavior following treatments involving alternative reinforcement. In this article we develop a quantitative model of resurgence based on the augmented model of extinction provided by behavioral momentum theory. The model suggests that alternative reinforcement during extinction of a target response acts as both an additional source of disruption during extinction and as a source of reinforcement in the context that increases the future strength of the target response. The model does a good job accounting for existing data in the resurgence literature and makes novel and testable predictions. Thus, the model appears to provide a framework for understanding resurgence and serves to integrate the phenomenon into the existing theoretical account of persistence provided by behavioral momentum theory. In addition, we discuss some potential implications of the model for further development of behavioral momentum theory. PMID:21541118
Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.
Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis
2014-02-01
In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk. PMID:24194413
Feature selection with neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory.
Zeng, Kai; She, Kun; Niu, Xinzheng
2014-01-01
Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT) yield better performance than classical ones. PMID:25276120
Transitional clerkship: an experiential course based on workplace learning theory.
Chittenden, Eva H; Henry, Duncan; Saxena, Varun; Loeser, Helen; O'Sullivan, Patricia S
2009-07-01
Starting clerkships is anxiety provoking for medical students. To ease the transition from preclerkship to clerkship curricula, schools offer classroom-based courses which may not be the best model for preparing learners. Drawing from workplace learning theory, the authors developed a seven-day transitional clerkship (TC) in 2007 at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine in which students spent half of the course in the hospital, learning routines and logistics of the wards along with their roles and responsibilities as members of ward teams. Twice, they admitted and followed a patient into the next day as part of a shadow team that had no patient-care responsibilities. Dedicated preceptors gave feedback on oral presentations and patient write-ups. Satisfaction with the TC was higher than with the previous year's classroom-based course. TC students felt clearer about their roles and more confident in their abilities as third-year students compared with previous students. TC students continued to rate the transitional course highly after their first clinical rotation. Preceptors were enthusiastic about the course and expressed willingness to commit to future TC preceptorships. The transitional course models an approach to translating workplace learning theory into practice and demonstrates improved satisfaction, better understanding of roles, and increased confidence among new third-year students. PMID:19550179
Plato: A localised orbital based density functional theory code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kenny, S. D.; Horsfield, A. P.
2009-12-01
The Plato package allows both orthogonal and non-orthogonal tight-binding as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations to be performed within a single framework. The package also provides extensive tools for analysing the results of simulations as well as a number of tools for creating input files. The code is based upon the ideas first discussed in Sankey and Niklewski (1989) [1] with extensions to allow high-quality DFT calculations to be performed. DFT calculations can utilise either the local density approximation or the generalised gradient approximation. Basis sets from minimal basis through to ones containing multiple radial functions per angular momenta and polarisation functions can be used. Illustrations of how the package has been employed are given along with instructions for its utilisation. Program summaryProgram title: Plato Catalogue identifier: AEFC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 219 974 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 821 493 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C/MPI and PERL Computer: Apple Macintosh, PC, Unix machines Operating system: Unix, Linux and Mac OS X Has the code been vectorised or parallelised?: Yes, up to 256 processors tested RAM: Up to 2 Gbytes per processor Classification: 7.3 External routines: LAPACK, BLAS and optionally ScaLAPACK, BLACS, PBLAS, FFTW Nature of problem: Density functional theory study of electronic structure and total energies of molecules, crystals and surfaces. Solution method: Localised orbital based density functional theory. Restrictions: Tight-binding and density functional theory only, no exact exchange. Unusual features: Both atom centred and uniform meshes available. Can deal with arbitrary angular momenta for orbitals, whilst still retaining Slater-Koster tables for accuracy. Running time: Test cases will run in a few minutes, large calculations may run for several days.
Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier
2014-01-01
Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA. PMID:25061839
Tuset-Peiro, Pere; Vazquez-Gallego, Francisco; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Alonso, Luis; Vilajosana, Xavier
2014-01-01
Data collection is a key scenario for the Internet of Things because it enables gathering sensor data from distributed nodes that use low-power and long-range wireless technologies to communicate in a single-hop approach. In this kind of scenario, the network is composed of one coordinator that covers a particular area and a large number of nodes, typically hundreds or thousands, that transmit data to the coordinator upon request. Considering this scenario, in this paper we experimentally validate the energy consumption of two Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols, Frame Slotted ALOHA (FSA) and Distributed Queuing (DQ). We model both protocols as a state machine and conduct experiments to measure the average energy consumption in each state and the average number of times that a node has to be in each state in order to transmit a data packet to the coordinator. The results show that FSA is more energy efficient than DQ if the number of nodes is known a priori because the number of slots per frame can be adjusted accordingly. However, in such scenarios the number of nodes cannot be easily anticipated, leading to additional packet collisions and a higher energy consumption due to retransmissions. Contrarily, DQ does not require to know the number of nodes in advance because it is able to efficiently construct an ad hoc network schedule for each collection round. This kind of a schedule ensures that there are no packet collisions during data transmission, thus leading to an energy consumption reduction above 10% compared to FSA. PMID:25061839
Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
dynamics simulations based on general Hartree- Fock (GHF) theory. The first method involves approximating method. The methods presented in this paper are based on general Hartree-Fock (GHF) theory7 a brief description of GHF theory, the frozen-core method, our method for fit- ting the STO-3G matrix
INTEGRATION OF BOUNDARY FINDING AND REGION BASED SEGMENTATION USING GAME THEORY
Duncan, James S.
INTEGRATION OF BOUNDARY FINDING AND REGION BASED SEGMENTATION USING GAME THEORY AMIT CHAKRABORTY and gradient based boundary finding using game theory in an effort to form a unified approach that is robust at best suboptimal. One of the biggest advantages of using game theory is that it can dealing
Development and evaluation of theory-based diabetes support services.
Guo, Sophie Huey-Ming; Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Chen, Rong-Rong; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chang, Her-Kun
2013-01-01
Technology-enabled support services for diabetes can fulfill patient demand to care for diabetes independently. Patients benefit from such services after greater adoption of the services in healthcare systems. Unfortunately, conventional service development fails to thoroughly understand patient care support, making it difficult to achieve the desired design, and posing substantial challenges in adopting these services. Thus, previously developed services in many cases are not as patients expected, as evidenced by their low acceptance among patients. To solve this problem, adequate strategies must be developed by incorporating theoretical knowledge as a solid foundation in order to improve service design. This study develops technology-enabled diabetes support services based on the self-care theory. A set of self-care service scenarios is also established and combined with theoretical concepts. The developed services consist of a nurse-led consultation service and a mobile application service. Additionally, user acceptance is confirmed by assessing patient perceptions of the diabetes support services in a group of patients with diabetes (N=27). Results of analysis reveal that patients respond favorably toward the services. Patient preference and perceived ease of use attest to their intention to use the services. Greater adoption of the services can be anticipated, owing to a higher levels of preference and higher perceived ease of use. This study demonstrated that the self-care theory can be linked to nursing informatics research and chronic care clinical practices. PMID:22968249
Theory for a gas composition sensor based on acoustic properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Scott; Dain, Yefim; Lueptow, Richard M.
2003-01-01
Sound travelling through a gas propagates at different speeds and its intensity attenuates to different degrees depending upon the composition of the gas. Theoretically, a real-time gaseous composition sensor could be based on measuring the sound speed and the acoustic attenuation. To this end, the speed of sound was modelled using standard relations, and the acoustic attenuation was modelled using the theory for vibrational relaxation of gas molecules. The concept for a gas composition sensor is demonstrated theoretically for nitrogen-methane-water and hydrogen-oxygen-water mixtures. For a three-component gas mixture, the measured sound speed and acoustic attenuation each define separate lines in the composition plane of two of the gases. The intersection of the two lines defines the gas composition. It should also be possible to use the concept for mixtures of more than three components, if the nature of the gas composition is known to some extent.
Intelligent control based on fuzzy logic and neural net theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Chuen-Chien
1991-01-01
In the conception and design of intelligent systems, one promising direction involves the use of fuzzy logic and neural network theory to enhance such systems' capability to learn from experience and adapt to changes in an environment of uncertainty and imprecision. Here, an intelligent control scheme is explored by integrating these multidisciplinary techniques. A self-learning system is proposed as an intelligent controller for dynamical processes, employing a control policy which evolves and improves automatically. One key component of the intelligent system is a fuzzy logic-based system which emulates human decision making behavior. It is shown that the system can solve a fairly difficult control learning problem. Simulation results demonstrate that improved learning performance can be achieved in relation to previously described systems employing bang-bang control. The proposed system is relatively insensitive to variations in the parameters of the system environment.
Magri, Giorgio, 1975-
2009-01-01
Part I of this dissertation proposes an implicature-based theory of individual-level predicates. The idea is that we cannot say '#John is sometimes tall' because the sentence triggers the scalar implicature that the ...
Dynamic Neural-Based Buffer Management for Queuing Systems with Self-Similar Characteristics
Yousefi'zadeh, Homayoun
and fairness measured in terms of individual source packet loss. Complete partitioning (CP) of a buffer been successfully utilized in dynamic allocation of band- width for Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video over increases. Anal- ysis of traffic data from other networks and services such as VBR video [7], ISDN traffic
Stochastic extension of cellular manufacturing systems: a queuing-based analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fardis, Fatemeh; Zandi, Afagh; Ghezavati, Vahidreza
2013-07-01
Clustering parts and machines into part families and machine cells is a major decision in the design of cellular manufacturing systems which is defined as cell formation. This paper presents a non-linear mixed integer programming model to design cellular manufacturing systems which assumes that the arrival rate of parts into cells and machine service rate are stochastic parameters and described by exponential distribution. Uncertain situations may create a queue behind each machine; therefore, we will consider the average waiting time of parts behind each machine in order to have an efficient system. The objective function will minimize summation of idleness cost of machines, sub-contracting cost for exceptional parts, non-utilizing machine cost, and holding cost of parts in the cells. Finally, the linearized model will be solved by the Cplex solver of GAMS, and sensitivity analysis will be performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shojima, Taiki; Ikkai, Yoshitomo; Komoda, Norihisa
An incentive attached peer to peer (P2P) electronic coupon system is proposed in which users forward e-coupons to potential users by providing incentives to those mediators. A service provider needs to acquire distribution history for incentive payment by recording UserIDs (UIDs) in the e-coupons, since this system is intended for pure P2P environment. This causes problems of dishonestly altering distribution history. In order to solve such problems, distribution history is realized in a couple of queues structure. They are the UID queue, and the public key queue. Each element of the UID queue at the initial state consists of index, a secret key, and a digital signature. In recording one's UID, the encrypted UID is enqueued to the UID queue with a new digital signature created by a secret key of the dequeued element, so that each UID cannot be altered. The public key queue provides the functionality of validating digital signatures on mobile devices. This method makes it possible both each UID and sequence of them to be certificated. The availability of the method is evaluated by quantifying risk reduction using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). And it's recognized that the method is better than common encryption methods.
Optimisation of a honeybee-colony's energetics via social learning based on queuing delays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thenius, Ronald; Schmickl, Thomas; Crailsheim, Karl
2008-06-01
Natural selection shaped the foraging-related processes of honeybees in such a way that a colony can react to changing environmental conditions optimally. To investigate this complex dynamic social system, we developed a multi-agent model of the nectar flow inside and outside of a honeybee colony. In a honeybee colony, a temporal caste collects nectar in the environment. These foragers bring their harvest into the colony, where they unload their nectar loads to one or more storer bees. Our model predicts that a cohort of foragers, collecting nectar from a single nectar source, is able to detect changes in quality in other food sources they have never visited, via the nectar processing system of the colony. We identified two novel pathways of forager-to-forager communication. Foragers can gain information about changes in the nectar flow in the environment via changes in their mean waiting time for unloadings and the number of experienced multiple unloadings. This way two distinct groups of foragers that forage on different nectar sources and that never communicate directly can share information via a third cohort of worker bees. We show that this noisy and loosely knotted social network allows a colony to perform collective information processing, so that a single forager has all necessary information available to be able to 'tune' its social behaviour, like dancing or dance-following. This way the net nectar gain of the colony is increased.
Xu, Kun
the performance of the DGALE method. Keywords Gaskinetic theory, Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method1 A multidimensional highorder DGALE method based on gaskinetic theory highorder discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in an arbitrary LagrangianEulerian (ALE) formulation
The use of theory-based nursing practice in the Department of Veterans' Affairs Medical Centers.
Bonamy, C; Schultz, P; Graham, K; Hampton, M
1995-01-01
In this study, the authors surveyed the chief nurses of 152 Veterans' Health Administration Medical Centers to determine which medical centers based their nursing practice on one or more nursing theories or models. Of the 76 medical centers responding, 24 (35%) stated theory-based practice was in use in their institutions. The greatest number (16 of the 24) reported use of Orem's Self-Care Deficit theory or a combination of Orem with other theories. Most of the 24 chief nurses agreed that theory-based practice: 1) improves patient outcomes; 2) maximizes patient health; and 3) provides a consistent approach to care. However, they were less convinced that theory-based practice reduces nursing staff turnover or improves job satisfaction. They also stated that theory-based practice is more important to nursing administrators than to staff nurses. A similar survey of staff nurses is recommended. PMID:7869135
Khalid, Ruzelan; M. Nawawi, Mohd Kamal; Kawsar, Luthful A.; Ghani, Noraida A.; Kamil, Anton A.; Mustafa, Adli
2013-01-01
M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products). However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES) software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed. PMID:23560037
Khalid, Ruzelan; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal M; Kawsar, Luthful A; Ghani, Noraida A; Kamil, Anton A; Mustafa, Adli
2013-01-01
M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products). However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES) software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed. PMID:23560037
The elliptic wing based on the potential theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krienes, Klaus
1941-01-01
This article is intended as a contribution to the theory of the lifting surface. The aerodynamics of the elliptic wing in straight and oblique flow are explored on the basis of potential theory. The foundation of the calculation is the linearized theory of the acceleration potential in which all small quantities of higher order are disregarded.
Evaluating Theory-Based Evaluation: Information, Norms, and Adherence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, W. Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose
2012-01-01
Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social…
Instructional Transaction Theory: Instructional Design Based on Knowledge Objects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Merrill, M. David; And Others
1996-01-01
Instructional Transaction Theory specifies a set of rules for automated instructional design and development. Components include descriptive theories of knowledge and of strategy, and a prescriptive theory of instructional design. Rules include selecting and sequencing knowledge objects, selecting and sequencing instructional transactions,…
Switching theory-based steganographic system for JPEG images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherukuri, Ravindranath C.; Agaian, Sos S.
2007-04-01
Cellular communications constitute a significant portion of the global telecommunications market. Therefore, the need for secured communication over a mobile platform has increased exponentially. Steganography is an art of hiding critical data into an innocuous signal, which provide answers to the above needs. The JPEG is one of commonly used format for storing and transmitting images on the web. In addition, the pictures captured using mobile cameras are in mostly in JPEG format. In this article, we introduce a switching theory based steganographic system for JPEG images which is applicable for mobile and computer platforms. The proposed algorithm uses the fact that energy distribution among the quantized AC coefficients varies from block to block and coefficient to coefficient. Existing approaches are effective with a part of these coefficients but when employed over all the coefficients they show there ineffectiveness. Therefore, we propose an approach that works each set of AC coefficients with different frame work thus enhancing the performance of the approach. The proposed system offers a high capacity and embedding efficiency simultaneously withstanding to simple statistical attacks. In addition, the embedded information could be retrieved without prior knowledge of the cover image. Based on simulation results, the proposed method demonstrates an improved embedding capacity over existing algorithms while maintaining a high embedding efficiency and preserving the statistics of the JPEG image after hiding information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bishop, John
An analysis of the argument that a market imperfection (wage differentials and queuing caused by unions) raises the marginal social product (MSP) of college education above the average before-tax private wage premium (APP) for college (this discrepancy is called a union-Q-nality) focuses on verifying five hypotheses: (1) Workers with identical…
Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method
Nguyen, Kiet A. E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Pachter, Ruth E-mail: ruth.pachter@wpafb.af.mil; Day, Paul N.
2014-06-28
We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.
IMMAN: free software for information theory-based chemometric analysis.
Urias, Ricardo W Pino; Barigye, Stephen J; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; García-Jacas, César R; Valdes-Martiní, José R; Perez-Gimenez, Facundo
2015-05-01
The features and theoretical background of a new and free computational program for chemometric analysis denominated IMMAN (acronym for Information theory-based CheMoMetrics ANalysis) are presented. This is multi-platform software developed in the Java programming language, designed with a remarkably user-friendly graphical interface for the computation of a collection of information-theoretic functions adapted for rank-based unsupervised and supervised feature selection tasks. A total of 20 feature selection parameters are presented, with the unsupervised and supervised frameworks represented by 10 approaches in each case. Several information-theoretic parameters traditionally used as molecular descriptors (MDs) are adapted for use as unsupervised rank-based feature selection methods. On the other hand, a generalization scheme for the previously defined differential Shannon's entropy is discussed, as well as the introduction of Jeffreys information measure for supervised feature selection. Moreover, well-known information-theoretic feature selection parameters, such as information gain, gain ratio, and symmetrical uncertainty are incorporated to the IMMAN software ( http://mobiosd-hub.com/imman-soft/ ), following an equal-interval discretization approach. IMMAN offers data pre-processing functionalities, such as missing values processing, dataset partitioning, and browsing. Moreover, single parameter or ensemble (multi-criteria) ranking options are provided. Consequently, this software is suitable for tasks like dimensionality reduction, feature ranking, as well as comparative diversity analysis of data matrices. Simple examples of applications performed with this program are presented. A comparative study between IMMAN and WEKA feature selection tools using the Arcene dataset was performed, demonstrating similar behavior. In addition, it is revealed that the use of IMMAN unsupervised feature selection methods improves the performance of both IMMAN and WEKA supervised algorithms. Graphic representation for Shannon's distribution of MD calculating software. PMID:25620721
Density functional theory based generalized effective fragment potential method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Kiet A.; Pachter, Ruth; Day, Paul N.
2014-06-01
We present a generalized Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) based effective fragment potential (EFP2-DFT) method for the treatment of solvent effects. Similar to the original Hartree-Fock (HF) based potential with fitted parameters for water (EFP1) and the generalized HF based potential (EFP2-HF), EFP2-DFT includes electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, polarization, and dispersion potentials, which are generated for a chosen DFT functional for a given isolated molecule. The method does not have fitted parameters, except for implicit parameters within a chosen functional and the dispersion correction to the potential. The electrostatic potential is modeled with a multipolar expansion at each atomic center and bond midpoint using Stone's distributed multipolar analysis. The exchange-repulsion potential between two fragments is composed of the overlap and kinetic energy integrals and the nondiagonal KS matrices in the localized molecular orbital basis. The polarization potential is derived from the static molecular polarizability. The dispersion potential includes the intermolecular D3 dispersion correction of Grimme et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 132, 154104 (2010)]. The potential generated from the CAMB3LYP functional has mean unsigned errors (MUEs) with respect to results from coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples with a complete basis set limit (CCSD(T)/CBS) extrapolation, of 1.7, 2.2, 2.0, and 0.5 kcal/mol, for the S22, water-benzene clusters, water clusters, and n-alkane dimers benchmark sets, respectively. The corresponding EFP2-HF errors for the respective benchmarks are 2.41, 3.1, 1.8, and 2.5 kcal/mol. Thus, the new EFP2-DFT-D3 method with the CAMB3LYP functional provides comparable or improved results at lower computational cost and, therefore, extends the range of applicability of EFP2 to larger system sizes.
The Application of Carl Rogers' Person-Centered Learning Theory to Web-Based Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Christopher T.
This paper provides a review of literature that relates research on Carl Rogers' person-centered learning theory to Web-based learning. Based on the review of the literature, a set of criteria is described that can be used to determine how closely a Web-based course matches the different components of Rogers' person-centered learning theory. Using…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Han, Gang; Newell, Jay
2014-01-01
This study explores the adoption of the team-based learning (TBL) method in knowledge-based and theory-oriented journalism and mass communication (J&MC) courses. It first reviews the origin and concept of TBL, the relevant theories, and then introduces the TBL method and implementation, including procedures and assessments, employed in an…
Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M
1999-01-01
Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization. PMID:10350791
Scheduling for indoor visible light communication based on graph theory.
Tao, Yuyang; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Jiaheng; Zhao, Chunming
2015-02-01
Visible light communication (VLC) has drawn much attention in the field of high-rate indoor wireless communication. While most existing works focused on point-to-point VLC technologies, few studies have concerned multiuser VLC, where multiple optical access points (APs) transmit data to multiple user receivers. In such scenarios, inter-user interference constitutes the major factor limiting the system performance. Therefore, a proper scheduling scheme has to be proposed to coordinate the interference and optimize the whole system performance. In this work, we aim to maximize the sum rate of the system while taking into account user fairness by appropriately assigning LED lamps to multiple users. The formulated scheduling problem turns out to be a maximum weighted independent set problem. We then propose a novel and efficient resource allocation method based on graph theory to achieve high sum rates. Moreover, we also introduce proportional fairness into our scheduling scheme to ensure the user fairness. Our proposed scheduling scheme can, with low complexity, achieve more multiplexing gains, higher sum rate, and better fairness than the existing works. PMID:25836136
Semi-supervised community detection based on discrete potential theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Dong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Wenjun; Bai, Hongyu
2014-12-01
In recent studies of the complex network, most of the community detection methods only consider the network topological structure without background information. This leads to a relatively low accuracy. In this paper, a novel semi-supervised community detection algorithm is proposed based on the discrete potential theory. It effectively incorporates individual labels, the labels of corresponding communities, to guide the community detection process for achieving better accuracy. Specifically, a number of vertices with user-defined labels are first identified to act as unit elementary charges which can generate different electrostatic fields. Then, community detection can be translated into a potential transmission problem. By formulating the problem using combinational Dirichlet, labels of those unlabeled vertices can be determined by the labels for which the greatest potential is calculated. Finally, a better community partition can be obtained. Our extensive numerical experiments in both artificial and real networks lead to two key observations: first, individual labels play an important role in community detection; and second, our proposed semi-supervised community detection algorithm outperforms existing counterparts in both accuracy and time complexity, especially for obscure networks.
LSST Telescope Alignment Plan Based on Nodal Aberration Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Schmid, T.; Rolland, J. P.; Thompson, K. P.
2012-04-01
The optical alignment of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is potentially challenging, due to its fast three-mirror optical design and its large 3.5° field of view (FOV). It is highly advantageous to align the three-mirror optical system prior to the integration of the complex science camera on the telescope, which corrects the FOV via three refractive elements and includes the operational wavefront sensors. A telescope alignment method based on nodal aberration theory (NAT) is presented here to address this challenge. Without the science camera installed on the telescope, the on-axis imaging performance of the telescope is diffraction-limited, but the field of view is not corrected. The nodal properties of the three-mirror telescope design have been analyzed and an alignment approach has been developed using the intrinsically linear nodal behavior, which is linked via sensitivities to the misalignment parameters. Since mirror figure errors will exist in any real application, a methodology to introduce primary-mirror figure errors into the analysis has been developed and is also presented.
The Development of an Attribution-Based Theory of Motivation: A History of Ideas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weiner, Bernard
2010-01-01
The history of ideas guiding the development of an attribution-based theory of motivation is presented. These influences include the search for a "grand" theory of motivation (from drive and expectancy/value theory), an attempt to represent how the past may influence the present and the future (as Thorndike accomplished), and the incorporation of…
ITLab: A flexible and user-friendly Information Theory Online-Lab based on Java Technology
Thorsten Hehn; Susan Linke-Wangerow; Johannes B. Huber
Usually, information theory is regarded as being a very difficult subject. Therefore we propose a novel information theory online-lab based on Java technology, which allows participants to conduct easy to advanced experiments helping them to understand the fundamentalconcepts of information theory and thus gain insight in complicated topics. Our approach includes a novel kind of user interface imposing almost no
Learning styles of baccalaureate nursing students and attitudes toward theory-based nursing.
Laschinger, H K; Boss, M K
1989-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate personal and environmental factors related to undergraduate and post-RN nursing students' attitudes toward theory-based nursing from Kolb's experimental learning theory perspective. The study is part of a larger project designed to test aspects of Kolb's theory in the nursing population. Hypotheses about relationships among learning styles, perception of environmental press, experience in nursing, attitudes toward theory-based nursing, preferred nursing theory, and preferred method of learning theory were proposed for investigation. Seventy-six post-RN and 121 upper-level generic baccalaureate nursing students each completed two measures of personal learning style, a measure of perception of environmental press of nursing learning environments, and a nursing theories questionnaire. Learning style and environmental press perceptions were found to be significantly related to attitudes toward theory-based nursing. Concrete learners and subjects who perceived nursing environments to be predominantly concrete were significantly less positive toward theory-based nursing than abstract learners. Experience in nursing was found to be related to perception of environmental press. Learning style was not found to be significantly related to preferred method of learning nursing theories nor to preferred nursing theory for practice. Implications for nursing education are discussed. PMID:2778223
Droplet-based microdialysis—Concept, theory, and design considerations
Chen, Cheng-fu; Drew, Kelly L.
