Science.gov

Sample records for quiescent x-ray emission

  1. Quiescent X-ray emission from an evolved brown dwarf ?

    E-print Network

    B. Stelzer

    2004-09-27

    I report on the X-ray detection of Gl569Bab. During a 25ksec Chandra observation the binary brown dwarf is for the first time spatially separated in X-rays from the flare star primary Gl569A. Companionship to Gl569A constrains the age of the brown dwarf pair to ~300-800 Myr. The observation presented here is only the second X-ray detection of an evolved brown dwarf. About half of the observing time is dominated by a large flare on Gl569Bab, the remainder is characterized by weak and non-variable emission just above the detection limit. This emission -- if not related to the afterglow of the flare -- represents the first detection of a quiescent corona on a brown dwarf, representing an important piece in the puzzle of dynamos in the sub-stellar regime.

  2. Diffuse X-Ray Emission from the Quiescent Superbubble M17, the Omega Nebula

    E-print Network

    B. C. Dunne; Y. -H. Chu; C. -H. R. Chen; J. D. Lowry; L. Townsley; R. A. Gruendl; M. A. Guerrero; M. Rosado

    2003-02-27

    The emission nebula M17 contains a young ~1 Myr-old open cluster; the winds from the OB stars of this cluster have blown a superbubble around the cluster. ROSAT observations of M17 detected diffuse X-ray emission peaking at the cluster and filling the superbubble interior. The young age of the cluster suggests that no supernovae have yet occurred in M17; therefore, it provides a rare opportunity to study hot gas energized solely by shocked stellar winds in a quiescent superbubble. We have analyzed the diffuse X-ray emission from M17, and compared the observed X-ray luminosity of ~2.5*10^33 ergs/s and the hot gas temperature of ~8.5*10^6 K and mass of ~1 M_Sun to model predictions. We find that bubble models with heat conduction overpredict the X-ray luminosity by two orders of magnitude; the strong magnetic fields in M17, as measured from HI Zeeman observations, have most likely inhibited heat conduction and associated mass evaporation. Bubble models without heat conduction can explain the X-ray properties of M17, but only if cold nebular gas can be dynamically mixed into the hot bubble interior and the stellar winds are clumpy with mass-loss rates reduced by a factor of >=3. Future models of the M17 superbubble must take into account the large-scale density gradient, small-scale clumpiness, and strong magnetic field in the ambient interstellar medium.

  3. Quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlione, A.; Aguilera, D. N.; Pons, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Context. We monitored the quiescent thermal emission from neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries after active periods of intense activity in X-rays (outbursts). Aims: The theoretical modeling of the thermal relaxation of the neutron star crust may be used to establish constraints on the crust composition and transport properties, depending on the astrophysical scenarios assumed. Methods: We numerically simulated the thermal evolution of the neutron star crust and compared them with inferred surface temperatures for five sources: MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260, XTE J1701-462, EXO 0748-676 and IGR J17480-2446. Results: We find that the evolution of MXB 1659-29, KS 1731-260 and EXO 0748-676 can be well described within a deep crustal cooling scenario. Conversely, we find that the other two sources can only be explained with models beyond crustal cooling. For the peculiar emission of XTE J1701-462 we propose alternative scenarios such as residual accretion during quiescence, additional heat sources in the outer crust, and/or thermal isolation of the inner crust due to a buried magnetic field. We also explain the very recent reported temperature of IGR J17480-2446 with an additional heat deposition in the outer crust from shallow sources.

  4. The contribution of young core-collapse supernova remnants to the X-ray emission near quiescent supermassive black holes

    E-print Network

    Rimoldi, Alex; Costantini, Elisa; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    Appreciable star formation, and, therefore, numerous massive stars, are frequently found near supermassive black holes (SMBHs). As a result, core-collapse supernovae in these regions should also be expected. In this paper, we consider the observational consequences of predicting the fate of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the sphere of influence of quiescent SMBHs. We present these results in the context of `autarkic' nuclei, a model that describes quiescent nuclei as steady-state and self-sufficient environments where the SMBH accretes stellar winds with no appreciable inflow of material from beyond the sphere of influence. These regions have properties such as gas density that scale with the mass of the SMBH. Using predictions of the X-ray lifetimes of SNRs originating in the sphere of influence, we make estimates of the number of core collapse SNRs present at a given time. With the knowledge of lifetimes of SNRs and their association with young stars, we predict a number of core-collapse SNRs that grows from ...

  5. Resonant Cyclotron Scattering in Three Dimensions and the Quiescent Non-thermal X-ray Emission of Magnetars

    E-print Network

    Rodrigo Fernandez; Christopher Thompson

    2007-04-09

    Although the surface of a magnetar is a source of bright thermal X-rays, its spectrum contains substantial non-thermal components. The X-ray emission is pulsed, with pulsed fractions that can be as high as ~ 70%. Several properties of magnetars indicate the presence of persistent, static currents flowing across the stellar surface and closing within the magnetosphere. The charges supporting these currents supply a significant optical depth to resonant cyclotron scattering in the 1-100 keV band. Here we describe a Monte Carlo approach to calculating the redistribution of thermal seed photons in frequency and angle by multiple resonant scattering in the magnetosphere. The calculation includes the full angular dependence of the cyclotron scattering cross section, the relativistic Doppler effect due to the motion of the charges, and allows for an arbitrary particle velocity distribution and magnetic field geometry. We construct synthetic spectra and pulse profiles for arbitrary orientations of the spin axis, magnetic axis, and line of sight, using a self-similar, twisted dipole field geometry, and assuming that the seed photons are supplied by single-temperature black body emission from the stellar surface. Pulse profiles and 1-10 keV spectra typical of AXPs are easily produced by this model, with pulsed fractions of ~ 50%. However, this model cannot reproduce the hard, rising energy spectra that are observed from SGRs during periods of activity, without overproducing the thermal emission peak. This suggests that the 1-100 keV emission of SGRs has a common origin with the hard X-ray emission detected from some AXPs above ~20 keV.

  6. The Quiescent X-Ray Emission of Axps and Sgrs -- Powered by Accretion from a Fallback Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truemper, Joachim; Dennerl, Konrad; Kylafis, Nikos; Zezas, Andreas; Ertan, Ünal

    2015-01-01

    Disk accretion as a means to explain the persistent and transient X-ray emission of anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) has been first proposed by van Paradijs et al. 1995, by Chatterjee et al. 2000 and by Alpar 2001. This class of models was developed further in a series of papers of the Istanbul group (for a recent summary see Ertan et al. 2009), and can be applied to soft gamma ray repeaters (SGRs) as well, which have similar timing and spectral properties as AXPs. The required magnetic dipole fields to explain the temporal evolution of the neutron stars are in the range of 1012-1013 G. Highly super-Eddington bursts observed in SGRs, could be produced by the decay of super-strong magnetic fields (1014-1015 G) residing in localized multi-pole fields. The presence of magnetar multipole fields close to the surface of the star is compatible with the fallback disk model since the disk matter interacts with the magnetic dipole field.

  7. Jovian X-ray emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H.; Lewis, W. S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Brandt, W. N.

    1996-01-01

    The Einstein and Rosat observations of X-ray emissions from Jupiter are summarized. Jupiter's soft X-ray emission is observed to originate from the planet's auroral zones, and specifically, from its equatorial region. The processes responsible for these emissions are not established. The brightness distribution of the Jovian X-rays is characterized by the dependence on central meridian longitude and by north-south and morning-afternoon asymmetries. The X-rays observed during the impact of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 are believed to be impact-induced brightenings of the X-ray aurora.

  8. X-ray Emission from Massive Stars

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore #12;What is the mechanism by which massive stars produce x-rays? New results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory ­ high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy: measuring Doppler broadening in emission lines Testing

  9. The quiescent counterpart of the peculiar X-ray burster SAX J2224.9+5421

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.

    2014-05-20

    SAX J2224.9+5421 is an extraordinary neutron star low-mass X-ray binary. It was discovered when it was exhibiting a ? 10 s long thermonuclear X-ray burst, but it had faded to a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of L {sub X} ? 8 × 10{sup 32}(D/7.1 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1} only ? 8 hr later. It is generally assumed that neutron stars are quiescent (i.e., not accreting) at such intensity, raising questions about the trigger conditions of the X-ray burst and the origin of the faint persistent emission. We report on a ?51 ks XMM-Newton observation aimed at finding clues explaining the unusual behavior of SAX J2224.9+5421. We identify a likely counterpart that is detected at L {sub X} ? 5 × 10{sup 31}(D/7.1 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1} (0.5-10 keV) and has a soft X-ray spectrum that can be described by a neutron star atmosphere model with a temperature of kT {sup ?} ? 50 eV. This would suggest that SAX J2224.9+5421 is a transient source that was in quiescence during our XMM-Newton observation and experienced a very faint (ceasing) accretion outburst at the time of the X-ray burst detection. We consider one other potential counterpart that is detected at L {sub X} ? 5 × 10{sup 32}(D/7.1 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup –1} and displays an X-ray spectrum that is best described by a power law with a photon index of ? ? 1.7. Similarly hard X-ray spectra are seen for a few quiescent neutron stars and may be indicative of a relatively strong magnetic field or the occurrence of low-level accretion.

  10. X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid CohenOutline BackgroundBackground Massive star X-raysMassive star X-rays vsvs. solar-type X-rays. solar-type X-rays X-ray spectroscopy of massive stars: DataX-ray spectroscopy of massive stars: Data Kinematics

  11. THE QUIESCENT X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR AND ECLIPSING BINARY SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Patruno, A.; Wijnands, R.

    2012-09-10

    Swift J1749.4-2807 is a transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that contains an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar spinning at 518 Hz. It is the first of its kind that displays X-ray eclipses, which holds significant promise to precisely constrain the mass of the neutron star. We report on a {approx_equal} 105 ks long XMM-Newton observation performed when Swift J1749.4-2807 was in quiescence. We detect the source at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of {approx_equal}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33}(D/6.7 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The X-ray light curve displays three eclipses that are consistent in orbital phase and duration with the ephemeris derived during outburst. Unlike most quiescent neutron stars, the X-ray spectrum can be adequately described with a simple power law, while a pure-hydrogen atmosphere model does not fit the data. We place an upper limit on the 0.01-100 keV thermal luminosity of the cooling neutron star of {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} and constrain its temperature to be {approx}< 0.1 keV (for an observer at infinity). Timing analysis does not reveal evidence for X-ray pulsations near the known spin frequency of the neutron star or its first overtone with a fractional rms of {approx}< 34% and {approx}< 28%, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings for dynamical mass measurements, the thermal state of the neutron star, and the origin of the quiescent X-ray emission.

  12. Late time multi wavelength observations of Swift J1644+5734: A luminous optical/IR bump and quiescent X-ray emission

    E-print Network

    Levan, A J; Brown, G C; Metzger, B D; Page, K L; Cenko, S B; O'Brien, P T; Lyman, J D; Wiersema, K; Stanway, E R; Fruchter, A S; Perley, D A; Bloom, J S

    2015-01-01

    We present late-time multi-wavelength observations of Swift J1644+57, suggested to be a relativistic tidal disruption flare (TDF). Our observations extend to >4 years from discovery, and show that 1.4 years after outburst the relativistic jet switched-off on a timescale less than tens of days, corresponding to a power-law decay faster than $t^{-70}$. Beyond this point weak X-rays continue to be detected at an approximately constant luminosity of $L_X \\sim 5 \\times 10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$, and are marginally inconsistent with a continuing decay of $t^{-5/3}$, similar to that seen prior to the switch-off. Host photometry enables us to infer a black hole mass of $M_{BH}=3 \\times 10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$, consistent with the late time X-ray luminosity arising from sub-Eddington accretion onto the black hole in the form of either an unusually optically faint AGN or a slowly varying phase of the transient. Optical/IR observations show a clear bump in the light curve at timescales of 30-50 days, with a peak magnitude (correc...

  13. THE X-RAY POLARIZATION SIGNATURE OF QUIESCENT MAGNETARS: EFFECT OF MAGNETOSPHERIC SCATTERING AND VACUUM POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Rodrigo; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-04-01

    In the magnetar model, the quiescent non-thermal soft X-ray emission from anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters is thought to arise from resonant Comptonization of thermal photons by charges moving in a twisted magnetosphere. Robust inference of physical quantities from observations is difficult, because the process depends strongly on geometry, and current understanding of the magnetosphere is not very deep. The polarization of soft X-ray photons is an independent source of information, and its magnetospheric imprint remains only partially explored. In this paper, we calculate how resonant cyclotron scattering would modify the observed polarization signal relative to the surface emission, using a multidimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code that accounts for the gradual coupling of polarization eigenmodes as photons leave the magnetosphere. We employ a globally twisted, self-similar, force-free magnetosphere with a power-law momentum distribution, assume a blackbody spectrum for the seed photons, account for general relativistic light deflection close to the star, and assume that vacuum polarization dominates the dielectric properties of the magnetosphere. The latter is a good approximation if the pair multiplicity is not much larger than unity. Phase-averaged polarimetry is able to provide a clear signature of the magnetospheric reprocessing of thermal photons and to constrain mechanisms generating the thermal emission. Phase-resolved polarimetry, in addition, can characterize the spatial extent and magnitude of the magnetospheric twist angle at {approx}100 stellar radii, and discern between uni- or bidirectional particle energy distributions, almost independently of every other parameter in the system. We discuss prospects for detectability with the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism (GEMS) mission.

  14. X-ray Flare Associated with a Quiescent Filament Eruption and Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foord, Adi; Holman, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    To date, solar active regions are where most flares are found to occur. We present an analysis of multi-waveband observations of the large eruption of a 'quiescent' (outside of an active region) solar filament contemporaneous with X-ray emission. The eruption covers a 2-day time span, from 2013 September 29 to 2013 September 30. The event was observed using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Though not classified as a flare, the GOES class of the event was C1 and the X-ray light curves include a small impulsive-phase peak followed by a gradual-phase rise. The eruption produced a coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of 1179 km/s. SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) movies during the time span show that the filament lies outside any active region on the sun, and spans a length on the order of 600 arcseconds. Spatially resolved RHESSI emission during the gradual phase is found to come from an area along the post-eruption arcade, close to the westward expanding ribbon but confined to a length of only 150 arcseconds. No RHESSI emission is found along the eastward expanding ribbon. We infer the strength and geometry of the magnetic field during the eruption with the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and find a small (~ 100 arcseconds long) dipolar element within the filament channel that appears to be spatially correlated with the RHESSI emission. The dipolar element is observed to have magnetic field strengths as high as 1000 Gauss. The evolution of both the X-ray emission and AIA data support the notion that the flare was a consequence of magnetic reconnection between the dipole's magnetic field and the magnetic field supporting the filament. We conclude that solar eruptive events, which consist of both a flare and a CME, can occur outside active regions in association with a quiescent filament eruption if new, sufficiently strong magnetic flux emerges in the immediate area and reconnects with the filament's magnetic field.

  15. X-ray emission from comets

    SciTech Connect

    Dennerl, Konrad

    1999-06-11

    When comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) encountered Earth in March 1996 at a minimum distance of only 15 million kilometers (40 times the distance of the moon), x-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission was discovered for the first time from a comet. The observations were performed with the astronomy satellites ROSAT and EUVE. A systematic search for x-rays from comets in archival data, obtained during the ROSAT all-sky survey in 1990/91, resulted in the discovery of x-ray emission from four additional comets. They were detected at seven occasions in total, when they were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. These findings indicated that comets represent a new class of celestial x-ray sources. Subsequent detections of x-ray emission from additional comets with the satellites ROSAT, EUVE, and BeppoSAX confirmed this conclusion. The x-ray observations have obviously revealed the presence of a process in comets which had escaped attention until recently. This process is most likely charge exchange between highly charged heavy ions in the solar wind and cometary neutrals. The solar wind, a stream of particles continuously emitted from the sun with {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}, consists predominantly of protons, electrons, and alpha particles, but contains also a small fraction ({approx_equal}0.1%) of highly charged heavier ions, such as C{sup 6+},O{sup 6+},Ne{sup 8+},Si{sup 9+},Fe{sup 11+}. When these ions capture electrons from the cometary gas, they attain highly excited states and radiate a large fraction of their excitation energy in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray part of the spectrum. Charge exchange reproduces the intensity, the morphology and the spectrum of the observed x-ray emission from comets very well.

  16. A CHANGE IN THE QUIESCENT X-RAY SPECTRUM OF THE NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY MXB 1659–29

    E-print Network

    Cackett, E. M.

    The quasi-persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1659–29 went into quiescence in 2001, and we have followed its quiescent X-ray evolution since. Observations over the first 4 yr showed a rapid drop in flux and ...

  17. X-ray emission from AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstedt, Sofia

    2011-10-01

    Although the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are well studied in some aspects, there are several properties that remain unexplored. For instance, the role of magnetic fields for the large-scale structure and dynamics of the circumstellar envelope (CSE) has not been established. Recent results from maser polarimetry observations indicate strong magnetic fields throughout the inner CSE. These need to be confirmed by the detection of X-ray emission from coronal activity. We propose to observe three low- mass-loss rate, close (<300 pc), AGB stars, in order to detect and establish the origin of X-ray emission. The observations would be a follow-up to our recent archival search that resulted in new X-ray detections of two AGB stars.

  18. Jet-dominated quiescent state in black hole X-ray binaries: the cases of A0620--00 and XTE J1118+480

    E-print Network

    Yang, Qi-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The radiative mechanism of the black hole X-ray transients (BHXTs) in their quiescent states (defined as the 2-10${\\rm\\ keV}$ X-ray luminosity $\\le 10^{34}{\\rm \\,erg\\,s^{-1}}$) remains unclear. In this work, we investigate the quasi-simultaneous quiescent state spectrum (including radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray) of two BHXTs, A0620--00 and XTE J1118+480. We find that, these two sources can be well described by a coupled accretion -- jet model. More specifically, most of the emission (radio up-to infrared, and the X-ray waveband) comes from the collimated relativistic jet. Emission from hot accretion flow is totally insignificant, and it can only be observed in mid-infrared (the synchrotron peak). Emission from the outer cold disc is only evident in UV band. These results are consistent with our previous investigation on the quiescent state of V404 Cyg, and confirm that the quiescent state is jet-dominated.

  19. Characterizing X-ray and Radio emission in the Black Hole X-Ray Binary V404 Cygni during Quiescence

    E-print Network

    Rana, Vikram; Corbel, Stephane; Tomsick, John A; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Walton, Dominic J; Barret, Didier; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William; Fuerst, Felix; Gandhi, Poshak; Grefenstette, Brian W; Hailey, Charles; Harrison, Fiona A; Madsen, Kristin K; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    We present results from multi-wavelength simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cyg in quiescence. Our coverage with NuSTAR provides the very first opportunity to study the X-ray spectrum of V404 Cyg at energies above 10 keV. The unabsorbed broad-band (0.3-30 keV) quiescent luminosity of the source is 8.9$\\times$10$^{32}$ erg s$^{-1}$ for a distance of 2.4 kpc. The source shows clear variability on short time scales in radio, soft X-ray and hard X-ray bands in the form of multiple flares. The broad-band X-ray spectra obtained from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR can be characterized with a power-law model having photon index {\\Gamma}=2.13$\\pm$0.07 (90% confidence errors); however, residuals at high energies indicate spectral curvature significant at a 3{\\sigma} confidence level with e-folding energy of the cutoff to be 19$^{+19}_{-7}$ keV. Such curvature can be explained using synchrotron emission from the base of a jet outflow. Radio observations using the JVLA reveal that the sp...

  20. X-ray emission from Saturn

    E-print Network

    J. -U. Ness; J. H. M. M. Schmitt; S. J. Wolk; K. Dennerl; V. Burwitz

    2004-01-14

    We report the first unambiguous detection of X-ray emission originating from Saturn with a Chandra observation, duration 65.5 ksec with ACIS-S3. Beyond the pure detection we analyze the spatial distribution of X-rays on the planetary surface, the light curve, and some spectral properties. The detection is based on 162 cts extracted from the ACIS-S3 chip within the optical disk of Saturn. We found no evidence for smaller or larger angular extent. The expected background level is 56 cts, i.e., the count rate is (1.6 +- 0.2) 10^-3 cts/s. The extracted photons are rather concentrated towards the equator of the apparent disk, while both polar caps have a relative photon deficit. The inclination angle of Saturn during the observation was -27 degrees, so that the northern hemisphere was not visible during the complete observation. In addition, it was occulted by the ring system. We found a small but significant photon excess at one edge of the ring system. The light curve shows a small dip twice at identical phases, but rotational modulation cannot be claimed at a significant level. Spectral modeling results in a number of statistically, but not necessarily physically, acceptable models. The X-ray flux level we calculate from the best-fit spectral models is 6.8 10^-15 erg/cm^2/s (in the energy interval 0.1-2keV), which corresponds to an X-ray luminosity of 8.7 10^14 erg/s. A combination of scatter processes of solar X-rays requires a relatively high albedo favoring internal processes, but a definitive explanation remains an open issue.

  1. REJECTING PROPOSED DENSE MATTER EQUATIONS OF STATE WITH QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca

    2014-11-20

    Neutrons stars are unique laboratories for discriminating between the various proposed equations of state of matter at and above nuclear density. One sub-class of neutron stars—those inside quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs)—produce a thermal surface emission from which the neutron star radius (R {sub NS}) can be measured, using the widely accepted observational scenario for qLMXBs, assuming unmagnetized H atmospheres. In a combined spectral analysis, this work first reproduces a previously published measurement of the R {sub NS}, assumed to be the same for all neutron stars, using a slightly expanded data set. The radius measured is R{sub NS}=9.4±1.2 km. On the basis of spectral analysis alone, this measured value is not affected by imposing an assumption of causality in the core. However, the assumptions underlying this R {sub NS} measurement would be falsified by the observation of any neutron star with a mass >2.6 M {sub ?}, since radii <11 km would be rejected if causality is assumed, which would exclude most of the R {sub NS} parameter space obtained in this analysis. Finally, this work directly tests a selection of dense matter equations of state: WFF1, AP4, MPA1, PAL1, MS0, and three versions of equations of state produced through chiral effective theory. Two of those, MS0 and PAL1, are rejected at the 99% confidence level, accounting for all quantifiable uncertainties, while the other cannot be excluded at >99% certainty.

  2. Modeling X-ray emission around galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2014-04-10

    Extended X-ray emission can be studied by spatial surface brightness measurements or by spectral analysis, but the two methods can disagree at low intensity levels. Here we present an improved method for spatial analysis that can be extended to include spectral information simultaneously. We construct a model for the entire image in a given energy band and generate a likelihood function to compare the model to the data. A critical goal is disentangling vignetted and unvignetted backgrounds through their different spatial distributions. Employing either maximum likelihood or Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we can derive probability distributions for the source and background parameters together, or we can fit and subtract the background, leaving the description of the source non-parametric. We calibrate this method against a variety of simulated images, and apply it to Chandra observations of the hot gaseous halo around the elliptical galaxy NGC 720. We follow the emission below a tenth of the background and infer a hot gas mass within 35 kpc of 4-5 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ?}, with some indication that the profile continues to at least 50 kpc and that it steepens. We derive stronger constraints on the surface brightness profile than previous studies that employed the spectral method, and we show that the density profiles inferred from these studies are in conflict with the observed surface brightness profile. Contrary to a previous claim, we find that the X-ray halo does not contain the full complement of missing baryons within the virial radius.

  3. X-Ray Emission from "Uranium" Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Eric; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    The project aims to secure XMM observations of two targets with extremely low abundances of the majority of heavy elements (e.g., log[Fe/H] $\\sim$-4), but that show absorption lines of uranium. The presence of an r-process element such as uranium requires a binary star system in which the companion underwent a supernova explosion. A binary star system raises the distinct possibility of the existence of a compact object, most likely a neutron star, in the binary, assuming it survived the supernova blast. The presence of a compact object then suggests X-ray emission if sufficient matter accretes to the compact object. The observations were completed less than one year ago following a series of reobservations to correct for significant flaring that occurred during the original observations. The ROSAT all-sky survey was used to report on the initial assessment of X-ray emission from these objects; only upper limits were reported. These upper limits were used to justify the XMM observing time, but with the expectation that upper limits would merely be pushed lower. The data analysis hinges critically on the quality and degree of precision with which the background is handled. During the past year, I have spent some time learning the ins and outs of XMM data analysis. In the coming year, I can apply that learning to the analysis of the 'uranium' stars.

  4. X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore University, Oct. 13, 2005 astro.swarthmore.edu/~cohen/ #12;Outline 1. What you need to know: a. X-rays from the Sun - magnetic activity, x-ray spectra b. Hot stars c. Radiation-driven winds and the Doppler shift d

  5. X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND

    E-print Network

    Bergen, Universitetet i

    X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETS AND COMETS: RELATIONSHIP WITH SOLAR X-RAYS AND SOLAR WIND ANIL BHARDWAJ Flight center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA Scattering of solar X-ray radiation mainly produces the non-auroral X- ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, those from the disk of Mars, Venus, and Moon

  6. Quasi-monochromatic field-emission x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Diop, Babacar; Binh, Vu Thien

    2012-09-15

    By favoring the L-peak emission over the bremsstrahlung part, direct quasi-monochromatic soft x-ray emission has been obtained with a field emission (FE) x-ray source. The electron impact x-ray setup uses an arrayed cathode of carbon nanopearl FE tips as a stable cold electron source within a vacuum of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} Torr. The high brightness of the FE e-beam coupled with the array structure of the cold cathode allows a smoother control of the x-ray emission intensity. The wavelength of the x-ray source can be modified by the choice of target materials. Using Mo as the target material, the x-ray emission shows a peak centered at 2.45 keV with a monochromaticity between 75% and 55% and a FWHM in the range of 450 eV.

  7. X-Ray Emission from Protostellar Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Jon A.; McCray, Dick; Bally, John; Devine, David

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this program were to identify the termination shocks in several parsec-scale protostellar jets through the thermal soft X-rays emitted by the high-velocity terminal shock waves, and to assess the impact these outflows have on the surrounding interstellar and intercloud medium. The terminal shock waves that plow into the undisturbed interstellar medium may have shock velocities commensurate with the observed space motions of several hundred km s(exp -1). Such shocks will heat and ionize the interstellar medium, perhaps creating large ovoid bubbles of hot gas. Identifying the location of the terminal shocks in these outflows would also allow us to place constraints on the ages of these outflows, and hence the duration of the mass-loss phase that accompanies the formation of a star. We targeted four outflows where the outer optical shock waves are projected against low-extinction backgrounds. From the two dozen or so parsec-scale flows known, we chose those that have the highest velocities, brightest optical counterparts, and/or the richest concentration of shock waves in a small area on the sky. Four giant HH flows have been observed with the ROSAT HRI at Priority A for 30 ksec each. Results: Unfortunately, we failed to detect X-ray emission from the terminal bow shocks of the giant HH flows using the ROSAT HRI. The reasons are likely to be: (1) The shock velocities may be too low to emit in the soft X-rays. (2) The sensitivity of the HRI is too low to detect the diffuse emission. The fields that we observed were chosen to be low extinction sight-lines, with the consequence that the tenuous media into which the outer bow shocks are propagating produce low fluxes. Despite the failure to achieve the primary science goals, we have identified in each image a half a dozen or so point-source young stellar objects. The HRI images have been very useful for discerning potential outflow sources and are being combined with optical, near-IR, and radio imaging data of each outflow field. The first paper on L1551 NE is currently in preparation.

  8. Hard X-ray Emission Associated with White Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    I. J. Odwyer; Y. -H. Chu; R. A. Gruendl; M. A. Guerrero; R. F. Webbink

    2003-01-14

    We have used the WGACAT to search for hard X-ray sources associated with white dwarfs (WDs) from the catalog of McCook & Sion (1999). We find 17 X-ray sources coincident with WDs showing significant hard X-ray emission at energies >0.5 keV. Twelve of these WDs are in known binary systems, in two of which the accretion of the close companion's material onto the white dwarf produces the hard X-ray emission, and in the other ten of which the late-type companions' coronal activity emits hard X-rays. One WD is projected near an AGN which is responsible for the hard X-ray emission. The remaining four WDs and two additional white dwarfs with hard X-ray emission appear single. The lack of near-IR excess from the apparently single WDs suggests that either X-ray observations are more effective than near-IR photometry in diagnosing faint companions or a different emission mechanism is needed. It is intriguing that 50% of the six apparently single WDs with hard X-ray emission are among the hottest WDs. We have compared X-ray properties of 11 hot WDs with different spectral types, and conclude that stellar pulsation and fast stellar winds are not likely the origin of the hard X-ray emission, but a leakage of the high-energy Wien tail of emission from deep in the stellar atmosphere remains a tantalizing source of hard X-ray emission from hot DO and DQZO WDs. (This abstract is an abridged version.)

  9. CONTEMPORANEOUS XMM-NEWTON INVESTIGATION OF A GIANT X-RAY FLARE AND QUIESCENT STATE FROM A COOL M-CLASS DWARF IN THE LOCAL CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Galeazzi, M.; Williams, B.

    2011-04-10

    We report the serendipitous detection of a giant X-ray flare from the source 2XMM J043527.2-144301 during an XMM-Newton observation of the high latitude molecular cloud MBM20. The source has not been previously studied at any wavelength. The X-ray flux increases by a factor of more than 52 from quiescent state to peak of flare. A 2MASS counterpart has been identified (2MASS J04352724-1443017), and near-infrared colors reveal a spectral type of M8-M8.5 and a distance of (67 {+-} 13) pc, placing the source in front of MBM20. Spectral analysis and source luminosity are also consistent with this conclusion. The measured distance makes this object the most distant source (by about a factor of four) at this spectral type detected in X-rays. The X-ray flare was characterized by a peak X-ray luminosity of {approx}8.2 x 10{sup 28} erg s{sup -1} and integrated X-ray energy of {approx}2.3 x 10{sup 32} erg. The flare emission has been characterized with a two-temperature model with temperatures of {approx}10 and 46 MK (0.82 and 4.0 keV) and is dominated by the higher temperature component.

  10. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A.; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G.; Segtnan, Vegard H.; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F.; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan P.; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J.; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime.

  11. X-ray emission properties of galaxies in Abell 3128

    E-print Network

    Russell J. Smith

    2003-07-15

    We use archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data to investigate X-ray emission from early-type galaxies in the rich z=0.06 cluster Abell 3128. By combining the X-ray count-rates from an input list of optically-selected galaxies, we obtain a statistical detection of X-ray flux, unbiased by X-ray selection limits. Using 87 galaxies with reliable Chandra data, X-ray emission is detected for galaxies down to M_B ~ -19.0, with only an upper limit determined for galaxies at M_B ~ -18.3. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosities is consistent with recent determinations of the low-mass X-ray binary content of nearby elliptical galaxies. Taken individually, in contrast, we detect significant (3sigma) flux for only six galaxies. Of these, one is a foreground galaxy, while two are optically-faint galaxies with X-ray hardness ratios characteristic of active galactic nuclei. The remaining three detected galaxies are amongst the optically-brightest cluster members, and have softer X-ray spectra. Their X-ray flux is higher than that expected from X-ray binaries, by a factor 2-10; the excess suggests these galaxies have retained their hot gaseous haloes. The source with the highest L_X / L_B ratio is of unusual optical morphology with prominent sharp-edged shells. Notwithstanding these few exceptions, the cluster population overall exhibits X-ray properties consistent with their emission being dominated by X-ray binaries. We conclude that in rich cluster environments, interaction with the ambient intra-cluster medium acts to strip most galaxies of their hot halo gas.

  12. X-Ray Emission from the Soft X-Ray Transient Aquila X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Aquila X-1 is the most prolific of soft X-ray transients. It is believed to contain a rapidly spinning neutron star sporadically accreting near the Eddington limit from a low-mass companion star. The interest in studying the repeated X-ray outbursts from Aquila X-1 is twofold: (1) studying the relation between optical, soft and hard X-ray emission during the outburst onset, development and decay; (2) relating the spectral component to thermal and non-thermal processes occurring near the magnetosphere and in the boundary layer of a time-variable accretion disk. Our investigation is based on the BATSE monitoring of Aquila X-1 performed by our group. We observed Aquila X-1 in 1997 and re-analyzed archival information obtained in April 1994 during a period of extraordinary outbursting activity of the source in the hard X-ray range. Our results allow, for the first time for this important source, to obtain simultaneous spectral information from 2 keV to 200 keV. A black body (T = 0.8 keV) plus a broken power-law spectrum describe accurately the 1994 spectrum. Substantial hard X-ray emission is evident in the data, confirming that the accretion phase during sub-Eddington limit episodes is capable of producing energetic hard emission near 5 x 10(exp 35) ergs(exp -1). A preliminary paper summarizes our results, and a more comprehensive account is being written. We performed a theoretical analysis of possible emission mechanisms, and confirmed that a non-thermal emission mechanism triggered in a highly sheared magnetosphere at the accretion disk inner boundary can explain the hard X-ray emission. An anticorrelation between soft and hard X-ray emission is indeed prominently observed as predicted by this model.

  13. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Lewis, W. S.; Crary, F. J.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Howell, R. R.; Johnson, R. E.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The soft x-ray energy band (less than 4 keV) is an important spectral regime for planetary remote sensing, as a wide variety of solar system objects are now known to shine at these wavelengths. These include Earth, Jupiter, comets, moons, Venus, and the Sun. Earth and Jupiter, as magnetic planets, are observed to emanate strong x-ray emissions from their auroral (polar) regions, thus providing vital information on the nature of precipitating particles and their energization processes in planetary magnetospheres. X rays from low latitudes have also been observed on these planets, resulting largely from atmospheric scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays. Cometary x-rays are now a well established phenomena, more than a dozen comets have been observed at soft x-ray energies, with the accepted production mechanism being charge-exchange between heavy solar wind ions and cometary neutrals. Also, Lunar x-rays have been observed and are thought to be produced by scattering and fluorescence of solar x-rays from the Moon's surface. With the advent of sophisticated x-ray observatories, e.g., Chandra and XMM-Newton, the field of planetary x-ray astronomy is advancing at a much faster pace. The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) has recently captured soft x-rays from Venus. Venusian x-rays are most likely produced through fluorescence of solar x-rays by C and O atoms in the upper atmosphere. Very recently, using CXO we have discovered soft x-rays from the moons of Jupiter-Io, Europa, and probably Ganymede. The plausible source of the x-rays from the Galilean satellites is bombardment of their surfaces by energetic (greater than 10 KeV) ions from the inner magnetosphere of Jupiter. The Io plasma Torus (IPT) is also discovered by CXO to be a source of soft x-rays by CXO have revealed a mysterious pulsating (period approx. 45 minutes) x-ray hot spot is fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and is magnetically connected to a region in the outer magnetosphere of Jupiter. These surprising results have called into question our understanding of Jovian auroral x-rays. In this paper, we will present a comparative view of the x-ray observations on planets, comets, and moons, with emphasis on recent results from CXO, and discuss the proposed source mechanisms.

  14. Current Problems in X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Joseph I.; Williams, David B.; Lyman, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Various problems that limit X-ray analysis in the analytical electron microscope are reviewed. Major emphasis is given to the trade-off between minimum mass fraction and spatial resolution. New developments such as high-brightness electron guns, new X-ray spectrometers and clean high-vacuum analysis conditions will lead to major improvements in the accuracy and detectability limits of X-ray emission spectroscopy.

  15. ROSAT observations of X-ray emission from planetary nebulae

    E-print Network

    Martin A. Guerrero; You-Hua Chu; Robert A. Gruendl

    2000-01-24

    We have searched the entire ROSAT archive for useful observations to study X-ray emission from Galactic planetary nebulae (PNs). The search yields a sample of 63 PNs, which we call the ROSAT PN sample. About 20-25% of this sample show X-ray emission; these include 13 definite detections and three possible detections (at a 2-sigma level). All X-ray sources in these PNs are concentrated near the central stars. Only A 30, BD+30 3639, and NGC 6543 are marginally resolved by the ROSAT instruments. Three types of X-ray spectra are seen in PNs. Type 1 consists of only soft X-ray emission (0.5 keV, and can be fitted by thin plasma emission models at temperatures of a few 10^6 K. Type 3 is a composite of a bright Type 1 component and a fainter Type 2 component. Unresolved soft sources with Type 1 spectra or the soft component of Type 3 spectra are most likely photospheric emission from the hot central stars. Absorption cross sections are large for these soft-energy photons; therefore, only large, tenuous, evolved PNs with hot central stars and small absorption column densities have been detected. The origin of hard X-ray emission from PNs is uncertain. PNs with Type 2 spectra are small, dense, young nebulae with relatively cool (<<10^5 K) central stars, while PNs with Type 3 X-ray spectra are large, tenuous, evolved nebulae with hot central stars. The hard X-ray luminosities are also different between these two types of PNs, indicating perhaps different origins of their hard X-ray emission. Future Chandra and XMM observations with high spatial and spectral resolution will help to understand the origin of hard X-ray emission from PNs.

  16. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    The physical processes occurring in plasma focus devices were investigated with particular emphasis on X-ray emission. Topics discussed include: trajectories of high energy electrons; detection of ion trajectories; spatial distribution of neutron emission; space and time resolved emission of hard X-rays from a plasma focus; the staged plasma focus as a variation of the hypocloidal pinch; formation of current sheets in a staged plasma focus; and X-ray and neutron emission from a staged plasma focus. The possibility of operating dense plasma-focus type devices in multiple arrays beyond the scaling law for a single gun is discussed.

  17. Neutron star masses and radii from quiescent low-mass x-ray binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M.; Steiner, Andrew W. E-mail: steiner3@uw.edu

    2014-04-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of neutron star radius constraints from five quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries and examine how they depend on measurements of their distances and amounts of intervening absorbing material, as well as their assumed atmospheric compositions. We construct and calibrate to published results a semi-analytic model of the neutron star atmosphere which approximates these effects for the predicted masses and radii. Starting from mass and radius probability distributions established from hydrogen-atmosphere spectral fits of quiescent sources, we apply this model to compute alternate sets of probability distributions. We perform Bayesian analyses to estimate neutron star mass-radius curves and equation of state (EOS) parameters that best-fit each set of distributions, assuming the existence of a known low-density neutron star crustal EOS, a simple model for the high-density EOS, causality, and the observation that the neutron star maximum mass exceeds 2 M {sub ?}. We compute the posterior probabilities for each set of distance measurements and assumptions about absorption and composition. We find that, within the context of our assumptions and our parameterized EOS models, some absorption models are disfavored. We find that neutron stars composed of hadrons are favored relative to those with exotic matter with strong phase transitions. In addition, models in which all five stars have hydrogen atmospheres are found to be weakly disfavored. Our most likely models predict neutron star radii that are consistent with current experimental results concerning the nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction near the nuclear saturation density.

  18. Evidence for Optical Flares in Quiescent Soft X-Ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita, C.; Casares, J.; Shahbaz, T.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of high time resolution optical photometry of five quiescent soft X-ray transients (SXTs): V404 Cyg, A0620-00, J0422+32, GS 2000+25, and Cen X-4. We detect fast optical variations superposed on the secondary star's double-humped ellipsoidal modulation. The variability resembles typical flare activity and has amplitudes ranging from 0.06 to 0.6 mag. Flares occur on timescales of minutes to a few hours, with no dependency on orbital phase, and contribute ~19%-46% to the total veiling observed in the R band. We find that the observed level of flaring activity is veiled by the light of the companion star, and therefore, systems with cool companions (e.g., J0422+32) exhibit stronger variability. After correcting for this dilution, we do not find any correlation between the flaring activity and fundamental system parameters. We find no underlying coherent periods in the data, only quasi-periodic variations ranging between 30 and 90 minutes for the short-period SXTs and longer than 1 hr for V404 Cyg. The power-law index of the power spectra is consistent with what is observed at X-rays wavelengths, i.e., a 1/f distribution, which is compatible with the cellular automaton model. Our observed R'-band luminosities, which are in the range 1031-1033 ergs s-1, are too large to be due to chromospheric activity in the rapidly rotating companions. Since the typical timescale of the flares increases with orbital period, they are most likely produced in the accretion disk. The associated dynamical (Keplerian) timescales suggest that flares are produced at ~0.3Rd-0.7Rd. Possible formation mechanisms are magnetic loop reconnection events in the disk or, less likely, optical reprocessing of X-ray flares. In the former scenario, the maximum duration of the flares suggests that the outer disk is responsible for the flare events and so allows us to constrain the sharing timescale to ?~(5-6)?-1K.

  19. X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1985-01-01

    It is often held that the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) arises from a region close to the central energy source. Thus X-ray observations may provide the best constraints on the central engine. In particular, the shape of the X-ray continuum gives information about the mechanism for photon generation, X-ray time variability data can constrain the size and mass of the continuum source, and X-ray occultation data give constraints on the relative sizes of the continuum source and the intervening absorbing material (often assumed to be the broad line clouds). In addition, since a fair fraction of the total energy of an AGN is emitted at X-ray wavelengths, direct measurement of the amount and spectral form of this radiation is important for modeling of the optically emitting clouds.

  20. Exploring Diffuse X-ray Emission from Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Marcus

    2014-11-01

    The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) has established that diffuse X-ray emission, generated by energetic, nebula-shaping wind shocks, emanates from ~1/4 of planetary nebulae (PNe). Such X-ray emission sources are found only in the youngest, most compact nebulae with the highest nebular densities, implying active PN "sculpting" lifetimes of ?5000 years. The diffuse X-ray detection rate is 100% for the (five) ChanPlaNS sample PNe with Wolf-Rayet ([WR]) type central stars. We present preliminary results from 3D structural reconstructions of PNe that are designed to investigate the apparent systematic differences between the diffuse X-ray emission morphologies of PNe with [WR] vs. non-[WR] central stars, as well as the possibility of enhanced, intranebular X-ray absorption.

  1. X-Ray Emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    M. Tavani

    1996-10-29

    X-ray emission can provide a crucial diagnostic of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We calculate the X-ray and gamma-ray spectra of impulsive acceleration episodes related to GRB pulses. We use the synchrotron shock model (SSM) as a basis of our calculations. We show that the current data on soft-to-hard emission ratios of GRB pulse emission are in agreement with the SSM. In particular, GRB pulse emission detected by GINGA is in agreement with the SSM low-energy spectra. We deduce that GINGA detected the majority of bright GRBs detectable by BATSE. These results indicate that the physical environment surrounding the GRB emission site is optically thin to X-ray photon energies. We also calculate emission ratios in the Einstein, ROSAT, SAX and HETE energy bands, and discuss how future information on simultaneous soft/hard GRB emission can contribute in distinguishing different emission models. Two different components of X-ray emission may simultaneously exist in a fraction of GRBs. One component is clearly associated with the individual GRB pulses, and an additional component may be related to the pulse X-ray spectral upturns and/or the precursors/tails occasionally observed. We also show that a meaningful search of GRB-driven X-ray flashes in Andromeda (M31) can be carried out with existing ROSAT data and future SAX Wide Field Camera observations.

  2. X-ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula

    E-print Network

    Roger W. Romani; James M. Cordes; I. -A. Yadigaroglu

    1997-06-20

    We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the Pulsar Wind Nebula trailing the high velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the `Guitar Nebula'). This X-ray flux gives evidence of \\gamma~10^7 eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the post-shock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near equipartition values.

  3. X-ray emission from magnetic massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Cohen, David; Owocki, Stan; ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg; Swings, Jean-Pierre

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. In an attempt to clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM observations, corresponding to over 100 exposures of 60 percent of the known magnetic massive stars listed recently by Petit et al. (2013). We notably show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with mass-loss rate, in agreement with predictions of magnetically confined wind models. We also investigated the behaviour of other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption, variability), yielding additional constraints on models. This work not only advances our knowledge of the X-ray emission of massive stars, but also suggests new observational and theoretical avenues to further explore magnetically confined winds. Poster by Y. Nazé, leader of international team, and J.P. Swings

  4. X-ray emission from magnetic massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naze, Y.; Pétit, V.; Rindbrand, M.; Cohen, D.; Owocki, S.; ud-Doula, A.; Wade, G.; Rauw, G.

    2014-07-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. In an attempt to clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM observations, corresponding to over 100 exposures of 60% of the known magnetic massive stars listed recently by Petit et al. (2013). We notably show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with mass-loss rate, in agreement with predictions of magnetically confined wind models. We also investigated the behavior of other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption, variability), yielding additional constraints on models. This work not only advances our knowledge of the X-ray emission of massive stars, but also suggests new observational and theoretical avenues to further explore magnetically confined winds.

  5. A Common Stochastic Process Rules Gamma-ray Burst Prompt Emission and X-ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.; Baldeschi, A.; Amati, L.

    2015-03-01

    Prompt ?-ray and early X-ray afterglow emissions in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are characterized by a bursty behavior and are often interspersed with long quiescent times. There is compelling evidence that X-ray flares are linked to prompt ?-rays. However, the physical mechanism that leads to the complex temporal distribution of ?-ray pulses and X-ray flares is not understood. Here we show that the waiting time distribution (WTD) of pulses and flares exhibits a power-law tail extending over four decades with an index of about two and can be the manifestation of a common time-dependent Poisson process. This result is robust and is obtained on different catalogs. Surprisingly, GRBs with many (?slant 8) ?-ray pulses are very unlikely to be accompanied by X-ray flares after the end of the prompt emission (3.1? Gaussian confidence). These results are consistent with a simple interpretation: a hyperaccreting disk breaks up into one or a few groups of fragments, each of which is independently accreted with the same probability per unit time. Prompt ?-rays and late X-ray flares are nothing but different fragments being accreted at the beginning and at the end, respectively, following the very same stochastic process and likely the same mechanism.

  6. Hard X-ray Emission Associated with White Dwarfs II

    E-print Network

    Y. -H. Chu; M. A. Guerrero; R. A. Gruendl; R. F. Webbink

    2003-10-10

    We have previously conducted a search for X-ray sources coincident with white dwarfs using the white dwarf catalog compiled by McCook & Sion (1999} and the ROSAT sources in the WGACAT (Paper I). To include the white dwarfs discovered since 1999 and to include the X-ray sources detected in ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations made with a boron filter, we have carried out another search using an updated list of white dwarfs and the final catalogs of the ROSAT PSPC observations with and without a boron filter. Forty-seven new X-ray sources convincingly coincident with white dwarfs are found and reported in this paper. Among these, only 5 show hard X-ray emission: three possess confirmed or suggested late-type companions, one is apparently single, and the other is likely a misclassified BL Lac object. The apparently single white dwarf with hard X-ray emission, KPD 0005+5106, was discussed extensively in Paper I. Photospheric origin for the hard X-ray emission from hot DO and DQZO white dwarfs remains a tantalizing possibility, but high-quality near IR spectroscopic observations and monitoring of the H-alpha emission line are needed to rule out the existence of a faint dMe companion.

  7. ANS hard X-ray experiment development program. [emission from X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsignault, D.; Gursky, H.; Frank, R.; Kubierschky, K.; Austin, G.; Paganetti, R.; Bawdekar, V.

    1974-01-01

    The hard X-ray (HXX) experiment is one of three experiments included in the Dutch Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, which was launched into orbit on 30 August 1974. The overall objective of the HXX experiment is the detailed study of the emission from known X-ray sources over the energy range 1.5-30keV. The instrument is capable of the following measurements: (1) spectral content over the full energy range with an energy resolution of approximately 20% and time resolution down to 4 seconds; (2) source time variability down to 4 milliseconds; (3) silicon emission lines at 1.86 and 2.00keV; (4) source location to a limit of one arc minute in ecliptic latitude; and (5) spatial structure with angular resolution of the arc minutes. Scientific aspects of experiment, engineering design and implementation of the experiment, and program history are included.

  8. Auroral X ray emission at Jupiter: Depth effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ozak, Nataly; Schultz, David Robert; Cravens, Thomas E. E.; Kharchenko, V.; Hui, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter with a total power of about 1 GW have been observed by the Einstein Observatory, Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed X-rays. This study presents the results of a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) model for sulfur and oxygen ion precipitation at high latitudes, looks at differences with the continuous slow-down model, and compares the results to synthetic spectra fitted to observations. We concentrate on the effects of altitude on the observed spectrum. The opacity of the atmosphere to the outgoing X-ray photons is found to be important for incident ion energies greater than about 1.2 MeV per nucleon for both sulfur and oxygen. Model spectra are calculated for intensities with and without any opacity effects. These synthetic spectra were compared with the results shown by Hui et al. (2010) which fit Chandra X-ray Observatory observations for the north and south Jovian auroral emissions. Quenching of long-lived excited states of the oxygen ions is found to be important. Opacity considerably diminishes the outgoing X-ray intensity calculated, particularly when the viewing geometry is not favorable.

  9. X-ray emission from colliding laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, M.; Obst, A.W.; Winske, D.

    1995-09-01

    Colliding Au, CD and Ti-Cr plasmas have been generated by illuminating two opposing foils each with a {approximately} 100J, 0.5 nsec, 2{omega} Nd-glass laser beam from the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos. The plasmas are being used to study plasma interactions which span the parameter regime from interpenetrating to collisional stagnation. X-ray emission during the laser target interaction and the subsequent collision is used to diagnose the initial plasma conditions and the colliding plasma properties. X-ray instrumentation consists of a 100 ps gated x-ray pinhole imager, a time-integratcd bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrograph and a gated x-ray spectrograph used to record isoelectronic spectra from the Ti-Cr plasmas. The imager has obtained multi-frame images of the collision and therefore, a measure of the stagnation length which is a function of the ion charge state and density and a strong function of the electron temperature. Other instrumentation includes a Thomson scattering spectrometer with probe beam, neutron detectors used to monitor the CD coated foil collisions and an ion spectrometer. We will describe the current status of the experiments and current results with emphasis on the x-ray emission diagnostics. We will also briefly describe the modeling using Lasnex and ISIS, a particle-in-cell code with massless fluid electrons and inter particle (classical) collisions.

  10. Extended X-Ray Emission around Quasars at Intermediate Redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiore, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We compare the optical to soft X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) of a sample of bright low-redshift (0.048 less than z less than 0.155), radio-quiet quasars, with a range of thermal models which have been proposed to explain the optical/UV/soft X-ray quasar emission: (a) optically thin emission from an ionized plasma, (b) optically thick emission from the innermost regions of an accretion disk in Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries. We presented ROSAT PSPC observations of these quasars in an earlier paper. Here our goals are to search for the signature of thermal emission in the quasar SED, and to investigate whether a single component is dominating at different frequencies. We find that isothermal optically thin plasma models can explain the observed soft X-ray color and the mean OUV color. However, they predict an ultraviolet (1325 Angstrom) luminosity a factor of 3 to 10 times lower than observed. Pure disk models, even in a Kerr geometry, do not have the necessary flexibility to account for the observed OUV and soft X-ray luminosities. Additional components are needed both in the optical and in the soft X-rays (e.g. a hot corona can explain the soft X-ray color). The most constrained modification of pure disk models, is the assumption of an underlying power law component extending from the infrared (3 micrometers) to the X-ray. This can explain both the OUV and soft X-ray colors and luminosities and does not exceed the 3 micrometers luminosity, where a contribution from hot dust is likely to be important. We also discuss the possibility that the observed soft X-ray color and luminosity are dominated by reflection from the ionized surface of the accretion disk. While modifications of both optically thin plasma models and pure disk models might account for the observed SED, we do not find any strong evidence that the OUV bump and soft X-ray emission are one and the same component. Likewise, we do not find any strong argument which definitely argues in favor of thermal models.

  11. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

  12. SOFT X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PLANETS, MOONS, AND COMETS A. Bhardwaj(1)

    E-print Network

    Ã?stgaard, Nikolai

    SOFT X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PLANETS, MOONS, AND COMETS A. Bhardwaj(1) , G. R. Gladstone(2) , R. F to radiate in the soft x-ray energy ( the generation of soft x-rays from these objects, whereas in the hard x-ray energy range (>10 keV) x-rays mainly

  13. Exotic x-ray emission from dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmej, F. B.; Dachicourt, R.; Deschaud, B.; Khaghani, D.; Dozières, M.; Šmíd, M.; Renner, O.

    2015-11-01

    Exotic x-ray emission from dense matter is identified as the complex high intensity satellite emission from autoionizing states of highly charged ions. Among a vast amount of possible transitions, double K-hole hollow ion (HI) x-ray emission K0L X ? K1L X-1 + h? hollow is of exceptional interest due to its advanced diagnostic potential for matter under extreme conditions where opacity and radiation fields play important roles. Transient ab initio simulations identify intense short pulse radiation fields (e.g., those emitted by x-ray free electron lasers) as possible driving mechanisms of HI x-ray emission via two distinct channels: first, successive photoionization of K-shell electrons, second, photoionization followed by resonant photoexciation among various ionic charge states that are simultaneously present in high density matter. We demonstrated that charge exchange of intermixing inhomogenous plasmas as well as collisions driven by suprathermal electrons are possible mechanisms to populate HIs to observable levels in dense plasmas, particularly in high current Z-pinch plasmas and high intensity field-ionized laser produced plasmas. Although the HI x-ray transitions were repeatedly identified in many other cases of dense optical laser produced plasmas on the basis of atomic structure calculations, their origin is far from being understood and remains one of the last holy grails of high intensity laser-matter interaction.

  14. Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation,

    E-print Network

    Fadley, Charles

    Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission-separated scintillator fibers for high-resolution X-ray imaging Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051907 (2013) Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics J. Appl. Phys. 113, 053104 (2013) Large

  15. X-ray Emission Line Spectroscopy of Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Daniel

    What are the origins of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from non-AGN galaxies? Preliminary analysis of XMM-Newton RGS spectra shows that a substantial fraction of the emission cannot arise from optically-thin thermal plasma, as commonly assumed, and may originate in charge exchange at the interface with neutral gas. We request the support for a comprehensive observing, data analysis, and modeling program to spectroscopically determine the origins of the emission. First, we will use our scheduled XMM-Newton AO-10 368 ks observations of the nearest compact elliptical galaxy M32 to obtain the first spectroscopic calibration of the cumulative soft X-ray emission from the old stellar population and will develop a spectral model for the charge exchange, as well as analysis tools to measure the spatial and kinematic properties of the X-ray line- emitting plasma. Second, we will characterize the truly diffuse emission from the hot plasma and/or its interplay with the neutral gas in a sample of galactic spheroids and active star forming/starburst regions in nearby galaxies observed by XMM-Newton. In particular, we will map out the spatial distributions of key emission lines and measure (or tightly constrain) the kinematics of hot plasma outflows for a few X-ray-emitting regions with high-quality RGS data. For galaxies with insufficient counting statistics in individual emission lines, we will conduct a spectral stacking analysis to constrain the average properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. We will use the results of these X-ray spectroscopic analyses, together with complementary X-ray CCD imaging/spectral data and observations in other wavelength bands, to test the models of the emission. In addition to the charge exchange, alternative scenarios such as resonance scattering and relic AGN photo-ionization will also be examined for suitable regions. These studies are important to the understanding of the relationship between the diffuse soft X-ray emission and various high-energy feedback processes of the galaxies.

  16. L X-ray emission induced by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajek, M.; Bana?, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Semaniak, J.; Fija?-Kirejczyk, I.; Jaskó?a, M.; Czarnacki, W.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Mukoyama, T.; Trautmann, D.

    2015-11-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is usually applied using typically 1 MeV to 3 MeV protons or helium ions, for which the ion-atom interaction is dominated by the single ionization process. For heavier ions the multiple ionization plays an increasingly important role and this process can influence substantially both the X-ray spectra and atomic decay rates. Additionally, the subshell coupling effects are important for the L- and M-shells ionized by heavy ions. Here we discuss the main features of the X-ray emission induced by heavy ions which are important for PIXE applications, namely, the effects of X-ray line shifts and broadening, vacancy rearrangement and change of the fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields in multiple ionized atoms. These effects are illustrated here by the results of the measurements of L X-ray emission from heavy atoms bombarded by 6 MeV to 36 MeV Si ions, which were reported earlier. The strong L-subshell coupling effects are observed, in particular L2-subshell, which can be accounted for within the coupling subshell model (CSM) developed within the semiclassical approximation. Finally, the prospects to use heavy ions in PIXE analysis are discussed.

  17. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission Around Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Miyoshi, Y.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to 6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of 3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts and the bright spot seemed to move according to the Io's motion. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. We hence examined three mechanisms: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon related to Io.

  18. Diffuse X-ray emission from the Dumbbell Nebula?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, You-Hua; Kwitter, Karen B.; Kaler, James B.

    1993-08-01

    We have analyzed ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations of the Dumbbell Nebula and find that the previously reported 'extended' X-ray emission is an instrumental electronic ghost image at the softest energy band. At slightly higher energy bands, the image of the Dumbbell is not very different from that of the white dwarf HZ43. We conclude that the X-ray emission of the Dumbbell Nebula comes from its central star. A blackbody model is fitted to the spectrum and the best-fit temperature of not greater than 136,000 +/- 10,000 K is in excellent agreement with the Zanstra temperatures.

  19. Diffuse X-ray emission from the Dumbbell Nebula?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, You-Hua; Kwitter, Karen B.; Kaler, James B.

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations of the Dumbbell Nebula and find that the previously reported 'extended' X-ray emission is an instrumental electronic ghost image at the softest energy band. At slightly higher energy bands, the image of the Dumbbell is not very different from that of the white dwarf HZ43. We conclude that the X-ray emission of the Dumbbell Nebula comes from its central star. A blackbody model is fitted to the spectrum and the best-fit temperature of not greater than 136,000 +/- 10,000 K is in excellent agreement with the Zanstra temperatures.

  20. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The expected flux of K alpha line emission from sulfur, argon, calcium, and iron is calculated during both thermal and nonthermal solar X-ray events. Such emission is shown to be weak during the course of most of the nonthermal hard X-ray bursts that Kane and Anderson (1970) have observed. If Compton backscattering is significant at high energies, the flux is reduced still further for disk flares, but it is noted that the strong, near-limb burst of June 26 would have produced about 100 photons /sq cm/sec of sulfur and iron K alpha emission. The impulsive hard X-ray bursts may in general be too short-lived for much K alpha emission. It may be noted that sulfur K alpha emission in particular depends sensitively on the lower-energy limit of the nonthermal electron spectrum, assuming such a sharply defined boundary exists. During soft X-ray bursts, when temperatures of a few 10 to the 7th power K are obtained, K alpha emission from certain iron ions, specifically Fe XVIII-XXIII, may be important.

  1. Hard X-ray emission from Eta Carinae

    E-print Network

    Jean-Christophe Leyder; Roland Walter; Gregor Rauw

    2007-12-10

    Context : If relativistic particle acceleration takes place in colliding-wind binaries, hard X-rays and gamma-rays are expected through inverse Compton emission, but to date these have never been unambiguously detected. Aims : To detect this emission, observations of Eta Carinae were performed with INTEGRAL, leveraging its high spatial resolution. Methods : Deep hard X-ray images of the region of Eta Car were constructed in several energy bands. Results : The hard X-ray emission previously detected by BeppoSax around Eta Car originates from at least 3 different point sources. The emission of Eta Car itself can be isolated for the first time, and its spectrum unambiguously analyzed. The X-ray emission of Eta Car in the 22-100 keV energy range is very hard (photon index around 1) and its luminosity is 7E33 erg/s. Conclusions : The observed emission is in agreement with the predictions of inverse Compton models, and corresponds to about 0.1% of the energy available in the wind collision. Eta Car is expected to be detected in the GeV energy range.

  2. Detecting X-ray Emission from Cometary Atmospheres Using the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Bodewits, D; Porter, F S; Ezoe, Y; Hamaguchi, K; Hanya, M; Itoh, M; Kilbourne, C A; Kohmura, T; Maeda, Y; Negoro, H; Tsuboi, Y; Tsunemi, H; Urata, Y

    2009-11-16

    The Suzaku X-ray imaging spectrometer has been used to observe the X-ray emission from comets 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C and 8P/Tuttle. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C was observed during May and June of 2006, while it was near perihelion and passed within 0.1 AU of the Earth. Comet 8P/Tuttle was observed during January of 2008 when it was at its closest approach to the Earth at 0.25 AU, and again near perihelion at a distance of 0.5 Au from Earth. In the case of comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3C, the XIS spectra show line emission from highly charged oxygen and carbon ions as well as emission from what is most likely L-shell transitions from Mg, Si, and S ions. This line emission is caused by charge exchange recombination between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals, and can be used as a diagnostic of the solar wind. Here we present some of the results of the observation of the comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C.

  3. Diffuse X-ray Emission within Wolf-Rayet Nebulae

    E-print Network

    Toalá, J A; Chu, Y -H; Arthur, S J; Gruendl, R A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss our most recent findings on the diffuse X-ray emission from Wolf-Rayet (WR) nebulae. The best-quality X-ray observations of these objects are those performed by XMM-Newton and Chandra towards S308, NGC2359, and NGC6888. Even though these three WR nebulae might have different formation scenarios, they all share similar characteristics: i) the main plasma temperatures of the X-ray-emitting gas is found to be $T$=[1-2]$\\times$10$^{6}$ K, ii) the diffuse X-ray emission is confined inside the [O III] shell, and iii) their X-ray luminosities and electron densities in the 0.3-2.0~keV energy range are $L_\\mathrm{X}\\approx$10$^{33}$-10$^{34}$~erg~s$^{-1}$ and $n_\\mathrm{e}\\approx$0.1-1~cm$^{-3}$, respectively. These properties and the nebular-like abundances of the hot gas suggest mixing and/or thermal conduction is taking an important role reducing the temperature of the hot bubble.

  4. Diffuse X-Ray Emission in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the diffuse X-ray emission from the Milky Way has evolved. extensively with time from when it was first observed in the 1960's, and its origin is still the subject of debate as much now as ever. This presentation will provide an overview of that evolution, the various emission components, emission mechanisms, an assessment of the current state of the field, and implications for eROSITA.

  5. X-ray Emission from the Winds of Massive Stars

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Emission from the Winds of Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics & Astronomy-driven stellar winds are a characteristic of massive stars NGC 6888 Crescent Nebula - Tony Hallas #12;NGC 6888 Crescent Nebula - Tony Hallas O star - source of wind bubble: ~1 arc second instrumental resolution; star

  6. X-RAY EMISSION ANALYSIS: SAMPLE LOSSES DURING EXCITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many samples of atmospheric aerosols and biological materials containing volatile or unstable species are now being examined by X-ray emission analysis, and loss of these species by sample heating is a critical consideration. The amount of heat energy deposited in a sample by the...