2013-01-01
The capability of continuously sampling the extracellular fluid opens up a wide range of applications of microdialysis in biological, pharmaceutical, and clinical studies. Existing microdialysis, however, faces challenges in sampling analytes with fast clearance and limited diffusivity because sampling resolution is limited by device size. Size reduction in probes and interconnected cannulae is a promising solution to improve temporal and spatial resolution. But the back pressure produced by resistance to laminar flows will be magnified in smaller channels, raising a concern as to whether it is feasible to operate continuous perfusion for miniaturized microdialysis. We demonstrate that a 10-fold smaller channel will exhibit 100-fold larger back pressure in response to the increase in the flow rate to maintain the relative recovery. In order to overcome the foreseen back pressure issue, this paper discusses a new concept using discrete droplets instead of continuous flows to operate dialysis in a miniaturized probe. This conceptual design is referred to as droplet-based digital microdialysis, in which droplets are produced, controlled and advanced within microchannels at a rate that in theory should allow for analytes to equilibrate with the extracellular fluid under no flow conditions. Expecting that a digital droplet design will entirely eliminate back pressure by introducing air between droplets, we numerically compare the equilibration kinematics of droplets to that of continuous flow. Results suggest equilibration of low molecular weight analytes between intermittently stationary droplets and the extracellular fluid in a few seconds. Considerations in design, prototyping, calibration and quantification, and the integration with other devices are suggested. PMID:18814875
Droplet-based microdialysis-Concept, theory, and design considerations.
Chen, Cheng-Fu; Drew, Kelly L
2008-10-31
The capability of continuously sampling the extracellular fluid opens up a wide range of applications of microdialysis in biological, pharmaceutical, and clinical studies. Existing microdialysis, however, faces challenges in sampling analytes with fast clearance and limited diffusivity because sampling resolution is limited by device size. Size reduction in probes and interconnected cannulae is a promising solution to improve temporal and spatial resolution. But the back pressure produced by resistance to laminar flows will be magnified in smaller channels, raising a concern as to whether it is feasible to operate continuous perfusion for miniaturized microdialysis. We demonstrate that a 10-fold smaller channel will exhibit 100-fold larger back pressure in response to the increase in the flow rate to maintain the relative recovery. In order to overcome the foreseen back pressure issue, this paper discusses a new concept using discrete droplets instead of continuous flows to operate dialysis in a miniaturized probe. This conceptual design is referred to as droplet-based digital microdialysis, in which droplets are produced, controlled and advanced within microchannels at a rate that in theory should allow for analytes to equilibrate with the extracellular fluid under no flow conditions. Expecting that a digital droplet design will entirely eliminate back pressure by introducing air between droplets, we numerically compare the equilibration kinematics of droplets to that of continuous flow. Results suggest equilibration of low molecular weight analytes between intermittently stationary droplets and the extracellular fluid in a few seconds. Considerations in design, prototyping, calibration and quantification, and the integration with other devices are suggested. PMID:18814875
Toward A Brain-Based Theory of Beauty
Ishizu, Tomohiro; Zeki, Semir
2011-01-01
We wanted to learn whether activity in the same area(s) of the brain correlate with the experience of beauty derived from different sources. 21 subjects took part in a brain-scanning experiment using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Prior to the experiment, they viewed pictures of paintings and listened to musical excerpts, both of which they rated on a scale of 1–9, with 9 being the most beautiful. This allowed us to select three sets of stimuli–beautiful, indifferent and ugly–which subjects viewed and heard in the scanner, and rated at the end of each presentation. The results of a conjunction analysis of brain activity showed that, of the several areas that were active with each type of stimulus, only one cortical area, located in the medial orbito-frontal cortex (mOFC), was active during the experience of musical and visual beauty, with the activity produced by the experience of beauty derived from either source overlapping almost completely within it. The strength of activation in this part of the mOFC was proportional to the strength of the declared intensity of the experience of beauty. We conclude that, as far as activity in the brain is concerned, there is a faculty of beauty that is not dependent on the modality through which it is conveyed but which can be activated by at least two sources–musical and visual–and probably by other sources as well. This has led us to formulate a brain-based theory of beauty. PMID:21755004
The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Tree-Based Theory for Bond Percolation on
Gleeson, James P.
The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Tree-Based Theory for Bond Percolation on Networks demonstrate that a tree-based theory for bond perco- lation yields extremely accurate results for several real-world networks from various domains and on several classes of synthetic clustered networks. Key
The design of lightweight secure AODV protocol based on game theory and cryptology
Yu Sun; Guan Wang; Jianwei Liu
2010-01-01
GCS-AODV (Game theory and Cryptology based Secure AODV), a lightweight secure AODV protocol based on game theory and cryptology is proposed. One-hop neighbor detection is integrated into route maintenance phase, without any communication overhead. Forward game and ring expanding search solve the scalability problem. Normandy game is utilized to select the secure route. Message authentication code (MAC) guarantees the integrity
Tesfatsion, Leigh
Evaluating Case-based Decision Theory: Predicting Empirical Patterns of Human Classification is a mathematical model of choice under uncertainty. Case-based Decision Theory has the following primitives: A set economics is typically characterized by applying insights from psychology to economics via a mathematical
Development and Evaluation of a Theory-Based Physical Activity Guidebook for Breast Cancer Survivors
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vallance, Jeffrey K.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Taylor, Lorian M.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Mackey, John R.
2008-01-01
This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert…
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF WAVE PROPAGATION IN RANDOM MEDIA BASED ON QUANTY AND STATISTICAL FIELD THEORY
Nathan Blaunstein
2004-01-01
In this work, we summarize the existing theoretical methods based on statistical and quanty theory and give some non-standard mathematical approaches based on such theories to explain the principal scalar and vector electrodynamic problems for future applications to acoustic, radio and optical wave propagation in homogeneous, isotropic, anisotropic and inhomogeneous media. We show of how the statistical description of wave
How Is a Science Lesson Developed and Implemented Based on Multiple Intelligences Theory?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaya, Osman Nafiz
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study is to present the whole process step-by-step of how a science lesson can be planned and implemented based on Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory. First, it provides the potential of the MI theory for science teaching and learning. Then an MI science lesson that was developed based on a modified model in the literature and…
RAMANUJAN'S THEORIES OF ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS TO ALTERNATIVE BASES
Garvan, Frank
RAMANUJAN'S THEORIES OF ELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS Contents 1. Introduction 2. Ramanujan's Cubic Transformation, the Borweins' Cubic Theta-Function Identit 1. Introduction In his famous paper [Ramanujan1], [RamanujanCP, pp. 23-39], Ramanujan offers
TCP Networks Stabilized by Buffer-Based AQMs H. Han and C. V. Hollot
and Industrial Engineering University of Massachusetts Amherst email: chait@ecs.umass.edu V. Misra Computer such as RED, REM and PI. Key Words: Control theory. I. INTRODUCTION Recent empirical studies in [1 to some fraction of link capacity. In achieving this, buffers become empty, queuing delays become
MacKinnon, Christopher J; Smith, Nathan Grant; Henry, Melissa; Berish, Mel; Milman, Evgenia; Körner, Annett; Copeland, Laura S; Chochinov, Harvey M; Cohen, S Robin
2014-01-01
A growing body of scholarship has evaluated the usefulness of meaning-based theories in the context of bereavement counseling. Although scholars have discussed the application of meaning-based theories for individual practice, there is a lack of inquiry regarding its implications when conducting bereavement support groups. The objective of this article is to bridge meaning-based theories with bereavement group practice, leading to a novel intervention and laying the foundation for future efficacy studies. Building on recommendations specified in the literature, this article outlines the theoretical paradigms and structure of a short-term meaning-based group counseling intervention for uncomplicated bereavement. PMID:24524541
Capacity and Delay Estimation for Roundabouts Using Conflict Theory
Qu, Zhaowei; Duan, Yuzhou; Hu, Hongyu; Song, Xianmin
2014-01-01
To estimate the capacity of roundabouts more accurately, the priority rank of each stream is determined through the classification technique given in the Highway Capacity Manual 2010 (HCM2010), which is based on macroscopical analysis of the relationship between entry flow and circulating flow. Then a conflict matrix is established using the additive conflict flow method and by considering the impacts of traffic characteristics and limited priority with high volume. Correspondingly, the conflict relationships of streams are built using probability theory. Furthermore, the entry capacity model of roundabouts is built, and sensitivity analysis is conducted on the model parameters. Finally, the entrance delay model is derived using queuing theory, and the proposed capacity model is compared with the model proposed by Wu and that in the HCM2010. The results show that the capacity calculated by the proposed model is lower than the others for an A-type roundabout, while it is basically consistent with the estimated values from HCM2010 for a B-type roundabout. PMID:24982982
Quantum mechanical embedding theory based on a unique embedding potential
Chen Huang [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Pavone, Michele; Carter, Emily A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, and the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544-5263 (United States)
2011-04-21
We remove the nonuniqueness of the embedding potential that exists in most previous quantum mechanical embedding schemes by letting the environment and embedded region share a common embedding (interaction) potential. To efficiently solve for the embedding potential, an optimized effective potential method is derived. This embedding potential, which eschews use of approximate kinetic energy density functionals, is then used to describe the environment while a correlated wavefunction (CW) treatment of the embedded region is employed. We first demonstrate the accuracy of this new embedded CW (ECW) method by calculating the van der Waals binding energy curve between a hydrogen molecule and a hydrogen chain. We then examine the prototypical adsorption of CO on a metal surface, here the Cu(111) surface. In addition to obtaining proper site ordering (top site most stable) and binding energies within this theory, the ECW exhibits dramatic changes in the p-character of the CO 4{sigma} and 5{sigma} orbitals upon adsorption that agree very well with x-ray emission spectra, providing further validation of the theory. Finally, we generalize our embedding theory to spin-polarized quantum systems and discuss the connection between our theory and partition density functional theory.
Design Based Research Methods and Theory Building: A Case Study of Research with SpeakEasy
M. Hoadley
Design-based research methods are an emerging research paradigm that blends empirical research with design and implementation. This article discusses how a design-based research trajectory can help not only suggest and refine theories, but also permit their falsification. In a series of design-based research studies on an online discussion tool (called SpeakEasy), the author shows how a theory of socially relevant
Game Theory Based Coevolutionary Algorithm: A New Computational Coevolutionary Approach
Kwee-Bo Sim; Dong-Wook Lee; Ji-Yoon Kim
2004-01-01
Game theory is a method of mathematical analysis developed to study the decision making process. In 1928, Von Neumann mathematically proved that every two-person, zero- sum game with many pure finite strategies for each player is deterministic. In the early 50's, Nash presented another concept as the basis for a generalization of Von Neumann's theorem. Another central achievement of game
Receiver-Coupling Schemes Based On Optimal-Estimation Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Rajendra
1992-01-01
Two schemes for reception of weak radio signals conveying digital data via phase modulation provide for mutual coupling of multiple receivers, and coherent combination of outputs of receivers. In both schemes, optimal mutual-coupling weights computed according to Kalman-filter theory, but differ in manner of transmission and combination of outputs of receivers.
Ramanujan's Theories Of Elliptic Functions To Alternative Bases
Bruce C. Berndt; S. Bhargava; Frank G. Garvan
1995-01-01
this paper is to establishall of these claims. In proving these results, it is very clear to us that Ramanujan had establishedfurther results that he unfortunately did not record either in his notebooks and other unpublishedpapers or in his published papers. Moreover, Ramanujan's work points the way to many additionaltheorems in these theories, and we hope that others will continue
Renormalization group method based on the ionization energy theory
Arulsamy, Andrew Das
2011-03-15
Proofs are developed to explicitly show that the ionization energy theory is a renormalized theory, which mathematically exactly satisfies the renormalization group formalisms developed by Gell-Mann-Low, Shankar and Zinn-Justin. However, the cutoff parameter for the ionization energy theory relies on the energy-level spacing, instead of lattice point spacing in k-space. Subsequently, we apply the earlier proofs to prove that the mathematical structure of the ionization-energy dressed electron-electron screened Coulomb potential is exactly the same as the ionization-energy dressed electron-phonon interaction potential. The latter proof is proven by means of the second-order time-independent perturbation theory with the heavier effective mass condition, as required by the electron-electron screened Coulomb potential. The outcome of this proof is that we can derive the heat capacity and the Debye frequency as a function of ionization energy, which can be applied in strongly correlated matter and nanostructures.
Effective Contraceptive Use: An Exploration of Theory-Based Influences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peyman, N.; Oakley, D.
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence oral contraceptive (OC) use among women in Iran using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and concept of self-efficacy (SE). The study sample consisted of 360 married OC users, aged 18-49 years recruited at public health centers of Mashhad, 900 km east of Tehran. SE had the strongest…
Videogames, Tools for Change: A Study Based on Activity Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Méndez, Laura; Lacasa, Pilar
2015-01-01
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to provide a framework for analysis from which to interpret the transformations that take place, as perceived by the participants, when commercial video games are used in the classroom. We will show how Activity Theory (AT) is able to explain and interpret these changes. Method: Case studies are…
Stability Analysis for Car Following Model Based on Control Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xiang-Pei; Li, Zhi-Peng; Ge, Hong-Xia
2014-05-01
Stability analysis is one of the key issues in car-following theory. The stability analysis with Lyapunov function for the two velocity difference car-following model (for short, TVDM) is conducted and the control method to suppress traffic congestion is introduced. Numerical simulations are given and results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.
Forecasting of Customs Export Based on Gray Theory
Zhang Dabin; Zhu Hou; Zhang Jingguang
2009-01-01
Customs export plays a pivotal role in this countrypsilas economy and the social change. Forecasting customs export efficiently enables policy makers to plan more appropriately and thus to help to improve the balance of trade. Customs export traditionally is forecasted by using econometric methods. This paper focused on the gray theory and uses GM(1,1) model to forecast Hubei Province's export
A theory-based approach to teaching young children about health: A recipe for understanding
Nguyen, Simone P.; McCullough, Mary Beth; Noble, Ashley
2011-01-01
The theory-theory account of conceptual development posits that children’s concepts are integrated into theories. Concept learning studies have documented the central role that theories play in children’s learning of experimenter-defined categories, but have yet to extensively examine complex, real-world concepts such as health. The present study examined whether providing young children with coherent and causally-related information in a theory-based lesson would facilitate their learning about the concept of health. This study used a pre-test/lesson/post-test design, plus a five month follow-up. Children were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: theory (i.e., 20 children received a theory-based lesson); nontheory (i.e., 20 children received a nontheory-based lesson); and control (i.e., 20 children received no lesson). Overall, the results showed that children in the theory condition had a more accurate conception of health than children in the nontheory and control conditions, suggesting the importance of theories in children’s learning of complex, real-world concepts. PMID:21894237
Ground Movement Analysis Based on Stochastic Medium Theory
Fei, Meng; Li-chun, Wu; Jia-sheng, Zhang; Guo-dong, Deng; Zhi-hui, Ni
2014-01-01
In order to calculate the ground movement induced by displacement piles driven into horizontal layered strata, an axisymmetric model was built and then the vertical and horizontal ground movement functions were deduced using stochastic medium theory. Results show that the vertical ground movement obeys normal distribution function, while the horizontal ground movement is an exponential function. Utilizing field measured data, parameters of these functions can be obtained by back analysis, and an example was employed to verify this model. Result shows that stochastic medium theory is suitable for calculating the ground movement in pile driving, and there is no need to consider the constitutive model of soil or contact between pile and soil. This method is applicable in practice. PMID:24701184
Local control theory in trajectory-based nonadiabatic dynamics
Curchod, Basile F. E.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Tavernelli, Ivano
2011-10-15
In this paper, we extend the implementation of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics within the framework of time-dependent density-functional theory in an external field described in Tavernelli et al.[Phys. Rev. A 81, 052508 (2010)] by calculating on-the-fly pulses to control the population transfer between electronic states using local control theory. Using Tully's fewest switches trajectory surface hopping method, we perform MD to control the photoexcitation of LiF and compare the results to quantum dynamics (QD) calculations performed within the Heidelberg multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree package. We show that this approach is able to calculate a field that controls the population transfer between electronic states. The calculated field is in good agreement with that obtained from QD, and the differences that arise are discussed in detail.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bresciani, Marilee J.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKown, Clark
2005-01-01
Several school-based racial prejudice-reduction interventions have demonstrated some benefit. Ecological theory serves as a framework within which to understand the limits and to enhance the efficacy of prejudice-reduction interventions. Using ecological theory, this article examines three prejudice-reduction approaches, including social cognitive…
Cooperative Learning: Improving University Instruction by Basing Practice on Validated Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.; Smith, Karl A.
2014-01-01
Cooperative learning is an example of how theory validated by research may be applied to instructional practice. The major theoretical base for cooperative learning is social interdependence theory. It provides clear definitions of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. Hundreds of research studies have validated its basic…
The TEACH Method: An Interactive Approach for Teaching the Needs-Based Theories Of Motivation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moorer, Cleamon, Jr.
2014-01-01
This paper describes an interactive approach for explaining and teaching the Needs-Based Theories of Motivation. The acronym TEACH stands for Theory, Example, Application, Collaboration, and Having Discussion. This method can help business students to better understand and distinguish the implications of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs,…
Agent-Based Models in Ecology: Patterns and Alternative Theories of Adaptive Behaviour
Boone, Randall B.
Agent-Based Models in Ecology: Patterns and Alternative Theories of Adaptive Behaviour Volker Grimm modelling strategies have proven particularly useful. The first strategy is "pattern-oriented modelling these characteris- tic patterns. After an IBM is assembled, alternative versions (different theories for individual
A Model of Rater Behavior in Essay Grading Based on Signal Detection Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeCarlo, Lawrence T.
2005-01-01
An approach to essay grading based on signal detection theory (SDT) is presented. SDT offers a basis for understanding rater behavior with respect to the scoring of construct responses, in that it provides a theory of psychological processes underlying the raters' behavior. The approach also provides measures of the precision of the raters and the…
Research of Information Security Risk Management Based on Statistical Learning Theory
Zhao Li; Wu Yongchun; Wu Xuexia
2009-01-01
Traditional methods used in the information security risk management are mostly based on the statistics, their validity of application are limited to large sample situations, while the statistical learning theory is introduced to the innovation of information security management, its structural risk minimization principle and from which the support vector machine developed offer new theory basis for predicting the security
Web-Support for Activating Use of Theory in Group-Based Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Veen, Jan; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Laagland, Eelco; Gommer, Lisa; Jones, Val
This paper describes a series of experiments conducted within the context of a course on organizational theory that is taught at the Department of Management Sciences at the University of Twente (Netherlands). In 1997, a group-based learning approach was adopted, but after the first year it was apparent that acquisition and application of theory…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pearce, Ella Elizabeth
Four seventh grade life science classes, given curriculum materials based upon Piagetian theories of intellectual development and Skinner's theories of secondary reinforcement, were compared with four control classes from the same school districts. Nine students from each class, who(at the pretest) were at the concrete operations stage of…
Research on Cognitive Radio Model Based on Game Theory
Zhenyu Zhang; Xiaoyao Xie
2010-01-01
Cognitive radio has already been a new technology hot-spot, many techniques application have been researched in cognitive radio. The Decision Maker of Cognitive Radio is one of the key issues. The limitation of Neel's CR model is studied. Neel's model can not solve multi-players, multi-action and multi NE problems. To prove the multi NE instance, two cases of game theory
Circuit theory and model-based inference for landscape connectivity
Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.
2013-01-01
Circuit theory has seen extensive recent use in the field of ecology, where it is often applied to study functional connectivity. The landscape is typically represented by a network of nodes and resistors, with the resistance between nodes a function of landscape characteristics. The effective distance between two locations on a landscape is represented by the resistance distance between the nodes in the network. Circuit theory has been applied to many other scientific fields for exploratory analyses, but parametric models for circuits are not common in the scientific literature. To model circuits explicitly, we demonstrate a link between Gaussian Markov random fields and contemporary circuit theory using a covariance structure that induces the necessary resistance distance. This provides a parametric model for second-order observations from such a system. In the landscape ecology setting, the proposed model provides a simple framework where inference can be obtained for effects that landscape features have on functional connectivity. We illustrate the approach through a landscape genetics study linking gene flow in alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) to the underlying landscape.
Gravitational Cherenkov Losses in Theories Based on Modified Newtonian Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milgrom, Mordehai
2011-03-01
Survival of high-energy cosmic rays (HECRs) against gravitational Cherenkov losses is shown not to cast strong constraints on modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) theories that are compatible with general relativity (GR): theories that coincide with GR for accelerations ?a0 (a0 is the MOND constant). The energy-loss rate, E?, is many orders smaller than those derived in the literature for theories with no extra scale. Modification to GR, which underlies E?, enters only beyond the MOND radius of the particle: rM=(Gp/ca0)1/2. The spectral cutoff, entering E? quadratically, is thus rM-1, not kdB=p/?. Thus, E? is smaller than published rates, which use kdB, by a factor ˜(rMkdB)2?1039(cp/3×1011Gev)3. Losses are important only beyond Dloss?q?M, where q is a dimensionless factor, and ?M=c2/a0 is the MOND length, which is ?2? times the Hubble distance.
Diffraction-based optical filtering: Theory and implementation with MEMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belikov, Ruslan
An important functionality in many optical systems is to manipulate the spectral content of light. Diffractive optics has been used widely for this purpose. Typically, in such systems a diffractive element essentially acts as an optical filter on the incident beam of light. However, no comprehensive theory of this type of filtering existed. Furthermore, recent advances in MEMS technology have enabled reconfigurable diffractive optical elements, which make it possible to create programmable spectral filters. Such devices can lead to significant advances in many applications and enable new classes of optical instruments and systems. Hence, a need arose to develop an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of such devices. The theory presented in this work answers three main questions: (1) how does one synthesize a diffractive optical element (DOE) for a desired filter; (2) what are the capabilities and limitations on such filters; and (3) what is the best device to use? We present two analytical algorithms to compute the DOE for any complex-valued linear filter, and thus answer question 1. The theory also leads to an understanding that there are fundamental trade-offs between filter complexity, power, error, and spectral range, which answers question 2. We then show that a fully arbitrary DOE is very redundant as a filter, and that we can maintain full functionality by a much simpler device, answering question 3. We then apply the theory to existing devices, which leads to the understanding of their capabilites and limitations. Furthermore, the theory led to the discovery that some well-known MEMS devices, such as the Texas Instruments DMD array, can be used as arbitrary spectral filters. Using the DMD, we demonstrate three applications that can benefit from this technology: correlation spectroscopy, femtosecond pulseshaping, and tunable lasers. In all three applications, we enable functionality never achieved before. The most significant achievement is our demonstration of continuous tuning of an external cavity laser (ECL) with no mechanical motion except for micromirror tilts on the order of a wavelength. This kind of ECL tuning enables integration and volume manufacturing, potentially making this the technology of choice for tunable lasers.
Effects of a social cognitive theory-based hip fracture prevention web site for older adults.
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Barker, Bausell; Resnick, Barbara; Covington, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Brennan, Patricia Flatley
2010-01-01
The purposes of this study were to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site for older adults and conduct a preliminary evaluation of its effectiveness. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site is composed of learning modules and a moderated discussion board. A total of 245 older adults recruited from two Web sites and a newspaper advertisement were randomized into the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site and the conventional Web sites groups. Outcomes included (1) knowledge (hip fractures and osteoporosis), (2) self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and (3) calcium intake and exercise and were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (2 weeks), and follow-up (3 months). Both groups showed significant improvement in most outcomes. For calcium intake, only the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group showed improvement. None of the group and time interactions were significant. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group, however, was more satisfied with the intervention. The discussion board usage was significantly correlated with outcome gains. Despite several limitations, the findings showed some preliminary effectiveness of Web-based health interventions for older adults and the use of a Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site as a sustainable Web structure for online health behavior change interventions. PMID:20978408
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arvey, Richard D.; Neel, C. Warren
1974-01-01
Expectancy theory predictions were tested using a sample of engineers who had been rated on dimensions of work motivation or effort (in contrast to performance) using the behaviorally based rating scales designed by Landy and Guion (1970). (Author)
Government Benefits and the Rule of Law: Toward a Standards-Based Theory of Judicial Review
Levy, Richard E.
2006-01-01
This is the second of two articles developing a “standards-based” approach to the rule of law in the context of administrative decisions concerning government benefits. We base our standards-based theory on two core principles. First, the rule...
A Domain-Independent System for Case-Based Task Decomposition without Domain Theories
MuÃ±oz-Avila, HÃ©ctor
One of the main motivations for case-based reasoning (CBR) is that in many domains, cases (iA Domain-Independent System for Case-Based Task Decomposition without Domain Theories Ke Xu is available. We present DInCaD (Domain-Independent System for Case-Based Task Decomposition), a system
Cluster density functional theory for lattice models based on the theory of Möbius functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lafuente, Luis; Cuesta, José A.
2005-08-01
Rosenfeld's fundamental-measure theory for lattice models is given a rigorous formulation in terms of the theory of Möbius functions of partially ordered sets. The free-energy density functional is expressed as an expansion in a finite set of lattice clusters. This set is endowed with a partial order, so that the coefficients of the cluster expansion are connected to its Möbius function. Because of this, it is rigorously proven that a unique such expansion exists for any lattice model. The low-density analysis of the free-energy functional motivates a redefinition of the basic clusters (zero-dimensional cavities) which guarantees a correct zero-density limit of the pair and triplet direct correlation functions. This new definition extends Rosenfeld's theory to lattice models with any kind of short-range interaction (repulsive or attractive, hard or soft, one or multicomponent ...). Finally, a proof is given that these functionals have a consistent dimensional reduction, i.e. the functional for dimension d' can be obtained from that for dimension d (d' < d) if the latter is evaluated at a density profile confined to a d'-dimensional subset.