  7. EUV and x-ray emission of nonmagnetic catacysmic variables

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C.W.

    1997-09-01

    Recent results are presented and discussed regarding the EUV and X-ray emission of nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables. Emphasis is given to high accretion rate systems (novalike variables and dwarf novae in outburst), and to a number of apparent discrepancies between observations and the theory of the boundary layer between the accretion disk and the surface of the white dwarf. Discussed are EUV and X-ray light curves, dwarf nova oscillations, and spectra, with new and previously unpublished results on SS Cyg and OY Car.

  8. Enhanced hard x-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Ravindra Kumar, G.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Sandhu, A.S.; Gibbon, P.

    2006-05-01

    We perform a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from femtosecond laser plasmas in 15 {mu}m methanol microdroplets and Perspex target. The hard x-ray yield from droplet plasmas is {approx_equal}68 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas at 2x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. A 10 ns prepulse at about 5% of the main pulse appears to be essential for hard x-ray generation from droplets. Hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8x10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}, whereas a three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperatures from Perspex plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations with very long scale-length density profiles support experimental observations.

  9. X-ray emission from the Pleiades cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, P. C.; Singh, K. P.; Riegler, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    The detection and identification of H0344+24, a new X-ray source located in the Pleiades cluster, is reported, based on observations made with HEAO A-2 low-energy detector 1 in the 0.15-3.0-keV energy band in August, 1977. The 90-percent-confidence error box for the new source is centered at 03 h 44.1 min right ascension (1950), near the center star of the 500-star Pleiades cluster, 25-eta-Tau. Since no likely galactic or extragalactic source of X-rays was found in a catalog search of the error-box region, identification of the source with the Pleiades cluster is considered secure. X-ray luminosity of the source is calculated to be about 10 to the 32nd ergs/sec, based on a distance of 125 pc. The X-ray characteristics of the Pleiades stars are discussed, and it is concluded that H0344+24 can best be explained as the integrated X-ray emission of all the B and F stars in the cluster.

  10. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Joseph

    2009-07-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  11. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Joseph

    2009-08-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences. Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons. This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning. This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes. During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields. These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air. Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away. As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited.

  12. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    ScienceCinema

    Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, United States

    2010-01-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  13. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  14. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, G. T.; Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-01

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ˜5 keV to ˜10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 106-107 photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  15. K alpha line emission during solar X-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Neupert, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations of K alpha line emission from S, Ar, Ca and Fe are presented. It is reported that on the basis of data for hard X-ray bursts, the flux during most impulsive, non-thermal events is likely to be weak, though for a few strong bursts, a flux of approximately 100 photons/cm/s may be expected. The amount of S K alpha emission particularly is sensitively dependent on the value of the lower energy bound of the non-thermal electron distribution, offering a possible means of determining this. Thermal K alpha emission is only significant for Fe ions. The calculated thermal K alpha radiation is much less than that observed during an intense soft X-ray burst. It is concluded that a detailed temperature structure for the emission source is required in order to explain the discrepancy.

  16. Parallel tracks in infrared versus X-ray emission in black hole X-ray transient outbursts: a hysteresis effect?

    E-print Network

    D. M. Russell; T. J. Maccarone; E. G. Koerding; J. Homan

    2007-05-24

    We report the discovery of a new hysteresis effect in black hole X-ray binary state transitions, that of the near-infrared (NIR) flux (which most likely originates in the jets) versus X-ray flux. We find, looking at existing data sets, that the infrared emission of black hole X-ray transients appears to be weaker in the low/hard state rise of an outburst than the low/hard state decline of an outburst at a given X-ray luminosity. We discuss how this effect may be caused by a shift in the radiative efficiency of the inflowing or outflowing matter, or variations in the disc viscosity or the spectrum/power of the jet. In addition we show that there is a correlation (in slope but not in normalisation) between infrared and X-ray luminosities on the rise and decline, for all three low-mass black hole X-ray binaries with well-sampled infrared and X-ray coverage: L_NIR propto L_x^(0.5-0.7). In the high/soft state this slope is much shallower; L_NIR propto Lx^(0.1-0.2), and we find that the NIR emission in this state is most likely dominated by the viscously heated (as opposed to X-ray heated) accretion disc in all three sources.

  17. Synchrotron X-ray emission from old pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J.

    2014-09-01

    We study the synchrotron radiation as the observed non-thermal emission by the X-ray satellites from old pulsars (?1-10 Myr) to investigate the particle acceleration in their magnetospheres. We assume that the power-law component of the observed X-ray spectra is caused by the synchrotron radiation from electrons and positrons in the magnetosphere. We consider two pair-production mechanisms of X-ray emitting particles, the magnetic and the photon-photon pair productions. High-energy photons, which ignite the pair production, are emitted via the curvature radiation of the accelerated particles. We use the analytical description for the radiative transfer and estimate the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation. We find that for pulsars with the spin-down luminosity Lsd ? 1033 erg s-1, the locations of the particle acceleration and the non-thermal X-ray emission are within ?107 cm from the centre of the neutron star, where the magnetic pair production occurs. For pulsars with the spin-down luminosity Lsd ? 1031 erg s-1 such as J0108-1431, the synchrotron radiation is difficult to explain the observed non-thermal component even if we consider the existence of the strong and small-scale surface magnetic field structures.

  18. X-ray emission and the winds of cataclysmic variables

    SciTech Connect

    Cordova, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet observations of cataclysmic variable stars reveal a variety of exotic behavior - pulsations, winds, and episodic outbursts - are these related, what do they tell us about the nature of the outburst, about the environment of the accreting white dwarf. The author summarizes the observed changes in the x-ray and uv continuum and spectral features through the outbursts of the dwarf novae. The author then discusses how the modeling of these data have refined our ideas about the location and nature of the emissions, and the source of the outbursts. The author shows how comparisons of the x-ray and uv properties of cataclysmic variables with similar phenomena in other astronomical systems - the solar corona, OB stars, and Be stars - suggest ways in which the x-ray and uv emissions in CVs may be related, and point to further, specific observations that would elucidate our understanding of the behavior and role of the white dwarf in the outburst. 26 references.

  19. Diffuse X-ray emission from star forming galaxies

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Kartick C; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We study the diffuse X-ray luminosity ($L_X$) of star forming galaxies using 2-D axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations and analytical considerations of supernovae (SNe) driven galactic outflows. We find that the mass loading of the outflows, a crucial parameter for determining the X-ray luminosity, is constrained by the availability of gas in the central star forming region, and a competition between cooling and expansion. We show that the allowed range of the mass loading factor can explain the observed scaling of $L_X$ with star formation rate (SFR) as $L_X \\propto$ SFR$^2$ for SFR $\\gtrsim 1$ M$_\\odot$yr$^{-1}$, and a flatter relation at low SFRs. We also show that the emission from the hot circumgalactic medium (CGM) in the halo of massive galaxies can explain the sub-linear behaviour of the $L_X-$SFR relation as well as a large scatter in the diffuse X-ray emission for low SFRs ($\\lesssim$ few M$_\\odot$yr$^{-1}$). Our results point out that galaxies with small SFRs and large diffuse X-ray luminosities ...

  20. Determination of total x-ray absorption coefficient using non-resonant x-ray emission

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, A. J.; Regier, T. Z.; Monkman, E. J.; Shen, K. M.; Hawthorn, D. G.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative measure of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) called inverse partial fluorescence yield (IPFY) has recently been developed that is both bulk sensitive and free of saturation effects. Here we show that the angle dependence of IPFY can provide a measure directly proportional to the total x-ray absorption coefficient, µ(E). In contrast, fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield (EY) spectra are offset and/or distorted from µ(E) by an unknown and difficult to measure amount. Moreover, our measurement can determine µ(E) in absolute units with no free parameters by scaling to µ(E) at the non-resonant emission energy. We demonstrate this technique with measurements on NiO and NdGaO3. Determining µ(E) across edge-steps enables the use of XAS as a non-destructive measure of material composition. In NdGaO3, we also demonstrate the utility of IPFY for insulating samples, where neither EY or FY provide reliable spectra due to sample charging and self-absorption effects, respectively. PMID:22355697

  1. THE CHANDRA CARINA COMPLEX PROJECT: DECIPHERING THE ENIGMA OF CARINA'S DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Gagne, Marc; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Montmerle, Thierry; Naze, Yael; Oey, M. S.; Park, Sangwook; Petre, Robert; Pittard, Julian M.

    2011-05-01

    We present a 1.42 deg{sup 2} mosaic of diffuse X-ray emission in the Great Nebula in Carina from the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer camera. After removing >14,000 X-ray point sources from the field, we smooth the remaining unresolved emission, tessellate it into segments of similar apparent surface brightness, and perform X-ray spectral fitting on those tessellates to infer the intrinsic properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. By modeling faint resolved point sources, we estimate the contribution to the extended X-ray emission from unresolved point sources and show that the vast majority of Carina's unresolved X-ray emission is truly diffuse. Line-like correlated residuals in the X-ray spectral fits suggest that substantial X-ray emission is generated by charge exchange at the interfaces between Carina's hot, rarefied plasma and its many cold neutral pillars, ridges, and clumps.

  2. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    The bremsstrahlung X-rays from a plasma focus device were investigated with emphasis on the emission versus position, time, energy, and angle of emission. It is shown that low energy X-rays come from the plasma focus region, but that the higher energy components come from the anode. The emission is anisotropic, the low energy polar diagram resembling a cardioid, while the high energy emission is a lobe into the anode. The plasma parameters were considered indicating that even in the dense focus, the plasma is collisionless near the axis. By considering the radiation patterns of relativistic electrons a qualitative picture is obtained, which explains the measured polar diagrams, assuming the electrons that produce the X-rays have velocity vectors lying roughly in a cone between the point of focus and the anode. The average electron energy is about 3keV at the focus and about 10 keV on the anode surface. Results are consistent with the converging beam model of neutron production.

  3. Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Discharge Phenomena during X-Ray Emission from Pyroelectric Crystal

    E-print Network

    Jun, Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 © X X Discharge Phenomena during X-Ray Emission from Pyroelectric Crystal and Energy Dependence of X-Ray Intensity Kengo OHIRA, Susumu IMASHUKU and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;45 181 X X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 45, pp.181-190 (2014) 606

  4. X ray emission line profile modeling of hot stars

    E-print Network

    Roban H. Kramer; Stephanie K. Tonnesen; David H. Cohen; Stanley P. Owocki; Asif ud-Doula; Joseph J. MacFarlane

    2002-12-13

    The launch of high-spectral-resolution x-ray telescopes (Chandra, XMM) has provided a host of new spectral line diagnostics for the astrophysics community. In this paper we discuss Doppler-broadened emission line profiles from highly supersonic outflows of massive stars. These outflows, or winds, are driven by radiation pressure and carry a tremendous amount of kinetic energy, which can be converted to x rays by shock-heating even a small fraction of the wind plasma. The unshocked, cold wind is a source of continuum opacity to the x rays generated in the shock-heated portion of the wind. Thus the emergent line profiles are affected by transport through a two-component, moving, optically thick medium. While complicated, the interactions among these physical effects can provide quantitative information about the spatial distribution and velocity of the x-ray-emitting and absorbing plasma in stellar winds. We present quantitative models of both a spherically-symmetric wind and a wind with hot plasma confined in an equatorial disk by a dipole magnetic field.

  5. Innovations in X-ray-induced electron emission spectroscopy (XIEES)

    SciTech Connect

    Pogrebitsky, K. Ju. Sharkov, M. D.

    2010-06-15

    Currently, a pressing need has arisen for controlling the local atomic and electron structure of materials irrespective of their aggregate state. Efficient approaches to the studies of short-range order are based on phenomena accompanied by interference of secondary electrons excited by primary X-ray radiation. The set of such approaches are commonly referred to as the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) methods. In reality, the XAFS methods are based on the use of synchrotron radiation and applied to structural studies in two modes of measurements, transmission analysis and recording of secondary effects. Only two such effects-specifically, the X-ray fluorescence an d X-ray-induced electron emission effect-are commonly discussed. Access to synchrotron accelerators is problematic for most researchers, so a demand is created for designing laboratory systems that make direct access possible. Since the power of laboratory systems is much lower than that of synchrotrons, it is essential to use much more efficient detectors of secondary electrons. In addition, it is of interest to analyze energy characteristics with a high spatial resolution. Channel multipliers and multichannel boards are incapable of providing such a possibility. For this reason, an improved electron detector has been developed to analyze the photoemission effect in an accelerating field.

  6. X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Some X-ray spectral observations of approximately 30 clusters of galaxies from HEAO-1 are summarized. There exists strong correlations between X-ray luminosity, L(x), and temperature kT in the form L(x)alphaT to the 2.3 power. This result combined with the L(x) central galaxy density relation and the virial theorem indicates that the core dadius of the gas should be roughly independent of L(x) or KT and that more luminous clusters have a greater fraction of their virial mass in gas. The poor correlation of KT and optical velocity dispersion seems to indicate that clusters have a variety of equations of state. There is poor agreement between X-ray imaging observations and optical and X-ray spectral measures of the polytropic index. Most clusters show Fe emission lines with a strong indication that they all have roughly 1/2 solar abundance. The evidence for cooling in the cores of several clusters is discussed based on spectral observations with the Einstein solid state spectrometer.

  7. X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some X-ray spectral observations of approximately 30 clusters of galaxies from HEAO-1 are summarized. There exists strong correlation betwen X-ray luminosity, L(x), and temperature kT in the form L(x)alphaT to the 2.3 power. This result combined with the L(x) central galaxy density relation and the virial theorem indicates that the core dadius of the gas should be roughly independent of L(x) or Kt and that more luminous clusters have a greater fraction of their virial mass in gas. The poor correlation of KT and optical velocity dispersion seems to indicate that clusters have a variety of equations of state. There is poor agreement between X-ray imaging observations and optical and X-ray spectral measures of the polytropic index. Most clusters show Fe emission lines with a strong indication that they all have roughly 1/2 solar abundance. The evidence for cooling in the cores several clusters is discussed based on spectral observations with the Einstein solid state spectrometer.

  8. Models for X-Ray Emission from Isolated Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.-H.; Ruderman, M.; Halpern, Jules P.; Zhu, T.; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed for the observed combination of power-law and thermal X-rays from rotationally powered pulsars. For gamma-ray pulsars with accelerators very many stellar radii above the neutron star surface, 100 MeV curvature gamma-rays from e(-) or e(+) flowing starward out of such accelerators are converted to e1 pairs on closed field lines all around the star. These pairs strongly affect X-ray emission from near the star in two ways. (1) The pairs are a source of synchrotron emission immediately following their creation in regions where B approx. 10(exp 10) G. This emission, in the photon energy range 0.1 keV less than E(sub X) less than 5 MeV, has a power-law spectrum with energy index 0.5 and X-ray luminosity that depends on the back-flow current, and is typically approx. 10(exp 33) ergs/ s. (2) The pairs ultimately a cyclotron resonance "blanket" surrounding the star except for two holes along the open field line bundles which pass through it. In such a blanket the gravitational pull on e(+,-) pairs toward the star is balanced by the hugely amplified push of outflowing surface emitted X-rays wherever cyclotron resonance occurs. Because of it the neutron star is surrounded by a leaky "hohlraum" of hot blackbody radiation with two small holes, which prevents direct X-ray observation of a heated polar cap of a gamma-ray pulsar. Weakly spin modulated radiation from the blanket together with more strongly spin-modulated radiation from the holes through it would then dominate observed low energy (0.1-10 keV) emission. For non-y-ray pulsars, in which no such accelerators with their accompanying extreme relativistic back-flow toward the star are expected, optically thick e1 resonance blankets should not form (except in special cases very close to the open field line bundle). From such pulsars blackbody radiation from both the warm stellar surface and the heated polar caps should be directly observable. In these pulsars, details of the surface magnetic field evolution, especially of polar cap areas, become relevant to observations. The models are compared to X-ray data from Geminga, PSR 1055-52, PSR 0656+14, PSR 1929+10, and PSR 0950+08.

  9. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; and others

    2014-10-10

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ?2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ? 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (?{sub eff} ? 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (? 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  10. Backscatter of hard X-rays in the solar atmosphere. [Calculating the reflectance of solar x ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1977-01-01

    The solar photosphere backscatters a substantial fraction of the hard X rays from solar flares incident upon it. This reflection was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation which takes into account Compton scattering and photo-electric absorption. Both isotropic and anisotropic X ray sources are considered. The bremsstrahlung from an anisotropic distribution of electrons are evaluated. By taking the reflection into account, the inconsistency is removed between recent observational data regarding the center-to-limb variation of solar X ray emission and the predictions of models in which accelerated electrons are moving down toward the photosphere.

  11. Statistical data of X-ray emission from laboratory sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, P.; Deursen, D. V.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we present a summary of the data of 1331 long laboratory sparks in atmospheric pressure intended for a statistical analysis. A 2 MV, 17kJ Marx generator were used to generate 1.2/52?s shape pulses positive and negative polarity. The generator was connected to a spark gap with cone-shaped electrodes. The distance between high-voltage and grounded electrodes was 1.08 meters. Breakdown voltage between electrodes was about 1MV. X-rays have been detected during the development of the discharge channel. The currents through the grounded electrode and through the high-voltage electrode were recorded separately and simultaneously with the voltage and the X-ray signal. X-rays were registered by two LaBr3(Ce+) scintillation detectors in different positions with respect to the forming discharge channel. Detector D1 was placed immediately under the grounded electrode at 15cm distance. Detector D2 was placed at horizontal distances of 143cm and 210cm, at mid-gap height. We also used lead shields of 1.5, 3, and 4 mm thickness for radiation attenuation measurements. For detector collimation we used shields up to 2 cm thickness. Also no metallic objects with pointed surfaces were present within 2 m from the spark gap. Typical plot of positive discharge presented in Figure 1a. Table 1 shows the summary of the X-ray registrations. Signal detection occurred significantly more for positive polarity discharges than for negative. This dependence was observed for both detectors. For detector D2 the probability of X-ray registration decreased proportional to 1/d2 with increasing the distance d to the breakdown gap from 1m43 to 2m10. Detailed energy spectra and time distribution of X-ray emission were obtained; see for example Fig. 1b. For both polarities of the high voltage, the X-rays only occurred when there was a current at the cathode.

  12. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SOMBRERO GALAXY: DISCRETE SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhiyuan; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Spitler, Lee R.; Tang, Shikui; Wang, Q. Daniel; Gilfanov, Marat; Revnivtsev, Mikhail

    2010-10-01

    We present a study of discrete X-ray sources in and around the bulge-dominated, massive Sa galaxy, Sombrero (M104), based on new and archival Chandra observations with a total exposure of {approx}200 ks. With a detection limit of L{sub X} {approx} 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1} and a field of view covering a galactocentric radius of {approx}30 kpc (11.'5), 383 sources are detected. Cross-correlation with Spitler et al.'s catalog of Sombrero globular clusters (GCs) identified from HST/ACS observations reveals 41 X-ray sources in GCs, presumably low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Metal-rich GCs are found to have a higher probability of hosting these LMXBs, a trend similar to that found in elliptical galaxies. On the other hand, the four most luminous GC LMXBs, with apparently super-Eddington luminosities for an accreting neutron star, are found in metal-poor GCs. We quantify the differential luminosity functions (LFs) for both the detected GC and field LMXBs, whose power-law indices ({approx}1.1 for the GC-LF and {approx}1.6 for field-LF) are consistent with previous studies for elliptical galaxies. With precise sky positions of the GCs without a detected X-ray source, we further quantify, through a fluctuation analysis, the GC-LF at fainter luminosities down to 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}. The derived index rules out a faint-end slope flatter than 1.1 at a 2{sigma} significance, contrary to recent findings in several elliptical galaxies and the bulge of M31. On the other hand, the 2-6 keV unresolved emission places a tight constraint on the field LF, implying a flattened index of {approx}1.0 below 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. We also detect 101 sources in the halo of Sombrero. The presence of these sources cannot be interpreted as galactic LMXBs whose spatial distribution empirically follows the starlight. Their number is also higher than the expected number of cosmic active galactic nuclei (52 {+-} 11 [1{sigma}]) whose surface density is constrained by deep X-ray surveys. We suggest that either the cosmic X-ray background is unusually high in the direction of Sombrero, or a distinct population of X-ray sources is present in the halo of Sombrero.

  13. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    E-print Network

    Ronald F. Elsner; G. Randall Gladstone; J. Hunter Waite; Frank J. Crary; Robert R. Howell; Robert E. Johnson; Peter G. Ford; Albert E. Metzger; Kevin C. Hurley; Eric D. Feigelson; Gordon P. Garmire; Anil Bhardwaj; Denis C. Grodent; Tariq Majeed; Allyn F. Tennant; Martin C. Weisskop

    2002-02-14

    We report the discovery of soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (>10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fail to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

  14. Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus

    E-print Network

    Elsner, R F; Waite, J H; Crary, F J; Howell, R R; Johnson, R E; Ford, P G; Metzger, A E; Hurley, K C; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P; Bhardwaj, A I; Grodent, D C; Majeed, T; Tennant, A F; Weisskopf, M C; Elsner, Ronald F.; Crary, Frank J.; Howell, Robert R.; Johnson, Robert E.; Ford, Peter G.; Metzger, Albert E.; Hurley, Kevin C.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Bhardwaj, Anil; Grodent, Denis C.; Majeed, Tariq; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weisskop, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    We report the discovery of soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (>10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fail to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

  15. Diffuse X-ray Emission from M101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.; Pence, W. D.; Mukai, K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The total 0.45-2.0 keV luminosity of M101 is 3.1 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, of which 2.2 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s is due to diffuse emission. Of the diffuse emission, no more than 6% can be due to unresolved point sources such as X-ray binaries, and approx. 11% is due to dwarf stars. The diffuse emission traces the spiral arms and is roughly correlated with the H alpha and FUV (far ultraviolet) emission. The radial distribution closely follows the optical profile. The bulk of the diffuse emission is characterized by a two thermal component spectrum with kT = 0.20,0.75 keV, and the ratios of the emission measures of the two components is roughly constant as a function of both radius and surface brightness. The softer component has a sufficiently large covering factor that the bulk of the emission is likely extra-planar. We find no evidence of an extended axisymmetric X-ray halo, suggesting that any such halo has a strength much smaller than current predictions.

  16. Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses

    E-print Network

    Limpouch, Jiri

    Line X-ray emission from Al targets irradiated by high-intensity, variable-length laser pulses J; the scaling rules for the conversion efficiency of the laser radiation into the line X-ray emission are discussed. Keywords: Laser-produced plasma; Line X-ray emission; X-ray sources; X-ray spectroscopy 1

  17. The hard X-ray emission of Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, V.; Jean, P.; Lubi?ski, P.; Soldi, S.; Terrier, R.

    2011-07-01

    Context. The radio galaxy Cen A has been detected all the way up to the TeV energy range. This raises the question about the dominant emission mechanisms in the high-energy domain. Aims: Spectral analysis allows us to put constraints on the possible emission processes. Here we study the hard X-ray emission, in order to distinguish between a thermal and a non-thermal inverse Compton process. Methods: Using hard X-ray data provided by INTEGRAL, we determined the cut-off of the power-law spectrum in the hard X-ray domain (3-1000 keV). In addition, INTEGRAL data are used to study the spectral variability. The extended emission detected in the gamma-rays by Fermi/LAT is investigated using the data of the spectrometre SPI in the 40-1000 keV range. Results: The hard X-ray spectrum of Cen A shows a significant cut-off at energies EC = 434 {+106 atop -73} keV with an underlying power-law of photon index ? = 1.73 ± 0.02. A more physical model of thermal Comptonisation (compPS) gives a plasma temperature of kTe = 206 ± 62 keV within the optically thin corona with Compton parameter y = 0.42 {+0.09 atop -0.06}. The reflection component is significant at the 1.9? level with R = 0.12 {+0.09 atop -0.10}, and a reflection strength R > 0.3 can be excluded on a 3? level. Time resolved spectral studies show that the flux, absorption, and spectral slope varied in the range f3-30 keV = 1.2-9.2 × 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1, NH = 7-16 × 1022 cm-2, and ? = 1.75-1.87. Extending the cut-off power-law or the Comptonisation model to the gamma-ray range shows that they cannot account for the high-energy emission. On the other hand, a broken or curved power-law model can also represent the data, therefore a non-thermal origin of the X-ray to GeV emission cannot be ruled out. The analysis of the SPI data provides no sign of significant emission from the radio lobes and gives a 3? upper limit of f40-1000 keV ? 1.1 × 10-3 ph cm-2 s-1. Conclusions: While gamma-rays, as detected by CGRO and Fermi, are caused by non-thermal (jet) processes, the main process in the hard X-ray emission of Cen A is still not unambiguously determined, since it is either dominated by thermal inverse Compton emission or by non-thermal emission from the base of the jet. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Spain), the Czech Republic, and Poland and with participation of Russia and the US.

  18. Solar X-ray physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bornmann, P.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on solar X-ray phenomena performed by American scientists during 1987-1990 is reviewed. Major topics discussed include solar images observed during quiescent times, the processes observed during solar flares, and the coronal, interplanetary, and terrestrial phenomena associated with solar X-ray flares. Particular attention is given to the hard X-ray emission observed at the start of the flare, the energy transfer to the soft X-ray emitting plasma, the late resolution of the flare as observed in soft X-ray, and the rate of occurrence of solar flares as a function of time and latitude. Pertinent aspects of nonflaring, coronal X-ray emission and stellar flares are also discussed. 175 refs.

  19. Chandra ACIS Observations of Jovian X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmire, Gordon; Elsner, Ronald; Feigelson, Eric; Ford, Peter; Gladstone, G. Randall; Hurley, Kevin; Metzger, Albert; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On November 25 and 26, 1999, the Chandra X-ray spacecraft conducted a set of four 19,000 sec observations of Jupiter. The ACIS-S instrument configuration was used for its good low energy efficiency and spatial resolution. An anomalous response was obtained which was subsequently attributed to strong jovian infrared radiation penetrating the detector and piling up spurious events across the entire X-ray range. However, the pre-observation establishment of an offsetting bias field has allowed the recovery of data from that portion of Jupiter's disc which remained within the elevated portion of the bias field during the observation. This ranges from fewer than 3000 sec to the entire observing time for about 10% of the planet. Auroral emission is seen near both poles in each observation. The northern aurora ia overall more intense than the southern, consistent with prior Einstein and ROSAT Observatory results. The southern aurora shows more modulation with Jupiter's rotation than the northern. Spatial resolution has been improved by at least a factor of two over prior measurements but convincing evidence of structure has not been seen. Lower latitude emission, first observed by ROSAT, is confirmed with flux levels averaging more than a factor of five below peak auroral values. Pronounced variation in the observed emission has occurred over the observing period. The spectral response extends from 0.24 keV, below which noise dominates, to about 1.2 keV. For all four observations the spectrum is clearly enhanced between 0.45 and 0.85 keV. This is apparently unequivocal evidence that Jupiter's X-ray emission is the result of oxygen and perhaps sulfur ions precipitating into the planet's atmosphere, where they undergo charge exchange interactions. The identification of specific transitions lines in the spectrum is among the ongoing efforts. A bremsstrahlung component has not yet been identified.

  20. Astrophysics Research Projects:Astrophysics Research Projects: massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    Astrophysics Research Projects:Astrophysics Research Projects: massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models, spectroscopy, laboratory plasma-drivenhave powerful radiation-driven stellar windsstellar winds.. etaeta CarinaCarina #12;TheThe ChandraChandra X

  1. X-ray Emission from Eta Carinae near Periastron in 2009: Origin of the X-ray Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, M. F.; Russell, C. M.; Pollock, A. M.; Gull, T. R.; Teodoro, M.; Madura, T.; Damineli, A.; Pittard, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from the supermassive binary system, Eta Carinae, declines sharply around periastron. This X-ray minimum has two distinct phases --- the lowest flux phase in the first ~3 weeks and a slightly brighter phase thereafter. In 2009, the Chandra X-ray Observatory monitored the first phase five times and found the lowest observed flux at ~1.9e-12 ergs cm-2 s-1 (3-8 keV). The spectral shape changed such that the hard band above ~4 keV dropped quickly at the beginning and the soft band flux gradually decreased to its lowest observed value in ~2 weeks. The hard band spectrum had begun to recover by that time. This spectral variation suggests that the shocked gas producing the hottest X-ray gas near the apex of the wind-wind collision (WWC) is blocked behind the dense inner wind of the primary star, which later occults slightly cooler gas downstream. Shocked gas previously produced by the system at earlier orbital phases is suggested to produce the faint residual X-ray emission seen when the emission near the apex is completely blocked by the primary wind. The brighter phase is probably caused by the re-appearance of the WWC plasma, whose emissivity significantly declined during the occultation. We interpret this to mean that the X-ray minimum is produced by a hybrid mechanism of an occultation and a decline in emissivity of the WWC shock. We constrain timings of superior conjunction and periastron based on these results.

  2. Transient X-ray Emission from Normal Galactic Nuclei

    E-print Network

    A. Y. L. Wong; Y. F. Huang; K. S. Cheng

    2007-06-12

    X-ray transients appeared in optically non-active galactic nuclei have been observed in recent years. The most popular model explaining this kind of phenomena is the conventional tidal disruption model. In this model, when a star moves within the tidal radius of a black hole, part of the star materials will fall into the black hole through an accretion disk, which gives rise to the luminous flare. We propose that the X-ray emission may not necessarily come from radiation of the accretion disk alone. Instead, it may be related to a jet. As the jet travels in the interstellar medium, a shock is produced and synchrotron radiation is expected. We compared the model light curve and the synchrotron radiation spectrum with the observed data, and find that our model explains the observed light curve and late-time spectrum well. Our model predicts that these transient active galactic nuclei could be sources of the future gamma-ray satellites, e.g. GLAST and the emission region will be expanding with time.

  3. The X-ray Emission of Planetary Nebulae M. Steffen, D. Schnberner

    E-print Network

    The X-ray Emission of Planetary Nebulae M. Steffen, D. Schönberner Planetarische Nebel sind können. X-ray observations of Planetary Nebulae Over the last years, the two large X-ray space Nebulae (PNe) with high spatial and spectral resolution. These observations have shown without doubt

  4. X-ray emission line profile modeling of hot stars Roban H. Kramer

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    X-ray emission line profile modeling of hot stars Roban H. Kramer Swarthmore College, Swarthmore Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53711 Presented on 10 July 2002 The launch of high-spectral-resolution x-ray of kinetic energy, which can be converted to x rays by shock-heating even a small fraction of the wind plasma

  5. Global X-ray emission during an isolated substorm a N. stgaarda,

    E-print Network

    Cummer, Steven A.

    Global X-ray emission during an isolated substorm Ð a case study N. éstgaarda, *, J. Stadsnesa , J Received 30 July 1999; accepted 10 December 1999 Abstract The polar ionospheric X-ray imaging experiment scale views of the patterns of electron precipitation through imaging of the atmospheric X-ray

  6. X-Ray, UV, and Optical Observations of Supernova 2006bp with Swift: Detection of Early X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P.; Dessart, L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Landsman, W.; Gehrels, N.; Petre, R.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Chevalier, R. A.; Williams, C. L.; Koss, M.; Stockdale, C. J.; Kelley, M. T.; Weiler, K. W.; Holland, S. T.; Pian, E.; Roming, P. W. A.; Pooley, D.; Nomoto, K.; Greiner, J.; Campana, S.; Soderberg, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    We present results on the X-ray and optical/UV emission from the Type IIP supernova (SN) 2006bp and the interaction of the SW shock with its environment, obtained with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on-board the Swift observatory. SN 2006bp is detected in X-rays at a 4.5 sigmalevel of significance in the merged XRT data from days 1 to 12 after the explosion. If the (0.2-10 keV band) X-ray luminosity of L(sub 0.2-10) = (1.8 plus or minus 0.4) x l0(exp 39 ergs s(exp -1) is caused by interaction of the SN shock with circumstellar material (CSM), deposited by a stellar wind from the progenitor's companion star, a mass-loss rate of M is approximately 2x10(exp -6) solar mass yr(exp -1) (v(sub w)/10 km s(exp -l) is inferred. The mass-loss rate is one of the lowest ever recorded for a core-collapse SN and consistent with the non-detection in the radio with the VLA on days 2, 9, and 11 after the explosion. The Swift data further show a fading of the X-ray emission starting around day 12 after the explosion. In combination with a follow-up XMM-Newton observation obtained on day 21 after the explosion, an X-ray rate of decline Lx, varies as t(exp -n) with index n = 1.2 plus or minus 0.6 is inferred. Since no other SN has been detected in X-rays prior to the optical peak and since Type IIP SNe have an extended 'plateau' phase in the optical, we discuss the scenario that the X-rays might be due to inverse Compton scattering of photospheric optical photons off relativistic electrons produced in circumstellar shocks. However, due to the high required value of the Lorentz factor (approximately 10-100), inconsistent with the ejecta velocity inferred from optical line widths, we conclude that Inverse Compton scattering is an unlikely explanation for the observed X-ray emission. The fast evolution of the optical/ultraviolet (1900-5500A) spectral energy distribution and the spectral changes observed with Swift reveal the onset of metal line-blanketing and cooling of the expanding photosphere during the first few weeks after the outburst.

  7. Response of the low ionosphere to X-ray and Lyman-? solar flare emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Trottet, GéRard; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Macotela, Edith L.; Pacini, Alessandra; Bertoni, Fernando C. P.; Dammasch, Ingolf E.

    2013-01-01

    Using soft X-ray measurements from detectors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and simultaneous high-cadence Lyman-? observations from the Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA) onboard the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) ESA spacecraft, we study the response of the lower part of the ionosphere, the D region, to seven moderate to medium-size solar flares that occurred in February and March of 2010. The ionospheric disturbances are analyzed by monitoring the resulting sub-ionospheric wave propagation anomalies detected by the South America Very Low Frequency (VLF) Network (SAVNET). We find that the ionospheric disturbances, which are characterized by changes of the VLF wave phase, do not depend on the presence of Lyman-? radiation excesses during the flares. Indeed, Lyman-? excesses associated with flares do not produce measurable phase changes. Our results are in agreement with what is expected in terms of forcing of the lower ionosphere by quiescent Lyman-? emission along the solar activity cycle. Therefore, while phase changes using the VLF technique may be a good indicator of quiescent Lyman-? variations along the solar cycle, they cannot be used to scale explosive Lyman-? emission during flares.

  8. Modeling X-ray Emission from Planetary Nebulae , D. Schnberner

    E-print Network

    synthetic X-ray maps and spectra from the hydrodynamical PN models. We find that the X-ray luminosity (5. Hertzsprung-Russell-Diagram showing the evo- lutionary track of the central star (diamonds), the correspond

  9. First Detection of Phase-dependent Colliding Wind X-ray Emission outside the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naze, Yael; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    2007-01-01

    After having reported the detection of X-rays emitted by the peculiar system HD 5980, we assess here the origin of this high-energy emission from additional X-ray observations obtained with XMM-Newton. This research provides the first detection of apparently periodic X-ray emission from hot gas produced by the collision of winds in an evolved massive binary outside the Milky Way. It also provides the first X-ray monitoring of a Luminous Blue Variable only years after its eruption and shows that the source of the X-rays is not associated with the ejecta.

  10. Synchronous time-resolved optical and x-ray emission from simultaneous optical and x-ray streak cameras driven by a master ramp generator

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, J.E.; Lampert, W.; Roschger, E.; Hares, J.D.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1985-05-01

    An optical and an x-ray streak camera have been synchronized by driving the deflection plates of both cameras from the same ramp generator. The relative timing of the two cameras was calibrated by running UV light onto the x-ray streak camera. The x-ray streak camera was then used to measure the time of the x-ray emission from a laser plasma with respect to the laser pulse.

  11. X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Around 300,000 years after the Big Bang, the Universe had cooled enough to combine and form neutral atoms. This signified the beginning of a time known as the Dark Ages. Neutral matter began to fall into the dark matter gravitational wells that were seeded after the initial moments of the Big Bang. As the first stars and galaxies formed within these gravitational wells, the surrounding baryonic matter was heated and started to ionize. The source of energetic photons that heated and reionized the early Universe remains uncertain. Early galaxies had low metallicity and recent population synthesis calculations suggest that the number and luminosity of high-mass X-ray binaries are enhanced in star-forming galaxies with low metallicity, offering a potentially important and previously overlooked source of heating and reionization. Here we examine two types of local galaxies that have been shown to be good analogs to the early galaxies in the Universe: Blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs).A BCD is defined by its blue optical colors, low metallicities, and physically small size. This makes BCDs the best available local analogs for early star formation. We analyzed data from a sample of 25 metal-poor BCDs and compared our results with those of near-solar metallicity galaxies. Using a Bayesian approach, we showed that the X-ray luminosity function for the low-metallicity BCDs is significantly elevated relative to the XLF for near-solar metallicity galaxies.Larger, gas-rich galaxies may have formed shortly after these first galaxies. These larger galaxies would be similar in their properties to the high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). LBAs provide the best local comparison to the LBGs. We studied a sample of 10 LBAs in order to measure the relation between star formation rate and X-ray luminosity for these galaxies. We found that for LBAs with intermediate sub-solar metallicities, there is enhanced X-ray emission relative to the expected value from near-solar metallicity galaxies.By incorporating our results into simulations used to predict the redshifted 21cm signal from the early Universe, unique and observable predictions could be made for future 21cm observations.

  12. X-Ray Emission from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth: A Short Review

    E-print Network

    Anil Bhardwaj

    2006-05-11

    Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth - the three planets having dense atmosphere and a well developed magnetosphere - are known to emit X-rays. Recently, Chandra X-ray Observatory has observed X-rays from these planets, and XMM-Newton has observed them from Jupiter and Saturn. These observations have provided improved morphological, temporal, and spectral characteristics of X-rays from these planets. Both auroral and non-auroral (low-latitude) 'disk' X-ray emissions have been observed on Earth and Jupiter. X-rays have been detected from Saturn's disk, but no convincing evidence for X-ray aurora on Saturn has been observed. The non-auroral disk X-ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, are mostly produced due to scattering of solar X-rays. X-ray aurora on Earth is mainly generated via bremsstrahlung from precipitating electrons and on Jupiter via charge exchange of highlyionized energetic heavy ions precipitating into the polar atmosphere. Recent unpublished work suggests that at higher (>2 keV) energies electron bremsstrahlung also plays a role in Jupiter's X-ray aurora. This paper summarizes the recent results of X-ray observations on Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth mainly in the soft energy (~0.1-2.0 keV) band and provides a comparative overview.

  13. Effect of insulator sleeve material on the x-ray emission from a plasma focus device

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Badar, M. A.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.

    2010-09-15

    The effect of insulator sleeve material on x-ray emission from a 2.3 kJ Mather type plasma focus device operated in argon-hydrogen mixture is investigated. The time and space resolved x-ray emission characteristics are studied by using a three channel p-i-n diode x-ray spectrometer and a multipinhole camera. The x-ray emission depends on the volumetric ratio of argon-hydrogen mixture as well as the filling pressure and the highest x-ray emission is observed for a volumetric ratio 40% Ar to 60%H{sub 2} at 2.5 mbar filling pressure. The fused silica insulator sleeve produces the highest x-ray emission whereas nonceramic insulator sleeves such as nylon, Perspex, or Teflon does not produce focus or x-rays. The pinhole images of the x-ray emitting zones reveal that the contribution of the Cu K{alpha} line is weak and plasma x-rays are intense. The highest plasma electron temperature is estimated to be 3.3 and 3.6 keV for Pyrex glass and fused silica insulator sleeves, respectively. It is speculated that the higher surface resistivity of fused silica is responsible for enhanced x-ray emission and plasma electron temperature.

  14. X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177

    E-print Network

    Pal, Main; Misra, Ranjeev; Pawar, Pramod K

    2016-01-01

    We study X-ray and UV emission from the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy II~Zw~177 using a $137\\ks$ long and another $13\\ks$ short \\xmm{} observation performed in 2012 and 2001, respectively. Both observations show soft X-ray excess emission contributing $76.9\\pm4.9\\%$ in 2012 and $58.8\\pm10.2\\%$ in 2001 in the $0.3-2\\kev$ band. We find that both blurred reflection from an ionized disc and Comptonized disc emission describe the observed soft excess well. Time-resolved spectroscopy on scales of $\\sim20\\ks$ reveals strong correlation between the soft excess and the powerlaw components. The fractional variability amplitude $F_{var}$ derived from EPIC-pn lightcurves at different energy bands is nearly constant ($F_{var} \\sim20\\%$). This is in contrast to other AGNs where the lack of short term variation in soft X-ray excess emission has been attributed to intense light bending in the framework of the "lamppost" model. Thus, the variations in powerlaw emission are most likely intrinsic to corona rather than just due t...

  15. Out on a Limb: Updates on the Search for X-ray Emission from AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montez, Rodolfo; Ramstedt, Sofia; Santiago-Boyd, Andrea; Kastner, Joel; Vlemmings, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    X-rays from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are rarely detected, however, few modern X-ray observatories have targeted AGB stars. In 2012, we searched a list of 480 galactic AGB stars and found a total of 13 targeted or serendipitous observations with few detections (Ramstedt et al. 2012). Since this initial search new programs have successfully targeted and detected X-ray emission from a handful of AGB stars. The X-ray emission, when detected, reveals high temperature plasma (>= 10 MK). This plasma might be heated by a large-scale magnetic field or indicate the presence of accretion onto a compact companion. In this poster, we update our search for X-ray emission from AGB stars with a review of their characteristics, potential origins, and impact of X-ray emission in this late stage of stellar evolution.

  16. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Cravens, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Ford, P.

    2004-11-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" X-ray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk. The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SEE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over the Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magnetic field strength is visible. Also, unlike the 40±20-min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton X-ray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar-driven process.

  17. Analysis and interpretation of diffuse x-ray emission using data from the Einstein satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1991-01-01

    An ambitious program to create a powerful and accessible archive of the HEAO-2 Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) database was outlined. The scientific utility of that database for studies of diffuse x ray emissions was explored. Technical and scientific accomplishments are reviewed. Three papers were presented which have major new scientific findings relevant to the global structure of the interstellar medium and the origin of the cosmic x ray background. An all-sky map of diffuse x ray emission was constructed.

  18. High Resolution Temporal and Spectral Monitoring of Eta Carinae's X-Ray Emission the June Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Henley, D.; Pittard, J. M.; Gull, T. R.; Davidson, K.; Swank, J. H.; Petre, R.; Ishibashi, K.

    2004-01-01

    The supermassive and luminous star Eta Carinae undergoes strong X-ray variations every 5.5 years when its 2-10 keV X-ray emission brightens rapidly with wild fluctuations before dropping by a factor of 100 to a minimum lasting 3 months. The most recent X-ray "eclipse" began in June 2003 and during this time Eta Carinae was intensely observed throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. Here we report the first results of frequent monitoring of the 2-10 keV band X-ray emission by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer along wit high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the transmission gratings on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We compare these observations to those results obtained during the previous X-ray eclipse in 1998, and interpret the variations in the X-ray brightness, in the amount of absorption, in the X-ray emission measure and in the K-shell emission lines in terms of a colliding wind binary model.

  19. Internal energy dissipation of gamma-ray bursts observed with Swift: Precursors, prompt gamma-rays, extended emission, and late X-ray flares

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing E-mail: Zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-07-10

    We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

  20. X-ray Emission from Megamaser Galaxy IC 2560

    SciTech Connect

    Madejski, Greg; Done, Chris; Zycki, Piotr; Greenhill, Lincoln; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2005-09-12

    Observation of the H{sub 2}O megamaser galaxy IC 2560 with the Chandra Observatory reveals a complex spectrum composed of soft X-ray emission due to multi-temperature thermal plasma, and a hard continuum with strong emission lines. The continuum is most likely a Compton reflection (reprocessing) of primary emission that is completely absorbed at least up to 7 keV. The lines can be identified with fluorescence from Si, S and Fe in the lowest ionization stages. The equivalent widths of the Si and S lines are broadly compatible with those anticipated for reprocessing by optically thick cold plasma of Solar abundances, while the large equivalent width of the Fe line requires some overabundance of iron. A contribution to the line from a transmitted component cannot be ruled out, but the limits on the strength of the Compton shoulder make it less likely. From the bolometric luminosity of the nuclear region, we infer that the source radiates at 1-10% of its Eddington luminosity, for an adopted central mass of 3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The overall spectrum is consistent with the hypotheses that the central engines powering the detected megamsers in accretion disks are obscured from direct view by the associated accretion disk material itself, and that there is a correlation between the occurrence of megamaser emission and Compton-thick absorption columns. For the 11 known galaxies with both column density measurements and maser emission believed to arise from accretion disks, eight AGN are Compton thick.

  1. Eclipse and Collapse of the Colliding Wind X-ray Emission from Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray emission from the massive stellar binary system, Eta Carinae, drops strongly around periastron passage; the event is called the X-ray minimum. We launched a focused observing campaign in early 2009 to understand the mechanism of causing the X-ray minimum. During the campaign, hard X-ray emission (<10 keV) from Eta Carinae declined as in the previous minimum, though it recovered a month earlier. Extremely hard X-ray emission between 15-25 keV, closely monitored for the first time with the Suzaku HXD/PIN, decreased similarly to the hard X-rays, but it reached minimum only after hard X-ray emission from the star had already began to recover. This indicates that the X-ray minimum is produced by two composite mechanisms: the thick primary wind first obscured the hard, 2-10 keV thermal X-ray emission from the wind-wind collision (WWC) plasma; the WWC activity then decays as the two stars reach periastron.

  2. Ion emission spectra in the Jovian X-ray aurora V. Kharchenko,1

    E-print Network

    Stancil, Phillip C.

    Ion emission spectra in the Jovian X-ray aurora V. Kharchenko,1 A. Dalgarno,1 D. R. Schultz,2 and P-ray aurora, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L11105, doi:10.1029/2006GL026039. 1. Introduction [2] The first detected from the Jovian North and South poles; this emission defines the Jovian X-ray aurora [Waite et al

  3. HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PARTIALLY OCCULTED SOLAR FLARES Sam Krucker1

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS FROM PARTIALLY OCCULTED SOLAR FLARES Sa¨m Krucker1 and R. P. Lin1,2 krucker occulted by the solar limb provide diagnostics of coronal hard X-ray (HXR) emissions in the absence of 55 partially occulted flares observed by the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

  4. X-ray emission from the galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleach, R. D.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    A search was made of a diffuse component of X-rays 1.5 keV associated with an interarm region of the galaxy at galactic longitudes in the vicinity of 60 deg. A statistically significant excess associated with a narrow disk component was detected. The angular extent of this component has a most probable value of 2 deg and may be as large as 7 deg at 90% confidence. The best fit spectrum yields an intensity of 2.9 photons 1/(cm2-sec-ster) over the 2 to 10 keV range. The 3 sigma upper limit to any emission (e.g. iron line) in a 1.5 keV band centered at 7 keV from galactic latitudes h or = 3.5 deg is .3 photons 1/(cm2-sec-ster). Several possible emission models are discussed, with the most likely candidate being a population of unresolvable low luminosity discrete sources.

  5. Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Cravens, T. E.; Howell, R. R.; Metzger, A. E.; Ostgaard, N.; Maurellis, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A wide variety of solar system planetary bodies are now known to radiate in the soft x-ray energy (<5 keV) regime. These include planets (Earth, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn): bodies having thick atmosphere and with/without intrinsic magnetic field; planetary satellites (Moon, Io, Europa, Ganymede): bodies with no/thin atmosphere; and comets and Io plasma torus: bodies having extended tenuous atmosphere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of soft x-rays from these objects. whereas in the hard x-ray energy range (>10 keV) x-rays mainly result from electron bremsstrahlung process. In this paper we present a brief review of the x-ray observations on each of the planetary bodies and discuss their characteristics and proposed source mechanisms.

  6. Modeling X-ray Emission Line Profiles from Massive Star Winds - A Review

    E-print Network

    Ignace, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescopes have led to numerous advances in the study and understanding of astrophysical X-ray sources. Particularly important has been the much increased spectral resolution of modern X-ray instrumentation. Wind-broadened emission lines have been spectroscopically resolved for many massive stars. This contribution reviews approaches to the modeling of X-ray emission line profile shapes from single stars, including smooth winds, winds with clumping, optically thin versus thick lines, and the effect of a radius-dependent photoabsorption coefficient.

  7. The oldest X-ray supernovae: X-ray emission from 1941C, 1959D, 1968D

    E-print Network

    Roberto Soria; Rosalba Perna

    2008-05-09

    We have studied the X-ray emission from four historical Type-II supernovae (the newly-discovered 1941C in NGC 4631 and 1959D in NGC 7331; and 1968D, 1980K in NGC 6946), using Chandra ACIS-S imaging. In particular, the first three are the oldest ever found in the X-ray band, and provide constraints on the properties of the stellar wind and circumstellar matter encountered by the expanding shock at more advanced stages in the transition towards the remnant phase. We estimate emitted luminosities ~ 5 x 10^{37} erg/s for SN 1941C, ~ a few x 10^{37} erg/s for SN 1959D, ~ 2 x 10^{38} erg/s for SN 1968D, and ~ 4 x 10^{37} erg/s for SN 1980K, in the 0.3-8 keV band. X-ray spectral fits to SN 1968D suggest the presence of a harder component, possibly a power law with photon index ~ 2, contributing ~ 10^{37} erg/s in the 2-10 keV band. We speculate that it may be evidence of non-thermal emission from a Crab-like young pulsar.

  8. Electronic Structure of In2O3 from Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.; DeMasi, A; Cho, S; Smith, K; Fuchs, F; Bechstedt, F; Korber, C; Klein, A; Payne, D; Egdell, R

    2009-01-01

    The valence and conduction band structures of In2O3 have been measured using a combination of valence band x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, O K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, and O K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Excellent agreement is noted between the experimental spectra and O 2p partial density of states calculated within hybrid density functional theory. Our data are consistent with a direct band gap for In2O3.

  9. Dynamic radiography using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.Z.; Gao, B.; Dike, S.; Lin, W.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2004-10-01

    We report a dynamic radiography system with a carbon nanotube based field-emission microfocus x-ray source. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution as short as nanoseconds. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging are demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for noninvasive imaging in biomedical research and industrial inspection.

  10. Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Waiate J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ford, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" Xray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SSE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magneh field strength is visible. Also, unlike the approx. 40 +/- 20 min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton Xray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar driven process.

  11. Mapping the X-Ray Emission Region in a Laser-Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corde, S.; Thaury, C.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Lifschitz, A.; Lambert, G.; Faure, J.; Lundh, O.; Benveniste, E.; Ben-Ismail, A.; Arantchuk, L.; Marciniak, A.; Stordeur, A.; Brijesh, P.; Rousse, A.; Specka, A.; Malka, V.

    2011-11-01

    The x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators can be a powerful tool to understand the physics of relativistic laser-plasma interaction. It is shown here that the mapping of betatron x-ray radiation can be obtained from the x-ray beam profile when an aperture mask is positioned just beyond the end of the emission region. The influence of the plasma density on the position and the longitudinal profile of the x-ray emission is investigated and compared to particle-in-cell simulations. The measurement of the x-ray emission position and length provides insight on the dynamics of the interaction, including the electron self-injection region, possible multiple injection, and the role of the electron beam driven wakefield.

  12. Charge Exchange of Ne^9+ for X-ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, David

    2016-01-01

    Using the molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC) method, single electron capture (SEC) cross sections were computed for Ne^9+ colliding with H.Potential energies and nonadiabatic couplings were calculated and used to obtain the MOCC cross sections which are final-quantum-state-resolved including a separation of singlet and triplet states. Atomic-orbital close-coupling, classical trajectory Monte Carlo, and multichannel Landau-Zener (MCLZ) calculations are also performed. Cross sections for more complicated targets including He, H2, N2, H2O, CO, and CO2, were obtained with the MCLZ method. The SEC results are compared with experimental and other theoretical data, where available. The SEC cross sections are being used in cascade models to predict X-ray emission spectra relevant to solar systemand astrophysical environments.D. Lyons, R. S. Cumbee, P. D. Mullen, P. C. Stancil (UGA), D. R. Schultz (UNT), P. Liebermann (Wuppertal Univ.),R. Buenker (NCSU).This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX09AC46G.

  13. X-ray emission from the terrestrial magnetosheath

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Ina Picket; Cravens, Thomas Edward

    2003-04-29

    [1] X-rays are generated throughout the terrestrial magnetosheath as a consequence of charge transfer collisions between heavy solar wind ions and geocoronal neutrals. The solar wind ions resulting from these collisions are left in highly excited...

  14. The 300 Kpc Long X-Ray Jet in PKS 1127-145, Z=1.18 Quasar: Constraining X-Ray Emission Models

    SciTech Connect

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Stawarz, Lukasz; Cheung, C.C.; Harris, D.E.; Sikora, Marek; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Bechtold, Jill; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.

    2006-11-20

    We present a {approx} 100 ksec Chandra X-ray observation and new VLA radio data of the large scale, 300 kpc long X-ray jet in PKS 1127-145, a radio loud quasar at redshift z=1.18. With this deep X-ray observation we now clearly discern the complex X-ray jet morphology and see substructure within the knots. The X-ray and radio jet intensity profiles are seen to be strikingly different with the radio emission peaking strongly at the two outer knots while the X-ray emission is strongest in the inner jet region. The jet X-ray surface brightness gradually decreases by an order of magnitude going out from the core. The new X-ray data contain sufficient counts to do spectral analysis of the key jet features. The X-ray energy index of the inner jet is relatively flat with {alpha}{sub x} = 0.66 {+-} 0.15 and steep in the outer jet with {alpha}{sub x} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2. We discuss the constraints implied by the new data on the X-ray emission models and conclude that ''one-zone'' models fail and at least a two component model is needed to explain the jet's broad-band emission. We propose that the X-ray emission originates in the jet proper while the bulk of the radio emission comes from a surrounding jet sheath. We also consider intermittent jet activity as a possible cause of the observed jet morphology.

  15. X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    The physical processes occurring in plasma focus devices were studied. These devices produce dense high temperature plasmas, which emit X rays of hundreds of KeV energy and one to ten billion neutrons per pulse. The processes in the devices seem related to solar flare phenomena, and would also be of interest for controlled thermonuclear fusion applications. The high intensity, short duration bursts of X rays and neutrons could also possibly be used for pumping nuclear lasers.

  16. X-Ray Emissivity of Old Stellar Populations: A Local Group Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Chong; Li, Zhiyuan; Xu, Xiaojie; Gu, Qiusheng; Wang, Q. Daniel; Roberts, Shawn; Kraft, Ralph P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.

    2015-10-01

    We study the unresolved X-ray emission in three Local Group dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies (NGC 147, NGC 185, and NGC 205) using XMM-Newton observations; this emission most likely originates from a collection of weak X-ray sources, mainly cataclysmic variables and coronally active binaries. Precise knowledge of this stellar X-ray emission is crucial not only for understanding the relevant stellar astrophysics but also for disentangling and quantifying the thermal emission from diffuse hot gas in nearby galaxies. We find that the integrated X-ray emissivities of the individual dEs agree well with those of the solar vicinity, supporting an often assumed but untested view that the X-ray emissivity of old stellar populations is quasi-universal in normal galactic environments, in which dynamical effects on the formation and destruction of binary systems are not important. The average X-ray emissivity of the dEs studied in the literature, including M32, is measured to be {L}0.5-2 {{keV}}/{M}*=(6.0+/- 0.5+/- 1.8)× {10}27 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {M}? -1. We also compare this value to the integrated X-ray emissivities of Galactic globular clusters and old open clusters and discuss the role of dynamical effects in these dense stellar systems.

  17. EVIDENCE OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM HH 80

    SciTech Connect

    López-Santiago, J.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; De Castro, E.

    2013-10-20

    Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s{sup –1}, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to non-thermal processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.

  18. X-Ray Emission in the Heliosphere: Ion-Neutral Collisions as a Plasma Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravens, Tom; Sibeck, David; Collier, MIchael

    2015-04-01

    The solar corona is the most powerful source of x-rays in the solar system but x-ray emission has also been observed from planets, including the Earth and Jupiter, from the Moon, from comets, and from interstellar gas entering the heliosphere. Astrophysical x-ray emission primarily comes from hot plasmas, such as in the million degree solar corona. The gas and plasma in planetary atmospheres are rather cold and the x-ray emission is driven by solar radiation and/or the solar wind. For example, x-rays from Venus come from the scattering and K-shell fluorescence of solar x-rays from the neutral atmosphere. Auroral x-ray emission at Earth and Jupiter is produced by energetic electron and ion precipitation from the magnetospheres into the atmospheres. Cometary and heliospheric x-ray emission is caused by charge transfer of high charge state solar wind ions (e.g., O7+, C6+,…) with neutral hydrogen and helium.An important source of solar system x-rays is the solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) mechanism. The solar wind originates in the hot solar corona and species heavier than helium (comprising about 0.1% of the gas) are highly-charged (e.g., O7+, C6+, Fe12+,….). Such ions undergo charge transfer collisions when they encounter neutral gas (e.g., cometary or interstellar gas or the Earth’s geocoronal hydrogen). The product ions are in highly-excited states and, subsequently, emit soft x-ray photons. The SWCX mechanism can explain the observed cometary x-ray emission and can also explain part of the soft x-ray background (the other part of which originates in the hot interstellar medium).The Earth has an extensive hot hydrogen exosphere, or geocorona, that is visible in scattered solar Lyman alpha. X-ray emission is produced in the magnetosheath due to the SWCX mechanism as the solar wind interacts with the exospheric gas. The most intense x-ray emission comes from the subsolar sheath region and from the cusp regions. Imaging of this emission by a spacecraft located outside the magnetosphere would provide a global view of the solar wind interaction with Earth including dayside magnetic reconnection processes.

  19. Long-duration X-ray emissions observed in thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eack, Kenneth B.; Beasley, William H.

    2015-07-01

    In 1995, a series of four balloon flights with an X-ray spectrometer and an electric field meter were conducted to examine if strong electric fields could accelerate, and perhaps multiply, cosmic ray secondary electrons and produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. X-ray intensities between 10 and 1000 times that of normal background were observed in conjunction with strong electric fields. Both negative and positive polarity electric fields (as referenced to the vertical field) produced X-rays, which lasted for time scales on the order of tens of seconds. It was also observed that the increased X-ray intensity would return to near background levels after lightning reduced the local electric field. The observations indicate that X-rays observed above background are most likely produced by a runaway electron process occurring in the strong static electric field present in thunderstorms. The production of runaway electrons can occur over long periods of time without causing an electrical breakdown. This may provide a leakage current that limits the large scale electric field to values near the runaway threshold, especially in regions where the thunderstorm charging rate is low.

  20. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG SUNS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Oskinova, L. M.; Hainich, R.; Sun, W.; Chen, Y.; Evans, C. J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Guerrero, M. A.; Silich, S.; Naze, Y.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2013-03-01

    We report the discovery of extended X-ray emission within the young star cluster NGC 602a in the Wing of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. X-ray emission is detected from the cluster core area with the highest stellar density and from a dusty ridge surrounding the H II region. We use a census of massive stars in the cluster to demonstrate that a cluster wind or wind-blown bubble is unlikely to provide a significant contribution to the X-ray emission detected from the central area of the cluster. We therefore suggest that X-ray emission at the cluster core originates from an ensemble of low- and solar-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, each of which would be too weak in X-rays to be detected individually. We attribute the X-ray emission from the dusty ridge to the embedded tight cluster of the newborn stars known in this area from infrared studies. Assuming that the levels of X-ray activity in young stars in the low-metallicity environment of NGC 602a are comparable to their Galactic counterparts, then the detected spatial distribution, spectral properties, and level of X-ray emission are largely consistent with those expected from low- and solar-mass PMS stars and young stellar objects (YSOs). This is the first discovery of X-ray emission attributable to PMS stars and YSOs in the SMC, which suggests that the accretion and dynamo processes in young, low-mass objects in the SMC resemble those in the Galaxy.

  1. A Pilot Deep Survey for X-Ray Emission from fuvAGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Stute, M.

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey for X-ray emission from a newly discovered class of AGB stars with far-ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars) using XMM-Newton and Chandra. We detected X-ray emission in three of six fuvAGB stars observed—the X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long timescales, and simultaneous UV observations using the Optical Monitor on XMM for these sources show similar variations in the UV flux. These data, together with previous studies, show that X-ray emission is found only in fuvAGB stars. From modeling the spectra, we find that the observed X-ray luminosities are ˜(0.002-0.2) L? and the X-ray-emitting plasma temperatures are ˜(35-160) × 106 K. The high X-ray temperatures argue against the emission arising in stellar coronae, or directly in an accretion shock, unless it occurs on a WD companion. However, none of the detected objects is a known WD-symbiotic star, suggesting that if WD companions are present, they are relatively cool (<20,000 K). In addition, the high X-ray luminosities specifically argue against emission originating in the coronae of main-sequence companions. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  2. Inflow Generated X-ray Corona Around Supermassive Black Holes and Unified Model for X-ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lile; Cen, Renyue

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, covering the spatial domain from hundreds of Schwarzschild radii to 2 pc around the central supermassive black hole of mass 108 M?, with detailed radiative cooling processes, are performed. Generically found is the existence of a significant amount of shock heated, high temperature (?108 K) coronal gas in the inner (?104 rsch) region. It is shown that the composite bremsstrahlung emission spectrum due to coronal gas of various temperatures are in reasonable agreement with the overall ensemble spectrum of AGNs and hard X-ray background. Taking into account inverse Compton processes, in the context of the simulation-produced coronal gas, our model can readily account for the wide variety of AGN spectral shape, which can now be understood physically. The distinguishing feature of our model is that X-ray coronal gas is, for the first time, an integral part of the inflow gas and its observable characteristics are physically coupled to the concomitant inflow gas. One natural prediction of our model is the anti-correlation between accretion disk luminosity and spectral hardness: as the luminosity of SMBH accretion disk decreases, the hard X-ray luminosity increases relative to the UV/optical luminosity.