A reactive mobile robot based on a formal theory of action
Baral, C. Floriano, L.; Gabaldon, A. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31
One of the agenda behind research in reasoning about actions is to develop autonomous agents (robots) that can act in a dynamic world. The early attempts to use theories of reasoning about actions and planning to formulate a robot control architecture were not successful for several reasons: The early theories based on STRIPS and its extensions allowed only observations about the initial state. A robot control architecture using these theories was usually of the form: (i) make observations (ii) Use the action theory to construct a plan to achieve the goal, and (iii) execute the plan.
Theory-based Low-Sodium Diet Education for Heart Failure Patients
Welsh, Darlene; Marcinek, Regina; Abshire, Demetrius; Lennie, Terry; Biddle, Martha; Bentley, Brooke; Moser, Debra
2010-01-01
Theory-based teaching strategies for promoting adherence to a low-sodium diet among patients with heart failure are presented in this manuscript. The strategies, which are based on the theory of planned behavior, address patient attitude, subjective norm, and perceived control as they learn how to follow a low-sodium diet. Home health clinicians can select a variety of the instructional techniques presented to meet individual patient learning needs. PMID:20592543
Bulk Density of Meteoroids based on Single Body Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikwaya-Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.
2006-09-01
The mean bulk density of small meteoroids remains a poorly measured quantity. The bulk density for small meteoroids is an important proxy of the physical nature of the host parent body. As well, variations in bulk densities among meteoroids may reflect various evolutionary processes, such as sintering, thus providing some insight into the orbital evolution of individual meteoroids. The theory of quasi-continuous fragmentation (Lebedinets 1987 and Babadzhanov 1994) suggests that the average density for individual meteoroids varies from 100 and 8000 Kg m-3 and in a similar mass range, the competing single body theory (i.e. the heating of the meteoroid occurs without intensive fragmentation) (Bellot et al., 2002) gives low values from 100 to 4500 Kg m-3. Here we report our early attempts to measure the bulk density of smaller (mg) meteoroids applying single body theory to low-light-level tv (LLLTV) observations. In particular, we employ a novel gated image intensified high-resolution CCD to greatly increase the temporal and spatial resolution of ablating faint meteors. We solve the kinematics of each event from measured data according to standard techniques (eg. Borovica, 1993) to generate very accurate astrometric solution. Additionally, we adapt a use of new photometry algorithm (Xguiphot, new IRAF multi-aperture photometry (Davis, 1999)) to meteor photometry. From these brightness data, we generate meteor light curves and solve the brightness vs. kinematics of each event using a new numerical model of meteor ablation (Campbell-Brown and Koschny, 2004). This model applied on the light curve determines accurately the mass of the meteor to be used in the density computation.
Patient and nurse experiences of theory-based care.
Flanagan, Jane
2009-04-01
The pre-surgery nursing practice model derived from Newman's theory was developed to change the delivery of nursing care in a pre-surgical clinic. Guided by the theoretical knowledge of health as expanding consciousness, transpersonal caring, and reflective practice, key practice changes included a) incorporating Newman's praxis process, b) changing the physical space, and c) providing opportunities to reflect on practice. The purpose of this study was to utilize a phenomenological approach to evaluate a new model of care among 31 patients and 4 nurses. PMID:19342715
Interactive image segmentation framework based on control theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Liangjia; Kolesov, Ivan; Ratner, Vadim; Karasev, Peter; Tannenbaum, Allen
2015-03-01
Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical imagery is a key step in a variety of clinical applications. Designing a generic, automated method that works for various structures and imaging modalities is a daunting task. Instead of proposing a new specific segmentation algorithm, in this paper, we present a general design principle on how to integrate user interactions from the perspective of control theory. In this formulation, Lyapunov stability analysis is employed to design an interactive segmentation system. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated.
Goodson, Patricia; Pruitt, B E; Suther, Sandy; Wilson, Kelly; Buhi, Eric
2006-04-01
Authors examined the logic (or the implicit theory) underlying 16 abstinence-only-until-marriage programs in Texas (50% of all programs funded under the federal welfare reform legislation during 2001 and 2002). Defined as a set of propositions regarding the relationship between program activities and their intended outcomes, program staff's implicit theories were summarized and compared to (a) data from studies on adolescent sexual behavior, (b) a theory-based model of youth abstinent behavior, and (c) preliminary findings from the national evaluation of Title V programs. Authors interviewed 62 program directors and instructors and employed selected principles of grounded theory to analyze interview data. Findings indicated that abstinence education staff could clearly articulate the logic guiding program activity choices. Comparisons between interview data and a theory-based model of adolescent sexual behavior revealed striking similarities. Implications of these findings for conceptualizing and evaluating abstinence-only-until-marriage (or similar) programs are examined. PMID:16531516
Nursing theory as a base for a computerized nursing information system.
Bliss-Holtz, J; Taylor, S G; McLaughlin, K
1992-01-01
This article illustrates how nursing theory can be used in a computerized nursing information system (CNIS). Before development of such a system can begin, data relationships must be specified so that: (a) the relationships are specific enough to support a computerized relational base and (b) the resultant information can support nursing science. Both goals were achieved through three interrelated processes: (a) validation of a practice model based on Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory, (b) classification of clinical data into theory-related categories, and (c) establishment of data relationships to yield meaningful information. PMID:1407815
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knox, A. Whitney; Miller, Bruce A.
1980-01-01
Describes a method for estimating the number of cathode ray tube terminals needed for public use of an online library catalog. Authors claim method could also be used to estimate needed numbers of microform readers for a computer output microform (COM) catalog. Formulae are included. (Author/JD)
Assembly models for Papovaviridae based on tiling theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keef, T.; Taormina, A.; Twarock, R.
2005-09-01
A vital constituent of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence provides protection for the viral genome. Assembly models are developed for viral capsids built from protein building blocks that can assume different local bonding structures in the capsid. This situation occurs, for example, for viruses in the family of Papovaviridae, which are linked to cancer and are hence of particular interest for the health sector. More specifically, the viral capsids of the (pseudo-) T = 7 particles in this family consist of pentamers that exhibit two different types of bonding structures. While this scenario cannot be described mathematically in terms of Caspar-Klug theory (Caspar D L D and Klug A 1962 Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 27 1), it can be modelled via tiling theory (Twarock R 2004 J. Theor. Biol. 226 477). The latter is used to encode the local bonding environment of the building blocks in a combinatorial structure, called the assembly tree, which is a basic ingredient in the derivation of assembly models for Papovaviridae along the lines of the equilibrium approach of Zlotnick (Zlotnick A 1994 J. Mol. Biol. 241 59). A phase space formalism is introduced to characterize the changes in the assembly pathways and intermediates triggered by the variations in the association energies characterizing the bonds between the building blocks in the capsid. Furthermore, the assembly pathways and concentrations of the statistically dominant assembly intermediates are determined. The example of Simian virus 40 is discussed in detail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slemp, Wesley C. H.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Tessler, Alexander
2010-01-01
Computation of interlaminar stresses from the higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory and the refined zigzag theory was performed using the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative. The Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative was proposed as an efficient method for determining through-the-thickness variations of interlaminar stresses from one- and two-dimensional analysis by integration of the equilibrium equations of three-dimensional elasticity. However, the use of traditional equivalent single layer theories often results in inaccuracies near the boundaries and when the lamina have extremely large differences in material properties. Interlaminar stresses in symmetric cross-ply laminated beams were obtained by solving the higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory and the refined zigzag theory with the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative. Interlaminar stresses and bending stresses from the present approach were compared with a detailed finite element solution obtained by ABAQUS/Standard. The results illustrate the ease with which the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative can be used to obtain the through-the-thickness distributions of interlaminar stresses from the beam theories. Moreover, the results indicate that the refined zigzag theory is a substantial improvement over the Timoshenko beam theory due to the piecewise continuous displacement field which more accurately represents interlaminar discontinuities in the strain field. The higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory more accurately captures the interlaminar stresses at the ends of the beam because it allows transverse normal strain. However, the continuous nature of the displacement field requires a large number of monomial terms before the interlaminar stresses are computed as accurately as the refined zigzag theory.
Kusiak, Andrew
and performance analysis of manufacturing systems. Early ap- proaches, were mainly based on queuing theory. Koenigsberg and Mamer [2] used queuing theory to obtain approximate performance of a production system. Yao-state performance of three alternative designs based on an industrial example. Detailed discussion of the results
Determination of the Sediment Carrying Capacity Based on Perturbed Theory
Ni, Zhi-hui; Zeng, Qiang; Li-chun, Wu
2014-01-01
According to the previous studies of sediment carrying capacity, a new method of sediment carrying capacity on perturbed theory was proposed. By taking into account the average water depth, average flow velocity, settling velocity, and other influencing factors and introducing the median grain size as one main influencing factor in deriving the new formula, we established a new sediment carrying capacity formula. The coefficients were determined by the principle of dimensional analysis, multiple linear regression method, and the least square method. After that, the new formula was verified through measuring data of natural rivers and flume tests and comparing the verified results calculated by Cao Formula, Zhang Formula, Li Formula, Engelung-Hansen Formula, Ackers-White Formula, and Yang Formula. According to the compared results, it can be seen that the new method is of high accuracy. It could be a useful reference for the determination of sediment carrying capacity. PMID:25136652
Prediction of planing craft motion based on grey system theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Jihong; Zhang, Changbin; Chai, Yanyou; Zou, Jin
2011-06-01
In order to minimize the harm caused by the instability of a planing craft, a motion prediction model is essential. This paper analyzed the feasibility of using an MGM(1, N) model in grey system theory to predict planing craft motion and carried out the numerical simulation experiment. According to the characteristics of planing craft motion, a recurrence formula was proposed of the parameter matrix of an MGM(1, N) model. Using this formula, data can be updated in real-time without increasing computational complexity significantly. The results of numerical simulation show that using an MGM(1, N) model to predict planing motion is feasible and useful for prediction. So the method proposed in this study can reflect the planing craft motion mechanism successfully, and has rational and effective functions of forecasting and analyzing trends.
Chuanmin Mi; Hanchong Qian; Sifeng Liu; Zhansheng Chang
2008-01-01
A critical issue in case-based reasoning (CBR) is to retrieve a usefully similar case to the problem. There are three approaches to case retrieving: nearest-neighbor, inductive, and knowledge-guide. This article utilizes a hybrid approach using grey incidence theory to case-based retrieval process in an attempt to increase the overall classification accuracy. We propose a new approach based on the absolute
Hiroshi Yasuda
2005-01-01
In this paper, the resource-based theory and the transaction-cost theory are compared in their suitability to explain firms' formation of strategic alliances under high-technology business environments. Four forms of technology-driven strategic alliances, such as (a) technology license (b) joint R&D (c) sourcing agreement and (d) joint venture, are explained based on the above two theories. Empirical analysis is performed with
A Conceptual Framework Based on Activity Theory for Mobile CSCL
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zurita, Gustavo; Nussbaum, Miguel
2007-01-01
There is a need for collaborative group activities that promote student social interaction in the classroom. Handheld computers interconnected by a wireless network allow people who work on a common task to interact face to face while maintaining the mediation afforded by a technology-based system. Wirelessly interconnected handhelds open up new…
Integrated Models of School-Based Prevention: Logic and Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Embry, Dennis; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
2010-01-01
School-based prevention programs can positively impact a range of social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Yet the current climate of accountability pressures schools to restrict activities that are not perceived as part of the core curriculum. Building on models from public health and prevention science, we describe an integrated approach to…
Learning Trajectory Based Instruction: Toward a Theory of Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sztajn, Paola; Confrey, Jere; Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia
2012-01-01
In this article, we propose a theoretical connection between research on learning and research on teaching through recent research on students' learning trajectories (LTs). We define learning trajectory based instruction (LTBI) as teaching that uses students' LTs as the basis for instructional decisions. We use mathematics as the context for our…
Designing Site-Based Systems, Deriving a Theory of Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bauer, Scott C.
1998-01-01
Reviews five dimensions (focus, scope, structure, process, and capacity) of an organizational design used by 20 New York districts planning for site-based management (SBM) implementation. The confusion surrounding devolution of decision making hinders districts' efforts to effect changes in intermediate variables (job satisfaction and staff…
Content Based Image Retrieval and Information Theory: A General Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.; Barhen, Jacob
2001-01-01
Proposes an alternative real valued representation of color based on the information theoretic concept of entropy. A theoretical presentation of image entropy is accompanied by a practical description of the merits and limitations of image entropy compared to color histograms. Results suggest that image entropy is a promising approach to image…
ESTIMATION THEORY AND INFORMATION GEOMETRY BASED ON DENOISING Aapo Hyvarinen
Hyvärinen, Aapo
. Furthermore, the method leads to a new geometric intepretation of estimation. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Signal, computational neuroscience, and signal pro- cessing is based on hierarchical Bayesian modelling. The typical- lows. The vector x follows a distribution with probabil- ity density function (pdf) p(x|s), where
A model for renal arterial branching based on graph theory.
Espinoza-Valdez, Aurora; Femat, Ricardo; Ordaz-Salazar, Francisco C
2010-05-01
The kidney is one of the most complicated organs in terms of structure and physiology, in part because it is highly vascularized. The renal vascular development occurs through two mechanisms that sometimes overlap: vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Here, we consider angiogenesis to model the renal arterial tree with the two processes of vascular angiogenesis: sprouting and splitting. We recognize the vessels are not tubes with ends that get glued but physiological factors are relevant into the vascular development. Our contribution integrates the graph theory and physiological information to derive a quantitative model for the vascular tree in the sense that the vertices and edges represent, respectively, a branching point and a vessel. From such a premise, development of the arterial vascular tree of the kidney is mathematically expressed, including physiological processes as the effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the vessel length. A definition of the graph is used to visualize the topology of vascular tree in kidney providing physiological information into the edges. Thus, renal arterial branching is modeled as a graph where edges are labeled and oriented. PMID:20109473
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flowers, Claudia P.; Raju, Nambury S.; Oshima, T. C.
Current interest in the assessment of measurement equivalence emphasizes two methods of analysis, linear, and nonlinear procedures. This study simulated data using the graded response model to examine the performance of linear (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA) and nonlinear (item-response-theory-based differential item function or IRT-Based…
Controlling Retrieval during Practice: Implications for Memory-Based Theories of Automaticity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilkins, Nicolas J.; Rawson, Katherine A.
2011-01-01
Memory-based processing theories of automaticity assume that shifts from algorithmic to retrieval-based processing underlie practice effects on response times. The current work examined the extent to which individuals can exert control over the involvement of retrieval during skill acquisition and the factors that may influence control. In two…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anku, Sitsofe E.
1997-01-01
Proposes using the reform documents from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), a theory-based multidimensional assessment framework, to help expand the scope of assessment in mathematics. Presents a framework using a context based on mathematical reasoning and components that comprise mathematical concepts, procedures,…
Conflict-Based Diagnosis of Discrete Event Systems: Theory and Practice Alban Grastien1,2
ThiÃ©baux, Sylvie
Conflict-Based Diagnosis of Discrete Event Systems: Theory and Practice Alban Grastien1,2 and P, Australian National University Abstract We present a conflict-based approach to diagnosing Discrete Event of diagnosis hypotheses, testing hypotheses for consistency, and generating conflicts which rule out successors
Using Game Theory and Competition-Based Learning to Stimulate Student Motivation and Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burguillo, Juan C.
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a framework for using Game Theory tournaments as a base to implement Competition-based Learning (CnBL), together with other classical learning techniques, to motivate the students and increase their learning performance. The paper also presents a description of the learning activities performed along the past ten years of a…
An Instructional Design Theory for Interactions in Web-Based Learning Environments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Miyoung; Paulus, Trena
This study developed and formatively evaluated an instructional design theory to guide designers in selecting when and how to utilize interactions as instructional methods in a Web-based distance learning higher education environment. Research questions asked: What are the types and outcomes of interactions between participants in a Web-based…
Theory Presentation and Assessment in a Problem-based Learning Group.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glenn, Phillip J.; Koschmann, Timothy; Conlee, Melinda
1999-01-01
Examines the discourse of a problem-based learning group in medicine. Identifies ethnomethodological conversation analysis to analyze a segment of interaction in a problem-based learning (PBL) meeting. Observes that the presentation of a theory makes relevant a variety of sequential activities through which participants in this instructional…
Sales, Anne; Smith, Jeffrey; Curran, Geoffrey; Kochevar, Laura
2006-01-01
This paper presents a case for careful consideration of theory in planning to implement evidence-based practices into clinical care. As described, theory should be tightly linked to strategic planning through careful choice or creation of an implementation framework. Strategies should be linked to specific interventions and/or intervention components to be implemented, and the choice of tools should match the interventions and overall strategy, linking back to the original theory and framework. The thesis advanced is that in most studies where there is an attempt to implement planned change in clinical processes, theory is used loosely. An example of linking theory to intervention design is presented from a Mental Health Quality Enhancement Research Initiative effort to increase appropriate use of antipsychotic medication among patients with schizophrenia in the Veterans Health Administration. PMID:16637960
An open-shell restricted Hartree-Fock perturbation theory based on symmetric spin orbitals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Timothy J.; Jayatilaka, Dylan
1993-01-01
A new open-shell perturbation theory is formulated in terms of symmetric spin orbitals. Only one set of spatial orbitals is required, thereby reducing the number of independent coefficients in the perturbed wavefunctions. For second order, the computational cost is shown to be similar to a closed-shell calculation. This formalism is therefore more efficient than the recently developed RMP, ROMP or RMP-MBPT theories. The perturbation theory described herein was designed to have a close correspondence with our recently proposed coupled-cluster theory based on symmetric spin orbitals. The first-order wavefunction contains contributions from only doubly excited determinants. Equilibrium structures and vibrational frequencies determined from second-order perturbation theory are presented for OH, NH, CH, 02, NH2 and CH2.
Model-based resolution: applying the theory in quantitative microscopy.
Santos, A; Young, I T
2000-06-10
Model-based image processing techniques have been proposed as a way to increase the resolution of optical microscopes. Here a model based on the microscope's point-spread function is analyzed, and the resolution limits achieved with a proposed goodness-of-fit criterion are quantified. Several experiments were performed to evaluate the possibilities and limitations of this method: (a) experiments with an ideal (diffraction-limited) microscope, (b) experiments with simulated dots and a real microscope, and (c) experiments with real dots acquired with a real microscope. The results show that a threefold increase over classical resolution (e.g., Rayleigh) is possible. These results can be affected by model misspecifications, whereas model corruption, as seen in the effect of Poisson noise, seems to be unimportant. This research can be considered to be preliminary with the final goal being the accurate measurement of various cytogenetic properties, such as gene distributions, in labeled preparations. PMID:18345221
Scale-invariant entropy-based theory for dynamic ordering
Mahulikar, Shripad P. E-mail: spm@aero.iitb.ac.in; Kumari, Priti
2014-09-01
Dynamically Ordered self-organized dissipative structure exists in various forms and at different scales. This investigation first introduces the concept of an isolated embedding system, which embeds an open system, e.g., dissipative structure and its mass and/or energy exchange with its surroundings. Thereafter, scale-invariant theoretical analysis is presented using thermodynamic principles for Order creation, existence, and destruction. The sustainability criterion for Order existence based on its structured mass and/or energy interactions with the surroundings is mathematically defined. This criterion forms the basis for the interrelationship of physical parameters during sustained existence of dynamic Order. It is shown that the sufficient condition for dynamic Order existence is approached if its sustainability criterion is met, i.e., its destruction path is blocked. This scale-invariant approach has the potential to unify the physical understanding of universal dynamic ordering based on entropy considerations.
Research on e-learning services based on ontology theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Rui
2013-07-01
E-learning services can realize network learning resource sharing and interoperability, but they can't realize automatic discovery, implementation and integration of services. This paper proposes a framework of e-learning services based on ontology, the ontology technology is applied to the publication and discovery process of e-learning services, in order to realize accurate and efficient retrieval and utilization of e-learning services.
arXiv:quant-ph/0702167v116Feb2007 Quantum Game Theory Based on the Schmidt Decomposition
Tsutsui, Izumi
arXiv:quant-ph/0702167v116Feb2007 Quantum Game Theory Based on the Schmidt Decomposition: Can formulation of quantum game theory based on the Schmidt de- composition, which has the merit game theory. The phase structure of the equilibria is determined for all values of entanglement
Sensor-Based Collision Avoidance: Theory and Experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seraji, Homayoun; Steele, Robert; Ivlev, Robert
1996-01-01
A new on-line control strategy for sensor-based collision avoidance of manipulators and supporting experimental results are presented in this article. This control strategy is based on nullification of virtual forces applied to the end-effector by a hypothetical spring-plus-damper attached to the object's surface. In the proposed approach, the real-time arm control software continuously monitors the object distance measured by the arm-mounted proximity sensors. When this distance is less than a preset threshold, the collision avoidance control action is initiated to inhibit motion toward the object and thus prevent collision. This is accomplished by employing an outer feedback loop to perturb the end-effector nominal motion trajectory in real-time based on the sensory data. The perturbation is generated by a proportional-plus-integral (PI) collision avoidance controller acting on the difference between the sensed distance and the preset threshold. This approach is computationally very fast, requires minimal modification to the existing manipulator positioning system, and provides the manipulator with an on-line collision avoidance capability to react autonomously and intelligently. A dexterous RRC robotic arm is instrumented with infrared proximity sensors and is operated under the proposed collision avoidance strategy. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate end-effector collision avoidance both with an approaching object and while reaching inside a constricted opening.
Using hybrid model with probability parameters to analysis queuing systems with layout constraints
Sadegh Abebi; Reza Radfar; Masood Rafati; Meysam Hadadi
2009-01-01
Manufactures and service provider institutes usually need queue theory to optimize their decisions about customers' waiting time. This will help them to specify resources that should be investigated and to provide customers' satisfaction. These two factors, resource allocation and customer satisfaction are so important for companies' survival essentially in a highly competitive environment. So describing queue systems performance in different
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oral, I.; Dogan, O.
2007-04-01
The aim of this study is to find out the effect of the course materials based on Multiple Intelligence Theory upon the intelligence groups' learning process. In conclusion, the results proved that the materials prepared according to Multiple Intelligence Theory have a considerable effect on the students' learning process. This effect was particularly seen on the student groups of the musical-rhythmic, verbal-linguistic, interpersonal-social and naturalist intelligence.
Homotopy Operators and Identity-Based Solutions in Cubic Superstring Field Theory
Inatomi, Shoko; Takahashi, Tomohiko
2011-01-01
We construct a class of nilpotent operators using the BRST current and ghost fields in superstring theory. The operator can be realized in cubic superstring field theory as a kinetic operator in the background of an identity-based solution. For a particular type of the deformed BRST operators, we find a homotopy operator and discuss its relationship to the cohomology in a similar way to the bosonic case, which has been elaborated by the authors.
Homotopy Operators and Identity-Based Solutions in Cubic Superstring Field Theory
Shoko Inatomi; Isao Kishimoto; Tomohiko Takahashi
2011-09-12
We construct a class of nilpotent operators using the BRST current and ghost fields in superstring theory. The operator can be realized in cubic superstring field theory as a kinetic operator in the background of an identity-based solution. For a particular type of the deformed BRST operators, we find a homotopy operator and discuss its relationship to the cohomology in a similar way to the bosonic case, which has been elaborated by the authors.
The boundaries of instance-based learning theory for explaining decisions from experience.
Gonzalez, Cleotilde
2013-01-01
Most demonstrations of how people make decisions in risky situations rely on decisions from description, where outcomes and their probabilities are explicitly stated. But recently, more attention has been given to decisions from experience where people discover these outcomes and probabilities through exploration. More importantly, risky behavior depends on how decisions are made (from description or experience), and although prospect theory explains decisions from description, a comprehensive model of decisions from experience is yet to be found. Instance-based learning theory (IBLT) explains how decisions are made from experience through interactions with dynamic environments (Gonzalez et al., 2003). The theory has shown robust explanations of behavior across multiple tasks and contexts, but it is becoming unclear what the theory is able to explain and what it does not. The goal of this chapter is to start addressing this problem. I will introduce IBLT and a recent cognitive model based on this theory: the IBL model of repeated binary choice; then I will discuss the phenomena that the IBL model explains and those that the model does not. The argument is for the theory's robustness but also for clarity in terms of concrete effects that the theory can or cannot account for. PMID:23317827
Venture Capital Investment Base on Grey Relational Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xubo
This paper builds a venture capital investment projects selection evaluation model base on risk-weight investment return using grey relational analysis. The risk and return in venture capital investment projects selection process is analyses. These risk and return mainly constricted in management ability, operation ability, market ability, exit obtain and investment cost. The 18 sub-indicators are the impact factors contributed to these five evaluation aspects. Grey relation analysis is use to evaluate the venture capital investment selection. Get the optimal solution of risk-weight double objective investment selection evaluation model. An example is used to demonstrate the model in this paper.
An explanation of flocculation using Lewis acid-base theory
Brown, P.M.; Stanley, D.A.; Scheiner, B.J.
1988-01-01
This paper describes a Bureau of Mines-devleoped method of dewatering clay slurries based on flocculation by high-molecular-weight polymers and water removal from the formed flocs using a trommel or hydrosieve. The exchange ion on the clays affects their dewaterability. Metal ions in solution and on the exchange sites of smectite clays are known to act as Lewis acids. Recent work has determined that these ions can be titrated with high-molecular-weight polymers. The relative acidity of the exchange ion and the basicity of the polymer determined by the new method give insight into the dewatering mechanism.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: theory and practice.