  3. A Search for X-ray emission from Saturn, Uranus and Neptune

    E-print Network

    Jan-Uwe Ness; Juergen H. M. M. Schmitt

    2000-01-08

    We present an analysis of X-ray observations of the trans-Jovian planets Saturn, Uranus and Neptune with the ROSAT PSPC in comparison with X-ray observations of Jupiter. For the first time a marginal X-ray detection of Saturn was found and 95% confidence upper limits for Uranus and Neptune were obtained. These upper limits show that Jupiter-like X-ray luminosities can be excluded for all three planets, while they are consistent assuming intrinsic Saturn-like X-ray luminosities. Similar X-ray production mechanisms on all trans-Jovian planets can therefore not be ruled out, and spectral shape and total luminosity observed from Saturn are consistent with thick-target bremsstrahlung caused by electron precipitation as occurring in auroral emission from the Earth.

  4. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region I: Hard X-Ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman; Hong, Jaesub; Ponti, Gabriele; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Tomsick, John A.; Alexander, David M.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Canipe, Alicia M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Luu, Vy; Madsen, Kristen K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Westergaard, Niels J.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456–2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with ? ? 1.3–2.3 up to ?50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe K? fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (?1023 cm?2), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with ? ? 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to LX ? 1038 erg s?1. Above ?20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95–0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses MWD ? 0.9 M?. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95–0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745–290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.

  5. Hard X-ray and Infrared Emission from Apparently Single White Dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Y. -H. Chu; R. A. Gruendl; M. A. Guerrero; K. Y. -L. Su

    2007-01-01

    The photospheric emission of a white dwarf (WD) is not expected to be detectable in hard X-rays or the mid-IR. Hard X-ray (~1 keV) emission associated with a WD is usually attributed to a binary companion; however, emission at 1 keV has been detected from three WDs without companions: KPD 0005+5106, PG 1159, and WD 2226-210. The origin of their hard X-ray emission is unknown, although it has been suggested that WD 2226-210 has a late-type companion whose coronal activity is responsible for the hard X-rays. Recent Spitzer observations of WD 2226-210 revealed mid-IR excess emission indicative of the existence of a dust disk. It now becomes much less clear whether WD 2226-210's hard X-ray emission originates from the corona of a late-type companion or from the accretion of the disk material. High-quality X-ray observations and mid-IR observations of KPD 0005+5106 and PG 1159 are needed to help us understand the origin of their hard X-ray emission.

  6. A Study of Nonthermal X-Ray and Radio Emission from the O Star 9 Sgr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Drake, Stephen A.

    1999-01-01

    The observed X-ray and highly variable nonthermal radio emission from OB stars has eluded explanation for more than 18 years. The most favorable model of X-ray production in these stars (shocks) predicts both nonthermal radio and X-ray emission. The nonthermal X-ray emission should occur above 2 keV and the variability of this X-ray component should also be comparable to the observed radio variability. To test this scenario, we proposed an ASC/VLA monitoring program to observe the OB star, 9 Sgr, a well known nonthermal, variable radio source and a strong X-ray source. We requested 625 ks ASCA observations with a temporal spacing of approximately 4 days which corresponds to the time required for a density disturbance to propagate to the 6 cm radio free-free photosphere. The X-ray observations were coordinated with 5 multi-wavelength VLA observations. These observations represent the first systematic attempt to investigate the relationship between the X-ray and radio emission in OB stars.

  7. Two component model for X-ray emission of radio selected QSO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isobe, T.; Feigelson, E. D.; Singh, K. P.; Kembhavi, A.

    1986-01-01

    Using a large database of radio, optical, and x ray luminosities of AGNs with survival analysis, it was found that the x ray emission of the radio selected quasars has two components. One is related to the optical luminosity and the other is related to the radio luminosity.

  8. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ?60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.

  9. X-Ray Emission from Magnetic Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Cohen, David; Owocki, Stan; ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ~60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower-{\\dot{M}} B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher-{\\dot{M}} O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres. Based on data collected with XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  10. Characteristics of x-ray emission from optically thin high-Z plasmas in the soft x-ray region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Hayato; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Arai, Goki; Li, Bowen; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi; Tamura, Naoki; Sudo, Shigeru; Koike, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Chihiro

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of soft x-ray emission from optically thin high-Z plasmas of gold, lead and bismuth were investigated with the large helical device. Compared to optically thicker laser-produced plasmas, significantly different spectral structures were observed due to the difference in opacities and electron temperatures. Peak structures appearing in unresolved transition arrays were identified by calculations using atomic structure codes. The main contributors of discrete line emission in each case were Pd-, Ag-, and Rh-like ion stages. The present calculations point to the overestimation of contributions for 4p-4d transitions based on intensity estimates arising purely from gA distributions that predict strong emission from 4p-4d transitions. Understanding of such spectral emission is not only important for the completion of databases of high-Z highly ion charge states but also the development of promising high brightness sources for biological imaging applications.

  11. On the Early Time X-ray Spectra of Swift Afterglows I: Evidence for Anomalous Soft X-ray Emission

    E-print Network

    Nathaniel R. Butler

    2006-11-03

    We have conducted a thorough and blind search for emission lines in >70 Swift X-ray afterglows of total exposure ~10^7s. We find that most afterglows are consistent with pure power-laws plus extinction. Significant outliers to the population exist at the 5-10% level and have anomalously soft, possibly thermal spectra. Four bursts are singled out via possible detections of 2-5 lines: GRBs 060218, 060202, 050822, and 050714B. Alternatively, a blackbody model with kT~0.1-0.5 keV can describe the soft emission in each afterglow. The most significant soft component detections in the full data set of ~2000 spectra correspond to GRB060218/SN2006aj, with line significances ranging up to \\~20-sigma. A thermal plasma model fit to the data indicates that the flux is primarily due to L-shell transitions of Fe at ~ solar abundance. We associate (>4-sigma significant) line triggers in the 3 other events with K-shell transitions in light metals. We favor a model where the possible line emission in these afterglows arises from the mildly relativistic cocoon of matter surrounding the GRB jet as it penetrates and exits the surface of the progenitor star. The emitting material in each burst is at a similar distance \\~10^12--10^13 cm, a similar density ~10^17 cm^-3, and subject to a similar flux of ionizing radiation. The lines may correlate with the X-ray flaring. For the blackbody interpretation, the soft flux may arise from break out of the GRB shock or plasma cocoon from the progenitor stellar wind, as recently suggested for GRB060218 (Campana et al. 2006). Due to the low z of GRB060218, bursts faint in Gamma-rays with fluxes dominated by this soft X-ray component could outnumber classical GRBs 100-1.

  12. STELLAR WIND INDUCED SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM CLOSE-IN EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Lammer, H.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Holmström, M.; Zaitsev, V. V.

    2015-01-30

    In this Letter, we estimate the X-ray emission from close-in exoplanets. We show that the Solar/Stellar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism (SWCX), which produces soft X-ray emission, is very effective for hot Jupiters. In this mechanism, X-ray photons are emitted as a result of the charge exchange between heavy ions in the solar wind and the atmospheric neutral particles. In the solar system, comets produce X-rays mostly through the SWCX mechanism, but it has also been shown to operate in the heliosphere, in the terrestrial magnetosheath, and on Mars, Venus, and the Moon. Since the number of emitted photons is proportional to the solar wind mass flux, this mechanism is not very effective for the solar system giants. Here we present a simple estimate of the X-ray emission intensity that can be produced by close-in extrasolar giant planets due to charge exchange with the heavy ions of the stellar wind. Using the example of HD 209458b, we show that this mechanism alone can be responsible for an X-ray emission of ?10{sup 22} erg s{sup –1}, which is 10{sup 6} times stronger than the emission from the Jovian aurora. We discuss also the possibility of observing the predicted soft X-ray flux of hot Jupiters and show that despite high emission intensities they are unobservable with current facilities.

  13. Stellar Wind Induced Soft X-Ray Emission from Close-in Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislyakova, K. G.; Fossati, L.; Johnstone, C. P.; Holmström, M.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Lammer, H.

    2015-02-01

    In this Letter, we estimate the X-ray emission from close-in exoplanets. We show that the Solar/Stellar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism (SWCX), which produces soft X-ray emission, is very effective for hot Jupiters. In this mechanism, X-ray photons are emitted as a result of the charge exchange between heavy ions in the solar wind and the atmospheric neutral particles. In the solar system, comets produce X-rays mostly through the SWCX mechanism, but it has also been shown to operate in the heliosphere, in the terrestrial magnetosheath, and on Mars, Venus, and the Moon. Since the number of emitted photons is proportional to the solar wind mass flux, this mechanism is not very effective for the solar system giants. Here we present a simple estimate of the X-ray emission intensity that can be produced by close-in extrasolar giant planets due to charge exchange with the heavy ions of the stellar wind. Using the example of HD 209458b, we show that this mechanism alone can be responsible for an X-ray emission of ?1022 erg s-1, which is 106 times stronger than the emission from the Jovian aurora. We discuss also the possibility of observing the predicted soft X-ray flux of hot Jupiters and show that despite high emission intensities they are unobservable with current facilities.

  14. A NEW CORRELATION BETWEEN GRB X-RAY FLARES AND THE PROMPT EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Sonbas, E.; MacLachlan, G. A.; Shenoy, A.; Dhuga, K. S.; Parke, W. C.

    2013-04-20

    From a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi and Swift missions, we have extracted the minimum variability timescales for temporal structures in the light curves associated with the prompt emission and X-ray flares. A comparison of this variability timescale with pulse parameters such as rise times, determined via pulse-fitting procedures, and spectral lags, extracted via the cross-correlation function, indicates a tight correlation between these temporal features for both the X-ray flares and the prompt emission. These correlations suggest a common origin for the production of X-ray flares and the prompt emission in GRBs.

  15. Detection of x-ray emission in a nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Cheng; Yu Yang; Niu Zheng; Yan Ping; Shao Tao; Zhou Yuanxiang

    2010-11-15

    Measurement of x-ray emission is an important parameter to investigate runaway behavior of fast electrons produced in nanosecond-pulse gas discharge. An online detection system of x rays is described in this paper, and the system consists of an x-ray detector with NaI (Tl) scintillator and photomultiplier tube, and an integrated multichannel analyzer. The system is responsible for detecting x-ray emission signal, processing the detected signals, and scaling the energy distribution. The calibration results show that every channel of the detection system represents a given x-ray energy and various x rays can be divided into different energy ranges between 10 and 130 keV. For a repetitive nanosecond-pulse breakdown between highly nonuniform gaps in open air, an energy distribution is obtained using the online detection system. It shows that the x-ray emission is a continuous spectrum and the x rays of above 60 keV dominate in the detected energy distribution.

  16. A Comparison of X-Ray and Optical Emission in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    Broadband optical and narrowband Si XIII X-ray images of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) obtained over several decades are used to investigate spatial and temporal emission correlations on both large and small angular scales. The data examined consist of optical and near-infrared ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope images taken between 1951 and 2011, and of X-ray images from Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra taken between 1979 and 2013. We find weak spatial correlations between the remnant's X-ray and optical emission features on large scales, but several cases of good optical/X-ray correlations on small scales for features which have brightened due to recent interactions with the reverse shock. We also find instances (1) where a time delay is observed between the appearance of a feature's optical and X-ray emissions, (2) of displacements of several arcseconds between a feature's X-ray and optical emission peaks, and (3) of regions showing no corresponding X-ray or optical emissions. To explain this behavior, we propose a highly inhomogeneous density model for Cas A's ejecta consisting of small, dense optically emitting knots (n ~102-3 cm-3) and a much lower density (n ~0.1-1 cm-3) diffuse X-ray emitting component often spatially associated with optical emission knots. The X-ray emitting component is sometimes linked to optical clumps through shock-induced mass ablation generating trailing material leading to spatially offset X-ray/optical emissions. A range of ejecta densities can also explain the observed X-ray/optical time delays since the remnant's ?5000 km s-1 reverse shock heats dense ejecta clumps to temperatures around 3 × 104 K relatively quickly, which then become optically bright while more diffuse ejecta become X-ray bright on longer timescales. Highly inhomogeneous ejecta as proposed here for Cas A may help explain some of the X-ray/optical emission features seen in other young core-collapse supernova remnants.

  17. A comparison of X-ray and optical emission in Cassiopeia A

    SciTech Connect

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2014-07-10

    Broadband optical and narrowband Si XIII X-ray images of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) obtained over several decades are used to investigate spatial and temporal emission correlations on both large and small angular scales. The data examined consist of optical and near-infrared ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope images taken between 1951 and 2011, and of X-ray images from Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra taken between 1979 and 2013. We find weak spatial correlations between the remnant's X-ray and optical emission features on large scales, but several cases of good optical/X-ray correlations on small scales for features which have brightened due to recent interactions with the reverse shock. We also find instances (1) where a time delay is observed between the appearance of a feature's optical and X-ray emissions, (2) of displacements of several arcseconds between a feature's X-ray and optical emission peaks, and (3) of regions showing no corresponding X-ray or optical emissions. To explain this behavior, we propose a highly inhomogeneous density model for Cas A's ejecta consisting of small, dense optically emitting knots (n ?10{sup 2-3} cm{sup –3}) and a much lower density (n ?0.1-1 cm{sup –3}) diffuse X-ray emitting component often spatially associated with optical emission knots. The X-ray emitting component is sometimes linked to optical clumps through shock-induced mass ablation generating trailing material leading to spatially offset X-ray/optical emissions. A range of ejecta densities can also explain the observed X-ray/optical time delays since the remnant's ?5000 km s{sup –1} reverse shock heats dense ejecta clumps to temperatures around 3 × 10{sup 4} K relatively quickly, which then become optically bright while more diffuse ejecta become X-ray bright on longer timescales. Highly inhomogeneous ejecta as proposed here for Cas A may help explain some of the X-ray/optical emission features seen in other young core-collapse supernova remnants.

  18. Low energy X-ray emission from five galaxy cluster sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, G.; Mason, K. O.; Charles, P. A.; Bowyer, S.; Lea, S. M.; Pravdo, S.

    1981-01-01

    We report the detection of soft (0.2-2.5 keV) X-ray emission from several known cluster X-ray sources using the low energy detectors of the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment. Soft X-ray emission was observed from five clusters - the Centaurus cluster, Abell 2147, SC 1329-314, Abell 2319, and Abell 133. Spectral parameters estimated from the soft X-ray fluxes are inconsistent with those reported at higher energies for the Centaurus cluster, Abell 2147, and SC 1329-314, indicating the presence of more than one spectral component in these clusters. No evidence for more than one component was found for either Abell 2319 or Abell 133. The temperature of Abell 133 is constrained to be less than 2 x 10 to the 7th K, making it the coolest X-ray cluster yet detected.

  19. Suzaku Detection of Diffuse Hard X-Ray Emission Outside Vela X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Mori, Koji; Petre, Robert; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Bocchino, Fabrizio; Bamba, Aya; Miceli, Marco; Hewitt, John W.; Temim, Tea; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshii, Rie

    2011-01-01

    Vela X is a large, 3 deg x 2 deg, radio-emitting pulsar wind nebula (PWN) powered by the Vela pulsar in the Vela supernova remnant. Using four Suzaku/XIS observations pointed just outside Vela X, we find hard X-ray emission extending throughout the fields of view. The hard X-ray spectra are well represented by a power-law. The photon index is measured to be constant at Gamma approximates 2.4, similar to that of the southern outer part of Vela X. The power-law flux decreases with increasing distance from the pulsar. These properties lead us to propose that the hard X-ray emission is associated with the Vela PWN. The larger X-ray extension found in this work strongly suggests that distinct populations relativistic electrons form the X-ray PWN and Vela X, as was recently inferred from multiwavelength spectral modeling of Vela X.

  20. The association of solar millisecond radio spikes with hard X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guedel, M.; Benz, A. O.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional observational data regarding solar millisecond spikes are compared with data gathered simultaneously in the hard X-ray band by means of a statistical analysis. The analysis considers the association rate, correlation degree, and relative time delays between hard X-ray emissions (in the 25-438 keV range) and radio-spike events. About 95 percent of the radio-spike bursts occur during impulsive hard X-ray bursts, and approximately 43 percent of the compared events are characterized by hard X-ray time profiles that mimic the concentration of simultaneous radio spikes. The delay of the radio emission with respect to the hard X-ray bursts puts some constraints on the acceleration and propagation of particles. The time delays and the quantization into discrete radio events are theorized to be caused by the operation of the accelerator.

  1. BAT AGN Spectroscopic Survey II: X-ray Emission and High Ionization Optical Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    Berney, Simon; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Schawinski, Kevin; Balokovic, Mislav; Crenshaw, D Michael; Fischer, Travis; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ichikawa, Kohei; Mushotzky, Richard; Oh, Kyuseok; Stern, Daniel; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between X-ray and optical line emission in 340 nearby AGN selected above 10 keV using Swift BAT. We find a weak correlation between the extinction corrected [O III] and hard X-ray luminosity (14-195 keV) with a [OIII] large scatter (R_Pear = 0.64, sigma = 0.62 dex) and a similarly large scatter with the intrinsic 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosities (RPear=0.63, sigma = 0.63 dex). Correlations of the hard X-ray fluxes with the fluxes of high-ionization narrow lines ([O III], He II, [Ne III] and [Ne V]) are not significantly better than with the low ionization lines (Halpha, [SII]). Factors like obscuration or physical slit size are not found to be a significant part of the large scatter. In contrast, the optical emission lines show much better correlations with each other (sigma = 0.3 dex) than with the X-ray flux. The inherent large scatter questions the common usage of narrow emission lines as AGN bolometric luminosity indicators and suggests that other issues such as geometrical...

  2. [C ii] emission from galactic nuclei in the presence of X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Pineda, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The luminosity of [C ii] is used as a probe of the star formation rate in galaxies, but the correlation breaks down in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Models of the [C ii] emission from galactic nuclei do not include the influence of X-rays on the carbon ionization balance, which may be a factor in reducing the [C ii] luminosity. Aims: We aim to determine the properties of the ionized carbon and its distribution among highly ionized states in the interstellar gas in galactic nuclei under the influence of X-ray sources. We calculate the [C ii] luminosity in galactic nuclei under the influence of bright sources of soft X-rays. Methods: We solve the balance equation of the ionization states of carbon as a function of X-ray flux, electron, atomic hydrogen, and molecular hydrogen density. These are input to models of [C ii] emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) in galactic nuclei representing conditions in the Galactic central molecular zone and a higher density AGN model. The behavior of the [C ii] luminosity is calculated as a function of the X-ray luminosity. We also solve the distribution of the ionization states of oxygen and nitrogen in highly ionized regions. Results: We find that the dense warm ionized medium (WIM) and dense photon dominated regions (PDRs) dominate the [C ii] emission when no X-rays are present. The X-rays in galactic nuclei can affect strongly the C+ abundance in the WIM, converting some fraction to C2+ and higher ionization states and thus reducing its [C ii] luminosity. For an X-ray luminosity L(X-ray) ? 1043 erg s-1 the [C ii] luminosity can be suppressed by a factor of a few, and for very strong sources, L(X-ray) >1044 erg s-1 such as found for many AGNs, the [C ii] luminosity is significantly depressed. Comparison of the model with several extragalactic sources shows that the [C ii] to far-infrared ratio declines for L(X-ray) ? 1043 erg s-1, in reasonable agreement with our model. Conclusions: We conclude that X-rays can suppress the C+ abundance and, therefore, the [C ii] luminosity of the ISM in active galactic nuclei with a large X-ray flux. The X-ray flux can arise from a central massive accreting black hole and/or from many smaller discrete sources distributed throughout the nuclei. We also find that the lower ionization states of nitrogen and oxygen are also suppressed at high X-ray fluxes in warm ionized gas.

  3. The Chandra planetary nebula survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-ray emission from compact planetary nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M.; Kastner, J. H.; Montez, R. Jr.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; De Marco, O.; Parker, Q. A.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Frank, A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Guerrero, M. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ?1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R {sub neb} ? 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ?1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ?27% and the point source detection rate to ?36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (? 5 × 10{sup 3} yr), and likewise compact (R {sub neb} ? 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (n{sub e} ? 1000 cm{sup –3}), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H{sub 2} emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  4. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-Ray Emission from Compact Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, M.; Montez, R., Jr.; Kastner, J. H.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Chu, Y.-H.; De Marco, O.; Frank, A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Lopez, J. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sandin, C.; Schönberner, D.; Soker, N.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Steffen, M.; Toalá, J. A.; Ueta, T.; Villaver, E.

    2014-10-01

    We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ~1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R neb <~ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ~1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ~27% and the point source detection rate to ~36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (lsim 5 × 103 yr), and likewise compact (R neb <~ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (ne >~ 1000 cm-3), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H2 emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

  5. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region I: Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    E-print Network

    Mori, Kaya; Krivonos, Roman; Hong, Jaesub; Ponti, Gabriele; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Tomsick, John A; Alexander, David M; Baganoff, Frederick K; Barret, Didier; Barriere, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E; Canipe, Alicia M; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Harrison, Fiona A; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E; Luu, Vy; Madsen, Kristen K; Mao, Peter H; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Westergaard, Niels J; Zhang, William W; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with $\\Gamma\\sim1.3$-$2.3$ up to ~50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe K$\\alpha$ fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broad-band X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density ($\\sim10^{23}$ cm$^{-2}$), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws wi...

  6. Measurements of Peak X-ray Emission of imploding DT capsules using X-ray Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Shahab; Macphee, Andrew; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Glenn, Steve; Kimbrough, Joe; Herrmann, Hans; Church, Jennifer; Bell, Perry; Bradley, David

    2012-10-01

    The absolute time (bang time) and burn width of the x-ray emission from the imploding cores of deuterium-tritium capsules near peak compression are measured by several different but complimentary diagnostic instruments. These instruments report independent measurements for the bang time (BT) and burn width (BW). A summary of the results from recent DT experiments is presented contrasting the BT and BW reported by: SPIDER, an x-ray streak camera; Gamma Ray History, a gamma ray detector; and Hardened X-ray Gated Imager (HGXI), a gated micro-channel plate coupled to film camera. An evaluation of the shielding and design of the instruments is presented in order to compare the spectral sensitivity of the instruments. Simulations of the x-ray emission spectrum are examined with the results reported by these x-ray diagnostics.

  7. The PG X-ray QSO sample: Links between the UV-X-ray Continuum and Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    Beverley J. Wills; M. S. Brotherton; A. Laor; D. Wills; B. J. Wilkes; G. J. Ferland; Zhaohui Shang

    1999-05-07

    The UV to soft X-rays of luminous AGNs dominate their bolometric luminosity, driven by an accretion-powered dynamo at the center. These photons ionize the surrounding gas, thereby providing clues to fueling and exhaust. Two sets of important relationships - neither of them understood - link the continuum and gas properties. (i) Boroson & Green's `eigenvector 1' relationships: Steeper soft X-ray spectra are clearly related to narrower Hbeta emission and stronger optical Fe II emission from the BLR, and weaker [O III] 5007 from the NLR. We show that these relationships extend to UV spectra: narrower C III] 1909, stronger low ionization lines, larger Si III] 1892/C III] 1909 (a density indicator), weaker C IV 1549 but stronger higher-ionization N V 1240. We speculate that high accretion rates are linked to high columns of dense (1e10 - 1e11 cm-3), nitrogen-enhanced, low-ionization gas from nuclear starbursts. Linewidth, inverse Fe II-[O III] and inverse Fe II-C IV relationships hint at the geometrical arrangement of this gas. (ii) The Baldwin effect (inverse equivalent width - luminosity relationships): Our correlation analyses suggest that these are independent of the above eigenvector 1 relationships. The eigenvector 1 relationships can therefore be used in future work, to reduce scatter in the Baldwin relationships, perhaps fulfilling the dream of using the Baldwin effect for cosmological studies.

  8. Soft X-ray, microwave, and hard X-ray emission from a solar flare - Implications for electron heating and acceleration in current channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The soft X-ray, microwave, and hard X-ray emissions from the solar flare of May 14, 1980 are studied. The flare consists of a gradual component in soft X-rays and microwaves and a superposed impulsive burst accompanied by hard X-ray emission. The impulsive phase of the flare appears in the soft X-ray emission as a temperature spike and as an increased rate of energy dissipation into the plasma. A new, spatially and spectrally distinct, microwave component appears during the impulsive burst. The data are interpreted in terms of Joule heating and the electric field acceleration of electrons in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft X-ray emitting plasma can be heated by a single current sheet only if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity. Conditions are also given for the hard X-ray emission to be from nonthermal electrons with classical resistivity.

  9. Impulsive phase of flares in soft X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Gabriel, A. H.; Acton, L. W.; Leibacher, J. W.; Culhane, J. L.; Rapley, C. G.; Doyle, J. G.; Machado, M. E.; Orwig, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    Observations using the bent crystal spectrometer instrument on the Solar Maximum Mission show that turbulence and blue-shifted motions are characteristic of the soft X-ray plasma during the impulsive phase of flares, and are coincident with the hard X-ray bursts observed by the hard X-ray burst spectrometer. A method for analysing the Ca XIX and Fe XXV spectra characteristic of the impulsive phase is presented. Nonthermal widths and blue-shifted components in the spectral lines of Ca XIX and Fe XXV indicate the presence of turbulent velocities exceeding 100 km/s and upward motions of 300-400 km/s. The April 10, May 9, and June 29, 1980 flares are studied. The April 10 flare has two separated footpoints bright in hard X-rays. Plasma heated to temperatures greater than ten million K rises from the footpoints. During the three minutes in which the evaporation process occurs an energy of 3.7 x 10 to the 30th ergs. This is consistent with the above figures, allowing for loss by radiation and conduction.

  10. Extended X-ray emission from a quasar-driven superbubble

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Sun, Ai-Lei; Pooley, David; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Comerford, Julia M.

    2014-06-10

    We present observations of extended, 20 kpc scale soft X-ray gas around a luminous obscured quasar hosted by an ultraluminous infrared galaxy caught in the midst of a major merger. The extended X-ray emission is well fit as a thermal gas with a temperature of kT ?280 eV and a luminosity of L {sub X} ? 10{sup 42} erg s{sup –1} and is spatially coincident with a known ionized gas outflow. Based on the X-ray luminosity, a factor of ?10 fainter than the [O III] emission, we conclude that the X-ray emission is either dominated by photoionization, or by shocked emission from cloud surfaces in a hot quasar-driven wind.

  11. Nonthermal Hard X-ray Emission and Iron Kalpha Emission from a Superflare on II Pegasi

    E-print Network

    R. A. Osten; S. Drake; J. Tueller; J. Cummings; M. Perri; A. Moretti; S. Covino

    2006-09-07

    We report on an X-ray flare detected on the active binary system II~Pegasi with the Swift telescope. The trigger had a 10-200 keV luminosity of 2.2$\\times10^{32}$ erg s$^{-1}$-- a superflare, by comparison with energies of typical stellar flares on active binary systems. The trigger spectrum indicates a hot thermal plasma with T$\\sim$180 $\\times10^{6}$K. X-ray spectral analysis from 0.8--200 keV with the X-Ray Telescope and BAT in the next two orbits reveals evidence for a thermal component (T$>$80 $\\times10^{6}$K) and Fe K 6.4 keV emission. A tail of emission out to 200 keV can be fit with either an extremely high temperature thermal plasma (T$\\sim3\\times10^{8}$K) or power-law emission. Based on analogies with solar flares, we attribute the excess continuum emission to nonthermal thick-target bremsstrahlung emission from a population of accelerated electrons. We estimate the radiated energy from 0.01--200 keV to be $\\sim6\\times10^{36}$ erg, the total radiated energy over all wavelengths $\\sim10^{38}$ erg, the energy in nonthermal electrons above 20 keV $\\sim3\\times10^{40}$ erg, and conducted energy $$ 20 keV when compared to the upper and lower bounds on the thermal energy content of the flare. This marks the first occasion in which evidence exists for nonthermal hard X-ray emission from a stellar flare. We investigate the emission mechanism responsible for producing the 6.4 keV feature, and find that collisional ionization from nonthermal electrons appears to be more plausible than the photoionization mechanism usually invoked on the Sun and pre-main sequence stars.

  12. Laboratory simulation of charge exchange-produced X-ray emission from comets.

    PubMed

    Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Chen, H; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; May, M; Olson, R E; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Tillotson, W A

    2003-06-01

    In laboratory experiments using the engineering spare microcalorimeter detector from the ASTRO-E satellite mission, we recorded the x-ray emission of highly charged ions of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which simulates charge exchange reactions between heavy ions in the solar wind and neutral gases in cometary comae. The spectra are complex and do not readily match predictions. We developed a charge exchange emission model that successfully reproduces the soft x-ray spectrum of comet Linear C/1999 S4, observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. PMID:12791989

  13. Comparison of solar flare emission measures from broadband soft X-ray and ultraviolet spectrograph observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J. W.; Waljeski, K.; Moses, D.; Bruechner, G. E.

    Joint observations of a solar flare were obtained by the American Science & Engineering (AS&E) Imaging X-ray Telescope and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS). We compare emission measurements from soft X-ray and HRTS data. A small isolated X-ray loop close to the HRTS slit position has an emission meausure ne(squared) Delta L of (3.5 x 1029/cm5, compared to an emssion measure of 2.7 x 1029/cm5 obtained from the intensity of flaring Fe XXI 1354 A plasma along the HRTS slit.

  14. Spectral Diagnostics of Galactic and Stellar X-Ray Emission from Charge Exchange Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargelin, B.

    2002-01-01

    The proposed research uses the electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study X-ray emission from charge-exchange recombination of highly charged ions with neutral gases. The resulting data fill a void in existing experimental and theoretical understanding of this atomic physics process, and are needed to explain all or part of the observed X-ray emission from the soft X-ray background, stellar winds, the Galactic Center, supernova ejecta, and photoionized nebulae. Progress made during the first year of the grant is described, as is work planned for the second year.

  15. Spectral Diagnostics of Galactic and Stellar X-Ray Emission from Charge Exchange Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargelin, B.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed research uses the electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study the X-ray emission from charge-exchange recombination of highly charged ions with neutral gases. The resulting data fill a void in the existing experimental and theoretical data and are needed to explain all or part of the observed X-ray emission from the Galactic Ridge, solar and stellar winds, the Galactic Center, supernova ejecta, and photoionized nebulae.

  16. Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses

    E-print Network

    Limpouch, Jiri

    Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

  17. Characterizing the X-ray emission of the new radio magnetar PSR J1622-4950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Nanda

    2009-10-01

    A new magnetar candidate, PSR J1622-4950, has been discovered in the radio band by the Parkes High Time Resolution Universe (HiTRUn) Survey, presenting the typical erratic radio flux behaviour shown only by the two transient radio magnetars known thus far, and a magnetic field of 2x10^{14}G. Pulsed radio emission from magnetars have been so far always connected to transient X-ray outbursts. A prompt Chandra observation pinpointed positionally the X-ray counterpart to this new radio magnetar, which, however, did not show any flux increase with respect to archival X-ray observations. We aks for a 70ks XMM, observation of the recently discovered X-ray counterpart to PSR J1622-4950 in order to study its spectrum and search for X-ray pulsations.

  18. Characterizing the X-ray emission of the radio magnetar PSR J1622-4950

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Nanda

    2010-10-01

    A new magnetar candidate, PSR J1622-4950, has been discovered in the radio band by the Parkes High Time Resolution Universe (HiTRUn) Survey, presenting the typical erratic radio flux behaviour shown only by the two transient radio magnetars known thus far, and a magnetic field of 2x10^{14}G. Pulsed radio emission from magnetars have been so far always connected to transient X-ray outbursts. A prompt Chandra observation pinpointed positionally the X-ray counterpart to this new radio magnetar, which, however, did not show any flux increase with respect to archival X-ray observations. We aks for a 70ks XMM, observation of the recently discovered X-ray counterpart to PSR J1622-4950 in order to study its spectrum and search for X-ray pulsations.

  19. Energetics and timing of the hard and soft X-ray emissions in white light flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1993-01-01

    By comparing the light curves in optical, hard X-ray, and soft X-ray wavelengths for eight well-observed flares, we confirm previous results indicating that the white light flare (WLF) is associated with the flare impulsive phase. The WLF emission peaks within seconds after the associated hard X-ray peak, and nearly two minutes before the 1-8 A soft X-ray peak. It is further shown that the peak power in nonthermal electrons above 50 keV is typically an order of magnitude larger, and the power in 1-8 A soft X-rays radiated over 2pi sr, at the time of the WLF peak, is an order of magnitude smaller than the peak WLF power.

  20. Radio emission from the high-mass X-ray binary BP Crucis. First detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestalozzi, M.; Torkelsson, U.; Hobbs, G.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.

    2009-11-01

    Context: BP Cru is a well known high-mass X-ray binary consisting of a late B hypergiant (Wray 977) and a neutron star, also observed as the X-ray pulsar GX 301-2. No information about emission from BP Cru in bands other than X-rays and optical has been reported. A massive X-ray binaries containing black holes can produce radio emission from a jet. Aims: To assess the presence of a radio jet, we searched for radio emission from BP Cru using the Australia Compact Array Telescope as part of a survey for radio emission from Be/X-ray transients. Methods: We probed the 41.5 d orbit of BP Cru with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, close to both periastron and apastron. Results: BP Cru was clearly detected in our data on 4, possibly 6, of 12 occasions at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz. Our data suggest that the spectral index of the radio emission is modulated either by the X-ray flux or the orbital phase of the system. Conclusions: We propose that the radio emission of BP Cru probably originates in two components: a persistent component, related to the mass donor Wray 977, and a periodic component, connected to accretion onto the neutron star, possibly originating from a (weak and short lived) jet.

  1. Radio emission from the high-mass X-ray binary BP Cru: first detection

    E-print Network

    Pestalozzi, M; Hobbs, G; Lopez-Sanchez, A R

    2009-01-01

    BP Cru is a well known high-mass X-ray binary composed of a late B hypergiant (Wray 977) and a neutron star, also observed as the X-ray pulsar GX 301-2. No information about emission from BP Cru in other bands than X-rays and optical has been reported to date in the literature, though massive X-ray binaries containing black holes can have radio emission from a jet. In order to assess the presence of a radio jet, we searched for radio emission towards BP Cru using the Australia Compact Array Telescope during a survey for radio emission from Be/X-ray transients. We probed the 41.5d orbit of BP Cru with the Australia Telescope Compact Array not only close to periastron but also close to apastron. BP Cru was clearly detected in our data on 4, possibly 6, of 12 occasions at 4.8 and 8.6 GHz. Our data suggest that the spectral index of the radio emission is modulated either by the X-ray flux or the orbital phase of the system. We propose that the radio emission of BP Cru probably arises from two components: a persis...

  2. X-ray emissivity of old stellar populations: a local group census

    E-print Network

    Ge, Chong; Xu, Xiaojie; Gu, Qiusheng; Wang, Q Daniel; Roberts, Shawn; Kraft, Ralph P; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R

    2015-01-01

    We study the unresolved X-ray emission in three Local Group dwarf elliptical galaxies (NGC 147, NGC 185 and NGC 205) using XMM-Newton observations, which most likely originates from a collection of weak X-ray sources, mainly cataclysmic variables and coronally active binaries. Precise knowledge of this stellar X-ray emission is crucial not only for understanding the relevant stellar astrophysics but also for disentangling and quantifying the thermal emission from diffuse hot gas in nearby galaxies.We find that the integrated X-ray emissivities of the individual dwarf ellipticals agree well with that of the Solar vicinity, supporting an often assumed but untested view that the X-ray emissivity of old stellar populations is quasi-universal in normal galactic environments, in which dynamical effects on the formation and destruction of binary systems are not important. The average X-ray emissivity of the dwarf ellipticals, including M32 studied in the literature, is measured to be $L_{0.5-2\\ \\rm {keV}}/M_{\\ast} =...

  3. Discovery of Oxygen Kalpha X-ray Emission from the Rings of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Gladstone, G Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ford, Peter G.

    2005-01-01

    Using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observed the Saturnian system for one rotation of the planet (approx.37 ks) on 20 January, 2004, and again on 26-27 January, 2004. In this letter we report the detection of X-ray emission from the rings of Saturn. The X-ray spectrum from the rings is dominated by emission in a narrow (approx.130 eV wide) energy band centered on the atomic oxygen Ka fluorescence line at 0.53 keV. The X-ray power emitted from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band is about one-third of that emitted from Saturn disk in the photon energy range 0.24-2.0 keV. Our analysis also finds a clear detection of X-ray emission from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band in an earlier (14-15 April, 2003) Chandra ACIS observation of Saturn. Fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays from oxygen atoms in the H20 icy ring material is the likely source mechanism for ring X-rays, consistent with the scenario of solar photo-production of a tenuous ring oxygen atmosphere and ionosphere recently discovered by Cassini.

  4. X ray emission from dynamical shock models in hot-star winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owocki, Stanley P.

    1991-01-01

    The principal aim of this project was to determine whether x ray emission from instability-generated shocks in dynamical models of highly unstable hot-star winds could explain the x ray flux spectrum observed from such hot stars by Einstein and other x ray satellites. Our initial efforts focused on extending the earlier isothermal simulations of wind instabilities to include an explicit treatment of the energy balance between shock heating and simplified radiative cooling. It was found, however, that direct resolution of cooling regions behind shocks is often impractical, and thus additional, indirect methods for determining this shock x ray emission were also developed. The results indicate that the reverse shocks that dominate simple 1-D instability models typically have too little material undergoing a strong shock to produce the observed x ray emission. Other models with more strongly driven variability from the wind base sometimes show high-speed collisions between relatively dense clumps, and in these instances the computed x ray flux spectrum matches the observed spectrum quite well. This suggests that collisions between relatively large scale wind streams of different speeds may be more suited to producing the observed x rays than the reverse shocks arising from small-scale instabilities.

  5. Discovery of Oxygen Kalpha X-ray Emission from the Rings of Saturn

    E-print Network

    Anil Bhardwaj; Ronald F. Elsner; J. Hunter Waite, Jr.; G. Randall Gladstone; Thomas E. Cravens; Peter G. Ford

    2005-05-19

    Using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observed the Saturnian system for one rotation of the planet (~37 ks) on 20 January, 2004, and again on 26-27 January, 2004. In this letter we report the detection of X-ray emission from the rings of Saturn. The X-ray spectrum from the rings is dominated by emission in a narrow (~130 eV wide) energy band centered on the atomic oxygen K-alpha fluorescence line at 0.53 keV. The X-ray power emitted from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band is 84 MW, which is about one-third of that emitted from Saturn disk in the photon energy range 0.24-2.0 keV. Our analysis also finds a clear detection of X-ray emission from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band in an earlier (14-15 April, 2003) Chandra ACIS observation of Saturn. Fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays from oxygen atoms in the H2O icy ring material is the likely source mechanism for ring X-rays, consistent with the scenario of solar photo-production of a tenuous ring oxygen atmosphere and ionosphere recently discovered by Cassini.

  6. ISOCAM Photometry of Narrow-Line X-ray Galaxies

    E-print Network

    J. D. Law-Green; A. Zezas; M. J. Ward; C. Boisson

    1998-12-23

    Mid-infrared photometry of the hosts of Narrow-Line X-ray Galaxies at 6 microns and 12 microns has been attempted with ISOCAM. No conclusive detections have been made. This implies that these are quiescent objects with little or no active star-formation. Neither X-ray binaries nor starburst-driven superwinds are consistent explanations for the X-ray emission in these objects. We conclude that these NLXGs are predominantly AGN-powered.

  7. Recurrent X-ray Emission Variations of Eta Carinae and the Binary Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishibashi, K.; Corcoran, M. F.; Davidson, K.; Swank, J. H.; Petre, R.; Drake, S. A.; Damineki, A.; White, S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that, the super-massive star eta Carinae may have a massive stellar companion (Damineli, Conti, and Lopes 1997), although the dense ejecta surrounding the star make this claim hard to test using conventional methods. Settling this question is critical for determining the current evolutionary state and future evolution of the star. We address this problem by an unconventional method: If eta Carinae is a binary, X-ray emission should be produced in shock waves generated by wind-wind collisions in the region between eta Carinae and its companion. Detailed X-ray monitoring of eta Carinae for more that) 2 years shows that the observed emission generally resembles colliding-wind X-ray emission, but with some significant discrepancies. Furthermore, periodic X-ray "flaring" may provide an additional clue to determine the presence of a companion star and for atmospheric pulsation in eta Carinae.

  8. Waiting in the Wings: Reflected X-ray Emission from the Homunculus Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Gull, T.; Davidson, K.; Petre, R.; Hillier, D. J.; Smith, N.; Damineli, A.; Morse, J. A.; Walborn, N. R.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first detection of X-ray emission associated with the Homunculus Nebula which surrounds the supermassive star eta Carinae. The emission is characterized by a temperature in excess of 100 MK, and is consistent with scattering of the time-delayed X-ray flux associated with the star. The nebular emission is bright in the northwestern lobe and near the central regions of the Homunculus, and fainter in the southeastern lobe. We also report the detection of an unusually broad Fe K fluorescent line, which may indicate fluorescent scattering off the wind of a companion star or some other high velocity outflow. The X-ray Homunculus is the nearest member of the small class of Galactic X-ray reflection nebulae, and the only one in which both the emitting and reflecting sources are distinguishable.

  9. An XMM-Newton Survey of the Soft X-Ray Background. III. The Galactic Halo X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2013-08-01

    We present measurements of the Galactic halo's X-ray emission for 110 XMM-Newton sight lines selected to minimize contamination from solar wind charge exchange emission. We detect emission from few million degree gas on ~4/5 of our sight lines. The temperature is fairly uniform (median = 2.22 × 106 K, interquartile range = 0.63 × 106 K), while the emission measure and intrinsic 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness vary by over an order of magnitude (~(0.4-7) × 10-3 cm-6 pc and ~(0.5-7) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 deg-2, respectively, with median detections of 1.9 × 10-3 cm-6 pc and 1.5 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 deg-2, respectively). The high-latitude sky contains a patchy distribution of few million degree gas. This gas exhibits a general increase in emission measure toward the inner Galaxy in the southern Galactic hemisphere. However, there is no tendency for our observed emission measures to decrease with increasing Galactic latitude, contrary to what is expected for a disk-like halo morphology. The measured temperatures, brightnesses, and spatial distributions of the gas can be used to place constraints on models for the dominant heating sources of the halo. We provide some discussion of such heating sources, but defer comparisons between the observations and detailed models to a later paper.

  10. Inflow Generated X-ray Corona Around Supermassive Black Holes and Unified Model for X-ray Emission

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lile

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, covering the spatial domain from hundreds of Schwarzschild radii to $2\\ \\mathrm{pc}$ around the central supermassive black hole of mass $10^8 M_\\odot$, with detailed radiative cooling processes, are performed. Generically found is the existence of a significant amount of shock heated, high temperature ($\\geq 10^8\\ \\mathrm{K}$) coronal gas in the inner ($\\leq 10^4 r_\\mathrm{sch}$) region. It is shown that the composite bremsstrahlung emission spectrum due to coronal gas of various temperatures are in reasonable agreement with the overall ensemble spectrum of AGNs and hard X-ray background. Taking into account inverse Compton processes, in the context of the simulation-produced coronal gas, our model can readily account for the wide variety of AGN spectral shape, which can now be understood physically. The distinguishing feature of our model is that X-ray coronal gas is, for the first time, an integral part of the inflow gas and its observable characteristics are phys...

  11. X-Ray Emission from the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    E. Ursino; M. Galeazzi

    2006-04-10

    The number of detected baryons in the Universe at z<0.5 is much smaller than predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis and by the detailed observation of the Lyman alpha forest at red-shift z=2. Hydrodynamical simulations indicate that a large fraction of the baryons today is expected to be in a ``warm-hot'' (10^5-10^7K) filamentary gas, distributed in the intergalactic medium. This gas, if it exists, should be observable only in the soft X-ray and UV bands. Using the predictions of a particular hydrodynamic model, we simulated the expected X-ray flux as a function of energy in the 0.1-2 keV band due to the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), and compared it with the flux from local and high red-shift diffuse components. Our results show that as much as 20% of the total diffuse X-ray background (DXB) in the energy range 0.37-0.925keV could be due to X-ray flux from the WHIM, 70% of which comes from filaments at redshift z between 0.1 and 0.6. Simulations done using a FOV of 3', comparable with that of Suzaku and Constellation-X, show that in more than 20% of the observations we expect the WHIM flux to contribute to more than 20% of the DXB. These simulations also show that in about 10% of all the observations a single bright filament in the FOV accounts, alone, for more than 20% of the DXB flux. Red-shifted oxygen lines should be clearly visible in these observations.

  12. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 47} cm{sup -3} and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 48} cm{sup -3}. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  13. A Study of the X-Ray Emission from Three Radio Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The subject grant is for work on a study of x-ray emission from isolated pulsars. The purpose of the study was to: determine whether the pulsars were x-ray sources; and, if so, search for evidence of pulsations at the known radio period; and study the nature of the x-ray emission. Observation of the pulsar PSR 0355+54 were obtained, and the analysis of these data is complete. These results were reported at the 183rd AAS Meeting, and in a paper entitled 'X-Ray Emission from PSR 0355+54' which as published in the The Astrophysical Journal. Also obtained an approx. 3 ks PSPC observations of PSR 1642-03. A summary of the results from these data were reported in a Conference Proceedings for the 'New Horizon of X-ray Astronomy' symposium. In addition, as part of a study with a student from the SAO Summer Intern Program, I incorporated ROSAT archival data in an extended study of pulsar emission. These results were reported at the 185th AAS Meeting, and in a paper entitled 'Soft X-ray Emission from Selected Isolated Pulsars' which was published in The Astrophysical Journal (Letters).

  14. SphinX Measurements of the 2009 Solar Minimum X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Baka?a, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-06-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 1047 cm-3 and 1.1 × 1048 cm-3. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

  15. Evolution of X-ray emission from young massive star clusters

    E-print Network

    L. M. Oskinova

    2005-05-25

    The evolution of X-ray emission from young massive star clusters is modeled, taking into account the emission from the stars as well as from the cluster wind. It is shown that the level and character of the soft (0.2-10 keV) X-ray emission change drastically with cluster age and are tightly linked with stellar evolution. Using the modern X-ray observations of massive stars we show that the correlation between bolometric and X-ray luminosity known for single O stars also holds for O+O and O+Wolf-Rayet (WR) binaries. The diffuse emission originates from the cluster wind heated by the kinetic energy of stellar winds and supernova explosions. To model the evolution of the cluster wind, the mass and energy yields from a population synthesis are used as input to a hydrodynamic model. It is shown that in a very young clusters the emission from the cluster wind is low. When the cluster evolves, WR stars are formed. Their strong stellar winds power an increasing X-ray emission of the cluster wind. Subsequent supernova explosions pump the level of diffuse emission even higher. Clusters at this evolutionary stage may have no X-ray bright stellar point sources, but a relatively high level of diffuse emission. A supernova remnant may become a dominant X-ray source, but only for a short time interval of a few thousand years. We retrieve and analyse Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of six massive star clusters located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Our model reproduces the observed diffuse and point-source emission from these LMC clusters, as well as from the Galactic clusters Arches, Quintuplet and NGC 3603.

  16. X-ray, Ly-alpha and H-alpha Emission from Simulated Disk Galaxies

    E-print Network

    Jesper Sommer-Larsen; Sune Toft; Jesper Rasmussen; Kristian Pedersen; Martin Gotz; Laura Portinari

    2002-10-23

    The X-ray properties of the haloes of disk galaxies formed in fully cosmological, hydro/gravity simulations are discussed. The results are found to be consistent with observational X-ray detections and upper limits. Disk galaxy haloes are predicted to be about an order of magnitude brighter in soft X-rays at z~1 than at z=0. The Ly-alpha and H-alpha surface brightness of an edge-on, Milky Way like model galaxy has been determined. The emission is found to be quite extended, with a scale height of about 600 pc, neglecting extinction corrections.

  17. Stellar wind induced soft X-ray emission from close-in exoplanets

    E-print Network

    Kislyakova, K G; Johnstone, C P; Holmström, M; Zaitsev, V V; Lammer, H

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the X-ray emission from close-in exoplanets. We show that the Solar/Stellar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism (SWCX) which produces soft X-ray emission is very effective for hot Jupiters. In this mechanism, X-ray photons are emitted as a result of the charge exchange between heavy ions in the solar wind and the atmospheric neutral particles. In the Solar System, comets produce X-rays mostly through the SWCX mechanism, but it has also been shown to operate in the heliosphere, in the terrestrial magnetosheath, and on Mars, Venus and Moon. Since the number of emitted photons is proportional to the solar wind mass flux, this mechanism is not very effective for the Solar system giants. Here we present a simple estimate of the X-ray emission intensity that can be produced by close-in extrasolar giant planets due to charge exchange with the heavy ions of the stellar wind. Using the example of HD~209458b, we show that this mechanism alone can be responsible for an X-ray emission of $\\approx 10...

  18. Feasibility of Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectroscopy for Tracking Transient Species

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopies, when combined in laser-pump, X-ray-probe measurement schemes, can be powerful tools for tracking the electronic and geometric structural changes that occur during the course of a photoinitiated chemical reaction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is considered an established technique for such measurements, and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) of the strongest core-to-core emission lines (K? and K?) is now being utilized. Flux demanding valence-to-core XES promises to be an important addition to the time-resolved spectroscopic toolkit. In this paper we present measurements and density functional theory calculations on laser-excited, solution-phase ferrocyanide that demonstrate the feasibility of valence-to-core XES for time-resolved experiments. We discuss technical improvements that will make valence-to-core XES a practical pump–probe technique. PMID:26568779

  19. Soft X-Ray Emission and Charged Particles Beams from a Plasma Focus of Hundreds Joules

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Patricio; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo; Pavez, Cristian; Arancibia, Jaime

    2006-12-04

    In a new stage of characterization of our plasma focus devices of hundred and tens of joules (PF-400J and PF-50J), preliminary series of measurements on soft X-ray and ion beams have been performed in the device PF-400J (176-539 J, 880 nF, T/4 {approx}300 ns). The device was operated in hydrogen to 7 mbar of pressure . The temporal and spatial X-ray characteristics are investigated by means filtered PIN diodes and a multipinhole camera. Graphite collectors, operating in the bias ion collector mode, are used to estimate the characteristic ion energy using the time flight across the probe array. The time of the ion beam emission to be correlated with plasma emission events associated with the soft X-ray pulses detected by the probes. Temporal correlations between soft X-ray signals and ion beams are performed.

  20. Mapping X-ray emission in a laser-plasma accelerator

    E-print Network

    Corde, S; Phuoc, K Ta; Lifschitz, A; Lambert, G; Faure, J; Lundh, O; Benveniste, E; Ben-Ismail, A; Arantchuk, L; Marciniak, A; Stordeur, A; Brijesh, P; Rousse, A; Specka, A; Malka, V

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators can be a powerful tool to understand the physics of relativistic laser-plasma interaction. It is shown here that the mapping of betatron X-ray radiation can be obtained from the X-ray beam profile when an object is placed off-axis and close to the source. The influence of the plasma density on the position and the longitudinal profile of the X-ray emission is investigated and compared to Particle-In-Cell simulations. The results provide insight on the dynamics of the interaction, including the laser pulse self-focusing, electron self-injection and the role of the electron beam wakefield.

  1. All the X-ray binaries in the Universe: X-ray Emission from Normal and Starburst Galaxies Near and Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann; Basu-Zych, Antara; Lehmer, Bret

    2015-08-01

    There has recently been quite a bit of excitement on the role of X-ray emission from galaxies in early heating of the IGM, demonstrating that understanding of X-ray emission from normal and starburst galaxies may have significant impact on structure formation in the Universe. The X-ray output from X-ray binaries and hot gas are both important and may rival the ionizing output of AGN at z>5, particularly for Hydrogen reionization. Here we present our research on constraining the X-ray SED of galaxies across cosmic time via several complementary approaches. In the very local universe (d <~ 30 Mpc including the Local Group) we are using NuSTAR to understand the accretion states and total output of black hole and neutron star binaries using the important lever arm of 0.5-30 keV emission. At intermediate distances (10-100 Mpc), we are comparing the X-ray output of galaxies with star formation histories and population synthesis model predictions using both Chandra and XMM data. In the slightly more distant universe (z~0.1-0.2) we can find rare analogs to primordial starbursts via wide-field optical/UV surveys that may be studied with Chandra. We will finish with a discussion of starburst galaxies emitting X-rays at z>4, which thanks to the extremely deep Chandra Deep Field-South 7 Ms survey, are better constrained than ever before. We discuss survey strategy and how the various pieces of the puzzle fit together regarding the X-ray output of galaxies and their X-ray binary populations over cosmic time. We discuss implications for next-generation missions and instruments, including those with wide-field survey capabilities and high throughput, especially the Athena mission.

  2. Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy at ESRF Beamline 26 Based on a Helical Undulator.

    PubMed

    Dallera, C; Puppin, E; Trezzi, G; Incorvaia, N; Fasana, A; Braicovich, L; Brookes, N B; Goedkoop, J B

    1996-09-01

    A new soft X-ray spectrograph for X-ray emission spectroscopy excited by synchrotron radiation is presented. The apparatus is now installed on beamline 26 at the ESRF in Grenoble. A brief description of the beamline is given and then several components of the spectrograph are covered in more detail. Results of experiments performed both with direct non-monochromated undulator radiation and with monochromated radiation are reported. PMID:16702684

  3. X-ray Emission from Pre-Main-Sequence Stars - Testing the Solar Analogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.

    2000-01-01

    This LTSA award funded my research on the origin of stellar X-ray emission and the validity of the solar-stellar analogy. This research broadly addresses the relevance of our current understanding of solar X-ray physics to the interpretation of X-ray emission from stars in general. During the past five years the emphasis has been on space-based X-ray observations of very young stars in star-forming regions (T Tauri stars and protostars), cool solar-like G stars, and evolved high-mass Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. These observations were carried out primarily with the ASCA and ROSAT space-based observatories (and most recently with Chandra), supplemented by ground-based observations. This research has focused on the identification of physical processes that are responsible for the high levels of X-ray emission seen in pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, active cool stars, and WR stars. A related issue is how the X-ray emission of such stars changes over time, both on short timescales of days to years and on evolutionary timescales of millions of years. In the case of the Sun it is known that magnetic fields play a key role in the production of X-rays by confining the coronal plasma in loop-like structures where it is heated to temperatures of several million K. The extent to which the magnetically-confined corona interpretation can be applied to other X-ray emitting stars is the key issue that drives the research summarized here.

  4. Soft x-ray emission studies of the electronic structure in silicon nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Van Buuren, T.; Dinh, L.N.; Chase, L.L.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Jumenez, I.; Terminello, L.J.; Grush, M.; Callcott, T.A.; Carlisle, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    Density of states changes in the valence and conduction band of silicon nanoclusters were monitored using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy as a function of cluster size. a progressive increase in the valence band edge toward lower energy is found fro clusters with decreasing diameters. A similar but smaller shift is observed in the near-edge x-ray absorption data of the silicon nanoclusters.

  5. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH~8-95×104 Msolar) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class-NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the H?/H? line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin~150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  6. The Influence of X-ray Emission on the Stellar Wind of O Stars

    E-print Network

    Jiri Krticka; Jiri Kubat

    2006-07-26

    We study the influence of X-ray radiation on the wind parameters of O stars. For this purpose we use our own NLTE wind code. The X-ray emission (assumed to be generated in wind shocks) is treated as an input quantity. We study its influence on the mass-loss rate, terminal velocity and ionization state of the stellar wind of Galactic O stars.

  7. The Morphology of the X-ray Emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's Aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M.; Grodent, D.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T.; Ford, P.

    2007-01-01

    The discovery in XMM-Newton X-ray data of X-ray emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's aurorae has led us to reexamine the Chandra ACIS-S observations taken in Feb 2003. Chandra's superior spatial resolution has revealed that the auroral X-rays with E > 2 keV are emitted from the periphery of the region emitting those with E < 1 keV. We are presently exploring the relationship of this morphology to that of the FUV emission from the main auroral oval and the polar cap. The low energy emission has previously been established as due to charge exchange between energetic precipitating ions of oxygen and either sulfur or carbon. It seems likely to us that the higher energy emission is due to precipitation of energetic electrons, possibly the same population of electrons responsible for the FUV emission. We discuss our analysis and interpretation.

  8. The Morphology of the X-ray Emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's Aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M.; Grodent, D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T.; Ford, P.

    2007-01-01

    The discovery in XMM-Newton X-ray data of X-ray emission above 2 keY from Jupiter's aurorae has led us to reexamine the Chandra ACIS-S observations taken in Feb 2003. Chandra's superior spatial resolution has revealed that the auroral X-rays with E > 2 keV are emitted from the periphery of the region emitting those with E < 1 keV. We are presently exploring the relationship of this morphology to that of the FUV emission from the main auroral oval and the polar cap. The low energy emission has previously been established as due to charge exchange between energetic precipitating ions of oxygen and either sulfur or carbon. It seems likely to us that the higher energy emission is due to precipitation of energetic electrons, possibly the same population of electrons responsible for the FUV emission. We discuss our analysis and interpretation.

  9. Hard X-Ray Emission and the Ionizing Source in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terashima, Y.; Ho, L. C.; Ptak, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    We report X-ray luminosities of 21 LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) and 17 low-luminosity Seyferts obtained with ASCA and discuss the ionizing source in LINERs. Most LINERs with broad H-alpha emission in their optical spectra (LINER 1s) have a compact hard X-ray source and their 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities (LX) are proportional to their H alpha luminosities (L-H-alpha). This correlation strongly supports the hypothesis that the dominant ionizing source in LINER 1s is photoionization by hard photons from low-luminosity AGNs. Although some LINERs without broad H-alpha emission (LINER 2s) have X-ray properties similar to LINER 1s, the X-ray luminosities of many LINER 2s in our sample are lower than LINER 1s at a given H-alpha luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities in these objects are insufficient to power their H-alpha luminosities, suggesting that their primary ionizing source is something other than an AGN, or that an AGN, if present, is obscured even at energies above 2 keV. LINER 2s having small LX/LH-alpha occupy a localized region with small [OI]/H-alpha on the excitation diagram. Such LINER spectra can be reproduced by photoionization by very hot stars.

  10. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J.; Bauer, Franz E.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Madsen, Kristin K.; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Galactic Centre hosts a puzzling stellar population in its inner few parsecs, with a high abundance of surprisingly young, relatively massive stars bound within the deep potential well of the central supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A* (ref. 1). Previous studies suggest that the population of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10 kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt range. This emission is more sharply peaked towards the Galactic Centre than is the surface brightness of the soft-X-ray population. This could indicate a significantly more massive population of accreting white dwarfs, large populations of low-mass X-ray binaries or millisecond pulsars, or particle outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre.

  11. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy.

    PubMed

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J; Bauer, Franz E; Krivonos, Roman A; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K; Barrière, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Grefenstette, Brian W; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Harrison, Fiona A; Hong, Jaesub; Madsen, Kristin K; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Wik, Daniel R; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-04-30

    The Galactic Centre hosts a puzzling stellar population in its inner few parsecs, with a high abundance of surprisingly young, relatively massive stars bound within the deep potential well of the central supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A* (ref. 1). Previous studies suggest that the population of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10 kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt range. This emission is more sharply peaked towards the Galactic Centre than is the surface brightness of the soft-X-ray population. This could indicate a significantly more massive population of accreting white dwarfs, large populations of low-mass X-ray binaries or millisecond pulsars, or particle outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre. PMID:25925477

  12. Study of X-ray emission from the old open cluster, M67

    E-print Network

    Mooley, K P

    2015-01-01

    We present an X-ray analysis of a 4 Gyr old open cluster, M67, using archival XMM-Newton data. The aim of this study was to find new X-ray members of M67, and to use the updated member list for studying X-ray variability, and derive the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of different stellar types and compare them with other star clusters of similar age. We report the detection of X-ray emission from 25 members of M67, with membership based primarily on their proper motion, of which one X-ray source is a new member. Supplementing this study with previous ROSAT and Chandra studies of M67, and using the most recent proper motion study by Vereshchagin et al., we have compiled a revised list of X-ray emitting members of M67 consisting of 43 stars. Sixteen of these are known RS CVn type binaries having orbital periods $circular orbits, 5 are contact binaries with orbital periods $<$ 6 hours, 5 are yellow and blue stragglers, 2 are Algol-type binaries, and one source is a cataclysmic varia...

  13. Infrared Line Emission from Molecular Gas Heated by X-Rays and Energetic Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    "I propose to carry out a detailed study using infrared observations (and in some cases, optical and ultraviolet observations) of dense interstellar gas exposed to intense fluxes of X-rays and/or energetic electrons. This is undoubtedly the dominant source of line emission for clouds exposed to X-rays from active galactic nuclei, supernova shocks, or embedded X-ray sources (e.g., X-ray binaries), or to high-temperature or relativistic electrons in galaxy clusters, near powerful radio sources, or supernova remnants. Detailed physical and chemical models of such clouds will be used to analyze infrared observations of the Great Annihilator X-ray source in the Galactic Center, cD galaxies in massive cooling flows, and the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies which will be obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), UV and optical observations of the Crab Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, and ground-based near-infrared observations of Seyfert nuclei. Results from this work will also be of great relevance to observations obtained with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomical Satellite (SWAS). In the first year of funding of this proposal, my chief collaborators (D.J. Hollenbach and A.G.G.M. Tielens, both of NASA Ames Research Center) and I concentrated on completing our models of the physical conditions in, and the resulting line emission from, dense gas irradiated by X-rays. As noted in the original proposal, some important physical processes were not yet thoroughly incorporated into our models at the time of submission. We completed our modeling of the physical conditions and line emission for essentially the entire range of parameter space (five orders of magnitude in X-ray flux to gas density ratio) occupied by typical dense interstellar clouds in which the gas is mostly neutral and X-rays are important for the ionization, chemistry, and thermal balance.

  14. A study of X-ray and infrared emissions from dusty nonradiative shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vancura, Olaf; Raymond, John C.; Dwek, Eli; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S.; Foster, Scott

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed models that predict the dynamic evolution and infrared (IR) emission of grains behind nonradiative shock waves. We present a self-consistent treatment of the effect of grain destruction and heating on the ionization structure and X-ray emission of the postshock gas. Incorporating thermal sputtering, collisional heating, and deceleration of grains in the postshock flow, we predict the IR and X-ray fluxes from the dusty plasma as a function of swept-up column density. Heavy elements such as C, O, Mg, S, Si and Fe are initially depleted from the gas phase but are gradually returned as the grains are destroyed. The injected neutral atoms require some time to 'catch up' with the ionization state of the ambient gas. The nonequilibrium ionization state and gradient in elemental abundances in the postshock flow produces characteristic X-ray signatures that can be related to the age of the shock and amount of grain destruction. We study the effects of preshock density and shock velocity on the X-ray and IR emission from the shock. We show that the effects of graindestruction on the X-ray spectra of shock waves are substantial. In particular, temperatures derived from X-ray spectra of middle-aged remnants are likely to be overestimated by approximately 15% if cosmic abundances are assumed. Due to the long timescales for grain destruction in X-ray gases over a wide range of temperatures, we suggest that future X-ray spectra studies of supernova remnants be based on depleted abundances instead of cosmic abundances. Our model predictions agree reasonably well with IRAS and Einstein IPC observations of the Cygnus Loop.

  15. On the Early Time X-ray Spectra of Swift Afterglows I: Evidence for Anomalous Soft X-ray Emission

    E-print Network

    Butler, N R

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted a thorough and blind search for emission lines in >70 Swift X-ray afterglows of total exposure ~10^7s. We find that most afterglows are consistent with pure power-laws plus extinction. Significant outliers to the population exist at the 5-10% level and have anomalously soft, possibly thermal spectra. Four bursts are singled out via detections of 2-5 lines: GRBs 060218, 060202, 050822, and 050714B. The most significant soft component detections in the full data set of ~2000 spectra correspond to GRB060218/SN2006aj, with significances ranging up to ~20sigma. A thermal plasma model fit to the data indicates that the flux is primarily due to L-shell transitions of Fe at ~solar abundance. We associate (>4sigma significant) line emission from the 3 other events with K-shell transitions in light metals. We favor a model where the line emission in these afterglows arises from the mildly relativistic cocoon of matter surrounding the GRB jet as it penetrates and exits the surface of the progenitor sta...

  16. SDSS AGNs with X-ray Emission from ROSAT PSPC Pointed Observations

    E-print Network

    A. A. Suchkov; R. J. Hanisch; W. Voges; T. M. Heckman

    2006-09-08

    We present a sample of 1744 type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR4) spectroscopic catalog with X-ray counterparts in the White-Giommi-Angelini Catalog (WGACAT) of ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. Of 1744 X-ray sources, 1410 (80.9%) are new AGN identifications. Of 4574 SDSS DR4 AGNs for which we found radio matches in the catalog of radio sources from the FIRST catalog, 224 turned up in our sample of SDSS X-ray AGNs. The sample objects are given in a catalog that contains optical and X-ray parameters along with radio emission parameters where available. We illustrate the content of our catalog and its potential for AGN science by providing statistical relationships for the catalog data. The potential of the morphological information is emphasized by confronting the statistics of optically resolved and unresolved AGNs. The immediate properties of the catalog objects include significant correlation of X-ray and optical fluxes, which is consistent with expectations. Also expected is the decrease of X-ray flux toward higher redshifts. The X-ray to optical flux ratio for the unresolved AGNs exhibits a decline toward higher redshifts, in agreement with previous results. The resolved AGNs, however, display the opposite trend. At a given optical brightness, X-ray fluxes of radio-quiet AGNs by a factor of 2. We caution, however, that because of the variety of selection effects present in both the WGACAT and the SDSS, the interpretation of any relationships based on our sample of X-ray AGNs requires a careful analysis of these effects.

  17. Beamed and Unbeamed X-Ray Emission in FR1 Radio Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    2000-01-01

    The research exploited ROSAT's sensitivity, together with its spatial and spectral resolution, to separate X-ray emission components in the sources. Prior to ROSAT, the dominant X-ray emission mechanism in radio galaxies as a class was unclear, with correlations between the X-ray and radio emission used on one hand to argue for a nuclear origin for the X-rays, and on the other hand for a thermal origin. Our observations (normally between 10 and 25 ks in length) routinely detected the target sources, and demonstrated that both resolved (thermal) and unresolved X-ray emission are typically present. Highlights of our work included two of the first detections of high-power radio galaxies at high redshift, 3C 280 and 3C 220.1. When combined with the work of two other groups, we find that of the 38 radio galaxies at z > 0.6 in the 3CRR sample, 12 were observed in ROSAT pointed observations and 9 were detected with the four most significant detections exhibiting source extent, including 3C 280 and 3C 220.1. Moreover, we discovered extended emission around five 3CRR quasars at redshift greater than about 0.4, one of which is at z > 0.6. Unification predicts that the X-ray environments of powerful radio galaxies and quasars should be similar, and our results show that powerful radio sources are finding some of the highest-redshift X-ray clusters known to date, pointing to deep gravitational potential wells early in the Universe.

  18. Origin of Thermal and Non-Thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogiel, Vladimir A.; Chernyshov, Dmitrii O.; Yuasa, Takayuki; Prokhorov, Dmitrii; Cheng, Kwong-Sang; Bamba, Aya; Inoue, Hajime; Ko, Chung-Ming; Kokubun, Motohide; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.

    2009-10-01

    We analyse new results of Chandra and Suzaku Observatories which found a flux of hard X-ray emission from the compact region around Sgr A* (r ˜ 100 pc). We suppose that this emission is generated by accretion processes onto the central supermassive blackhole when an unbound part of captured stars obtains an additional momentum. As a result a flux of subrelativistic protons is generated near the galactic center which heats the background plasma up to temperatures about 6-10 keV and produces by inverse bremsstrahlung a flux of non-thermal X-ray emission in the energy range above 10 keV.

  19. Neutron Star Equation of State Constraints from Pulsed X-ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsink, Sharon; Stevens, Abigail; Fiege, Jason; Leahy, Denis

    2014-03-01

    The observation of pulsed X-ray emission originating from the surfaces of accreting rapidly rotating neutron stars combined with relativistic ray-tracing provides an excellent opportunity to study the properties of neutron stars and to constrain the equation of state of supernuclear density matter. I will review the basic principles behind this method, including the degeneracies inherent in the problem. We are applying a modern genetic algorithm to search for the best-fit masses and radii of the accreting ms period X-ray pulsars that produce X-ray bursts. I will discuss the application of this method to observations that could be performed by the proposed LOFT (Large Observatory for X-ray Timing) mission.

  20. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FU ORIONIS STAR V1735 CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Guedel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R.

    2009-05-01

    The variable star V1735 Cyg (=Elias 1-12) lies in the IC 5146 dark cloud and is a member of the class of FU Orionis objects whose dramatic optical brightenings are thought to be linked to episodic accretion. We report the first X-ray detections of V1735 Cyg and a deeply embedded class I protostar lying 24'' to its northeast. X-ray spectra obtained with EPIC on XMM-Newton reveal very high-temperature plasma (kT > 5 keV) in both objects, but no large flares. Such hard X-ray emission is not anticipated from accretion shocks and is a signature of magnetic processes. We place these new results into the context of what is presently known about the X-ray properties of FU Orionis stars and other accreting young stellar objects.

  1. Interrelation of soft and hard X-ray emissions during solar flares. I - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kiplinger, A. L.; Zarro, D. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Lemen, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The interrelation between the acceleration and heating of electrons and ions during impulsive solar flares is determined on the basis of simulataneous observations of hard and soft X-ray emission from the Solar Maximum Mission at high time resolution (6 s). For all the flares, the hard X-rays are found to have a power-law spectrum which breaks down during the rise phase and beginning of the decay phase. After that, the spectrum changes to either a single power law or a power law that breaks up at high energies. The characteristics of the soft X-ray are found to depend on the flare position. It is suggested that small-scale quasi-static electric fields are important for determining the acceleration of the X-ray-producing electrons and the outflowing chromospheric ions.

  2. Diagnosing residual motion via the x-ray self emission from indirectly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, A. Field, J. E.; Benedetti, L. R.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Knauer, J.

    2014-11-15

    In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of the x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.

  3. X-ray emission from the supernova remnant G287.8-0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    The GSFC Cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO-8 observed a weak galactic X-ray source near theta 2 at 288 deg, b2 at -1 deg. The spectrum for this source between 2-20 keV is well represented by a thermal spectrum of kT = 7.34(+3.6), sub -2.6 keV with an intense iron emission line centered at 6.5 + or - .2 keV. The error box of the Uhuru source 4U1043-59, the only known X-ray source in our field of view, contains the radio supernova remnant G287.8-0.5. The possible association of the X-ray source with this supernova remnant is discussed.

  4. X-Ray Emission from Massive Stars in Cyg OB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.; Nazé, Y.; Wright, N. J.; Drake, J. J.; Guarcello, M. G.; Prinja, R. K.; Peck, L. W.; Albacete Colombo, J. F.; Herrero, A.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Sciortino, S.; Vink, J. S.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources, the epoch dependence of the X-ray fluxes is investigated. The O-stars in Cyg OB2 follow a well-defined scaling relation between their X-ray and bolometric luminosities: {log}\\\\frac{{L}{{X}}}{{L}{bol}}=-7.2+/- 0.2. This relation is in excellent agreement with the one previously derived for the Carina OB1 association. Except for the brightest O-star binaries, there is no general X-ray overluminosity due to colliding winds in O-star binaries. Roughly half of the known B-stars in the surveyed field are detected, but they fail to display a clear relationship between LX and Lbol. Out of the three WR stars in Cyg OB2, probably only WR 144 is itself responsible for the observed level of X-ray emission, at a very low {log}\\\\frac{{L}{{X}}}{{L}{bol}}=-8.8+/- 0.2. The X-ray emission of the other two WR-stars (WR 145 and 146) is most probably due to their O-type companion along with a moderate contribution from a wind–wind interaction zone.

  5. Comparative study of ion, x-ray and neutron emission in a low energy plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaullah, M.; Akhtar, Ijaz; Waheed, A.; Alamgir, Khalid; Shah, Anwar Z.; Murtaza, G.

    1998-05-01

    In a low energy (2.3 kJ) Mather-type deuterium plasma focus, neutron and x-ray emission is investigated by time integrated and time resolved detectors. CR-39 nuclear track ion detectors are employed for measuring charged particle angular distribution. Correlation of charged particles with neutron and x-ray emission is also investigated. The neutron emission profile is found to be composed of two pulses, the intensity and anisotropy of which vary with the filling pressure. The charged particle flux is maximum with high fluence anisotropy for the pressure range 2.5-3.0 mbar which is also the optimum pressure for high neutron emission with low fluence anisotropy 0963-0252/7/2/015/img9. The high neutron emission with low fluence anisotropy is attributed to the presence of trapped deuterons in an anomalous magnetic field. The relevant pressure range generates favourable conditions for plasma density and pinch filament diameter. X-ray emission is generally high at low pressure. For the pressure range of 2.5-4.0 mbar, the axial neutron detector registers a hard x-ray pulse, which may escape through a half inch thick Cu flange. These results suggest that at low pressures, the collapsing current sheath interacts with the anode end and causes intense low energy 0963-0252/7/2/015/img10 x-ray emission, but the neutron emission remains low. X-rays are dominantly Cu 0963-0252/7/2/015/img11. In the narrow pressure regime 2.5-3.0 mbar, the current sheath forms a pinch filament leading to high neutron yield with low fluence anisotropy.

  6. X-Ray Emission from a Simulated Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, John C.; Katz, Neal; Bertschinger, Edmund

    1994-03-01

    Using the 1993 cluster simulation of Katz & White, we analyze the intracluster medium and investigate the accuracy of the standard hydrostatic method for determining cluster masses. We show that the simulated cluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with a subsonic flow toward the center. Inside a radius of ˜100 kpc, this flow is in a steady state. The cooling time is shorter than a Hubble time within the central 50 kpc. The flow rate is regulated by the gas sink in the middle of the cluster and the PdV work done as the gas flows in, verifying the standard cooling flow scenario. We simulate observations of the cluster using the instrument parameters of the EXOSAT ME detector and the Einstein IPC detector. Even though the intracluster gas is not isothermal, isothermal models of the cluster, excluding regions within 100 kpc of galaxies, fit the EXOSAT X-ray spectra as well as they fit real clusters. The X-ray surface brightness distribution is similar to that of real clusters, again excluding the galaxies. We simulate the procedure used to determine the masses of real clusters. We use the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium together with the temperature derived from an isothermal fit to the simulated EXOSAT spectrum and the density profile derived from a fit to the simulated IPC surface brightness profile to determine the mass. A comparison of the derived mass profile to the actual mass profile shows that errors of a factor of 2 are possible. If the actual temperature profile is used, the cluster mass is found to an accuracy of better than 25% within the virial radius.

  7. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2009-12-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  8. CHANDRA REVEALS VARIABLE MULTI-COMPONENT X-RAY EMISSION FROM FU ORIONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Guedel, Manuel; Briggs, Kevin R.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

    2010-10-20

    FU Orionis is the prototype of a class of eruptive young stars ('FUors') characterized by strong optical outbursts. We recently completed an exploratory survey of FUors using XMM-Newton to determine their X-ray properties, about which little was previously known. The prototype FU Ori and V1735 Cyg were detected. The X-ray spectrum of FU Ori was found to be unusual, consisting of a cool moderately absorbed component plus a hotter component viewed through an absorption column density that is an order of magnitude higher. We present here a sensitive (99 ks) follow-up X-ray observation of FU Ori obtained at higher angular resolution with Chandra ACIS-S. The unusual multi-component spectrum is confirmed. The hot component is centered on FU Ori and dominates the emission above 2 keV. It is variable (a signature of magnetic activity) and is probably coronal emission originating close to FU Ori's surface viewed through cool gas in FU Ori's strong wind or accretion stream. In contrast, the X-ray centroid of the soft emission below 2 keV is offset 0.''20 to the southeast of FU Ori, toward the near-IR companion (FU Ori S). This offset amounts to slightly less than half the separation between the two stars. The most likely explanation for the offset is that the companion contributes significantly to the softer X-ray emission below 2 keV (and weakly above 2 keV). The superimposed X-ray contributions from FU Ori and the companion resolve the paradox posed by XMM-Newton of an apparently single X-ray source viewed through two different absorption columns.

  9. Observation and Modeling of Geocoronal Charge Exchange X-Ray Emission during Solar Wind Gusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wargelin, B. J.; Kornbleuth, M.; Martin, P. L.; Juda, M.

    2014-11-01

    Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O7 + collide with neutral gas, including the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere (exosphere or geocorona) and hydrogen and helium from the local interstellar medium drifting through the heliosphere. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises a significant and varying fraction of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) and is seen in every X-ray observation, with the intensity dependent on solar wind conditions and observation geometry. Under the right conditions, geocoronal emission can increase the apparent SXRB by roughly an order of magnitude for an hour or more. In this work, we study a dozen occasions when the near-Earth solar wind flux was exceptionally high. These gusts of wind lead to abrupt changes in SWCX X-ray emission around Earth, which may or may not be seen by X-ray observatories depending on their line of sight. Using detailed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and element abundances and ionization states measured by ACE, we model the time-dependent brightness of major geocoronal SWCX emission lines during those gusts and compare with changes in the X-ray background measured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find reasonably good agreement between model and observation, with measured geocoronal line brightnesses averaged over 1 hr of up to 136 photons s-1 cm-2 sr-1 in the O VII K? triplet around 564 eV.

  10. Observation and modeling of geocoronal charge exchange X-ray emission during solar wind gusts

    SciTech Connect

    Wargelin, B. J.; Kornbleuth, M.; Juda, M.; Martin, P. L.

    2014-11-20

    Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O{sup 7{sup +}} collide with neutral gas, including the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere (exosphere or geocorona) and hydrogen and helium from the local interstellar medium drifting through the heliosphere. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises a significant and varying fraction of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) and is seen in every X-ray observation, with the intensity dependent on solar wind conditions and observation geometry. Under the right conditions, geocoronal emission can increase the apparent SXRB by roughly an order of magnitude for an hour or more. In this work, we study a dozen occasions when the near-Earth solar wind flux was exceptionally high. These gusts of wind lead to abrupt changes in SWCX X-ray emission around Earth, which may or may not be seen by X-ray observatories depending on their line of sight. Using detailed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and element abundances and ionization states measured by ACE, we model the time-dependent brightness of major geocoronal SWCX emission lines during those gusts and compare with changes in the X-ray background measured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find reasonably good agreement between model and observation, with measured geocoronal line brightnesses averaged over 1 hr of up to 136 photons s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} sr{sup –1} in the O VII K? triplet around 564 eV.

  11. The Low Quiescent X-Ray Luminosity of the Neutron Star Transient XTE J2123-058

    E-print Network

    John A. Tomsick; Dawn M. Gelino; Jules P. Halpern; Philip Kaaret

    2004-04-14

    We report on the first X-ray observations of the neutron star soft X-ray transient (SXT) XTE J2123-058 in quiescence, made by Chandra and BeppoSAX, as well as contemporaneous optical observations. In 2002, the Chandra spectrum of XTE J2123-058 is consistent with a power-law model, or the combination of a blackbody plus a power-law, but it is not well-described by a pure blackbody. Using the interstellar column density, the power-law fit gives photon index of 3.1 (+0.7,-0.6) and indicates a 0.3-8 keV unabsorbed luminosity of 9(+4,-3)E31 (d/8.5 kpc)^2 ergs/s (90% confidence errors). Fits with models consisting of thermal plus power-law components indicate that the upper limit on the temperature of a 1.4 solar mass, 10 km radius neutron star with a hydrogen atmosphere is kT_eff ~ 70 years.

  12. Technique to obtain positron emission mammography images in registration with x-ray mammograms

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Chris

    Technique to obtain positron emission mammography images in registration with x-ray mammograms, Canada Antoine Loutfi, Robert Lisbona, and Jean Gagnon Royal Victoria Hospital, 687 Pine Avenue, Montreal of suspicious lesions or tumors. Our PEM-1 positron emission mammography system detects metabolic activity

  13. Survey on Solar X-ray Flares and Associated Coherent Radio Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Arnold O.; Grigis, Paolo C.; Csillaghy, André; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    The radio emission during 201 selected X-ray solar flares was surveyed from 100 MHz to 4 GHz with the Phoenix-2 spectrometer of ETH Zürich. The selection includes all RHESSI flares larger than C5.0 jointly observed from launch until June 30, 2003. Detailed association rates of radio emission during X-ray flares are reported. In the decimeter wavelength range, type III bursts and the genuinely decimetric emissions (pulsations, continua, and narrowband spikes) were found equally frequently. Both occur predominantly in the peak phase of hard X-ray (HXR) emission, but are less in tune with HXRs than the high-frequency continuum exceeding 4 GHz, attributed to gyrosynchrotron radiation. In 10% of the HXR flares, an intense radiation of the above genuine decimetric types followed in the decay phase or later. Classic meter-wave type III bursts are associated in 33% of all HXR flares, but only in 4% are they the exclusive radio emission. Noise storms were the only radio emission in 5% of the HXR flares, some of them with extended duration. Despite the spatial association (same active region), the noise storm variations are found to be only loosely correlated in time with the X-ray flux. In a surprising 17% of the HXR flares, no coherent radio emission was found in the extremely broad band surveyed. The association but loose correlation between HXR and coherent radio emission is interpreted by multiple reconnection sites connected by common field lines.

  14. Two distinct phases of hard x-ray emissions in a solar eruptive flare

    E-print Network

    Joshi, Bhuwan; Cho, K -S; Bong, S -C; Moon, Y -J; Lee, Jeongwoo; Somov, B V; Manoharan, P K; Kim, Y -H

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the evolution of an M7.6 flare that occurred near the south-east limb on October 24, 2003 utilizing a multi-wavelength data set. Preflare images at TRACE 195 A show that the bright and complex system of coronal loops already existed at the flaring site. The X-ray light curves clearly reveal two phases of flare evolution. The emission during the first phase is seen in GOES and RHESSI measurements at energies below 25 keV, while the second phase is evident in all the X-ray energies as high as 300 keV. The first phase is gradual whereas the second phase shows impulsive emission with several individual hard X-ray bursts. The first phase starts with the appearance of an X-ray loop-top (LT) source in RHESSI images below 25 keV. About 5 minute later, the TRACE 195 A images show an intense emission that is cospatial with RHESSI LT source. This hot and diffuse TRACE emission is attributed to the existence of 15-20 MK plasma, heated directly from the primary energy source. Both X-ray a...

  15. X-RAY EMISSION FROM SN 2004dj: A TALE OF TWO SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Smith, Randall; Chandra, Poonam; Pooley, David

    2012-12-20

    Type IIP (Plateau) supernovae are the most commonly observed variety of core-collapse events. They have been detected in a wide range of wavelengths from radio, through optical to X-rays. The standard picture of a Type IIP supernova has the blastwave interacting with the progenitor's circumstellar matter to produce a hot region bounded by a forward and a reverse shock. This region is thought to be responsible for most of the X-ray and radio emission from these objects. Yet the origin of X-rays from these supernovae is not well understood quantitatively. The relative contributions of particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification in generating the X-ray and radio emission need to be determined. In this work, we analyze archival Chandra observations of SN 2004dj, one of the nearest supernovae since SN 1987A, along with published radio and optical information. We determine the pre-explosion mass-loss rate, blastwave velocity, electron acceleration, and magnetic field amplification efficiencies. We find that a greater fraction of the thermal energy goes into accelerating electrons than into amplifying magnetic fields. We conclude that the X-ray emission arises out of a combination of inverse Compton scattering by non-thermal electrons accelerated in the forward shock and thermal emission from supernova ejecta heated by the reverse shock.

  16. Soft X-ray emission in kink-unstable coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, R. F.; Vilmer, N.; Brun, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. Kink-unstable twisted flux-ropes provide a source of magnetic energy that can be released impulsively and may account for the heating of the plasma in flares. Aims: We investigate the temporal, spectral, and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal continuum X-ray emission produced in such kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes and discuss the results of the simulations with respect to solar flare observations. Methods: We computed the temporal evolution of the thermal X-ray emission in kink-unstable coronal loops based on a series of magnetohydrodynamical numerical simulations. The numerical setup consisted of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. We let the kink instability develop, computed the evolution of the plasma properties in the loop (density, temperature) without accounting for mass exchange with the chromosphere. We then deduced the X-ray emission properties of the plasma during the whole flaring episode. Results: During the initial (linear) phase of the instability, plasma heating is mostly adiabatic (as a result of compression). Ohmic diffusion takes over as the instability saturates, leading to strong and impulsive heating (up to more than 20 MK), to a quick enhancement of X-ray emission, and to the hardening of the thermal X-ray spectrum. The temperature distribution of the plasma becomes broad, with the emission measure depending strongly on temperature. Significant emission measures arise for plasma at temperatures higher than 9 MK. The magnetic flux-rope then relaxes progressively towards a lower energy state as it reconnects with the background flux. The loop plasma suffers smaller sporadic heating events, but cools down globally by thermal conduction. The total thermal X-ray emission slowly fades away during this phase, and the high-temperature component of the emission measure distribution converges to the power-law distribution EM ? T-4.2. The twist deduced directly from the X-ray emission patterns is considerably lower than the highest magnetic twist in the simulated flux-ropes. Movies associated to Figs. 4 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Resonant soft x-ray inelastic scattering and soft x-ray emission study of the electronic structure of ?-MoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Learmonth, T.; McGuinness, C.; Glans, P.-A.; Kennedy, B.; St. John, J.; Guo, J.-H.; Greenblatt, M.; Smith, K. E.

    2009-01-01

    The electronic structure of quasi-low-dimensional solids is a topic of enduring interest due to the complex many-body interactions that exist in such materials and their resulting exotic physical properties. A well studied class of such materials is the quasi-low-dimensional metals known collectively as molybdenum oxide bronzes. These materials are all derived from the band insulator ?-MoO3 . We report here a study of the electronic structure of ?-MoO3 using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. We observe significant variation in x-ray scattering as a function of the relative orientation of the polarization vector of the incident light and the crystal axes. We interpret our data using a model of k -selective soft x-ray scattering.

  18. Inverse Compton X-ray emission from the superluminal quasar 3C 345

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, S. C.; Wehrle, A. E.; Urry, C. M.; Gilmore, D. M.; Barton, E. J.; Kjerulf, B. C.; Zensus, J. A.; Rabaca, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    In quasars with strong radio cores, the inverse-Compton process is believed to be the dominant source X-ray emission. For objects with parsec-scale radio jets, simple models have predicted that components in the jet emerging from the quasar nucleus generate the observed X-ray emission. We have tested this hypothesis in detail for the quasar 3C 345 using a ROSAT X-ray observation in 1990 July, together with quasi-simultaneous very long base interferometry (VLBI) imaging of the parsec-scale jet at five frequencies. The ROSAT spectrum is well fitted by a power law with index alpha = -0.96 +/- -0.13, consistent with models in which the X-ray emission results from inverse-Compton scattering of radio radiation from high-energy electrons in compact components. We show that the radio properties of brightest `knot' in the jet (`C5') can be fitted with a homogeneous sphere model whose parameters require bulk relativistic motion of the emitting material; otherwise the predicted model whose parameters require bulk relativistic motion of the emitting material; otherwise the predicted inverse-Compton X-ray emission exceeds the observed flux. If C5 is the origin of the X-ray emission, then it has a Doppler factor delta = 7.5((sup +3 sub -2)). If the nucleus or other components contribute to the X-ray emission, then this becomes a firm lower limit to delta. The inhomogeneous jet model of Koenigl is a good fit both to the barely resolved (less than 1 pc) flat-spectrum nucleus in the radio, and also to the ROSAT X-ray spectrum. The synchrotron and inverse-Compton emitting fluid moves down a narrow cone (opening angle 2 phi approximately 5 deg) nucleus relativistically, with delta approximately 4.6. Doppler factors for the nucleus and C5, derived from our ROSAT observation, provide evidence for bulk relativistic motion in the jet. By combining these constraints with well-known superluminal motion of jet components, we can deduce geometry. For epoch 1990.5 we infer the Lorentz factor gamma = 7.5 ((sup +1.0 sub -1.5)) and angle to the line of sight theta = 8((sup +2 deg sub -3 deg)) for H(sub 0) = 100 km/s/Mpc. These values are the most reliable yet derived using this method, because of the near-simultaneity of our X-ray and VLBI observations and the quality of the multifrequency of VLBI images and component radio spectra.

  19. X-RAY EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES DURING AN ENERGETIC THERMONUCLEAR X-RAY BURST FROM IGR J17062-6143

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Fabian, A. C.

    2013-04-20

    Type-I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions occurring in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. These events are powerful probes of the physics of neutron stars and their surrounding accretion flow. We analyze a very energetic type-I X-ray burst from the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143 that was detected with Swift on 2012 June 25. The light curve of the {approx_equal}18 minute long X-ray burst tail shows an episode of {approx_equal}10 minutes during which the intensity is strongly fluctuating by a factor of {approx_equal}3 above and below the underlying decay trend on a timescale of seconds. The X-ray spectrum reveals a highly significant emission line around {approx_equal}1 keV, which can be interpreted as an Fe-L shell line caused by the irradiation of cold gas. We also detect significant absorption lines and edges in the Fe-K band, which are strongly suggestive of the presence of hot, highly ionized gas along the line of sight. None of these features are present in the persistent X-ray spectrum of the source. The timescale of the strong intensity variations, the velocity width of the Fe-L emission line (assuming Keplerian motion), and photoionization modeling of the Fe-K absorption features each independently point to gas at a radius of {approx_equal} 10{sup 3} km as the source of these features. The unusual X-ray light curve and spectral properties could have plausibly been caused by a disruption of the accretion disk due to the super-Eddington fluxes reached during the X-ray burst.

  20. REBIRTH OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BORN-AGAIN PLANETARY NEBULA A30

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero, M. A.; Ruiz, N.; Toala, J. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Schoenberner, D.; Steffen, M.; Blair, W. P.

    2012-08-20

    The planetary nebula A30 is believed to have undergone a very late thermal pulse resulting in the ejection of knots of hydrogen-poor material. Using multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope images, we have detected the angular expansion of these knots and derived an age of 850{sup +280}{sub -150} yr. To investigate the spectral and spatial properties of the soft X-ray emission detected by ROSAT, we have obtained Chandra and XMM-Newton deep observations of A30. The X-ray emission from A30 can be separated into two components: a point source at the central star and diffuse emission associated with the hydrogen-poor knots and the cloverleaf structure inside the nebular shell. To help us assess the role of the current stellar wind in powering this X-ray emission, we have determined the stellar parameters and wind properties of the central star of A30 using a non-LTE model fit to its optical and UV spectra. The spatial distribution and spectral properties of the diffuse X-ray emission are highly suggestive that it is generated by the post-born-again and present fast stellar winds interacting with the hydrogen-poor ejecta of the born-again event. This emission can be attributed to shock-heated plasma, as the hydrogen-poor knots are ablated by the stellar winds, under which circumstances the efficient mass loading of the present fast stellar wind raises its density and damps its velocity to produce the observed diffuse soft X-rays. Charge transfer reactions between the ions of the stellar winds and material of the born-again ejecta have also been considered as a possible mechanism for the production of diffuse X-ray emission, and upper limits on the expected X-ray production by this mechanism have been derived. The origin of the X-ray emission from the central star of A30 is puzzling: shocks in the present fast stellar wind and photospheric emission can be ruled out, while the development of a new, compact hot bubble confining the fast stellar wind seems implausible.

  1. DISCOVERY OF EXTENDED X-RAY EMISSION AROUND THE HIGHLY MAGNETIC RRAT J1819-1458

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, N.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Slane, P. O.; Stella, L.; Israel, G. L.; Reynolds, S. P.; Burgay, M.; Possenti, A.; Chatterjee, S.

    2009-09-20

    We report on the discovery of extended X-ray emission around the high magnetic field rotating radio transient J1819-1458. Using a 30 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation, we found significant evidence for extended X-ray emission with a peculiar shape: a compact region out to {approx}5.''5, and more diffuse emission extending out to {approx}13'' from the source. The most plausible interpretation is a nebula somehow powered by the pulsar, although the small number of counts prevents a conclusive answer on the nature of this emission. RRAT J1819-1458's spin-down energy loss rate (E-dot{sub rot}{approx}3 x 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}) is much lower than that of other pulsars with observed spin-down-powered pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), and implies a rather high X-ray efficiency of eta{sub X}ident toL{sub pwn:0.5-8keV}/E-dot{sub rot}{approx}0.2 at converting spin-down power into the PWN X-ray emission. This suggests the need of an additional source of energy rather than the spin-down power alone, such as the high magnetic energy of this source. Furthermore, this Chandra observation allowed us to refine the positional accuracy of RRAT J1819-1458 to a radius of {approx}0.''3, and confirms the presence of X-ray pulsations and the {approx}1 keV absorption line, previously observed in the X-ray emission of this source.

  2. A Combined Optical and X-ray Study of Unobscured Type 1 AGN. II. Relation Between X-ray Emission and Optical Spectra

    E-print Network

    Jin, C; Done, C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the properties of the optical spectra of Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by using the unobscured hard X-ray emission as a diagnostic. We develop the `Correlation Spectrum Technique' (CST) and use this to show the strength of correlation between the hard X-ray luminosity and each wavelength of the optical spectrum. This shows that for Broad Line Seyfert 1s all the strong emission lines (broad component of H\\alpha and H\\beta, [NeIII] \\lambda\\lambda 3869/3967, [OI] \\lambda\\lambda 6300/6364, [OII] \\lambda\\lambda 3726/3729, [OIII] \\lambda\\lambda 4959/5007) and the optical underlying continuum all strongly correlate with the hard X-ray emission. But the NLS1s appear to be somewhat different. Among the various Balmer line components and the broadband SED components, the best correlation exists between the hard X-ray component and broad component (BC) of the Balmer lines, which supports the view that broad line region (BLR) has the closest link with the AGN's compact X-ray emission. The eq...

  3. New Chandra observations of the jet in 3C273. 1. Softer X-ray than radio spectra and the X-ray emission mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, Sebastian; Harris, D.E.; Marshall, H.L.; Meisenheimer, K.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.

    2006-05-01

    The jet in 3C273 is a high-power quasar jet with radio, optical and X-ray emission whose size and brightness allow a detailed study of the emission processes acting in it. We present deep Chandra observations of this jet and analyze the spectral properties of the jet emission from radio through X-rays. We find that the X-ray spectra are significantly softer than the radio spectra in all regions of the bright part of the jet except for the first bright ''knot A'', ruling out a model in which the X-ray emission from the entire jet arises from beamed inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons in a single-zone jet flow. Within two-zone jet models, we find that a synchrotron origin for the jet's X-rays requires fewer additional assumptions than an inverse-Compton model, especially if velocity shear leads to efficient particle acceleration in jet flows.

  4. Crushing of interstellar gas clouds in supernova remnants II. X-ray emission

    E-print Network

    S. Orlando; F. Bocchino; G. Peres; F. Reale; T. Plewa; R. Rosner

    2006-07-12

    AIMS. We study and discuss the time-dependent X-ray emission predicted by hydrodynamic modeling of the interaction of a SNR shock wave with an interstellar gas cloud. The scope includes: 1) to study the correspondence between modeled and X-ray emitting structures, 2) to explore two different physical regimes in which either thermal conduction or radiative cooling plays a dominant role, and 3) to investigate the effects of the physical processes at work on the emission of the shocked cloud in the two different regimes. METHODS. We use a detailed hydrodynamic model, including thermal conduction and radiation, and explore two cases characterized by different Mach numbers of the primary shock: M = 30 in which the cloud dynamics is dominated by radiative cooling and M = 50 dominated by thermal conduction. From the simulations, we synthesize the expected X-ray emission, using available spectral codes. RESULTS. The morphology of the X-ray emitting structures is significantly different from that of the flow structures originating from the shock-cloud interaction. The hydrodynamic instabilities are never clearly visible in the X-ray band. Shocked clouds are preferentially visible during the early phases of their evolution. Thermal conduction and radiative cooling lead to two different phases of the shocked cloud: a cold cooling dominated core emitting at low energies and a hot thermally conducting corona emitting in the X-ray band. The thermal conduction makes the X-ray image of the cloud smaller, more diffuse, and shorter-lived than that observed when thermal conduction is neglected.

  5. X-Ray Emission from the Wolf-Rayet Bubble S 308

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toala, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R. A.; Arthur, S. J.; Smith, R. C.; Snowden, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    The Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubble S 308 around the WR star HD 50896 is one of the only two WR bubbles known to possess X-ray emission. We present XMM-Newton observations of three fields of this WR bubble that, in conjunction with an existing observation of its Northwest quadrant (Chu et al. 2003), map most of the nebula. The X-ray emission from S 308 displays a limb-brightened morphology, with a 22' in size central cavity and a shell thickness of approx. 8'. This X-ray shell is confined by the optical shell of ionized material. The spectrum is dominated by the He-like triplets of N VI at approx.0.43 keV and O VII at approx.0.5 keV, and declines towards high energies, with a faint tail up to 1 keV. This spectrum can be described by a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model (T1 approx.1.1 x 10(exp 6) K, T2 approx.13 x 10(exp 6) K), with a total X-ray luminosity approx.3 x 10(exp 33) erg/s at the assumed distance of 1.8 kpc. Qualitative comparison of the X-ray morphology of S 308 with the results of numerical simulations of wind-blown WR bubbles suggests a progenitor mass of 40 Stellar mass and an age in the WR phase approx.20,000 yrs. The X-ray luminosity predicted by simulatioms including the effects of heat conduction is in agreement with the observations, however, the simulated X-ray spectrum indicates generally hotter gas than is derived from the observations. We suggest that non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) may provide an explanation for this discrepancy.

  6. X-RAY INSIGHTS INTO THE NATURE OF WEAK EMISSION-LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Shemmer, Ohad; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Anderson, Scott F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    We present Chandra observations of nine high-redshift quasars (z = 2.7-5.9) discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their UV spectra (WLQs). Adding archival X-ray observations of six additional sources of this class has enabled us to place the strongest constraints yet on the X-ray properties of this remarkable class of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Although our data cannot rule out the possibility that the emission lines are overwhelmed by a relativistically boosted continuum, as manifested by BL Lac objects, we find that WLQs are considerably weaker in the X-ray and radio bands than the majority of BL Lacs found at much lower redshifts. If WLQs are high-redshift BL Lacs, then it is difficult to explain the lack of a large parent population of X-ray and radio bright weak-lined sources at high redshift. We also consider the possibility that WLQs are quasars with extreme properties, and in particular that the emission lines are suppressed by high accretion rates. Using joint spectral fitting of the X-ray spectra of 11 WLQs, we find that the mean photon index in the hard X-ray band is consistent with those observed in typical radio-quiet AGNs with no hint of an unusually steep hard-X-ray spectrum. This result poses a challenge to the hypothesis that WLQs have extremely high accretion rates, and we discuss additional observations required to test this idea.

  7. The quiescent emission of the first low-B soft gamma repeater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Nanda

    2013-10-01

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are part of a rapidly increasing group of X-ray sources exhibiting sporadic and powerful emission of short bursts and outbursts, believed to be magnetars, i.e. neutron stars powered by extreme magnetic fields (Bsim10(14}-10({15)) G). We have recently discovered the first SGR with a low magnetic field (Rea et al. 2010, Science, 330, 944; Rea et al. 2013, ApJ 770, 65), SGR 0418+5729 discovered in outburst after it emitted bursts similar to those of magnetars. We ask for a 120,ks XMM observation to measure SGR 0418+5729 's quiescent flux and surface temperature, crucial for tuning the magnetar model as well as predict how many "hidden" magnetars there might be within the pulsar population (abridged).

  8. X-ray Emission from the Taffy (VV254) Galaxies and Bridge

    E-print Network

    Appleton, Philip; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Wang, Junfeng; Peterson, Bradley; Lisenfeld, Ute; Alatalo, Katherine; Guillard, Pierre; Boulanger, Francois; Cluver, Michelle; Gao, Yu; Helou, George; Ogle, Patrick; Struck, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    We present the first X-ray observations of the Taffy galaxies (UGC 12914/5) with the Chandra observatory, and detect soft X-ray emission in the region of the gas-rich, radio-continuum-emitting Taffy bridge. The results are compared to Herschel observations of dust and diffuse [CII] line-emitting gas. The diffuse component of the Taffy bridge has an X-ray luminosity of L(X) (0.5-8keV) =5.4 x 10^39 erg s^-1, which accounts for 19% of the luminosity of the sum for the two galaxies. The total mass in hot gas is (0.8--1.3) x 10^8 M_sun, which is approximately 1% of the total (HI~+~H2) gas mass in the bridge, and ~11% of the mass of warm molecular hydrogen discovered by Spitzer. The soft X-ray and dense CO-emitting gas in the bridge have offset distributions, with the X-rays peaking along the north-western side of the bridge in the region where stronger far-IR dust and diffuse [CII] gas is observed by Herschel. We detect nine Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the system, the brightest of which is found in the ...

  9. Field-emission-type x-ray source using carbon-nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Ogawa, A.; Ogura, K.; Sakai, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Isokane, Y.; Okuyama, F.; Nakazato, T.; Otsuka, T.

    2008-03-15

    An x-ray irradiation system of field-emission type has been constructed using carbon-nanofibers (CNFs) grown on a palladium wire that is 50 {mu}m in diameter. The electron current emitted from the CNFs was approximately 1 mA and was stable within 10% for a long time t>5000 h. The electrons passing through a slit in the gate electrode were accelerated to the desired energy, and were made to impinge on the metal target (Ti, Cu, Mo, and W) for generating x rays. The x-rays transmitted through Be-window were characterized using energy analyzers and a dosimeter. At an acceleration voltage of V{sub a}=50 kV, the energy spectra of the x-rays were exclusively composed of characteristic signals except for the Mo-target, and the dose rates of x-rays were D=2.5-14 Gy/min, depending on the target metals. This system also provides sharp x-ray images of both biological and nonbiological materials.

  10. Ultraviolet/X-ray Variability and the Extended X-ray Emission of the Radio-loud Broad Absorption Line Quasar PG 1004+130

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Miller, B. P.; Luo, B.; Gallagher, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of recent Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Hubble Space Telescope observations of the radio-loud (RL), broad absorption line (BAL) quasar PG 1004+130. We compare our new observations to archival X-ray and UV data, creating the most comprehensive, high signal-to-noise, multi-epoch, spectral monitoring campaign of a RL BAL quasar to date. We probe for variability of the X-ray absorption, the UV BAL, and the X-ray jet, on month-year timescales. The X-ray absorber has a low column density of {N}H=8× {10}20-4× {10}21 {{cm}}-2 when it is assumed to be fully covering the X-ray emitting region, and its properties do not vary significantly between the four observations. This suggests that the observed absorption is not related to the typical “shielding gas” commonly invoked in BAL quasar models, but is likely due to material further from the central black hole. In contrast, the C iv BAL shows strong variability. The equivalent width (EW) in 2014 is {EW}=11.24+/- 0.56 \\AA, showing a fractional increase of ? {EW}/< {EW}> =1.16+/- 0.11 from the 2003 observation, 3183 days earlier in the rest-frame. This places PG 1004+130 among the most highly variable BAL quasars. By combining Chandra observations we create an exposure that is 2.5 times deeper than studied previously, with which to investigate the nature of the X-ray jet and extended diffuse X-ray emission. An X-ray knot, likely with a synchrotron origin, is detected in the radio jet ˜ 8\\prime\\prime (30 kpc) from the central X-ray source with a spatial extent of ˜ 4\\prime\\prime (15 kpc). No similar X-ray counterpart to the counterjet is detected. Asymmetric, non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission, likely due to inverse Compton scattering of Cosmic Microwave Background photons, is also detected.

  11. MODELING THE THERMAL DIFFUSE SOFT AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN M17

    SciTech Connect

    Velazquez, P. F.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Esquivel, A.; Rosado, M.; Reyes-Iturbide, J. E-mail: ary@nucleares.unam.mx E-mail: margarit@astro.unam.mx

    2013-04-10

    We present numerical models of very young wind driven superbubbles. The parameters chosen for the simulations correspond to the particular case of the M17 nebula, but are appropriate for any young superbubble in which the wind sources have not completely dispersed their parental cloud. From the simulations, we computed the diffuse emission in the soft ([0.5-1.5] keV) and hard ([1.5-5] keV) X-ray bands. The total luminosity in our simulations agrees with the observations of Hyodo et al., about two orders of magnitude below the prediction of the standard model of Weaver et al.. The difference with respect to the standard (adiabatic) model is the inclusion of radiative cooling, which is still important in such young bubbles. We show that for this type of object the diffuse hard X-ray luminosity is significant compared to that of soft X-rays, contributing as much as 10% of the total luminosity, in contrast with more evolved bubbles where the hard X-ray emission is indeed negligible, being at least four orders of magnitude lower than the soft X-ray emission.

  12. Hard X-Ray Emission and the Ionizing Source in LINERs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Ho, Luis C.; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2000-01-01

    We report X-ray fluxes in the 2-10 keV band from LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) and low-luminosity Seyfert galaxies obtained with the ASCA satellite. Observed X-ray luminosities are in the range between 4 x 10(exp 39) and 5 x 10(exp 41) ergs/s, which are significantly smaller than that of the "classical" low-luminosity Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051. We found that X-ray luminosities in 2-10 keV of LINERs with broad H.alpha emission in their optical spectra (LINER 1s) are proportional to their Ha luminosities. This correlation strongly supports the hypothesis that the dominant ionizing source in LINER 1s is photoionization by hard photons from low-luminosity AGNs. On the other hand, the X-ray luminosities of most LINERs without broad H.alpha emission (LINER 2s) in our sample are lower than LINER 1s at a given H.alpha luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities in these objects are insufficient to power their H.alpha luminosities, suggesting that their primary ionizing source is other than an AGN, or that an AGN, if present, is obscured even at energies above 2 keV.

  13. [C II] emission from galactic nuclei in the presence of X-rays

    E-print Network

    Langer, William D

    2015-01-01

    The luminosity of [C II] is used to probe the star formation rate in galaxies, but the correlation breaks down in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Models of the [C II] emission from galactic nuclei do not include the influence of X-rays on the carbon ionization balance, which may be a factor in reducing the [C II] luminosity. We calculate the [C II] luminosity in galactic nuclei under the influence of bright sources of X-rays. We solve the balance equation of the ionization states of carbon as a function of X-ray flux, electron, atomic hydrogen, and molecular hydrogen density. These are input to models of [CII] emission from the interstellar medium (ISM) in galactic nuclei. We also solve the distribution of the ionization states of oxygen and nitrogen in highly ionized regions. We find that the dense warm ionized medium (WIM) and dense photon dominated regions (PDRs) dominate the [C II] emission when no X-rays are present. The X-rays in galactic nuclei can affect strongly the C$^+$ abundance in the WIM con...

  14. Long-term X-ray studies of Sco X-1. [emission spectra of constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    No modulation of the 3-6 keV X-ray intensity of Sco X-1 at a level of excess of 1% was observed at the optical period of .787313d. Evidence is found for shot-noise character in a large fraction of the X-ray emission. Almost all of the Sco X-1 emission can be synthesized in terms of approximately 200 shots per day, each with a duration of approximately 1/3 day. A pinhole camera was used to obtain data and the data were statistically analyzed.

  15. Nanop: An x-ray to gold nanoparticle electron and photon emission software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casta, R.; Champeaux, J.-P.; Sence, M.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cafarelli, P.

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored as radiosensitizers for cancer radiotherapy. While the nanoparticle radiotherapy improvement has been clearly observed, there is still a debate over the physical and biological mechanisms leading to this result. In particular, the role of electrons and photons emitted by nanoparticle after x-ray absorption is not well understood and their energies are not well known. Therefore, we developed in this paper a new model to determine the electron and photon emission spectra of nanoparticles irradiated by x-ray photons. This model is implemented, for a gold nanoparticle, in a newly available software called Nanop which allows anyone to determine gold nanoparticle photon and electron emissions.

  16. Band Structure of ZnO from Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, A.; Ruck, B; Piper, L; DeMasi, A; Smith, K; Schleife, A; Fuchs, F; Bechstedt, F; Chai, J; Durbin, S

    2008-01-01

    Soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy of the O K-edge are employed to investigate the electronic structure of wurtzite ZnO(0001). A quasiparticle band structure calculated within the GW approximation agrees well with the data, most notably with the energetic location of the Zn 3d-O 2p hybridized state and the anisotropy of the absorption spectra. Dispersion in the band structure is mapped using the coherent k-selective part of the resonant x-ray emission spectra. We show that a more extensive mapping of the bands is possible in the case of crystalline anisotropy such as that found in ZnO.

  17. Study of X-ray emission from the old open cluster, M67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooley, K. P.; Singh, K. P.

    2015-10-01

    We present an X-ray analysis of a 4 Gyr old open cluster, M67, using archival XMM-Newton data. The aim of this study was to find new X-ray members of M67, and to use the updated member list for studying X-ray variability, and derive the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of different stellar types and compare them with other star clusters of similar age. We report the detection of X-ray emission from 25 members of M67, with membership based primarily on their proper motion, of which one X-ray source is a new member. Supplementing this study with previous ROSAT and Chandra studies of M67, and using the most recent proper motion study by Vereshchagin et al., we have compiled a revised list of X-ray emitting members of M67 consisting of 43 stars. 16 of these are known RS CVn type binaries having orbital periods <10 d, and near-circular orbits, five are contact binaries with orbital periods <6 h, five are yellow and blue stragglers, two are Algol-type binaries, and one source is a cataclysmic variable. 14 members do not have any orbital information and cannot be classified. 14 of the X-ray sources detected do not have any optical counterpart down to a magnitude of V ? 22, and their membership is uncertain. Finally, we report the XLFs of RS CVn type and other types of stars in M67 and compare them with other open clusters of intermediate-to-old age.

  18. An X-Ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert. galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, and Ryde for the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubifiski, and Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum, and as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those which have been observed from these objects can, in principle, be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate which satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the heretofore poorly measured hard X-ray continuum above approximately 50 keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Conversely, forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray telescopes, such as those aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

  19. High-energy neutrino emission from x-ray binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, Hugo R.; Orellana, Mariana; Romero, Gustavo E.

    2006-03-15

    We show that high-energy neutrinos can be efficiently produced in X-ray binaries with relativistic jets and high-mass primary stars. We consider a system where the star presents a dense equatorial wind and the jet has a small content of relativistic protons. In this scenario, neutrinos and correlated gamma-rays result from pp interactions and the subsequent pion decays. As a particular example we consider the microquasar LS I +61 303. Above 1 TeV, we obtain a mean-orbital {nu}{sub {mu}}-luminosity of {approx}5 10{sup 34} erg/s which can be related to an event rate of 4-5 muon-type neutrinos per kilometer-squared per year after considering the signal attenuation due to maximal neutrino oscillations. The maximal neutrino energies here considered will range between 20 and 85 TeV along the orbit. The local infrared photon field is responsible for opacity effects on the associated gamma radiation at high energies, but below 50 GeV the source could be detected by MAGIC telescope. GLAST observations at E{sub {gamma}}>100 MeV should also reveal a strong source.

  20. High-energy neutrino emission from X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Hugo R. Christiansen; Mariana Orellana; Gustavo E. Romero

    2006-03-27

    We show that high-energy neutrinos can be efficiently produced in X-ray binaries with relativistic jets and high-mass primary stars. We consider a system where the star presents a dense equatorial wind and the jet has a small content of relativistic protons. In this scenario, neutrinos and correlated gamma-rays result from pp interactions and the subsequent pion decays. As a particular example we consider the microquasar LS I +61 303. Above 1 TeV, we obtain a mean-orbital neutrino muon induced luminosity of 5 10^34 erg/s which can be related to an event rate of 4-5 muon-type neutrinos per kilometer-squared per year after considering the signal attenuation due to maximal neutrino oscillations. The maximal neutrino energies here considered will range between 20 and 85 TeV along the orbit. The local infrared photon-field is responsible for opacity effects on the associated gamma radiation at high energies, but below 50 GeV the source could be detected by MAGIC telescope. GLAST observations at photon energies E>100 MeV should also reveal a strong source.

  1. X-ray emission from ? Carinae near periastron in 2009. I. A two-state solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Gull, Theodore R.; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas I.; Damineli, Augusto; Pittard, Julian M.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray emission from the supermassive binary system ? Car declines sharply around periastron. This X-ray minimum has two distinct phases—the lowest flux phase in the first ?3 weeks and a brighter phase thereafter. In 2009, the Chandra X-ray Observatory monitored the first phase five times and found the lowest observed flux at ?1.9 × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} (3-8 keV). The spectral shape changed such that the hard band above ?4 keV dropped quickly at the beginning and the soft band flux gradually decreased to its lowest observed value in ?2 weeks. The hard band spectrum had begun to recover by that time. This spectral variation suggests that the shocked gas producing the hottest X-ray gas near the apex of the wind-wind collision (WWC) is blocked behind the dense inner wind of the primary star, which later occults slightly cooler gas downstream. Shocked gas previously produced by the system at earlier orbital phases is suggested to produce the faint residual X-ray emission seen when the emission near the apex is completely blocked by the primary wind. The brighter phase is probably caused by the re-appearance of the WWC plasma, whose emissivity significantly declined during the occultation. We interpret this to mean that the X-ray minimum is produced by a hybrid mechanism of an occultation and a decline in the emissivity of the WWC shock. We constrain timings of superior conjunction and periastron based on these results.

  2. The optical emission lines of type 1 X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mura, G.; Berton, M.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.; Di Mille, F.; Rafanelli, P.

    2014-10-01

    A strong X-ray emission is one of the defining signatures of nuclear activity in galaxies. According to the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), both the X-ray radiation and the prominent broad emission lines, characterizing the optical and UV spectra of Type 1 AGNs, are originated in the innermost regions of the sources, close to the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH), which power the central engine. Since the emission is concentrated in a very compact region (with typical size r?0.1 pc) and it is not possible to obtain resolved images of the source, spectroscopic studies of this radiation represent the only valuable key to constrain the physical properties of matter and its structure in the center of active galaxies. Based on previous studies on the physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) and on the X-ray spectra of broad (FWHMH? ? 2000 km s-1) and narrow line (1000 km s-1 ?FWHMH? ? 2000 km s-1) emitting objects, it has been observed that the kinematic and ionization properties of matter close to the SMBHs are related together, and, in particular, that ionization is higher in narrow line sources. Here we report on the study of the optical and X-ray spectra of a sample of Type 1 AGNs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, within an upper redshift limit of z=0.35, and detected at X-ray energies. We present analysis of the broad emission line fluxes and profiles, as well as the properties of the X-ray continuum and Fe K? emission and we use these parameters to assess the consistency of our current AGN understanding.

  3. X-ray Emission From Eta Carinae near Periastron in 2009 I: A Two State Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Russell, Christopher; Pollock, Andrew M. T.; Gull, Theodore R.; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas I.; Damineli, Augusto; Pittard, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from the supermassive binary system Eta Carinae declines sharply around periastron. This X-ray minimum has two distinct phases the lowest flux phase in the first 3 weeks and a brighter phase thereafter. In 2009, the Chandra X-ray Observatory monitored the first phase five times and found the lowest observed flux at 1.91012 ergs/sq cm/s (38 keV). The spectral shape changed such that the hard band above 4 keV dropped quickly at the beginning and the soft band flux gradually decreased to its lowest observed value in 2 weeks. The hard band spectrum had begun to recover by that time. This spectral variation suggests that the shocked gas producing the hottest X-ray gas near the apex of the wind-wind collision (WWC) is blocked behind the dense inner wind of the primary star, which later occults slightly cooler gas down-stream. Shocked gas previously produced by the system at earlier orbital phases is suggested to produce the faint residual X-ray emission seen when the emission near the apex is completely blocked by the primary wind. The brighter phase is probably caused by the re-appearance of the WWC plasma, whose emissivity significantly declined during the occultation. We interpret this to mean that the X-ray minimum is produced by a hybrid mechanism of an occultation and a decline in emissivity of the WWC shock. We constrain timings of superior conjunction and periastron based on these results.

  4. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R.; Madsen, K. K.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; Risaliti, G.; Saez, C.; Teng, S. H.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  5. K{beta} resonant x-ray emission spectra in MnF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, M.; Parlebas, J. C.; Uozumi, T.; Kotani, A.; Kao, C.-C.

    2000-01-15

    We report experimental and theoretical results on Mn K{beta} resonant x-ray emission spectra (K{beta} RXES) at the pre-edge region of K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy in a powdered MnF{sub 2} sample. The experimental results are studied theoretically in terms of coherent second-order optical process, using a MnF{sub 6}{sup -4} cluster model with the effects of intra-atomic multiplet coupling and interatomic hybridization in the space of three configurations and taking into account both the Mn 1s-3d quadrupole excitation and the Mn 1s-4p dipole excitation. The agreement between theory and experiment is good. Moreover, we show that if the sample is a single crystal the resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy caused by the quadrupole excitation has a strong sensitivity to the angle of the incident photon. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  6. X-ray emission from old and intermediate age brown dwarfs

    E-print Network

    B. Stelzer; R. Neuhaeuser

    2002-06-17

    According to the paradigm of solar-type dynamo action brown dwarfs should not exhibit magnetic activity as they are fully convective. Indeed, Halpha observations of ultracool field dwarfs indicate a decline of activity setting in near the substellar limit. X-ray emission traditionally serves as another means to examine magnetic activity on stars. The substellar regime can now be accessed with the new generation of X-ray instruments onboard XMM-Newton and Chandra. We report on two recent XMM-Newton observations of brown dwarfs in the Pleiades cluster and in the field aiming to constrain the age and effective temperature dependence of X-ray emission from substellar objects.

  7. HEAO 1 observations of X-ray emission from flares on dMe stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, S. M.; Mason, K. O.; Bowyer, C. S.; Linsky, J. L.; Haisch, B. M.; White, N. E.; Pravdo, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of two X-ray flares from each of the nearby dMe stars, AT Mic and AD Leo, with the A-2 experiment on board HEAO 1. A spectrum obtained during the brighter AT Mic flare, the first X-ray spectrum of a stellar flare, is well matched by a thermal model with a temperature 3 x 10 to the 7 K and an iron K-alpha emission line. The X-ray luminosities derived are in the range 1.3-16 x 10 to the 30th ergs/s, while emission measures are in the range 1.1-14 x 10 to the 53rd/cu cm. The estimated Lx/Lopt ratios exceed unity and are inconsistent with Mullan's flare model. Several scenarios to explain this discrepancy are proposed.

  8. A search for X-ray emission from rich clusters, extended halos around clusters, and superclusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Marshall, F. E.; Mckee, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Smith, B. W.; Reichert, G.

    1979-01-01

    The all-sky data base acquired with the HEAO A-2 experiment was searched for X-ray emission on a variety of metagalactic size scales which were either predicted or previously detected. Results in the 0.2-60 keV energy range are presented. The optically richest clusters, including those from which a microwave decrement were observed, appear to be relatively underluminous in X-rays. Observations of Abell 576 show its luminosity to be less than earlier estimates, and moreover less than the luminosity predicted from its microwave decrement, unless the intracluster gas is a factor of approximately 10 hotter than in typical clusters. Near SC0627 there are two X-ray sources, and the identification of the dominant source with SCO627 is probably incorrect. New spectral observations of Abell 401 and 2147, possible superclusters, reveal that they have typical cluster spectra with iron line emission.

  9. X-RAY EMISSION FROM NITROGEN-TYPE WOLF-RAYET STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Sokal, Kimberly R.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner

    2010-03-15

    We summarize new X-ray detections of four nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars obtained in a limited survey aimed at establishing the X-ray properties of WN stars across their full range of spectral subtypes. None of the detected stars is so far known to be a close binary. We report Chandra detections of WR 2 (WN2), WR 18 (WN4), and WR 134 (WN6), and an XMM-Newton detection of WR79a (WN9ha). These observations clearly demonstrate that both WNE and WNL stars are X-ray sources. We also discuss Chandra archive detections of the WN6h stars WR 20b, WR 24, and WR 136 and ROSAT non-detections of WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). The X-ray spectra of all WN detections show prominent emission lines and an admixture of cool (kT < 1 keV) and hot (kT > 2 keV) plasma. The hotter plasma is not predicted by radiative wind shock models and other as yet unidentified mechanisms are at work. Most stars show X-ray absorption in excess of that expected from visual extinction (A {sub V}), likely due to their strong winds or cold circumstellar gas. Existing data suggest a falloff in X-ray luminosity toward later WN7-9 subtypes, which have higher L {sub bol} but slower, denser winds than WN2-6 stars. This provides a clue that wind properties may be a more crucial factor in determining emergent X-ray emission levels than bolometric luminosity.

  10. X-ray Emission from Nitrogen-Type Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Güdel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2010-03-01

    We summarize new X-ray detections of four nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars obtained in a limited survey aimed at establishing the X-ray properties of WN stars across their full range of spectral subtypes. None of the detected stars is so far known to be a close binary. We report Chandra detections of WR 2 (WN2), WR 18 (WN4), and WR 134 (WN6), and an XMM-Newton detection of WR79a (WN9ha). These observations clearly demonstrate that both WNE and WNL stars are X-ray sources. We also discuss Chandra archive detections of the WN6h stars WR 20b, WR 24, and WR 136 and ROSAT non-detections of WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). The X-ray spectra of all WN detections show prominent emission lines and an admixture of cool (kT < 1 keV) and hot (kT > 2 keV) plasma. The hotter plasma is not predicted by radiative wind shock models and other as yet unidentified mechanisms are at work. Most stars show X-ray absorption in excess of that expected from visual extinction (A V), likely due to their strong winds or cold circumstellar gas. Existing data suggest a falloff in X-ray luminosity toward later WN7-9 subtypes, which have higher L bol but slower, denser winds than WN2-6 stars. This provides a clue that wind properties may be a more crucial factor in determining emergent X-ray emission levels than bolometric luminosity.

  11. Low Luminosity Cataclysmic Variables and Fe Emission Lines of Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaojie; Wang, Q. Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) has been proposed to be one of the main contributors of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE). However, previous studies on the spectra of local CVs suggested that the I6.7keV/I7.0keV line intensity ratios of CVs are not consistent with that of GRXE. Utilizing the archival Suzaku observations on local CVs, we confirm that luminous local CVs like intermediate polars, symbiotic stars and polars have lower I6.7keV/I7.0keV values, thus are unable to explain the Fe emission line ratios of GRXE. On the other hand, dimmer CVs like dwarf novae (DNe) have I6.7keV/I7.0keV values consitent with that of GRXE. Given the potential huge population, DNe could be one of the main resources of GRXE Fe line emission.

  12. U. radio emission from quiescent filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1989-01-01

    Full-disk Very Large Array (VLA) synthesis maps of the quiet Sun indicate that filaments can be seen in emission at 91.6 cm wavelength; they are detected in absorption at shorter microwave wavelengths. The 91.6 cm emission has a brightness temperature of T sub B = 3 x 10(exp 5) K. It is hotter, wider and longer than the underlying filament detected at H alpha wavelengths, but the similarity between the shape, position, elongation and orientation of the radio and optical features suggests their close association. The 91.6 cm emission is attributed to the thermal-bremsstrahlung of a hot transition sheath that envelopes the H alpha filament and acts as an interface between the cool, dense H alpha filament and the hotter, rarefied corona. The transition sheath is seen in emission because of the lower optical depth of the corona at 90 cm wavelength, and the width of this sheet is 10(exp 9) cm. A power law gradient in pressure provides a better match to the observations than a constant pressure model; definitive tests of theoretical models await simultaneous multi-wavelength studies of filaments at different observing angles. When the thermal bremsstrahlung is optically thin, the magnetic field strength in the transition sheath can be inferred from the observed circular polarization. Variable physical parameters of the sheath, such as width, electron density, and electron temperature, can explain controversial reports of the detection of, or the failure to detect, the meter-wavelength counterpart of H alpha filaments.

  13. DISCOVERY OF DIFFUSE HARD X-RAY EMISSION AROUND JUPITER WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Ezoe, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2010-02-01

    We report the discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter in a deep 160 ks Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer data. The emission is distributed over {approx}16 x 8 Jovian radius and spatially associated with the radiation belts and the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). It shows a flat power-law spectrum with a photon index of 1.4 {+-} 0.2 with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of (3.3 {+-} 0.5)x10{sup 15} erg s{sup -1}. We discussed its origin and concluded that it seems to be truly diffuse, although a possibility of multiple background point sources cannot be completely rejected with a limited angular resolution. If it is diffuse, the flat continuum indicates that X-rays arise by the nonthermal electrons in the radiation belts and/or the IPT. The synchrotron and bremsstrahlung models can be rejected from the necessary electron energy and X-ray spectral shape, respectively. The inverse-Compton scattering off solar photons by ultra-relativistic (several tens MeV) electrons can explain the energy and the spectrum but the necessary electron density is {approx}>10 times larger than the value estimated from the empirical model of Jovian charge particles.