Sipe, Walter E B; Eisendrath, Stuart J
2012-02-01
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) incorporates elements of cognitive-behavioural therapy with mindfulness-based stress reduction into an 8-session group program. Initially conceived as an intervention for relapse prevention in people with recurrent depression, it has since been applied to various psychiatric conditions. Our paper aims to briefly describe MBCT and its putative mechanisms of action, and to review the current findings about the use of MBCT in people with mood and anxiety disorders. The therapeutic stance of MBCT focuses on encouraging patients to adopt a new way of being and relating to their thoughts and feelings, while placing little emphasis on altering or challenging specific cognitions. Preliminary functional neuroimaging studies are consistent with an account of mindfulness improving emotional regulation by enhancing cortical regulation of limbic circuits and attentional control. Research findings from several randomized controlled trials suggest that MBCT is a useful intervention for relapse prevention in patients with recurrent depression, with efficacy that may be similar to maintenance antidepressants. Preliminary studies indicate MBCT also shows promise in the treatment of active depression, including treatment-resistant depression. Pilot studies have also evaluated MBCT in bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. Patient and clinician resources for further information on mindfulness and MBCT are provided. PMID:22340145
[Training -- competency-based education -- learning theory and practice].
Breuer, Georg
2013-11-01
A lifelong learning process is necessarily the basis for the specialization and expertise in the field of anesthesiology. Thus competency as a physician is a complex, multidimensional construction of knowledge, skills and attitudes to be able to solve and persist the complex daily work challenges in a flexible and responsible way. Experts therefore showflexible and intuitive capabilities in pursuing their profession. Accordingly modern competency based learning objectives are very helpful. The DGAI Commission for “Further Education” already thought ahead in defining a competencybased curriculum for the specialization in the field of anesthesiology and could be integrated into the frameworks of the German Medical Association. In addition to the curricular framework elements of assessment are necessary. A single oral exam is consequently not representative for different levels of competencies. However, there is beside the responsibility of the learners for their learning processalso a high obligation of the clinical teachers to attend the learning process and to ensure a positive learning atmosphere with scope for feedback. Some competencies potentially could be better learned in a “sheltered” room based on simulation outside the OR, for example to train rare incidents or emergency procedures. In general there should be ongoing effort to enhance the process of expertise development, also in context of patient safety and quality management. PMID:24343144
Johnson Jr.,, Ray
Theory of Mind (ToM) has been defined as the ability to make inferences based on another person theories have been proposed to account for ToM functioning, two have received the most support (Theory Theory and Simulation Theory). According to Theory Theory, ToM refers to a deductive process in which one
Baxter, Paul D.
' & $ % An individual based model of fish recruitment using simple queuing theory 1 Paul D. Baxter process forms an M=D=1=N queue. #15; Queuing theory is a well developed branch of applied probability their interest is in scientific and environmental matters, the catching and processing industry, or in tourism
Simple Models for Airport Delays During Transition to a Trajectory-Based Air Traffic System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooker, Peter
It is now widely recognised that a paradigm shift in air traffic control concepts is needed. This requires state-of-the-art innovative technologies, making much better use of the information in the air traffic management (ATM) system. These paradigm shifts go under the names of NextGen in the USA and SESAR in Europe, which inter alia will make dramatic changes to the nature of airport operations. A vital part of moving from an existing system to a new paradigm is the operational implications of the transition process. There would be business incentives for early aircraft fitment, it is generally safer to introduce new technologies gradually, and researchers are already proposing potential transition steps to the new system. Simple queuing theory models are used to establish rough quantitative estimates of the impact of the transition to a more efficient time-based navigational and ATM system. Such models are approximate, but they do offer insight into the broad implications of system change and its significant features. 4D-equipped aircraft in essence have a contract with the airport runway and, in return, they would get priority over any other aircraft waiting for use of the runway. The main operational feature examined here is the queuing delays affecting non-4D-equipped arrivals. These get a reasonable service if the proportion of 4D-equipped aircraft is low, but this can deteriorate markedly for high proportions, and be economically unviable. Preventative measures would be to limit the additional growth of 4D-equipped flights and/or to modify their contracts to provide sufficient space for the non-4D-equipped flights to operate without excessive delays. There is a potential for non-Poisson models, for which there is little in the literature, and for more complex models, e.g. grouping a succession of 4D-equipped aircraft as a batch.
Game Theory Based Trust Model for Cloud Environment
Gokulnath, K.; Uthariaraj, Rhymend
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to propose a method to establish trust at bootload level in cloud computing environment. This work proposes a game theoretic based approach for achieving trust at bootload level of both resources and users perception. Nash equilibrium (NE) enhances the trust evaluation of the first-time users and providers. It also restricts the service providers and the users to violate service level agreement (SLA). Significantly, the problem of cold start and whitewashing issues are addressed by the proposed method. In addition appropriate mapping of cloud user's application to cloud service provider for segregating trust level is achieved as a part of mapping. Thus, time complexity and space complexity are handled efficiently. Experiments were carried out to compare and contrast the performance of the conventional methods and the proposed method. Several metrics like execution time, accuracy, error identification, and undecidability of the resources were considered.
[The Chinese urban metabolisms based on the emergy theory].
Song, Tao; Cai, Jian-Ming; Ni, Pan; Yang, Zhen-Shan
2014-04-01
By using emergy indices of urban metabolisms, this paper analyzed 31 Chinese urban metabolisms' systematic structures and characteristics in 2000 and 2010. The results showed that Chinese urban metabolisms were characterized as resource consumption and coastal external dependency. Non-renewable resource emergy accounted for a higher proportion of the total emergy in the inland cities' urban metabolisms. The emergy of imports and exports accounted for the vast majority of urban metabolic systems in metropolises and coastal cities such as Beijing and Shanghai, showing a significant externally-oriented metabolic characteristic. Based on that, the related policies were put forward: to develop the renewable resource and energy industry; to improve the non-renewable resource and energy utilization efficiencies; to optimize the import and export structure of services, cargo and fuel; and to establish the flexible management mechanism of urban metabolisms. PMID:25011303
Game Theory Based Trust Model for Cloud Environment.
Gokulnath, K; Uthariaraj, Rhymend
2015-01-01
The aim of this work is to propose a method to establish trust at bootload level in cloud computing environment. This work proposes a game theoretic based approach for achieving trust at bootload level of both resources and users perception. Nash equilibrium (NE) enhances the trust evaluation of the first-time users and providers. It also restricts the service providers and the users to violate service level agreement (SLA). Significantly, the problem of cold start and whitewashing issues are addressed by the proposed method. In addition appropriate mapping of cloud user's application to cloud service provider for segregating trust level is achieved as a part of mapping. Thus, time complexity and space complexity are handled efficiently. Experiments were carried out to compare and contrast the performance of the conventional methods and the proposed method. Several metrics like execution time, accuracy, error identification, and undecidability of the resources were considered. PMID:26380365
Derivative Trade Optimizing Model Utilizing GP Based on Behavioral Finance Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumura, Koki; Kawamoto, Masaru
This paper proposed a new technique which makes the strategy trees for the derivative (option) trading investment decision based on the behavioral finance theory and optimizes it using evolutionary computation, in order to achieve high profitability. The strategy tree uses a technical analysis based on a statistical, experienced technique for the investment decision. The trading model is represented by various technical indexes, and the strategy tree is optimized by the genetic programming(GP) which is one of the evolutionary computations. Moreover, this paper proposed a method using the prospect theory based on the behavioral finance theory to set psychological bias for profit and deficit and attempted to select the appropriate strike price of option for the higher investment efficiency. As a result, this technique produced a good result and found the effectiveness of this trading model by the optimized dealings strategy.
Exceptional knowledge discovery in databases based on information theory
Suzuki, Einoshin [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Shimura, Masamichi [Tokyo Inst. of Technology (Japan)
1996-12-31
This paper presents an algorithm for discovering exceptional knowledge from databases. Exceptional knowledge, which is defined as an exception to a general fact, exhibits unexpectedness and is sometimes extremely useful in spite of its obscurity. Previous discovery approaches for this type of knowledge employ either background knowledge or domain-specific criteria for evaluating the possible usefulness, i.e. the interestingness of the knowledge extracted from a database. It has been pointed out, however, that these approaches are prone to overlook useful knowledge. In order to circumvent these difficulties, we propose an information-theoretic approach in which we obtain exceptional knowledge associated with general knowledge in the form of a rule pair using a depth-first search method. The product of the ACEs (Average Compressed Entropies) of the rule pair is introduced as the criterion for evaluating the interestingness of exceptional knowledge. The inefficiency of depth-first search is alleviated by a branch-and-bound method, which exploits the upper-bound for the product of the ACEs. MEPRO, which is a knowledge discovery system based on our approach, has been validated using the benchmark databases in the machine learning community.
Rotthoff, Thomas; Schneider, Matthias; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Windolf, Joachim
2015-01-01
Objective: Already during their studies, medical students should intensively train their clinical thinking and practice skills, enhancing their clinical expertise in theoretical and practical terms. Methods: Based on the findings of educational research, a new curriculum for clinical training was developed at Duesseldorf University, focussing on workplace-based teaching, learning and assessment. Results: For students in their 3rd, 4th and 5th year of study, our curriculum is based on learning with patient complaint items in regard to multidisciplinary areas of outpatient and inpatient care. For this educational format, 123 complaint items were defined and their compatibility with diseases from various disciplines was tested. Based on the complaint of a specific case, students locate the underlying disease pattern, the differential diagnostic and therapeutical procedures and thereby deepen the required knowledge in the basic subjects. Study books have been created by the clinical departments to support this process. Learning is integrated in competence-oriented and workplace-based learning and assessment, offering a close-knit contact between students and doctors. Conclusion: The concept allows the integration of theory into practice and the integration of knowledge from the basic, clinical-theoretical and clinical subjects into clinical thinking and action. PMID:25699107
Theory of normal and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids
Cohen, M.L.
1992-10-01
Recent experiments on the normal-state and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids are used to constrain the proposal theories of the electronic nature of these materials. In general, models of superconductivity based on electron pairing induced by phonons are consistent with electronic band theory. The latter experiments also yield estimates of the parameters characterizing these type H superconductors. It is argued that, at this point, a standard model'' of phonons interacting with itinerant electrons may be a good first approximation for explaining the properties of the metallic fullerenes.
Theory of normal and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids
Cohen, M.L.
1992-10-01
Recent experiments on the normal-state and superconducting properties of fullerene-based solids are used to constrain the proposal theories of the electronic nature of these materials. In general, models of superconductivity based on electron pairing induced by phonons are consistent with electronic band theory. The latter experiments also yield estimates of the parameters characterizing these type H superconductors. It is argued that, at this point, a ``standard model`` of phonons interacting with itinerant electrons may be a good first approximation for explaining the properties of the metallic fullerenes.
General biorthogonal projected bases as applied to second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory.
Weijo, Ville; Manninen, Pekka; Jørgensen, Poul; Christiansen, Ove; Olsen, Jeppe
2007-08-21
With low-order scaling correlated wave function theories in mind, we present second quantization formalism as well as biorthonormalization procedures for general--singular or nonsingular--bases. Of particular interest are the so-called projected atomic orbital bases, which are obtained from a set of atom-centered functions and feature a separation of occupied and virtual spaces. We demonstrate the formalism by deriving and implementing second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory in it, and discuss the convergence and preconditioning of the iterative amplitude equations in detail. PMID:17718605
An approach for leukemia classification based on cooperative game theory.
Torkaman, Atefeh; Charkari, Nasrollah Moghaddam; Aghaeipour, Mahnaz
2011-01-01
Hematological malignancies are the types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. As these tissues are naturally connected through the immune system, a disease affecting one of them will often affect the others as well. The hematological malignancies include; Leukemia, Lymphoma, Multiple myeloma. Among them, leukemia is a serious malignancy that starts in blood tissues especially the bone marrow, where the blood is made. Researches show, leukemia is one of the common cancers in the world. So, the emphasis on diagnostic techniques and best treatments would be able to provide better prognosis and survival for patients. In this paper, an automatic diagnosis recommender system for classifying leukemia based on cooperative game is presented. Through out this research, we analyze the flow cytometry data toward the classification of leukemia into eight classes. We work on real data set from different types of leukemia that have been collected at Iran Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO). Generally, the data set contains 400 samples taken from human leukemic bone marrow. This study deals with cooperative game used for classification according to different weights assigned to the markers. The proposed method is versatile as there are no constraints to what the input or output represent. This means that it can be used to classify a population according to their contributions. In other words, it applies equally to other groups of data. The experimental results show the accuracy rate of 93.12%, for classification and compared to decision tree (C4.5) with (90.16%) in accuracy. The result demonstrates that cooperative game is very promising to be used directly for classification of leukemia as a part of Active Medical decision support system for interpretation of flow cytometry readout. This system could assist clinical hematologists to properly recognize different kinds of leukemia by preparing suggestions and this could improve the treatment of leukemic patients. PMID:21988887
Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos
2011-01-01
The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors' energy consumption in order to prolong sensors' battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351
Studying thin film damping in a micro-beam resonator based on non-classical theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghanbari, Mina; Hossainpour, Siamak; Rezazadeh, Ghader
2015-09-01
In this paper, a mathematical model is presented for studying thin film damping of the surrounding fluid in an in-plane oscillating micro-beam resonator. The proposed model for this study is made up of a clamped-clamped micro-beam bound between two fixed layers. The micro-gap between the micro-beam and fixed layers is filled with air. As classical theories are not properly capable of predicting the size dependence behaviors of the micro-beam, and also behavior of micro-scale fluid media, hence in the presented model, equation of motion governing longitudinal displacement of the micro-beam has been extracted based on non-local elasticity theory. Furthermore, the fluid field has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. These coupled equations have been simplified using Newton-Laplace and continuity equations. After transforming to non-dimensional form and linearizing, the equations have been discretized and solved simultaneously using a Galerkin-based reduced order model. Considering slip boundary conditions and applying a complex frequency approach, the equivalent damping ratio and quality factor of the micro-beam resonator have been obtained. The obtained values for the quality factor have been compared to those based on classical theories. We have shown that applying non-classical theories underestimate the values of the quality factor obtained based on classical theories. The effects of geometrical parameters of the micro-beam and micro-scale fluid field on the quality factor of the resonator have also been investigated.
Hlushak, Stepan
2015-09-28
An analytical expression for the Laplace transform of the radial distribution function of a mixture of hard-sphere chains of arbitrary segment size and chain length is used to rigorously formulate the first-order Barker-Henderson perturbation theory for the contribution of the segment-segment dispersive interactions into thermodynamics of the Lennard-Jones chain mixtures. Based on this approximation, a simple variant of the statistical associating fluid theory is proposed and used to predict properties of several mixtures of chains of different lengths and segment sizes. The theory treats the dispersive interactions more rigorously than the conventional theories and provides means for more accurate description of dispersive interactions in the mixtures of highly asymmetric components. PMID:26429040
Research on Prediction Model of Time Series Based on Fuzzy Theory and Genetic Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao-qin, Wu
Fuzzy theory is one of the newly adduced self-adaptive strategies,which is applied to dynamically adjust the parameters o genetic algorithms for the purpose of enhancing the performance.In this paper, the financial time series analysis and forecasting as the main case study to the theory of soft computing technology framework that focuses on the fuzzy theory and genetic algorithms(FGA) as a method of integration. the financial time series forecasting model based on fuzzy theory and genetic algorithms was built. the ShangZheng index cards as an example. The experimental results show that FGA perform s much better than BP neural network, not only in the precision, but also in the searching speed.The hybrid algorithm has a strong feasibility and superiority.
Synthesized Fault Diagnosis Method Based on Fuzzy Logic and D-S Evidence Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Guang; Wu, Xiaoping
Based on fuzzy logic theory, the information fusion technique at decision-making level is introduced for fault diagnosis system. A comprehensive fault diagnosis method based on fuzzy logic and D-S evidence theory is presented by making use of multi-sensor information fusion technique. In this method, the basic reliability distribution of evidence theory is obtained by using fuzzy membership function, which can significantly improve the accuracy of the fault diagnosis through taking full advantages of redundant and complementary fault information from all sensors. Finally the method is applied for fault diagnosis of ship diesel engine. Diagnostic results indicate that the technique is effective, greatly improving the efficiency of fault diagnosis.
Intervention mapping: a process for developing theory- and evidence-based health education programs.
Bartholomew, L K; Parcel, G S; Kok, G
1998-10-01
The practice of health education involves three major program-planning activities: needs assessment, program development, and evaluation. Over the past 20 years, significant enhancements have been made to the conceptual base and practice of health education. Models that outline explicit procedures and detailed conceptualization of community assessment and evaluation have been developed. Other advancements include the application of theory to health education and promotion program development and implementation. However, there remains a need for more explicit specification of the processes by which one uses theory and empirical findings to develop interventions. This article presents the origins, purpose, and description of Intervention Mapping, a framework for health education intervention development. Intervention Mapping is composed of five steps: (1) creating a matrix of proximal program objectives, (2) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical strategies, (3) designing and organizing a program, (4) specifying adoption and implementation plans, and (5) generating program evaluation plans. PMID:9768376
Wada, Y; Koike, Y; Vatikiotis-Bateson, E; Kawato, M
1995-06-01
We have previously proposed an optimal trajectory and control theory for continuous movements, such as reaching or cursive handwriting. According to Marr's three-level description of brain function, our theory can be summarized as follows: (1) The computational theory is the minimum torque-change model; (2) the intermediate representation of a pattern is given as a set of via-points extracted from an example pattern; and (3) algorithm and hardware are provided by FIRM, a neural network that can generate and control minimum torque-change trajectories. In this paper, we propose a computational theory for movement pattern recognition that is based on our theory for optimal movement pattern generation. The three levels of the description of brain function in the recognition theory are tightly coupled with those for pattern generation. In recognition, the generation process and the recognition process are actually two flows of information in opposite directions within a single functional unit. In our theory, if the input movement trajectory data are identical to the optimal movement pattern reconstructed from an intermediate representation of some symbol, the input data are recognized as that symbol. If an error exists between the movement trajectory data and the generated trajectory, the putative symbol is corrected, and the generation is repeated. In particular, we present concrete computational procedures for the recognition of connected cursive handwritten characters, as well as for the estimation of phonemic timing in natural speech. Our most important contribution is to demonstrate the computational realizability for the 'motor theory of movement pattern perception': the movement-pattern recognition process can be realized by actively recruiting the movement-pattern formation process. The way in which the formation process is utilized in pattern recognition in our theory suggests a duality between movement pattern formation and movement pattern perception. PMID:7654846
Comments on observables for identity-based marginal solutions in Berkovits' superstring field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kishimoto, Isao; Takahashi, Tomohiko
2014-07-01
We construct an analytic solution for tachyon condensation around identity-based marginal solutions in Berkovits' WZW-like open superstring field theory. Using this, which is a kind of wedge-based solution, the gauge invariant overlaps for the identity-based marginal solutions can be calculated analytically. This is a straightforward extension of a method in bosonic string field theory, which has been elaborated by the authors, to superstring. We also comment on a gauge equivalence relation between the tachyon vacuum solution and its marginally deformed one. From this viewpoint, we can find the vacuum energy of the identity-based marginal solutions to be zero, which agrees with the previous result as a consequence of ? zero mode counting.
Performance Evaluation and Design of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems
Eashy Yang
1984-01-01
In this paper, queuing models are introduced for evaluation of the performance and design of the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Emphasis is placed on the applications of the queuing theory to the design and analysis of the system. Two SCADA systems were implemented and evaluated. Based on the concept of concurrent processing, a two-processor-based SCADA system is
English Textbooks Based on Research and Theory--A Possible Dream.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Suhor, Charles
1984-01-01
Research based text materials will probably never dominate the textbook market. To begin with, translating theory and research into practice is a chancy business. There are also creative problems such as the inherent oversimplification involved in textbook writing. Every textbook writer who has been a classroom teacher will acknowledge that such…
A Theory-Based Approach to Reading Assessment in the Army. Technical Report 625.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oxford-Carpenter, Rebecca L.; Schultz-Shiner, Linda J.
Noting that the United States Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (ARI) has been involved in research on reading assessment in the Army from both practical and theoretical perspectives, this paper addresses practical Army problems in reading assessment from a theory base that reflects the most recent and most sound…
The Idea of National HRD: An Analysis Based on Economics and Theory Development Methodology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Greg G.; Swanson, Richard A.
2008-01-01
Recent human resource development (HRD) literature focuses attention on national HRD (NHRD) research and represents problems in both HRD identity and research methodology. Based on a review of development economics and international development literature, this study analyzes the existing NHRD literature with respect to the theory development…
Portfolio Theory-Based Resource Assignment in a Cloud Computing System
Pedram, Massoud
Portfolio Theory-Based Resource Assignment in a Cloud Computing System Inkwon Hwang and Massoud-- The focus of this paper is on energy-aware resource management in a cloud computing system. Much. Keywords- Cloud computing; portfolio effect; bin-packing; resource allocation I. INTRODUCTION Cloud
An intervention for delirium superimposed on dementia based on cognitive reserve theory
Ann M. Kolanowski; Donna M. Fick; Linda Clare; Barbara Therrien; David J. Gill
2010-01-01
Delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) accelerates the trajectory of functional decline and results in prolonged hospitalization, re-hospitalization, premature nursing home placement, and death. In this article we propose a theory-based intervention for DSD that is derived from the literature on cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. We begin by defining cognitive reserve, the guiding framework for our hypothesis. We review the pathophysiology
Interpretation-Based Processing: A Unified Theory of Semantic Sentence Comprehension
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budiu, Raluca; Anderson, John R.
2004-01-01
We present interpretation-based processing--a theory of sentence processing that builds a syntactic and a semantic representation for a sentence and assigns an interpretation to the sentence as soon as possible. That interpretation can further participate in comprehension and in lexical processing and is vital for relating the sentence to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fein, Lance; Jones, Don
2015-01-01
This study addresses the compromise skills that are taught to students diagnosed with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and related social and communication deficits. A private school in the southeastern United States implemented an emergence theory-based curriculum to address these skills, yet no formal analysis was conducted to determine its…
Evidence-Based Practice in Kinesiology: The Theory to Practice Gap Revisited
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knudson, Duane
2005-01-01
As evidence-based practice sweeps the applied health professions, it is a good time to evaluate the generation of knowledge in Kinesiology and its transmission to professionals and the public. Knowledge transmission has been debated in the past from the perspectives of the theory-to-practice gap and the discipline versus profession emphasis.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell, Chris; MacPherson, Seonaigh; Sawkins, Tanis
2014-01-01
This case study describes how sociocultural and activity theory were applied in the design of a publicly funded, Canadian Language Benchmark (CLB)-based English as a Second Language (ESL) credential program and curriculum for immigrant and international students in postsecondary institutions in British Columbia, Canada. The ESL Pathways Project…
From Theory to Practice: Concept-Based Inquiry in a High School Art Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker, Margaret A.
2014-01-01
This study examines what an emerging educational theory looks like when put into practice in an art classroom. It explores the teaching methodology of a high school art teacher who has utilized concept-based inquiry in the classroom to engage his students in artmaking and analyzes the influence this methodology has had on his adolescent students.…
Analysis of Industrial Microgrid Power Curves Based on the Theory of Stochastic Variables for
Noé, Reinhold
Analysis of Industrial Microgrid Power Curves Based on the Theory of Stochastic Variables--Design and control of microgrids require a wide range of considerations and information. A main issue is the sizing, which help to assess power curves and to dimension components of microgrids. I. INTRODUCTION The energy
Poverty Lines Based on Fuzzy Sets Theory and Its Application to Malaysian Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abdullah, Lazim
2011-01-01
Defining the poverty line has been acknowledged as being highly variable by the majority of published literature. Despite long discussions and successes, poverty line has a number of problems due to its arbitrary nature. This paper proposes three measurements of poverty lines using membership functions based on fuzzy set theory. The three…
Time-dependent self-consistent-field dynamics based on a reaction path Hamiltonian. I. Theory
Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
Time-dependent self-consistent-field dynamics based on a reaction path Hamiltonian. I. Theory Jian the time-dependent self-consistent-field TDSCF method with the reaction path Hamiltonian RPH derived the calculation of the real-time quantum dynamics of chemical reactions involving polyatomic molecules. When both
WALL MODELS FOR LARGE-EDDY SIMULATION BASED ON OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY
Stanford University
WALL MODELS FOR LARGE-EDDY SIMULATION BASED ON OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY by Jeremy A. Templeton, Parviz Moin and Meng Wang Prepared with the support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under conditions for RANS away from the wall, while the RANS feeds back into the LES through the definition
A quantitative quasispecies theory-based model of virus escape mutation under immune selection
progression pattern of human immunodefi- ciency virus, while the former is bounded by maximum mutation ratesA quantitative quasispecies theory-based model of virus escape mutation under immune selection of the immune response and escape mutation of the virus quasispecies inside a single host. Although fundamental
A computational theory for the classification of natural biosonar targets based on a spike code
Rolf Muller
2003-01-01
A computational theory for classification of natural biosonar targets is developed based on the properties of an example stimulus ensemble. An extensive set of echoes (84800) from four different foliages was transcribed into a spike code using a parsimonious model (linear filtering, half-wave rectification, thresholding). The spike code is assumed to consist of time differences (interspike intervals) between threshold crossings.
Examining Instruction in MIDI-Based Composition through a Critical Theory Lens
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Louth, Paul
2013-01-01
This paper considers the issue of computer-assisted composition in formal music education settings from the perspective of critical theory. The author examines the case of MIDI-based software applications and suggests that the greatest danger from the standpoint of ideology critique is not the potential for circumventing a traditional…
David L. Deephouse
2000-01-01
The resource-based view proposes that reputation is a resource leading to competitive advantage. Past research tested this by using Fortune ratings to measure reputation, but these ratings are theoretically weak. This paper integrates mass communication theory into past research to develop a concept called media reputation, defined as the overall evaluation of a firm presented in the media. Theoretical and
David L. Deephouse
2000-01-01
The resource-based view proposes that reputation is a resource leading to competitive advantage. Past research tested this by using Fortune ratings to measure reputation, but these ratings are theoretically weak. This paper integrates mass communication theory into past research to develop a concept called media reputation, defined as the overall evaluation of a firm presented in the media. Theoretical and
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei
2010-01-01
Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…
Predicting Study Abroad Intentions Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schnusenberg, Oliver; de Jong, Pieter; Goel, Lakshmi
2012-01-01
The emphasis on study abroad programs is growing in the academic context as U.S. based universities seek to incorporate a global perspective in education. Using a model that has underpinnings in the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we predict students' intention to participate in short-term study abroad program. We use TPB to identify behavioral,…
The Cournot Model with Incomplete Information Based on the RDEU Theory
Xiong Guoqiang; Li Ling; Liu Yaqi
2009-01-01
The classical Cournot model and the current model of oligopolistic competition have some serious defects which are inconsistent with the serious reality. These are complete information and rational player .Based on the RDEU theory, emotion function will be introduced to the game process. It constructs a RDEU-Cournot model with incomplete information .This model is capable to depict the relationship between
A new solution for maintenance scheduling using maintenance market simulation based on game theory
M. Manbachi; A. H. Parsaeifard; M. R. Haghifam
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a new solution for maintenance scheduling in deregulated power market by applying an independent market for maintenance scheduling based on game theory. Maintenance scheduling is one of the main issues in restructured power electricity markets, because each generation company desires to maximize its own payoffs and ISO has its own reliability and security concerns that mostly, these
Quantum Game Theory Based on the Schmidt Decomposition: Can Entanglement Resolve Dilemmas?
Tsubasa Ichikawa; Izumi Tsutsui; Taksu Cheon
We present a novel formulation of quantum game theory based on the Schmidt de- composition, which has the merit that the entanglement of quantum strategies is manifestly quantified. We apply this formulation to 2-player, 2-strategy symmetric games and obtain a complete set of quantum Nash equilibria. Apart from those available with the maximal entanglement, these quantum Nash equilibria are ex-
Shizhen Bai; Lin Zhang
2010-01-01
Research on quality supervision in logistics service supply chain under asymmetric information can not only enlarge the theory of logistics service supply chain but also provide guidance for business practice. A Bayesian Nash equilibrium model under asymmetric information is established based on a basic model of quality supervision in logistics service supply chain under symmetric information and an equilibrium result
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke
2014-01-01
The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…
Graph theory in action: evaluating planned highway tracks based on connectivity measures
Chittka, Lars
REPORT Graph theory in action: evaluating planned highway tracks based on connectivity measures graph of patches and ecological corridors, indicate that the intended highway could have deleterious of network analysis for land use management. Keywords Habitat network Á Landscape graph Á Carabidae Á Bereg
Supporting Self-Regulated Personalised Learning through Competence-Based Knowledge Space Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steiner, Christina M.; Nussbaumer, Alexander; Albert, Dietrich
2009-01-01
This article presents two current research trends in e-learning that at first sight appear to compete. Competence-Based Knowledge Space Theory (CBKST) provides a knowledge representation framework which, since its invention by Doignon & Falmagne, has been successfully applied in various e-learning systems (for example, Adaptive Learning with…
Theory-Based Development and Testing of an Adolescent Tobacco-Use Awareness Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Dennis W.; Colwell, Brian; Zhang, James J.; Brimer, Jennifer; McMillan, Catherine; Stevens, Stacey
2002-01-01
The Adolescent Tobacco Use Awareness and Cessation Program trial, based on social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model, was designed to develop, evaluate, and disseminate effective cessation programming related to Texas legislation. Data from participants and site facilitators indicated that significantly more participants were in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gabriel, Rachael
2011-01-01
In 1999, Ball and Cohen proposed a practice-based theory of professional education, which would end inadequate professional development efforts with a more comprehensive approach. Their work has been referenced over the past decade, yet there have been limited attempts to actualize their ideals and research their implications. In this article, I…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Min, Shangchao; He, Lianzhen
2014-01-01
This study examined the relative effectiveness of the multidimensional bi-factor model and multidimensional testlet response theory (TRT) model in accommodating local dependence in testlet-based reading assessment with both dichotomously and polytomously scored items. The data used were 14,089 test-takers' item-level responses to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nezhnov, Peter; Kardanova, Elena; Vasilyeva, Marina; Ludlow, Larry
2015-01-01
The present study tested the possibility of operationalizing levels of knowledge acquisition based on Vygotsky's theory of cognitive growth. An assessment tool (SAM-Math) was developed to capture a hypothesized hierarchical structure of mathematical knowledge consisting of procedural, conceptual, and functional levels. In Study 1, SAM-Math was…
Effects of Guided Writing Strategies on Students' Writing Attitudes Based on Media Richness Theory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lan, Yu-Feng; Hung, Chun-Ling; Hsu, Hung-Ju
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to develop different guided writing strategies based on media richness theory and further evaluate the effects of these writing strategies on younger students' writing attitudes in terms of motivation, enjoyment and anxiety. A total of 66 sixth-grade elementary students with an average age of twelve were invited to…
Theory of Spike Timing-Based Neural Classifiers Ran Rubin,1,2
Monasson, Rémi
Theory of Spike Timing-Based Neural Classifiers Ran Rubin,1,2 Re´mi Monasson,2,3 and HaimRevLett.105.218102 PACS numbers: 87.18.Sn, 87.19.ll, 87.19.lv Neural network models of supervised learning, neural activities are in the form of a time series of spikes. Furthermore, stimulus representa- tions
Glacier mapping based on rough set theory in the Manas River watershed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Lili; Wang, Jian; Hao, Xiaohua; Tang, Zhiguang
2014-04-01
Precise glacier information is important for assessing climate change in remote mountain areas. To obtain more accurate glacier mapping, rough set theory, which can deal with vague and uncertainty information, was introduced to obtain optimal knowledge rules for glacier mapping. Optical images, thermal infrared band data, texture information and morphometric parameters were combined to build a decision table used in our proposed rough set theory method. After discretizing the real value attributes, decision rules were calculated through the decision rule generation algorithm for glacier mapping. A decision classifier based on the generated rules classified the multispectral image into glacier and non-glacier areas. The result of maximum likelihood classification (MLC) was used to compare with the result of the classification based on the rough set theory. Confusion matrix and visual interpretation were used to evaluate the overall accuracy of the results of the two methods. The accuracies of the rough set method and maximum likelihood classification were compared, yielding overall accuracies of 94.15% and 93.88%, respectively. It showed the area difference based on rough set was smaller by comparing the glacier areas of the rough set method and MLC with visual interpreter, respectively. The high accuracy for glacier mapping and the small area difference for glacier based on rough set theory demonstrated that this method was effective and promising for glacier mapping.
Fuzzy Group Decision Making Model Based on Credibility Theory and Gray Relative Degree
Congjun Rao; Jin Peng
2009-01-01
In this paper, the problems of fuzzy multi-attribute group decision making in which the attribute values are given in the form of linguistic fuzzy numbers are studied. First of all, a new method called fuzzy dominance is given for ranking trapezoidal fuzzy numbers based on the credibility theory. Then the TOWA operator is presented to aggregate the trapezoidal fuzzy numbers.
Assessing Instructional Reform in San Diego: A Theory-Based Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Day, Jennifer; Quick, Heather E.
2009-01-01
This article provides an overview of the approach, methodology, and key findings from a theory-based evaluation of the district-led instructional reform effort in San Diego City Schools, under the leadership of Alan Bersin and Anthony Alvarado, that began in 1998. Beginning with an analysis of the achievement trends in San Diego relative to other…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woods, Carol M.; Thissen, David
2006-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method for fitting item response theory models with the latent population distribution estimated from the data using splines. A spline-based density estimation system provides a flexible alternative to existing procedures that use a normal distribution, or a different functional form, for the…
A Three Year Outcome Evaluation of a Theory Based Drink Driving Education Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sheehan, Mary; And Others
1996-01-01
Reports on the impact of a "drink driving education program" taught to tenth-grade students. The program, which involved twelve lessons, used strategies based on the Ajzen and Madden theory of planned behavior. Students (N=1,774) were trained to use alternatives to drinking and driving and to use safer passenger behaviors, and were followed-up…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugawara, Mitsuru; Ebe, Hiroji; Hatori, Nobuaki; Arakawa, Yasuhiko; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Otsubo, Kohji; Nakata, Yoshiaki
2004-05-01
This paper provides current status and prospects of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers, based on our pioneering work covering the proposal of their promising features, the quantum-dot optical device theory, experimental demonstrations, and the design and assembly of all-optical switching modules.
Portuguese Public University Student Satisfaction: A Stakeholder Theory-Based Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mainardes, Emerson; Alves, Helena; Raposo, Mario
2013-01-01
In accordance with the importance of the student stakeholder to universities, the objective of this research project was to evaluate student satisfaction at Portuguese public universities as regards their self-expressed core expectations. The research was based both on stakeholder theory itself and on previous studies of university stakeholders.…
Density functional theory based calculations of the vibrational properties of chlorophyll-a
Hastings, Gary
Density functional theory based calculations of the vibrational properties of chlorophyll-a Ruili in revised form 8 March 2007; accepted 13 March 2007 Available online 23 March 2007 Abstract Chlorophyll organisms, such as plants algae and cyanobacteria. To study the chlorophyll-a species at the heart
Transdiagnostic Theory and Application of Family-Based Treatment for Youth with Eating Disorders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Loeb, Katharine L.; Lock, James; Greif, Rebecca; le Grange, Daniel
2012-01-01
This paper describes the transdiagnostic theory and application of family-based treatment (FBT) for children and adolescents with eating disorders. We review the fundamentals of FBT, a transdiagnostic theoretical model of FBT and the literature supporting its clinical application, adaptations across developmental stages and the diagnostic spectrum…
Revisiting Transactional Distance Theory in a Context of Web-Based High-School Distance Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, Elizabeth Anne; Rodriguez-Manzanares, Maria Angeles
2008-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to report on a study that provided an opportunity to consider Transactional Distance Theory (TDT) in a current technology context of web-based learning in distance education (DE), high-school classrooms. Data collection relied on semi-structured interviews conducted with 22 e-teachers and managers in Newfoundland and…
Using Raster-Based GIS and Graph Theory to Analyze Complex Networks
Laurie A. Schintler; Rajendra Kulkarni; Sean Gorman; Roger Stough
2007-01-01
Disruptions to transportation networks can be very costly. However, managing disruptions and the costs associated with these\\u000a events, poses some challenges. Transport networks are, in many cases, large and complex. This paper develops a method, based\\u000a on complex network theory, to analyse transportation networks. It provides a way, through the use raster-based geographic\\u000a information system (GIS) techniques, to identify critical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anku, Sitsofe E.
1997-09-01
Using the reform documents of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) (NCTM, 1989, 1991, 1995), a theory-based multi-dimensional assessment framework (the "SEA" framework) which should help expand the scope of assessment in mathematics is proposed. This framework uses a context based on mathematical reasoning and has components that comprise mathematical concepts, mathematical procedures, mathematical communication, mathematical problem solving, and mathematical disposition.
Morava K-theory of BG: the good, the bad and Andrew Baker (based on joint work with Birgit Richter)
Baker, Andrew J.
Morava K-theory of BG: the good, the bad and the MacKey Andrew Baker (based on joint work Richter) Morava K-theory of BG: the good, the bad and the MacKey #12;Recollections on Galois extensions: the good, the bad and the MacKey #12;Some history This version of Galois theory was developed by Auslander
Mixture theory-based poroelasticity as a model of interstitial tissue growth
Cowin, Stephen C.; Cardoso, Luis
2011-01-01
This contribution presents an alternative approach to mixture theory-based poroelasticity by transferring some poroelastic concepts developed by Maurice Biot to mixture theory. These concepts are a larger RVE and the subRVE-RVE velocity average tensor, which Biot called the micro-macro velocity average tensor. This velocity average tensor is assumed here to depend upon the pore structure fabric. The formulation of mixture theory presented is directed toward the modeling of interstitial growth, that is to say changing mass and changing density of an organism. Traditional mixture theory considers constituents to be open systems, but the entire mixture is a closed system. In this development the mixture is also considered to be an open system as an alternative method of modeling growth. Growth is slow and accelerations are neglected in the applications. The velocity of a solid constituent is employed as the main reference velocity in preference to the mean velocity concept from the original formulation of mixture theory. The standard development of statements of the conservation principles and entropy inequality employed in mixture theory are modified to account for these kinematic changes and to allow for supplies of mass, momentum and energy to each constituent and to the mixture as a whole. The objective is to establish a basis for the development of constitutive equations for growth of tissues. PMID:22184481
Liu, Haitao; Mu, Guoguang; Lin, Lie
2007-02-01
Theories to calculate the propagation of arbitrary-order correlations of stationary or nonstationary partially coherent electromagnetic fields are proposed. The theories are based on separated-coordinate mode decomposition, and can make the well-developed propagation theories of fully coherent electromagnetic fields applicable to partially coherent electromagnetic fields governed by linear Maxwell equations. The validity of the theories is illustrated by an example. PMID:17206252
Theory-based behavior change interventions: comments on Hobbis and Sutton.
Fishbein, Martin; Ajzen, Icek
2005-01-01
Hobbis and Sutton (this issue) suggest that Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) techniques can be used in interventions based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Although this suggestion has merit, CBT is only one of many applicable methods for producing belief and behavior change. Moreover, CBT's primary purpose is to help people carry out intended behaviors, not to influence intentions, and that it is more useful in face-to-face than in community-level interventions. Contrary to Hobbis and Sutton's critique, TPB can accommodate core beliefs or fundamental assumptions, but the theory suggests that interventions targeted at such beliefs are less effective than interventions targeted at behavior specific beliefs. PMID:15576497
Song, Misoon; Choi, Suyoung; Kim, Se-An; Seo, Kyoungsan; Lee, Soo Jin
2015-01-01
Development of behavior theory-based health promotion programs is encouraged with the paradigm shift from contents to behavior outcomes. This article describes the development process of the diabetes self-management program for older Koreans (DSME-OK) using intervention mapping (IM) protocol. The IM protocol includes needs assessment, defining goals and objectives, identifying theory and determinants, developing a matrix to form change objectives, selecting strategies and methods, structuring the program, and planning for evaluation and pilot testing. The DSME-OK adopted seven behavior objectives developed by the American Association of Diabetes Educators as behavioral outcomes. The program applied an information-motivation-behavioral skills model, and interventions were targeted to 3 determinants to change health behaviors. Specific methods were selected to achieve each objective guided by IM protocol. As the final step, program evaluation was planned including a pilot test. The DSME-OK was structured as the 3 determinants of the IMB model were intervened to achieve behavior objectives in each session. The program has 12 weekly 90-min sessions tailored for older adults. Using the IM protocol in developing a theory-based self-management program was beneficial in terms of providing a systematic guide to developing theory-based and behavior outcome-focused health education programs. PMID:26062288
Reference Frame Fields based on Quantum Theory Representations of Real and Complex Numbers
Paul Benioff
2008-03-05
A quantum theory representations of real (R) and complex (C) numbers is given that is based on states of single, finite strings of qukits for any base k > 1. Both unary representations and the possibility that qukits with k a prime number are elementary and the rest composite are discussed. Cauchy sequences of qukit string states are defined from the arithmetic properties. The representations of R and C, as equivalence classes of these sequences, differ from classical kit string state representations in two ways: the freedom of choice of basis states, and the fact that each quantum theory representation is part of a mathematical structure that is itself based on the real and complex numbers. These aspects enable the description of 3 dimensional frame fields labeled by different k values, different basis or gauge choices, and different iteration stages. The reference frames in the field are based on each R and C representation where each frame contains representations of all physical theories as mathematical structures based on the R and C representation. Approaches to integrating this with physics are described. It is observed that R and C values of physical quantities, matrix elements, etc. which are viewed in a frame as elementary and featureless, are seen in a parent frame as equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences of qukit string states.
Vallance, Jeffrey K; Courneya, Kerry S; Taylor, Lorian M; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Mackey, John R
2008-04-01
This study's objective was to develop and evaluate the suitability and appropriateness of a theory-based physical activity (PA) guidebook for breast cancer survivors. Guidebook content was constructed based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) using salient exercise beliefs identified by breast cancer survivors in previous research. Expert judges completed the Maine Area Health Education Center's 18-item attribute checklist for evaluating written health information. Judges indicated that the PA guidebook achieved desirable attributes for the suitability and appropriateness of the guidebook. A subset of TPB expert judges completed items designed to determine the degree of match between the guidebook content and the respective TPB components. Mean item-content relevance ratings indicated at least a "very good match" between the PA guidebook content and the keyed TPB domains. Theoretically based PA information may be an effective strategy for increasing PA in breast cancer survivors at the population level. PMID:16861593
Paying for Express Checkout: Competition and Price Discrimination in Multi-Server Queuing Systems
Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O.; Mongrain, Steeve
2014-01-01
We model competition between two firms selling identical goods to customers who arrive in the market stochastically. Shoppers choose where to purchase based upon both price and the time cost associated with waiting for service. One seller provides two separate queues, each with its own server, while the other seller has a single queue and server. We explore the market impact of the multi-server seller engaging in waiting cost-based-price discrimination by charging a premium for express checkout. Specifically, we analyze this situation computationally and through the use of controlled laboratory experiments. We find that this form of price discrimination is harmful to sellers and beneficial to consumers. When the two-queue seller offers express checkout for impatient customers, the single queue seller focuses on the patient shoppers thereby driving down prices and profits while increasing consumer surplus. PMID:24667809
Paying for express checkout: competition and price discrimination in multi-server queuing systems.
Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O; Mongrain, Steeve
2014-01-01
We model competition between two firms selling identical goods to customers who arrive in the market stochastically. Shoppers choose where to purchase based upon both price and the time cost associated with waiting for service. One seller provides two separate queues, each with its own server, while the other seller has a single queue and server. We explore the market impact of the multi-server seller engaging in waiting cost-based-price discrimination by charging a premium for express checkout. Specifically, we analyze this situation computationally and through the use of controlled laboratory experiments. We find that this form of price discrimination is harmful to sellers and beneficial to consumers. When the two-queue seller offers express checkout for impatient customers, the single queue seller focuses on the patient shoppers thereby driving down prices and profits while increasing consumer surplus. PMID:24667809
A parallel-polled virtual output queued switch with a buffered crossbar
K. Yoshigoe; K. J. Christensen
2001-01-01
Input buffered switches with virtual output queues (VOQ) are scalable to very high speeds, but require switch matrix scheduling algorithms to achieve high throughput. Existing scheduling algorithms based on parallel request grant-accept cycles cannot natively support variable length Ethernet packets. A parallel-polled VOQ (PP-VOQ) architecture is proposed that natively supports variable length packets. Small amounts of FIFO buffering within a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez-Acevedo, Olga
2015-03-01
Metallo-base pair interactions are two to three times larger than the conventional hydrogen-bond pair interaction. Such high stability can drive the formation of helices and higher-order structures with the possibility to design novel DNA-based nanomaterials. Nucleobases and noble metal atoms (Au,Ag) have wide range of possible interacting sites depending on both the metal charge (ion, cation or neutral) and chemical nature. I will overview the electronic properties, both ground state and optical, of metallo-DNA structures obtained by global optimization and Density Functional Theory, discussing the effect of pairing and inclusion of backbone on the metal-base elementary unit.
Miller, Bryan D
2008-01-01
The general purpose of the present article is to emphasize contemporary research-based and theory-based assessment, specifically Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory-based assessment (Carroll, 1993, 1997; Horn & Noll, 1997), in work with deaf and hard of hearing students in the school setting. The article focuses on the history of cognitive ability theory and test development and interpretation, as well as contemporary perspectives, including recent applications of CHC-based assessment useful with deaf and hard of hearing students in school-based evaluations. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:18488534
Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua
2014-01-01
A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:24795535
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Kin-Yiu; Gao, Jiali
2007-12-01
Based on Kleinert's variational perturbation (KP) theory [Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics, Statistics, Polymer Physics, and Financial Markets, 3rd ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004)], we present an analytic path-integral approach for computing the effective centroid potential. The approach enables the KP theory to be applied to any realistic systems beyond the first-order perturbation (i.e., the original Feynman-Kleinert [Phys. Rev. A 34, 5080 (1986)] variational method). Accurate values are obtained for several systems in which exact quantum results are known. Furthermore, the computed kinetic isotope effects for a series of proton transfer reactions, in which the potential energy surfaces are evaluated by density-functional theory, are in good accordance with experiments. We hope that our method could be used by non-path-integral experts or experimentalists as a "black box" for any given system.
Jose P. Palao; Ronnie Kosloff
2002-08-24
A quantum gate is realized by specific unitary transformations operating on states representing qubits. Considering a quantum system employed as an element in a quantum computing scheme, the task is therefore to enforce the pre-specified unitary transformation. This task is carried out by an external time dependent field. Optimal control theory has been suggested as a method to compute the external field which alters the evolution of the system such that it performs the desire unitary transformation. This study compares two recent implementations of optimal control theory to find the field that induces a quantum gate. The first approach is based on the equation of motion of the unitary transformation. The second approach generalizes the state to state formulation of optimal control theory. This work highlight the formal relation between the two approaches.
Liu, Yanbin; Liu, Mengying; Sun, Peihua
2014-01-01
A typical model of hypersonic vehicle has the complicated dynamics such as the unstable states, the nonminimum phases, and the strong coupling input-output relations. As a result, designing a robust stabilization controller is essential to implement the anticipated tasks. This paper presents a robust stabilization controller based on the guardian maps theory for hypersonic vehicle. First, the guardian maps theories are provided to explain the constraint relations between the open subsets of complex plane and the eigenvalues of the state matrix of closed-loop control system. Then, a general control structure in relation to the guardian maps theories is proposed to achieve the respected design demands. Furthermore, the robust stabilization control law depending on the given general control structure is designed for the longitudinal model of hypersonic vehicle. Finally, a simulation example is provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:24795535
A comparison of design variables for control theory based airfoil optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, James; Jameson, Antony
1995-01-01
This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In our previous work in the area it was shown that control theory could be employed to devise effective optimization procedures for two-dimensional profiles by using either the potential flow or the Euler equations with either a conformal mapping or a general coordinate system. We have also explored three-dimensional extensions of these formulations recently. The goal of our present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the control theory approach by designing airfoils using both Hicks-Henne functions and B-spline control points as design variables. The research also demonstrates that the parameterization of the design space is an open question in aerodynamic design.
A closure for meso-scale eddy fluxes based on linear instability theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eden, Carsten
Linear instability theory is used to predict the lateral diffusivity K for eddy buoyancy fluxes in an idealized channel model, following a suggestion by Killworth (1997). The vertical structure and magnitude of K agree approximately with the non-linear model results. The lateral structure of K from linear theory lacks minima within eddy-driven zonal jets, pointing towards a non-linear mechanism for mixing barriers in the channel model. This effect can be accounted for by a modification of K from linear theory by the kinematic effect of the background flow following a recent suggestion by Ferrari and Nikurashin (2010). Implementation of this closure for K in an eddy mixing framework based on potential vorticity mixing in a zonally averaged model version yields approximate agreement with the zonally resolved version over a certain range of external parameters, in particular with respect to the reproduction of eddy-driven zonal jets.
Porter, Mason A.
2011-01-01
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 036112 (2011) The unreasonable effectiveness of tree-based theory manuscript received 23 December 2010; published 23 March 2011) We demonstrate that a tree-based theory numerically using both real-world networks from various domains and several classes of synthetic clustered
A. I. Kalinichev; W. H. Hoell
2004-01-01
A model is constructed for sorption dynamics in multicomponent ion-exchange systems with a weak-base ion exchanger. The model is based on computer-solved nonlinear material balances and internal-diffusion kinetic equations. The multicomponent equilibria involving a weak-base ion exchanger are described in terms of surface complexation theory. According to this theory, the fixed amino groups of the ion exchanger (Lewis bases) and
On the Foundations of the Theory of a new Collatz Based Number System
Michael A. Idowu
2015-03-18
Set out here are some fundamental theories that may be regarded as newly discovered metamathematics of the odd integers in relation to the Collatz conjecture (also called the 3x+1 problem). Originally motivated by the requirement to invent a new optimised integer factorisation method, this foundational paper primarily focuses on the foundation, formalisation and presentation of a new theoretical framework (schema or blueprint) of a Collatz based number system. The proposed framework is based on metamathematical theories meticulously derived through iterative analyses and reverse engineering (i.e., by hand and mathematical computations) of many large subsets of integers. A collation of the fundamental results from these analytical attempts has led to the establishment of a completely deterministic model of a generalised Collatz based number system that is fundamentally and strangely associated with nonchaotic patterns. The proposed Collatz based number schema comprises of both visual and theoretical representations of many hidden patterns in Collatz sequences yet to be reported in literature. This novel theoretical approach may be viewed as a new method to contemporary Collatz conjecture research which may be connected to the proofs of many other mathematical theorems in number theory and discrete mathematics.