  14. ? Car: X-ray Emission from Low Density Radiation-Driven Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle (Mizusawa), Trisha; Petit, Veronique; Held Cohen, David; Fullerton, Alexander W.; Gagne, Marc; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Li, Zequn; Owocki, Stanley P.; Sundqvist, Jon; Wade, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray grating spectroscopy (and IUE spectroscopy) of the B0.2 V star, ? Carina. ? Car is in a critical transition region between the earliest B stars and the latest O stars, where the density of the wind is observed to decrease more than theoretically expected. In general, X-ray emission in this low-density wind regime should be less prominent, but observations have shown that there is a higher than expected production of X-ray emission from the winds of these stars; this severely challenges predictions of radiatively driven wind theory. We measure the f/i ratio, widths, and velocities of several Helium-like lines in the X-ray spectrum. The f/i ratio is a diagnostic of the radial location of the X-ray emitting plasma, which is sensitive to the specific transition of each He-like ion. We use ? Car to study the radiatively-driven mass-loss of early B-type stars.

  15. The Sun's X-ray Emission During the Recent Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Mirek; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2010-02-01

    The Sun recently underwent a period of a remarkable lack of major activity such as large flares and sunspots, without equal since the advent of the space age a half century ago. A widely used measure of solar activity is the amount of solar soft X-ray emission, but until recently this has been below the threshold of the X-ray-monitoring Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). There is thus an urgent need for more sensitive instrumentation to record solar X-ray emission in this range. Anticipating this need, a highly sensitive spectrophotometer called Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was included in the solar telescope/spectrometer TESIS instrument package on the third spacecraft in Russia's Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun (CORONAS-PHOTON) program, launched 30 January 2009 into a near-polar orbit. SphinX measures X-rays in a band similar to the GOES longer-wavelength channel.

  16. Modeling of X-ray emissions produced by stepping lightning leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2014-10-01

    Intense and brief bursts of X-ray emissions have been measured during the stepping process of both natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, we investigate theoretically the energy spectra of X-rays produced by the bremsstrahlung emission of thermal runaway electrons accelerated in the inhomogeneous electric field produced around lightning leader tips. The X-ray energy spectrum depends on the physical properties of the associated lightning leaders. Consequently, X-ray measurements can be used for diagnostics of the electrical properties of lightning stepped leaders. We report simulation results of the photon energy spectra produced by 5 and 10 MV negative CG lightning discharges that would be measured from the ground using ideal detectors. We also quantify theoretically the radial dependence of X-ray energy spectra received at ground level during the leader stepping process. Moreover, it is found that the ground radiation generated in this process is harmless to humans.

  17. Development of an X-ray tube for irradiation experiments using a field emission electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hidetoshi; O`Rourke, Brian E.; Suzuki, Ryoichi; Wang, Jiayu; Ooi, Takashi; Nakajima, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new X-ray tube using a ring-shaped emitter as a field emission electron source has been developed. By using a ring shaped cathode, X-rays can be extracted along the axial direction through the central hole. This cylindrically symmetrical design allows for the tube to be arranged in the axial direction with the high voltage target at one end and the X-ray beam at the other. The newly developed X-ray tube can operate at a tube voltage of more than 100 kV and at a tube current of more than 4 mA, and can be used for irradiation experiments with an irradiation dose range from mGy up to kGy. The X-ray tube can be used immediately after turning on (i.e. there is no stand-by time). In the experimental model, we demonstrated stable electron emission at a tube voltage of 100 kV and at a tube current of 4 mA during a 560 h continuous test.

  18. Broad M-band multi-keV x-ray emission from plasmas created by short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Harmand, M.; Dorchies, F.; Peyrusse, O.; Descamps, D.; Fourment, C.; Hulin, S.; Petit, S.; Santos, J. J.

    2009-06-15

    The investigation of the broad M-band x-ray emission from high-Z plasmas created by a laser, with a 30 fs to 3 ps pulse duration and achieving 10{sup 15-17} W/cm{sup 2} on target, is reported. Experimental emission spectra are measured in the energy range from 1.50 to 1.75 keV and discussed as potential backlighting x-ray sources for time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies. They are compared with theoretical nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of x-ray emission.

  19. High Resolution Temporal and Spectral Monitoring of Eta Carinae's X-ray Emission Through the June Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Henley, D.; Pittard, J. M.; Gull, T. R.; Davidson, K.; Swank, J. H.; Petre, R.; Ishibashi, K.; Eta Car HST Treasury Team

    2003-12-01

    The supermassive and luminous star Eta Carinae undergoes strong X-ray variations every 5.5 years when its 2-10 keV X-ray emission brightens rapidly with wild fluctuations before dropping by a factor of 100 to a minimum lasting 3 months. The most recent X-ray ``eclipse" began in June 2003 and during this time Eta Carinae was intensely observed throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. Here we report the first results of frequent monitoring of the 2-10 keV band X-ray emission by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer along with high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the transmission gratings on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We compare these observations to those results obtained during the previous X-ray eclipse in 1998, and interpret the variations in the X-ray brightness, in the amount of absorption, in the X-ray emission measure and in the K-shell emission lines in terms of a colliding wind binary model.

  20. Investigating the hard X-ray emission from the hottest Abell cluster A2163 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, N.; Nagayoshi, K.; Pratt, G. W.; Kitayama, T.; Oshima, T.; Reiprich, T. H.

    2014-02-01

    Context. We present the results from Suzaku of the hottest Abell galaxy cluster A2163 at z = 0.2. Aims: To study the physics of gas heating in cluster mergers, we investigated hard X-ray emission from the merging cluster A2163, which hosts the brightest synchrotron radio halo. Methods: We analyzed hard X-ray emission spectra accumulated from two-pointed Suzaku observations. Non-thermal hard X-ray emission should result from the inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons by photons in the cosmic microwave background. To measure this emission, the dominant thermal emission in the hard X-ray band must be modeled in detail. To this end, we analyzed the combined broadband X-ray data of A2163 collected by Suzaku and XMM-Newton, assuming single- and multi-temperature models for thermal emission and the power-law model for non-thermal emission. Comparing the non-thermal hard X-ray flux to radio synchrotron emission, we also estimated the magnetic field in the cluster. Results: From the Suzaku data, we detected significant hard X-ray emission from A2163 in the 12-60 keV band at the 28? level (or at the 5.5? level if a systematic error of the non-X-ray background model is considered). The Suzaku HXD spectrum alone is consistent with the single-temperature thermal model of gas temperature kT = 14 keV. From the XMM-Newton data, we constructed a multi-temperature model including a very hot (kT = 18 keV) component in the north-east region. Incorporating the multi-temperature and the power-law models into a two-component model with a radio-band photon index, where ? = 2.18, the 12-60 keV energy flux of non-thermal emission is constrained within 5.3 ± 0.9 (±3.8) × 10-12 erg s-1cm-2 (the first and second errors refer to the 1? statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively). The 90% upper limit of detected inverse Compton emission is marginal (FNT < 1.2 × 10-11 erg s-1cm-2 in the 12-60 keV band). The estimated magnetic field in A2163 is B > 0.098 ?G. While the present results represent a three-fold increase in the accuracy of the broadband (0.3-60 keV) spectral model of A2163, more sensitive hard X-ray observations are needed to decisively test for the presence of hard X-ray emission due to inverse Compton emission.

  1. RX J1301.9+2747: A HIGHLY VARIABLE SEYFERT GALAXY WITH EXTREMELY SOFT X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Luming; Shu Xinwen; Wang Tinggui E-mail: xwshu@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2013-05-10

    In this paper we present a temporal and spectral analysis of X-ray data from XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the ultrasoft and variable Seyfert galaxy RX J1301.9+2747. In both observations the source clearly displays two distinct states in the X-ray band: a long quiescent state and a short flare (or eruptive) state which differs in count rates by a factor of 5-7. The transition from the quiescent to the flare state occurs in 1-2 ks. We have observed that the quiescent state spectrum is unprecedentedly steep with a photon index {Gamma} {approx} 7.1, and the spectrum of the flare state is flatter with {Gamma} {approx} 4.4. X-rays above 2 keV were not significantly detected in either state. In the quiescent state, the spectrum appears to be dominated by a blackbody component of temperature about {approx}30-40 eV, which is comparable to the expected maximum effective temperature from the inner accretion disk. The quiescent state, however, requires an additional steep power law, presumably arising from Comptonization by transient heated electrons. The optical spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows Seyfert-like narrow lines for RX J1301.9+2747, while Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals a central point source for the object. In order to precisely determine the hard X-ray component, future longer X-ray observations are required. This will help constrain the accretion disk model for RX J1301.9+2747, and shed new light on the characteristics of the corona and accretion flows around black holes.

  2. Modeling of the EUV and X-Ray Emission Spectra Induced by the Solar Winds Ions in the Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharchenko, Vasili

    2005-01-01

    We have carried out investigation of the EUV and X-ray emission spectra induced in interaction between the Solar Wind (SW) and interstellar neutral gas. The spectra of most important SW ions have been computed for the charge-exchange mechanism of X-ray emission using new accurate spectroscopic data from recent laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations. Total spectra have been constructed as a sum of spectra induced in the charge-exchange collisions by individual O(exp q+), C(exp q+), N(exp q+), Ne(exp q+), Mg (exp q+) and Fe(exp q+) ions. Calculations have been performed for X-ray emission from the heliospheric hydrogen and helium gas. X-ray maps of the heliosphere have been computed. The power density of X-ray sources in the heliospheric ecliptic plane is shown for the H gas and for the He gas. Distances from the Sun (0,0) are given in AU. The helium cone is clear seen in the X-ray map of the charge-exchange emission induced by the solar wind. X-ray emission spectra detected by the Chandra X-ray telescope from the "dark" side of Moon has been identified as a X-ray background emission induced by the solar wind from the geocorona. Spectra and intensities of this charge-exchange X-rays have been compared with the heliospheric component of the X-ray background. Observations and modeling of the SW spectra induced from the geocorona indicate a strong presence of emission lines of highly charged oxygen ions. Anisotropy in distribution of heliospheric X-rays has been predicted and calculated for the regions of the fast and slow solar winds.

  3. X-Ray and Radio Emission from Type IIn Supernova SN 2010jl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Poonam; Chevalier, Roger A.; Chugai, Nikolai; Fransson, Claes; Soderberg, Alicia M.

    2015-09-01

    We present all X-ray and radio observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl. The X-ray observations cover a period up to day 1500 with Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and Swift-X-ray Telescope (XRT). The Chandra observations after 2012 June, the XMM-Newton observation in 2013 November, and most of the Swift-XRT observations until 2014 December are presented for the first time. All the spectra can be fitted by an absorbed hot thermal model except for Chandra spectra on 2011 October and 2012 June when an additional component is needed. Although the origin of this component is uncertain, it is spatially coincident with the supernova and occurs when there are changes to the supernova spectrum in the energy range close to that of the extra component, indicating that the emission is related to the supernova. The X-ray light curve shows an initial plateau followed by a steep drop starting at day ˜300. We attribute the drop to a decrease in the circumstellar density. The column density to the X-ray emission drops rapidly with time, showing that the absorption is in the vicinity of the supernova. We also present Very Large Array radio observations of SN 2010jl. Radio emission was detected from SN 2010jl from day 570 onwards. The radio light curves and spectra suggest that the radio luminosity was close to its maximum at the first detection. The velocity of the shocked ejecta derived assuming synchrotron self-absorption is much less than that estimated from the optical and X-ray observations, suggesting that free-free absorption dominates.

  4. Detection of Excess Hard X-ray Emission from the Group of Galaxies HCG62

    E-print Network

    Fukazawa, Y; Isobe, N; Makishima, K; Matsushita, K; Ohashi, T; Kamae, T; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Isobe, Naoki; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsushita, Kyoko; Ohashi, Takaya; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi

    2000-01-01

    From the group of galaxies HCG62, we detected an excess hard X-ray emission in energies above $\\sim 4$ keV with \\A SCA. The excess emission is spatially extended up to $\\sim10'$ from the group center, and somewhat enhanced toward north. Its spectrum can be represented by either a power-law of photon index 0.8-2.7, or a Bremsstrahlung of temperature $>6.3$ keV. In the 2-10 keV range, the observed hard X-ray flux, $(1.0\\pm0.3)\\times10^{-12}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, implies a luminosity of $(8.0\\pm2.0)\\times10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ for a Hubble constant of 50 km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$. The emission is thus too luminous to be attributed to X-ray binaries in the memb er galaxies. We discuss possible origin of the hard X-ray emission.

  5. Resolved X-ray emission line profiles Clumping in Hot Star Winds

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    Resolved X-ray emission line profiles Clumping in Hot Star Winds W.-R. Hamann, A. Feldmeier & L and wind porosity. We find that reducing the mass-loss rate of Pup by roughly a factor of four, to 1.5 × 10-6 M yr-1 , enables simple non-porous wind models to provide good fits to the data. If

  6. Radio and X-ray Emission from the Galactic Black Hole

    E-print Network

    Falcke, Heino

    Chapter 11 Radio and X-ray Emission from the Galactic Black Hole Heino Falcke Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany To appear in: The Galactic Black Hole, Lectures on General Relativity properties of the Galactic Center black hole (Sgr A*) are reviewed: variability, size and position from VLBI

  7. Valence Band X-Ray Emission Spectra of Compressed Germanium Viktor V. Struzhkin,1

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    Valence Band X-Ray Emission Spectra of Compressed Germanium Viktor V. Struzhkin,1 Ho-kwang Mao,1 the electron self-energy [3­10]. The pre- dicted band broadening is only 0.05 eV in germanium and 0.08 e

  8. THE MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF DRINKING WATER USING PROTON-INDUCED X-RAY EMISSION (PIXE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new, rapid, and economical method for the multielemental analysis of drinking water samples is described. The concentrations of 76 elements heavier than aluminum are determined using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technology. The concentration of sodium is evaluated using...

  9. The Relationship Between Solar Radio and Hard X-Ray Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. M.; Benz, A. O.; Christe, S.; Farnik, F.; Kundu, M. R.; Mann, G.; Ning, Z.; Raulin, J.-P.; Silva-Valio, A. V. R.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Vilmer, N.; Warmuth, A.

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the complementary relationship between radio and hard Xray observations of the Sun using primarily results from the era of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite. A primary focus of joint radio and hard X-ray studies of solar flares uses observations of nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission at radio wavelengths and bremsstrahlung hard X-rays to study the properties of electrons accelerated in the main flare site, since it is well established that these two emissions show very similar temporal behavior. A quantitative prescription is given for comparing the electron energy distributions derived separately from the two wavelength ranges: this is an important application with the potential for measuring the magnetic field strength in the flaring region, and reveals significant differences between the electrons in different energy ranges. Examples of the use of simultaneous data from the two wavelength ranges to derive physical conditions are then discussed, including the case of microflares, and the comparison of images at radio and hard X-ray wavelengths is presented. There have been puzzling results obtained from observations of solar flares at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, and the comparison of these results with corresponding hard X-ray data is presented. Finally, the review discusses the association of hard X-ray releases with radio emission at decimeter and meter wavelengths, which is dominated by plasma emission (at lower frequencies) and electron cyclotron maser emission (at higher frequencies), both coherent emission mechanisms that require small numbers of energetic electrons. These comparisons show broad general associations but detailed correspondence remains more elusive.

  10. X-Ray Emission from the Taffy (VV254) Galaxies and Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Lanz, L.; Bitsakis, T.; Wang, J.; Peterson, B. W.; Lisenfeld, U.; Alatalo, K.; Guillard, P.; Boulanger, F.; Cluver, M.; Gao, Y.; Helou, G.; Ogle, P.; Struck, C.

    2015-10-01

    We present the first X-ray observations of the Taffy galaxies (UGC 12914/5) with the Chandra observatory and detect soft X-ray emission in the region of the gas-rich, radio-continuum-emitting Taffy bridge. The results are compared to Herschel observations of dust and diffuse [C ii] line-emitting gas. The diffuse component of the Taffy bridge has an X-ray luminosity of {L}{{X}(0.5-8 {keV})} = 5.4 × 1039 erg s-1, which accounts for 19% of the luminosity of the sum for the two galaxies. The total mass in hot gas is (0.8-1.3) × 108 M?, which is approximately 1% of the total (H i + H2) gas mass in the bridge, and ˜11% of the mass of warm molecular hydrogen discovered by Spitzer. The soft X-ray and dense CO-emitting gas in the bridge have offset distributions, with the X-rays peaking along the northwestern side of the bridge in the region where stronger far-IR dust and diffuse [C ii] gas is observed by Herschel. We detect nine Ultra Luminous X-ray sources in the system, the brightest of which is found in the bridge, associated with an extragalactic H ii region. We suggest that the X-ray-emitting gas has been shocked—heated to high temperatures and “splashed” into the bridge by the collision. The large amount of gas stripped from the galaxies into the bridge and its very long gas depletion timescale (>10 Gyr) may explain why this system, unlike most major mergers, is not a powerful IR emitter.

  11. X ray emission from Wolf-Rayet stars with recurrent dust formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawley, Gayle L.

    1993-01-01

    We were granted a ROSAT observation of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 137 (equals HD 192641) to test a proposed mechanism for producing the infrared variability reported by Williams et al. (1987). These studies showed one clear infrared outburst preceded by what may be the dimming of a previous outburst. The recurrent dust formation model was put forward by Williams et al. (1990) to account for similar variability seen in WR 140, which varies in both the infrared and X-ray bands. The detected X-ray flux from WR 140 was observed to decrease from its normally high (for Wolf-Rayet stars) level as the infrared flux increased. Observation of two apparently-periodic infrared outbursts led to the hypothesis that WR 140 had an O star companion in an eccentric orbit, and that the increase in infrared flux came from a dust formation episode triggered by the compression of the O star and Wolf-Rayet star winds. The absorption of the X-rays by the increased material explained the decrease in flux at those wavelengths. If the infrared variability in WR 137 were caused by a similar interaction of the Wolf-Rayet star with a companion, we might expect that WR 137 would show corresponding X-ray variability and an X-ray luminosity somewhat higher than typical WC stars, as well as a phase-dependent non-thermal X-ray spectrum. Our goals in this study were to obtain luminosity estimates from our counting rates for comparison with previous observations of WR 137 and other WC class stars, especially WR 140; to compare the luminosity with the IR lightcurve; and to characterize the spectral shape of the X-ray emission, including the column density.

  12. ROSAT PSPC spectra of X-ray selected narrow emission line galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colmenero, E. Romero; Carrera, F. J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Mittaz, J. P. D.; McHardy, I. M.; Jones, L. R.

    1996-01-01

    The Rosat Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectra of a sample of 35 X-ray selected Narrow Emission Line Galaxies (NELGs) are presented. Of these 35 objects, 16 are from the Rosat International X-ray Optical Survey (RIXOS) and the remaining 19 were discovered during the optical identification of Rosat U.K. deep survey sources. A power law model with low energy absorption set at the Galactic value is found to be a good fit for all sources. The results indicate that the spectral slope of NELGs is flatter than that of active galactic nuclei.

  13. EFFECT OF METALLICITY ON X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Roncarelli, M.

    2010-09-20

    Hydrodynamic simulations predict that a significant fraction of the gas in the current universe is in the form of high temperature, highly ionized plasma emitting and absorbing primarily in the soft X-ray and UV bands, dubbed the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Its signature should be observable in redshifted emission and absorption lines from highly ionized elements. To determine the expected WHIM emission in the soft X-ray band we used the output of a large scale smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation to generate images and spectra with angular resolution of 14'' and energy resolution of 1 eV. The current biggest limit of any hydrodynamic simulation in predicting the X-ray emission comes from metal diffusion. In our investigation, by using four different models for the WHIM metallicity we have found a strong dependence of the emission on the model used, with differences up to almost an order of magnitude. For each model, we have investigated the redshift distribution and angular scale of the emission, confirming that most photons come from redshift z < 1.2 and that the emission has a typical angular scale of less than a few arcminutes. We also compared our simulations with the few currently available observations and found that, within the variation of the metallicity models, our predictions are in good agreement with current constraints on the WHIM emission, and at this time the weak experimental constraints on the WHIM emission are not sufficient to exclude any of the models used.

  14. X-RAY AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM COMETS VLADIMIR A. KRASNOPOLSKY1, JASON B. GREENWOOD2 and

    E-print Network

    Stancil, Phillip C.

    X-RAY AND EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM COMETS VLADIMIR A. KRASNOPOLSKY1, JASON B. GREENWOOD2-ray and EUV emissions from comets since their discovery in 1996. That discovery was so puzzling be- cause comets appear to be more efficient emitters of x-rays than the Moon by a factor of 80 000. The detected

  15. Einstein X-ray survey of the Pleiades - The dependence of X-ray emission on stellar age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Serio, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bookbinder, J.; Golub, L.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1985-01-01

    The data obtained with two pointed observations of 1 deg by 1 deg fields of the Pleiades region have been analyzed, and the results are presented. The maximum-likelihood X-ray luminosity functions for the Pleiades G and K stars in the cluster are derived, and it is shown that, for the G stars, the Pleiades X-ray luminosity function is significantly brighter than the corresponding function for Hyades G dwarf stars. This finding indicates a dependence of X-ray luminosity on stellar age, which is confirmed by comparison of the same data with median X-ray luminosities of pre-main sequence and local disk population dwarf G stars. It is suggested that the significantly larger number of bright X-ray sources associated with G stars than with K stars, the lack of detection of M stars, and the relatively rapid rotation of the Pleiades K stars can be explained in terms of the onset of internal differential rotation near the convective envelope-radidative core interface after the spin-up phase during evolution to the main sequence.

  16. X-ray Emission from Supernovae in Dense Circumstellar Matter Environments: a Search for Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofek, E. O.; Fox, D.; Cenko, Stephen B.; Sullivan, M; Gnat, O.; Frail, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Corsi, A.; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Yaron, O.; Fillippenko, A. V; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Poznanski, D.; Arcavi, I.; Laher, R. R.; Levitan, D.; Sesar, B.; Surace, J..

    2013-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (the so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (Tau approx > 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and radiation-dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into a collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift/XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 Type IIn SNe, one Type Ibn SN, and eight hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSN-I such as SN 2005ap). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSM. However, the X-ray emission from SN 2006jc can also be explained as originating in an optically thin region. Thus, we propose that the optical light curve of SN 2010jl is powered by shock breakout in CSM. We suggest that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock-breakout model.We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, SNe IIn/Ibn are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all of the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained too early (i.e., near the SN maximum light) for definitive conclusions about their nature. Late-time X-ray observations are required in order to further test whether these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakout in a wind profile. We argue that the timescale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above the shock region. In SNe whose X-ray emission slowly rises, and peaks at late times, the optical light curve is likely powered by the diffusion of shock energy in a dense CSM. We note that if the CSM density profile falls faster than a constant-rate wind-density profile, then X-rays may escape at earlier times than estimated for the wind-profile case. Furthermore, if the CSM has a region in which the density profile is very steep relative to a steady wind-density profile, or if the CSM is neutral, then the radio free-free absorption may be sufficiently low for radio emission to be detected.

  17. X-ray emission of brown dwarfs: Towards constraining the dependence on age, luminosity, and temperature

    E-print Network

    B. Stelzer; G. Micela; E. Flaccomio; R. Neuhaeuser; R. Jayawardhana; ;; - Uni Palermo; - OA Palermo; - Uni Jena; - Uni Toronto

    2005-11-07

    Three brown dwarfs in different evolutionary stages have been observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Combining the new observations with previous studies presented in the literature yields a brown dwarf sample that reaches well down into the cooling phase of brown dwarfs, allowing to investigate the possible influence of effective temperature on X-ray activity. Combining our results with published data allows us to consider a subsample of high-mass brown dwarfs (with 0.05-0.07 Msun), and another one characterized by similar effective temperature (with 2400-2800 K). Our findings support the idea that effective temperature plays a critical role for the X-ray activity in brown dwarfs. This underlines an earlier suggestion based on observations of chromospheric Ha emission in ultracool dwarfs that the low ionization fraction in the cool brown dwarf atmospheres may suppress magnetic activity.

  18. Nanoparticle characterization by means of scanning free grazing emission X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Yves; Sá, Jacinto; Szlachetko, Jakub

    2015-05-28

    Nanoparticles are considered for applications in domains as various as medical and pharmaceutical sciences, opto- and microelectronics, catalysis, photovoltaics, spintronics or nano- and biotechnology. The applications realized with nanocrystals depend strongly on the physical dimensions (shape and size) and elemental constitution. We demonstrate here that grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) is an element sensitive technique that presents the potential for a reliable and accurate determination of the morphology of nanoparticles deposited on a flat substrate (ready-to-use devices). Thanks to the scanning-free approach of the used GEXRF setup, the composition, shape and average size of nanoparticles are determined in short time intervals, minimizing the exposure to radiation. The (scanning-free) GEXRF technique allows for in situ investigations of the nanoparticulate systems thanks to the penetration properties of both the probe X-ray beam and the emitted X-ray fluorescence signal. PMID:25946258

  19. Nanoparticle characterization by means of scanning free grazing emission X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, Yves; Sá, Jacinto; Szlachetko, Jakub

    2015-05-01

    Nanoparticles are considered for applications in domains as various as medical and pharmaceutical sciences, opto- and microelectronics, catalysis, photovoltaics, spintronics or nano- and biotechnology. The applications realized with nanocrystals depend strongly on the physical dimensions (shape and size) and elemental constitution. We demonstrate here that grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) is an element sensitive technique that presents the potential for a reliable and accurate determination of the morphology of nanoparticles deposited on a flat substrate (ready-to-use devices). Thanks to the scanning-free approach of the used GEXRF setup, the composition, shape and average size of nanoparticles are determined in short time intervals, minimizing the exposure to radiation. The (scanning-free) GEXRF technique allows for in situ investigations of the nanoparticulate systems thanks to the penetration properties of both the probe X-ray beam and the emitted X-ray fluorescence signal.

  20. Periodicities in the X-ray emission from the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Partha; Jain, Rajmal; Awasthi, Arun K. E-mail: parthares@gmail.com E-mail: awasthi@prl.res.in

    2013-11-20

    We have studied the time series of full disk integrated soft and hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during 2004 January to 2008 December, covering the entire descending phase of solar cycle 23 from a global point of view. We employ the daily X-ray index derived from 1 s cadence X-ray observations from the Si and CZT detectors of the 'Solar X-ray Spectrometer' mission in seven different energy bands ranging between 6 and 56 keV. X-ray data in the energy bands 6-7, 7-10, 10-20, and 4-25 keV from the Si detector are considered, while 10-20, 20-30, and 30-56 keV high energy observations are taken from the CZT detector. The daily time series is subjected to power spectrum analysis after appropriate correction for noise. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique has shown prominent periods of ?13.5 days, ?27 days, and a near-Rieger period of ?181 days and ?1.24 yr in all energy bands. In addition to this, other periods like ?31, ?48, ?57, ?76, ?96, ?130, ?227, and ?303 days are also detected in different energy bands. We discuss our results in light of previous observations and existing numerical models.

  1. Correlation of hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares

    E-print Network

    Kuhar, Matej; Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martínez; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego; Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) and HMI (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager). We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 \\r{A} summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 seconds around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ~50 keV. At higher electron energies the co...

  2. X-ray Emission from Nitrogen-Type Wolf-Rayet Stars

    E-print Network

    Skinner, S L; Guedel, M; Schmutz, W; Sokal, K R

    2009-01-01

    We summarize new X-ray detections of four nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars obtained in a limited survey aimed at establishing the X-ray properties of WN stars across their full range of spectral subtypes. None of the detected stars is so far known to be a close binary. We report Chandra detections of WR 2 (WN2), WR 18 (WN4), and WR 134 (WN6), and an XMM-Newton detection of WR79a (WN9ha). These observations clearly demonstrate that both WNE and WNL stars are X-ray sources. We also discuss Chandra archive detections of the WN6h stars WR 20b, WR 24, and WR 136 and ROSAT non-detections of WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). The X-ray spectra of all WN detections show prominent emission lines and an admixture of cool (kT 2 keV) plasma. The hotter plasma is not predicted by radiative wind shock models and other as yet unidentified mechanisms are at work. Most stars show X-ray absorption in excess of that expected from visual extinction (Av), likely due to their strong winds or cold circumstellar gas. Existing data s...

  3. The X-ray spectrum and time variability of narrow emission line galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray spectral and temporal observations are reported for six narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs), all of which are fitted by power-law X-ray spectra of energy slope 0.8 and have column densities in the line of sight greater than 1 x 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. Three of the objects, NGC 526a, NGC 2110 and MCG-5-23-16 are variable in their X-ray flux, and the latter two, along with NGC 5506 and NGC 7582, showed detectable variability in at least one observation. The measured X-ray properties of these NELGs, which also included NGC 2992, strongly resemble those of previously-measured type 1 Seyferts of the same X-ray luminosity and lead to the conclusion of great similarity between the NELGs and low-luminosity type 1 Seyferts. The implications of these observations for the optical line-emitting region structure of these galaxies are discussed.

  4. Faint galaxy population in clusters: X-ray emission, cD halos and projection effects

    E-print Network

    Valotto, C A; Moore, B; Lambas, D G; Valotto, Carlos A.; Muriel, Hernan; Moore, Ben; Lambas, Diego G.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze samples of nearby clusters taken from the Abell catalog and the X-ray Sample of Bright Clusters(De Grandi et al 1999) including a wide range of X-ray luminosities.Using the usually adopted background subtraction procedures, we find that galaxies in clusters selected by means of their X-ray emission show a flat luminosity function (faint end slope $\\alpha \\simeq -1.1$) consistent with that derived for galaxies in the field and groups. By contrast, the sample of Abell clusters that do not have an X-ray counterpart shows a galaxy luminosity function with a steep faint end ($\\alpha \\simeq -1.6$). We investigate the possibility that cD halos could be formed by the disruption of galaxies in rich relaxed clusters that show an apparently flat faint end galaxy luminosity function (Lopez-Cruz et al 1997). We find that clusters dominated by a central cD galaxy (Bautz-Morgan classes I and II) show the same systematic trend: X-ray selected clusters have flatter faint end slopes than those clusters with no detec...

  5. Chandra X-ray Grating Spectrometry of Eta Carinae near X-ray Minimum: I. Variability of the Sulfur and Silicon Emission Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, D. B.; Corcoran, M. F.; Pittard, J. M.; Stevens, I. R.; Hamaguchi, K.; Gull, T. R.

    2008-01-01

    We report on variations in important X-ray emission lines in a series of Chandra grating spectra of the supermassive colliding wind binary star eta Car, including key phases around the X-ray minimum/periastron passage in 2003.5. The X-rays arise from the collision of the slow, dense wind of eta Car with the fast, low-density wind of an otherwise hidden companion star. The X-ray emission lines provide the only direct measure of the flow dynamics of the companion's wind along the wind-wind collision zone. We concentrate here on the silicon and sulfur lines, which are the strongest and best resolved lines in the X-ray spectra. Most of the line profiles can be adequately fit with symmetric Gaussians with little significant skewness. Both the silicon and sulfur lines show significant velocity shifts and correlated increases in line widths through the observations. The R = forbidden-to-intercombination ratio from the Si XIII and S XV triplets is near or above the low-density limit in all observations, suggesting that the line-forming region is > 1.6 stellar radii from the companion star, and that the emitting plasma may be in a non-equilibrium state. We show that simple geometrical models cannot simultaneously fit both the observed centroid variations and changes in line width as a function of phase. We show that the observed profiles can be fitted with synthetic profiles with a reasonable model of the emissivity along the wind-wind collision boundary. We use this analysis to help constrain the line formation region as a function of orbital phase, and the orbital geometry. Subject headings: X-rays: stars -stars: early-type-stars: individual (q Car)

  6. DETECTION OF DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION FROM PLANETARY NEBULAE WITH NEBULAR O VI

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, N.; Guerrero, M. A.; Jacob, R.; Schoenberner, D.; Steffen, M.

    2013-04-10

    The presence of O VI ions can be indicative of plasma temperatures of a few Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K that are expected in heat conduction layers between the hot shocked stellar wind gas at several 10{sup 6} K and the cooler (10{sup 4} K) nebular gas of planetary nebulae (PNe). We have used FUSE observations of PNe to search for nebular O VI emission or absorption as a diagnostic of the conduction layer to ensure the presence of hot interior gas. Three PNe showing nebular O VI, namely IC 418, NGC 2392, and NGC 6826, have been selected for Chandra observations and diffuse X-ray emission is indeed detected in each of these PNe. Among the three, NGC 2392 has peculiarly high diffuse X-ray luminosity and plasma temperature compared with those expected from its stellar wind's mechanical luminosity and terminal velocity. The limited effects of heat conduction on the plasma temperature of a hot bubble at the low terminal velocity of the stellar wind of NGC 2392 may partially account for its high plasma temperature, but the high X-ray luminosity needs to be powered by processes other than the observed stellar wind, probably the presence of an unseen binary companion of the central star of the PN (CSPN) of NGC 2392. We have compiled relevant information on the X-ray, stellar, and nebular properties of PNe with a bubble morphology and found that the expectations of bubble models including heat conduction compare favorably with the present X-ray observations of hot bubbles around H-rich CSPNe, but have notable discrepancies for those around H-poor [WR] CSPNe. We note that PNe with more massive central stars can produce hotter plasma and higher X-ray surface brightness inside central hot bubbles.

  7. The Origin of the Puzzling Hard-X-Ray Emission of ? Cassiopeiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motch, Christian; Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo; Smith, Myron A.

    2015-06-01

    Massive B and Be stars produce X-rays from shocks in high-velocity winds with temperatures of a few million degrees and maximum X-ray luminosities of ?1031 erg s-1. Surprisingly, a sub-group of early Be stars exhibits ?20 times hotter X-ray temperatures and ?10 times higher X-ray luminosities than normal. This group of Be stars, dubbed ?-Cas analogs, contains about 10 known objects. The origin of this bizarre behavior has been extensively debated in the past decades. Two mechanisms have been put forward: accretion of circumstellar disk matter onto an orbiting white dwarf, or magnetic field interaction between the star and the circumstellar disk. We show here that the X-ray and optical emissions of the prototype of the class, ?-Cas, are very well correlated on year timescales with no significant time delay. Since the expected migration time from internal disk regions that emit most of the optical flux to the orbit of the companion star is several years, the simultaneity of the high energy and optical flux variations indicates that X-ray emission arises from close to the star. The systematic lack of magnetic field detection reported in recent spectro-polarimetric surveys of Be stars is consistent with the absence of strong magnetic wind braking in these fast spinning stars but place strong constraints on the possible origin of the magnetic field. We propose that in ?-Cas, the magnetic field emerges from equatorially condensed subsurface convecting layers, the thickness of which steeply increases with rotation rate, and that ?-Cas and its analogs are the most massive and closest to critical rotation Be stars.

  8. Crushing of interstellar gas clouds in supernova remnants II. X-ray emission

    E-print Network

    Orlando, S; Peres, G; Reale, F; Plewa, T; Rosner, R

    2006-01-01

    AIMS. We study and discuss the time-dependent X-ray emission predicted by hydrodynamic modeling of the interaction of a SNR shock wave with an interstellar gas cloud. The scope includes: 1) to study the correspondence between modeled and X-ray emitting structures, 2) to explore two different physical regimes in which either thermal conduction or radiative cooling plays a dominant role, and 3) to investigate the effects of the physical processes at work on the emission of the shocked cloud in the two different regimes. METHODS. We use a detailed hydrodynamic model, including thermal conduction and radiation, and explore two cases characterized by different Mach numbers of the primary shock: M = 30 in which the cloud dynamics is dominated by radiative cooling and M = 50 dominated by thermal conduction. From the simulations, we synthesize the expected X-ray emission, using available spectral codes. RESULTS. The morphology of the X-ray emitting structures is significantly different from that of the flow structure...

  9. X-ray emission from the local hot bubble and solar wind charge exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uprety, Youaraj

    DXL (Diffuse X-rays from the Local galaxy) is a sounding rocket mission to quantify the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX) X-ray emission in the interplanetary medium, and separate its contribution from the Local Hot Bubble (LHB) emission. The first launch of DXL took place in December 2012. This thesis will describe the DXL instrumentation and calibrations, and discuss the results obtained. The mission uses two large area proportional counters to scan through the Helium Focusing Cone (HFC), a high helium density region in the solar system emitting excess X-rays due to SWCX. Using well determined models of the interplanetary neutral distribution and comparing the DXL results with data from the same region obtained by the ROSAT satellite away from the cone, we calculated that SWCX contributes at most 36% to the ¼ keV ROSAT band and 13% to the ¾ keV ROSAT band, in the galactic plane. This provides a firm proof for existence of a LHB which dominates the Diffuse X-ray Background (DXB) at ¼ keV, while raising new questions on the origin of the ¾ keV emission.

  10. Structure of the X-Ray Emission from the Jet of 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, H. L.; Lee, J. C.; Ogle, P. M.; Drake, J. J.; Fruscione, A.; Grimes, J.; Harris, D.; Kraft, R.; Pease, D.; Schwartz, D.; Siemiginowska, A.; Lavoie, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present images from four Chandra observations of the quasar 3C 273. The zeroth order images from two grating observations using the AXAF CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) detector are used to examine the structure and spectrum of the jet. The jet has at least four distinct features which are not resolved in previous observations. Using jet feature nomenclature based on HST observations, we find that knot Al is very bright in X-rays. We have measured the X-ray spectrum of this X-ray knot for the first time, obtaining a photon index of 1.36 +/- 0.11 and a flux density of 37 +/- 4 nJy at 1 keV. Combining this measurement with lower frequency data shows that a pure synchrotron model can fit the spectrum of knot Al from 4 GHz to 5 keV (over nine decades in energy) without a change of spectral slope. Knot A2 is also detected and is somewhat blended with knot B1 but synchrotron emission is not likely to explain the X-ray emission due to the spectral turnover observed in the optical-UV band. No other knots are clearly detected but there is an indication of weak emission from the eastern portion of knot H3. near the "head," which is radio-bright. There is diffuse flux which extends from 14 arcsec to 20 arcsec which shows curvature that is comparable to the optical flux found by Bahcall, et al.

  11. The Physics of X-ray Emission from Accreting Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poutanen, Juri

    2004-07-01

    By analyzing the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data on SAX J1808.4-3658, we show that the X-ray emission in accretion powered millisecond pulsars can be produced by Comptonization in a hot slab (radiative shock) of Thomson optical depth ?es ~ 1 at the neutron star surface. The escaping radiation consists of two components: a black body and a hard Comptonized tail. These components have very different angular distribution: the black body peaks along the slab normal (a ``pencil-like'' emission pattern), while the tail has a broader angular distribution (a ``fan''-like pattern). This results in very different variability properties. We construct a detailed model of the X-ray production accounting for the Doppler boosting, relativistic aberration and gravitational light bending. We are able to reproduce the pulse profiles at different energies, corresponding phase lags, as well as the time-averaged spectrum. We obtain constraints on the neutron star radius: R ~ 11 km if its mass M = 1.6Msolar, and R ~ 8.5 km if M = 1.4Msolar. We present simple analytical formulae for computing the light curves and oscillation amplitudes expected from hot spots in X-ray bursters and accretion powered millisecond pulsars. We also propose an analytical expression that can be used to determine the size of the black body emission region from the observed properties.

  12. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WOLF-RAYET BUBBLE S 308

    SciTech Connect

    Toala, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Arthur, S. J.; Smith, R. C.

    2012-08-10

    The Wolf-Rayet (WR) bubble S 308 around the WR star HD 50896 is one of the only two WR bubbles known to possess X-ray emission. We present XMM-Newton observations of three fields of this WR bubble that, in conjunction with an existing observation of its northwest quadrant, map most of the nebula. The X-ray emission from S 308 displays a limb-brightened morphology, with a central cavity {approx}22' in size and a shell thickness of {approx}8'. This X-ray shell is confined by the optical shell of ionized material. The spectrum is dominated by the He-like triplets of N VI at 0.43 keV and O VII at 0.57 keV, and declines toward high energies, with a faint tail up to 1 keV. This spectrum can be described by a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model (T{sub 1} {approx} 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K, T{sub 2} {approx} 13 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K), with a total X-ray luminosity {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} at the assumed distance of 1.5 kpc.

  13. The velocity dependence of X-ray emission due to Charge Exchange in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbee, Renata; Lyons, David; Mullen, Patrick Dean; Shelton, Robin L.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Schultz, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental collisional process of charge exchange (CX) has been been established as a primary source of X-ray emission from the heliosphere [1], planetary exospheres [2], and supernova remnants [3,4]. In this process, X-ray emission results from the capture of an electron by a highly charged ion from a neutral atom or molecule, to form a highly-excited, high charge state ion. As the captured electron cascades down to the lowest energy level, photons are emitted, including X-rays.To provide reliable CX-induced X-ray spectral models to realistically simulate these environments, line ratios and spectra are computed using theoretical CX cross-sections obtained with the multi-channel Landau-Zener, atomic-orbital close-coupling, and classical-trajectory Monte Carlo methods for various collisional velocities relevant to astrophysics for collisions of bare and H-like C to Al ions with H, He, and H2. Using these line ratios, XSPEC models of CX emission in the northeast rim of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant will be shown as an example with ion velocity dependence.[1] Henley, D. B. & Shelton, R. L. 2010, ApJSS, 187, 388[2] Dennerl, K. et al. 2002, A&A 386, 319[3] Katsuda, S. et al. 2011, ApJ 730 24[4] Cumbee, R. S. et al. 2014, ApJ 787 L31This work was partially supported by NASA grant NNX09AC46G.

  14. Thermal X-ray emission from a baryonic jet: a self-consistent multicolour spectral model

    E-print Network

    Khabibullin, Ildar; Sazonov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    We present a publicly-available spectral model for thermal X-ray emission from a baryonic jet in an X-ray binary system, inspired by the microquasar SS 433. The jet is assumed to be strongly collimated (half-opening angle $\\Theta\\sim 1\\deg$) and mildly relativistic (bulk velocity $\\beta=V_{b}/c\\sim 0.03-0.3$). Its X-ray spectrum is found by integrating over thin slices of constant temperature, radiating in optically thin coronal regime. The temperature profile along the jet and corresponding differential emission measure distribution are calculated with full account for gas cooling due to expansion and radiative losses. Since the model predicts both the spectral shape and luminosity of the jet's emission, its normalisation is not a free parameter if the source distance is known. We also explore the possibility of using simple X-ray observables (such as flux ratios in different energy bands) to constrain physical parameters of the jet (e.g. gas temperature and density at its base) without broad-band fitting of...

  15. The Discovery of X-ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Back in 1974 the UHURU catalog (3U) had been published with many UHGLS - unidentified high galactic latitude sources. Identifications were hampered by the square degree sized error boxes (positional uncertainties). Could these explain the cosmic X-ray background? Could UHGLS be "X-ray galaxies"? Only three active galaxies (AGNs) had been found as X-ray sources: 3C273, Cen A and NGC 4151, while others had upper limits. What was the difference between X-ray and non-X-ray AGNs? It turned out that the slightly better positioning capability and slightly deeper sensitivity of the Ariel V Sky Survey Instrument (SSI), launched in October 1974, were just enough to show that the UHGLS were Seyfert galaxies. And I was lucky enough that I'd joined the Leicester X-ray group and had taken on the UHGLS for my PhD thesis, with Ken Pounds as my supervisor. With the SSI we made a catalog of high latitude sources, the "2A" catalog, including about a dozen known Seyfert galaxies (lowish luminosity nearby AGNs) and, with Mike Penston and Martin Ward, we went on to identify many of them with both newly discovered normal broad emission line AGNs and a few new "narrow emission line galaxies", or NELGs, as we called them. We are now convinced that it is summation of many obscured NELGs that produce the flat spectrum of the X-ray background, and we are still searching for them in Chandra deep surveys and at higher energies with NuSTAR. There was an obvious connection between the X-ray obscuration and the optical reddening, which must lie outside the region emitting the broad optical spectral lines. Andy Lawrence and I, following a clue from Bill Keel, put this together into what we now call the Unified Scheme for AGN structure. This idea of a flattened torus obscuring the inner regions of the AGN was so dramatically confirmed a few years later -- by Ski Antonucci and Joe Miller's discovery of polarized broad emission lines in NGC1068 -- that the precursor papers became irrelevant. But Ariel V had provided the seeds for this advance too. Not bad for 100cm2 and 1/2 degree collimators.

  16. The X-ray eclipse of OY Car resolved with XMM-Newton: X-ray emission from the polar regions of the white dwarf

    E-print Network

    Peter J. Wheatley; Richard G. West

    2003-07-24

    We present the XMM-Newton X-ray eclipse lightcurve of the dwarf nova OY Car. The eclipse ingress and egress are well resolved for the first time in any dwarf nova placing strong constraints on the size and location of the X-ray emitting region. We find good fits to a simple linear eclipse model, giving ingress/egress durations of 30+/-3 sec. Remarkably this is shorter than the ingress/egress duration of the sharp eclipse in the optical as measured by Wood et al. (1989) and ascribed to the white dwarf (43+/-2 sec). We also find that the X-ray eclipse is narrower than the optical eclipse by 14+/-2 sec, which is precisely the difference required to align the second and third contact points of the X-ray and optical eclipses. We discuss these results and conclude that X-ray emission in OY Car most likely arises from the polar regions of the white dwarf. Our data were originally reported by Ramsay et al (2001), but they did not make a quantitative measurement of eclipse parameters. We have also corrected important timing anomalies present in the data available at that time.

  17. Solar Control on Jupiter's Equatorial X-ray Emissions: 26-29 November 2003 XMM-Newton Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Ramsay, G.; Rodriquez, P.; Soria, R.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    During November 26-29,2003 XMM-Newton observed X-ray emissions from Jupiter for 69 hours. The 0.7-2.0 keV X-ray disk of Jupiter is observed to be brightest at the subsolar point, and limb darkening is seen in the 0.2-2.0 keV and 0.7-2.0 keV images. We present simultaneous lightcurves of Jovian equatorial X-rays and solar X-rays measured by the GOES, SOHO/SEM, and TIMED/SEE satellites. The solar X-ray flares occurring on the Jupiter-facing side of the Sun are matched by corresponding features in the Jovian X- rays. These results support the hypothesis that X-ray emissions from Jovian low-latitudes are solar X-rays scattered and fluoresced from the planet's upper atmosphere, and confirm that the Sun directly controls the non-auroral X-rays fiom Jupiter's disk. Our study suggest that Jovian equatorial X-rays; during certain Jupiter phase, can be used to predict the occurrence of solar flare on the hemisphere of the Sun that is invisible to space weather satellites.

  18. Search for X-ray line emission from A0620-00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kestenbaum, H. L.; Cohen, G. G.; Long, K. S.; Novick, R.; Silver, E. H.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Wolff, R. S.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the X-ray spectrum (1.85-7 keV) of A0620-00 obtained on 1975 October 17 and 1976 January 1-9 with the graphite crystal spectrometer on OSO-8 show a smooth continuum with an absence of emission lines. Upper limits are given for line emission from Si and S ions and are used to establish that the source is not optically thin. The results support a dense plasma model.

  19. Proton-induced X-ray and gamma ray emission analysis of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Gene S.; Navon, Eliahu

    1986-04-01

    A 4.1 MeV external proton beam was employed to simultaneously induce X-ray emission (PIXE) and gamma ray emission (PIGE) in biological samples that included human colostrum, spermatozoa, teeth, tree-rings, and follicular fluids. The analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine the elements lithium (Z = 3) through uranium (Z = 92) in the samples. PIXE-PIGE experimental design is described as well as applications in environmental and medical fields.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of the Resolved X-ray Emission Line Profiles of O Stars

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    -loss rates OUTLINE #12; Pup (O4 I) 10 Å 20 Å N VO VII O VIII Ne X Si XIV Fe XVII Ne IX Mg XII Globally, O.swarthmore.edu/~cohen/presentations/CfA_11jun07.pdf #12;1. Chandra spectra: emission lines are broad and asymmetric 2. Hot-star X star X-ray spectra look like coronal spectra #12;But the emission lines are quite broad Ne X Ne IX Fe

  1. Intragroup and Galaxy-linked Diffuse X-ray Emission In Hickson Compact Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Tyler D.; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Mulchaey, John S.; Brandt, William N.; Charlton, Jane C.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Cardiff, Ann; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis, S.; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated compact groups (CGs) of galaxies present a range of dynamical states, group velocity dispersions, and galaxy morphologies with which to study galaxy evolution, particularly the properties of gas both within the galaxies and in the intragroup medium. As part of a large, multiwavelength examination of CGs, we present an archival study of diffuse X-ray emission in a subset of nine Hickson compact groups (HCGs) observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. We find that seven of the groups in our sample exhibit detectable diffuse emission. However, unlike large-scale emission in galaxy clusters, the diffuse features in the majority of the detected groups are linked to the individual galaxies, in the form of both plumes and halos likely as a result of vigourous star formation or activity in the galaxy nucleus, as well as in emission from tidal features. Unlike previous studies from earlier X-ray missions, HCGs 31, 42, 59, and 92 are found to be consistent with the L(sub X-Tau) relationship from clusters within the errors, while HCGs 16 and 31 are consistent with the cluster L(sub X-sigma) relation, though this is likely coincidental given that the hot gas in these two systems is largely due to star formation. We find that L(sub X) increases with decreasing group Hi to dynamical-mass ratio with tentative evidence for a dependence in X-ray luminosity on Hi morphology whereby systems with intragroup Hi indicative of strong interactions are considerably more X-ray luminous than passively evolving groups. We also find a gap in the L(sub X) of groups as a function of the total group specific star formation rate. Our findings suggest that the hot gas in these groups is not in hydrostatic equilibrium and these systems are not low-mass analogs of rich groups or clusters, with the possible exception of HCG 62.

  2. Non-detection of X-ray emission from sterile neutrinos in stacked galaxy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael E.; Churazov, Eugene; Bregman, Joel N.

    2015-10-01

    We conduct a comprehensive search for X-ray emission lines from sterile neutrino dark matter, motivated by recent claims of unidentified emission lines in the stacked X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters and the centres of the Milky Way and M31. Since the claimed emission lines lie around 3.5 keV, we focus on galaxies and galaxy groups (masking the central regions), since these objects emit very little radiation above ˜2 keV and offer a clean background against which to detect emission lines. We develop a formalism for maximizing the signal-to-noise of decaying dark matter emission lines by weighing each X-ray event according to the expected dark matter profile. In total, we examine 81 and 89 galaxies with Chandra and XMM-Newton, respectively, totalling 15.0 and 14.6 Ms of integration time. We find no significant evidence of any emission lines, placing strong constraints on the mixing angle of sterile neutrinos with masses between 4.8 and 12.4 keV. In particular, if the 3.57 keV feature from Bulbul et al. were due to 7.1 keV sterile neutrino emission, we would have detected it at 4.4? and 11.8? in our two samples. The most conservative estimates of the systematic uncertainties reduce these constraints to 4.4? and 7.8?, or letting the line energy vary between 3.50 and 3.60 keV reduces these constraints to 2.7? and 11.0?, respectively. Unlike previous constraints, our measurements do not depend on the model of the X-ray background or on the assumed logarithmic slope of the centre of the dark matter profile.

  3. X-ray emission from star-forming galaxies - I. High-mass X-ray binaries

    E-print Network

    Mineo, S; Sunyaev, R

    2011-01-01

    Based on a homogeneous set of X-ray, infrared and ultraviolet observations from Chandra, Spitzer, GALEX and 2MASS archives, we study populations of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) in a sample of 29 nearby star-forming galaxies and their relation with the star formation rate (SFR). In agreement with previous results, we find that HMXBs are a good tracer of the recent star formation activity in the host galaxy and their collective luminosity and number scale with the SFR, in particular, L_X ~ 2.5*10^{39}*SFR. However, the scaling relations still bear a rather large dispersion of rms~0.4 dex, which we believe is of a physical origin. We present the catalog of 1057 X-ray sources detected within the D25 ellipse for galaxies of our sample and construct the average X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of HMXBs with substantially improved statistical accuracy and better control of systematic effects than achieved in previous studies. The XLF follows a power law with slope of 1.6 in the log(L_X)~35-40 luminosity range wit...

  4. Shock-generated X-ray emission in radiatively driven winds - A model for Tau Scorpii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macfarlane, Joseph J.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.

    1989-01-01

    A one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code is used to numerically investigate the structure and evolution of shocks in the winds of hot stars. Results are presented for the specific case of Tau Sco, a well-studied main-sequence B star for which there are X-ray data from the Einstien satellite's Solid State Spectrometer. A phenomenological radiative acceleration term and a mass-loss rate consistent with UV observations, are used to determine the time dependence of the temperatures within and X-ray emission from an isolated shock region. The driving acceleration leads to the formation of a two-component shock zone with 'forward' and 'reverse' shocks, each with their own characteristic temperature. A denser cold region forms between the two shocks, which could potentially account for the presence of narrow absorption features that are observed in the UV P Cygni profiles of many hot stars. The X-ray emission spectra from the shocks in the calculations are in good general agreement with two-temperature model fits to Einstein X-ray observations.

  5. X-ray and radio emission from Type In supernova SN 2010jl

    E-print Network

    Chandra, Poonam; Chugai, Nikolai; Fransson, Claes; Soderberg, Alicia M

    2015-01-01

    We present all X-ray and radio observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl. The X-ray observations cover a period up to day 1500 with Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Swift-XRT. The Chandra observations after 2012 June, the XMM-Newton observation in 2013 November, and most of the Swift-XRT observations until 2014 December are presented for the first time. All the spectra can be fitted by an absorbed hot thermal model except for \\chandra spectra on 2011 October and 2012 June when an additional component is needed. Although the origin of this component is uncertain, it is spatially coincident with the supernova and occurs when there are changes to the supernova spectrum in the energy range close to that of the extra component, indicating that the emission is related to the supernova. The X-ray light curve shows an initial plateau followed by a steep drop starting at day $\\sim 300$. We attribute the drop to a decrease in the circumstellar density. The column density to the X-ray emission drops rapidly with t...

  6. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPERGIANT SHELL IN IC 2574

    SciTech Connect

    Yukita, Mihoko; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2012-05-01

    The M81 group member dwarf galaxy IC 2574 hosts a supergiant shell of current and recent star formation activity surrounding a 1000 Multiplication-Sign 500 pc hole in the ambient H I gas distribution. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging observations reveal a luminous, L{sub X} {approx} 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.3-8.0 keV band, point-like source within the hole but offset from its center and fainter diffuse emission extending throughout and beyond the hole. The star formation history at the location of the point source indicates a burst of star formation beginning {approx}25 Myr ago and currently weakening and there is a young nearby star cluster, at least 5 Myr old, bracketing the likely age of the X-ray source at between 5 and {approx}25 Myr. The source is thus likely a bright high-mass X-ray binary-either a neutron star or black hole accreting from an early B star undergoing thermal-timescale mass transfer through Roche lobe overflow. The properties of the residual diffuse X-ray emission are consistent with those expected from hot gas associated with the recent star formation activity in the region.

  7. Search for X-Ray Emission in the Nearest Known Brown Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The XMM observation were obtained on 2001 January 07-08 for 51767 s. The Optical Monitor (OM) was used with the V filter for 4 exposures of 5000 s each in imaging mode. We used the data given by the OM to confirm the presence of the source in the field of view. The European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) MOS 1 and MOS2 were used 48724 s each in prime full window mode with 2.5 s time resolution. The EPIC PN was used 46618 s in prime full window mode with 73.4 ms time resolution. The X-ray source closest to the expected position of our target is offset by delta R.A=2.5 arcsec and delta Dec=-28.37 arcsec. This offset is high in comparison with the 0.4 arcsec observed with the optical data. So at this point we already knew that the target was not detected. To confirm that conclusion, we performed the identification of all X-ray sources in the field of view by comparing source to source our image with the one obtained by Rutledge et al. with Chandra. This allowed us to identify all the X-ray sources in our field of view in an area of 20 arcsec times 10 arcsec centered on the expected coordinates of LP944-20. We were then able to conclude that the target was not detected during this observation. This result allowed us to determine a new and better 3 sigma upper limit of X-Ray emission for this object. We have also derived duty cycles for X-ray flares as a function of X-ray luminosity by comparing the XMM data with Chandra and ROSAT data. One student has been supported with the grant during four months (Herve Bouy). A Sun workstation was purchased for him.

  8. Thermal X-ray emission from a baryonic jet: a self-consistent multicolour spectral model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabibullin, I.; Medvedev, P.; Sazonov, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present a publicly available spectral model for thermal X-ray emission from a baryonic jet in an X-ray binary system, inspired by the microquasar SS 433. The jet is assumed to be strongly collimated (half-opening angle ? ˜ 1°) and mildly relativistic (bulk velocity ? = Vb/c ˜ 0.03-0.3). Its X-ray spectrum is found by integrating over thin slices of constant temperature, radiating in optically thin coronal regime. The temperature profile along the jet and corresponding differential emission measure distribution are calculated with full account for gas cooling due to expansion and radiative losses. Since the model predicts both the spectral shape and luminosity of the jet's emission, its normalization is not a free parameter if the source distance is known. We also explore the possibility of using simple X-ray observables (such as flux ratios in different energy bands) to constrain physical parameters of the jet (e.g. gas temperature and density at its base) without broad-band fitting of high-resolution spectra. We demonstrate this approach in application to Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer spectra of SS 433 in its `edge-on' precession phase, when the contribution from non-jet spectral components is expected to be low. Our model provides a reasonable fit to the 1-3 keV data, while some residuals remain at higher energies, which may be partially attributed to a putative reflection component. Besides SS 433, the model might be used for describing jet components in spectra of other Galactic X-ray binary systems (e.g. 4U 1630-47), ULXs (e.g. Holmberg II X-1), and candidate SS 433 analogues like S26 in NGC 7793 and the radio transient in M82.

  9. Hard X-ray and radio emission at the onset of great solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, K.-L.; Pick, M.; Magun, A.; Dennis, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the onset phase of ten great hard X-ray bursts is presented. It is shown from hard X-ray and radio observations in different wavelength ranges that the energization of the electrons proceeds on a global time-scale for some tens of seconds. In nine of the bursts, two phases of emission can be distinguished during the onset phase: the preflash phase (during which emission up to an energy limit ranging from some tens of keV to 200 keV is observed) followed ten to some tens of seconds later by the flash phase (where the count rate in all detector channels rises simultaneously to within some seconds). For two of the events, strong gamma-ray line emission is observed and is shown to start close to the onset of the flash phase.

  10. Diffuse X-ray emission from the planetary nebula NGC 7009

    E-print Network

    Martin A. Guerrero; Robert A. Gruendl; You-Hua Chu

    2002-03-04

    XMM-Newton EPIC observations of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7009, the Saturn Nebula, have detected extended X-ray emission in its central cavity. The diffuse X-ray emission must originate in the shocked fast stellar wind. The spectra show that the temperature of the hot gas is 1.8*10^6 K. The rms density derived from the volume emission measure is a few tens H-atom/cm^3. The hot gas does not appear over-pressurized with respect to the nebular shell. NGC 7009 represents an evolutionary stage at which the influence of the hot gas in the PN interior starts to decline due to the diminishing strength of the fast stellar wind and the expansion of the central cavity.

  11. X-Ray Emission from Supernovae in Dense Circumstellar Matter Environments: A Search for Collisionless Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofek, E.O; Fox, D.; Cenko, B.; Sullivan, M.; Gnat, O.; Frail A.; Horesh, A.; Corsi, A; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Yaron, O.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Poznanski, D; Arcavi, L.; Laher, R. R.; Levitan, D.; Sesar, B.; Surace, J.

    2012-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (tau approx > 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and -dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into 8. collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift-XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 type-IIn SNe, one type-Ibn SN and eiht hydrogen-poor super-luminous SNe (SLSN-I; SN 2005ap like). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSl\\l. Therefore, we suggest that their optical light curves are powered by shock breakout in CSM. We show that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock breakout model. We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, type-IIn/Ibn SNe are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained at too early times (i.e., near the SN maximum light) to conclude about their nature. Late time X-ray observations are required in order to further test if these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakOut in a wind profile. We argue that the time scale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above the shock region. The optical light curves of SNe, for which the X-ray emission peaks at late times, are likely powered by the diffusion of shock energy from a dense CSM. We note that if the CSM density profile falls faster than a constant-rate wind density profile, then X-rays may escape at earlier times than estimated for the wind profile case. Furthermore, if the CSM have a region in which the density profile is very steep, relative to a steady wind density profile, or the CSM is neutral, then the radio free-free absorption may be low enough, and radio emission may be detected.

  12. A von Hamos x-ray spectrometer based on a segmented-type diffraction crystal for single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy and time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Szlachetko, J.; Nachtegaal, M.; Boni, E. de; Willimann, M.; Safonova, O.; Sa, J.; Smolentsev, G.; Szlachetko, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Schmitt, B.; David, C.; Luecke, A.; Bokhoven, J. A. van; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y.; Jagodzinski, P.

    2012-10-15

    We report on the design and performance of a wavelength-dispersive type spectrometer based on the von Hamos geometry. The spectrometer is equipped with a segmented-type crystal for x-ray diffraction and provides an energy resolution in the order of 0.25 eV and 1 eV over an energy range of 8000 eV-9600 eV. The use of a segmented crystal results in a simple and straightforward crystal preparation that allows to preserve the spectrometer resolution and spectrometer efficiency. Application of the spectrometer for time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy is demonstrated.

  13. Chandra Observations of Extended X-Ray Emission in ARP 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, J. C.; Clements, D. L.; Lamb, S. A.; Shaked, S.; Hearn, N. C.; Colina, L.; Mundell, C.; Borne, K.; Baker, A. C.; Arribas, S.

    2003-01-01

    We resolve the extended X-ray emission from the prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. Extended, faint, edge-brightened, soft X-ray lobes outside the optical galaxy are observed to a distance of 1CL 15 kpc on each side of the nuclear region. Bright plumes inside the optical isophotes coincide with the optical line emission and extend 1 1 kpc from end to end across the nucleus. The data for the plumes cannot be fitted by a single-temperature plasma and display a range of temperatures from 0.2 to 1 keV. The plumes emerge from bright, diffuse circumnuclear emission in the inner 3 kpc centered on the Ha peak, which is displaced from the radio nuclei. There is a close morphological correspondence between the Ha and soft X-ray emission on all spatial scales. We interpret the plumes as a starburst-driven superwind and discuss two interpretations of the emission from the lobes in the context of simulations of the merger dynamics of Arp 220.

  14. Possible Charge-Exchange X-Ray Emission in the Cygnus Loop Detected with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Hiroko; Kimura, Masashi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Takakura, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hewitt. John W.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2011-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant indicate that metal abundances throughout most of the remnant s rim are depleted to approx.0.2 times the solar value. However, recent X-ray studies have revealed in some narrow regions along the outermost rim anomalously "enhanced" abundances (up to approx. 1 solar). The reason for these anomalous abundances is not understood. Here, we examine X-ray spectra in annular sectors covering nearly the entire rim of the Cygnus Loop using Suzaku (21 pointings) and XMM-Newton (1 pointing). We find that spectra in the "enhanced" abundance regions commonly show a strong emission feature at approx.0.7 keV. This feature is likely a complex of He-like O K(gamma + delta + epsilon), although other possibilities cannot be fully excluded. The intensity of this emission relative to He-like O K(alpha) appears to be too high to be explained as thermal emission. This fact, as well as the spatial concentration of the anomalous abundances in the outermost rim, leads us to propose an origin from charge-exchange processes between neutrals and H-like O. We show that the presence of charge-exchange emission could lead to the inference of apparently "enhanced" metal abundances using pure thermal emission models. Accounting for charge-exchange emission, the actual abundances could be uniformly low throughout the rim. The overall abundance depletion remains an open question. Subject headings: ISM: abundances ISM: individual objects (Cygnus Loop) ISM: supernova remnants X-rays: ISM atomic processes

  15. Suzaku observations of the diffuse X-ray emission across the Fermi bubbles' edges

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, J.; Tahara, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totani, T.; Sofue, Y.; Stawarz, ?.; Kimura, M.; Takei, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Cheung, C. C.; Inoue, Y.; Nakamori, T.

    2013-12-10

    We present Suzaku X-ray observations along two edge regions of the Fermi Bubbles, with eight ? 20 ks pointings across the northern part of the North Polar Spur (NPS) surrounding the north bubble and six across the southernmost edge of the south bubble. After removing compact X-ray features, diffuse X-ray emission is clearly detected and is well reproduced by a three-component spectral model consisting of unabsorbed thermal emission (temperature kT ? 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT ? 0.3 keV thermal emission related to the NPS and/or Galactic halo (GH), and a power-law component at a level consistent with the cosmic X-ray background. The emission measure (EM) of the 0.3 keV plasma decreases by ? 50% toward the inner regions of the northeast bubble, with no accompanying temperature change. However, such a jump in the EM is not clearly seen in the south bubble data. While it is unclear whether the NPS originates from a nearby supernova remnant or is related to previous activity within or around the Galactic center, our Suzaku observations provide evidence that suggests the latter scenario. In the latter framework, the presence of a large amount of neutral matter absorbing the X-ray emission as well as the existence of the kT ? 0.3 keV gas can be naturally interpreted as a weak shock driven by the bubbles' expansion in the surrounding medium, with velocity v {sub exp} ? 300 km s{sup –1} (corresponding to shock Mach number M?1.5), compressing the GH gas to form the NPS feature. We also derived an upper limit for any non-thermal X-ray emission component associated with the bubbles and demonstrate that, in agreement with the aforementioned findings, the non-thermal pressure and energy estimated from a one-zone leptonic model of its broadband spectrum, are in rough equilibrium with that of the surrounding thermal plasma.

  16. Suzaku Observations of the Diffuse X-Ray Emission across the Fermi Bubbles' Edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, J.; Tahara, M.; Totani, T.; Sofue, Y.; Stawarz, ?.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Kimura, M.; Takei, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Inoue, Y.; Nakamori, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present Suzaku X-ray observations along two edge regions of the Fermi Bubbles, with eight ~= 20 ks pointings across the northern part of the North Polar Spur (NPS) surrounding the north bubble and six across the southernmost edge of the south bubble. After removing compact X-ray features, diffuse X-ray emission is clearly detected and is well reproduced by a three-component spectral model consisting of unabsorbed thermal emission (temperature kT ~= 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT ~= 0.3 keV thermal emission related to the NPS and/or Galactic halo (GH), and a power-law component at a level consistent with the cosmic X-ray background. The emission measure (EM) of the 0.3 keV plasma decreases by ~= 50% toward the inner regions of the northeast bubble, with no accompanying temperature change. However, such a jump in the EM is not clearly seen in the south bubble data. While it is unclear whether the NPS originates from a nearby supernova remnant or is related to previous activity within or around the Galactic center, our Suzaku observations provide evidence that suggests the latter scenario. In the latter framework, the presence of a large amount of neutral matter absorbing the X-ray emission as well as the existence of the kT ~= 0.3 keV gas can be naturally interpreted as a weak shock driven by the bubbles' expansion in the surrounding medium, with velocity v exp ~ 300 km s-1 (corresponding to shock Mach number {M} \\simeq 1.5), compressing the GH gas to form the NPS feature. We also derived an upper limit for any non-thermal X-ray emission component associated with the bubbles and demonstrate that, in agreement with the aforementioned findings, the non-thermal pressure and energy estimated from a one-zone leptonic model of its broadband spectrum, are in rough equilibrium with that of the surrounding thermal plasma.

  17. Diffuse X-ray emission from the superbubbles N70 and N185 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes-Iturbide, J.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Rosado, M.; Sánchez-Cruces, M.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.

    2014-11-01

    We present a study of the diffuse X-ray emission from superbubbles (SBs) N70 (DEM L301) and N185 (DEM L25) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on data from the XMM-Newton Satellite. We obtained spectra and images of these objects in the soft X-ray energy band. These X-ray spectra were fitted by a thermal plasma model, with temperatures of 2.6×10{sup 6} K and 2.3×10{sup 6} K, for N70 and N185, respectively. For N70, images show that X-ray emission comes from the inner regions of the SB when we compare the distribution of the X-ray and the optical emission, while for N185, the X-ray emission is partially confined by the optical shell. We suggest that the observed X-ray emission is caused by shock-heated gas, inside of the optical shells. We also obtained X-ray luminosities which exceed the values predicted by the standard analytical model. This fact shows that, in addition to the winds of the interior stars, it is necessary to consider another ingredient in the description, such as a supernova explosion, as has been proposed in previous numerical models.

  18. DIFFUSE HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN STARBURST GALAXIES AS SYNCHROTRON FROM VERY HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacki, Brian C.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse hard X-ray (2-10 keV) emission from starburst galaxies is a long-standing problem. We suggest that synchrotron emission of 10-100 TeV electrons and positrons (e {sup {+-}}) can contribute to this emission, because starbursts have strong magnetic fields. We consider three sources of e {sup {+-}} at these energies: (1) primary electrons directly accelerated by supernova remnants, (2) pionic secondary e {sup {+-}} created by inelastic collisions between cosmic ray (CR) protons and gas nuclei in the dense interstellar medium of starbursts, and (3) pair e {sup {+-}} produced between the interactions between 10 and 100 TeV {gamma}-rays and the intense far-infrared (FIR) radiation fields of starbursts. We create one-zone steady-state models of the CR population in the Galactic center (R {<=} 112 pc), NGC 253, M82, and Arp 220's nuclei, assuming a power-law injection spectrum for electrons and protons. We consider different injection spectral slopes, magnetic field strengths, CR acceleration efficiencies, and diffusive escape times, and include advective escape, radiative cooling processes, and secondary and pair e {sup {+-}}. We compare these models to extant radio and GeV and TeV {gamma}-ray data for these starbursts, and calculate the diffuse synchrotron X-ray and inverse Compton (IC) luminosities of these starbursts in the models which satisfy multiwavelength constraints. If the primary electron spectrum extends to {approx}PeV energies and has a proton/electron injection ratio similar to the Galactic value, we find that synchrotron emission contributes 2%-20% of their unresolved, diffuse hard X-ray emission. However, there is great uncertainty in this conclusion because of the limited information on the CR electron spectrum at these high energies. IC emission is likewise a minority of the unresolved X-ray emission in these starbursts, from 0.1% in the Galactic center to 10% in Arp 220's nuclei, with the main uncertainty being the starbursts' magnetic field. We also model generic starbursts, including submillimeter galaxies, in the context of the FIR-X-ray relation, finding that anywhere between 0% and 16% of the total hard X-ray emission is synchrotron for different parameters, and up to 2% in the densest starbursts assuming an E {sup -2.2} injection spectrum and a diffusive escape time of 10 Myr (E/3 GeV){sup -1/2} (h/100 pc). Neutrino observations by IceCube and TeV {gamma}-ray data from HESS, VERITAS, and CTA can further constrain the synchrotron X-ray emission of starbursts. Our models do not constrain the possibility of hard, second components of primary e {sup {+-}} from sources like pulsars in starbursts, which could enhance the synchrotron X-ray emission further.

  19. Chandra X-ray Grating Spectrometry of Eta Carinae near X-ray Minimum: I. Variability of the Sulfur and Silicon Emission Lines

    E-print Network

    D. B. Henley; M. F. Corcoran; J. M. Pittard; I. R. Stevens; K. Hamaguchi; T. R. Gull

    2008-03-15

    We report on variations in important X-ray emission lines in a series of Chandra grating spectra of the supermassive colliding wind binary star Eta Carinae, including key phases around the X-ray minimum/periastron passage in 2003.5. The X-rays arise from the collision of the slow, dense wind of Eta Car with the fast, low-density wind of an otherwise hidden companion star. The X-ray emission lines provide the only direct measure of the flow dynamics of the companion's wind along the wind-wind collision zone. We concentrate here on the silicon and sulfur lines, which are the strongest and best resolved lines in the X-ray spectra. Most of the line profiles can be adequately fit with symmetric Gaussians with little significant skewness. Both the silicon and sulfur lines show significant velocity shifts and correlated increases in line widths through the observations. The R = forbidden-to-intercombination ratio from the Si XIII and S XV triplets is near or above the low-density limit in all observations, suggesting that the line-forming region is >1.6 stellar radii from the companion star. We show that simple geometrical models cannot simultaneously fit both the observed centroid variations and changes in line width as a function of phase. We show that the observed profiles can be fitted with synthetic profiles with a reasonable model of the emissivity along the wind-wind collision boundary. We use this analysis to help constrain the line formation region as a function of orbital phase, and the orbital geometry.

  20. Population synthesis of accreting white dwarfs - II. X-ray and UV emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Woods, T. E.; Yungelson, L. R.; Gilfanov, M.; Han, Zhanwen

    2015-11-01

    Accreting white dwarfs (WDs) with non-degenerate companions are expected to emit in soft X-rays and the UV, if accreted H-rich material burns stably. They are an important component of the unresolved emission of elliptical galaxies, and their combined ionizing luminosity may significantly influence the optical line emission from warm interstellar medium (ISM). In an earlier paper, we modelled populations of accreting WDs, first generating WD with main-sequence, Hertzsprung gap and red giant companions with the population synthesis code BSE, and then following their evolution with a grid of evolutionary tracks computed with MESA. Now we use these results to estimate the soft X-ray (0.3-0.7 keV), H- and He II-ionizing luminosities of nuclear burning WDs and the number of supersoft X-ray sources for galaxies with different star formation histories. For the starburst case, these quantities peak at ˜1 Gyr and decline by ˜1-3 orders of magnitude by the age of 10 Gyr. For stellar ages of ˜10 Gyr, predictions of our model are consistent with soft X-ray luminosities observed by Chandra in nearby elliptical galaxies and He II 4686 Å/H ? line ratio measured in stacked Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra of retired galaxies, the latter characterizing the strength and hardness of the UV radiation field. However, the soft X-ray luminosity and He II 4686 Å/H ? ratio are significantly overpredicted for stellar ages of ?4-8 Gyr. We discuss various possibilities to resolve this discrepancy and tentatively conclude that it may be resolved by a modification of the typically used criteria of dynamically unstable mass-loss for giant stars.

  1. Iron line and diffuse hard X-ray emission from the starburst galaxy M82

    E-print Network

    D. K. Strickland; T. M. Heckman

    2006-11-28

    We examine the properties of the diffuse hard X-ray emission in the classic starburst galaxy M82. We use new Chandra ACIS-S observations in combination with reprocessed archival Chandra ACIS-I and XMM-Newton observations. We find E~6.7 keV Fe He-alpha emission is present in the central |r| iron line fluxes in the 2004 April 21 XMM-Newton observation are consistent with those of the Chandra-derived diffuse component, but in the 2001 May 6 XMM-Newton observation they are significantly higher and also both E=6.4 and E=6.9 keV iron lines are detected. We attribute the excess iron line emission to the Ultra-Luminous X-ray source in its high state. In general the iron K-shell luminosity of M82 is dominated by the diffuse component. The total X-ray luminosity of the diffuse hard X-ray emission (corrected for emission by unresolved low luminosity compact objects) is L_X ~ 4.4 x 10^39 erg/s in the E=2-8 keV energy band, and the 6.7 keV iron line luminosity is L_X ~ (1.1 -- 1.7) x 10^38 erg/s. The 6.7 keV iron line luminosity is consistent with that expected from the previously unobserved metal-enriched merged supernova ejecta that is thought to drive the larger-scale galactic superwind. The iron line luminosity implies a thermal pressure within the starburst region of P/k ~ 2 x 10^7 K/cm^3, which is consistent with independent observational estimates of the starburst region pressure [Abstract abridged].

  2. Rich X-Ray Structures of Mixed-Morphology SNR W28 in Hard and Soft Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Jeonghee

    2001-09-01

    We propose ACIS-S observations of the archetype mixed-morphology SNR W28, which shows center-filled X-rays within a radio shell. Two evolutionary scenarios --evaporating clouds and radiative shocks -- are competing to explain the central X-ray emission. Our studies of W28 show that the plasma conditions are different from other MM SNRs with an extra high temperature component and spectral variation across the remnant. The sub arcsec ACIS image will resolve highly structured X-ray emission of W28 at the center and shells as it is correlated with the chaotic, knoty optical emission. We are searching for evidence of cloud interaction in the X-ray band, cosmic ray acceleration sites, tracers of ejecta material, fate of clouds due to evaporations, and the radiative X-ray filaments.

  3. X-ray emission from charge exchange in the Cygnus Loop SNR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Shawn R.; Wang, Q. Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The Cygnus Loop has been the focus of substantial debate concerning the contribution of charge exchange (CX) to supernova remnant (SNR) X-ray emission. We take advantage of a distinct feature of CX, enhanced K? forbidden line emission, and employ the energy centroid of the O VII K? triplet as a diagnostic. Based on X-ray spectra extracted from an extensive set of Suzaku observations, we measure the energy centroid shifts of the triplet on and off the shock rim of the remnant. We find that enhanced forbidden to resonance line emission exists throughout much of the rim and this enhancement azimuthally correlates with non-radiative H? filaments, a tracer of strong neutral-plasma interaction in the optical. We also show that alternative mechanisms cannot explain the observed enhancement. These results demonstrate the need to model the CX contribution to the X-ray emission of SNRs, particularly for shocks propagating in a partially neutral medium. Such modelling may be critically important to the correct measurements of the ionization, thermal, and chemical properties of SNRs.

  4. A novel paradigm for short gamma-ray bursts with extended X-ray emission

    E-print Network

    Luciano Rezzolla; Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-21

    The merger of a binary of neutron stars provides natural explanations for many of the features of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs), such as the generation of a hot torus orbiting a rapidly rotating black hole, which can then build a magnetic jet and provide the energy reservoir to launch a relativistic outflow. Yet, this scenario has problems explaining the recently discovered long-term and sustained X-ray emission associated with the afterglows of a subclass of SGRBs. We propose a new model that explains how an X-ray afterglow can be sustained by the product of the merger and how the X-ray emission is produced before the corresponding emission in the gamma-band, although it is observed to follow it. Overall, our paradigm combines in a novel manner a number of well-established features of the emission in SGRBs and results from simulations. Because it involves the propagation of an ultra-relativistic outflow and its interaction with a confining medium, the paradigm also highlights a unifying phenomenology between short and long GRBs.

  5. Jet emission in NGC1052 at radio, optical, and X-ray frequencies

    E-print Network

    M. Kadler; J. Kerp; E. Ros; H. Falcke; R. W. Pogge; J. A. Zensus

    2004-03-08

    We present a combined radio, optical, and X-ray study of the nearby LINER galaxy NGC 1052. Data from a short (2.3 ksec) {\\it CHANDRA} observation of NGC 1052 reveal the presence of various jet-related X-ray emitting regions, a bright compact core and unresolved knots in the jet structure as well as an extended emitting region inside the galaxy well aligned with the radio synchrotron jet-emission. The spectrum of the extended X-ray emission can best be fitted with a thermal model with $kT = (0.4-0.5)$ keV, while the compact core exhibits a very flat spectrum, best approximated by an absorbed power-law with $N_{\\rm H} = (0.6-0.8) \\times 10^{22} {\\rm cm^{-2}}$. We compare the radio structure to an optical ``structure map'' from a {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} ({\\it HST}) observation and find a good positional correlation between the radio jet and the optical emission cone. Bright, compact knots in the jet structure are visible in all three frequency bands whose spectrum is inconsistent with synchrotron emission.

  6. DISCOVERY OF SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM IO, EUROPA, AND THE IO PLASMA TORUS Ronald F. Elsner,1

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    DISCOVERY OF SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM IO, EUROPA, AND THE IO PLASMA TORUS Ronald F. Elsner,1 G the Galilean satellites Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment, Europa, Jupiter) -- X-rays: general 1. INTRODUCTION Imaging and spectral data from the infrared through

  7. Simulation of frequency-and wave-vector-resolved femtosecond resonant x-ray emission of molecular chains

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    structure 23 , and x-ray emission fluorescence 24 . The creation of a core hole by an incident x-ray photon, including 3d transition metals and rare-earth com- pounds 19,20 . The relaxation dynamics and nuclear

  8. Experimental study of hard-X ray emission from laboratory sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Rizzi, Rolando; Levi, Giuseppe; Malgesini, Roberto; Villa, Andrea; Mazza, Paolo; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Campana, Riccardo; Bianchini, David; Brancaccio, Rossella; Montanari, Alessandro; Patrizii, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We present the characterization of hard-X rays produced by meter-long laboratory sparks carried out at the high-voltage laboratory of RSE, Milano, Italy. Sparks are known to emit X-rays when positive and negative streamers connect, before breakdown. Numerical simulations suggest that X-rays are produced by Bremsstrahlung in air by electrons accelerated to the runaway regime in the high electric field at the streamers tip. Positive meter-long discharges are produced by a Marx generator loaded by a meter-long air gap formed by a spherical anode and a conical-shaped cathode. Maximum voltage at breakdown is about 1 MV. We investigate the production of X-rays by means of an array of scintillation detectors deployed around the cathode. Each detector is a 2'' NaI(Tl) scintillating crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Each detector is battery-powered and enclosed in a metallic housing for EM shielding. Analog signal output is trasmitted to a shielded control room by means of optical fibre tranceivers, and then collected by a fast digitizer. We present the experimental setup and first results concerning detection efficiency, energy spectra, and geometrical distribution of the emission.

  9. Detection of X-ray emission from the PSR 1259-63/SS 2883 binary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, Lynn; Roberts, Mallory; Johnston, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Nonpulsed but variable X-ray emission has been detected from the binary system containing the radio pulsar PSR 1259-63 during two pointed ROSAT observations, taken 5 months apart. This 47.7 ms radio pulsar is in a highly eccentric (epsilon approximately 0.85) binary system with the 10-15 solar mass Be star SS 2883. It is the first radio pulsar found to be in a binary system with a massive main-sequence companion; it is also the most highly eccentric binary system known to contain a neutron star. The level of X-ray flux detected in the ROSAT observations has increased with orbital phase by a factor of at least 10 between 1992 February and 1993 February. The X-ray flux is significantly greater than expected from the Be star's corona and seems likely to originate either from low-level stellar wind accretion onto the neutron star or from the shock between the stellar wind and the relativistic pulsar wind. The system may be the progenitor of the more slowly rotating Be X-ray binary pulsar systems.

  10. Chandra Observations of SN 2004et and the X-ray Emission of Type IIp Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Rho, J; Chugai, N N; Chevalier, R A

    2007-01-01

    We report the X-ray detection of the Type II-plateau supernova SN 2004et in the spiral galaxy NGC 6946, using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The position of the X-ray source was found to agree with the optical position within ~0.4 arcsec. Chandra also surveyed the region before the 2004 event, finding no X-ray emission at the location of the progenitor. For the post-explosion observations, a total of 202, 151, and 158 photons were detected in three pointings, each ~29 ks in length, on 2004 October 22, November 6, and December 3, respectively. The spectrum of the first observation is best fit by a thermal model with a temperature of kT=1.3 keV and a line-of-sight absorption of N_H=1.0 x 10^{22} cm^{-2}. The inferred unabsorbed luminosity (0.4-8 keV) is ~4x10^{38} erg/s, adopting a distance of 5.5 Mpc. A comparison between hard and soft counts on the first and third epochs indicates a softening over this time, although there is an insufficient number of photons to constrain the variation of temperature and abso...

  11. Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis of Crematorium Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Yoskowitz, Joshua; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    There has been considerable debate in recent years about possible mercury emissions from crematoria due to amalgam tooth restorations. We have performed a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol and soil samples taken near the Vale Cemetery Crematorium in Schenectady, NY, to address this concern. The aerosol samples were collected on the roof of the crematorium using a nine-stage, cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic diameter and deposits it onto thin Kapton foils. The soil samples were collected at several different distances from the crematorium and compressed into pellets with a hydraulic press. The Kapton foils containing the aerosol samples and the soil pellets were bombarded with 2.2-MeV protons from the 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. We measured significant concentrations of sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and iron, but essentially no mercury in the aerosol samples. The lower limit of detection for airborne mercury in this experiment was approximately 0.2 ng / m3. The PIXE analysis of the soil samples showed the presence of elements commonly found in soil (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe), but no trace of mercury. There has been considerable debate in recent years about possible mercury emissions from crematoria due to amalgam tooth restorations. We have performed a proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol and soil samples taken near the Vale Cemetery Crematorium in Schenectady, NY, to address this concern. The aerosol samples were collected on the roof of the crematorium using a nine-stage, cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic diameter and deposits it onto thin Kapton foils. The soil samples were collected at several different distances from the crematorium and compressed into pellets with a hydraulic press. The Kapton foils containing the aerosol samples and the soil pellets were bombarded with 2.2-MeV protons from the 1.1-MV tandem Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. We measured significant concentrations of sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and iron, but essentially no mercury in the aerosol samples. The lower limit of detection for airborne mercury in this experiment was approximately 0.2 ng / m3. The PIXE analysis of the soil samples showed the presence of elements commonly found in soil (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe), but no trace of mercury. Union College Department of Physics and Astronomy.

  12. Electrochemical flowcell for in-situ investigations by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwanke, C.; Lange, K. M.; Golnak, R.; Xiao, J.

    2014-10-15

    A new liquid flow-cell designed for electronic structure investigations at the liquid-solid interface by soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented. A thin membrane serves simultaneously as a substrate for the working electrode and solid state samples as well as for separating the liquid from the surrounding vacuum conditions. In combination with counter and reference electrodes this approach allows in-situ studies of electrochemical deposition processes and catalytic reactions at the liquid-solid interface in combination with potentiostatic measurements. As model system in-situ monitoring of the deposition process of Co metal from a 10 mM CoCl{sub 2} aqueous solution by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented.

  13. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E.; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A. E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca

    2013-07-20

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter-present in the core of NSs-is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R{sub NS}, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of {approx}10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M{sub NS}>0.5 M{sub Sun }). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R{sub NS} value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R{sub NS}, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R{sub NS}=9.1{sup +1.3}{sub -1.5} km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R{sub NS} equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  14. Bulk band gaps in divalent hexaborides: A soft x-ray emission study

    SciTech Connect

    Denlinger, Jonathan D.; Gweon, Gey-Hong; Allen, James W.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Fisk, Zachary

    2001-10-03

    Boron K-edge soft x-ray emission and absorption are used to address the fundamental question of whether divalent hexaborides are intrinsic semimetals or defect-doped bandgap insulators. These bulk sensitive measurements, complementary and consistent with surface-sensitive angle-resolved photoemission experiments, confirm the existence of a bulk band gap and the location of the chemical potential at the bottom of the conduction band.

  15. Correlation of solar radio pulsations with hard X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Benz, A. O.; Kane, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study of the correlation of quasi-periodic broad-band decimetric pulsations with hard X-ray (HXR) emission is carried out. It is found that, in 11 out of 56 simultaneously observed events, the decimetric quasi-periodic pulsations in the impulsive phase of flares are correlated. If events with concurring type III bursts are included, 19 cases of radio pulsations are correlated with HXR.

  16. First-principles Calculation of Resonant X-ray Emission Spectra Applied to ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    A Preston; A DeMasi; L Piper; K Smith; W Lambrecht; A Boonchun; T Cheiwchanchamnangij; J Arnemann; V van Schlifgaarde; B Ruck

    2011-12-31

    A framework for calculating the k-conserving component of K edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy measurements of anisotropic solids is presented. The crystalline band structure is calculated using a quasiparticle self-consistent GW implementation. Coherent spectra are calculated in the Kramers-Heisenberg formalism, and the effect of the experimental geometry in the dipole approximation is fully considered. Coherent spectra are calculated for ZnO and successfully compared to previously measured data.

  17. X-ray continuum emission spectroscopy from hot dense matter at Gbar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, D. Falcone, R. W.; Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Collins, G. W.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Le Pape, S.; Swift, D. C.; Chapman, D. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Neumayer, P.

    2014-11-15

    We have measured the time-resolved x-ray continuum emission spectrum of ?30 times compressed polystyrene created at stagnation of spherically convergent shock waves within the Gbar fundamental science campaign at the National Ignition Facility. From an exponential emission slope between 7.7 keV and 8.1 keV photon energy and using an emission model which accounts for reabsorption, we infer an average electron temperature of 375 ± 21 eV, which is in good agreement with HYDRA-1D simulations.

  18. X-ray continuum emission spectroscopy from hot dense matter at Gbar pressures.

    PubMed

    Kraus, D; Döppner, T; Kritcher, A L; Bachmann, B; Chapman, D A; Collins, G W; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J A; Landen, O L; Ma, T; Le Pape, S; Neumayer, P; Swift, D C; Falcone, R W

    2014-11-01

    We have measured the time-resolved x-ray continuum emission spectrum of ?30 times compressed polystyrene created at stagnation of spherically convergent shock waves within the Gbar fundamental science campaign at the National Ignition Facility. From an exponential emission slope between 7.7 keV and 8.1 keV photon energy and using an emission model which accounts for reabsorption, we infer an average electron temperature of 375 ± 21 eV, which is in good agreement with HYDRA-1D simulations. PMID:25430182

  19. X-ray continuum emission spectroscopy from hot dense matter at Gbar pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, D.; Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Chapman, D. A.; Collins, G. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Le Pape, S.; Neumayer, P.; Swift, D. C.; Falcone, R. W.

    2014-11-01

    We have measured the time-resolved x-ray continuum emission spectrum of ˜30 times compressed polystyrene created at stagnation of spherically convergent shock waves within the Gbar fundamental science campaign at the National Ignition Facility. From an exponential emission slope between 7.7 keV and 8.1 keV photon energy and using an emission model which accounts for reabsorption, we infer an average electron temperature of 375 ± 21 eV, which is in good agreement with HYDRA-1D simulations.

  20. Evidence for Intermediate Polars as the origin of the Galactic Center hard X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailey, Charles James; NuSTAR Galactic Plane Survey Working Group

    2016-01-01

    Recently, NuSTAR has discovered an unresolved hard (20-40 keV) X-ray emission within the central 10 pc of the Galaxy, possibly indicating a large population of intermediate polars (IPs). Chandra and XMM-Newton measurements of both point sources and diffuse emission in the surrounding ~50 pc imply a population of magnetic CVs with white dwarf mass ~ 0.5 M?. We present NuSTAR broad-band (3-79 keV) spectroscopy of two nearby IPs (TV Columbae and IGR J17303-0601) as well as our investigation of various spectral models and previous X-ray observations. We argue that the observations of both the inner 10 pc and the surrounding 50 pc can be accounted for by IPs with mean white dwarf mass ~ 0.9 M?. We find that the lower mass derived by Chandra and XMM-Newton is an artifact of narrow energy band fitting, and the spectral features associated with these measurements naturally arise in a heavier IP population. We also discuss implications for the X-ray emission and source population in the Galactic ridge and bulge.

  1. What can be learned from the absence of auroral X-ray emission from Saturn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Yawei; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ozak, Nataly; Schultz, David R.

    2010-10-01

    To understand the origin and magnitude of the present upper limit observations of Saturn's auroral X-ray emission, we use simple models based on the mechanism that leads to analogous emission at Jupiter, charge transfer between ion precipitation and atmospheric gas. Several putative sources and characteristics of the precipitation are considered, namely, (1) highly charged solar wind ions with additional acceleration and (2) ambient, thermal ion population originating, for example, from Saturn's satellites, and then accelerated to high energies. Estimates obtained for each of these sources show the need for acceleration, either to focus the highly charged solar wind ions into the atmosphere or to enable stripping of the initially low-charge state ambient ions to higher charges. The former yields a constraint on the existing accelerating potentials present at Saturn but can only account for about a tenth of the observed upper limit to the auroral luminosity, while the latter requires extremely low limits on the area (i.e., less than 100 km2) over which field-aligned potentials are active and needed to produce the acceleration to generate the observational upper limit on the X-ray luminosity. We therefore narrow the range of possible ion sources, the accelerating potentials required that are consistent with the present understanding of the magnetosphere, and model upper limit of X-ray emission from ion precipitation.

  2. What Can be Learned from the Absence of Auroral X-Ray Emission from Saturn?

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Yawei; Cravens, Thomas E. E.; Ozak, Nataly; Schultz, David Robert

    2010-01-01

    To understand the origin and magnitude of the present upper limit observations of Saturn's auroral X-ray emission, we use simple models based on the mechanism that leads to analogous emission at Jupiter, charge transfer between ion precipitation and atmospheric gas. Several putative sources and characteristics of the precipitation are considered, namely, (1) highly charged solar wind ions with additional acceleration and (2) ambient, thermal ion population originating, for example, from Saturn's satellites, and then accelerated to high energies. Estimates obtained for each of these sources show the need for acceleration, either to focus the highly charged solar wind ions into the atmosphere or to enable stripping of the initially low-charge state ambient ions to higher charges. The former yields a constraint on the existing accelerating potentials present at Saturn but can only account for about a tenth of the observed upper limit to the auroral luminosity, while the latter requires extremely low limits on the area (i.e., less than 100 km{sup 2}) over which field-aligned potentials are active and needed to produce the acceleration to generate the observational upper limit on the X-ray luminosity. We therefore narrow the range of possible ion sources, the accelerating potentials required that are consistent with the present understanding of the magnetosphere, and model upper limit of X-ray emission from ion precipitation.

  3. Suzaku Observation of Diffuse X-ray Emission from the Carina Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Petre, Robert; Matsumoti, Hironori; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Holt, Stephan S.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Hideki; Tsuboi, Yohko; Soong, Yang; Kitamoto, Shunji; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Kokubun, Motohide

    2007-01-01

    We studied extended X-ray emission from the Carina Nebula taken with the Suzaku CCD camera XIS on 2005 Aug. 29. The X-ray morphology, plasma temperature and absorption to the plasma are consistent with the earlier Einstein results. The Suzaku spectra newly revealed emission lines from various spices including oxygen, but not from nitrogen. This result restricts the N/O ratio significantly low, compared with evolved massive stellar winds, suggesting that the diffuse emission is originated in an old supernova remnant or a super shell produced by multiple supernova remnants. The X-ray spectra from the north and south of eta Car showed distinct differences between 0.3-2 keV. The south spectrum shows strong L-shell lines of iron ions and K-shell lines of silicon ions, while the north spectrum shows them weak in intensity. This means that silicon and iron abundances are a factor of 2-4 higher in the south region than in the north region. The abundance variation may be produced by an SNR ejecta, or relate to the dust formation around the star forming core.

  4. X-ray photo-emission and energy dispersive spectroscopy of HA coated titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, J.L.; Steinberg, A.D.; Krauss, A.R.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition changes of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated titanium using surface analysis (x-ray photo-emission) and bulk analysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy). The specimens examined were controls, 30 minutes and 3 hours aged specimens in distilled water or 0.2M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) at room temperature. Each x-ray photo-emission cycle consisted of 3 scans followed by argon sputtering for 10 minutes for a total of usually 20 cycles, corresponding to a sampling depth of {approximately} 1500 {angstrom}. The energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis was on a 110 by 90 {mu}m area for 500 sec. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed crystal formation (3P{sub 2}O{sub 5}*2CAO*?H{sub 2}O by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis) on the HA coating for the specimens aged in sodium phosphate buffer. The x-ray photo-emission results indicated the oxidation effect of water on the titanium (as TiO{sub 2}) and the effect of the buffer to increase the surface concentration of phosphorous. No differences in the chemical composition were observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The crystal growth was only observed for the sodium phosphate buffer specimens and only on the HA surface.

  5. Changes in the X-Ray Emission from the Magnetar Candidate 1E 2259+586 During its 2002 Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, P. M.; Kaspi, V. M.; Thompson, C.; Gavrill, F. P.; Marshall, H. L.; Chakrabarty, D.; Flanagan, K.; Heyl, J.; Hernquist, L.

    2004-01-01

    An outburst of more than 80 individual bursts, similar to those seen from Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs), was detected from the anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 1E 2259+586 in 2002 June. Coincident with this burst activity were gross changes in the pulsed flux, persistent flux, energy spectrum, pulse profile, and spin-down of the underlying X-ray source. We present Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and X-Ray Multi-Mirror Mission observations of 1E 2259+586 that show the evolution of the aforementioned source parameters during and following this episode and identify recovery timescales for each. Specifically, we observe an X-ray flux increase (pulsed and phase-averaged) by more than an order of magnitude having two distinct components. The first component is linked to the burst activity and decays within approx. 2 days, during which the energy spectrum is considerably harder than during the quiescent state of the source. The second component decays over the year following the glitch according to a power law in time with an exponent -0.22 +/- 0.01. The pulsed fraction decreased initially to approx. 15% rms but recovered rapidly to the preoutburst level of approx. 23% within the first 3 days. The pulse profile changed significantly during the outburst and recovered almost fully within 2 months of the outburst. A glitch of size Delta(sib (nu)max) = (4.24 +/- 0.11) x 10(exp -6) was observed in 1E 2259+586, which preceded the observed burst activity. The glitch could not be well fitted with a simple partial exponential recovery. An exponential rise of approx. 20% of the frequency jump with a timescale of approx. 14 days results in a significantly better fit to the data; however, contamination from a systematic drift in the phase of the pulse profile cannot be excluded. A fraction of the glitch (approx. 19%) was recovered in a quasi-exponential manner having a recovery timescale of approx. 16 days. The long-term postglitch spin-down rate decreased in magnitude relative to the preglitch value. The changes in the source properties of 1E 2259+586 during its 2002 outburst are shown to be qualitatively similar to changes seen during or following burst activity in two SGRs, thus further solidifying the common nature of SGRs and AXP's as magnetars. The changes in persistent emission properties of 1E 2259+586 suggest that the star underwent a plastic deformation of the crust that simultaneously impacted the superfluid interior (crustal and possibly core superfluid) and the magnetosphere. Finally, the changes in persistent emission properties coincident with burst activity in 1E 2259+586 enabled us to infer previous burst-active episodes from this and other AXP's. The nondetection of these outbursts by all-sky gamma-ray instruments suggests that the number of active magnetar candidates in our Galaxy is larger than previously thought.

  6. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE WITH COMPACT PROGENITORS: APPLICATION TO SN2011fe

    SciTech Connect

    Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chomiuk, L.; Milisavljevic, D.; Foley, R. J.; Slane, P.; Moe, M.; Chevalier, R.; Hurley, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Fransson, C.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E. [INAF and others

    2012-06-01

    We present a generalized analytic formalism for the inverse Compton X-ray emission from hydrogen-poor supernovae and apply this framework to SN 2011fe using Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), UVOT, and Chandra observations. We characterize the optical properties of SN 2011fe in the Swift bands and find them to be broadly consistent with a 'normal' SN Ia, however, no X-ray source is detected by either XRT or Chandra. We constrain the progenitor system mass-loss rate M-dot < 2 x 10{sup -9} M{sub Sun }yr{sup -1} (3{sigma} c.l.) for wind velocity v{sub w} = 100 km s{sup -1}. Our result rules out symbiotic binary progenitors for SN 2011fe and argues against Roche lobe overflowing subgiants and main-sequence secondary stars if {approx}> 1% of the transferred mass is lost at the Lagrangian points. Regardless of the density profile, the X-ray non-detections are suggestive of a clean environment (n{sub CSM} < 150 cm{sup -3}) for 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} {approx}< R {approx}< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm around the progenitor site. This is either consistent with the bulk of material being confined within the binary system or with a significant delay between mass loss and supernova explosion. We furthermore combine X-ray and radio limits from Chomiuk et al. to constrain the post-shock energy density in magnetic fields. Finally, we searched for the shock breakout pulse using gamma-ray observations from the Interplanetary Network and find no compelling evidence for a supernova-associated burst. Based on the compact radius of the progenitor star we estimate that the shock breakout pulse was likely not detectable by current satellites.

  7. Analysis of the X-ray emission of nine Swift afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panaitescu, A.; Mészáros, P.; Gehrels, N.; Burrows, D.; Nousek, J.

    2006-03-01

    The X-ray light curves of nine Swift XRT afterglows (050126, 050128, 050219A, 050315, 050318, 050319, 050401, 050408 and 050505) display a complex behaviour: a steep t-3.0+/-0.3 decay until ~400 s, followed by a significantly slower t-0.65+/-0.20 fall-off, which at 0.2-2 day after the burst evolves into a t-1.7+/-0.5 decay. We consider three possible models for the geometry of relativistic blast-waves (spherical outflows, non-spreading jets and spreading jets), two possible dynamical regimes for the forward shock (adiabatic and fully radiative), and we take into account a possible angular structure of the outflow and delayed energy injection in the blast-wave to identify the models which reconcile the X-ray light-curve decay with the slope of the X-ray continuum for each of the above three afterglow phases. By piecing together the various models for each phase in a way that makes physical sense, we identify possible models for the entire X-ray afterglow. The major conclusion of this work is that a long-lived episode of energy injection in the blast-wave, during which the shock energy increases at t1.0+/-0.5, is required for five afterglows and could be at work in the other four as well. For some afterglows, there may be other mechanisms that can explain the t < 400 s fast falling-off X-ray light curve (e.g. the large-angle gamma-ray burst emission), the 400 s to 5 h slow decay (e.g. a structured outflow), or the steepening at 0.2-2 day (e.g. a jet-break, a collimated outflow transiting from a wind with a r-3 radial density profile to a homogeneous or outward-increasing density region). Optical observations in conjunction with the X-ray can distinguish among these various models. Our simple tests allow the determination of the location of the cooling frequency relative to the X-ray domain and, thus, of the index of the electron power-law distribution with energy in the blast-wave. The resulting indices are clearly inconsistent with a universal value.

  8. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FIRST Be/BLACK HOLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Munar-Adrover, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Ribó, M.; Iwasawa, K.; Zabalza, V.; Casares, J.

    2014-05-10

    MWC 656 (=HD 215227) was recently discovered to be the first binary system composed of a Be star and a black hole (BH). We observed it with XMM-Newton, and detected a faint X-ray source compatible with the position of the optical star, thus proving it to be the first Be/BH X-ray binary. The spectrum analysis requires a model fit with two components, a blackbody plus a power law, with k{sub B}T=0.07{sub ?0.03}{sup +0.04} keV and a photon index ? = 1.0 ± 0.8, respectively. The non-thermal component dominates above ?0.8 keV. The obtained total flux is F(0.3-5.5 keV)=(4.6{sub ?1.1}{sup +1.3})×10{sup ?14} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. At a distance of 2.6 ± 0.6 kpc the total flux translates into a luminosity L {sub X} = (3.7 ± 1.7) × 10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1}. Considering the estimated range of BH masses to be 3.8-6.9 M {sub ?}, this luminosity represents (6.7 ± 4.4) × 10{sup –8} L {sub Edd}, which is typical of stellar-mass BHs in quiescence. We discuss the origin of the two spectral components: the thermal component is associated with the hot wind of the Be star, whereas the power-law component is associated with emission from the vicinity of the BH. We also find that the position of MWC 656 in the radio versus X-ray luminosity diagram may be consistent with the radio/X-ray correlation observed in BH low-mass X-ray binaries. This suggests that this correlation might also be valid for BH high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) with X-ray luminosities down to ?10{sup –8} L {sub Edd}. MWC 656 will allow the accretion processes and the accretion/ejection coupling at very low luminosities for BH HMXBs to be studied.

  9. Non-thermal x-ray emission from wire array z-pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Ampleford, David; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Webb, Timothy Jay; Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.; Loisel, Guillaume Pascal; Flanagan, Timothy McGuire; Bell, Kate Suzanne; Jones, Brent M.; McPherson, Leroy A.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Chittenden, Jeremy P.; Sherlock, Mark; Appelbe, Brian; Giuliani, John; Ouart, Nicholas; Seely, John

    2015-12-01

    We report on experiments demonstrating the transition from thermally-dominated K-shell line emission to non-thermal, hot-electron-driven inner-shell emission for z pinch plasmas on the Z machine. While x-ray yields from thermal K-shell emission decrease rapidly with increasing atomic number Z, we find that non-thermal emission persists with favorable Z scaling, dominating over thermal emiss ion for Z=42 and higher (hn ? 17keV). Initial experiments with Mo (Z=42) and Ag (Z=47) have produced kJ-level emission in the 17-keV and 22-keV K? lines respectively. We will discuss the electron beam properties that could excite these non - thermal lines. We also report on experiments that have attempted to control non - thermal K - shell line emission by modifying the wire array or load hardware setup.

  10. TRANSIENT EXTREMELY SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3: A NEW CV X-RAY LUMINOSITY RECORD?

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W. S.; Heinke, C. O.; Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Edmonds, P. D.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2011-05-01

    We observed the accreting white dwarf (WD) 1E1339.8+2837 (1E1339) in the globular cluster M3 in 2003 November, 2004 May, and 2005 January, using the Chandra ACIS-S detector. The source was observed in 1992 to possess traits of a supersoft X-ray source (SSS), with a 0.1-2.4 keV luminosity as large as 2 x 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}, after which time the source's luminosity fell by roughly two orders of magnitude, adopting a hard X-ray spectrum more typical of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our observations confirm 1E1339's hard CV-like spectrum, with photon index {Gamma} = 1.3 {+-} 0.2. We found 1E1339 to be highly variable, with a 0.5-10 keV luminosity ranging from (1.4 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} to 8.5{sup +4.9}{sub -4.6} x 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}, with 1E1339's maximum luminosity being perhaps the highest yet recorded for hard X-ray emission from a WD. In 2005 January, 1E1339 displayed substantial low-energy emission below {approx}0.3 keV. Although current Chandra responses cannot properly model this emission, its bolometric luminosity appears comparable to or greater than that of the hard spectral component. This raises the possibility that the supersoft X-ray emission seen from 1E1339 in 1992 may have shifted to the far-UV.

  11. Coronal Accretion: the origin of X-ray Emission in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bifang; Taam, Ronald E.; Qiao, Erlin; Yuan, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    It is commonly believed that the optical/UV and X-ray emissions in luminous AGN are produced in an accretion disk and an embedded hot corona respectively. In luminous AGN the strong inverse Compton scattering of disk photons by hot electrons in the corona can effectively cool the coronal gas if the mass supply is similar to that in BHXRBs. Thus, the application of such a model to AGNs fails to produce their observed X-ray emission. As a consequence, a fraction of disk accretion energy is usually assumed to be transferred to the corona. To avoid assuming this energy input to the corona, we propose that gas in a vertically extended distribution is supplied to a supermassive black hole by the gravitational capture of interstellar medium or stellar wind material in the very innermost regions of a galaxy. In this picture, the gas partially condenses to an underlying cool disk as it flows toward the black hole, releasing accretion energy as X-ray emission and supplying mass for the disk accretion. Such a picture avoids assumption of energy input from the disk to the corona for high luminosity AGN, and provides a natural interpretation of ADAF/RIAF for low luminosity AGN where condensation is absent at low mass accretion rates and hence no disk exists. Our numerical calculations reveal that the X-ray luminosity can reach a few tens of percent of the bolometric luminosity at high accretion rates. The value of ?_ox, which is calculated from the luminosities at 2500 Å and 2keV, varies from 0.9 to 1.2 for the mass supply rate ranging from 0.03 to 0.1 times the Eddington value. The corresponding photon index in the 2-10 keV energy band varies from 1.9 to 2.3. These results are roughly in agreement with observations in AGN.

  12. Coronal Accretion: the origin of X-ray Emission in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bifang; Taam, Ronald E.; Qiao, Erlin; Yuan, Weimin

    2015-08-01

    It is commonly believed that the optical/UV and X-ray emissions in luminous AGN are produced in an accretion disk and an embedded hot corona respectively. In luminous AGN the strong inverse Compton scattering of disk photons by hot electrons in the corona can effectively cool the coronal gas if the mass supply is similar to that in BHXRBs. Thus, the application of such a model to AGNs fails to produce their observed X-ray emission. As a consequence, a fraction of disk accretion energy is usually assumed to be transferred to the corona. To avoid assuming this energy input to the corona, we propose that gas in a vertically extended distribution is supplied to a supermassive black hole by the gravitational capture of interstellar medium or stellar wind material in the very innermost regions of a galaxy. In this picture, the gas partially condenses to an underlying cool disk as it flows toward the black hole, releasing accretion energy as X-ray emission and supplying mass for the disk accretion. Such a picture avoids assumption of energy input from the disk to the corona for high luminosity AGN, and provides a natural interpretation of ADAF/RIAF for low luminosity AGN where condensation is absent at low mass accretion rates and hence no disk exists. Our numerical calculations reveal that the X-ray luminosity can reach a few tens of percent of the bolometric luminosity at high accretion rates. The value of ?ox, which is calculated from the luminosities at 2500 ?A and 2keV, varies from 0.9 to 1.2 for the mass supply rate ranging from 0.03 to 0.1 times the Eddington value. The corresponding photon index in the 2-10 keV energy band varies from 1.9 to 2.3. These results are roughly in agreement with observations in AGN.

  13. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN THE X-RAY EMISSION-LINE GAS IN NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, S. B.; Sharma, N.; Turner, T. J.; George, Ian M.; Crenshaw, D. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed, photoionization modeling analysis of XMM-Newton/Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The spectrum, previously analyzed by Kinkhabwala et al., reveals a myriad of soft X-ray emission lines, including those from H- and He-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and M- and L-shell iron. As noted in the earlier analysis, based on the narrowness of the radiative recombination continua, the electron temperatures in the emission-line gas are consistent with photoionization, rather than collisional ionization. The strengths of the carbon and nitrogen emission lines, relative to those of oxygen, suggest unusual elemental abundances, which we attribute to the star formation history of the host galaxy. Overall, the emission lines are blueshifted with respect to systemic, with radial velocities ?160 km s{sup –1}, similar to that of [O III] ?5007, and thus consistent with the kinematics and orientation of the optical emission-line gas and, hence, likely part of an active galactic nucleus driven outflow. We were able to achieve an acceptable fit to most of the strong emission lines with a two-component photoionization model, generated with CLOUDY. The two components have ionization parameters and column densities of logU = –0.05 and 1.22 and logN {sub H} = 20.85 and 21.2 and covering factors of 0.35 and 0.84, respectively. The total mass of the X-ray gas is roughly an order of magnitude greater than the mass of ionized gas determined from optical and near-IR spectroscopy, which indicates that it may be the dominant component of the narrow-line region. Furthermore, we suggest that the medium that produces the scattered/polarized optical emission in NGC 1068 possesses similar physical characteristics to those of the more highly ionized of the X-ray model components.

  14. Physical Conditions in the X-Ray Emission-line Gas in NGC 1068

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, S. B.; Sharma, N.; Turner, T. J.; George, Ian M.; Crenshaw, D. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed, photoionization modeling analysis of XMM-Newton/Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. The spectrum, previously analyzed by Kinkhabwala et al., reveals a myriad of soft X-ray emission lines, including those from H- and He-like carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and neon, and M- and L-shell iron. As noted in the earlier analysis, based on the narrowness of the radiative recombination continua, the electron temperatures in the emission-line gas are consistent with photoionization, rather than collisional ionization. The strengths of the carbon and nitrogen emission lines, relative to those of oxygen, suggest unusual elemental abundances, which we attribute to the star formation history of the host galaxy. Overall, the emission lines are blueshifted with respect to systemic, with radial velocities ~160 km s-1, similar to that of [O III] ?5007, and thus consistent with the kinematics and orientation of the optical emission-line gas and, hence, likely part of an active galactic nucleus driven outflow. We were able to achieve an acceptable fit to most of the strong emission lines with a two-component photoionization model, generated with CLOUDY. The two components have ionization parameters and column densities of logU = -0.05 and 1.22 and logN H = 20.85 and 21.2 and covering factors of 0.35 and 0.84, respectively. The total mass of the X-ray gas is roughly an order of magnitude greater than the mass of ionized gas determined from optical and near-IR spectroscopy, which indicates that it may be the dominant component of the narrow-line region. Furthermore, we suggest that the medium that produces the scattered/polarized optical emission in NGC 1068 possesses similar physical characteristics to those of the more highly ionized of the X-ray model components.

  15. Modeling Diffuse X-ray Emission around the Galactic Center from Colliding Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post Russell, Christopher Michael; Cuadra, Jorge; Wang, Q. Daniel; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic center is a hotbed of astrophysical phenomena. The ~30 evolved massive stars orbiting the super massive black hole (SMBH) on scales <10" inject a large fraction of the matter that accretes onto the SMBH, and their wind-wind collisions create large swaths of shocked, hot, X-ray emitting material around Sgr A*. The 3Ms Chandra X-ray Visionary Program of the Galactic center provided unprecedented detail of this region by resolving the diffuse thermal emission around the SMBH, and also revealed the presence of SMBH feedback into its immediate surroundings. With the original intent of computing the accretion onto the SMBH, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations with various feedback prescriptions modeled the 30 Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars orbiting the SMBH over 1100 years while ejecting their stellar winds, thus providing various descriptions of the hot shocked gas around Sgr A*. In this work, we perform 3D X-ray radiative transfer calculations on these hydrodynamic simulations with the goal of reproducing the Chandra observations in the central ±6" around Sgr A*. The model spectral shape from the 2"-5" ring agrees very well with the observations for all feedback models, and the X-ray flux levels of the no or weak feedback models agree with the observation for r<~3". The model flux is too low beyond this radius, while the strong feedback models produce too low a flux throughout the entire simulation region. This is because the strong outflow emanating from the SMBH clears out much of the hot, X-ray emitting gas from its vicinity. These strong feedback simulations are thus excluded from describing Sgr A*. We will conclude by discussing ways to improve the no and weak feedback models, such as by including the O stars and their winds, which should cause the WR-wind X-ray emission to increase as these adiabatic shocks (whose strength is inversely proportional to the distance to the shock) will occur closer to their WR stars.

  16. On binary-driven hypernovae and their nested late X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffini, R.; Muccino, M.; Bianco, C. L.; Enderli, M.; Izzo, L.; Kovacevic, M.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Pisani, G. B.; Rueda, J. A.; Wang, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Context. The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm addresses the very energetic (1052-1054 erg) long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated to supernovae (SNe). Unlike the traditional "collapsar" model, an evolved FeCO core with a companion neutron star (NS) in a tight binary system is considered as the progenitor. This special class of sources, here named "binary-driven hypernovae" (BdHNe), presents a composite sequence composed of four different episodes with precise spectral and luminosity features. Aims: We first compare and contrast the steep decay, the plateau, and the power-law decay of the X-ray luminosities of three selected BdHNe (GRB 060729, GRB 061121, and GRB 130427A). Second, to explain the different sizes and Lorentz factors of the emitting regions of the four episodes, for definiteness, we use the most complete set of data of GRB 090618. Finally, we show the possible role of r-process, which originates in the binary system of the progenitor. Methods: We compare and contrast the late X-ray luminosity of the above three BdHNe. We examine correlations between the time at the starting point of the constant late power-law decay t*a, the average prompt luminosity ? Liso ?, and the luminosity at the end of the plateau La. We analyze a thermal emission (~ 0.97-0.29 keV), observed during the X-ray steep decay phase of GRB 090618. Results: The late X-ray luminosities of the three BdHNe, in the rest-frame energy band 0.3-10 keV, show a precisely constrained "nested" structure. In a space-time diagram, we illustrate the different sizes and Lorentz factors of the emitting regions of the three episodes. For GRB 090618, we infer an initial dimension of the thermal emitter of ~ 7 × 1012 cm, expanding at ? ? 2. We find tighter correlations than the Dainotti-Willingale ones. Conclusions: We confirm a constant slope power-law behavior for the late X-ray luminosity in the source rest frame, which may lead to a new distance indicator for BdHNe. These results, as well as the emitter size and Lorentz factor, appear to be inconsistent with the traditional afterglow model based on synchrotron emission from an ultra-relativistic (? ~ 102-103) collimated jet outflow. We argue, instead, for the possible role of r-process, originating in the binary system, to power the mildly relativistic X-ray source.

  17. A Thermal Model for the Featureless X-Ray Emission from SN 1006?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laming, J. Martin

    1998-05-01

    I discuss a thermal model for the continuous X-ray emission from SN 1006, which is also applicable to other supernova remnants (e.g., Cas A, IC 443) where power-law tails are observed at the high-energy end of the X-ray spectrum. It is essentially an updated version of the work of Hamilton and company. The mechanism for producing high-energy continua is thermal bremsstrahlung at the reverse shock, where the electron temperature might be considerably higher than at the forward shock if collisionless heating can occur, and line emission in the ASCA bandpass can be suppressed if the shocked material is carbon. For reasonable values of electron density and temperature, such as might be produced by shocks, the observed X-ray spectra of SN 1006 can be simulated, but morphological arguments and the mass of C required present difficulties for this model. The interpretation of the observed power-law continuum in SN 1006 as synchrotron radiation from cosmic-ray electrons is unchanged. For the other remnants, though, the mechanism discussed here might be much more viable and should certainly be considered.

  18. Population synthesis of accreting white dwarfs: II. X-ray and UV emission

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hai-Liang; Yungelson, L R; Gilfanov, M; Han, Zhanwen

    2015-01-01

    Accreting white dwarfs (WDs) with non-degenerate companions are expected to emit in soft X-rays and the UV, if accreted H-rich material burns stably. They are an important component of the unresolved emission of elliptical galaxies, and their combined ionizing luminosity may significantly influence the optical line emission from warm ISM. In an earlier paper we modeled populations of accreting WDs, first generating WD with main-sequence, Hertzsprung gap and red giant companions with the population synthesis code \\textsc{BSE}, and then following their evolution with a grid of evolutionary tracks computed with \\textsc{MESA}. Now we use these results to estimate the soft X-ray (0.3-0.7keV), H- and He II-ionizing luminosities of nuclear burning WDs and the number of super-soft X-ray sources for galaxies with different star formation histories. For the starburst case, these quantities peak at $\\sim 1$ Gyr and decline by $\\sim 1-3$ orders of magnitude by the age of 10 Gyr. For stellar ages of $\\sim$~10 Gyr, predict...

  19. Thermal and Nonthermal X-ray Emission from the Forward Shock in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Una; Decourchelle, Anne; Holt, Stephen S.; Petre, Robert; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present Chandra CCD images of Tycho's supernova remnant that delineate its outer shock, seen as a thin, smooth rim along the straight northeastern edge and most of the circular western half. The images also show that the Si and S ejecta are highly clumpy, and have reached the forward shock at numerous locations. Most of the X-ray spectra that we examine along the rim show line emission from Si and S, which in some cases must come from ejecta; the continuum is well represented by either thermal or nonthermal models. In the case that the continuum is assumed to be thermal, the temperatures at the rim are all similar at about 2 keV, and the ionization ages are very low because of the overall weakness of the line emission. Assuming shock velocities inferred from radio and X-ray expansion measurements, these temperatures are substantially below those expected for equilibration of the electron and ion temperatures; electron to mean temperature ratios of approximately less than 0.1 - 0.2 indicate at most modest collisionless heating of the electrons at the shock. The nonthermal contribution to these spectra may be important, however, and may account for as many as half of the counts in the 4-6 keV energy range, based on an extrapolation of the hard X-ray spectrum above 10 keV.

  20. SCO X-1: Origin of the radio and hard X-ray emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Cheng, C. C.; Tsuruta, S.

    1973-01-01

    The consequences of models for the central radio source and the hard X-ray ( 30 keV) emitting region in Sco X-1 are examined. It was found that the radio emission could result from noncoherent synchrotron radiation and that the X-rays may be produced by bremsstrahlung. It is shown that both mechanisms require a mass outflow from Sco X-1. The radio source is located at r approximately 3x10 to the 12th power cm from the center of the star, and its linear dimensions do not exceed 3x10 to the 13th power cm. The magnetic field in the radio source is on the order of 1 gauss. If the hard X-rays are produced by thermal bremsstrahlung, their source is located at 10 to the 9th power approximately r approximately 5x10 to the 9th power cm, the temperature is 2x10 to the 9th power K, and the emission measure is 2x10 to the 56th power/cu cm. This hot plasma loses energy inward by conduction and outward by supersonic expansion. The rates of energy loss for both processes are about 10 to the 36th power erg/s, comparable to the total luminosity of Sco X-1.

  1. X-Ray Emission from a Supermassive Black Hole Ejected from the Center of a Galaxy

    E-print Network

    Yutaka Fujita

    2008-08-12

    Recent studies have indicated that the emission of gravitational waves at the merger of two black holes gives a kick to the final black hole. If the supermassive black hole at the center of a disk galaxy is kicked but the velocity is not large enough to escape from the host galaxy, it will fall back onto the the disk and accrete the interstellar medium in the disk. We study the X-ray emission from the black holes with masses of ~10^7 M_sun recoiled from the galactic center with velocities of ~600 km s^-1. We find that their luminosities can reach ~>10^39 erg s^-1, when they pass the apastrons in the disk. While the X-ray luminosities are comparable to those of ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) observed in disk galaxies, ULXs observed so far do not seem to be such supermassive black holes. Statical studies could constrain the probability of merger and recoil of supermassive black holes.

  2. X-RAY EMISSION FROM TRANSIENT JET MODEL IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pe'er, Asaf; Markoff, Sera

    2012-07-10

    While the non-thermal radio through at least near-infrared emission in the hard state in X-ray binaries (XRBs) is known to originate in jets, the source of the non-thermal X-ray component is still uncertain. We introduce a new model for this emission, which takes into account the transient nature of outflows, and show that it can explain the observed properties of the X-ray spectrum. Rapid radiative cooling of the electrons naturally accounts for the break often seen below around 10 keV, and for the canonical spectral slope F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -1/2} observed below the break. We derive the constraints set by the data for both synchrotron- and Compton-dominated models. We show that for the synchrotron-dominated case, the jet should be launched at radii comparable to the inner radius of the disk ({approx}few 100 r{sub s} for the 2000 outburst of XTE J1118+480), with typical magnetic field B {approx}> 10{sup 6} G. We discuss the consequences of our results for the possible connection between the inflow and outflow in the hard state of XRBs.

  3. X-Raying Extended Emission and Rapid Decay of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Yasuaki; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Toyanago, Asuka; Nakamura, Takashi; Takahashi, Keitaro; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Ioka, Kunihito

    2015-09-01

    Extended emission in short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) is a mystery. By conducting time-resolved spectral analyses of the nine brightest events observed by the Swift-XRT, we classify the early X-ray emission of SGRBs into two types. One is the extended emission with exponentially rapid decay, which shows significant spectral softening for hundreds of seconds after the SGRB trigger and is also detected by the Swift-BAT. The other is a dim afterglow that only shows power-law decay over 104 s. The correlations between the temporal decay and spectral indices of the extended emissions are inconsistent with the ?-? correlation expected for the high-latitude curvature emission from a uniform jet. The observed too-rapid decay suggests that the emission is from a photosphere or a patchy surface, and manifests the stopping via a central engine such as magnetic reconnection at the black hole.

  4. Soft X-ray emissions, meter-wavelength radio bursts, and particle acceleration in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Reames, D. V.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed study of the relationship between metric radio bursts and soft X-ray flares has been made using an extensive data set covering 15 yr. It is found that type IV emission is mainly associated with long-duration 1-8 A events that are known to be well associated with coronal mass ejections. In contrast, type II and type III bursts originate primarily in impulsive soft X-ray events that are not necessarily accompanied by mass ejection. Strong type III bursts, in particular, appear to occur only in association with relatively impulsive flares. It is suggested that coronal shocks responsible for type II bursts are blast waves generated in impulsive energy releases.

  5. Femtosecond dynamics in ferromagnetic metals investigated with soft x-ray resonant emission.

    PubMed

    Braicovich, L; Ghiringhelli, G; Tagliaferri, A; van der Laan, G; Annese, E; Brookes, N B

    2005-12-31

    We present measurements of the magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray resonant emission in the perpendicular geometry (circularly polarized x rays at normal incidence to the magnetization) for L(2,3) the absorption region in Fe, Co, and Ni metal. The results show that spin-dependent screening of the core hole takes place within the scattering time scale, which is supported by the absence of the effect in ionic systems. This allows an assessment of the time scale for the screening process (up to a few femtoseconds). The process is almost complete within the scattering time for Fe and Co, but this is not the case for the narrow band metal Ni which shows a much slower dynamics. PMID:16486402

  6. Resonance scattering in the X-ray emission line profiles of Zeta Puppis

    E-print Network

    M. A. Leutenegger; D. H. Cohen; S. M. Kahn; S. P. Owocki; F. B. S. Paerels

    2007-08-07

    We present XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of pairs of X-ray emission line profiles from the O star Zeta Pup that originate from the same He-like ion. The two profiles in each pair have different shapes and cannot both be consistently fit by models assuming the same wind parameters. We show that the differences in profile shape can be accounted for in a model including the effects of resonance scattering, which affects the resonance line in the pair but not the intercombination line. This implies that resonance scattering is also important in single resonance lines, where its effect is difficult to distinguish from a low effective continuum optical depth in the wind. Thus, resonance scattering may help reconcile X-ray line profile shapes with literature mass-loss rates.