Membrane-Based Characterization of a Gas Component — A Transient Sensor Theory
Lazik, Detlef
2014-01-01
Based on a multi-gas solution-diffusion problem for a dense symmetrical membrane this paper presents a transient theory of a planar, membrane-based sensor cell for measuring gas from both initial conditions: dynamic and thermodynamic equilibrium. Using this theory, the ranges for which previously developed, simpler approaches are valid will be discussed; these approaches are of vital interest for membrane-based gas sensor applications. Finally, a new theoretical approach is introduced to identify varying gas components by arranging sensor cell pairs resulting in a concentration independent gas-specific critical time. Literature data for the N2, O2, Ar, CH4, CO2, H2 and C4H10 diffusion coefficients and solubilities for a polydimethylsiloxane membrane were used to simulate gas specific sensor responses. The results demonstrate the influence of (i) the operational mode; (ii) sensor geometry and (iii) gas matrices (air, Ar) on that critical time. Based on the developed theory the case-specific suitable membrane materials can be determined and both operation and design options for these sensors can be optimized for individual applications. The results of mixing experiments for different gases (O2, CO2) in a gas matrix of air confirmed the theoretical predictions. PMID:24608004
Personality and Psychopathology: a Theory-Based Revision of Eysenck’s PEN Model
van Kampen, Dirk
2009-01-01
The principal aim of this paper is to investigate whether it is possible to create a personality taxonomy of clinical relevance out of Eysenck’s original PEN model by repairing the various shortcomings that can be noted in Eysenck’s personality theory, particularly in relation to P or Psychoticism. Addressing three approaches that have been followed to answer the question ‘which personality factors are basic?’, arguments are listed to show that particularly the theory-informed approach, originally defended by Eysenck, may lead to scientific progress. However, also noting the many deficiencies in the nomological network surrounding P, the peculiar situation arises that we adhere to Eysenck’s theory-informed methodology, but criticize his theory. These arguments and criticisms led to the replacement of P by three orthogonal and theory-based factors, Insensitivity (S), Orderliness (G), and Absorption (A), that together with the dimensions E or Extraversion and N or Neuroticism, that were retained from Eysenck’s PEN model, appear to give a comprehensive account of the main vulnerability factors in schizophrenia and affective disorders, as well as in other psychopathological conditions. PMID:20498694
Web-Based Learning Environment: A Theory-Based Design Process for Development and Evaluation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nam, Chang S.; Smith-Jackson, Tonya L.
2007-01-01
Web-based courses and programs have increasingly been developed by many academic institutions, organizations, and companies worldwide due to their benefits for both learners and educators. However, many of the developmental approaches lack two important considerations needed for implementing Web-based learning applications: (1) integration of the…
Are node-based and stem-based clades equivalent? Insights from graph theory
Martin, Jeremy L.; Blackburn, David C.; Wiley, Edward O.
2010-11-08
interpretation of their vertices and edges. Stem-based and node-based trees carry exactly the same information and the biological interpretation of each is similar. Translation between these two kinds of trees can be accomplished by a simple algorithm, which we...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Bennett D.; Chapman, Walter G.
2013-01-01
In the framework of Wertheim's theory, we develop the first classical density functional theory for patchy colloids where the patch can bond more than once. To test the theory we perform new Monte Carlo simulations for the model system of patchy colloids in a planar slit pore. The theory is shown to be in excellent agreement with simulation for the density profiles and bonding fractions. It is also shown that the theory obeys the wall contact rule by accurately predicting bulk pressures from the wall contact density.
Gonnering, Russell S
2010-01-01
Of all the clinical competencies, the least understood are Systems-Based Practice and Practice-Based Learning and Improvement. With a shift to competency-based education and evaluation across the spectrum of surgical education and practice, a clear understanding of the power and utility of each competency is paramount. Health care operates as a complex adaptive system, with dynamics foreign to many health care professionals and educators. The adaptation and evolution of such a system is related directly to both the individual and the organizational learning of the agents within the system and knowledge management strategies. Far from being "difficult," Systems-Based Practice and Practice-Based Learning form the heart of quality improvement initiatives and future productivity advances in health care. PMID:20656610
The Circuit Theory Behind Coupled-Mode Magnetic Resonance-Based Wireless Power Transmission.
Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam
2012-09-01
Inductive coupling is a viable scheme to wirelessly energize devices with a wide range of power requirements from nanowatts in radio frequency identification tags to milliwatts in implantable microelectronic devices, watts in mobile electronics, and kilowatts in electric cars. Several analytical methods for estimating the power transfer efficiency (PTE) across inductive power transmission links have been devised based on circuit and electromagnetic theories by electrical engineers and physicists, respectively. However, a direct side-by-side comparison between these two approaches is lacking. Here, we have analyzed the PTE of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors via reflected load theory (RLT) and compared it with a method known as coupled-mode theory (CMT). We have also derived PTE equations for multiple capacitively loaded inductors based on both RLT and CMT. We have proven that both methods basically result in the same set of equations in steady state and either method can be applied for short- or midrange coupling conditions. We have verified the accuracy of both methods through measurements, and also analyzed the transient response of a pair of capacitively loaded inductors. Our analysis shows that the CMT is only applicable to coils with high quality factor (Q) and large coupling distance. It simplifies the analysis by reducing the order of the differential equations by half compared to the circuit theory. PMID:24683368
Applying trait-based models to achieve functional targets for theory-driven ecological restoration.
Laughlin, Daniel C
2014-07-01
Manipulating community assemblages to achieve functional targets is a key component of restoring degraded ecosystems. The response-and-effect trait framework provides a conceptual foundation for translating restoration goals into functional trait targets, but a quantitative framework has been lacking for translating trait targets into assemblages of species that practitioners can actually manipulate. This study describes new trait-based models that can be used to generate ranges of species abundances to test theories about which traits, which trait values and which species assemblages are most effective for achieving functional outcomes. These models are generalisable, flexible tools that can be widely applied across many terrestrial ecosystems. Examples illustrate how the framework generates assemblages of indigenous species to (1) achieve desired community responses by applying the theories of environmental filtering, limiting similarity and competitive hierarchies, or (2) achieve desired effects on ecosystem functions by applying the theories of mass ratios and niche complementarity. Experimental applications of this framework will advance our understanding of how to set functional trait targets to achieve the desired restoration goals. A trait-based framework provides restoration ecology with a robust scaffold on which to apply fundamental ecological theory to maintain resilient and functioning ecosystems in a rapidly changing world. PMID:24766299
Unfairness Metrics for Space-Sharing Parallel Job Schedulers Gerald Sabin and P. Sadayappan
Feitelson, Dror
scheduling and queuing theory. The Resource Allocation Queuing Fairness Metric (RAQFM) [9, 10, 11] is a model, there is no accepted model for characterizing fairness in paral- lel job scheduling. We introduce two fairness metrics intended for parallel job schedulers, both of which are based on models from sociology, networking
Quantitative Models for Performance Enhancement of Information Retrieval from Relational Databases
Gautam, Natarajan
information from relevant databases. We use queuing-theory-based analytical models as well as simulations of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 Abstract to obtain system performance measures. Keywords: Information retrieval, customer profile, queuing models
Agent-based modeling: a new approach for theory building in social psychology.
Smith, Eliot R; Conrey, Frederica R
2007-02-01
Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and modeling techniques most commonly used in social psychology are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alternative approach to theory building, agent-based modeling (ABM), which involves simulation of large numbers of autonomous agents that interact with each other and with a simulated environment and the observation of emergent patterns from their interactions. The authors believe that the ABM approach is better able than prevailing approaches in the field, variable-based modeling (VBM) techniques such as causal modeling, to capture types of complex, dynamic, interactive processes so important in the social world. The article elaborates several important contrasts between ABM and VBM and offers specific recommendations for learning more and applying the ABM approach. PMID:18453457
Design of Flexure-based Precision Transmission Mechanisms using Screw Theory
Hopkins, J B; Panas, R M
2011-02-07
This paper enables the synthesis of flexure-based transmission mechanisms that possess multiple decoupled inputs and outputs of any type (e.g. rotations, translations, and/or screw motions), which are linked by designer-specified transmission ratios. A comprehensive library of geometric shapes is utilized from which every feasible concept that possesses the desired transmission characteristics may be rapidly conceptualized and compared before an optimal concept is selected. These geometric shapes represent the rigorous mathematics of screw theory and uniquely link a body's desired motions to the flexible constraints that enable those motions. This paper's impact is most significant to the design of nano-positioners, microscopy stages, optical mounts, and sensors. A flexure-based microscopy stage was designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate the utility of the theory.
Finding theory- and evidence-based alternatives to fear appeals: Intervention Mapping
Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay; Parcel, Guy S; Gottlieb, Nell H; Fernández, María E
2014-01-01
Fear arousal—vividly showing people the negative health consequences of life-endangering behaviors—is popular as a method to raise awareness of risk behaviors and to change them into health-promoting behaviors. However, most data suggest that, under conditions of low efficacy, the resulting reaction will be defensive. Instead of applying fear appeals, health promoters should identify effective alternatives to fear arousal by carefully developing theory- and evidence-based programs. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol helps program planners to optimize chances for effectiveness. IM describes the intervention development process in six steps: (1) assessing the problem and community capacities, (2) specifying program objectives, (3) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical applications, (4) designing and organizing the program, (5) planning, adoption, and implementation, and (6) developing an evaluation plan. Authors who used IM indicated that it helped in bringing the development of interventions to a higher level. PMID:24811880
Comparison of inlet suppressor data with approximate theory based on cutoff ratio
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rice, E. J.; Heidelberg, L. J.
1979-01-01
Inlet suppressor far-field directivity suppression was quantitatively compared with that predicted using an approximate linear design and evaluation method based upon mode cutoff ratio. The experimental data was obtained using a series of cylindrical point-reacting inlet liners on a YF102 engine. The theoretical prediction program is based upon simplified sound propagation concepts derived from exact calculations. These indicate that all of the controlling phenomenon can be approximately correlated with mode cutoff ratio which itself is intimately related to the angles of propagation within the duct. The theory-data comparisons are intended to point out possible deficiencies in the approximate theory which may be corrected. After all theoretical refinements are made, then empirical corrections can be applied.
Finding theory- and evidence-based alternatives to fear appeals: Intervention Mapping.
Kok, Gerjo; Bartholomew, L Kay; Parcel, Guy S; Gottlieb, Nell H; Fernández, María E
2014-04-01
Fear arousal-vividly showing people the negative health consequences of life-endangering behaviors-is popular as a method to raise awareness of risk behaviors and to change them into health-promoting behaviors. However, most data suggest that, under conditions of low efficacy, the resulting reaction will be defensive. Instead of applying fear appeals, health promoters should identify effective alternatives to fear arousal by carefully developing theory- and evidence-based programs. The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol helps program planners to optimize chances for effectiveness. IM describes the intervention development process in six steps: (1) assessing the problem and community capacities, (2) specifying program objectives, (3) selecting theory-based intervention methods and practical applications, (4) designing and organizing the program, (5) planning, adoption, and implementation, and (6) developing an evaluation plan. Authors who used IM indicated that it helped in bringing the development of interventions to a higher level. PMID:24811880
DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY-BASED INSTRUMENT REGARDING ADOLESCENT ATHLETES AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
Michael A. Perko
Development of a Theory-based Instrument Regarding Adolescent Athletes and Dietary Supplements: Dietary supplement use is a well-documented practice among adult and adolescent athletes. Most recently the popular press was as interested in professional baseball player Mark McGwire's use of the dietary supplement Androstenedione as they were in his record-breaking homerun season. As a whole, athletes continue to use dietary supplements
Prediction of Self-Diffusion Coefficients of Fluids Based on Friction and Free Volume Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Qiu; Yang, Liping; Tao, Ye; Luo, Caiyun; Xu, Zijun; Xi, Tonggeng
2015-07-01
With a combination of friction and free volume theories, a new equation for calculating the self-diffusion coefficient is presented based on molecular dynamics simulation data in the literature. The equation could be applied to calculate the self-diffusion coefficient of real fluids in the gas or liquid phase. The equation was used to calculate the self-diffusion coefficients of 18 substances. The absolute average relative deviation was 13.79 %.
Applying Educational Theory to Simulation-Based Training and Assessment in Surgery.
Chauvin, Sheila W
2015-08-01
Considerable progress has been made regarding the range of simulator technologies and simulation formats. Similarly, results from research in human learning and behavior have facilitated the development of best practices in simulation-based training (SBT) and surgical education. Today, SBT is a common curriculum component in surgical education that can significantly complement clinical learning, performance, and patient care experiences. Beginning with important considerations for selecting appropriate forms of simulation, several relevant educational theories of learning are described. PMID:26210964
R. R. J. McAllister; L. R. Izquierdo; M. A. Janssen; D. M. Stafford Smith
2009-01-01
While research-article impact is routinely judged by citation counts, there is recognition that a much broader view is needed to better judge the true value of citations. This paper applies a developing framework based on the application of network theory, where the network consists of journal articles on arid-systems research which are listed on ISI Web-of-Science. Keywords were used to
Transport theory of coupled quantum dots based on auxiliary operator method
Oh, Jung Hyun; Bubanja, Vladimir
2010-01-01
We formulate the theory of electron transport through coupled-quantum dots by extending the auxiliary operator representation. By using the generating functional technique, we derive the exact expressions for currents, dot-occupation numbers and spin correlations, and examine them based on the non-equilibrium Green's function method under the non-crossing approximation (NCA). Our formulation generalizes the previous NCA approaches by allowing full occupation numbers with a finite Coulomb repulsion.
Carol M. Woods; David Thissen
2006-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new method for fitting item response theory models with the latent population\\u000a distribution estimated from the data using splines. A spline-based density estimation system provides a flexible alternative\\u000a to existing procedures that use a normal distribution, or a different functional form, for the population distribution. A\\u000a simulation study shows that the
A queuing model for designing multi-modality buried target detection systems: preliminary results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malof, Jordan M.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.
2015-05-01
Many remote sensing modalities have been developed for buried target detection, each one offering its own relative advantages over the others. As a result there has been interest in combining several modalities into a single detection platform that benefits from the advantages of each constituent sensor, without suffering from their weaknesses. Traditionally this involves collecting data continuously on all sensors and then performing data, feature, or decision level fusion. While this is effective for lowering false alarm rates, this strategy neglects the potential benefits of a more general system-level fusion architecture. Such an architecture can involve dynamically changing which modalities are in operation. For example, a large standoff modality such as a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera can be employed until an alarm is encountered, at which point a high performance (but short standoff) sensor, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), is employed. Because the system is dynamically changing its rate of advance and sensors, it becomes difficult to evaluate the expected false alarm rate and advance rate. In this work, a probabilistic model is proposed that can be used to estimate these quantities based on a provided operating policy. In this model the system consists of a set of states (e.g., sensors employed) and conditions encountered (e.g., alarm locations). The predictive accuracy of the model is evaluated using a collection of collocated FLIR and GPR data and the results indicate that the model is effective at predicting the desired system metrics.
Godin, Gaston; Bélanger-Gravel, Ariane; Eccles, Martin; Grimshaw, Jeremy
2008-01-01
Background There is an important gap between the implications of clinical research evidence and the routine clinical practice of healthcare professionals. Because individual decisions are often central to adoption of a clinical-related behaviour, more information about the cognitive mechanisms underlying behaviours is needed to improve behaviour change interventions targeting healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to systematically review the published scientific literature about factors influencing health professionals' behaviours based on social cognitive theories. These theories refer to theories where individual cognitions/thoughts are viewed as processes intervening between observable stimuli and responses in real world situations. Methods We searched psycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CIHNAL, Index to theses, PROQUEST dissertations and theses and Current Contents for articles published in English only. We included studies that aimed to predict healthcare professionals' intentions and behaviours with a clear specification of relying on a social cognitive theory. Information on percent of explained variance (R2) was used to compute the overall frequency-weighted mean R2 to evaluate the efficacy of prediction in several contexts and according to different methodological aspects. The cognitive factors most consistently associated with prediction of healthcare professionals' intention and behaviours were documented. Results Seventy eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Among these studies, 72 provided information on the determinants of intention and 16 prospective studies provided information on the determinants of behaviour. The theory most often used as reference was the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) or its extension the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). An overall frequency-weighted mean R2 of 0.31 was observed for the prediction of behaviour; 0.59 for the prediction of intention. A number of moderators influenced the efficacy of prediction; frequency-weighted mean R2 varied from 0.001 to 0.58 for behaviour and 0.19 to 0.81 for intention. Conclusion Our results suggest that the TPB appears to be an appropriate theory to predict behaviour whereas other theories better capture the dynamic underlying intention. In addition, given the variations in efficacy of prediction, special care should be given to methodological issues, especially to better define the context of behaviour performance. PMID:18631386
Varela SenÂ´in2 1 NXP Semiconductors, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2 Computer Engineering, Delft University switches are based on single-hop crossbar fabrics, with line cards that use virtual output) as the crossbar fabric, with FIFO-queued line cards. The use of a multi-hop crossbar fabric has several advantages
Game Theory Based Dynamic Bit-Rate Adaptation for H.264 Scalable Video Transmission in 4G
Jagannatham, Aditya K.
Game Theory Based Dynamic Bit-Rate Adaptation for H.264 Scalable Video Transmission in 4G Wireless adaptation game based on the quasi-concavity of the net video utility function. Existence of Nash equilibrium based services such as video conferencing, interactive gaming and subscription based broadcast
Value-at-risk estimation with wavelet-based extreme value theory: Evidence from emerging markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cifter, Atilla
2011-06-01
This paper introduces wavelet-based extreme value theory (EVT) for univariate value-at-risk estimation. Wavelets and EVT are combined for volatility forecasting to estimate a hybrid model. In the first stage, wavelets are used as a threshold in generalized Pareto distribution, and in the second stage, EVT is applied with a wavelet-based threshold. This new model is applied to two major emerging stock markets: the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) and the Budapest Stock Exchange (BUX). The relative performance of wavelet-based EVT is benchmarked against the Riskmetrics-EWMA, ARMA-GARCH, generalized Pareto distribution, and conditional generalized Pareto distribution models. The empirical results show that the wavelet-based extreme value theory increases predictive performance of financial forecasting according to number of violations and tail-loss tests. The superior forecasting performance of the wavelet-based EVT model is also consistent with Basel II requirements, and this new model can be used by financial institutions as well.
The theory of community based health and safety programs: a critical examination
Nilsen, P
2006-01-01
This paper examines the theoretical underpinning of the community based approach to health and safety programs. Drawing upon the literature, a theory is constructed by elucidating assumptions of community based programs. The theory is then put to test by analyzing the extent to which the assumptions are supported by empirical evidence and the extent to which the assumptions have been applied in community based injury prevention practice. Seven principles representing key assumptions of the community based approach to health and safety programs are identified. The analysis suggests that some of the principles may have important shortcomings. Programs overwhelmingly define geographical or geopolitical units as communities, which is problematic considering that these entities can be heterogeneous and characterized by a weak sense of community. This may yield insufficient community mobilization and inadequate program reach. At the same time, none of the principles identified as most plausible appears to be widely or fully applied in program practice. The implication is that many community based health and safety programs do not function at an optimum level, which could explain some of the difficulties in demonstrating effectiveness seen with many of these programs. PMID:16751442
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waszak, Martin R.
1992-01-01
The application of a sector-based stability theory approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant, multivariable systems is explored. A review of basic sector properties and sector-based approach are presented first. The sector-based approach is then applied to several general forms of parameter uncertainty to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results indicate that the sector uncertainty bound can be used effectively to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model. Inherent conservatism is a potential limitation of the sector-based approach, especially for highly dependent uncertain parameters. In addition, the representation of the system dynamics can affect the amount of conservatism reflected in the sector bound. Careful application of the model can help to reduce this conservatism, however, and the solution approach has some degrees of freedom that may be further exploited to reduce the conservatism.
Perturbation theory based on the Variational Nodal Transport method in X-Y-Z geometry
Laurin-Kovitz, K.F.; Lewis, E.E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1995-07-01
A perturbation method based on the Variational Nodal Method (VNM) of solving the neutron transport equation is developed for three-dimensional Cartesian geometry. The method utilizes the solution of the corresponding adjoint transport equation to calculate changes in the critical eigenvalue due to changes in cross sections. Both first order and exact perturbation theory expressions are derived. The adjoint solution algorithm has been formulated and incorporated into the VNM option of the Argonne National Laboratory DEF3D production code. The perturbation method is currently implemented as a post-processor to the VNM option of the DIF3D code. To demonstrate the efficacy of the method, example perturbations are applied to the Takeda Benchmark Model 1. In the first perturbation example, the thermal capture cross section is increased within the core region. For the second perturbation example, the increase in the thermal capture cross section is applied in the control rod region. The resulting changes in the critical eigenvalue are obtained by direct calculation in the VNM and compared to the change approximated by the first order and exact theory expressions from the perturbation method. Exact perturbation theory results are inexcellent agreement with the actual eigenvalue differences calculated in the VNM. First order theory holds well for sufficiently small perturbations.
Analysis of dislocation pile-ups using a dislocation-based continuum theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, K.; Dickel, D.; Schmitt, S.; Sandfeld, S.; Weygand, D.; Gumbsch, P.
2014-03-01
The increasing demand for materials with well-defined microstructure, accompanied by the advancing miniaturization of devices, is the reason for the growing interest in physically motivated, dislocation-based continuum theories of plasticity. In recent years, various advanced continuum theories have been introduced, which are able to described the motion of straight and curved dislocation lines. The focus of this paper is the question of how to include fundamental properties of discrete dislocations during their motion and interaction in a continuum dislocation dynamics (CDD) theory. In our CDD model, we obtain elastic interaction stresses for the bundles of dislocations by a mean-field stress, which represents long-range stress components, and a short range corrective stress component, which represents the gradients of the local dislocation density. The attracting and repelling behavior of bundles of straight dislocations of the same and opposite sign are analyzed. Furthermore, considering different dislocation pile-up systems, we show that the CDD formulation can solve various fundamental problems of micro-plasticity. To obtain a mesh size independent formulation (which is a prerequisite for further application of the theory to more complex situations), we propose a discretization dependent scaling of the short range interaction stress. CDD results are compared to analytical solutions and benchmark data obtained from discrete dislocation simulations.
Bao, Peng
2013-01-01
An interaction energy decomposition analysis method based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW-ED) approach is described. The first main feature of the BLW-ED method is that it combines concepts of valence bond and molecular orbital theories such that the intermediate and physically intuitive electron-localized states are variationally optimized by self-consistent field calculations. Furthermore, the block-localization scheme can be used both in wave function theory and in density functional theory, providing a useful tool to gain insights on intermolecular interactions that would otherwise be difficult to obtain using the delocalized Kohn–Sham DFT. These features allow broad applications of the BLW method to energy decomposition (BLW-ED) analysis for intermolecular interactions. In this perspective, we outline theoretical aspects of the BLW-ED method, and illustrate its applications in hydrogen-bonding and ?–cation intermolecular interactions as well as metal–carbonyl complexes. Future prospects on the development of a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT) are presented, making use of block-localized electronic states as the basis configurations. PMID:21369567
Gordon, C P
1996-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a broadly based theory of adolescent decision making including all the necessary components of the subject: cognitive development, social and psychological factors, and, perhaps most importantly, cultural and societal influences. Previous theories and applications have often focused on only one or two aspects. This theory is then applied to the problem of prevention of early pregnancy at an inner-city high school. Use of this theory, combined with an open-ended data-gathering format made possible some of the unexpected findings of this study: most of the young women at this school desire their pregnancies; many of them prefer single parenthood to traditional family structure; and low academic skills and poverty often result in pregnancy, rather than pregnancy causing high school dropouts and a life of poverty. Prevention programs will necessarily differ for sexually active adolescents who do and do not want pregnancy and for younger versus older adolescents. In designing such programs, we need to focus on pregnancy as the problem rather than on adolescent sexuality. PMID:8874604
Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F; Elliott, J Richard
2013-12-21
In this work, we aim to develop a version of the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT)-? equation of state (EOS) that is compatible with united-atom force fields, rather than experimental data. We rely on the accuracy of the force fields to provide the relation to experimental data. Although, our objective is a transferable theory of interfacial properties for soft and fused heteronuclear chains, we first clarify the details of the SAFT-? approach in terms of site-based simulations for homogeneous fluids. We show that a direct comparison of Helmholtz free energy to molecular simulation, in the framework of a third order Weeks-Chandler-Andersen perturbation theory, leads to an EOS that takes force field parameters as input and reproduces simulation results for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE) calculations. For example, saturated liquid density and vapor pressure of n-alkanes ranging from methane to dodecane deviate from those of the Transferable Potential for Phase Equilibria (TraPPE) force field by about 0.8% and 4%, respectively. Similar agreement between simulation and theory is obtained for critical properties and second virial coefficient. The EOS also reproduces simulation data of mixtures with about 5% deviation in bubble point pressure. Extension to inhomogeneous systems and united-atom site types beyond those used in description of n-alkanes will be addressed in succeeding papers. PMID:24359349
Theory of plasma contactors in ground-based experiments and low Earth orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerver, M. J.; Hastings, Daniel E.; Oberhardt, M. R.