  7. Resonance scattering in the X-ray emission line profiles of Zeta Puppis

    E-print Network

    Leutenegger, M A; Kahn, S M; Owocki, S P; Paerels, F B S

    2007-01-01

    We present XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observations of pairs of X-ray emission line profiles from the O star Zeta Pup that originate from the same He-like ion. The two profiles in each pair have different shapes and cannot both be consistently fit by models assuming the same wind parameters. We show that the differences in profile shape can be accounted for in a model including the effects of resonance scattering, which affects the resonance line in the pair but not the intercombination line. This implies that resonance scattering is also important in single resonance lines, where its effect is difficult to distinguish from a low effective continuum optical depth in the wind. Thus, resonance scattering may help reconcile X-ray line profile shapes with literature mass-loss rates.

  8. Interrelation of soft and hard X-ray emissions during solar flares. II - Simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Bornmann, P. L.; Brown, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are presented which incorporate the effect of quasi-static electric fields on particle dynamics as well as effects associated with wave-particle interactions induced by the accelerated particles. The properties of the soft and hard X-ray and microwave emissions from such systems are examined. In particular, it is shown that acceleration by quasi-static electric fields and heating via wave-particle interactions produces electron distributions with a broken-power law, similar to those inferred from hard X-ray spectra. Also, heating of the ambient plasma gives rise to a region of hot plasma propagating down to the chromosphere at about the ion sound speed.

  9. The Hard X-Ray Emission from Scorpius X-1 as seen by INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, Steve; Weidenspointner, G.; Shrader, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of our hard X-ray and gamma-ray study of the LMXB Sco X-1 utilizing INTEGRAL IBIS/ISGRI and SPI data as well as contemporaneous RXTE PCA data. We have concentrated on investigating the high-energy spectral properties of the Sco X-1 including the nature of the high-energy spectrum and its possible correlations with the location of the source on the color-color diagram. We also present the results of a search for positron-electron annihilation line emission from Sco X-1, as it is the brightest of a bulge X-ray binary population which approximately traces the 511-keV spatial distribution inferred from SPI.

  10. Standardization of proton-induced x-ray emission technique for analysis of thick samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shad; Zeb, Johar; Ahad, Abdul; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Haneef, M.; Akbar, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the standardization of the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique for finding the elemental composition of thick samples. For the standardization, three different samples of standard reference materials (SRMs) were analyzed using this technique and the data were compared with the already known data of these certified SRMs. These samples were selected in order to cover the maximum range of elements in the periodic table. Each sample was irradiated for three different values of collected beam charges at three different times. A proton beam of 2.57 MeV obtained using 5UDH-II Pelletron accelerator was used for excitation of x-rays from the sample. The acquired experimental data were analyzed using the GUPIXWIN software. The results show that the SRM data and the data obtained using the PIXE technique are in good agreement.

  11. A versatile medium-resolution x-ray emission spectrometer for diamond anvil cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, D. R.; Seidler, G. T.; Bradley, J. A.; Lipp, M. J.; Evans, W. J.; Chow, P.; Xiao, Y.-M.; Boman, G.; Bowden, M. E.

    2013-08-01

    We present design and performance details for a polycapillary-coupled x-ray spectrometer that provides very high collection efficiency at a moderate energy resolution suitable for many studies of nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, especially for samples of heavy elements under high pressures. Using a single Bragg analyzer operating close to backscattering geometry so as to minimize the effect of the weak divergence of the quasicollimated exit beam from the polycapillary optic, this instrument can maintain a typical energy resolution of 5 eV over photon energies from 5 keV to 10 keV. We find dramatically improved count rates as compared to a traditional higher-resolution instrument based on a single spherically bent crystal analyzer.

  12. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D.

    2008-03-29

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.

  13. X-ray emission and absorption studies of silicides in relation to their electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijs, P. J. W.; Wiech, G.; Zahorowski, W.; Speier, W.; Goedkoop, J. B.; Czyzyk, M.; van Acker, J. F.; van Leuken, E.; de Groot, R. A.; van der Laan, G.; Sarma, D. D.; Kumar, L.; Buschow, K. H. J.; Fuggle, J. C.

    1990-04-01

    The valence bands and conduction bands of about 30 transition metal silicides (of which we concentrate on 4 here) have been investigated by measurements of Si X-ray emission bandsspectra, X-ray absorption spectra near the Si K (1s) edge, photoemission spectra, and Bremsstrahlung Isochromat spectra. The densities of states have also been calculated for the materials in their real crystal structures. The influence of the core hole on some spectra has been investigated using supercell calculations, a (Greens function) generalized Clogston-Wolff model, and Auger spectroscopy. A selection of results is presented to illustrate the utility of site and selective methods in investigations of the electronic structure of silicides and the nature of the "quasi-gap" of the partial density of Si p states in the region of the transition metal d bands.

  14. Cometary X-Rays: Line Emission Cross Sections for Multiply Charged Solar Wind Ion Charge Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Otranto, S; Olson, R E; Beiersdorfer, P

    2006-12-22

    Absolute line emission cross sections are presented for 1 keV/amu charge exchange collisions of multiply charged solar wind ions with H{sub 2}O, H, O, CO{sub 2}, and CO cometary targets. The present calculations are contrasted with available laboratory data. A parameter-free model is used to successfully predict the recently observed x-ray spectra of comet C/LINEAR 1999 S4. We show that the resulting spectrum is extremely sensitive to the time variations of the solar wind composition. Our results suggest that orbiting x-ray satellites may be a viable way to predict the solar wind intensities and composition on the Earth many hours before the ions reach the earth.

  15. Accretion onto the Companion of Eta Carinae During the Spectroscopic Event: II. X-Ray Emission Cycle

    E-print Network

    Muhammad Akashi; Noam Soker; Ehud Behar

    2006-02-20

    We calculate the X-ray luminosity and light curve for the stellar binary system Eta Carinae for the entire orbital period of 5.54 years. By using a new approach we find, as suggested before, that the collision of the winds blown by the two stars can explain the X-ray emission and temporal behavior. Most X-ray emission in the $2-10 \\kev$ band results from the shocked secondary stellar wind. The observed rise in X-ray luminosity just before minimum is due to increase in density and subsequent decrease in radiative cooling time of the shocked fast secondary wind. Absorption, particularly of the soft X-rays from the primary wind, increases as the system approaches periastron and the shocks are produced deep inside the primary wind. However, absorption can not account for the drastic X-ray minimum. The 70 day minimum is assumed to result from the collapse of the collision region of the two winds onto the secondary star. This process is assumed to shut down the secondary wind, hence the main X-ray source. We show that this assumption provides a phenomenological description of the X-ray behavior around the minimum.

  16. X-ray emission from a nanosecond-pulse discharge in an inhomogeneous electric field at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Cheng; Shao Tao; Ren Chengyan; Zhang Dongdong; Tarasenko, Victor; Kostyrya, Igor D.; Ma Hao; Yan Ping

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes experimental studies of the dependence of the X-ray intensity on the anode material in nanosecond high-voltage discharges. The discharges were generated by two nanosecond-pulse generators in atmospheric air with a highly inhomogeneous electric field by a tube-plate gap. The output pulse of the first generator (repetitive pulse generator) has a rise time of about 15 ns and a full width at half maximum of 30-40 ns. The output of the second generator (single pulse generator) has a rise time of about 0.3 ns and a full width at half maximum of 1 ns. The electrical characteristics and the X-ray emission of nanosecond-pulse discharge in atmospheric air are studied by the measurement of voltage-current waveforms, discharge images, X-ray count and dose. Our experimental results showed that the anode material rarely affects electrical characteristics, but it can significantly affect the X-ray density. Comparing the density of X-rays, it was shown that the highest x-rays density occurred in the diffuse discharge in repetitive pulse mode, then the spark discharge with a small air gap, and then the corona discharge with a large air gap, in which the X-ray density was the lowest. Therefore, it could be confirmed that the bremsstrahlung at the anode contributes to the X-ray emission from nanosecond-pulse discharges.

  17. AN INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING ORIGIN OF X-RAY FLARES FROM Sgr A*

    SciTech Connect

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Dodds-Eden, K.; Gillessen, S.; Genzel, R.; Heinke, C. O.; Bushouse, H.; Grosso, N.; Porquet, D.

    2012-07-15

    The X-ray and near-IR emission from Sgr A* is dominated by flaring, while a quiescent component dominates the emission at radio and submillimeter (sub-mm) wavelengths. The spectral energy distribution of the quiescent emission from Sgr A* peaks at sub-mm wavelengths and is modeled as synchrotron radiation from a thermal population of electrons in the accretion flow, with electron temperatures ranging up to {approx}5-20 MeV. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which X-ray flare emission is produced through the interaction of the quiescent and flaring components of Sgr A*. The X-ray flare emission has been interpreted as inverse Compton, self-synchrotron Compton, or synchrotron emission. We present results of simultaneous X-ray and near-IR observations and show evidence that X-ray peak flare emission lags behind near-IR flare emission with a time delay ranging from a few to tens of minutes. Our inverse Compton scattering modeling places constraints on the electron density and temperature distributions of the accretion flow and on the locations where flares are produced. In the context of this model, the strong X-ray counterparts to near-IR flares arising from the inner disk should show no significant time delay, whereas near-IR flares in the outer disk should show a broadened and delayed X-ray flare.

  18. Discovery of the double Doppler-shifted emission-line systems in the X-ray spectrum of SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotani, Taro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Takashi; Doty, John; Matsuoka, Masaru; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Nagase, Fumiaki; Ricker, George; White, Nick E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the CCD X-ray spectrometers on ASCA and resolved the X-ray emission line from the jet of SS 433 both into Doppler-shifted components with two distinct velocities, and into emission from different ionization states of iron, i.e., Fe XXV and Fe XXVI. This is the first direct detection of the two Doppler shifted beams in the X-ray spectra of SS 433 and allows the radial velocity of the jet along the line of sight to be determined with an accuracy comparable to the optical spectroscopy. We also found pairs of emission lines from other atomic species, such as ionized silicon and sulfur, with the Doppler shifts consistent with each other. This confirms the origin of the X-ray emission in the high temperature plasma in the jets.

  19. X-ray emission from plasmas created by smoothed KrF laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Deniz, A.; Hardgrove, J.; Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Feldman, U.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Bodner, S.; Obenschain, S.; Lehmberg, R.; McLean, E.; Pronko, M.; Sethian, J.; Stamper, J.; Schmitt, A.; Sullivan, C.; Holland, G.; Laming, M.

    1996-09-01

    The x-ray emission from plasmas created by the Naval Research Laboratory Nike KrF laser [Phys. Plasmas {bold 3}, 2098 (1996) ] was characterized using imaging and spectroscopic instruments. The laser wavelength was 1/4 {mu}m, and the beams were smoothed by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets were thin foils of CH, aluminum, titanium, and cobalt and were irradiated by laser energies in the range 100{endash}1500 J. A multilayer mirror microscope operating at an energy of 95 eV recorded images of the plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 {mu}m. The variation of the 95 eV emission across the 800 {mu}m focal spot was 1.3{percent} rms. Using a curved crystal imager operating in the 1{endash}2 keV x-ray region, the density, temperature, and opacity of aluminum plasmas were determined with a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m perpendicular to the target surface. The spectral line ratios indicated that the aluminum plasmas were relatively dense, cool, and optically thick near the target surface. The absolute radiation flux was determined at 95 eV and in x-ray bandpasses covering the 1{endash}8 keV region. The electron temperature inferred from the slope of the x-ray flux versus energy data in the 5{endash}8 keV region was 900 eV for an incident laser energy of 200 J and an intensity of {approx_equal}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}.

  20. Chandra Observations of SN 2004et and the X-ray Emission of Type IIp Supernovae

    E-print Network

    J. Rho; T. H. Jarrett; N. N. Chugai; R. A. Chevalier

    2007-06-13

    We report the X-ray detection of the Type II-plateau supernova SN 2004et in the spiral galaxy NGC 6946, using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The position of the X-ray source was found to agree with the optical position within ~0.4 arcsec. Chandra also surveyed the region before the 2004 event, finding no X-ray emission at the location of the progenitor. For the post-explosion observations, a total of 202, 151, and 158 photons were detected in three pointings, each ~29 ks in length, on 2004 October 22, November 6, and December 3, respectively. The spectrum of the first observation is best fit by a thermal model with a temperature of kT=1.3 keV and a line-of-sight absorption of N_H=1.0 x 10^{22} cm^{-2}. The inferred unabsorbed luminosity (0.4-8 keV) is ~4x10^{38} erg/s, adopting a distance of 5.5 Mpc. A comparison between hard and soft counts on the first and third epochs indicates a softening over this time, although there is an insufficient number of photons to constrain the variation of temperature and absorption by spectral fitting. We model the emission as arising from the reverse shock region in the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the progenitor wind. For a Type IIP supernova with an extended progenitor, the cool shell formed at the time of shock wave breakout from the star can affect the initial evolution of the interaction shell and the absorption of radiation from the reverse shock. The observed spectral softening might be due to decreasing shell absorption. We find a pre-supernova mass loss rate of (2-2.5)x 10^{-6} M_{\\odot} /yr for a wind velocity of 10 kms, which is in line with expectations for a Type IIP supernova.

  1. BAT AGN spectroscopic survey-II. X-ray emission and high-ionization optical emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berney, Simon; Koss, Michael; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Ricci, Claudio; Lamperti, Isabella; Schawinski, Kevin; Balokovi?, Mislav; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Fischer, Travis; Gehrels, Neil; Harrison, Fiona; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Ichikawa, Kohei; Mushotzky, Richard; Oh, Kyuseok; Stern, Daniel; Treister, Ezequiel; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between X-ray and optical line emission in 340 nearby (z ? 0.04) AGN selected above 10 keV using Swift BAT. We find a weak correlation between the extinction corrected [O III] and hard X-ray luminosity (L_[O III]^{int} ? L_{14-195}) with a large scatter (RPear = 0.64, ? = 0.62 dex) and a similarly large scatter with the intrinsic 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosities (RPear = 0.63, ? = 0.63 dex). Correlations of the hard X-ray fluxes with the fluxes of high-ionization narrow lines ([O III], He II, [Ne III] and [Ne V]) are not significantly better than with the low-ionization lines (H ?, [S II]). Factors like obscuration or physical slit size are not found to be a significant part of the large scatter. In contrast, the optical emission lines show much better correlations with each other (? = 0.3 dex) than with the X-ray flux. The inherent large scatter questions the common usage of narrow emission lines as AGN bolometric luminosity indicators and suggests that other issues such as geometrical differences in the scattering of the ionized gas or long-term AGN variability are important.

  2. LATE-TIME RADIO EMISSION FROM X-RAY-SELECTED TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Metzger, Brian D.

    2013-02-15

    We present new observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of seven X-ray-selected tidal disruption events (TDEs). The radio observations were carried out between 9 and 22 years after the initial X-ray discovery, and thus probe the late-time formation of relativistic jets and jet interactions with the interstellar medium in these systems. We detect a compact radio source in the nucleus of the galaxy IC 3599 and a compact radio source that is a possible counterpart to RX J1420.4+5334. We find no radio counterparts for five other sources with flux density upper limits between 51 and 200 {mu}Jy (3{sigma}). If the detections truly represent late radio emission associated with a TDE, then our results suggest that a fraction, {approx}> 10%, of X-ray-detected TDEs are accompanied by relativistic jets. We explore several models for producing late radio emission, including interaction of the jet with gas in the circumnuclear environment (blast wave model), and emission from the core of the jet itself. Upper limits on the radio flux density from archival observations suggest that the jet formation may have been delayed for years after the TDE, possibly triggered by the accretion rate dropping below a critical threshold of {approx}10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} M-dot {sub Edd}. The non-detections are also consistent with this scenario; deeper radio observations can determine whether relativistic jets are present in these systems. The emission from RX J1420.4+5334 is also consistent with the predictions of the blast wave model; however, the radio emission from IC 3599 is substantially underluminous, and its spectral slope is too flat, relative to the blast wave model expectations. Future radio monitoring of IC 3599 and RX J1420.4+5334 will help to better constrain the nature of the jets in these systems.

  3. Investigation of magnetic field manipulated electrons produced from laser-driven ultrafast x-ray sources using x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changju; Davidson, R. Andrew; Guo, Ting

    2015-03-01

    We used x-ray emission spectroscopy to study energetic electrons (10-100?keV) generated at the laser focus of an intense ultrafast laser interacting with a primary thin film tape target. The electrons penetrated the tape and reached a secondary target of thin metal foils as the probe. The trajectories of these electrons were manipulated with an external magnetic field generated from a home-made Halbach magnet. The interaction of these energetic electrons with the probe produced characteristic x-rays, which were used to infer the flux and temperature of the electrons emitted from the laser focus at the primary tape target. A potential application using these energetic electrons is discussed.

  4. Electronic structures of group-III-nitride nanorods studied by x-ray absorption, x-ray emission, and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, C. W.; Babu, P. D.; Tsai, H. M.; Chiou, J. W.; Ray, S. C.; Yang, S. C.; Chien, F. Z.; Pong, W. F.; Tsai, M.-H.; Hsu, C. W.; Chen, L. C.; Chen, C. C.; Chen, K. H.; Lin, H.-J.; Lee, J. F.; Guo, J. H.

    2006-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) and metal (Al, Ga, and In) K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and Raman scattering measurements were performed to elucidate the electronic structures of group-III-nitride nanorods and thin films of AlN, GaN, and InN. XANES spectra show slight increase of the numbers of unoccupied N p states in GaN and AlN nanorods, which may be attributed to a slight increase of the degree of localization of conduction band states. The band gaps of AlN, GaN, and InN nanorods are determined by an overlay of XES and XANES spectra to be 6.2, 3.5, and 1.9eV, respectively, which are close to those of AlN and GaN bulk/films and InN polycrystals.

  5. EMISSION LINES BETWEEN 1 AND 2 keV IN COMETARY X-RAY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Ian; Christian, Damian J.; Bodewits, Dennis; Dennerl, Konrad; Lisse, Carey M.; Wolk, Scott J. E-mail: daman.christian@csun.edu

    2013-01-20

    We present the detection of new cometary X-ray emission lines in the 1.0-2.0 keV range using a sample of comets observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and ACIS spectrometer. We have selected five comets from the Chandra sample with good signal-to-noise spectra. The surveyed comets are C/1999 S4 (LINEAR), C/1999 T1 (McNaught-Hartley), 153P/2002 (Ikeya-Zhang), 2P/2003 (Encke), and C/2008 8P (Tuttle). We modeled the spectra with an extended version of our solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission model. Above 1 keV, we find Ikeya-Zhang to have strong emission lines at 1340 and 1850 eV which we identify as being created by SWCX lines of Mg XI and Si XIII, respectively, and weaker emission lines at 1470, 1600, and 1950 eV formed by SWCX of Mg XII, Mg XI, and Si XIV, respectively. The Mg XI and XII and Si XIII and XIV lines are detected at a significant level for the other comets in our sample (LS4, MH, Encke, 8P), and these lines promise additional diagnostics to be included in SWCX models. The silicon lines in the 1700-2000 eV range are detected for all comets, but with the rising background and decreasing cometary emission, we caution that these detections need further confirmation with higher resolution instruments.

  6. Transition-Edge Sensors for Particle Induced X-ray Emission Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palosaari, M. R. J.; Kinnunen, K. M.; Julin, J.; Laitinen, M.; Napari, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J.; Reintsema, C.; Swetz, D.; Schmidt, D.; Ullom, J.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we present a new measurement setup, where a transition-edge sensor detector array is used to detect X-rays in particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements with a 2 MeV proton beam. Transition-edge sensors offer orders of magnitude improvement in energy resolution compared to conventional silicon or germanium detectors, making it possible to recognize spectral lines in materials analysis that have previously been impossible to resolve, and to get chemical information from the elements. Our sensors are cooled to the operation temperature (65 mK) with a cryogen-free adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, which houses a specially designed X-ray snout that has a vacuum tight window to couple in the radiation. For the best pixel, the measured instrumental energy resolution was 3.06 eV full width at half maximum at 5.9 keV. We discuss the current status of the project, benefits of transition-edge sensors when used in PIXE spectroscopy, and the results from the first measurements.

  7. Intravenous coronary angiography utilizing K-emission and bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by electron bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with synchrotron radiation at SSRL and NSLS have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an intense source of monochromatic X-rays. Because of the high cost of an electron synchrotron, theoretical analysis and experiments using inanimate phantoms has been undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of using the spectrum produced by two appropriately chosen anode materials when bombarded with electrons in the 100--500 keV energy range for angiography. By using the X-rays emitted at 120{degree} to the incident electron direction, about 20--30% of the X-ray intensity would be due to K-emission lines. Calculations using the TIGERP Monte Carlo Code, have shown that high quality angiograms of human coronary arteries should be possible with a contrast agent containing ytterbium, if an electron beam pulses of 16 kJ were used for each anode target. The experimental program supported in part by the DOE has consisted of these theoretical calculations and experiments at the Dynamitron Electron Accelerator Facility at BNL.

  8. Delayed X-ray emission from fallback in compact-object mergers

    E-print Network

    Elena M. Rossi; Mitchell C. Begelman

    2008-11-16

    When double neutron star or neutron star-black hole binaries merge, the final remnant may comprise a central solar-mass black hole surrounded by a 0.01-0.1 solar masses torus. The subsequent evolution of this disc may be responsible for short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). A comparable amount of mass is ejected into eccentric orbits and will eventually fall back to the merger site after approximately 0.01 seconds. In this Paper, we investigate analytically the fate of the fallback matter, which may provide a luminous signal long after the disc is exhausted. We find that matter in the eccentric tail returns at a super-Eddington rate and is eventually (0.1 sec) unable to cool via neutrino emission and accrete all the way to the black hole. Therefore, contrary to previous claims, our analysis suggests that fallback matter is not an efficient source of late time accretion power and is unlikely to cause the late flaring activity observed in SGRB afterglows. The fallback matter rather forms a radiation-driven wind or a bound atmosphere. In both cases, the emitting plasma is very opaque and photons are released with a degraded energy in the X-ray band. We therefore suggest that compact binary mergers could be followed by an "X-ray renaissance", as late as several days to weeks after the merger. This might be observed by the next generation of X-ray detectors.

  9. X-Ray Emission in Radio-Quiet z>4 Quasars: A New Perspective on the AGN-Starburst-Connection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Dominik

    2007-09-01

    We propose to investigate the nature of the extended X-ray emission detected toward the starbursting quasar BR1202-0725 (z=4.7), and to search for X-ray emission in BRI1335-0417 (z=4.4), with Chandra/ACIS. These sources are the only unlensed z>4 AGN-starburst systems that are resolved in molecular gas (CO), FIR and radio continuum emission. Shallow archival ACIS observations of BR1202 show two components (X1/X2). X1 is coincident with the optical quasar, and shows tentative evidence for a radio-quiet X-ray jet emerging from the AGN. X2 is only tentatively detected, which would be first evidence for an AGN. We here propose to confirm both tentative results in BR1202, and to obtain first X-ray observations of BRI1335.

  10. Fermi-LAT Observation of Quiescent Solar Emission

    E-print Network

    Orlando, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion detector designed to study the gamma-ray sky in the energy range 30 MeV to 300 GeV. Fermi has detected high-energy gamma rays from the quiet Sun produced by interactions of cosmic-ray nucleons with the solar surface, and cosmic-ray electrons with solar photons in the heliosphere. While the Sun was detected by EGRET on CGRO with low statistics, Fermi provides high-quality detections on a daily basis allowing variability to be addressed. Such observations will provide a probe of the extreme conditions near the solar surface and a monitor the modulation of cosmic rays over the inner heliosphere. We discuss the study of the quiescent solar emission including spectral analysis of its two components, disk and inverse Compton.

  11. The prompt X-ray emission of GRB011211: possible evidence of a transient absorption feature

    E-print Network

    F. Frontera; L. Amati; J. J. M. in 't Zand; D. Lazzati; A. Konigl; M. Vietri; E. Costa; M. Feroci; C. Guidorzi; E. Montanari; M. Orlandini; E. Pian; L. Piro

    2004-08-24

    We report on observation results of the prompt X- and gamma-ray emission from GRB011211. This event was detected with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and one of the Wide Field Cameras aboard the BeppoSAX satellite. The optical counterpart to the GRB was soon identified and its redshift determined (z = 2.140), while with the XMM-Newton satellite, the X-ray afterglow emission was detected. Evidence of soft X-ray emission lines was reported by Reeves et al. (2002), but not confirmed by other authors. In investigating the spectral evolution of the prompt emission we find the possible evidence of a transient absorption feature at 6.9^{+0.6}_{-0.5} keV during the rise of the primary event. The significance of the feature is derived with non parametric tests and numerical simulations, finding a chance probability which ranges from 3x10^{-3} down to 4x10^{-4}. The feature shows a Gaussian profile and an equivalent width of 1.2^{+0.5}_{-0.6} keV. We discuss our results and their possible interpretation.

  12. X-Ray Emission from J1446--4701, J1311--3430, and Other Black Widow Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugasamy, Prakash; Pavlov, George G.; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of detailed X-ray analysis of two black-widow pulsars (BWPs), J1446–4701 and J1311–3430. PSR J1446–4701 is a BWP with orbital parameters near the median values of the sample of known BWPs. Its X-ray emission that was detected by XMM-Newton is well characterized by a soft power-law (PL) spectrum (photon index ? ? 3), and it shows no significant orbital modulations. In view of a lack of radio eclipses and an optical non-detection, the system most likely has a low orbital inclination. PSR J1311–3430 is an extreme BWP with a very compact orbit and the lowest minimum mass companion. Our Chandra data confirm the hard ? ? 1.3 emission seen in previous observations. Through phase-restricted spectral analysis, we found a hint (?2.6?) of spectral hardening around pulsar inferior conjunction. We also provide a uniform analysis of the 12 BWPs observed with Chandra and compare their X-ray properties. Pulsars with soft, ? > 2.5 emission seem to have lower than average X-ray and ?-ray luminosities. We do not, however, see any other prominent correlation between the pulsar’s X-ray emission characteristics and any of its other properties. The contribution of the intra-binary shock to the total X-ray emission, if any, is not discernible in this sample of pulsars with shallow observations.

  13. Coupled radio and X-ray emission and evidence for discrete ejecta in the jets of SS 433

    E-print Network

    J. C. A. Miller-Jones; S. Migliari; R. P. Fender; T. W. J. Thompson; M. van der Klis; M. Mendez

    2008-04-08

    We present five epochs of simultaneous radio (VLA) and X-ray (Chandra) observations of SS 433, to study the relation between the radio and X-ray emission in the arcsecond-scale jets of the source. We detected X-ray emission from the extended jets in only one of the five epochs of observation, indicating that the X-ray reheating mechanism is transient. The reheating does not correlate with the total flux in the core or in the extended radio jets. However, the radio emission in the X-ray reheating regions is enhanced when X-ray emission is present. Deep images of the jets in linear polarization show that outside of the core, the magnetic field in the jets is aligned parallel to the local velocity vector, strengthening the case for the jets to be composed of discrete bullets rather than being continuous flux tubes. We also observed anomalous regions of polarized emission well away from the kinematic trace, confirming the large-scale anisotropy of the magnetic field in the ambient medium surrounding the jets.

  14. Intrinsic disc emission and the soft X-ray excess in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Done, Chris; Davis, S. W.; Jin, C.; Blaes, O.; Ward, M.

    2012-03-01

    Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies have low-mass black holes and mass accretion rates close to (or exceeding) Eddington, so a standard blackbody accretion disc should peak in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the lack of true absorption opacity in the disc means that the emission is better approximated by a colour temperature corrected blackbody, and this colour temperature correction is large enough (˜2.4) that the bare disc emission from a zero spin black hole can extend into the soft X-ray bandpass. Part of the soft X-ray excess seen in these objects must be intrinsic emission from the disc unless the vertical structure is very different to that predicted. None the less, this is not the whole story even for the extreme NLS1 as the shape of the soft excess is much broader than predicted by a bare disc spectrum, indicating some Compton upscattering by warm, optically thick material. We associate this with the disc itself, so it must ultimately be powered by mass accretion. We build an energetically self-consistent model assuming that the emission thermalizes to a (colour temperature corrected) blackbody only at large radii. At smaller radii the gravitational energy is split between powering optically thick Comptonized disc emission (forming the soft X-ray excess) and an optically thin corona above the disc (forming the tail to higher energies). We show examples of this model fit to the extreme NLS1 RE J1034+396, and to the much lower Eddington fraction broad-line Seyfert 1 PG 1048+231. We use these to guide our fits and interpretations of three template spectra made from co-adding multiple sources to track out a sequence of active galactic nucleus (AGN) spectra as a function of L/LEdd. Both the individual objects and template spectra show the surprising result that the Compton upscattered soft X-ray excess decreases in importance with increasing L/LEdd. The strongest soft excesses are associated with low mass accretion rate AGN rather than being tied to some change in disc structure around Eddington. We argue that this suggests a true break in accretion flow properties between stellar and supermassive black holes. The new model is publicly available within the XSPEC spectral fitting package.

  15. Does the emission measure decrease during the start of a soft X-ray flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, C. J.; Acton, L. W.; Datlowe, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that the apparent emission dip found in soft X-ray flare observations, interpreted as the emission from a single temperature plasma, is an artifact. According to this hypothesis, the flare phenomenon represents a combination of flare plus a stable active region plasma. A small amount of hot flare plasma will dominate the total emission, and the calculated isothermal plasma parameters will trend towards those of the hot flare plasma, so that a decrease in emission measure will be inferred. It is claimed that observed data fit the model of a stable plasma plus a flare plasma better than it does the model of a single plasma, in accordance with a chi square statistic. The model of stable plasma plus flare plasma is also supported by the observation that the plasma parameters in the postflare condition are indistinguishable from those during preflare.

  16. Removing Spectral Diagnostics of Galactic and Stellar X-Ray Emission from Charged Exchange Recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargelin, Brad

    2004-01-01

    Our research uses the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study X-ray emission from the charge exchange (CX) of highly charged ions with neutral gases. The resulting data help to fill a void in existing experimental and theoretical understanding of this atomic physics process, and are needed to explain all or part of the observed X-ray emission from the soft X-ray background, stellar winds, the Galactic Center and Galactic Ridge, supernova ejecta, and photoionized nebulae. Appreciation of the astrophysical relevance of our work continues to grow with the publication of roughly a dozen papers in the past four years describing Chandra and XMM observations of geocoronal and heliospheric CX emission, the temporal variation of such emission and correlation with X-ray emission enhancements observed by ROSAT, the theoretical spatial distribution of that emission, and CX emission around other stars. A similar number of papers were also published during that time describing CX emission from planets and comets. We expect that the launch of ASTRSE2, with its second-generation XRS microcalo- (with 6-eV resolution), will reveal even more clearly the contributions of CX to astrophysical emission. In our EBIT work we collected CX spectra from such ions as H-like and He-like Ne, Ar, and Fe. Our early measurements were made with a high-purity Ge detector, but during the second year we began operation of the first-generation XRS microcalorimeter (a twin of the XRS on ASTRO-E) and greatly improved the resolution of our measurements from roughly 150 eV (FWHM) with the Ge detectors to 10 eV with the XRS. We found that saturation of the XRS counting apparatus, which we described in our proposal as a potential concern, is not a problem for studying CX. During the course of our research, we expanded the number of injection gases permitted by the LLNL safety team, purchased and eventually operated an atomic H source, and clearly demonstrated the feasibility of our longer-range plan. For example, we successfully injected He into EBIT (not a small feat because of the difficulty of maintaining a good vacuum with He and avoiding electrical breakdown) to collect a H-like oxygen CX spectrum. The highest energy CX spectrum recorded with the XRS to date is that of the Ar K-shell emission. These measurements provided the first observation of the relative intensity ratios of resolved He-like singlet and triplet n=2->1 lines. We also carried out measurements of He-like Ne as a function of collision energy (i.e., ion temperature). Significant differences in the resulting x-ray spectra were noted. In all cases, the intensity of high-n H-like Lyman lines is significantly higher than current theoretical CX models predict.

  17. High-pressure X-ray diffraction and X-ray emission studies on iron-bearing silicate perovskite under high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jung-Fu; Speciale, Sergio; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Dera, Przemek; Lavina, Babara; Watson, Heather C.

    2010-06-22

    Iron-bearing silicate perovskite is believed to be the most abundant mineral of the Earth's lower mantle. Recent studies have shown that Fe{sup 2+} exists predominantly in the intermediate-spin state with a total spin number of 1 in silicate perovskite in the lower part of the lower mantle. Here we have measured the spin states of iron and the pressure-volume relation in silicate perovskite [(Mg{sub 0.6},Fe{sub 0.4})SiO{sub 3}] at pressure conditions relevant to the lowermost mantle using in situ X-ray emission and X-ray diffraction in a diamond cell. Our results showed that the intermediate-spin Fe{sup 2+} is stable in the silicate perovskite up to {approx} 125 GPa but starts to transition to the low-spin state at approximately 135 GPa. Concurrent X-ray diffraction measurements showed a decrease of approximately 1% in the unit cell volume in the silicate perovskite [(Mg{sub 0.6},Fe{sub 0.4})SiO{sub 3}], which is attributed to the intermediate-spin to the low-spin transition. The transition pressure coincides with the pressure conditions of the lowermost mantle, raising the possibility of the existence of the silicate perovskite phase with the low-spin Fe{sup 2+} across the transition from the post-perovskite to the perovskite phases in the bottom of the D{double_prime} layer.

  18. Steady-State Models of X-ray Emission from Massive-Star Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Christopher; Townsend, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    In the subset of OB stars with large-scale, organized magnetic fields, the stellar wind is forced to flow along magnetic field lines and is trapped within a magnetosphere corotating with its host star. As the wind turns on itself, shocks heat the plasma to millions of degrees and produce X-ray emission. Such magnetospheres are typically classified with the "wind magnetic confinement parameter", a simplified ratio between the magnetic energy density and the wind kinetic energy density. This parameter is often used to estimate magnetosphere properties, such as size, mass-loss rate, and spin-down time. Unfortunately, the strong magnetic fields in magnetospheres (polar strength: 100 G - 10 kG) and resulting Alfven velocities make magnetohydrodynamics simulations computationally difficult due to very small timesteps. To get around this issue, we approximate a massive-star magnetosphere as a series of one-dimensional flows along magnetic dipole field lines and develop a steady-state model from the resulting hydrodynamic equations. With this model, we derive scaling relations for the stellar mass-loss rate as a function of surface colatitude and find agreement with previous scaling results derived from simulations. These relations are further extended to include the effects of rigid-body rotation within the magnetosphere. Additionally, we develop an X-ray emission model from this steady-state analysis and compare it against both the "XADM" model for X-ray emission from massive star magnetospheres and observations of massive magnetic stars. Finally, we discuss improvements to the traditional wind magnetic confinement parameter to take into account the effect of a magnetic field on the wind kinetic energy density.

  19. Plasma heating in solar flares and their soft and hard X-ray emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Falewicz, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the energy budgets of two single-loop-like flares observed in X-ray are analyzed under the assumption that nonthermal electrons (NTEs) are the only source of plasma heating during all phases of both events. The flares were observed by RHESSI and GOES on 2002 February 20 and June 2, respectively. Using a one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic code for both flares, the energy deposited in the chromosphere was derived applying RHESSI observational data. The use of the Fokker-Planck formalism permits the calculation of distributions of the NTEs in flaring loops and thus spatial distributions of the X-ray nonthermal emissions and integral fluxes for the selected energy ranges that were compared with the observed ones. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the spatial distributions of the signals in the RHESSI images was conducted for the footpoints and for all the flare loops in selected energy ranges with these quantities' fluxes obtained from the models. The best compatibility of the model and observations was obtained for the 2002 June 2 event in the 0.5-4 Å GOES range and total fluxes in the 6-12 keV, 12-25 keV, 20-25 keV, and 50-100 keV energy bands. Results of photometry of the individual flaring structures in a high energy range show that the best compliance occurred for the 2002 June 2 flare, where the synthesized emissions were at least 30% higher than the observed emissions. For the 2002 February 20 flare, synthesized emission is about four times lower than the observed one. However, in the low energy range the best conformity was obtained for the 2002 February 20 flare, where emission from the model is about 11% lower than the observed one. The larger inconsistency occurs for the 2002 June 2 solar flare, where synthesized emission is about 12 times greater or even more than the observed emission. Some part of these differences may be caused by inevitable flaws of the applied methodology, like by an assumption that the model of the flare is symmetric and there are no differences in the emissions originating from the feet of the flares loop and by relative simplicity of the applied numerical 1D code and procedures. No doubt a significant refinement of the applied numerical models and more sophisticated implementation of the various physical mechanisms involved are required to achieve a better agreement. Despite these problems, a collation of modeled results with observations shows that soft and hard X-ray emissions observed for analyzed single-loop-like events may be fully explained by electron-beam-driven evaporation only.

  20. A magnetizing system for dichroism measurements in soft x-ray emission excited by synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dallera, C.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Braicovich, L.

    1996-02-01

    We present the design and performance of a magnetic circuit suitable for magnetizing solid samples in the measurements of soft x-ray emission dichroism excited by synchrotron radiation. The system allows a variety of samples to be magnetized and satisfies the rather stringent geometrical constraints due to the need for minimizing the effect of photon self-absorption by the sample. The magnetic circuit is ultrahigh vacuum compatible, can reach about 2800 G, and allows fine adjustment of sample position. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Interaction of high intensity laser with non-uniform clusters and enhanced X-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K.; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-10-15

    Laser irradiated clusters with non-uniform density variation are shown to broaden surface plasmon resonance very significantly. As the clusters get heated and expand hydro-dynamically, the Bremsstrahlung X-ray emission yield passes through a maximum in time. The maximum yield decreases with increase in non-uniformity in the electron density inside the clusters. At higher laser intensity, the nonlinearity in laser cluster interaction may arise even prior to electron heating, via the relativistic mass variation and the nonlinear restoration force on electrons. For clusters with radius less than one tenth of the laser wavelength, the restoration force nonlinearity dominates.

  2. X-ray emission from PSR B1800-21, its wind nebula, and similar systems

    E-print Network

    O. Kargaltsev; G. G. Pavlov; G. P. Garmire

    2006-11-19

    We detected X-ray emission from PSR B1800-21 and its synchrotron nebula with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The pulsar's observed flux is (1.4+/-0.2) 10^{-14} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} in the 1-6 keV band. The spectrum can be described by a two-component PL+BB model, suggesting a mixture of thermal and magnetospheric emission. For a plausible hydrogen column density n_{H}=1.4 10^{22} cm^{-2}, the PL component has a slope Gamma=1.4+/-0.6 and a luminosity L_{psr}^{nonth}=4 10^{31}(d/4 kpc)^2 ergs s^{-1}. The properties of the thermal component (kT=0.1-0.3 keV, L^{bol}=10^{31}-10^{33} ergs s^{-1}) are very poorly constrained because of the strong interstellar absorption. The compact, 7''\\times4'', inner pulsar-wind nebula (PWN), elongated perpendicular to the pulsar's proper motion, is immersed in a fainter asymmetric emission. The observed flux of the PWN is (5.5+/-0.6) 10^{-14} ergs cm^{-2} s^{-1} in the 1-8 keV band. The PWN spectrum fits by a PL model with Gamma=1.6+/-0.3, L=1.6 10^{32} (d/4 kpc})^2 ergs s^{-1}. The shape of the inner PWN suggests that the pulsar moves subsonically and X-ray emission emerges from a torus associated with the termination shock in the equatorial pulsar wind. The inferred PWN-pulsar properties (e.g., the PWN X-ray efficiency, L_{pwn}/\\dot{E}~10^{-4}; the luminosity ratio, L_{pwn}/L_{psr}^{nonth}=4; the pulsar wind pressure at the termination shock, p_s=10^{-9} ergs cm^{-3}) are very similar to those of other subsonically moving Vela-like objects detected with Chandra (L_{pwn}/\\dot{E}=10^{-4.5}-10^{-3.5}, L_{pwn}/L_{psr}^{nonth}~5, p_s=10^{-10}-10^{-8} ergs cm^{-1}).

  3. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, I. V.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Ene, A.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-23

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  4. INK: A computer program for accurate analysis of particle-induced X-ray emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabr, I. J.; Saleh, N. S.; Hallak, A. B.

    A computer program, INK, for the analysis of spectra obtained in proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is described. It fits Gaussian-shaped lines to the characteristic peaks. The continuum is fitted by an exponential function representing bremsstrahlung of the incident particles, secondary electron induced bremsstrahlung and different Compton scattering processes. The program is largely automatic. It is capable of providing fits for up to 20 elements in one to four minutes on a small microcomputer. It locates all peaks in a read-in spectrum and determines their energies, areas and elemental abundances. Applications to biological and geological samples are discussed.

  5. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mosher, D.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-06-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays in 5-MA Saturn discharges is reported. The timing of multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra (1 to 10 keV) agree with 2D radiation-hydrocode simulations. Nonthermal x-ray emission (10 to 100 keV) correlates with pinch spots distributed along the z-axis. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum, yield, and pinch-spot emission with those of 0.8-MA, single- exploded-wire discharges on Gamble-II suggest a common nonthermal- production mechanism. Nonthermal x-ray yields are lower than expected from current scaling of Gamble II results, suggesting that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single-wire geometries for nonthermal x-ray production. The instabilities, azimuthal asymmetries, and inferred multiple implosions that accompany the implosion geometry lead to larger, more irregular pinch spots, a likely reason for reduced nonthermal efficiency. A model for nonthermal-electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly- collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas combined with 1D hydrocode simulations of Saturn compact loads predicts weak nonthermal x-ray emission.

  6. Photosphere Emission in the X-Ray Flares of Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts and Implications for the Fireball Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liang, En-Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Hou, Shu-Jin; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Lu, Rui-Jing; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Bing

    2014-11-01

    X-ray flares of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are usually observed in the soft X-ray range and the spectral coverage is limited. In this paper, we present an analysis of 32 GRB X-ray flares that are simultaneously observed by both Burst Alert Telescope and X-Ray Telescope on board the Swift mission, so that a joint spectral analysis with a wider spectral coverage is possible. Our results show that the joint spectra of 19 flares are fitted with the absorbed single power law or the Band function models. More interestingly, the joint spectra of the other 13 X-ray flares are fitted with the absorbed single power-law model plus a blackbody component. Phenomenally, the observed spectra of these 13 flares are analogous to several GRBs with a thermal component, but only with a much lower temperature of kT = 1 ~ 3 keV. Assuming that the thermal emission is the photosphere emission of the GRB fireball, we derive the fireball properties of the 13 flares that have redshift measurements, such as the bulk Lorentz factor ?ph of the outflow. The derived ?ph range from 50 to 150 and a relation of ?ph to the thermal emission luminosity is found. It is consistent with the ?0 - L iso relations that are derived for the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss the physical implications of these results within the content of jet composition and the radiation mechanism of GRBs and X-ray flares.

  7. Aborted jets and the X-ray emission of radio-quiet AGNs

    E-print Network

    G. Ghisellini; F. Haardt; G. Matt

    2003-10-03

    We propose that radio-quiet quasars and Seyfert galaxies have central black holes powering outflows and jets which propagate only for a short distance, because the velocity of the ejected material is smaller than the escape velocity. We call them "aborted" jets. If the central engine works intermittently, blobs of material may be produced, which can reach a maximum radial distance and then fall back, colliding with the blobs produced later and still moving outwards. These collisions dissipate the bulk kinetic energy of the blobs by heating the plasma, and can be responsible (entirely or at least in part) for the generation of the high energy emission in radio-quiet objects. This is alternative to the more conventional scenario in which the X-ray spectrum of radio-quiet sources originates in a hot (and possibly patchy) corona above the accretion disk. In the latter case the ultimate source of energy of the emission of both the disk and the corona is accretion. Here we instead propose that the high energy emission is powered also by the extraction of the rotational energy of the black hole (and possibly of the disk). By means of Montecarlo simulations we calculate the time dependent spectra and light curves, and discuss their relevance to the X-ray spectra in radio-quiet AGNs and galactic black hole sources. In particular, we show that time variability and spectra are similar to those observed in Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  8. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    SciTech Connect

    Kawate, T.; Nishizuka, N.; Oi, A.; Ohyama, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  9. Instability of the 13.8 day period in X-ray emission from 4U1700-377

    E-print Network

    JaeSub Hong; Charles J. Hailey

    2003-09-23

    We present a new result on long-term periodicity searches of the X-ray emission from 4U1700-377 using RXTE ASM and CGRO BATSE data. The hard X-ray data (20 - 200 keV) from early BATSE observations (1780 days from JD 2448370, before RXTE observations started) show evidence of a 13.8 day periodicity. The long term periodicity became substantially less prominent in the data from later BATSE observations and in the soft X-ray data from the ASM (2 - 10 keV) observations. We demonstrate that disk precession models can explain the 13.8 day period and its instability in the X-ray emission from 4U1700-377.

  10. On the Early-Time X-Ray Spectra of Swift Afterglows. I. Evidence for Anomalous Soft X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. R.

    2007-02-01

    We have conducted a thorough and blind search for emission lines in >70 Swift X-ray afterglows of total exposure ~107 s. We find that most afterglows are consistent with pure power laws plus extinction. Significant outliers to the population exist at the 5%-10% level and have anomalously soft, possibly thermal spectra. Four bursts are singled out via possible detections of two to five lines: GRB 060218, GRB 060202, GRB 050822, and GRB 050714B. Alternatively, a blackbody model with kT~0.1-0.5 keV can describe the soft emission in each afterglow. The most significant soft-component detections in the full data set of ~2000 spectra correspond to GRB 060218/SN 2006aj, with line significances ranging up to ~20 ?. A thermal plasma model fit to the data indicates that the flux is primarily due to L-shell transitions of Fe at roughly solar abundance. We associate (>4 ? significant) line triggers in the three other events with K-shell transitions in light metals. We favor a model where the possible line emission in these afterglows arises from the mildly relativistic cocoon of matter surrounding the GRB jet as it penetrates and exits the surface of the progenitor star. The emitting material in each burst is at a similar distance ~1012-1013 cm, a similar density ~1017 cm-3, and subject to a similar flux of ionizing radiation. The lines may correlate with the X-ray flaring. For the blackbody interpretation, the soft flux may arise from breakout of the GRB shock or plasma cocoon from the progenitor stellar wind, as recently suggested for GRB 060218 (Campana et al. 2006). Due to the low z of GRB 060218, bursts faint in gamma rays with fluxes dominated by this soft X-ray component could outnumber classical GRBs 100 to 1.

  11. Direct Comparison of the X-Ray Emission and Absorption of Cerium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Denlinger, J D

    2010-11-24

    Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS). The XES spectra were collected using a Specs electron gun for the excitation and the XES 350 grating monochromator and channel plate system from Scienta as the photon detection. Spectra were collected in 'normal mode,' where the electron gun kinetic energy (KE) and the energy position of the center of the channel plate were both fixed and the energy distribution in the photon (hv) spectrum was derived from the intensities distributed across the channel plate detector in the energy dispersal direction. The polycrystalline Ce sample was oxidized by exposure to air at ambient pressures. After introduction to the ultra-high vacuum system, the oxidized sample was bombarded with Ar, to clean the topmost surface region and stabilize the surface and near surface regions. Although CeO{sub 2} would be the thermodynamically preferred composition in an oxygen rich environment, the combination of a vacuum environment and ion etching may have driven the near surface region into a Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} stoichiometry. XES data collection occurred with the sample at or near room temperature. The base pressure of the system was 3 x 10{sup -10} torr, but the pressure changed depending the energy and current of the electron gun. For example, with the XES measurements at KE = 3KeV, the pressure was approximately 8 to 9 x 10{sup -10} torr and the excitation current to the sample was typically 0.01 mA. More detail of the sample preparation and analysis can be found in Reference 1. The XAS experiments were performed at Beamline 8 of the Advance Light Source, as part of a larger collaboration. The ex situ sample used at the ALS was prepared in a fashion similar to that described above. X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), have been used to investigate the photon emission and absorption associated with the Ce3d{sub 5/2} and Ce3d{sub 3/2} core-levels in CeOxide. A comparison of the two processes and their spectra will be made. Recently, we reported the observation of a very strong resonant effect in the Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy of CeOxide. It has now become apparent that there is a utility in a direct comparison of the X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) of similarly prepared CeOxide samples. That comparison is made in this Brief Report/Comment.

  12. Spectral modeling of the charge-exchange X-ray emission from M82

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuinai; Ji, Li; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Q. Daniel; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam R.

    2014-10-10

    It has been proposed that the charge-exchange (CX) process at the interface between hot and cool interstellar gases could contribute significantly to the observed soft X-ray emission in star-forming galaxies. We analyze the XMM-Newton/reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) spectrum of M82 using a newly developed CX model combined with a single-temperature thermal plasma to characterize the volume-filling hot gas. The CX process is largely responsible for not only the strongly enhanced forbidden lines of the K? triplets of various He-like ions but also good fractions of the Ly? transitions of C VI (?87%), O VIII, and N VII (?50%) as well. In total about a quarter of the X-ray flux in the RGS 6-30 Å band originates in the CX. We infer an ion incident rate of 3 × 10{sup 51} s{sup –1} undergoing CX at the hot and cool gas interface and an effective area of the interface of ?2 × 10{sup 45} cm{sup 2} that is one order of magnitude larger than the cross section of the global biconic outflow. With the CX contribution accounted for, the best-fit temperature of the hot gas is 0.6 keV, and the metal abundances are approximately solar. We further show that the same CX/thermal plasma model also gives an excellent description of the EPIC-pn spectrum of the outflow Cap, projected at 11.6 kpc away from the galactic disk of M82. This analysis demonstrates that the CX is potentially an important contributor to the X-ray emission from starburst galaxies and also an invaluable tool to probe the interface astrophysics.

  13. GEMINGA'S SOFT X-RAY EMISSION AND THE STRUCTURE OF ITS SURFACE

    E-print Network

    Dany Page; Yu. A. Shibanov; V. E. Zavlin

    1995-05-05

    We present a model to explain the decrease in the amplitude of the pulse profile with increasing energy observed in Geminga's soft X-ray surface thermal emission. We assume the presence of plates surrounded by a surface with very distinct physical properties: these two regions emit spectra of very distinct shapes which present a crossover, the warm plates emitting a softer spectrum than the colder surrounding surface. The strongly pulsed emission from the plates dominates at low energy while the surroundings emission dominates at high energy, producing naturally a strong decrease in the pulsed fraction. In our illustrative example the plates are assumed to be magnetized while the rest of the surface is field free. This plate structure may be seen as a schematic representation of a continuous but very nonuniform distribution of the surface magnetic field or as a quasi realistic structure induced by past tectonic activity on Geminga.

  14. On the Extended Emission of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar IE 1547.0-5408

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olausen, S. A.; Kaspi, V. M.; Ng, C. -Y.; Zhu, W. W.; Gavriil, F. P.; Woods, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the extended emission around the anomalous X-ray pulsar IE 1547.0-5408 using four XMM-Newton observations taken with the source in varying states of outburst as well as in quiescence. We find that the extended emission flux is highly variable and strongly correlated with the flux of the magnetar. Based on this result, as well as on spectral and energetic considerations, we conclude that the extended emission is dominated by a dust-scattering halo and not a pulsar wind nebula (P-VVN), as has been previously argued. We obtain an upper limit on the 2-10 keV flux of a possible PWN of 4.7 x 10(exp -14) erg/s/sq cm, three times less than the previously claimed value, implying an efficiency for conversion of spin-down energy into nebular luminosity of <9 x 10(exp -4) .

  15. X-ray emission from high-T c superconductors: Role of apical oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, C. F.; Mariot, J.-M.; Barnole, V.; Michel, C.

    1991-12-01

    X-ray emission can serve as a local probe of the Cu 3 d orO 2 p states. The O K integrates information from all oxygen atoms whether directly coordinated to copper sites or not. The O K emission is clearly band-like. The Cu L 3 spectrum provides more direct information on the Cu - O unit. Because the initial state is a core hole emphasis is placed on correlation effects the presence of which infirm local density approximation predictions. We observe, however, small but significant changes in the width and shape of the Cu L 3 emission according to the compound which we relate to structure and variations in Cu?O bonding.

  16. The X-ray emission from Nova V382 Velorum I. The hard component observed with BeppoSAX

    E-print Network

    Greiner, Jochen

    The X-ray emission from Nova V382 Velorum ­ I. The hard component observed with BeppoSAX M. Orio,1SAX observations of Nova Velorum 1999 (V382 Vel), carried out in a broad X-ray band covering 0:1­300 keV only 15 d after the discovery and again after 6 months. The nova was detected at day 15 with the Beppo

  17. Physiologically gated microbeam radiation using a field emission x-ray source array

    PubMed Central

    Chtcheprov, Pavel; Burk, Laurel; Yuan, Hong; Inscoe, Christina; Ger, Rachel; Hadsell, Michael; Lu, Jianping; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses narrow planes of high dose radiation beams to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000 Gy of peak entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during treatment can lead to significant movement of microbeam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), which reduces the effectiveness of MRT. Recently, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of generating microbeam radiation for small animal treatment using a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The purpose of this study is to incorporate physiological gating to the CNT microbeam irradiator to minimize motion-induced microbeam blurring. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source array with a narrow line focal track was operated at 160 kVp. The x-ray radiation was collimated to a single 280??m wide microbeam at entrance. The microbeam beam pattern was recorded using EBT2 Gafchromic© films. For the feasibility study, a strip of EBT2 film was attached to an oscillating mechanical phantom mimicking mouse chest respiratory motion. The servo arm was put against a pressure sensor to monitor the motion. The film was irradiated with three microbeams under gated and nongated conditions and the full width at half maximums and PVDRs were compared. An in vivo study was also performed with adult male athymic mice. The liver was chosen as the target organ for proof of concept due to its large motion during respiration compared to other organs. The mouse was immobilized in a specialized mouse bed and anesthetized using isoflurane. A pressure sensor was attached to a mouse's chest to monitor its respiration. The output signal triggered the electron extraction voltage of the field emission source such that x-ray was generated only during a portion of the mouse respiratory cycle when there was minimum motion. Parallel planes of microbeams with 12.4 Gy/plane dose and 900??m pitch were delivered. The microbeam profiles with and without gating were analyzed using ?-H2Ax immunofluorescence staining. Results: The phantom study showed that the respiratory motion caused a 50% drop in PVDR from 11.5 when there is no motion to 5.4, whereas there was only a 5.5% decrease in PVDR for gated irradiation compared to the no motion case. In thein vivo study, the histology result showed gating increased PVDR by a factor of 2.4 compared to the nongated case, similar to the result from the phantom study. The full width at tenth maximum of the microbeam decreased by 40% in gating in vivo and close to 38% with phantom studies. Conclusions: The CNT field emission x-ray source array can be synchronized to physiological signals for gated delivery of x-ray radiation to minimize motion-induced beam blurring. Gated MRT reduces valley dose between lines during long-time radiation of a moving object. The technique allows for more precise MRT treatments and makes the CNT MRT device practical for extended treatment. PMID:25086515

  18. Physiologically gated microbeam radiation using a field emission x-ray source array

    SciTech Connect

    Chtcheprov, Pavel E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu; Burk, Laurel; Inscoe, Christina; Ger, Rachel; Hadsell, Michael; Lu, Jianping; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses narrow planes of high dose radiation beams to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000 Gy of peak entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during treatment can lead to significant movement of microbeam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), which reduces the effectiveness of MRT. Recently, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of generating microbeam radiation for small animal treatment using a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The purpose of this study is to incorporate physiological gating to the CNT microbeam irradiator to minimize motion-induced microbeam blurring. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source array with a narrow line focal track was operated at 160 kVp. The x-ray radiation was collimated to a single 280??m wide microbeam at entrance. The microbeam beam pattern was recorded using EBT2 Gafchromic{sup ©} films. For the feasibility study, a strip of EBT2 film was attached to an oscillating mechanical phantom mimicking mouse chest respiratory motion. The servo arm was put against a pressure sensor to monitor the motion. The film was irradiated with three microbeams under gated and nongated conditions and the full width at half maximums and PVDRs were compared. An in vivo study was also performed with adult male athymic mice. The liver was chosen as the target organ for proof of concept due to its large motion during respiration compared to other organs. The mouse was immobilized in a specialized mouse bed and anesthetized using isoflurane. A pressure sensor was attached to a mouse's chest to monitor its respiration. The output signal triggered the electron extraction voltage of the field emission source such that x-ray was generated only during a portion of the mouse respiratory cycle when there was minimum motion. Parallel planes of microbeams with 12.4 Gy/plane dose and 900??m pitch were delivered. The microbeam profiles with and without gating were analyzed using ?-H2Ax immunofluorescence staining. Results: The phantom study showed that the respiratory motion caused a 50% drop in PVDR from 11.5 when there is no motion to 5.4, whereas there was only a 5.5% decrease in PVDR for gated irradiation compared to the no motion case. In thein vivo study, the histology result showed gating increased PVDR by a factor of 2.4 compared to the nongated case, similar to the result from the phantom study. The full width at tenth maximum of the microbeam decreased by 40% in gating in vivo and close to 38% with phantom studies. Conclusions: The CNT field emission x-ray source array can be synchronized to physiological signals for gated delivery of x-ray radiation to minimize motion-induced beam blurring. Gated MRT reduces valley dose between lines during long-time radiation of a moving object. The technique allows for more precise MRT treatments and makes the CNT MRT device practical for extended treatment.

  19. A vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube field-emission electrons.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jae-Woo; Kang, Jun-Tae; Choi, Sungyoul; Ahn, Seungjoon; Song, Yoon-Ho

    2013-03-01

    We report on a fully vacuum-sealed compact x-ray tube based on focused carbon nanotube (CNT) field-emission electrons for various radiography applications. The specially designed two-step brazing process enabled us to accomplish a good vacuum level for the stable and reliable operation of the x-ray tube without any active vacuum pump. Also, the integrated focusing electrodes in the field-emission electron gun focused electron beams from the CNT emitters onto the anode target effectively, giving a small focal spot of around 0.3 mm with a large current of above 50 mA. The active-current control through the cathode electrode of the x-ray tube led a fast digital modulation of x-ray dose with a low voltage of below 5 V. The fabricated compact x-ray tube showed a stable and reliable operation, indicating good maintenance of a vacuum level of below 5 × 10(-6) Torr and the possibility of field-emission x-ray tubes in a stand-alone device without an active pumping system. PMID:23376878

  20. The effect of pre-ionization by a shunt resistor on the reproducibility of plasma focus x-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, S.; Sadiq, Mehboob; Shafiq, M.; Waheed, A.; Lee, P.; Zakaullah, M.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of pre-ionization by means of a shunt resistor on the x-ray emission of a low energy (1.8 kJ) plasma focus device powered by a 9 µF capacitor bank, charged at 20 kV and giving a peak discharge current of about 175 kA is investigated. Quantrad Si pin-diodes along with a suitable filter are employed as time-resolved x-ray detectors, whereas a multipinhole camera with absorption filters is used for time-integrated analysis. X-ray flux in 4?-geometry is measured as a function of argon filling pressure with and without pre-ionization. It is found that appropriate selection of the shunt resistor increases shot-to-shot reproducibility of the x-ray emission as well as the stability of the pinch filament and broadens the x-ray pulse width. The x-ray emission is also enhanced by (45 ± 5)% at the optimum pressure.

  1. High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: present performance and future potential.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, J; Doriese, W B; Fowler, J W; Swetz, D S; Jaye, C; Fischer, D A; Reintsema, C D; Bennett, D A; Vale, L R; Mandal, U; O'Neil, G C; Miaja-Avila, L; Joe, Y I; El Nahhas, A; Fullagar, W; Gustafsson, F Parnefjord; Sundström, V; Kurunthu, D; Hilton, G C; Schmidt, D R; Ullom, J N

    2015-05-01

    X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) is a powerful element-selective tool to analyze the oxidation states of atoms in complex compounds, determine their electronic configuration, and identify unknown compounds in challenging environments. Until now the low efficiency of wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer technology has limited the use of XES, especially in combination with weaker laboratory X-ray sources. More efficient energy-dispersive detectors have either insufficient energy resolution because of the statistical limits described by Fano or too low counting rates to be of practical use. This paper updates an approach to high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy that uses a microcalorimeter detector array of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs). TES arrays are discussed and compared with conventional methods, and shown under which circumstances they are superior. It is also shown that a TES array can be integrated into a table-top time-resolved X-ray source and a soft X-ray synchrotron beamline to perform emission spectroscopy with good chemical sensitivity over a very wide range of energies. PMID:25931095

  2. On binary driven hypernovae and their nested late X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccino, Marco; Ruffini, Remo; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Enderli, Maxime; Kovacevic, Milos; Izzo, Luca; Penacchioni, Ana Virginia; Pisani, Giovanni Battista; Rueda, Jorge A.; Wang, Yu

    2015-07-01

    The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm addresses energetic (1052-1054 erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated to supernovae (SNe) and proposes as their progenitors tight binary systems composed of an evolved FeCO core and a companion neutron star (NS). Their emission is characterized by four specific episodes: Episode 1, corresponding to the on-set of the FeCO SN explosion and the accretion of the ejecta onto the companion NS; Episode 2, related the collapse of the companionNS to a black hole (BH) and to the emission of a long GRB; Episode 3, observed in X-rays and characterized by a steep decay, a plateau phase and a late power-law decay; Episode 4, corresponding to the optical SN emission due to the 56Ni decay. We focus on Episode 3 and we show that, from the thermal component observed during the steep decay of the prototype GRB 090618, the emission region has a typical dimension of ~1013 cm, which is inconsistent with the typical size of the emitting region of GRBs, e.g., ~1016 cm. We propose, therefore, that the X-ray afterglow emission originates from a spherically symmetric SN ejecta expanding at G ˜ 2 or, possibly, from the accretion onto the newly formed black hole, and we name these systems "binary driven hypernovae" (BdHNe). This interpretation is alternative to the traditional afterglow model based on the GRB synchrotron emission from a collimated jet outflow, expanding at ultra-relativistic Lorentz factor of G ~ 102-103 and originating from the collapse of a single object. We show then that the rest-frame energy band 0.3-10 keV X-ray luminosities of three selected BdHNe, GRB 060729, GRB 061121, and GRB 130427A, evidence a precisely constrained "nested" structure and satisfy precise scaling laws between the average prompt luminosity, < Liso>, and the luminosity at the end of the plateau, La, as functions of the time at the end of the plateau. All these features extend the applicability of the "cosmic candle" nature of Episode 3. The relevance of r-process in fulfilling the demanding scaling laws and the nested structure are indicated.