1990-01-01
Previous theoretical work on plasma contactors as current collectors has fallen into two categories: collisionless double layer theory (describing space charge limited contactor clouds) and collisional quasineutral theory. Ground based experiments at low current are well explained by double layer theory, but this theory does not scale well to power generation by electrodynamic tethers in space, since very high anode potentials are needed to draw a substantial ambient electron current across the magnetic field in the absence of collisions (or effective collisions due to turbulence). Isotropic quasineutral models of contactor clouds, extending over a region where the effective collision frequency upsilon sub e exceeds the electron cyclotron frequency omega sub ce, have low anode potentials, but would collect very little ambient electron current, much less than the emitted ion current. A new model is presented, for an anisotropic contactor cloud oriented along the magnetic field, with upsilon sub e less than omega sub ce. The electron motion along the magnetic field is nearly collisionless, forming double layers in that direction, while across the magnetic field the electrons diffuse collisionally and the potential profile is determined by quasineutrality. Using a simplified expression for upsilon sub e due to ion acoustic turbulence, an analytic solution has been found for this model, which should be applicable to current collection in space. The anode potential is low and the collected ambient electron current can be several times the emitted ion current.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhenglin; Zhang, Renhe; Li, Fenghua
2010-09-01
Ocean reverberation in shallow water is often the predominant background interference in active sonar applications. It is still an open problem in underwater acoustics. In recent years, an oscillation phenomenon of the reverberation intensity, due to the interference of the normal modes, has been observed in many experiments. A coherent reverberation theory has been developed and used to explain this oscillation phenomenon [F. Li et al., Journal of Sound and Vibration, 252(3), 457-468, 2002]. However, the published coherent reverberation theory is for the range independent environment. Following the derivations by F. Li and Ellis [D. D. Ellis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 97(5), 2804-2814, 1995], a general reverberation model based on the adiabatic normal mode theory in a range dependent shallow water environment is presented. From this theory the coherent or incoherent reverberation field caused by sediment inhomogeneity and surface roughness can be predicted. Observations of reverberation from the 2001 Asian Sea International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) in the East China Sea are used to test the model. Model/data comparison shows that the coherent reverberation model can predict the experimental oscillation phenomenon of reverberation intensity and the vertical correlation of reverberation very well.
Ghobadi, Ahmadreza F.; Elliott, J. Richard
2013-12-21
In this work, we aim to develop a version of the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT)-? equation of state (EOS) that is compatible with united-atom force fields, rather than experimental data. We rely on the accuracy of the force fields to provide the relation to experimental data. Although, our objective is a transferable theory of interfacial properties for soft and fused heteronuclear chains, we first clarify the details of the SAFT-? approach in terms of site-based simulations for homogeneous fluids. We show that a direct comparison of Helmholtz free energy to molecular simulation, in the framework of a third order Weeks-Chandler-Andersen perturbation theory, leads to an EOS that takes force field parameters as input and reproduces simulation results for Vapor-Liquid Equilibria (VLE) calculations. For example, saturated liquid density and vapor pressure of n-alkanes ranging from methane to dodecane deviate from those of the Transferable Potential for Phase Equilibria (TraPPE) force field by about 0.8% and 4%, respectively. Similar agreement between simulation and theory is obtained for critical properties and second virial coefficient. The EOS also reproduces simulation data of mixtures with about 5% deviation in bubble point pressure. Extension to inhomogeneous systems and united-atom site types beyond those used in description of n-alkanes will be addressed in succeeding papers.
Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.
Latting, J K
1991-01-01
A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers. PMID:10114292
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MacDonald, Paul; Paunonen, Sampo V.
2002-01-01
Examined the behavior of item and person statistics from item response theory and classical test theory frameworks through Monte Carlo methods with simulated test data. Findings suggest that item difficulty and person ability estimates are highly comparable for both approaches. (SLD)
Lattice Boltzmann method for Lennard-Jones fluids based on the gradient theory of interfaces.
Kikkinides, E S; Kainourgiakis, M E; Yiotis, A G; Stubos, A K
2010-11-01
In the present study we propose a lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model derived from density gradient expansions of the discrete BBGKY evolution equations. The model is based on the mechanical approach of the gradient theory of interfaces. The basic input is the radial distribution function, which is related exclusively to the molecular interaction potential, rather than semiempirical equations of state used in previous LBE models. This function can be provided from independent molecular simulations or from approximate theories. Evidently the accuracy of the interaction potential, and thus the radial distribution function, reflects on the accuracy of the thermodynamic properties and consistency of the derived LBE model. We have applied the proposed model to obtain equilibrium bulk and interfacial properties of a Lennard-Jones fluid at different temperatures, T, close to critical, T(c). The results demonstrate that the LBE model is in excellent agreement with gradient theory as well as with independent literature results based on different molecular simulation approaches. Hence the proposed LBE model can recover accurately bulk and interfacial thermodynamics for a Lennard Jones fluid at T/T(c)>0.9. PMID:21230617
An optimization program based on the method of feasible directions: Theory and users guide
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belegundu, Ashok D.; Berke, Laszlo; Patnaik, Surya N.
1994-01-01
The theory and user instructions for an optimization code based on the method of feasible directions are presented. The code was written for wide distribution and ease of attachment to other simulation software. Although the theory of the method of feasible direction was developed in the 1960's, many considerations are involved in its actual implementation as a computer code. Included in the code are a number of features to improve robustness in optimization. The search direction is obtained by solving a quadratic program using an interior method based on Karmarkar's algorithm. The theory is discussed focusing on the important and often overlooked role played by the various parameters guiding the iterations within the program. Also discussed is a robust approach for handling infeasible starting points. The code was validated by solving a variety of structural optimization test problems that have known solutions obtained by other optimization codes. It has been observed that this code is robust: it has solved a variety of problems from different starting points. However, the code is inefficient in that it takes considerable CPU time as compared with certain other available codes. Further work is required to improve its efficiency while retaining its robustness.
Applying adult behavior change theory to support mediator-based intervention implementation.
Sanetti, Lisa M H; Kratochwill, Thomas R; Long, Anna C J
2013-03-01
A majority of evidence-based interventions in schools are delivered through consultation models and are implemented by a mediator, such as a teacher. Research indicates that mediators do not always adequately implement adopted evidence-based interventions, limiting their effectiveness in transforming student outcomes. We propose that to transform student outcomes through evidence-based practice, conceptualization of mediators' intervention implementation must move beyond quantification of discrete intervention steps implemented. Intervention implementation requires behavior change and thus can be conceptualized as an adult behavior change process. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how adult behavior change theory may inform how intervention implementation is conceptualized, facilitated, and supported. An empirically supported theory of adult behavior change from health psychology, the Health Action Process Approach, and how it has informed development of PRIME (Planning Realistic Intervention Implementation and Maintenance by Educators), a system of supports to facilitate mediators' implementation of school-based interventions, are introduced. A case study demonstrating the application of PRIME with a public school teacher implementing a behavior support plan is presented. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23398150
M. Wohlgenannt
2006-09-26
We develop a theory of magnetoresistance based on variable-range hopping. An exponentially large, low-field and necessarily positive magnetoresistance effect is predicted in the presence of Hubbard interaction and spin-dynamics under certain conditions. The theory was developed with the recently discovered organic magnetoresistance in mind. To account for the experimental observation that the organic magnetoresistance effect can also be negative, we tentatively amend the theory with a mechanism of bipolaron formation.
A theory-based evaluation of a community-based funding scheme in a disadvantaged suburban city area.
Hickey, Gráinne; McGilloway, Sinead; O'Brien, Morgan; Leckey, Yvonne; Devlin, Maurice
2015-10-01
Community-driven development (CDD) initiatives frequently involve funding schemes which are aimed at channelling financial investment into local need and fostering community participation and engagement. This exploratory study examined, through a program theory approach, the design and implementation of a small-scale, community-based fund in Ireland. Observations, documentary analysis, interviews and group discussions with 19 participants were utilized to develop a detailed understanding of the program mechanisms, activities and processes, as well as the experiences of key stakeholders engaged with the funding scheme and its implementation. The findings showed that there were positive perceptions of the scheme and its function within the community. Overall, the availability of funding was perceived by key stakeholders as being beneficial. However, there were concerns over the accessibility of the scheme for more marginalized members of the community, as well as dissatisfaction with the openness and transparency surrounding funding eligibility. Lessons for the implementation of small-scale CDD funds are elaborated and the utility of program theory approaches for evaluators and planners working with programs that fund community-based initiatives is outlined. PMID:25933408
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Feng; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Guber, Andrey K.; McPherson, Brian J.; Hill, Robert L.
2012-01-01
SummaryUnderstanding streamflow patterns in space and time is important for improving flood and drought forecasting, water resources management, and predictions of ecological changes. Objectives of this work include (a) to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of streamflow using information theory-based measures at two thoroughly-monitored agricultural watersheds located in different hydroclimatic zones with similar land use, and (b) to elucidate and quantify temporal and spatial scale effects on those measures. We selected two USDA experimental watersheds to serve as case study examples, including the Little River experimental watershed (LREW) in Tifton, Georgia and the Sleepers River experimental watershed (SREW) in North Danville, Vermont. Both watersheds possess several nested sub-watersheds and more than 30 years of continuous data records of precipitation and streamflow. Information content measures (metric entropy and mean information gain) and complexity measures (effective measure complexity and fluctuation complexity) were computed based on the binary encoding of 5-year streamflow and precipitation time series data. We quantified patterns of streamflow using probabilities of joint or sequential appearances of the binary symbol sequences. Results of our analysis illustrate that information content measures of streamflow time series are much smaller than those for precipitation data, and the streamflow data also exhibit higher complexity, suggesting that the watersheds effectively act as filters of the precipitation information that leads to the observed additional complexity in streamflow measures. Correlation coefficients between the information-theory-based measures and time intervals are close to 0.9, demonstrating the significance of temporal scale effects on streamflow patterns. Moderate spatial scale effects on streamflow patterns are observed with absolute values of correlation coefficients between the measures and sub-watershed area varying from 0.2 to 0.6 in the two watersheds. We conclude that temporal effects must be evaluated and accounted for when the information theory-based methods are used for performance evaluation and comparison of hydrological models.
Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele
2010-06-01
Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication. PMID:20574880
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekhtereva, E. S.; Litvinovskaya, A. G.; Konov, I. A.; Gromova, O. V.; Chertavskikh, Yu. V.; Tse, Yang Fang; Ulenikov, O. N.
2015-08-01
The form of the effective Hamiltonian of a quantum system with allowance for corrections of arbitrary order for solving arbitrary quantum-mechanical problems with perturbation operator depending not only on the same coordinates as the operator of the zero approximation, but also on an arbitrary set of other coordinates whose derivative operators may not commute with each other, is retrieved based on the operator perturbation theory (the recurrence formulas for corrections of any arbitrary order of the operator perturbation theory are presented in the paper in the most general form). The general results obtained allow the special features of the effective operators of any polyatomic molecule to be investigated. As a first step, an arbitrary diatomic molecule is investigated. Isotopic relations among different spectroscopic parameters are derived for the parent molecule and its various isotopic modifications.
An English Vocabulary Learning System Based on Fuzzy Theory and Memory Cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tzone I.; Chiu, Ti Kai; Huang, Liang Jun; Fu, Ru Xuan; Hsieh, Tung-Cheng
This paper proposes an English Vocabulary Learning System based on the Fuzzy Theory and the Memory Cycle Theory to help a learner to memorize vocabularies easily. By using fuzzy inferences and personal memory cycles, it is possible to find an article that best suits a learner. After reading an article, a quiz is provided for the learner to improve his/her memory of the vocabulary in the article. Early researches use just explicit response (ex. quiz exam) to update memory cycles of newly learned vocabulary; apart from that approach, this paper proposes a methodology that also modify implicitly the memory cycles of learned word. By intensive reading of articles recommended by our approach, a learner learns new words quickly and reviews learned words implicitly as well, and by which the vocabulary ability of the learner improves efficiently.
An Interpretation of Non-Accidental Traffic Congestion Based on a Hybrid Phenomenological Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Kwo-Sun; Richards, Bernard L.; Davis, George W.
2001-10-01
A hybrid phenomenological theory based on the fundamental elastic and hydrodynamic theories is developed to interpret common traffic phenomena of non-accidental vehicle congestion. Compressional (longitudinal) waves propagating through a hyperspace and their hypothetical mapping onto the real configurational space are employed to prescribe the established traffic flow pattern. The continuity equation is solved for the density distribution function of the traffic subject to the derived group velocity and particular boundary and initial or final conditions. All desired quantities of the traffic flow can then be calculated with this distribution function. Possible applications of this work can be achieved by utilizing the concept of sinks and sources. One can predict the traffic flow through appropriate exits and entrances of the highway section where traffic jams often occur.
Social judgment theory based model on opinion formation, polarization and evolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, H. F.; Wong, C. Y.; Chow, F. K.; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred
2014-12-01
The dynamical origin of opinion polarization in the real world is an interesting topic that physical scientists may help to understand. To properly model the dynamics, the theory must be fully compatible with findings by social psychologists on microscopic opinion change. Here we introduce a generic model of opinion formation with homogeneous agents based on the well-known social judgment theory in social psychology by extending a similar model proposed by Jager and Amblard. The agents’ opinions will eventually cluster around extreme and/or moderate opinions forming three phases in a two-dimensional parameter space that describes the microscopic opinion response of the agents. The dynamics of this model can be qualitatively understood by mean-field analysis. More importantly, first-order phase transition in opinion distribution is observed by evolving the system under a slow change in the system parameters, showing that punctuated equilibria in public opinion can occur even in a fully connected social network.
Hybrid framework based on evidence theory for blood cell image segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghli, Ismahan; Nakib, Amir; Sellam, Elie; Benazzouz, Mourtada; Chikh, Amine; Petit, Eric
2014-03-01
The segmentation of microscopic images is an important issue in biomedical image processing. Many works can be found in the literature; however, there is not a gold standard method that is able to provide good results for all kinds of microscopic images. Then, authors propose methods for a given kind of microscopic images. This paper deals with new segmentation framework based on evidence theory, called ESA (Evidential Segmentation Algorithm) to segment blood cell images. The proposed algorithm allows solving the segmentation problem of blood cell images. Herein, our goal is to extract the components of a given cell image by using evidence theory, that allows more flexibility to classify the pixels. The obtained results showed the efficiency of the proposed algorithm compared to other competing methods.
Slender-Body Theory Based On Approximate Solution of the Transonic Flow Equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spreiter, John R.; Alksne, Alberta Y.
1959-01-01
Approximate solution of the nonlinear equations of the small disturbance theory of transonic flow are found for the pressure distribution on pointed slender bodies of revolution for flows with free-stream, Mach number 1, and for flows that are either purely subsonic or purely supersonic. These results are obtained by application of a method based on local linearization that was introduced recently in the analysis of similar problems in two-dimensional flows. The theory is developed for bodies of arbitrary shape, and specific results are given for cone-cylinders and for parabolic-arc bodies at zero angle of attack. All results are compared either with existing theoretical results or with experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, M. C.; Ilma, R. R.; Eccles, V.
2012-01-01
We provide an explanation for a long-standing (more than 35 years) discrepancy between theory and rocket experiments concerning the peak height of the electrojet current and the magnitude of magnetic field perturbation. The arbitrary correction of the electron-neutral collision frequency by a factor of 4, which has been used to explain these problems, is not necessary if the field line-integrated conductivities are used. Recent research using ground-based magnetometers and CHAMP have also used this constant connection to classical collision theory. These methods arbitrarily change the electron-neutral collision frequency. A field line-integrated theoretical study of the electrojet by G. Haerendel and J. V. Eccles, implemented in this paper, explains the height of the electrojet using classical collision frequency. Furthermore, we argue that since the correction factor is independent of the driving electric field, it is unlikely that anomalous electron collision frequency due to a nonlinear plasma instability (gradient drift) is involved.
Control theory based airfoil design for potential flow and a finite volume discretization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reuther, J.; Jameson, A.
1994-01-01
This paper describes the implementation of optimization techniques based on control theory for airfoil design. In previous studies it was shown that control theory could be used to devise an effective optimization procedure for two-dimensional profiles in which the shape is determined by a conformal transformation from a unit circle, and the control is the mapping function. The goal of our present work is to develop a method which does not depend on conformal mapping, so that it can be extended to treat three-dimensional problems. Therefore, we have developed a method which can address arbitrary geometric shapes through the use of a finite volume method to discretize the potential flow equation. Here the control law serves to provide computationally inexpensive gradient information to a standard numerical optimization method. Results are presented, where both target speed distributions and minimum drag are used as objective functions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur
2012-01-01
The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Miller, Erin Morris
2009-01-01
Classroom teachers play an important role in the identification of gifted students through teacher recommendations and referrals. This study is an investigation of teachers' theories of giftedness using methods adapted from those used to study theory-based reasoning in categorization research. In general, the teachers in this study focused on…
H. Altenbach; J. Altenbach; E. Nast
1994-01-01
In this paper a theoretical approach to multilayered shell and plate analysis based on a kinematical model with six degrees of freedom is presented. The theory has been confirmed by some numerical examples. From these we draft the following conclusions:1.The theory proposed for laminates can be used successfully also in the case of thin sandwich structures. It seems that the
Merhav, Neri
the stage for the separation theorem of Information Theory: When a source with ratedistortion function RData Processing Inequalities Based on a Certain Structured Class of Information Measures with Application to Estimation Theory Neri Merhav Department of Electrical Engineering Technion - Israel Institute
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al-Amri, Mohammed
2010-01-01
Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE), a theory developed in the USA, has been influential but also used in Art Education institutions world-wide. One of its stated goals was to develop the quality of teaching art education. Today, it is used as a theory for identifying and assessing good practices in the field of Art Education. The purpose of…
Johnson, J. D. (Prostat, Mesa, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Storlie, Curtis B. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC)
2006-10-01
Evidence theory provides an alternative to probability theory for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions that derives from epistemic uncertainty in model inputs, where the descriptor epistemic is used to indicate uncertainty that derives from a lack of knowledge with respect to the appropriate values to use for various inputs to the model. The potential benefit, and hence appeal, of evidence theory is that it allows a less restrictive specification of uncertainty than is possible within the axiomatic structure on which probability theory is based. Unfortunately, the propagation of an evidence theory representation for uncertainty through a model is more computationally demanding than the propagation of a probabilistic representation for uncertainty, with this difficulty constituting a serious obstacle to the use of evidence theory in the representation of uncertainty in predictions obtained from computationally intensive models. This presentation describes and illustrates a sampling-based computational strategy for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in model predictions with evidence theory. Preliminary trials indicate that the presented strategy can be used to propagate uncertainty representations based on evidence theory in analysis situations where naive sampling-based (i.e., unsophisticated Monte Carlo) procedures are impracticable due to computational cost.
How Does an Activity Theory Model Help to Know Better about Teaching with Electronic-Exercise-Bases?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abboud-Blanchard, Maha; Cazes, Claire
2012-01-01
The research presented in this paper relies on Activity Theory and particularly on Engestrom's model, to better understand the use of Electronic-Exercise-Bases (EEB) by mathematics teachers. This theory provides a holistic approach to illustrate the complexity of the EEB integration. The results highlight reasons and ways of using EEB and show…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnhardt, Bradford; Ginns, Paul
2014-01-01
This article orients a recently proposed alienation-based framework for student learning theory (SLT) to the empirical basis of the approaches to learning perspective. The proposed framework makes new macro-level interpretations of an established micro-level theory, across three levels of interpretation: (1) a context-free psychological state…
A Density Functional Theory Study of the Non-local Correlations between Nucleic Acid Base Pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, Valentino R.; Thonhauser, Timo; Langreth, David C.
2006-03-01
The interactions of nucleic acid bases are fundamentally important in determining the behavior and structure of biologically important molecules such as DNA and RNA. However, the stacking of nucleic acid bases in a strand of genetic material involves significant van der Waals forces, which are often inaccurately represented or too expensive to compute in many modern theoretical methods. In this paper, we use Density Functional Theory (DFT) with a non-local van der Waals correlation functional to study the stacking interactions of nucleic acid base pairs. This method correctly and seamlessly accounts for the long-range interactions present among isolated fragments through a density-density interaction formula. Since this technique is implemented within DFT it has the advantage of being able to draw on the speed, efficiency and accuracy of this ab initio method. M. Dion, H. Rydberg, E. Schröder, D. C. Langreth and B. I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 24601-1 (2004).
A theory-based intervention to improve breast cancer awareness and screening in Jamaica.
Anakwenze, Chidinma P; Coronado-Interis, Evelyn; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline E
2015-05-01
Despite declines in breast cancer mortality rates in developed countries, mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening and lack of early detection. We hypothesized that a theory-based health educational intervention would increase awareness of breast cancer and intention to screen among women in Western Jamaica. Two hundred and forty six women attending hospitals or clinics were enrolled in an educational intervention consisting of a pretest, breast cancer presentation, and posttest if they had never been screened or had not been screened in 5 years or more. The questionnaires assessed attitudes and knowledge of risk factors and symptoms related to breast cancer. Participants were followed approximately 6 months after the intervention to determine whether they accessed breast cancer screening. There were statistically significant increases (p?theory-based educational intervention positively influenced knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms, and types of screening and increased screening rates in screening-naïve women. This theory-based educational intervention may be replicated to promote awareness of breast cancer and further increase screening rates in other areas of Jamaica and other developing countries. PMID:25391290
A description of the mechanical behavior of composite solid propellants based on molecular theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Landel, R. F.
1976-01-01
Both the investigation and the representation of the stress-strain response (including rupture) of gum and filled elastomers can be based on a simple functional statement. Internally consistent experiments are used to sort out the effects of time, temperature, strain and crosslink density on gum rubbers. All effects are readily correlated and shown to be essentially independent of the elastomer when considered in terms of non-dimensionalized stress, strain and time. A semiquantitative molecular theory is developed to explain this result. The introduction of fillers modifies the response, but, guided by the framework thus provided, their effects can be readily accounted for.
Risk Evaluation of Bogie System Based on Extension Theory and Entropy Weight Method
Du, Yanping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaohui
2014-01-01
A bogie system is the key equipment of railway vehicles. Rigorous practical evaluation of bogies is still a challenge. Presently, there is overreliance on part-specific experiments in practice. In the present work, a risk evaluation index system of a bogie system has been established based on the inspection data and experts' evaluation. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative aspects, the risk state of a bogie system has been evaluated using an extension theory and an entropy weight method. Finally, the method has been used to assess the bogie system of four different samples. Results show that this method can assess the risk state of a bogie system exactly. PMID:25574159
Finite element based on a discrete layer theory for the free vibration analysis of conical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramesh, T. C.; Ganesan, N.
1993-09-01
A semi-analytical finite element for the free vibration analysis of multi-layered composite conical shells based on a discrete layer theory is developed. Piecewise approximations for the in-plane displacements and constant transverse displacement in the thickness direction are made use of. Fourier expansions are used in the circumferential direction. Results obtained by using this element are compared with those existing in the literature for multi-layered orthotropic (thin and thick) and sandwich shells with different boundary conditions. Good agreement is found between them.
Hyperfine splitting of hydrogenlike atoms based on relativistic mean field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagasawa, T.; Haga, A.; Nakano, M.
2004-03-01
We evaluate the hyperfine splitting of hydrogenlike 209 Bi and 207 Pb atoms based on a relativistic method for both the electron system and the nucleon system. The Bohr-Weisskopf (BW) effect is calculated with Lorentz covariant current. It is shown that the BW correction to the hyperfine splitting (HFS) is 0.58% 0.67% for 209Bi82+ and 3.79% 4.00% for 207 Pb81+ . It is also concluded that relativistic mean field theory reproduces the observed values of the HFS within the accuracy of 5% in 209 Bi82+ and 13% in 207 Pb81+ .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thamburaja, P.; Jamshidian, M.
2014-02-01
In this work, we have developed a thermodynamically consistent, three-dimensional, finite-deformation-based constitutive theory to describe grain growth due to stress-driven grain boundary motion in polycrystalline cubic metals. The constitutive model has been formulated in a multiscale setting using the Taylor-type homogenization scheme (Taylor, 1938), and it has also been implemented into a computational framework. In our numerical scheme, the mechanical response of a structure at the macroscale level is modeled using the finite-element method whereas at the mesoscale level, the stress-driven grain growth process within a polycrystalline aggregate is handled by phase-field-like simulations.
Transmission Line Theory Based Two Layer Model for Determining Soil Moisture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, P.; Singh, D.
2013-05-01
Present paper deals with the task of estimating soil moisture under vegetation cover by using transmission line theory based two layer model. The two layer model measures the impedance of both the layers namely, soil and vegetation. This impedance is the function of dielectric constant and thickness of both the layers. For known dielectric constant and height of vegetation layer, dielectric constant of soil was determined for certain thickness of soil layer using genetic algorithm (GA). The soil moisture value was retrieved from dielectric constant of soil by using Topp et al., (1980) relationship. Retrieved soil moisture values were in good agreement with observed values.
An orbital localization criterion based on the theory of "fuzzy" atoms.
Alcoba, Diego R; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia; Bochicchio, Roberto C
2006-04-15
This work proposes a new procedure for localizing molecular and natural orbitals. The localization criterion presented here is based on the partitioning of the overlap matrix into atomic contributions within the theory of "fuzzy" atoms. Our approach has several advantages over other schemes: it is computationally inexpensive, preserves the sigma/pi-separability in planar systems and provides a straightforward interpretation of the resulting orbitals in terms of their localization indices and atomic occupancies. The corresponding algorithm has been implemented and its efficiency tested on selected molecular systems. PMID:16470667
Constraints on Neutron Star Radii Based on Chiral Effective Field Theory Interactions
Hebeler, K.; Lattimer, J. M.; Pethick, C. J.; Schwenk, A.
2010-10-15
We show that microscopic calculations based on chiral effective field theory interactions constrain the properties of neutron-rich matter below nuclear densities to a much higher degree than is reflected in commonly used equations of state. Combined with observed neutron star masses, our results lead to a radius R=9.7-13.9 km for a 1.4M{sub {center_dot}} star, where the theoretical range is due, in about equal amounts, to uncertainties in many-body forces and to the extrapolation to high densities.
Suppressing Chaos of Warship Power System Based on the Quantum Mechanics Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cong, Xinrong; Li, Longsuo
2014-08-01
Chaos control of marine power system is investigated by adding the Gaussian white noise to the system. The top Lyapunov exponent is computed to detect whether the classical system chaos or not, also the phase portraits are plotted to further verify the obtained results. The classical control of chaos and its quantum counterpart of the marine power system are investigated. The Hamiltonian of the controlled system is given to analyze the quantum counterpart of the classical system, which is based on the quantum mechanics theory.
Nicol, Ginger E; Morrato, Elaine H; Johnson, Mark C; Campagna, Elizabeth; Yingling, Michael D; Pham, Victor; Newcomer, John W
2011-01-01
There is public health interest in the identification and treatment of modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors among patients treated with antipsychotic medications. However, best-practice screening recommendations endorsed by multiple medical organizations have not translated into real-world clinical practice. Quality improvement strategies may help to address the gap between policy and implementation. This column describes the successful implementation of a best-practice glucose screening program in a large network of community mental health centers that was based on Six Sigma and diffusion of innovation theory. PMID:21209293
Risk evaluation of bogie system based on extension theory and entropy weight method.
Du, Yanping; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiaohui
2014-01-01
A bogie system is the key equipment of railway vehicles. Rigorous practical evaluation of bogies is still a challenge. Presently, there is overreliance on part-specific experiments in practice. In the present work, a risk evaluation index system of a bogie system has been established based on the inspection data and experts' evaluation. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative aspects, the risk state of a bogie system has been evaluated using an extension theory and an entropy weight method. Finally, the method has been used to assess the bogie system of four different samples. Results show that this method can assess the risk state of a bogie system exactly. PMID:25574159
The Stability Analysis for an Extended Car Following Model Based on Control Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Hong-Xia; Meng, Xiang-Pei; Zhu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Rong-Jun
2014-08-01
A new method is proposed to study the stability of the car-following model considering traffic interruption probability. The stability condition for the extended car-following model is obtained by using the Lyapunov function and the condition for no traffic jam is also given based on the control theory. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate and verify the analytical results. Moreover, numerical simulations show that the traffic interruption probability has an influence on driving behavior and confirm the effectiveness of the method on the stability of traffic flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xudong; Long, Xingwu; Wei, Guo; Li, Geng; Qu, Tianliang
2015-04-01
A finite element model of the hemispherical resonator gyro (HRG) is established and the natural frequencies and vibration modes are investigated. The matrix perturbation technology in the random finite element method is first introduced to analyze the statistical characteristics of the natural frequencies of HRG. The influences of random material parameters and dimensional parameters on the natural frequencies are quantitatively described based on the probability theory. The statistics expressions of the random parameters are given and the influences of three key parameters on natural frequency are pointed out. These results are important for design and improvement of high accuracy HRG.
Unique laminar-flow stability limit based shallow-water theory
Chen, Cheng-lung
1993-01-01
Two approaches are generally taken in deriving the stability limit for the Froude member (Fs) for laminar sheet flow. The first approach used the Orr-Sommerfeld equation, while the second uses the cross-section-averaged equations of continuity and motion. Because both approaches are based on shallow-water theory, the values of Fs obtained from both approaches should be identical, yet in the literature they are not. This suggests that a defect exists in at least one of the two approaches. After examining the governing equations used in both approaches, one finds that the existing cross-section -averaged equation of motion is dependent on the frame of reference.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Xianzhong; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Zhongmei
The paper reports an educational experiment on the e-Learning instructional design model based on Cognitive Flexibility Theory, the experiment were made to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of the model in promoting the learning quality in ill-structured domain. The study performed the experiment on two groups of students: one group learned through the system designed by the model and the other learned by the traditional method. The results of the experiment indicate that the e-Learning designed through the model is helpful to promote the intrinsic motivation, learning quality in ill-structured domains, ability to resolve ill-structured problem and creative thinking ability of the students.
Data Collection Method for Mobile Sensor Networks Based on the Theory of Thermal Fields
Macuha, Martin; Tariq, Muhammad; Sato, Takuro
2011-01-01
Many sensor applications are aimed for mobile objects, where conventional routing approaches of data delivery might fail. Such applications are habitat monitoring, human probes or vehicular sensing systems. This paper targets such applications and proposes lightweight proactive distributed data collection scheme for Mobile Sensor Networks (MSN) based on the theory of thermal fields. By proper mapping, we create distribution function which allows considering characteristics of a sensor node. We show the functionality of our proposed forwarding method when adapted to the energy of sensor node. We also propose enhancement in order to maximize lifetime of the sensor nodes. We thoroughly evaluate proposed solution and discuss the tradeoffs. PMID:22164011
Hanbury, Andria; Thompson, Carl; Mannion, Russell
2011-07-01
Tailored implementation strategies targeting health professionals' adoption of evidence-based recommendations are currently being developed. Research has focused on how to select an appropriate theoretical base, how to use that theoretical base to explore the local context, and how to translate theoretical constructs associated with the key factors found to influence innovation adoption into feasible and tailored implementation strategies. The reasons why an intervention is thought not to have worked are often cited as being: inappropriate choice of theoretical base; unsystematic development of the implementation strategies; and a poor evidence base to guide the process. One area of implementation research that is commonly overlooked is how to synthesize the data collected in a local context in order to identify what factors to target with the implementation strategies. This is suggested to be a critical process in the development of a theory-based intervention. The potential of multilevel modelling techniques to synthesize data collected at different hierarchical levels, for example, individual attitudes and team level variables, is discussed. Future research is needed to explore further the potential of multilevel modelling for synthesizing contextual data in implementation studies, as well as techniques for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:21543383
Plaum, E
1975-03-01
Over the last few years, psychological experiments have provided a major contribution to research in schizophrenia. Historical, practical and theoretical grounds led to investigations mainly in the field of cognitive disorder. Independent psychological theories of schizophrenia emerged from the body of experimental results, at first restricted to mental performance of the patients but later generalized to center on the total problem of schizophrenia. In accordance with psychiatric thinking, psychologists favoured cognitive deficit as the essential schizophrenic characteristic which would possibly generate the basic symptomatology. Apart from methodological considerations, the main question arising is if this feature is truly typical of schizophrenia. The problem of the different concepts of schizophrenia has to be considered in this connection. A survey of theories of schizophrenia which are sufficiently consolidated by psychological experiments reveals that two lines of theoretical reasoning exist: one based on specific cognitive disorder, and the other where this is not the case. Encompassed by the first classification are the considerations of Bannister, Rodnick and Germezy, Shakow, McReynolds, Silvermann, L.J. Chapman, Payne, Mednick, and Epstein, as well as the interference theories (with the exception of Callaway's version).. PMID:1090548
Equation of state of detonation products based on statistical mechanical theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yanhong; Liu, Haifeng; Zhang, Gongmu; Song, Haifeng
2015-06-01
The equation of state (EOS) of gaseous detonation products is calculated using Ross's modification of hard-sphere variation theory and the improved one-fluid van der Waals mixture model. The condensed phase of carbon is a mixture of graphite, diamond, graphite-like liquid and diamond-like liquid. For a mixed system of detonation products, the free energy minimization principle is used to calculate the equilibrium compositions of detonation products by solving chemical equilibrium equations. Meanwhile, a chemical equilibrium code is developed base on the theory proposed in this article, and then it is used in the three typical calculations as follow: (i) Calculation for detonation parameters of explosive, the calculated values of detonation velocity, the detonation pressure and the detonation temperature are in good agreement with experimental ones. (ii) Calculation for isentropic unloading line of RDX explosive, whose starting points is the CJ point. Comparison with the results of JWL EOS it is found that the calculated value of gamma is monotonically decreasing using the presented theory in this paper, while double peaks phenomenon appears using JWL EOS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohart, Arthur C.
There is relatively little theory on how psychotherapy clients self-heal since most theories of therapy stress the magic of the therapist's interventions. Of the theories that exist, this paper briefly discusses Carl Rogers' theory of self-actualization; and the dialectical theories of Greenberg and his colleagues, Jenkins, and Rychlak. Gendlin's…
GARN: Sampling RNA 3D Structure Space with Game Theory and Knowledge-Based Scoring Strategies
Boudard, Mélanie; Bernauer, Julie; Barth, Dominique; Cohen, Johanne; Denise, Alain
2015-01-01
Cellular processes involve large numbers of RNA molecules. The functions of these RNA molecules and their binding to molecular machines are highly dependent on their 3D structures. One of the key challenges in RNA structure prediction and modeling is predicting the spatial arrangement of the various structural elements of RNA. As RNA folding is generally hierarchical, methods involving coarse-grained models hold great promise for this purpose. We present here a novel coarse-grained method for sampling, based on game theory and knowledge-based potentials. This strategy, GARN (Game Algorithm for RNa sampling), is often much faster than previously described techniques and generates large sets of solutions closely resembling the native structure. GARN is thus a suitable starting point for the molecular modeling of large RNAs, particularly those with experimental constraints. GARN is available from: http://garn.lri.fr/. PMID:26313379
Greeley, J.; Norskov, J.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Technical Univ. of Denmark
2009-03-26
A density functional theory (DFT) -based, combinatorial search for improved oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts is presented. A descriptor-based approach to estimate the ORR activity of binary surface alloys, wherein alloying occurs only in the surface layer, is described, and rigorous, potential-dependent computational tests of the stability of these alloys in aqueous, acidic environments are presented. These activity and stability criteria are applied to a database of DFT calculations on nearly 750 binary transition metal surface alloys; of these, many are predicted to be active for the ORR but, with few exceptions, they are found to be thermodynamically unstable in the acidic environments typical of low-temperature fuel cells. The results suggest that, absent other thermodynamic or kinetic mechanisms to stabilize the alloys, surface alloys are unlikely to serve as useful ORR catalysts over extended periods of operation.
Coupled mode theory analysis for circular photonic crystal ring resonator-based add-drop filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, Savarimuthu; Nakkeeran, Rangaswamy
2012-11-01
A two-dimensional circular photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR)-based add-drop filter (ADF) is designed for ITU-T G.694.2 eight-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems. The resonant wavelength and pass-band width of the ADF are 1491 and 13 nm, respectively. Close to 100% of coupling and dropping efficiencies and a 114.69 quality factor are observed through simulation. Then the coupled mode theory (CMT) analysis of circular PCRR-based ADF is attempted to compare obtained CMT response into simulated finite difference time domain method response. The overall size of the device is much smaller; that is, 11.4×11.4 ?m, which is highly suitable for photonic integrated circuits and all optical photonic network applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemeth, Michael P.
2014-01-01
Nonlinear and bifurcation buckling equations for elastic, stiffened, geometrically perfect, right-circular cylindrical, anisotropic shells subjected to combined loads are presented that are based on Sanders' shell theory. Based on these equations, a three-parameter approximate Rayleigh-Ritz solution and a classical solution to the buckling problem are presented for cylinders with simply supported edges. Extensive comparisons of results obtained from these solutions with published results are also presented for a wide range of cylinder constructions. These comparisons include laminated-composite cylinders with a wide variety of shell-wall orthotropies and anisotropies. Numerous results are also given that show the discrepancies between the results obtained by using Donnell's equations and variants of Sanders' equations. For some cases, nondimensional parameters are identified and "master" curves are presented that facilitate the concise representation of results.
Optimization of a photovoltaic pumping system based on the optimal control theory
Betka, A.; Attali, A. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Biskra (LGEB), Electrical Engineering Department, University of Biskra (Algeria)
2010-07-15
This paper suggests how an optimal operation of a photovoltaic pumping system based on an induction motor driving a centrifugal pump can be realized. The optimization problem consists in maximizing the daily pumped water quantity via the optimization of the motor efficiency for every operation point. The proposed structure allows at the same time the minimization the machine losses, the field oriented control and the maximum power tracking of the photovoltaic array. This will be attained based on multi-input and multi-output optimal regulator theory. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is described by simulation and the obtained results are compared to those of a system working with a constant air gap flux. (author)
Re-Examining of Moffitt’s Theory of Delinquency through Agent Based Modeling
Leaw, Jia Ning; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann
2015-01-01
Moffitt’s theory of delinquency suggests that at-risk youths can be divided into two groups, the adolescence- limited group and the life-course-persistent group, predetermined at a young age, and social interactions between these two groups become important during the adolescent years. We built an agent-based model based on the microscopic interactions Moffitt described: (i) a maturity gap that dictates (ii) the cost and reward of antisocial behavior, and (iii) agents imitating the antisocial behaviors of others more successful than themselves, to find indeed the two groups emerging in our simulations. Moreover, through an intervention simulation where we moved selected agents from one social network to another, we also found that the social network plays an important role in shaping the life course outcome. PMID:26062022
GARN: Sampling RNA 3D Structure Space with Game Theory and Knowledge-Based Scoring Strategies.
Boudard, Mélanie; Bernauer, Julie; Barth, Dominique; Cohen, Johanne; Denise, Alain
2015-01-01
Cellular processes involve large numbers of RNA molecules. The functions of these RNA molecules and their binding to molecular machines are highly dependent on their 3D structures. One of the key challenges in RNA structure prediction and modeling is predicting the spatial arrangement of the various structural elements of RNA. As RNA folding is generally hierarchical, methods involving coarse-grained models hold great promise for this purpose. We present here a novel coarse-grained method for sampling, based on game theory and knowledge-based potentials. This strategy, GARN (Game Algorithm for RNa sampling), is often much faster than previously described techniques and generates large sets of solutions closely resembling the native structure. GARN is thus a suitable starting point for the molecular modeling of large RNAs, particularly those with experimental constraints. GARN is available from: http://garn.lri.fr/. PMID:26313379
Predictive models based on sensitivity theory and their application to practical shielding problems
Bhuiyan, S.I.; Roussin, R.W.; Lucius, J.L.; Bartine, D.E.
1983-01-01
Two new calculational models based on the use of cross-section sensitivity coefficients have been devised for calculating radiation transport in relatively simple shields. The two models, one an exponential model and the other a power model, have been applied, together with the traditional linear model, to 1- and 2-m-thick concrete-slab problems in which the water content, reinforcing-steel content, or composition of the concrete was varied. Comparing the results obtained with the three models with those obtained from exact one-dimensional discrete-ordinates transport calculations indicates that the exponential model, named the BEST model (for basic exponential shielding trend), is a particularly promising predictive tool for shielding problems dominated by exponential attenuation. When applied to a deep-penetration sodium problem, the BEST model also yields better results than do calculations based on second-order sensitivity theory.
Re-Examining of Moffitt's Theory of Delinquency through Agent Based Modeling.
Leaw, Jia Ning; Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann
2015-01-01
Moffitt's theory of delinquency suggests that at-risk youths can be divided into two groups, the adolescence- limited group and the life-course-persistent group, predetermined at a young age, and social interactions between these two groups become important during the adolescent years. We built an agent-based model based on the microscopic interactions Moffitt described: (i) a maturity gap that dictates (ii) the cost and reward of antisocial behavior, and (iii) agents imitating the antisocial behaviors of others more successful than themselves, to find indeed the two groups emerging in our simulations. Moreover, through an intervention simulation where we moved selected agents from one social network to another, we also found that the social network plays an important role in shaping the life course outcome. PMID:26062022
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khvorostyanov, V. I.; Curry, J. A.
2012-03-01
A new analytical parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation is developed based on extended classical nucleation theory including new equations for the critical radii of the ice germs, free energies and nucleation rates as the functions of the temperature and water saturation ratio simultaneously. By representing these quantities as separable products of the analytical functions of the temperature and supersaturation, analytical solutions are found for the integral-differential supersaturation equation and concentration of nucleated crystals. Parcel model simulations are used to illustrate the general behavior of various nucleation properties under various conditions, for justifications of the further key analytical simplifications, and for verification of the resulting parameterization. The final parameterization is based upon the values of the supersaturation that determines the current or maximum concentrations of the nucleated ice crystals. The crystal concentration is analytically expressed as a function of time and can be used for parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation both in the models with small time steps and for substep parameterization in the models with large time steps. The crystal concentration is expressed analytically via the error functions or elementary functions and depends only on the fundamental atmospheric parameters and parameters of classical nucleation theory. The diffusion and kinetic limits of the new parameterization agree with previous semi-empirical parameterizations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khvorostyanov, V. I.; Curry, J. A.
2012-10-01
A new analytical parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation is developed based on extended classical nucleation theory including new equations for the critical radii of the ice germs, free energies and nucleation rates as simultaneous functions of temperature and water saturation ratio. By representing these quantities as separable products of the analytical functions of temperature and supersaturation, analytical solutions are found for the integral-differential supersaturation equation and concentration of nucleated crystals. Parcel model simulations are used to illustrate the general behavior of various nucleation properties under various conditions, for justifications of the further key analytical simplifications, and for verification of the resulting parameterization. The final parameterization is based upon the values of the supersaturation that determines the current or maximum concentrations of the nucleated ice crystals. The crystal concentration is analytically expressed as a function of time and can be used for parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation both in the models with small time steps and for substep parameterization in the models with large time steps. The crystal concentration is expressed analytically via the error functions or elementary functions and depends only on the fundamental atmospheric parameters and parameters of classical nucleation theory. The diffusion and kinetic limits of the new parameterization agree with previous semi-empirical parameterizations.
Dissemination of a theory-based online bone health program: Two intervention approaches.
Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Bellantoni, Michele; Zhu, Shijun; Brown, Clayton; Brennan, Patricia F; Charters, Kathleen; Brown, Jeanine; Rietschel, Matthew; Pinna, Joanne; An, Minjeong; Park, Bu Kyung; Plummer, Lisa
2015-06-01
With the increasing nationwide emphasis on eHealth, there has been a rapid growth in the use of the Internet to deliver health promotion interventions. Although there has been a great deal of research in this field, little information is available regarding the methodologies to develop and implement effective online interventions. This article describes two social cognitive theory-based online health behavior interventions used in a large-scale dissemination study (N = 866), their implementation processes, and the lessons learned during the implementation processes. The two interventions were a short-term (8-week) intensive online Bone Power program and a longer term (12-month) Bone Power Plus program, including the Bone Power program followed by a 10-month online booster intervention (biweekly eHealth newsletters). This study used a small-group approach (32 intervention groups), and to effectively manage those groups, an eLearning management program was used as an upper layer of the Web intervention. Both interventions were implemented successfully with high retention rates (80.7% at 18 months). The theory-based approaches and the online infrastructure used in this study showed a promising potential as an effective platform for online behavior studies. Further replication studies with different samples and settings are needed to validate the utility of this intervention structure. PMID:26021668
A Protection Motivation Theory-Based Scale for Tobacco Research among Chinese Youth
MacDonell, Karen; Chen, Xinguang; Yan, Yaqiong; Li, Fang; Gong, Jie; Sun, Huiling; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
2014-01-01
Rates of tobacco use among adolescents in China and other lower and middle-income countries remain high despite notable prevention and intervention programs. One reason for this may be the lack of theory-based research in tobacco use prevention in these countries. In the current study, a culturally appropriate 21-item measurement scale for cigarette smoking was developed based on the core constructs of Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The scale was assessed among a sample of 553 Chinese vocational high school students. Results from correlational and measurement modeling analysis indicated adequate measurement reliability for the proposed PMT scale structure. The two PMT Pathways and the seven PMT constructs were significantly correlated with adolescent intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. This study is the first to evaluate a PMT scale for cigarette smoking among Chinese adolescents. The scale provides a potential tool for assessing social cognitive processes underlying tobacco use. This is essential for understanding smoking behavior among Chinese youth and to support more effective tobacco use prevention efforts. Additional studies are needed to assess its utility for use with Chinese youth in other settings. PMID:24478933
Della, Lindsay J; Eroglu, Dogan; Bernhardt, Jay M; Edgerton, Erin; Nall, Janice
2008-01-01
Market trend data show that the media marketplace continues to rapidly evolve. Recent research shows that substantial portions of the U.S. media population are "new media" users. Today, more than ever before, media consumers are exposed to multiple media at the same point in time, encouraged to participate in media content generation, and challenged to learn, access, and use the new media that are continually entering the market. These media trends have strong implications for how consumers of health information access, process, and retain health-related knowledge. In this article we review traditional information processing models and theories of interpersonal and mass media access and consumption. We make several theory-based propositions for how traditional information processing and media consumption concepts will function as new media usage continues to increase. These propositions are supported by new media usage data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's entry into the new media market (e.g., podcasting, virtual events, blogging, and webinars). Based on these propositions, we conclude by presenting both opportunities and challenges that public health communicators and marketers will face in the future. PMID:18935883
Coding theory based models for protein translation initiation in prokaryotic organisms.
May, Elebeoba Eni; Bitzer, Donald L. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Rosnick, David I. (North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC); Vouk, Mladen A.
2003-03-01
Our research explores the feasibility of using communication theory, error control (EC) coding theory specifically, for quantitatively modeling the protein translation initiation mechanism. The messenger RNA (mRNA) of Escherichia coli K-12 is modeled as a noisy (errored), encoded signal and the ribosome as a minimum Hamming distance decoder, where the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) serves as a template for generating a set of valid codewords (the codebook). We tested the E. coli based coding models on 5' untranslated leader sequences of prokaryotic organisms of varying taxonomical relation to E. coli including: Salmonella typhimurium LT2, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus Mu50. The model identified regions on the 5' untranslated leader where the minimum Hamming distance values of translated mRNA sub-sequences and non-translated genomic sequences differ the most. These regions correspond to the Shine-Dalgarno domain and the non-random domain. Applying the EC coding-based models to B. subtilis, and S. aureus Mu50 yielded results similar to those for E. coli K-12. Contrary to our expectations, the behavior of S. typhimurium LT2, the more taxonomically related to E. coli, resembled that of the non-translated sequence group.
Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu
2012-12-01
According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298
A new adaptive backpropagation algorithm based on Lyapunov stability theory for neural networks.
Man, Zhihong; Wu, Hong Ren; Liu, Sophie; Yu, Xinghuo
2006-11-01
A new adaptive backpropagation (BP) algorithm based on Lyapunov stability theory for neural networks is developed in this paper. It is shown that the candidate of a Lyapunov function V(k) of the tracking error between the output of a neural network and the desired reference signal is chosen first, and the weights of the neural network are then updated, from the output layer to the input layer, in the sense that deltaV(k) = V(k) - V(k - 1) < 0. The output tracking error can then asymptotically converge to zero according to Lyapunov stability theory. Unlike gradient-based BP training algorithms, the new Lyapunov adaptive BP algorithm in this paper is not used for searching the global minimum point along the cost-function surface in the weight space, but it is aimed at constructing an energy surface with a single global minimum point through the adaptive adjustment of the weights as the time goes to infinity. Although a neural network may have bounded input disturbances, the effects of the disturbances can be eliminated, and asymptotic error convergence can be obtained. The new Lyapunov adaptive BP algorithm is then applied to the design of an adaptive filter in the simulation example to show the fast error convergence and strong robustness with respect to large bounded input disturbances. PMID:17131670
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castro, A.; Gross, E. K. U.
2014-01-01
We derive the fundamental equations of an optimal control theory for systems containing both quantum electrons and classical ions. The system is modeled with Ehrenfest dynamics, a non-adiabatic variant of molecular dynamics. The general formulation, that needs the fully correlated many-electron wavefunction, can be simplified by making use of time-dependent density-functional theory. In this case, the optimal control equations require some modifications that we will provide. The abstract general formulation is complemented with the simple example of the H_2^+ molecule in the presence of a laser field.
Optimal control of ICU patient discharge: from theory to implementation.
Mallor, Fermín; Azcárate, Cristina; Barado, Julio
2015-09-01
This paper deals with the management of scarce health care resources. We consider a control problem in which the objective is to minimize the rate of patient rejection due to service saturation. The scope of decisions is limited, in terms both of the amount of resources to be used, which are supposed to be fixed, and of the patient arrival pattern, which is assumed to be uncontrollable. This means that the only potential areas of control are speed or completeness of service. By means of queuing theory and optimization techniques, we provide a theoretical solution expressed in terms of service rates. In order to make this theoretical analysis useful for the effective control of the healthcare system, however, further steps in the analysis of the solution are required: physicians need flexible and medically-meaningful operative rules for shortening patient length of service to the degree needed to give the service rates dictated by the theoretical analysis. The main contribution of this paper is to discuss how the theoretical solutions can be transformed into effective management rules to guide doctors' decisions. The study examines three types of rules based on intuitive interpretations of the theoretical solution. Rules are evaluated through implementation in a simulation model. We compare the service rates provided by the different policies with those dictated by the theoretical solution. Probabilistic analysis is also included to support rule validity. An Intensive Care Unit is used to illustrate this control problem. The study focuses on the Markovian case before moving on to consider more realistic LoS distributions (Weibull, Lognormal and Phase-type distribution). PMID:25763761