  3. Low-energy x-ray emission from magnetic-fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; Eames, D.; von Goeler, S.; Goldman, M.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Silver, E.

    1982-04-01

    Complex, transient, spatially inhomogeneous tokamak plasmas require careful diagnosis. As the reactor regime is approached, soft x rays become more important as a versatile diagnostic tool and an energy-loss mechanism. Continuum emission provides a measure of electron temperature and light impurity content. Impurity lines serve as a probe for ion and electron temperature, impurity behavior, and radiative cooling. The entire spectrum yields vital information on instabilities and disruptions. The importance of impurities is illustrated by the extensive efforts toward understanding impurity production, effects, and control. Minute heavy impurity concentrations can prevent reactor ignition. Si(Li) - detector arrays give a broad overview of continuum and line x-ray emission (.3 to 50 keV) with moderate energy (200 eV) and time (50 ms) resolution. Bragg crystal and grating spectrometers provide detailed information on impurity lines with moderate to excellent (E/..delta..E = 100 to 23,000) resolving power and 1 to 50 ms time resolution. Imaging detector arrays measure rapid (approx. 10 ..mu..s) fluctuations due to MHD instabilities and probe impurity behavior and radiative cooling. Future tokamaks require more diagnostic channels to avoid spatial scanning, higher throughput for fast, single-shot diagnosis, increased spectral information per sample period via fast scanning or use of multi-element detectors with dispersive elements, and radiation shielding and hardening of detectors.

  4. Optical and x-ray imaging of electron beams using synchrotron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the case of very low emittance electron and positron storage ring beams, it is impossible to make intrusive measurements of beam properties without increasing the emittance and possibly disrupting the beam. In cases where electron or positron beams have high average power densities (such as free electron laser linacs), intrusive probes such as wires and optical transition radiation screens or Cherenkov emitting screens can be easily damaged or destroyed. The optical and x-ray emissions from the bends in the storage rings and often from linac bending magnets can be used to image the beam profile to obtain emittance information about the beam. The techniques, advantages and limitations of using both optical and x-ray synchrotron emission to measure beam properties are discussed and the possibility of single bunch imaging is considered. The properties of suitable imagers and converters such as phosphors are described. Examples of previous, existing and planned applications are given where available, including a pinhole imaging system currently being designed for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  5. Optical and x-ray imaging of electron beams using synchrotron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    In the case of very low eniittance electron and positron storage ring beams, it is impossible to make intrusive measurements of beam properties without increasing the emittance and possibly disrupting the beam. In cases where electron or positron beams have high average power densities (such as free electron laser linacs), intrusive probes such as wires and optical transition radiation screens or Cherenkov emitting screens can be easily damaged or destroyed. The optical and x-ray emissions from the bends in the storage rings and often from linac bending magnets can be used to image the beam profile to obtain emittance information about the beam. The techniques, advantages and limitations of using both optical and x-ray synchrotron emission to measure beam properties are discussed and the possibility of single bunch imaging is considered. The properties of suitable imagers and converters such as phosphors are described. Examples of previous, existing and planned applications are given where available, including a pinhole imaging system currently being designed for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  6. On the diffuse soft X-ray emission from the nuclear region of M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji-Ren; Mao, Shu-De

    2015-12-01

    We present an analysis of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from the nuclear region of M51 combining both XMM-Newton RGS and Chandra data. Most of the RGS spectrum of M51 can be fitted with a thermal model with a temperature of ? 0.5 keV except for the O VII triplet, which is forbidden-line dominated. The Fe L-shell lines peak around the southern cloud, where the O VIII and N VII Ly? lines also peak. In contrast, the peak of the O VII forbidden line is about 10? offset from that of the other lines, indicating that it is from a spatially distinct component. The spatial distribution of the O VII triplet mapped by the Chandra data shows that most of the O VII triplet flux is located at faint regions near edges, instead of the southern cloud where other lines peak. This distribution of the O VII triplet is inconsistent with the photoionization model. Other mechanisms that could produce the anomalous O VII triplet, including a recombining plasma and charge exchange X-ray emission, are discussed.

  7. Suzaku monitoring of hard X-ray emission from ? Carinae over a single binary orbital cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Yuasa, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Pittard, Julian M.; Russell, Christopher M. P.

    2014-11-10

    The Suzaku X-ray observatory monitored the supermassive binary system ? Carinae 10 times during the whole 5.5 yr orbital cycle between 2005 and 2011. This series of observations presents the first long-term monitoring of this enigmatic system in the extremely hard X-ray band between 15 and 40 keV. During most of the orbit, the 15-25 keV emission varied similarly to the 2-10 keV emission, indicating an origin in the hard energy tail of the kT ? 4 keV wind-wind collision (WWC) plasma. However, the 15-25 keV emission declined only by a factor of three around periastron when the 2-10 keV emission dropped by two orders of magnitude due probably to an eclipse of the WWC plasma. The observed minimum in the 15-25 keV emission occurred after the 2-10 keV flux had already recovered by a factor of ?3. This may mean that the WWC activity was strong, but hidden behind the thick primary stellar wind during the eclipse. The 25-40 keV flux was rather constant through the orbital cycle, at the level measured with INTEGRAL in 2004. This result may suggest a connection of this flux component to the ?-ray source detected in this field. The helium-like Fe K? line complex at ?6.7 keV became strongly distorted toward periastron as seen in the previous cycle. The 5-9 keV spectra can be reproduced well with a two-component spectral model, which includes plasma in collision equilibrium and a plasma in non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) with ? ? 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3} s{sup –1}. The NEI plasma increases in importance toward periastron.

  8. The White Dwarf Mass and the Accretion Rate of Recurrent Novae: An X-ray Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Koji; Sokoloski, Jennifer L.; Nelson, Thomas; Luna, Gerardo J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present recent results of quiescent X-ray observations of recurrent novae (RNe) and related objects. Several RNe are luminous hard X-ray sources in quiescence, consistent with accretion onto a near Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf. Detection of similar hard X-ray emissions in old novae and other cataclysmic variables may lead to identification of additional RN candidates. On the other hand, other RNe are found to be comparatively hard X-ray faint. We present several scenarios that may explain this dichotomy, which should be explored further.

  9. X-ray Emission from the Prototypical LINER Galaxy NGC 1052

    E-print Network

    K. A. Weaver; A. S. Wilson; C. Henkel; J. A. Braatz

    1999-02-18

    We examine the 0.1 to 10.0 keV X-ray spectrum of the bright nuclear LINER galaxy NGC 1052, one of two elliptical galaxies known to contain a luminous H2O maser. The observed 2.0-10.0 keV spectrum is unusually flat (photon index Gamma~0.2) and best described as intrinsically power-law shaped nuclear flux that is either (1) attenuated by a complex absorber with ~70% of the nuclear flux absorbed by a column density of NH ~ 3x10^23 cm^{-2} and ~30% absorbed by a column density of NH ~ 3-5x10^{22} cm^{-2}, or (2) reprocessed, with the nuclear source blocked and the X-rays Compton reflected in our direction by high column density (>=10^{24} cm^{-2}) gas. The moderate equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line favors the dual absorption model as the most likely scenario. The 0.1-2.0 keV spectrum does not resemble the few times 10^6 to 10^7 K thermal emission typically found in other elliptical galaxies, but instead is best described as nuclear X-rays leaking through a patchy absorber or scattered in our direction by low-density, ionized gas with the thermal contribution limited to about 15% for solar abundances. The absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity of the nuclear source is L_X ~ 8x10^{41} ergs s^{-1} or L_X ~ 2x10^{43} ergs s^{-1} for the dual-absorption and Compton-reflection models, respectively. The absorbing and H2O masing gases appear to be spatially separate in this galaxy.

  10. X-Ray Emission from the Prototypical LINER Galaxy NGC 1052

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Wilson, A. S.; Henkel, C.; Braatz, J. A.

    1999-07-01

    We examine the 0.1-10.0 keV X-ray spectrum of the bright nuclear LINER galaxy NGC 1052, one of two elliptical galaxies known to contain a luminous H2O maser. The observed 2.0-10.0 keV spectrum is unusually flat (photon index ?~0.2) and is best described as intrinsically power-law shaped nuclear flux that is either (1) attenuated by a complex absorber with ~70% of the nuclear flux absorbed by a column density of NH~3×1023 cm-2 and ~30% absorbed by a column density of NH~3-5×1022 cm-2 or (2) reprocessed, with the nuclear source blocked and the X-rays Compton reflected in our direction by high column density (>=1024 cm-2) gas. The moderate equivalent width of the Fe K? line favors the dual absorption model as the most likely scenario. The 0.1-2.0 keV spectrum does not resemble the few times 106-107 K thermal emission typically found in other elliptical galaxies, but instead is best described as nuclear X-rays leaking through a patchy absorber or scattered in our direction by low-density, ionized gas plus a 15%-20% contribution from a thermal component, which is most likely due to the galaxy. The absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity of the nuclear source is LX~8×1041 ergs s-1 or LX~2×1043 ergs s-1 for the dual-absorption and Compton-reflection models, respectively. The absorbing and H2O masing gases appear to be spatially separate in this galaxy.

  11. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPER-EARTH HOST GJ 1214

    SciTech Connect

    Lalitha, S.; Singh, K. P.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2014-07-20

    Stellar activity can produce large amounts of high-energy radiation, which is absorbed by the planetary atmosphere leading to irradiation-driven mass loss. We present the detection and an investigation of high-energy emission in a transiting super-Earth host system, GJ 1214, based on XMM-Newton observations. We derive an X-ray luminosity of L{sub X} = 7.4 × 10{sup 25} erg s{sup –1} and a corresponding activity level of log (L{sub X} /L {sub bol}) ? –5.3. Further, we determine a coronal temperature of about ?3.5 MK, which is typical for coronal emission of moderately active low-mass stars. We estimate that GJ 1214 b evaporates at a rate of 1.3× 10{sup 10} g s{sup –1} and has lost a total of ?2-5.6 M {sub ?}.

  12. UV and X-ray emission in the interacting binary U Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimenez, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Gonzalez-Riestra, R.

    1993-01-01

    The active close binary U Cep has been monitored in the ultraviolet, using IUE, during 1.25 orbital cycles. The emission spectrum at the bottom of the primary total eclipse confirms earlier suggestions of an unexpected absence of the Hell 1640 A line. Stronger than expected emission in some other lines like NV, CII, CIV or AlIII, indicative of hot plasma, points out that some important differences still remain between the active components of RS CVn-type binaries and the mass-losing components of semidetached Algols. Simultaneous X-ray measurements, carried out with GINGA, indicated a low upper limit flux in the observed energy range (1 to 10 keV). A comparison with other binary systems or isolated stars is discussed in order to understand the obtained results.

  13. X-ray inverse Compton emission from the radio halo of M87. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. A. D.

    1985-01-01

    M87 has been observed in the 0.2-4 KeV X-ray band using the High Resolution Imager on the Einstein Observatory, and at 1.452 GHz using the Very Large Array. The radio map showed that the halo contained prominent asymmetries to the east and southwest. The X-ray map indicated similar asymmetries, but they were imbedded in the diffuse hot gas that surrounds the core out to a radius of several arcminutes. The hot X-ray emitting gas was assumed to be spherically symmetric and could, therefore, be subtracted from the image. The resultant image was asymmetric with major lobes to the east and southwest that coincide approximately with the asymmetries in the radio halo. The data indicates that inverse Compton emission is a plausible model for the X-rays coming from the asymmetric component.

  14. X-Ray and Optical Flux Ratio Anomalies in Quadruply Lensed Quasars: I. Zooming in on Quasar Emission Regions

    E-print Network

    Pooley, D; Rappaport, S; Schechter, P L; Pooley, David; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Rappaport, Saul

    2006-01-01

    X-ray and optical observations of quadruply lensed quasars can provide a micro-arcsecond probe of the lensed quasar. In this paper we utilize X-ray observations of ten lensed quasars recorded with the Chandra X-ray Observatory as well as corresponding optical data obtained by either the Hubble Space Telescope or ground-based optical telescopes. These are analyzed in a systematic and uniform way with emphasis on the flux-ratio anomalies that are found relative to the predictions of smooth lens models. A comparison of the flux ratio anomalies between the X-ray and optical bands allows us to conclude that the optical emission regions of the lensed quasars are much larger than expected from basic disk models (by factors of ~10-100).

  15. Atomic Calculations and Spectral Models of X-ray Absorption and Emission Features From Astrophysical Photoionized Plasmas

    E-print Network

    A. Kinkhabwala; E. Behar; M. Sako; M. F. Gu; S. M. Kahn; F. B. S. Paerels

    2003-04-20

    We present a detailed model of the discrete X-ray spectroscopic features expected from steady-state, low-density photoionized plasmas. We apply the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) to calculate all of the necessary atomic data for the full range of ions relevant for the X-ray regime. These calculations have been incorporated into a simple model of a cone of ions irradiated by a point source located at its tip (now available as the XSPEC model PHOTOION). For each ionic species in the cone, photoionization is balanced by recombination and ensuing radiative cascades, and photoexcitation of resonance transitions is balanced by radiative decay. This simple model is useful for diagnosing X-ray emission mechanisms, determining photoionization/photoexcitation/recombination rates, fitting temperatures and ionic emission measures, and probing geometrical properties (covering factor/column densities/radial filling factor/velocity distributions) of absorbing/reemitting regions in photoionized plasmas. Such plasmas have already been observed in diverse astrophysical X-ray sources, including active galactic nuclei, X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and stellar winds of early-type stars, and may also provide a significant contribution to the X-ray spectra of gamma-ray-burst afterglows and the intergalactic medium.

  16. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVA 1970G WITH CHANDRA: FILLING THE VOID BETWEEN SUPERNOVAE AND SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immler, Stefan; Kuntz, K. D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray emission from SN 1970G in M101, 35 yr after its outburst, using deep X-ray imaging with the Chundra X-Ray Observatory. The Chandra ACIS spectrum shows that the emission is soft (52 keV) and characteristic of the reverse-shock region. The X-ray luminosity, Lo,,, = (1.1 3 0.2) x lo3# ergs s-1, is likely caused by the interaction of the supernova shock with dense circumstellar matter. If the material was deposited by the stellar wind from the progenitor, a mass-loss rate of M = (2.6 ? 0.4) x M, yr-I (v,/lO km s-I) is inferred. Utilizing the high-resolution Chandra ACIS data of SN 1970G and its environment, we reconstruct the X-ray lightcurve from previous ROSAT HRI, PSPC, and XMM-Newton EPIC observations, and find a best-fit linear rate of decline of L cc t-# with index s = 2.7 t 0.9 over a period of -20-35 yr after the outburst. As the oldest supernova detected in X-rays, SN 1970G allows, for the first time, direct observation of the transition from a supenova to its supernova remnant phase.

  17. Observation of soft X-ray spectra from a Seyfert 1 and a narrow emission-line galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, K. P.; Garmire, G. P.; Nousek, J.

    1985-01-01

    The 0.2-40 keV X-ray spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 509 and the narrow emission-line galaxy NGC 2992 are analyzed. The results suggest the presence of a steep soft X-ray component in Mrk 509 in addition to the well-known Gamma = 1.7 component found in other active galactic nuclei in the 2-40 keV energy range. The soft X-ray component is interpreted as due to thermal emission from a hot gas, probably associated with the highly ionized gas observed to be outflowing from the galaxy. The X-ray spectrum of NGC 2992 does not show any steepening in the soft X-ray band and is consistent with a single power law (Gamma = 1.78) with very low absorbing column density of 4 x 10 to the 21st/sq cm. A model with partial covering of the nuclear X-ray source is preferred, however, to a simple model with a single power law and absorption.

  18. Hydrodynamic and radiative transfer modeling of X-ray emission from colliding WR winds: WR 140 & the Galactic center

    E-print Network

    Russell, Christopher M P; Cuadra, Jorge; Owocki, Stanley P; Wang, Q Daniel; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Pollock, Andrew M T; Kallman, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Colliding Wolf-Rayet (WR) winds produce thermal X-ray emission widely observed by X-ray telescopes. In wide WR+O binaries, such as WR 140, the X-ray flux is tied to the orbital phase, and is a direct probe of the winds' properties. In the Galactic center, $\\sim$30 WRs orbit the super massive black hole (SMBH) within $\\sim$10", leading to a smorgasbord of wind-wind collisions. To model the X-ray emission of WR 140 and the Galactic center, we perform 3D hydrodynamic simulations to trace the complex gaseous flows, and then carry out 3D radiative transfer calculations to compute the variable X-ray spectra. The model WR 140 RXTE light curve matches the data well for all phases except the X-ray minimum associated with periastron, while the model spectra agree with the RXTE hardness ratio and the shape of the Suzaku observations throughout the orbit. The Galactic center model of the Chandra flux and spectral shape match well in the region r$<$3", but the model flux falls off too rapidly beyond this radius.

  19. Enhanced x-ray emissions from Au-Gd mixture targets ablated by a high-power nanosecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yunsong; Shang, Wanli; Yang, Jiamin Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Wenhai; Li, Zhichao; Guo, Liang; Zhan, Xiayu; Du, Huabing; Deng, Bo; Pu, Yikang

    2014-01-28

    As an important x-ray source, enhancement of x-ray emissions from laser-produced plasmas is imperative for various applications. High-Z Au-Gd mixture targets are proposed to enhance the laser to x-ray conversion efficiency compared to pure Au target. In the experiments, a 1?ns frequency-tripled (351 nm wavelength) laser light was used to obtain an intensity of 3×10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} on the targets. The x-ray spectra, total absolute x-ray emissions of all space, M-band fraction and backscattering from pure Au and Au-Gd mixture have been measured, respectively. It is shown that the absolute laser to x-ray conversion efficiency for the Au-Gd mixture containing 60% gold by atom is 47.7%, which has a 15% enhancement compared with that of the pure Au target. The experimental results are consistent with the radiation hydrodynamic simulations.

  20. X-ray emission at the low-mass end - Results from an extensive Einstein Observatory survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbera, M.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1993-01-01

    We have used available IPC data and a critical compilation of cataloged optical data to measure the 0.16-3.5 keV X-ray emission from 88 K and 169 M stars of luminosity classes IV, V, and VI within 25 pc from the Sun. The IPC detected 54 out of the 88 K stars, 70 out of the 138 M stars with M(v) less than 13.4, and 15 out of the 31 fainter M stars. We have identified a subsample of surveyed stars that is statistically representative of the population of K and M stars in the solar neighborhood. On the basis of this subsample (1) we have shown the occurrence of a drop in the level of X-ray emission for M stars later than approximately M5; (2) we have built unbiased maximum likelihood X-ray luminosity functions for the K, early M, and late M stars; (3) we have confirmed, both for K and M stars, the decrease of X-ray luminosity with increasing stellar age in the range of ages of disk population stars: and (4) we have shown that no obvious correlation is present between X-ray and bolometric luminosities in the entire representative samples of K and M stars, but only within flare stars which also seem to mark a saturation in X-ray luminosity level.

  1. CHANDRA ACIS SURVEY OF M33 (ChASeM33): THE ENIGMATIC X-RAY EMISSION FROM IC131

    SciTech Connect

    Tuellmann, Ralph; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Smith, Randall K.; Long, Knox S.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Winkler, P. Frank; Williams, Ben; Kuntz, Kip D.; Blair, William P.; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Haberl, Frank

    2009-12-20

    We present the first X-ray analysis of the diffuse hot ionized gas and the point sources in IC131, after NGC604 the second most X-ray luminous giant H II region (GHR) in M33. The X-ray emission is detected only in the south eastern part of IC131 (named IC131-se) and is limited to an elliptical region of approx200 pc in extent. This region appears to be confined toward the west by a hemispherical shell of warm ionized gas and only fills about half that volume. Although the corresponding X-ray spectrum has 1215 counts, it cannot conclusively be told whether the extended X-ray emission is thermal, non-thermal, or a combination of both. A thermal plasma model of kT{sub e} = 4.3 keV or a single power law of GAMMA approx = 2.1 fit the spectrum equally well. If the spectrum is purely thermal (non-thermal), the total unabsorbed X-ray luminosity in the 0.35-8 keV energy band amounts to L{sub X} = 6.8(8.7) x 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}. Among other known H II regions IC131-se seems to be extreme regarding the combination of its large extent of the X-ray plasma, the lack of massive O stars, its unusually high electron temperature (if thermal), and the large fraction of L{sub X} emitted above 2 keV (approx40%-53%). A thermal plasma of approx4 keV poses serious challenges to theoretical models, as it is not clear how high electron temperatures can be produced in H II regions in view of mass-proportional and collisionless heating. If the gas is non-thermal or has non-thermal contributions, synchrotron emission would clearly dominate over inverse Compton emission. It is not clear if the same mechanisms which create non-thermal X-rays or accelerate cosmic rays in supernova remnants can be applied to much larger scales of 200 pc. In both cases the existing theoretical models for GHRs and superbubbles do not explain the hardness and extent of the X-ray emission in IC131-se. We also detect a variable source candidate in IC131. It seems that this object (CXO J013315.10+304453.0) is a high mass X-ray binary whose optical counterpart is a B2-type star with a mass of approx9 M{sub sun}.

  2. Chandra ACIS Survey of M33 (ChASeM33): The Enigmatic X-Ray Emission from IC131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tüllmann, Ralph; Long, Knox S.; Pannuti, Thomas G.; Winkler, P. Frank; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Williams, Ben; Kuntz, Kip D.; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Blair, William P.; Haberl, Frank; Smith, Randall K.

    2009-12-01

    We present the first X-ray analysis of the diffuse hot ionized gas and the point sources in IC131, after NGC604 the second most X-ray luminous giant H II region (GHR) in M33. The X-ray emission is detected only in the south eastern part of IC131 (named IC131-se) and is limited to an elliptical region of ~200 pc in extent. This region appears to be confined toward the west by a hemispherical shell of warm ionized gas and only fills about half that volume. Although the corresponding X-ray spectrum has 1215 counts, it cannot conclusively be told whether the extended X-ray emission is thermal, non-thermal, or a combination of both. A thermal plasma model of kTe = 4.3 keV or a single power law of ? sime 2.1 fit the spectrum equally well. If the spectrum is purely thermal (non-thermal), the total unabsorbed X-ray luminosity in the 0.35-8 keV energy band amounts to LX = 6.8(8.7) × 1035 erg s-1. Among other known H II regions IC131-se seems to be extreme regarding the combination of its large extent of the X-ray plasma, the lack of massive O stars, its unusually high electron temperature (if thermal), and the large fraction of LX emitted above 2 keV (~40%-53%). A thermal plasma of ~4 keV poses serious challenges to theoretical models, as it is not clear how high electron temperatures can be produced in H II regions in view of mass-proportional and collisionless heating. If the gas is non-thermal or has non-thermal contributions, synchrotron emission would clearly dominate over inverse Compton emission. It is not clear if the same mechanisms which create non-thermal X-rays or accelerate cosmic rays in supernova remnants can be applied to much larger scales of 200 pc. In both cases the existing theoretical models for GHRs and superbubbles do not explain the hardness and extent of the X-ray emission in IC131-se. We also detect a variable source candidate in IC131. It seems that this object (CXO J013315.10+304453.0) is a high mass X-ray binary whose optical counterpart is a B2-type star with a mass of ~9 M sun.

  3. Anomalous X-Ray emission in GRB060904B: a Nickel line?

    E-print Network

    R. Margutti; A. Moretti; F. Pasotti; S. Campana; G. Chincarini; S. Covino; C. Guidorzi; P. Romano; G. Tagliaferri

    2007-12-10

    The detection of an extra component in GRB060904B X-ray spectra in addition to the standard single power-law behaviour has recently been reported in the literature. This component can be fit with different models; in particular the addition of a spectral line provides the best representation.In this paper we investigate the physical properties that the surrounding medium must have in order to produce a spectral feature that can explain the detected emission. We analyse and discuss how and if the detected spectral excess fits in different theoretical models developed to explain the nature of line emission during the afterglow phase of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). Trasmission and reflection models have been considered. Given the high value (>>1) of the Thomson optical depth, the emission is likely to arise in a reflection scenario. Within reflection models, the external reflection geometry fails to predict the observed luminosity. On the contrary, the detected feature can be explained in a funnel scenario with typical opening angle theta of 5 degrees, Nickel mass of the order of 0.1 M_o and T=10^6 K. For theta=20 degrees, assuming the reprocessing material to be the SN shell, the detected emission implies a Nickel mass of 0.4 M_o at T=10^7 K and a metallicity 10 times the solar value. If the giant X-ray flare that dominates the early XRT light curve is identified with the ionizing source, the SN expansion began 3000 s before the GRB event.

  4. MODELING UV AND X-RAY EMISSION IN A POST-CORONAL MASS EJECTION CURRENT SHEET

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Raymond, John C.; Vrsnak, Bojan; Vujic, Eugen

    2010-10-10

    A post-coronal mass ejection (CME) current sheet (CS) is a common feature developed behind an erupting flux rope in CME models. Observationally, white light observations have recorded many occurrences of a thin ray appearing behind a CME eruption that closely resembles a post-CME CS in its spatial correspondence and morphology. UV and X-ray observations further strengthen this interpretation by the observations of high-temperature emission at locations consistent with model predictions. The next question then becomes whether the properties inside a post-CME CS predicted by a model agree with observed properties. In this work, we assume that the post-CME CS is a consequence of Petschek-like reconnection and that the observed ray-like structure is bounded by a pair of slow mode shocks developed from the reconnection site. We perform time-dependent ionization calculations and model the UV line emission. We find that such a model is consistent with SOHO/UVCS observations of the post-CME CS. The change of Fe XVIII emission in one event implies an inflow speed of {approx}10 km s{sup -1} and a corresponding reconnection rate of M{sub A} {approx} 0.01. We calculate the expected X-ray emission for comparison with X-ray observations by Hinode/XRT, as well as the ionic charge states as would be measured in situ at 1 AU. We find that the predicted count rate for Hinode/XRT agrees with what was observed in a post-CME CS on 2008 April 9, and the predicted ionic charge states are consistent with high ionization states commonly measured in the interplanetary CMEs. The model results depend strongly on the physical parameters in the ambient corona, namely the coronal magnetic field, the electron density, and temperature during the CME event. It is crucial to obtain these ambient coronal parameters and as many facets of the CS properties as possible by observational means so that the post-CME CS models can be scrutinized more effectively.

  5. X-ray emission from the giant magnetosphere of the magnetic O-type star NGC 1624-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, V.; Cohen, D. H.; Wade, G. A.; Nazé, Y.; Owocki, S. P.; Sundqvist, J. O.; ud-Doula, A.; Fullerton, A.; Leutenegger, M.; Gagné, M.

    2015-11-01

    We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (Bp ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our two observations were obtained at the minimum and maximum of the periodic H? emission cycle, corresponding to the rotational phases where the magnetic field is the closest to equator-on and pole-on, respectively. With these observations, we aim to characterize the star's magnetosphere via the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks. Our main findings are as follows. (i) The observed spectrum of NGC 1624-2 is hard, similar to the magnetic O-type star ?1 Ori C, with only a few photons detected below 0.8 keV. The emergent X-ray flux is 30 per cent lower at the H? minimum phase. (ii) Our modelling indicated that this seemingly hard spectrum is in fact a consequence of relatively soft intrinsic emission, similar to other magnetic Of?p stars, combined with a large amount of local absorption (˜1-3× 1022 cm-2). This combination is necessary to reproduce both the prominent Mg and Si spectral features, and the lack of flux at low energies. NGC 1624-2 is intrinsically luminous in X-rays (log L^{em}_X˜ 33.4) but 70-95 per cent of the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks is absorbed before it escapes the magnetosphere (log L^{ISMcor}_X˜ 32.5). (iii) The high X-ray luminosity, its variation with stellar rotation, and its large attenuation are all consistent with a large dynamical magnetosphere with magnetically confined wind shocks.

  6. Bethe-Heitler emission in BL Lacs: filling the gap between X-rays and ?-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, M.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2015-02-01

    We present the spectral signatures of the Bethe-Heitler pair production (pe) process on the spectral energy distribution (SED) of blazars, in scenarios where the hard ?-ray emission is of photohadronic origin. If relativistic protons interact with the synchrotron blazar photons producing ? rays through photopion processes, we show that, besides the ˜2-20 PeV neutrino emission, the typical blazar SED should have an emission feature due to the synchrotron emission of pe secondaries that bridges the gap between the low- and high-energy humps of the SED, namely in the energy range 40 keV-40 MeV. We first present analytical expressions for the photopion and pe loss rates in terms of observable quantities of blazar emission. For the pe loss rate in particular, we derive a new approximate analytical expression for the case of a power-law photon distribution, which has an excellent accuracy with the numerically calculated exact one, especially at energies much above the threshold for pair production. We show that for typical blazar parameters, the photopair synchrotron emission emerges in the hard X-ray/soft ?-ray energy range with a characteristic spectral shape and non-negligible flux, which may even be comparable to the hard ?-ray flux produced through photopion processes. We argue that the expected `pe bumps' are a natural consequence of leptohadronic models, and as such, they may indicate that blazars with a three-hump SED are possible emitters of high-energy neutrinos.

  7. A statistical correlation of sunquakes based on their seismic, white light, and X-ray emission

    E-print Network

    Buitrago-Casas, J C; Lindsey, C; Calvo-Mozo, B; Krucker, S; Glesener, L; Zharkov, S

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the transient seis- mic emission, i.e., sunquakes, from some solar flares. Some theories associate high-energy electrons and/or white-light emission with sunquakes. High-energy charged particles and their subsequent heating of the photosphere and/or chro- mosphere could induce acoustic waves in the solar interior. We carried out a correlative study of solar flares with emission in hard-X rays (HXRs), enhanced continuum emission at 6173{\\AA}, and transient seismic emission. We selected those flares observed by RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) with a considerable flux above 50 keV between January 1, 2010 and June 26, 2014. We then used data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO/HMI) to search for excess visible continuum emission and new sunquakes not previously reported. We found a total of 18 sunquakes out of 75 investigated. All of the sunquakes were associated with a enhancement of th...

  8. Hard X-ray Emission from Magnetars : A Case Study for Simbol X

    E-print Network

    Diego Gotz

    2008-01-16

    The magnetar model involves an isolated neutron star with a very high magnetic field (B~10^14-10^15 G), and is invoked to explain the emission processes of two classes of sources, the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGRs). Five of them have been recently identified to be persistent sources in the hard X-ray band (20-200 keV). AXPs, in particular, present the hardest known persistent spectra in the hard X/soft gamma-ray energy range. The broad band modeling of their spectra still suffers from the non-simultaneity of the observations and from a lack of sensitivity above 20 keV. We present the Simbol X simulated observations of these objects and show that that this mission could surely help to disentangle the contribution of the different spectral components, and to understand how they contribute to the secular flux variations observed in these sources.

  9. Fast simulation of Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Tomography using CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, D. G.; Marques, A. C.; Alves, L. C.; da Silva, R. C.

    2013-07-01

    A new 3D Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T) simulation software has been developed in Java and uses NVIDIA™ Common Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) to calculate the X-ray attenuation for large detector areas. A challenge with PIXE-T is to get sufficient counts while retaining a small beam spot size. Therefore a high geometric efficiency is required. However, as the detector solid angle increases the calculations required for accurate reconstruction of the data increase substantially. To overcome this limitation, the CUDA parallel computing platform was used which enables general purpose programming of NVIDIA graphics processing units (GPUs) to perform computations traditionally handled by the central processing unit (CPU). For simulation performance evaluation, the results of a CPU- and a CUDA-based simulation of a phantom are presented. Furthermore, a comparison with the simulation code in the PIXE-Tomography reconstruction software DISRA (A. Sakellariou, D.N. Jamieson, G.J.F. Legge, 2001) is also shown. Compared to a CPU implementation, the CUDA based simulation is approximately 30× faster.

  10. ROSAT observations of pulsed soft X-ray emission from PSR 1055-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegelman, Hakki; Finley, John P.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing the position-sensitive proportional counter and the high-resolution imager aboard the orbiting X-ray observatory ROSAT, we have detected pulsations at the radio period from the pulsar PSR 1055-52. The pulse shapes are energy-dependent and show a transition at about 0.5 keV where the phase angle of the pulse peak changes by about -120 deg and the pulsed fraction increases from 11 percent to 63 percent toward larger energies. Simple spectral models are found to be unsatisfactory, while multicomponent models, such as a soft blackbody and hard power-law tail, yield better fits to the pulse-height data. The hard power-law tail is consistent with the extension of the recently reported EGRET results and may indicate a common emission mechanism for the X-ray through GeV gamma-ray regime. The soft blackbody component with T(infinity) = (7.5 +/- 0.6) x 10 exp 5 K, if interpreted as the initial cooling of a neutron star, is consistent with standard cooling models and does not require the presence of exotic components.

  11. ASCA observations of hard X-ray emission from the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Katsuji; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ozaki, Masanobu; Ueno, Shiro; Kamata, Yuichi; Tawara, Yuzuru; Skinner, Stephen; Yamauchi, Shigeo

    1994-06-01

    Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) obtained broad-band (0.8-12 keV) images and spectra of the central region of the Rho Ophiuchi dark cloud in 1993 August. The 38-ks observation detected at least eleven sources (S/N greater than or equal to 3), including the X-ray bright pre-main sequence star DoAr 21 and embedded infrared sources with no optical counterparts. Hard X-rays up to approximately equals 8 keV were detected from DoAr 21 (whose light curve shows no evidence for variability) and from a flaring source lying in a region of high visual extinction. Thermal spectral fits for the brightest source give kT approximately 2 keV and hydrogen column densities NH approximately 1022 cm-2. The spectrum of a region in the center of the field where no discrete sources were detected shows hard, heavily absorbed emission that is most likely the integrated contribution of a number of a deeply embedded young stars below the detection limit.

  12. The jet-disk symbiosis; 1, radio to x-ray emission models for quasars

    E-print Network

    Falcke, H; Falcke, Heino; Biermann, Peter L

    1994-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that radio jets and accretion disks are symbiotic features present in radio loud and radio quiet quasars we scale the bulk power of radio jets with the accretion power by adding mass- and energy conservation of the whole jet-disk system to the standard Blandford \\& K\\"onigl theory for compact radio cores. The model depends on only few parameters and can be constrained by observations. Thus we are able to show that radio and X-ray fluxes (SSC emission) of cores and lobes and typical dimensions of radio loud quasars are consistent with a jet being produced in the central engine. We present a synthetic broadband spectrum from radio to X-ray for a jet-disk system. The only way to explain the high efficiency of radio loud objects is to postulate that these objects consist of `maximal jets' with `total equipartition' where the magnetic energy flow of the jet is comparable to the kinetic jet power and the total jet power is a large fraction of the disk power. As the number of electro...

  13. X-Ray, EUV, UV and Optical Emissivities of Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This grant primarily covered the development of the thermal X-ray emission model code called APEC, which is meant to replace the Raymond and Smith (1977) code. The new code contains far more spectral lines and a great deal of updated atomic data. The code is now available (http://hea-www.harvard.edu/APEC), though new atomic data is still being added, particularly at longer wavelengths. While initial development of the code was funded by this grant, current work is carried on by N. Brickhouse, R. Smith and D. Liedahl under separate funding. Over the last five years, the grant has provided salary support for N. Brickhouse, R. Smith, a summer student (L. McAllister), an SAO predoctoral fellow (A. Vasquez), and visits by T. Kallman, D. Liedahl, P. Ghavamian, J.M. Laming, J. Li, P. Okeke, and M. Martos. In addition to the code development, the grant supported investigations into X-ray and UV spectral diagnostics as applied to shock waves in the ISM, accreting black holes and white dwarfs, and stellar coronae. Many of these efforts are continuing. Closely related work on the shock waves and coronal mass ejections in the solar corona has grown out of the efforts supported by the grant.

  14. On the contribution of point sources to the Galactic ridge X-ray emission

    E-print Network

    M. Revnivtsev; S. Sazonov

    2007-02-23

    We analyzed deep Chandra observations of the Galactic plane region centered at l=28.55, b=-0.03 with the aim to obtain the best possible constraints on the contribution of weak point sources to the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE) in this region. We demonstrate that the vast majority of the detected sources are Galactic in origin and are probably cataclysmic variables and coronally active stars. We use the number-flux function of detected sources to constrain the luminosity function of Galactic X-ray sources in the range 1e30--1e32 erg/s and find good agreement with the luminosity function of sources in the Solar vicinity. The fraction of the total flux at energies 1--7 keV resolved into point sources at the current sensitivity level is ~25%. Excluding the expected contribution of extragalactic sources, ~19% of the GRXE is due to point Galactic sources with interstellar absorption corrected fluxes higher than 1.2e-15 erg/s/cm^2in the energy band 1-7 keV.

  15. Study of X-ray Emission from a Compact Diode Operated by a High-Inductance Capacitor Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z.; Ahmad, S.; Zakaullah, M.; Waheed, A.; Ahmad, R.; Murtaza, G.

    2002-12-01

    A compact diode comprising a flat plate anode and a sharp-edged cathode (a piece of razor blade) energized by 0.5 ?F capacitor charged to 30 kV is investigated for optimization of X-rays emission vis-à-vis separation between electrodes and width of the cathode, which is responsible for electron emission by impact of electric field. It is a high-inductance system, the parasitic inductance is found to be 353 ± 5 nH, and the recorded peak discharge current is just 35 ± 02 kA. The maximum X-ray emission is observed for a 2-mm-wide cathode with an interelectrode separation of 3 mm. The X-ray yield in 4?-geometry is found to be 34 ± 3 mJ with a wall-plug efficiency of 0.015 ± 0.001%. The X-ray emission occurs about 200 ns after the application of high voltage, synchronized with the dip in current wave form. The low efficiency of the system for X-ray generation is attributed to high parasitic inductance.

  16. Intense Non-Linear Soft X-Ray Emission from a Hydride Target during Pulsed D Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Yang, Yang; Lipson, Andrei; Haque, Munima; Percel, Ian; Romer, Michael

    Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm2 and a dose of 3.3 ?J/cm2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that X-ray energies >600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The X-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved.

  17. Soft X-ray and ultraviolet metal-line emission from the gas around galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Voort, Freeke; Schaye, Joop

    2013-04-01

    A large fraction of the gas in galactic haloes has temperatures between 104.5 and 107 K. At these temperatures, cooling is dominated by metal-line emission if the metallicity Z ? 0.1 Z?, and several lines may be detectable with current and upcoming instruments. We explore this possibility using several large cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations from the OverWhelmingly Large Simulations project. We stack surface brightness maps centred on galaxies to calculate the expected mean surface brightness profiles for different halo masses. We only consider emission from intergalactic gas with densities nH < 0.1 cm-3. Results are shown for soft X-ray lines at z = 0.125, ultraviolet (UV) lines and hydrogen Balmer-? (H?) at z = 0.25, and rest-frame UV lines at z = 3. Assuming a detection limit of 10-1 photon s-1 cm-2 sr-1, proposed X-ray telescopes can detect O VIII emission from z = 0.125 out to 80 per cent of the virial radius (Rvir) of groups and clusters and out to 0.4Rvir for haloes with masses 1012-13 M?. Emission lines from C VI, N VII, O VII and Ne X can be detected out to smaller radii, 0.1-0.5Rvir. With a detection limit of 10-20 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2, future UV telescopes can detect C III emission out to 0.2-0.6Rvir at z = 0.25, depending on halo mass. C IV, O VI, Si III and Si IV can be seen out to 10-20 per cent of the virial radius in haloes more massive than 1012 M?. Optical H? emission is comparable in strength to C III emission and could be observed out to 0.3-0.6Rvir at z = 0.25 with upcoming optical instruments. At z = 3, it may be possible to observe C III out to 0.2-0.3Rvir and other rest-frame UV lines out to ˜0.1Rvir in haloes larger than 1011 M? with the same optical instruments. Metal-line emission is typically biased towards high density and metallicity and towards the temperature at which the emissivity curve of the corresponding metal-line peaks. This bias varies with radius, halo mass and redshift. The bias is similar for the different soft X-ray lines considered, whereas it varies strongly between different UV lines. Active galactic nucleus feedback can change the inner surface brightness profiles significantly, but it generally does not change the radius out to which the emission can be observed. Metal-line emission is a promising probe of the warm and hot, enriched gas around galaxies and provides a unique window into the interactions between galaxies and their gaseous haloes.

  18. Global Structure of Isothermal Diffuse X-Ray Emission along the Fermi Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, J.; Tahara, M.; Totani, T.; Sofue, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Nakashima, S.; Cheung, C. C.

    2015-07-01

    In our previous works, we found absorbed thermal X-ray plasma with kT ? 0.3 keV observed ubiquitously near the edges of the Fermi bubbles and interpreted this emission as weakly shock-heated Galactic halo gas. Here we present a systematic and uniform analysis of archival Suzaku (29 pointings; 6 newly presented) and Swift (68 pointings; 49 newly presented) data within Galactic longitudes | l| < 20° and latitude 5°? | b| < 60°, covering the whole extent of the Fermi bubbles. We show that the plasma temperature is constant at kT ? 0.30 ± 0.07 keV, while the emission measure (EM) varies by an order of magnitude, increasing toward the Galactic center (i.e., low | b| ) with enhancements at the North Polar Spur (NPS), SE-claw, and NW-clump features. Moreover, the EM distribution of kT ? 0.30 keV plasma is highly asymmetric in the northern and southern bubbles. Although the association of the X-ray emission with the bubbles is not conclusive, we compare the observed EM properties with simple models assuming (i) a filled halo without bubbles, whose gas density follows a hydrostatic isothermal model (King profile), and (ii) a bubble-in-halo in which two identical bubbles expand into the halo, forming thick shells of swept halo gas. We argue that the EM profile in the north (b > 0°) favors (ii), whereas that of the south (b < 0°) is rather close to (i), but a weak excess signature is clearly detected also in the south like NPS (South Polar Spur). Such an asymmetry, if due to the bubbles, cannot be fully understood only by the inclination of bubbles’ axis against the Galactic disk normal, thus suggesting asymmetric outflow due to different environmental/initial conditions.

  19. ON THE MECHANISM OF HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent activity of magnetars is associated with electric discharge that continually injects relativistic particles into the magnetosphere. Large active magnetic loops around magnetars must be filled with outflowing particles that interact with radiation via resonant scattering and spawn electron-positron pairs. The outflow energy is processed into copious e {sup {+-}} until the plasma enters outer parts of the loop where the magnetic field is reduced below 10{sup 13} G. In the outer zone, photons scattered by the outflow do not convert to e {sup {+-}} pairs and the outflow radiates its energy away. The escaping radiation forms a distinct hard X-ray peak in the magnetar spectrum. It has the following features: (1) its luminosity L = 10{sup 35}-10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} can easily exceed the thermal luminosity from the magnetar surface, (2) its spectrum extends from 10 keV to the MeV band with a hard spectral slope, which depends on the object inclination to the line of sight, (3) the anisotropic hard X-ray emission exhibits strong pulsations as the magnetar spins, (4) the emission spectrum typically peaks around 1 MeV, but the peak position significantly oscillates with the spin period, (5) the emission is dominated by the extraordinary polarization mode at photon energies below {approx}1 MeV, and (6) the decelerated pairs accumulate and annihilate at the top of the magnetic loop, and emit the 511 keV line with luminosity L {sub ann} {approx} 0.1 L. Features (1)-(3) agree with available data; (4)-(6) can be tested by future observations.

  20. X-ray emission from the Wolf-Rayet bubble NGC 6888. I. Chandra ACIS-S observations

    SciTech Connect

    Toalá, J. A.; Guerrero, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    We analyze Chandra observations of the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) bubble NGC 6888. This W-R bubble presents similar spectral and morphological X-ray characteristics to those of S 308, the only other W-R bubble also showing X-ray emission. The observed spectrum is soft, peaking at the N VII line emission at 0.5 keV, with additional line emission at 0.7-0.9 keV and a weak tail of harder emission up to ?1.5 keV. This spectrum can be described by a two-temperature optically thin plasma emission model (T {sub 1} ? 1.4 × 10{sup 6} K, T {sub 2} ? 7.4 × 10{sup 6} K). We confirm the results of previous X-ray observations that no noticeable temperature variations are detected in the nebula. The X-ray-emitting plasma is distributed in three apparent morphological components: two caps along the tips of the major axis and an extra contribution toward the northwest blowout not reported in previous analyses of the X-ray emission toward this W-R nebula. Using the plasma model fits of the Chandra ACIS spectra for the physical properties of the hot gas and the ROSAT PSPC image to account for the incomplete coverage of Chandra observations, we estimate a luminosity of L {sub X} = (7.7 ± 0.1) ×10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} for NGC 6888 at a distance of 1.26 kpc. The average rms electron density of the X-ray-emitting gas is ? 0.4 cm{sup –3} for a total mass ? 1.2 M {sub ?}.

  1. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, F. J. Radha, P. B.

    2014-11-15

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  2. Outer jet X-ray and radio emission in R Aquarii: 1999.8 to 2004.0

    E-print Network

    E. Kellogg; C. Anderson; K. Korreck; J. DePasquale; J. Nichols; J. L. Sokoloski; M. Krauss; J. Pedelty

    2007-05-17

    Chandra and VLA observations of the symbiotic star R Aqr in 2004 reveal significant changes over the three to four year interval between these observations and previous observations taken with the VLA in 1999 and with Chandra in 2000. This paper reports on the evolution of the outer thermal X-ray lobe-jets and radio jets. The emission from the outer X-ray lobe-jets lies farther away from the central binary than the outer radio jets, and comes from material interpreted as being shock heated to ~10^6 K, a likely result of collision between high speed material ejected from the central binary and regions of enhanced gas density. Between 2000 and 2004, the Northeast (NE) outer X-ray lobe-jet moved out away from the central binary, with an apparent projected motion of ~580 km s^-1. The Southwest (SW) outer X-ray lobe-jet almost disappeared between 2000 and 2004, presumably due to adiabatic expansion and cooling. The NE radio bright spot also moved away from the central binary between 2000 and 2004, but with a smaller apparent velocity than of the NE X-ray bright spot. The SW outer lobe-jet was not detected in the radio in either 1999 or 2004. The density and mass of the X-ray emitting material is estimated. Cooling times, shock speeds, pressure and confinement are discussed.

  3. First attempt of at-cavity cryogenic X-ray detection in a CEBAF cryomodule for field emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Geng, Rongli; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael; Palczewski, Ari

    2015-09-01

    We report on the first result of at-cavity X-ray detection in a CEBAF cryomodule for field emission monitoring. In the 8-cavity cryomodule F100, two silicon diodes were installed near the end flange of each cavity. Each cavity was individually tested during the cryomodule test in JLab’s cryomodule test facility. The behaviors of these at-cavity cryogenic X-ray detectors were compared with those of the standard ‘in air’ Geiger-Muller (G-M) tubes. Our initial experiments establish correlation between X-ray response of near diodes and the field emission source cavity in the 8-cavity string. For two out of these eight cavities, we also carried out at-cavity X-ray detection experiment during their vertical testing. The aim is to track field emission behavior uniquely from vertical cavity testing to horizontal cavity testing in the cryomodule. These preliminary results confirmed our expectation and warrant further effort toward the establishment of permanent at-cavity cryogenic X-ray detection for SRF development and operation.

  4. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BINARY CENTRAL STARS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULAE HFG 1, DS 1, AND LOTR 5

    SciTech Connect

    Montez, Rodolfo; Kastner, Joel H.; De Marco, Orsola; Chu, You-Hua

    2010-10-01

    Close binary systems undergoing mass transfer or common envelope interactions can account for the morphological properties of some planetary nebulae. The search for close binary companions in planetary nebulae is hindered by the difficulty of detecting cool, late-type, main-sequence companions in binary systems with hot pre-white-dwarf primaries. However, models of binary planetary nebula progenitor systems predict that mass accretion or tidal interactions can induce rapid rotation in the companion, leading to X-ray-emitting coronae. To test such models, we have searched for, and detected, X-ray emission from three binary central stars within planetary nebulae: the post-common envelope close binaries in HFG 1 and DS 1 consisting of O-type subdwarfs with late-type, main-sequence companions and the binary system in LoTr 5 consisting of O-type subdwarf and rapidly rotating, late-type giant companion. The X-ray emission in each case is best characterized by spectral models consisting of two optically thin thermal plasma components with characteristic temperatures of {approx}10 MK and 15-40 MK and total X-ray luminosities {approx}10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1}. We consider the possible origin of the X-ray emission from these binary systems and conclude that the most likely origin is, in each case, a corona around the late-type companion, as predicted by models of interacting binaries.

  5. Detection of halogenated flame retardants in polyurethane foam by particle induced X-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, Adam M.; Falk, Kyle A.; Hoover, Luke; Earlywine, Elly B.; Seymour, Michael D.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Blum, Arlene; Stapleton, Heather M.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2015-09-01

    A novel application of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been developed to detect the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardant chemicals in polyurethane foams. Traditional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) methods for the detection and identification of halogenated flame retardants in foams require extensive sample preparation and data acquisition time. The elemental analysis of the halogens in polyurethane foam performed by PIXE offers the opportunity to identify the presence of halogenated flame retardants in a fraction of the time and sample preparation cost. Through comparative GC-MS and PIXE analysis of 215 foam samples, excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained. These results suggest that PIXE could be an ideal rapid screening method for the presence of chlorinated and brominated flame retardants in polyurethane foams.

  6. Soft X-ray observation of the prompt emission of GRB 100418A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imatani, Ritsuko; Tomida, Hiroshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Kimura, Masashi; Sakamoto, Takanori; Arimoto, Makoto; Morooka, Yoshitaka; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    We have observed the prompt emission of GRB 100418A from its beginning captured by the MAXI SSC (0.7-7 keV) on board the International Space Station followed by the Swift XRT (0.3-10 keV) observation. The light curve can be fitted by a combination of a power-law component and an exponential component (the decay constant is 31.6 ± 1.6 s). The X-ray spectrum is well expressed by the Band function with Ep ? 8.3 keV. This is the brightest gamma-ray burst showing a very low value of Ep. It satisfies the Yonetoku relation (Ep-Lp). It is also consistent with the Amati relation (Ep-Eiso) within a 2.5? level.

  7. X-Ray Emission from Pre-Main-Sequence Stars - Testing the Solar Analogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Stephen L.

    1998-01-01

    This LTSA award funds my research on the origin of stellar X-ray emission and the solar-stellar analogy. The focus during most of this reporting period continued to be on the reduction and analysis of data acquired with the ASCA observatory (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics). During the last few months of this reporting period, considerable time and effort was also devoted to the submission of AXAF observing proposals in preparation for the upcoming AXAF launch. During this reporting period, five papers appeared in refereed journals for which I was either author or co-author, and two additional papers have recently been submitted to ApJ. Also, three conference proceedings papers were submitted. These publications are listed in the attached bibliography.

  8. Power-law X-ray and gamma-ray emission from relativistic thermal plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    A common characteristic of cosmic sources is power-law X-ray emission. Extragalactic sources of this type include compact components of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The present study is concerned with a theoretical model of such sources, taking into account the assumption that the power-law spectra are produced by repeated Compton scatterings of soft photons by relativistic thermal electrons. This is one of several possible physical mechanisms leading to the formation of a power-law spectrum. Attention is given to the Comptonization of soft photon sources, the rates of pair processes, the solution of the pair equilibrium equation, and the constraints on a soft photon source and an energy source. It is concluded that the compactness parameters L/R of most of the cosmic sources observed to date lie below the maximum luminosity curves considered.

  9. The merits of particle induced X-ray emission in revealing painting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelmeijer, C.; Mäder, M.

    2002-04-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) at the external proton beam has proved ideal to study individual techniques of creating art objects. In particular, PIXE is suitable for examining paintings because of the low level of background produced by organic components like binders and paper backings. Thus, traces of pigments as deposited from pens on cardboard can be identified by this method. The combination of PIXE with external Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) allows non-destructive characterisation of near surface and thin film arrangements of paint materials. Thicker but less complex layers of oil paintings can be identified by special procedures of depth-resolved PIXE investigation. In this case, RBS provides additional information on organic coverings like madder lake or varnishes.

  10. Comparative study of bandwidths in copper delafossites from x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, D.; Foord, J. S.; Payne, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Aston, D. J.; Egdell, R. G.; Godinho, K. G.; Scanlon, D. O.; Morgan, B. J.; Watson, G. W.; Mugnier, E.; Yaicle, C.; Rougier, A.; Colakerol, L.; Glans, P. A.; Piper, L. F. J.; Smith, K. E.

    2009-12-01

    The widths of the valence bands in the copper (I) delafossites CuGaO2 , CuInO2 , and CuScO2 have been measured by OK -shell x-ray emission spectroscopy and are compared with previous experimental work on CuAlO2 and CuCrO2 . In agreement with recent density-functional theory calculations it is found that the bandwidth decreases in the series CuAlO2>CuGaO2>CuInO2>CuScO2 . It is shown that states at the top of the valence band are of dominant Cu3dz2 atomic character but with significant mixing with O2p states.

  11. Soft X-ray Observation of the Prompt Emission of GRB100418A

    E-print Network

    Imatani, Ritsuko; Nakahira, Satoshi; Kimura, Masashi; Sakamoto, Takanori; Arimoto, Makoto; Morooka, Yoshitaka; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the prompt emission of GRB100418A, from its beginning by the MAXI/SSC (0.7-7 keV) on board the International Space Station followed by the Swift/XRT (0.3-10 keV) observation. The light curve can be fitted by a combination of a power law component and an exponential component (decay constant is $31.6\\pm 1.6$). The X-ray spectrum is well expressed by the Band function with $E_{\\rm p}\\leq$8.3 keV. This is the brightest GRB showing a very low value of $E_{\\rm p}$. It is also consistent with the Yonetoku-relation ($E_{\\rm p}$-$L_{\\rm p}$) while it is not clear with the Amati-relation ($E_{\\rm p}$-$E_{\\rm iso}$).

  12. A novel von Hamos spectrometer for efficient X-ray emission spectroscopy in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anklamm, Lars; Schlesiger, Christopher; Malzer, Wolfgang; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel, highly efficient von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) in the laboratory using highly annealed pyrolitic graphite crystals as the dispersive element. The spectrometer covers an energy range from 2.5 keV to 15 keV giving access to chemical speciation and information about the electronic configuration of 3d transition metals by means of the K? multiplet. XES spectra of Ti compounds are presented to demonstrate the speciation capabilities of the instrument. A spectral resolving power of E/?E = 2000 at 8 keV was achieved. Typical acquisition times range from 10 min for bulk material to hours for thin samples below 1 ?m.

  13. A novel von Hamos spectrometer for efficient X-ray emission spectroscopy in the laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Anklamm, Lars Schlesiger, Christopher; Malzer, Wolfgang; Grötzsch, Daniel; Neitzel, Michael; Kanngießer, Birgit

    2014-05-15

    We present a novel, highly efficient von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) in the laboratory using highly annealed pyrolitic graphite crystals as the dispersive element. The spectrometer covers an energy range from 2.5 keV to 15 keV giving access to chemical speciation and information about the electronic configuration of 3d transition metals by means of the K? multiplet. XES spectra of Ti compounds are presented to demonstrate the speciation capabilities of the instrument. A spectral resolving power of E/?E = 2000 at 8 keV was achieved. Typical acquisition times range from 10?min for bulk material to hours for thin samples below 1??m.

  14. Application of proton-induced X-ray emission technique to gunshot residue analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, P.; Panigrahi, N.; Rao, M.S.; Varier, K.M.; Sen, S.; Mehta, G.K.

    1982-04-01

    The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was applied to the identification and analysis of gunshot residues. Studies were made of the type of bullet and bullet hole identification, firearm discharge element profiles, the effect of various target backings, and hand swabbings. The discussion of the results reviews the sensitivity of the PIXE technique, its nondestructive nature, and its role in determining the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used and whether a wound was made by a bullet or not. The high sensitivity of the PIXE technique, which is able to analyze samples as small as 0.1 to 1 ng, and its usefulness for detecting a variety of elements should make it particularly useful in firearms residue investigations.

  15. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.; Malka, V.

    2013-06-01

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

  16. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.

    2013-06-15

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

  17. Global structure of isothermal X-ray emission along the Fermi bubbles

    E-print Network

    Kataoka, J; Totani, T; Sofue, Y; Inoue, Y; Nakashima, S; Cheung, C C

    2015-01-01

    In our previous works (Kataoka et al. 2013, Tahara et al. 2015), we found absorbed thermal X-ray plasma with kT ~ 0.3 keV observed ubiquitously near the edges of the Fermi bubbles and interpreted this emission as weakly shock-heated Galactic halo (GH) gas. Here we present a systematic and uniform analysis of archival Suzaku (29 pointings; 6 newly presented) and Swift (68 pointings; 49 newly presented) data within Galactic longitudes |l| 0 deg) favors (ii), whereas that of the south (b NPS (South Polar Spur; SPS). Such an asymmetry, if due to the bubbles, cannot be fully understood only by the inclination of bubbles' axis against the Galactic disk normal, thus suggesting asymmetric outflow due to different environmental/initial condition.

  18. Therapeutic application of metallic nanoparticles combined with particle-induced x-ray emission effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Ki; Seo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Ki-Hong; Kim, Tae-Jeong; Chung, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Kye-Ryung; Yang, Tae-Keun

    2010-10-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (MNP) are able to release localized x-rays when activated with a high energy proton beam by the particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) effect. The exploitation of this phenomenon in the therapeutic irradiation of tumors has been investigated. PIXE-based x-ray emission directed at CT26 tumor cells in vitro, when administered with either gold (average diameter 2 and 13 nm) or iron (average diameter 14 nm) nanoparticles (GNP or SNP), increased with MNP solution concentration over the range of 0.1-2 mg ml - 1. With irradiation by a 45 MeV proton therapy (PT) beam, higher concentrations had a decreased cell survival fraction. An in vivo study in CT26 mouse tumor models with tumor regression assay demonstrated significant tumor dose enhancement, thought to be a result of the PIXE effect when compared to conventional PT without MNP (radiation-only group) using a 45 MeV proton beam (p < 0.02). Those receiving GNP or SNP injection doses of 300 mg kg - 1 body weight before proton beam therapy demonstrated 90% or 75% tumor volume reduction (TVR) in 20 days post-PT while the radiation-only group showed only 18% TVR and re-growth of tumor volume after 20 days. Higher complete tumor regression (CTR) was observed in 14-24 days after a single treatment of PT with an average rate of 33-65% for those receiving MNP compared with 25% for the radiation-only group. A lower bound of therapeutic effective MNP concentration range, in vivo, was estimated as 30-79 µg g - 1 tissue for both gold and iron nanoparticles. The tumor dose enhancement may compensate for an increase in entrance dose associated with conventional PT when treating large, solid tumors with a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) technique. The use of a combined high energy Bragg peak PT with PIXE generated by MNP, or PIXE alone, may result in new treatment options for infiltrative metastatic tumors and other diffuse inflammatory diseases.

  19. Emerging Trends Gleaned from Central Star and Hot Bubble X-ray Emission of ChanPlaNS Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montez, Rodolfo; Kastner, Joel H.; Freeman, Marcus; ChanPlaNS Team

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray imaging-spectrometry of planetary nebulae (PNe) provided by the Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals compact point-like sources and extended diffuse sources. Utilizing the spatial and spectral capabilities of our observations, we have studied 59 PNe that are part of the Chandra Planetary Nebulae Survey (ChanPlaNS). We present their spatial and spectral features and emerging trends in the characteristics, origins, and longevity of X-ray emission from PNe across the evolutionary sequence. Amongst the point-like sources we find a tendency for harder (>0.5 keV) than expected emission from the most luminous central stars, indicating an origin in self-shocking stellar winds. However, we find that known and suspected short-period binary systems tend to feature the hardest (>1 keV) point-like sources of X-ray emission, indicating the role of binary evolution and, perhaps, renewed activity from spun-up late-type companions. Diffuse sources of X-ray emission originate from the collision of stellar winds that fill the PN cavity with shocked gas, called the "hot bubble". Our analysis confirms previous trends that suggest hot bubbles are well-regulated to temperatures of a few MK. Such low temperatures can be explained by several processes: (a) formative winds of a few hundreds of km/s versus extant winds of a few thousands of km/s, (b) heat conduction between the nebular gas and the hot bubble gas, or (c) moderate-velocity PN-sculpting collimated winds and outflows. Altogether, the point-like and diffuse sources of X-ray emission from PNe provide footholds for theory and corroborative multiwavelength studies that can enhance our ability to constrain models of PN shaping.

  20. CORRELATED X-RAY AND VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION IN THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY LS I +61 303

    SciTech Connect

    Anderhub, H.; Biland, A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Backes, M.; Becker, J. K.; Baixeras, C.; Bastieri, D.; Bock, R. K.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Bigas, O. Blanch; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Tridon, D. Borla E-mail: jogler@mppmu.mpg.d

    2009-11-20

    The discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitting X-ray binaries has triggered an intense effort to better understand the particle acceleration, absorption, and emission mechanisms in compact binary systems, which provide variable conditions along eccentric orbits. Despite this, the nature of some of these systems, and of the accelerated particles producing the VHE emission, is unclear. To answer some of these open questions, we conducted a multiwavelength campaign of the VHE gamma-ray emitting X-ray binary LS I +61 303 including the MAGIC telescope, XMM-Newton, and Swift during 60% of an orbit in 2007 September. We detect a simultaneous outburst at X-ray and VHE bands, with the peak at phase 0.62 and a similar shape at both wavelengths. A linear fit to the simultaneous X-ray/VHE pairs obtained during the outburst yields a correlation coefficient of r = 0.97, while a linear fit to all simultaneous pairs provides r = 0.81. Since a variable absorption of the VHE emission towards the observer is not expected for the data reported here, the correlation found indicates a simultaneity in the emission processes. Assuming that they are dominated by a single particle population, either hadronic or leptonic, the X-ray/VHE flux ratio favors leptonic models. This fact, together with the detected photon indices, suggests that in LS I +61 303 the X-rays are the result of synchrotron radiation of the same electrons that produce VHE emission as a result of inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons.