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1

QUIESCENT X-RAY EMISSION FROM Cen X-4: A VARIABLE THERMAL COMPONENT  

SciTech Connect

The nearby neutron star low-mass X-ray binary, Cen X-4, has been in a quiescent state since its last outburst in 1979. Typically, quiescent emission from these objects consists of thermal emission (presumably from the neutron star surface) with an additional hard power-law tail of unknown nature. Variability has been observed during quiescence in Cen X-4 on both timescales as short as hundreds of seconds and as long as years. However, the nature of this variability is still unknown. Early observations seemed to show it was all due to a variable hard X-ray tail. Here, we present new and archival observations that contradict this. The most recent Suzaku observation of Cen X-4 finds it in a historically low state, a factor of 4.4 fainter than the brightest quiescent observation. As the spectrum during the brightest observation was comprised of approximately 60% from the thermal component and 40% from the power-law component, such a large change cannot be explained by just power-law variability. Spectral fits with a variable thermal component fit the data well, while spectral fits allowing both the column density and the power law to vary do not, leading to the conclusion that the thermal component must be variable. Interestingly, we also find that the thermal fraction remains consistent between all epochs, implying that the thermal and power-law fluxes vary by approximately the same amount. If the emitting area remains unchanged between observations, then the effective surface temperature must change. Alternatively, if the temperature remains constant, then the emitting area must change. The nature of this thermal variability is unclear, but may be explained by variable low-level accretion.

Cackett, Edward M.; Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Brown, Edward F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wijnands, Rudy, E-mail: ecackett@umich.ed [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-09-10

2

X-ray and UV correlation in the quiescent emission of Cen X-4, evidence of accretion and reprocessing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted the first long-term (60 days), multiwavelength (optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray) simultaneous monitoring of Cen X-4 with daily Swift observations, with the goal of understanding variability in the low mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 during quiescence. We found Cen X-4 to be highly variable in all energy bands on timescales from days to months, with the strongest quiescent variability a factor of 22 drop in the X-ray count rate in only 4 days. The X-ray, UV and optical (V band) emission are correlated on timescales down to less than 110 s. The shape of the correlation is a power law with index ? about 0.2-0.6. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a hydrogen NS atmosphere (kT = 59 - 80 eV) and a power law (with spectral index ? = 1.4 - 2.0), with the spectral shape remaining constant as the flux varies. Both components vary in tandem, with each responsible for about 50% of the total X-ray flux, implying that they are physically linked. We conclude that the X-rays are likely generated by matter accreting down to the NS surface. Moreover, based on the short timescale of the correlation, we also unambiguously demonstrate that the UV emission can not be due to either thermal emission from the stream impact point, or a standard optically thick, geometrically thin disc. The spectral energy distribution shows a small UV emitting region, too hot to arise from the accretion disk, that we identified as a hot spot on the companion star. Therefore, the UV emission is most likely produced by reprocessing from the companion star, indeed the vertical size of the disc is small and can only reprocess a marginal fraction of the X-ray emission. We also found the accretion disc in quiescence to likely be UV faint, with a minimal contribution to the whole UV flux.

Bernardini, F.; Cackett, E. M.; Brown, E. F.; D'Angelo, C.; Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Reynolds, M.; Wijnands, R.

2014-01-01

3

Non-Quiescent X-ray Emission from Neutron Stars and Black Holes  

SciTech Connect

X-ray astronomy began with the detection of the persistent source Scorpius X-1. Shortly afterwards, sources were detected that were variable. Centaurus X-2, was determined to be an X-ray transient, having a quiescent state, and a state that was much brighter. As X-ray astronomy progressed, classifications of transient sources developed. One class of sources, believed to be neutron stars, undergo extreme luminosity transitions lasting a few seconds. These outbursts are believed to be thermonuclear explosions occurring on the surface of neutron stars (type I X-ray bursts). Other sources undergo luminosity changes that cannot be explained by thermonuclear burning and last for days to months. These sources are soft X-ray transients (SXTs) and are believed to be the result of instabilities in the accretion of matter onto either a neutron star or black hole. Type I X-ray bursts provide a tool for probing the surfaces of neutron stars. Requiring a surface for the burning has led authors to use the presence of X-ray bursts to rule out the existence of a black hole (where an event horizon exists not a surface) for systems which exhibit type I X-ray bursts. Distinguishing between neutron stars and black holes has been a problem for decades. Narayan and Heyl have developed a theoretical framework to convert suitable upper limits on type I X-ray bursts from accreting black hole candidates (BHCs) into evidence for an event horizon. We survey 2101.2 ks of data from the USA X-ray timing experiment and 5142 ks of data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) experiment to obtain the first formal constraint of this type. 1122 ks of neutron star data yield a population averaged mean burst rate of 1.7 {+-} 0.4 x 10{sup -5} bursts s{sup -1}, while 6081 ks of BHC data yield a 95% confidence level upper limit of 4.9 x 10{sup -7} bursts s{sup -1}. Applying the framework of Narayan and Heyl we calculate regions of luminosity where the neutron stars are expected to burst and the BHCs would be expected to burst if they had a similar surface. In this luminosity region 464 ks of neutron star data yield an averaged mean burst rate of 4.1 {+-} 0.9 x 10{sup -5} bursts s{sup -1}, and 1512 ks of BHC data yield a 95% confidence level upper limit of 2.0 x 10{sup -6} bursts s{sup -1} and a strong limit that BHCs do not burst with a rate similar to the rate of neutron stars in these regions. This gives evidence that BHCs do not have surfaces. In addition to studying type I X-ray bursts, we analyzed the SXT behavior. In particular, 4U 1630-47, was analyzed throughout its 1999 outburst. This source is one of the oldest known SXTs. This source is assumed to be a BHC in a low-mass X-ray binary system. Despite the length of time devoted to studying this source, there is still little known about it. We report the results of timing and spectral analysis on the 1999 outburst, and compare these results to other outbursts of 4U 1630-47. We found this source progressed from a low-hard state to a high-soft state and then rapidly transitioned back into the low-hard state before returning to quiescence. Timing analysis detected a low frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) during the initial rise of the outburst, which disappeared and did not return. The variability in the X-ray flux in the 0.1-2000 Hz frequency range is low during the high state, but increases as the source progresses into the low-hard state. The next generation Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), will measure astrophysical phenomena in the 20 MeV--a few TeV energy range. We describe preliminary design and testing of GLAST. The detector is based on a silicon tracker with similar design characteristics of vertex detectors used in high-energy physics experiments at accelerator based facilities. A beam test engineering model was designed, constructed, and tested at SLAC in 1999-2000. We describe this test, and discuss how the results from this test can improve and demonstrate the viability of the GLAST technology.

Tournear, Derek M

2003-08-18

4

Evidence for quiescent synchrotron emission in the black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high time resolution ULTRACAM optical and NOTCam infrared observations of the edge-on black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933. Our data taken in 2012 and 2013 show the system to be at its pre-outburst magnitude and so the system is in quiescence. In contrast to other X-ray transients, the quiescent light curves of Swift J1357.2-0933 do not show the secondary star's ellipsoidal modulation. The optical light curve is dominated by variability with an optical fractional rms of ˜35 per cent, a factor of >3 larger than what is observed in other systems at similar time resolution. Optical flare events lasting 2-10 min with amplitudes of up to ˜1.5 mag are seen as well as numerous rapid ˜0.8 mag dip events which are similar to the optical dips seen in outburst. Similarly, the infrared J-band light curve is dominated by variability with a fractional rms of ˜21 per cent, and flare events lasting 10-30 min with amplitudes of up to ˜1.5 mag are observed. The quiescent optical to mid-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) in quiescence is dominated by a non-thermal component with a power-law index of -1.4 (the broad-band rms SED has a similar index) which arises from optically thin synchrotron emission most likely originating in a weak jet; the lack of a peak in the SED rules out advection-dominated models. Using the outburst amplitude-period relation for X-ray transients, we estimate the quiescent magnitude of the secondary star to lie in the range Vmin = 22.7-25.6, which when combined with the absolute magnitude of the expected M4.5 V secondary star allows us to constrain the distance to lie in the range 0.5-6.3 kpc. The short orbital period argues for a nuclearly evolved star with an initial mass ˜1.5 M?, which has evolved to a 0.17 M? star. The high Galactic latitude of Swift J1357.2-0933 implies a scaleheight in the range 0.4-4.8 kpc above the Galactic plane, possibly placing Swift J1357.2-0933 in a sub-class of high-z short-period black hole X-ray transients in the Galactic halo.

Shahbaz, T.; Russell, D. M.; Zurita, C.; Casares, J.; Corral-Santana, J. M.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.

2013-09-01

5

THE VARIABLE QUIESCENT X-RAY EMISSION OF THE TRANSIENT NEUTRON STAR XTE J1701-462  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of continued monitoring of the quiescent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1701-462 with Chandra and Swift. A new Chandra observation from 2010 October extends our tracking of the neutron star surface temperature from {approx_equal}800 days to {approx_equal}1160 days since the end of an exceptionally luminous 19 month outburst. This observation indicates that the neutron star crust may still be slowly cooling toward thermal equilibrium with the core; another observation further into quiescence is needed to verify this. The shape of the overall cooling curve is consistent with that of a broken power law, although an exponential decay to a constant level cannot be excluded with the present data. To investigate possible low-level activity, we conducted a monitoring campaign of XTE J1701-462 with Swift during 2010 April-October. Short-term flares-presumably arising from episodic low-level accretion-were observed up to a luminosity of {approx}1 x 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}, {approx}20 times higher than the normal quiescent level. We conclude that flares of this magnitude are not likely to have significantly affected the equilibrium temperature of the neutron star and are probably not able to have a measurable impact on the cooling curve. However, it is possible that brighter and longer periods of low-level activity have had an appreciable effect on the equilibrium temperature.

Fridriksson, Joel K. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Homan, Jeroen [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wijnands, Rudy; Altamirano, Diego; Degenaar, Nathalie [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cackett, Edward M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brown, Edward F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 3250 Biomedical and Physical Sciences Building, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Mendez, Mariano [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Belloni, Tomaso M., E-mail: joelkf@mit.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

2011-08-01

6

The long-term evolution of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1814-338: A receding jet contribution to the quiescent optical emission?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present a study of the quiescent optical counterpart of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar XTE J1814-338 that is aimed at unveiling the different components, which contribute to the quiescent optical emission of the system. Methods: We carried out multiband (BVR) orbital phase-resolved photometry of the system using the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) that is equipped with the FORS2 camera, covering about 70% of the 4.3 hour orbital period. Results: The optical light curves are consistent with a sinusoidal variability that are modulated with an orbital period with a semi-amplitude of 0.5-0.7 mag. They show evidence of a strongly irradiated companion star, which agrees with previous findings for this system. However, the observed colours cannot be accounted for by the companion star alone, suggesting the presence of an accretion disc during quiescence. The system seems to be fainter in all analysed bands compared to previous observations. The R band light curve displays a possible phase offset with respect to the B and V band. Through a combined fit of the multi-band light curve performed with a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique, we derive constraints on the companion star, disc fluxes, system distance, and companion star mass. Conclusions: The irradiation luminosity required to account for the observed day-side temperature of the companion star is consistent with the spin-down luminosity of a millisecond radio pulsar. Compared to our data with previous observations, which were collected over 5 years, the flux decrease and spectral evolution of the observed quiescent optical emission cannot be satisfactorily explained with the combined contribution of an irradiated companion star and of an accretion disc alone. The observed progressive flux decrease as the system gets bluer could be due to a continuum component that evolves towards a lower, bluer spectrum. While most of the continuum component is likely due to the disc, we do not expect it to become bluer in quiescence. Hence, we hypothesize that an additional component, such as synchrotron emission from a jet was significantly contributing in the data obtained earlier during quiescence and then progressively fading or moving its break frequency towards longer wavelengths. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 383.D-0730(A).

Baglio, M. C.; D'Avanzo, P.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Breton, R. P.; Campana, S.

2013-11-01

7

Jovian X-ray emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Einstein and Rosat observations of X-ray emissions from Jupiter are summarized. Jupiter's soft X-ray emission is observed to originate from the planet's auroral zones, and specifically, from its equatorial region. The processes responsible for these emissions are not established. The brightness distribution of the Jovian X-rays is characterized by the dependence on central meridian longitude and by north-south and morning-afternoon asymmetries. The X-rays observed during the impact of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 are believed to be impact-induced brightenings of the X-ray aurora.

Waite, J. H.; Lewis, W. S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Brandt, W. N.

1996-01-01

8

GBS-discovered quiescent X-ray binaries: XMM eclipse duration and VLT spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to use XMM to observe eclipsing probable quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries selected from the Galactic Bulge Survey. The XMM data are crucial to determine the eclipsing duration, one cannot do this as accurately from optical light curves as from X-ray light curves as the X-ray emission region is small compared to the mass donor star. Using the XMM eclipse duration and the VLT spectroscopy we can determine virtually model independent masses of the compact objects. Furthermore, we may select different mass ratio systems favoring low-mass black holes.

Jonker, Peter

2013-10-01

9

Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this investigation was to use the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in combination with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to simultaneously measure the x-ray (2-12 keV) and hard x-ray (20-100 keV) emission from x-ray bursters. The investigation was successful. We made the first simultaneous measurement of hard and soft x-ray emission and found a strong anticorrelation of hard and soft x-ray emission from the X-Ray Burster 4U 0614+091. The monitoring performed under this investigation was also important in triggering target of opportunity observations of x-ray bursters made under the investigation hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters approved for RXTE cycles 1 and 2. These observations lead to a number of papers on high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and on hard x-ray emission from the x-ray bursters 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44.

Kaaret, Philip

1998-01-01

10

A DEEP RADIO SURVEY OF HARD STATE AND QUIESCENT BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted a deep radio survey of a sample of black hole X-ray binaries in the hard and quiescent states to determine whether any systems were sufficiently bright for astrometric follow-up with high-sensitivity very long baseline interferometric arrays. The one hard-state system, Swift J1753.5-0127, was detected at a level of 0.5 mJy beam{sup -1}. All 11 quiescent systems were not detected. In the three cases with the highest predicted quiescent radio brightnesses (GRO J0422+32, XTE J1118+480, and GRO J1655-40), the new capabilities of the Expanded Very Large Array were used to reach noise levels as low as 2.6 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1}. None of the three sources were detected to 3{sigma} upper limits of 8.3, 7.8, and 14.2 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1}, respectively. These observations represent the most stringent constraints to date on quiescent radio emission from black hole X-ray binaries. The uncertainties in the source distances, quiescent X-ray luminosities at the times of the observations, and the power-law index of the empirical correlation between radio and X-ray luminosities make it impossible to determine whether these three sources are significantly less luminous in the radio band than expected. Thus it is not clear whether that correlation holds all the way down to quiescence for all black hole X-ray binaries.

Miller-Jones, J. C. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Jonker, P. G. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. J.; Calvelo, D. E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom); Nelemans, G., E-mail: james.miller-jones@curtin.edu.au [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

2011-09-20

11

Hard X-ray emission from X-ray bursters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard X-ray emission from compact objects has been considered a spectral signature of black hole candidates. However, SIGMA and BATSE recently detected transient emission in the energy range 30-200keV from several X-ray bursters (XRBs) believed to contain weakly magnetized neutron stars. At least seven XRBs (including Aquila X-1 and 4U 1608-52) are currently known to produce erratic hard X-ray outbursts

M. Tavani; E. Liang

1996-01-01

12

Emission processes in quiescent neutron star transients  

E-print Network

We review the observational properties of transient systems made by a neutron star primary and a late dwarf companion (known also as Soft X-ray Transients) during their quiescent state. We focus on the several emission mechanisms proposed and try to compare them with observations. Finally, we review new tools to improve our comprehension of the physics of the emission processes.

Sergio Campana

2003-11-10

13

The quiescent X-ray spectrum of accreting black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quiescent state is the dominant accretion mode for black holes on all mass scales. Our knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is limited due to the characteristic low luminosity in this state. Herein, we present an analysis of the sample of dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black holes observed in quiescence in the Chandra/XMM-Newton/Suzaku era resulting in a sample of eight black holes with ˜570 ks of observations. In contrast to the majority of active galactic nuclei where observations are limited by contamination from diffuse gas, the stellar-mass systems allow for a clean study of the X-ray spectrum resulting from the accretion flow alone. The data are characterized using simple models. We find a model consisting of a power law or thermal bremsstrahlung to both provide excellent descriptions of the data, where we measure ? = 2.06 ± 0.03 and kT = 5.03^{+0.33}_{-0.31} keV, respectively, in the 0.3-10 keV bandpass, at a median luminosity of Lx ˜ 5.5 × 10-7LEdd. This result in discussed in the context of our understanding of the accretion flow on to stellar and supermassive black holes at low luminosities.

Reynolds, Mark T.; Reis, Rubens C.; Miller, Jon M.; Cackett, Edward M.; Degenaar, Nathalie

2014-07-01

14

Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main results from this investigation were serendipitous. The long observation approved for the study of the hard X-ray emission of X-ray bursters lead, instead, to one of the largest early samples of the behavior of fast quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) in an atoll sources. Our analysis of this data set lead to the several important discoveries including the existence of a robust correlation between QPO frequency and the flux of a soft blackbody component of the X-ray spectrum in the atoll source 4U 0614+091.

Kaaret, Phillip

1997-01-01

15

The quiescent state of the accreting X-ray pulsar SAX J2103.5+4545  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an X-ray timing and spectral analysis of the Be/X-ray binary SAX J2103.5+4545 at a time when the Be star's circumstellar disc had disappeared and thus the main reservoir of material available for accretion had extinguished. In this very low optical state, pulsed X-ray emission was detected at a level of LX ˜ 1033 erg s-1. This is the lowest luminosity at which pulsations have ever been detected in an accreting pulsar. The derived spin period is 351.13 s, consistent with previous observations. The source continues its overall long-term spin-up, which reduced the spin period by 7.5 s since its discovery in 1997. The X-ray emission is consistent with a purely thermal spectrum, represented by a blackbody with kT = 1 keV. We discuss possible scenarios to explain the observed quiescent luminosity and conclude that the most likely mechanism is direct emission resulting from the cooling of the polar caps, heated either during the most recent outburst or via intermittent accretion in quiescence.

Reig, P.; Doroshenko, V.; Zezas, A.

2014-12-01

16

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars  

E-print Network

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore #12;What is the mechanism by which massive stars produce x-rays? New results from the Chandra X the Sun - magnetic activity, x-ray spectra b. Hot stars c. Radiation-driven winds and the Doppler shift d

Cohen, David

17

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars  

E-print Network

X-ray Emission from Massive Stars David Cohen Department of Physics and Astronomy Swarthmore College http://astro.swarthmore.edu/~cohen Hot, massive stars are among the brightest objects be related to the production of X-rays on massive stars. If so, massive stars' X-rays are much different than

Cohen, David

18

THE QUIESCENT X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR AND ECLIPSING BINARY SWIFT J1749.4-2807  

SciTech Connect

Swift J1749.4-2807 is a transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary that contains an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar spinning at 518 Hz. It is the first of its kind that displays X-ray eclipses, which holds significant promise to precisely constrain the mass of the neutron star. We report on a {approx_equal} 105 ks long XMM-Newton observation performed when Swift J1749.4-2807 was in quiescence. We detect the source at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of {approx_equal}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33}(D/6.7 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The X-ray light curve displays three eclipses that are consistent in orbital phase and duration with the ephemeris derived during outburst. Unlike most quiescent neutron stars, the X-ray spectrum can be adequately described with a simple power law, while a pure-hydrogen atmosphere model does not fit the data. We place an upper limit on the 0.01-100 keV thermal luminosity of the cooling neutron star of {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} and constrain its temperature to be {approx}< 0.1 keV (for an observer at infinity). Timing analysis does not reveal evidence for X-ray pulsations near the known spin frequency of the neutron star or its first overtone with a fractional rms of {approx}< 34% and {approx}< 28%, respectively. We discuss the implications of our findings for dynamical mass measurements, the thermal state of the neutron star, and the origin of the quiescent X-ray emission.

Degenaar, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Patruno, A.; Wijnands, R., E-mail: degenaar@umich.edu [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-09-10

19

X-Ray Emissions from Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray emissions from Jupiter have been observed for over 20 years. Jovian x-ray emissions are associated with high-latitude aurora and with solar fluorescence and/or an energetic particle source at low-latitudes as identified by past Einstein and ROSAT observations. Enhanced auroral x-rays were also observed to be associated with the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. The high-latitude x-ray emissions are best explained by energetic sulfur and oxygen ion precipitation from the Jovian magnetosphere, a suggestion that has been confirmed by recent Chandra ACIS observations. Exciting new information about Jovian x-ray emissions has been made possible with Chandra's High Resolution Camera. We report here for the first time the detection of a forty minute oscillation associated with the Jovian x-ray aurora. With the help of ultraviolet auroral observations from Hubble Space Telescope, we pinpoint the auroral mapping of the x-rays and provide new information on the x-ray source mechanism.

Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Crary, F. J.; Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Lewis, W. S.; Jahn, J.-M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Clarke, J. T.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

20

The X-ray spectra of the flaring and quiescent states of YZ CMi observed by XMM-Newton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the X-ray spectrum of the active late-type star YZ CMi (M4.5V); for quiescent as well as active stages, we derive emission measure (EM) distributions, elemental abundances, and electron temperatures and densities, which are in turn used to estimate flare loop lengths as well as coronal magnetic field strengths. YZ CMi was observed in the wavelength range 1-40 Å by the X-ray detectors RGS, EPIC-MOS and EPIC-pn onboard XMM-Newton. Some flares occurred during the observation. We perform a multi-temperature fit and model the differential EM of both the flaring and the quiescent parts of the spectrum and derive the coronal temperature distribution, EMs, and elemental abundances of the flaring and quiescent states. The observed temperature covers a range from about 1.3 to 42 MK. The total volume EM in this temperature interval is 13.7+/-.8×1050cm-3 for the quiescent state and 21.7+/-1.4×1050cm-3 for the active state. The abundance pattern in the quiescent state shows some depletion of low first ionization potential (FIP) elements relative to high-FIP elements, indicating the presence of an I(nverse)FIP effect in this active star. No abundance differences between the quiescent and the active states are established. Based on the X-ray light curves in combination with the temperature, density and EM, the coronal magnetic field strength at flare-site is found to be between 50 and 100 G and the flaring loop lengths are estimated to be in the range of 5 -13 × 109 cm.

Raassen, A. J. J.; Mitra-Kraev, U.; Güdel, M.

2007-08-01

21

X-ray spectroscopy of the unsteady quiescent corona of AD Leo with Chandra  

E-print Network

also show that the EMD is compatible with the model of a corona continuously heated by ares, which in stellar coronae and the nature of coronal heating. The topology, surface coverage and strength of the coroX-ray spectroscopy of the unsteady quiescent corona of AD Leo with Chandra A. Maggio 1 , J.J. Drake

22

Characterizing the quiescent X-ray variability of the black hole low mass x-ray binary V404 Cyg  

E-print Network

We conducted the first long-term (75 days) X-ray monitoring of the black hole low mass X-ray binary V404 Cyg, with the goal of understanding and characterizing its variability during quiescence. The X-ray light curve of V404 shows several flares on timescales of hours with a count rate change of a factor of about 5-8. The root mean square variability is Fvar = 57.0(3.2) percent. The first order structure function is consistent with both a power spectrum of index -1 (flicker noise), or with a power spectrum of index 0 (white noise), implying that the light curve is variable on timescales from days to months. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a power law with spectral index {\\Gamma} = 2.10 - 2.35, and we found that the spectral shape remains roughly constant as the flux changes. A constant spectral shape with respect to a change in the X-ray flux may favour a scenario in which the X-ray emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation produced in a jet.

Bernardini, Federico

2014-01-01

23

X-ray emission from Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first unambiguous detection of X-ray emission originating from Saturn with a Chandra observation, duration 65.5 ks with ACIS-S3. Beyond the pure detection we analyze the spatial distribution of X-rays on the planetary surface, the light curve, and some spectral properties. The detection is based on 162 cts extracted from the ACIS-S3 chip within the optical disk of

J.-U. Ness; J. H. M. M. Schmitt; S. J. Wolk; K. Dennerl; V. Burwitz

2004-01-01

24

Quiescent accretion disks in black hole X-ray novae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of the Balmer emission lines from two black hole binary systems in quiescence, A0620-00 and Nova Muscae 1991. We find extraordinary similarities between the two systems. There are 30-40 km/s velocity variations of the emission lines over the orbital period, the phases of which are not aligned with the expected phase of the motion of the compact primary. Detailed modeling of both systems is complicated by variable hot spot components, regions of optical thickness, and intermittent excess emission in the blue line wings of the H-alpha lines. Both sources also display low velocities at the outer edge of the accretion disk, implying a large primary Roche lobe and extreme mass ratios. These complications suggest that although simple optically thin, Keplerian alpha-disk models provide a useful parameterization of emission lines from these systems, the straightforward physical models they imply should be treated with great caution.

Orosz, Jerome A.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Mcclintock, Jeffrey E.; Foltz, Craig B.

1994-01-01

25

The X-ray emission of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from several satellite observations are used to discuss the discrete emission component of galaxies, including bright binary sources, supernova and supernova remnants. Through X-ray observations, direct evidence of the chemical and dynamical interactions between galaxies and the surrounding medium can be obtained. Although the X-ray emission represents only a small fraction of the bolometric emission of a normal galaxy, it allows the study of the system's component to be performed. The results on low luminosity active galactic nuclei are also discussed.

Fabbiano, G.

1996-01-01

26

X-ray Emission from Extragalactic Jets  

E-print Network

This review focuses on the X-ray emission processes of extra-galactic jets on scales resolvable by the sub arcsec resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. It is divided into 4 parts. The introductory chapter reviews the classical problems for jets, as well as those associated directly with the X-ray emission. Throughout this section, we deal with the dualisms of low powered radio sources versus high powered radio galaxies and quasars; synchrotron models versus inverse Compton models; and the distinction between the relativistic plasma responsible for the received radiation and the medium responsible for the transport of energy down the jet. The second part collects the observational and inferred parameters for the currently detected X-ray jets and attempts to put their relative sizes and luminosities in perspective. In part 3, we first give the relevant radio and optical jet characteristics, and then examine the details of the X-ray data and how they can be related to various jet attributes. The last section is devoted to a critique of the two non-thermal emission processes and to prospects for progress in our understanding of jets.

D. E. Harris; Henric Krawczynski

2006-07-11

27

Quiescent X-ray/optical counterparts of the black hole transient H 1705-250  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the result of a new Chandra observation of the black hole X-ray transient H 1705-250 in quiescence. H 1705-250 was barely detected in the new ˜50 ks Chandra observation. With five detected counts, we estimate the source quiescent luminosity to be LX ˜ 9.1 × 1030 erg s-1 in the 0.5-10 keV band (adopting a distance of 8.6 kpc). This value is in line with the quiescent luminosities found among other black hole X-ray binaries with similar orbital periods. By using images taken with the Faulkes Telescope North, we derive a refined position of H 1705-250. We also present the long-term light curve of the optical counterpart from 2006 to 2012, and show evidence for variability in quiescence.

Yang, Y. J.; Kong, A. K. H.; Russell, D. M.; Lewis, F.; Wijnands, R.

2012-12-01

28

Rejecting Proposed Dense Matter Equations of State with Quiescent Low-mass X-Ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutrons stars are unique laboratories for discriminating between the various proposed equations of state of matter at and above nuclear density. One sub-class of neutron stars—those inside quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs)—produce a thermal surface emission from which the neutron star radius (R NS) can be measured, using the widely accepted observational scenario for qLMXBs, assuming unmagnetized H atmospheres. In a combined spectral analysis, this work first reproduces a previously published measurement of the R NS, assumed to be the same for all neutron stars, using a slightly expanded data set. The radius measured is {R_NS}=9.4+/- 1.2{ km}. On the basis of spectral analysis alone, this measured value is not affected by imposing an assumption of causality in the core. However, the assumptions underlying this R NS measurement would be falsified by the observation of any neutron star with a mass >2.6 M ?, since radii <11{ km} would be rejected if causality is assumed, which would exclude most of the R NS parameter space obtained in this analysis. Finally, this work directly tests a selection of dense matter equations of state: WFF1, AP4, MPA1, PAL1, MS0, and three versions of equations of state produced through chiral effective theory. Two of those, MS0 and PAL1, are rejected at the 99% confidence level, accounting for all quantifiable uncertainties, while the other cannot be excluded at >99% certainty.

Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E.

2014-11-01

29

Coronal X-Ray Emission from the Stellar Companions to Transiently Accreting Black Holes  

E-print Network

Observations of soft X-ray transients (SXTs) in quiescence have found that the binaries harboring black holes are fainter than those that contain a neutron star. Narayan and collaborators postulated that the faint X-ray emission from black hole binaries was powered by an advection dominated accretion flow (ADAF). We explore an alternative explanation for the quiescent X-ray emission from the black hole systems: coronal emission from the rapidly rotating optical companion. This is commonly observed and well studied in other tidally locked binaries, such as the RS CVns. We show that two of the three X-ray detected black hole binaries (A0620-00 and GRO J1655-40) exhibit X-ray fluxes entirely consistent with coronal emission. The X-ray spectra of these objects should be best fit with thermal Raymond-Smith models rich in lines when coronal emission predominates. One black hole system (V404 Cyg) is too X-ray bright to be explained as coronal emission. The quiescent X-ray emission from the neutron star binaries is far too bright for coronal emission. It might be that all SXT's have variable accretion rates in quiescence and that the basal quiescent X-ray flux is set by either coronal emission from the companion or -- when present -- by thermal emission from the neutron star. We also show that the lithium abundances in the black hole systems are comparable to those in the RS CVns, reducing the need for production mechanisms that involve the compact object.

Lars Bildsten; Robert E. Rutledge

1999-12-15

30

X-ray emission from Saturn  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first unambiguous detection of X-ray emission originating from\\u000aSaturn with a Chandra observation, duration 65.5 ksec with ACIS-S3. Beyond the\\u000apure detection we analyze the spatial distribution of X-rays on the planetary\\u000asurface, the light curve, and some spectral properties. The detection is based\\u000aon 162 cts extracted from the ACIS-S3 chip within the optical disk of

J.-U. Ness; J. H. M. M. Schmitt; S. J. Wolk; K. Dennerl; V. Burwitz

2004-01-01

31

Constraining the neutron star equation of state using quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries  

SciTech Connect

Chandra or XMM-Newton observations of quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries can provide important constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. The mass and radius of the neutron star can potentially be determined from fitting a neutron star atmosphere model to the observed X-ray spectrum. For a radius measurement it is of critical importance that the distance to the source is well constrained since the fractional uncertainty in the radius is at least as large as the fractional uncertainty in the distance. Uncertainties in modelling the neutron star atmosphere remain. At this stage it is not yet clear if the soft thermal component in the spectra of many quiescent X-ray binaries is variable on timescales too short to be accommodated by the cooling neutron star scenario. This can be tested with a long XMM-Newton observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence. With such an observation one can use the Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectrum to constrain the interstellar extinction to the source. This removes this parameter from the X-ray spectral fitting of the EPIC pn and MOS spectra and allows one to investigate whether the variability observed in the quiescent X-ray spectrum of this source is due to variations in the soft thermal spectral component or variations in the power law spectral component coupled with variations in N{sub H}. This will test whether the soft thermal component can indeed be due to the hot thermal glow of the neutron star. Irrespective of the outcome of such a study, the observed cooling in quiescence in sources for which the crust is significantly out of thermal equilibrium with the core due to a prolonged outburst, such as KS 1731-260, seem excellent candidates for mass and radius determinations through modelling the observed X-rays with a neutron star atmosphere model (the caveats about the source distance and atmosphere modelling do also apply here obviously and presently prevent one from obtaining such constraints). Finally, the fact that the soft thermal glow in sources such as SAX J1808.4-3658 and 1H 1905+000 has not been detected in quiescence means that the neutron star cores of these sources must be cold. The most plausible explanation seems to be that the neutron stars are more massive than 1.4 M{sub {center_dot}} and cool via the direct URCA process.

Jonker, P. G. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, Massachusetts (United States); Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2008-02-27

32

Jet-dominated quiescent states in black hole X-ray binaries: the case of V404 Cyg  

E-print Network

The dynamical and radiative properties of the quiescent state (X-ray luminosity $low-luminosity and poor data quantity. We demonstrate that, the simultaneous multi-wavelength (including radio, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray bands) spectrum of V404 Cyg in its bright quiescent state can be well described by the radiation from the companion star and more importantly, the compact jet. Neither the outer thin disc nor the inner hot accretion flow is important in the total spectrum. Together with several additional recent findings, i.e. the power-law X-ray spectrum and the constant X-ray spectral shape (or constant photon index) in contrast to the dramatic change in the X-ray luminosity, we argue the quiescent state spectrum of BHXTs is actually jet-dominated. Observational features consistent with this jet model are also discussed as supporting evidences. Finally, we provide a brief discussion on severa...

Xie, Fu-Guo; Ma, Renyi

2014-01-01

33

Modeling X-ray Emission Around Galaxies  

E-print Network

Extended X-ray emission can be studied either spatially (through its surface brightness profile) or spectrally (by analyzing the spectrum at various locations in the field). Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages, and when the emission becomes particularly faint and/or extended, the two methods can disagree. We argue that an ideal approach would be to model the events file directly, and therefore to use both the spectral and spatial information which are simultaneously available for each event. In this work we propose a first step in this direction, introducing a method for spatial analysis which can be extended to leverage spectral information simultaneously. We construct a model for the entire X-ray image in a given energy band, and generate a likelihood function to compare the model to the data. A critical goal of this modeling is disentangling vignetted and unvignetted backgrounds through their different spatial distributions. Employing either maximum likelihood or Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we ...

Anderson, Michael E

2014-01-01

34

X-ray emission from Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first unambiguous detection of X-ray emission originating from Saturn with a Chandra observation, duration 65.5 ks with ACIS-S3. Beyond the pure detection we analyze the spatial distribution of X-rays on the planetary surface, the light curve, and some spectral properties. The detection is based on 162 cts extracted from the ACIS-S3 chip within the optical disk of Saturn. We found no evidence for smaller or larger angular extent. The expected background level is 56 cts, i.e., the count rate is (1.6 ± 0.2)× 10-3 cts/s. The extracted photons are rather concentrated towards the equator of the apparent disk, while both polar caps have a relative photon deficit. The inclination angle of Saturn during the observation was ˜-27o, so that the northern hemisphere was not visible during the complete observation. In addition, it was occulted by the ring system. We found a small but significant photon excess at one edge of the ring system. The light curve shows a small dip twice at identical phases, but rotational modulation cannot be claimed at a significant level. Spectral modeling results in a number of statistically, but not necessarily physically, acceptable models. The X-ray flux level we calculate from the best-fit spectral models is ˜6.8× 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 (in the energy interval 0.1-2 keV), which corresponds to an X-ray luminosity of ˜8.7× 1014 erg s-1. A combination of scatter processes of solar X-rays require a relatively high albedo favoring internal processes, but a definitive explanation remains an open issue.

Ness, J.-U.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Wolk, S. J.; Dennerl, K.; Burwitz, V.

2004-04-01

35

X-ray emission from Saturn  

E-print Network

We report the first unambiguous detection of X-ray emission originating from Saturn with a Chandra observation, duration 65.5 ksec with ACIS-S3. Beyond the pure detection we analyze the spatial distribution of X-rays on the planetary surface, the light curve, and some spectral properties. The detection is based on 162 cts extracted from the ACIS-S3 chip within the optical disk of Saturn. We found no evidence for smaller or larger angular extent. The expected background level is 56 cts, i.e., the count rate is (1.6 +- 0.2) 10^-3 cts/s. The extracted photons are rather concentrated towards the equator of the apparent disk, while both polar caps have a relative photon deficit. The inclination angle of Saturn during the observation was -27 degrees, so that the northern hemisphere was not visible during the complete observation. In addition, it was occulted by the ring system. We found a small but significant photon excess at one edge of the ring system. The light curve shows a small dip twice at identical phases, but rotational modulation cannot be claimed at a significant level. Spectral modeling results in a number of statistically, but not necessarily physically, acceptable models. The X-ray flux level we calculate from the best-fit spectral models is 6.8 10^-15 erg/cm^2/s (in the energy interval 0.1-2keV), which corresponds to an X-ray luminosity of 8.7 10^14 erg/s. A combination of scatter processes of solar X-rays requires a relatively high albedo favoring internal processes, but a definitive explanation remains an open issue.

J. -U. Ness; J. H. M. M. Schmitt; S. J. Wolk; K. Dennerl; V. Burwitz

2004-01-14

36

The quiescent state broadband X-ray spectrum and variability of Mkn421  

E-print Network

The BL Lac object Mkn~421 was observed three times by the X-ray observatory BeppoSAX in consecutive days during 1997 April and May. The source was in a quiescent state, with an average 2-10 keV flux of 9.0 x 10^(-11) erg/cm/cm/s. Flux variation by a factor of ~2 on timescales as short as a few 10 ks were more pronounced in the hard (i.e. above ~3 keV) than in the soft X-rays. The broadband (0.1-40 keV) spectrum is concave and can be most easily explained with a power-law model which steepens gradually with energy. In this framework, neither photoabsorption edges nor resonant absorption lines are required, strengthening the case against the ubiquity of such features in BL Lac objects, which had been previously suggested by Einstein observations. The broadband spectrum hardens with hard X-ray flux, mostly due to a flattening above ~4 keV. This suggests that the relativistic highest energy electron distribution properties drive the X-ray spectral dynamics: either a stratification of the distribution in the jet with energy or inhomogeneities in the electron injection mechanism could be consistent with the observed variability pattern.

M. Guainazzi; G. Vacanti; A. Malizia; K. S. O'Flaherty; E. Palazzi; A. N. Parmar

1998-10-06

37

The quiescent state broadband X-ray spectrum and variability of Mkn421  

E-print Network

The BL Lac object Mkn~421 was observed three times by the X-ray observatory BeppoSAX in consecutive days during 1997 April and May. The source was in a quiescent state, with an average 2-10 keV flux of 9.0 x 10^(-11) erg/cm/cm/s. Flux variation by a factor of ~2 on timescales as short as a few 10 ks were more pronounced in the hard (i.e. above ~3 keV) than in the soft X-rays. The broadband (0.1-40 keV) spectrum is concave and can be most easily explained with a power-law model which steepens gradually with energy. In this framework, neither photoabsorption edges nor resonant absorption lines are required, strengthening the case against the ubiquity of such features in BL Lac objects, which had been previously suggested by Einstein observations. The broadband spectrum hardens with hard X-ray flux, mostly due to a flattening above ~4 keV. This suggests that the relativistic highest energy electron distribution properties drive the X-ray spectral dynamics: either a stratification of the distribution in the jet w...

Guainazzi, M; Malizia, A; O'Flaherty, K S; Palazzi, E; Parmar, A N

1998-01-01

38

Diffuse X-ray emission of Disk galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk galaxies are the dynamic ecosystem of many species. I will review recent X-ray observations that reveal an otherwise hidden species and its energetic interplay with other components of such galaxies. I will focus on answering three questions: 1. How do X-ray properties vary among galaxies? 2. Does the X-ray emission trace the accretion or feedback of galaxies? 3. What is the nature of the X-ray emission?

Wang, Q. Daniel

2014-08-01

39

Modeling X-Ray Emission around Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended X-ray emission can be studied by spatial surface brightness measurements or by spectral analysis, but the two methods can disagree at low intensity levels. Here we present an improved method for spatial analysis that can be extended to include spectral information simultaneously. We construct a model for the entire image in a given energy band and generate a likelihood function to compare the model to the data. A critical goal is disentangling vignetted and unvignetted backgrounds through their different spatial distributions. Employing either maximum likelihood or Markov Chain Monte Carlo, we can derive probability distributions for the source and background parameters together, or we can fit and subtract the background, leaving the description of the source non-parametric. We calibrate this method against a variety of simulated images, and apply it to Chandra observations of the hot gaseous halo around the elliptical galaxy NGC 720. We follow the emission below a tenth of the background and infer a hot gas mass within 35 kpc of 4-5 × 109 M ?, with some indication that the profile continues to at least 50 kpc and that it steepens. We derive stronger constraints on the surface brightness profile than previous studies that employed the spectral method, and we show that the density profiles inferred from these studies are in conflict with the observed surface brightness profile. Contrary to a previous claim, we find that the X-ray halo does not contain the full complement of missing baryons within the virial radius.

Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N.

2014-04-01

40

X-Ray Emission from "Uranium" Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The project aims to secure XMM observations of two targets with extremely low abundances of the majority of heavy elements (e.g., log[Fe/H] $\\sim$-4), but that show absorption lines of uranium. The presence of an r-process element such as uranium requires a binary star system in which the companion underwent a supernova explosion. A binary star system raises the distinct possibility of the existence of a compact object, most likely a neutron star, in the binary, assuming it survived the supernova blast. The presence of a compact object then suggests X-ray emission if sufficient matter accretes to the compact object. The observations were completed less than one year ago following a series of reobservations to correct for significant flaring that occurred during the original observations. The ROSAT all-sky survey was used to report on the initial assessment of X-ray emission from these objects; only upper limits were reported. These upper limits were used to justify the XMM observing time, but with the expectation that upper limits would merely be pushed lower. The data analysis hinges critically on the quality and degree of precision with which the background is handled. During the past year, I have spent some time learning the ins and outs of XMM data analysis. In the coming year, I can apply that learning to the analysis of the 'uranium' stars.

Schlegel, Eric; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

2005-01-01

41

From Radio to X-Ray: The Quiescent Atmosphere of the dMe Flare Star EV Lacertae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on multiwavelength observations spanning radio to X-ray wavelengths of the M dwarf flare star EV Lacertae and probing the characteristics of the outer atmospheric plasma from the upper chromosphere to the corona. We detect the star at a wavelength of 2 cm (15 GHz) for the first time. UV and FUV line profiles show evidence of nonthermal broadening, and the velocity width appears to peak at lower temperatures than in the Sun; this trend is confirmed in another active M dwarf flare star. Electron density measurements indicate nearly constant electron pressures between logT=5.2 and 6.4. At higher coronal temperatures, there is a sharp increase of 2 orders of magnitude in density (ne~1013 cm-3 at logT=6.9). X-ray, EUV, FUV, and NUV spectra constrain the differential emission measure (DEM) from the upper chromosphere through the corona. The coronal pressures are inconsistent with the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, either through emission measure (EM) modeling or application of scaling laws, and imply large conductive loss rates and a large energy input at the highest temperatures. The timescales for radiative and conductive losses in EV Lac's upper atmosphere imply that significant continued heating must occur for the corona to maintain its quiescent properties. The high-frequency radio detection requires the high-temperature X-ray-emitting coronal plasma to be spatially distinct from the radio emission source. Length scales in the low-temperature corona are markedly larger than those in the high-temperature corona, further suggestions of an inhomogeneous mixture of thermal and nonthermal coronal plasma.

Osten, Rachel A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Allred, Joel; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Brown, Alexander; Harper, Graham M.

2006-08-01

42

Grazing incidence parametric X-ray emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parametric X-rays (PXR) from relativistic electrons incident at small angles on a surface of a crystalline target is considered as a method for increasing the X-ray yield. The yield can be increased by grazing incidence electrons than for perpendicular-incidence electrons by minimizing the photoabsorption of the emitted X-rays.

Nasonov, N. N.; Zhukova, P.; Piestrup, M. A.; Park, H.

2006-09-01

43

Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation

Keith W

1999-01-01

44

Jet-dominated quiescent states in black hole X-ray binaries: the case of V404 Cyg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamical structure and radiative properties of the quiescent state (X-ray luminosity ?1034 erg s-1) of black hole X-ray transients (BHXTs) remain unclear, mainly because of low luminosity and poor data quantity. We demonstrate that the simultaneous multi-wavelength (including radio, optical, ultraviolet and X-ray bands) spectrum of V404 Cyg in its bright quiescent state can be well described by the radiation from the companion star and more importantly, the compact jet. Neither the outer thin disc nor the inner hot accretion flow is important in the total spectrum. Together with recent findings, i.e. the power-law X-ray spectrum and the non-variable X-ray spectral shape (or constant photon index) in contrast to the dramatic change in the X-ray luminosity, we argue the quiescent state spectrum of BHXTs is actually jet-dominated. Additional observational properties consistent with this jet model are also discussed as supporting evidence.

Xie, Fu-Guo; Yang, Qi-Xiang; Ma, Renyi

2014-07-01

45

X-ray emission from compact groups of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of very compact groups, or 'poor clusters,' of galaxies as a category of X-ray source is reported. By analogy with X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, it is assumed that the extended X-ray emission is due to thermal bremsstrahlung from hot gas in the groups. The derived X-ray temperatures, luminosities, and sizes are similar to those for X-ray emitting, rich clusters of galaxies. It is inferred that these groups are in a late evolutionary stage because of the presence of a dominant galaxy, the absence of spiral galaxies, and the short cooling time inferred for 2A 0335 + 096.

Schwartz, D. A.; Schwarz, J.; Tucker, W.

1980-01-01

46

X-Ray Emission from Protostellar Jets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goals of this program were to identify the termination shocks in several parsec-scale protostellar jets through the thermal soft X-rays emitted by the high-velocity terminal shock waves, and to assess the impact these outflows have on the surrounding interstellar and intercloud medium. The terminal shock waves that plow into the undisturbed interstellar medium may have shock velocities commensurate with the observed space motions of several hundred km s(exp -1). Such shocks will heat and ionize the interstellar medium, perhaps creating large ovoid bubbles of hot gas. Identifying the location of the terminal shocks in these outflows would also allow us to place constraints on the ages of these outflows, and hence the duration of the mass-loss phase that accompanies the formation of a star. We targeted four outflows where the outer optical shock waves are projected against low-extinction backgrounds. From the two dozen or so parsec-scale flows known, we chose those that have the highest velocities, brightest optical counterparts, and/or the richest concentration of shock waves in a small area on the sky. Four giant HH flows have been observed with the ROSAT HRI at Priority A for 30 ksec each. Results: Unfortunately, we failed to detect X-ray emission from the terminal bow shocks of the giant HH flows using the ROSAT HRI. The reasons are likely to be: (1) The shock velocities may be too low to emit in the soft X-rays. (2) The sensitivity of the HRI is too low to detect the diffuse emission. The fields that we observed were chosen to be low extinction sight-lines, with the consequence that the tenuous media into which the outer bow shocks are propagating produce low fluxes. Despite the failure to achieve the primary science goals, we have identified in each image a half a dozen or so point-source young stellar objects. The HRI images have been very useful for discerning potential outflow sources and are being combined with optical, near-IR, and radio imaging data of each outflow field. The first paper on L1551 NE is currently in preparation.

Morse, Jon A.; McCray, Dick; Bally, John; Devine, David

1998-01-01

47

Quasi-monochromatic field-emission x-ray source  

SciTech Connect

By favoring the L-peak emission over the bremsstrahlung part, direct quasi-monochromatic soft x-ray emission has been obtained with a field emission (FE) x-ray source. The electron impact x-ray setup uses an arrayed cathode of carbon nanopearl FE tips as a stable cold electron source within a vacuum of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} Torr. The high brightness of the FE e-beam coupled with the array structure of the cold cathode allows a smoother control of the x-ray emission intensity. The wavelength of the x-ray source can be modified by the choice of target materials. Using Mo as the target material, the x-ray emission shows a peak centered at 2.45 keV with a monochromaticity between 75% and 55% and a FWHM in the range of 450 eV.

Diop, Babacar; Binh, Vu Thien [LPMCN, University of Lyon 1, Villeurbanne 69622 (France)

2012-09-15

48

X-ray emission from young brown dwarfs in the Orion Nebula Cluster  

E-print Network

We use the sensitive X-ray data from the Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project (COUP) to study the X-ray properties of 34 spectroscopically-identified brown dwarfs with near-infrared spectral types between M6 and M9 in the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster. Nine of the 34 objects are clearly detected as X-ray sources. The apparently low detection rate is in many cases related to the substantial extinction of these brown dwarfs; considering only the BDs with $A_V \\leq 5$ mag, nearly half of the objects (7 out of 16) are detected in X-rays. Our 10-day long X-ray lightcurves of these objects exhibit strong variability, including numerous flares. While one of the objects was only detected during a short flare, a statistical analysis of the lightcurves provides evidence for continuous (`quiescent') emission in addition to flares for all other objects. Of these, the $\\sim$ M9 brown dwarf COUP 1255 = HC 212 is one of the coolest known objects with a clear detection of quiescent X-ray emission. The X-ray properties (spectra, fractional X-ray luminosities, flare rates) of these young brown dwarfs are similar to those of the low-mass stars in the ONC, and thus there is no evidence for changes in the magnetic activity around the stellar/substellar boundary, which lies at $\\sim$ M6 for ONC sources. Since the X-ray properties of the young brown dwarfs are also similar to those of M6--M9 field stars, the key to the magnetic activity in very cool objects seems to be the effective temperature, which determines the degree of ionization in the atmosphere.

Thomas Preibisch; Mark J. McCaughrean; Nicolas Grosso; Eric D. Feigelson; Ettore Flaccomio; Konstantin Getman; Lynne A. Hillenbrand; Gwendolyn Meeus; Giusi Micela; Salvatore Sciortino; Beate Stelzer

2005-06-02

49

From Radio to X-ray: The Quiescent Atmosphere of the dMe Flare Star EV Lacertae  

E-print Network

We report on multi-wavelength observations spanning radio to X-ray wavelengths of the M dwarf flare star, EV Lacertae, probing the characteristics of the outer atmospheric plasma from the upper chromosphere to the corona. We detect the star at a wavelength of 2 cm (15 GHz) for the first time. UV and FUV line profiles show evidence of nonthermal broadening, and the velocity width appear to peak at lower temperatures than in the Sun; this trend is confirmed in another active M dwarf flare star. Electron density measurements indicate nearly constant electron pressures between $\\log T=$5.2 and 6.4. At higher coronal temperatures, there is a sharp increase of two orders of magnitude in density (n$_{e}\\sim10^{13}$ cm$^{-3}$ at $\\log T=$6.9). X-ray, EUV, FUV and NUV spectra constrain the DEM from the upper chromosphere through the corona. The coronal pressures are inconsistent with the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, either through EM modeling or application of scaling laws, and imply large conductive loss rates and a large energy input at the highest temperatures. The timescales for radiative and conductive losses in EV Lac's upper atmosphere imply that significant continued heating must occur for the corona to maintain its quiescent properties. The high frequency radio detection requires the high temperature X-ray-emitting coronal plasma to be spatially distinct from the radio emission source. Length scales in the low-temperature corona are markedly larger than those in the high-temperature corona, further suggestions of an inhomogeneous mixture of thermal and nonthermal coronal plasma.

R. A. Osten; S. L. Hawley; J. Allred; C. M. Johns-Krull; A. Brown; G. M. Harper

2006-04-11

50

Studies on x-ray and UV emissions in electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source  

SciTech Connect

A novel electron cyclotron resonance x-ray source is constructed based on the ECR technique. In this paper, the possibility of using the ECR x-ray source for producing UV rays by optimizing the plasma parameters is explored. X-ray and UV emissions from the ECR x-ray source are carried out for argon, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} plasma. The x-ray spectral and dose measurements are carried with NaI(Tl) based spectrometer and dosimeter, respectively. For UV measurement, a quartz window arrangement is made at the exit port and the UV intensity is measured at 5 cm from the quartz plate using UV meter. The x-ray and UV emissions are carried out for different microwave power levels and gas pressures. The x-ray emission is observed in the pressure range {<=}10{sup -5} Torr, whereas the UV emission is found to be negligible for the gas pressures <10{sup -5} Torr and it starts increasing in the pressure range between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -3} Torr. At high-pressure range, collision frequency of electron-atom is large which leads to the higher UV flux. At low pressure, the electron-atom collision frequency is low and hence the electrons reach high energy and by hitting the cavity wall produces higher x-ray flux. By choosing proper experimental conditions and plasma gas species, the same source can be used as either an x-ray source or an UV source.

Baskaran, R.; Selvakumaran, T. S. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

2008-02-15

51

X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE UNSTEADY QUIESCENT CORONA OF AD LEONIS WITH CHANDRA A. Maggio,1  

E-print Network

that the EMD is compatible with the model of a corona continuously heated by flares, which predicts an EMD structures that confine hot plasma in stellar coronae and the nature of coronal heating. The topologyX-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE UNSTEADY QUIESCENT CORONA OF AD LEONIS WITH CHANDRA A. Maggio,1 J. J

Micela, Giusi

52

CONTEMPORANEOUS XMM-NEWTON INVESTIGATION OF A GIANT X-RAY FLARE AND QUIESCENT STATE FROM A COOL M-CLASS DWARF IN THE LOCAL CAVITY  

SciTech Connect

We report the serendipitous detection of a giant X-ray flare from the source 2XMM J043527.2-144301 during an XMM-Newton observation of the high latitude molecular cloud MBM20. The source has not been previously studied at any wavelength. The X-ray flux increases by a factor of more than 52 from quiescent state to peak of flare. A 2MASS counterpart has been identified (2MASS J04352724-1443017), and near-infrared colors reveal a spectral type of M8-M8.5 and a distance of (67 {+-} 13) pc, placing the source in front of MBM20. Spectral analysis and source luminosity are also consistent with this conclusion. The measured distance makes this object the most distant source (by about a factor of four) at this spectral type detected in X-rays. The X-ray flare was characterized by a peak X-ray luminosity of {approx}8.2 x 10{sup 28} erg s{sup -1} and integrated X-ray energy of {approx}2.3 x 10{sup 32} erg. The flare emission has been characterized with a two-temperature model with temperatures of {approx}10 and 46 MK (0.82 and 4.0 keV) and is dominated by the higher temperature component.

Gupta, A.; Galeazzi, M. [Physics Department, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124 (United States); Williams, B., E-mail: galeazzi@physics.miami.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2011-04-10

53

Contemporaneous XMM-Newton Investigation of a Giant X-ray Flare and Quiescent State from a Cool M-Class Dwarf in the Local Cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the serendipitous detection of a giant X-ray flare from the source 2XMM J043527.2-144301 during an XMM-Newton observation of the high latitude molecular cloud MBM20. The source has not been previously studied at any wavelength. The X-ray flux increases by a factor of more than 52 from quiescent state to peak of flare. A 2MASS counterpart has been identified (2MASS J04352724-1443017), and near-infrared colors reveal a spectral type of M8-M8.5 and a distance of (67 ± 13) pc, placing the source in front of MBM20. Spectral analysis and source luminosity are also consistent with this conclusion. The measured distance makes this object the most distant source (by about a factor of four) at this spectral type detected in X-rays. The X-ray flare was characterized by a peak X-ray luminosity of ~8.2 × 1028 erg s-1 and integrated X-ray energy of ~2.3 × 1032 erg. The flare emission has been characterized with a two-temperature model with temperatures of ~10 and 46 MK (0.82 and 4.0 keV) and is dominated by the higher temperature component.

Gupta, A.; Galeazzi, M.; Williams, B.

2011-04-01

54

Looking for Periodicity in X-Ray Emission Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-Ray Binaries are systems in which matter falling from one component of the system to the other releases energy in the form of X-Rays. We created an algorithm which uses Pearson’s Chi-Squared test to look for periodicity in X-Ray emission data from NASA’s Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 58-Month Hard X-Ray Survey. We use the known High Mass X-Ray Binary J1647.9-4511B to test our program over a range of periods, bins and energy bands and verify the true period. Results are discussed.

Cuellar, Andres; Cohen, S.; Benacquista, M.

2014-01-01

55

Current Problems for X-ray Emission from Radio Jets  

E-print Network

A list is presented of known extragalactic radio jets which also have associated X-ray emission. The canonical emission processes for the production of X-rays are reviewed and the sources are categorized on the basis of our current understanding. Although it seems clear that the X-ray emission is non-thermal, the two competing processes, synchrotron and inverse Compton emissions, arise from extremely high energy (synchrotron) or extremely low energy (beaming models with IC emission), relativistic electrons. Only synchrotron self-Compton emission from a few hotspots provides information on the `normal' energy range of the electrons responsible for the observed radio emission.

D. E. Harris

2000-12-17

56

X-ray emission properties of galaxies in Abell 3128  

E-print Network

We use archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data to investigate X-ray emission from early-type galaxies in the rich z=0.06 cluster Abell 3128. By combining the X-ray count-rates from an input list of optically-selected galaxies, we obtain a statistical detection of X-ray flux, unbiased by X-ray selection limits. Using 87 galaxies with reliable Chandra data, X-ray emission is detected for galaxies down to M_B ~ -19.0, with only an upper limit determined for galaxies at M_B ~ -18.3. The ratio of X-ray to optical luminosities is consistent with recent determinations of the low-mass X-ray binary content of nearby elliptical galaxies. Taken individually, in contrast, we detect significant (3sigma) flux for only six galaxies. Of these, one is a foreground galaxy, while two are optically-faint galaxies with X-ray hardness ratios characteristic of active galactic nuclei. The remaining three detected galaxies are amongst the optically-brightest cluster members, and have softer X-ray spectra. Their X-ray flux is higher than that expected from X-ray binaries, by a factor 2-10; the excess suggests these galaxies have retained their hot gaseous haloes. The source with the highest L_X / L_B ratio is of unusual optical morphology with prominent sharp-edged shells. Notwithstanding these few exceptions, the cluster population overall exhibits X-ray properties consistent with their emission being dominated by X-ray binaries. We conclude that in rich cluster environments, interaction with the ambient intra-cluster medium acts to strip most galaxies of their hot halo gas.

Russell J. Smith

2003-07-15

57

Reabsorption of soft x-ray emission at high x-ray free-electron laser fluences.  

PubMed

We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime. PMID:25375708

Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G; Segtnan, Vegard H; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F; Dakovski, Georgi L; Moeller, Stefan P; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G M; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

2014-10-10

58

Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on oxygen K-edge soft x-ray emission spectroscopy from a liquid water jet at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We observe significant changes in the spectral content when tuning over a wide range of incident x-ray fluences. In addition the total emission yield decreases at high fluences. These modifications result from reabsorption of x-ray emission by valence-excited molecules generated by the Auger cascade. Our observations have major implications for future x-ray emission studies at intense x-ray sources. We highlight the importance of the x-ray pulse length with respect to the core-hole lifetime.

Schreck, Simon; Beye, Martin; Sellberg, Jonas A.; McQueen, Trevor; Laksmono, Hartawan; Kennedy, Brian; Eckert, Sebastian; Schlesinger, Daniel; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Sierra, Raymond G.; Segtnan, Vegard H.; Kubicek, Katharina; Schlotter, William F.; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Moeller, Stefan P.; Bergmann, Uwe; Techert, Simone; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Wernet, Philippe; Bogan, Michael J.; Harada, Yoshihisa; Nilsson, Anders; Föhlisch, Alexander

2014-10-01

59

X-Ray Emission from the Soft X-Ray Transient Aquila X-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aquila X-1 is the most prolific of soft X-ray transients. It is believed to contain a rapidly spinning neutron star sporadically accreting near the Eddington limit from a low-mass companion star. The interest in studying the repeated X-ray outbursts from Aquila X-1 is twofold: (1) studying the relation between optical, soft and hard X-ray emission during the outburst onset, development and decay; (2) relating the spectral component to thermal and non-thermal processes occurring near the magnetosphere and in the boundary layer of a time-variable accretion disk. Our investigation is based on the BATSE monitoring of Aquila X-1 performed by our group. We observed Aquila X-1 in 1997 and re-analyzed archival information obtained in April 1994 during a period of extraordinary outbursting activity of the source in the hard X-ray range. Our results allow, for the first time for this important source, to obtain simultaneous spectral information from 2 keV to 200 keV. A black body (T = 0.8 keV) plus a broken power-law spectrum describe accurately the 1994 spectrum. Substantial hard X-ray emission is evident in the data, confirming that the accretion phase during sub-Eddington limit episodes is capable of producing energetic hard emission near 5 x 10(exp 35) ergs(exp -1). A preliminary paper summarizes our results, and a more comprehensive account is being written. We performed a theoretical analysis of possible emission mechanisms, and confirmed that a non-thermal emission mechanism triggered in a highly sheared magnetosphere at the accretion disk inner boundary can explain the hard X-ray emission. An anticorrelation between soft and hard X-ray emission is indeed prominently observed as predicted by this model.

Tavani, Marco

1998-01-01

60

Low-luminosity X-ray sources and the Galactic ridge X-ray emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the XMM-Newton slew survey, we construct a hard-band selected sample of low-luminosity Galactic X-ray sources. Two source populations are represented, namely coronally active stars and binaries (ASBs) and cataclysmic variables (CVs), with X-ray luminosities collectively spanning the range 1028-34 erg s-1 (2-10 keV). We derive the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and volume emissivity of each population. Scaled to the local stellar mass density, the latter is found to be 1.08 ± 0.16 × 1028 and 2.5 ± 0.6 × 10^{27} {erg s}^{-1} M_{{?}}^{-1}, for the ASBs and CVs, respectively, which in total is a factor of 2 higher than previous estimates. We employ the new XLFs to predict the X-ray source counts on the Galactic plane at l = 28.5° and show that the result is consistent with current observational constraints. The X-ray emission of faint, unresolved ASBs and CVs can account for a substantial fraction of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). We discuss a model in which ˜80 per cent of the 6-10 keV GRXE intensity is produced in this way, with the remainder attributable to X-ray scattering in the interstellar medium and/or young Galactic source populations. Much of the hard X-ray emission attributed to the ASBs is likely to be produced during flaring episodes.

Warwick, R. S.

2014-11-01

61

X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2013-03-20

62

X-Ray Emission from Compact Sources  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a review of the physical parameters of neutron stars and black holes that have been derived from X-ray observations. I then explain how these physical parameters can be used to learn about the extreme conditions occurring in regions of strong gravity, and present some recent evidence for relativistic effects seen in these systems. A glossary of commonly used terms and a short tutorial on the names of X-ray sources are also included.

Cominsky, L

2004-03-23

63

UHURU observations of X-ray emission from Seyfert galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A point summation technique has been used to analyze systematically the Uhuru data for X-ray emission from the 88 Seyfert galaxies listed by Weedman (1977), plus MCG 8-11-11 reported by the Ariel 5 group. In addition to measuring the average X-ray intensity for 15 sources reported in the 4U and 2A catalogs, three new candidate sources are found. X-ray variability

H. Tananbaum; G. Peters; W. Forman; R. Giacconi; C. Jones; Y. Avni

1978-01-01

64

Auroral X-ray emission at Jupiter: Depth effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter with a total power of about 1 GW have been observed by the Einstein Observatory, Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed X-rays. This study presents the results of a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) model for sulfur and oxygen

Nataly Ozak; David Robert Schultz; Thomas E. E. Cravens; V. Kharchenko; Yawei Hui

2010-01-01

65

X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical processes occurring in plasma focus devices were investigated with particular emphasis on X-ray emission. Topics discussed include: trajectories of high energy electrons; detection of ion trajectories; spatial distribution of neutron emission; space and time resolved emission of hard X-rays from a plasma focus; the staged plasma focus as a variation of the hypocloidal pinch; formation of current sheets in a staged plasma focus; and X-ray and neutron emission from a staged plasma focus. The possibility of operating dense plasma-focus type devices in multiple arrays beyond the scaling law for a single gun is discussed.

Harries, W. L.

1977-01-01

66

Hard X-ray Emission from White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

White dwarfs can be soft X-ray (<0.4 keV) sources if their temperatures are high and atmospheric opacities are low. Hard X-ray emission ( ~1 keV) associated with white dwarfs has been attributed to either a late-type companion with coronal activity or accretion of stellar material from a companion onto the surface of a white dwarf. However, using the ROSAT archive we have found hard X-ray emission from a number of apparently single white dwarfs. The most intriguing case is WD 1134+300 (GD 140), whose PSPC spectrum shows distinct hard X-ray emission, but whose 2MASS photometry shows no near-IR excess. Its small distance, 15 pc, helps to rule out the possibility of a hidden stellar-mass companion. New hard X-ray mechanisms are needed for white dwarfs. We are undertaking a thorough search for hard X-ray emission from white dwarfs using the entire ROSAT archive. We will produce a complete catalog of X-ray sources associated with white dwarfs and provide X-ray spectral information.

Chu, Y.-H.; Dodd, C. J.; Gillani, K.; Gruendl, R. A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Maxham, A. L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Webbink, R. F.

2002-12-01

67

Characterizing the quiescent X-ray variability of the black hole low-mass X-ray binary V404 Cyg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted the first long-term (75 d) X-ray monitoring of the black hole low-mass X-ray binary V404 Cyg, with the goal of understanding and characterizing its variability during quiescence. The X-ray light curve of V404 Cyg shows several flares on time-scales of hours with a count rate change of a factor of about 5-8. The root-mean-square variability is Fvar = 57.0 ± 3.2 per cent. The first-order structure function is consistent with both a power spectrum of index -1 (flicker noise), or with a power spectrum of index 0 (white noise), implying that the light curve is variable on time-scales from days to months. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted by a power law with spectral index ? = 2.10-2.35, and we found that the spectral shape remains roughly constant as the flux changes. A constant spectral shape with respect to a change in the X-ray flux may favour a scenario in which the X-ray emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation produced in a jet.

Bernardini, F.; Cackett, E. M.

2014-04-01

68

A tidal disruption-like X-ray flare from the quiescent galaxy SDSS J120136.02+300305.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: The study of tidal disruption flares from galactic nuclei has historically been hampered by a lack of high quality spectral observations taken around the peak of the outburst. Here we introduce the first results from a program designed to identify tidal disruption events at their peak by making near-real-time comparisons of the flux seen in XMM-Newton slew sources with that seen in ROSAT. Methods: Flaring extragalactic sources, which do not appear to be AGN, are monitored with Swift and XMM-Newton to track their temporal and spectral evolution. Timely optical observations are made to monitor the reaction of circumnuclear material to the X-ray flare. Results: SDSS J120136.02+300305.5 was detected in an XMM-Newton slew from June 2010 with a flux 56 times higher than an upper limit from ROSAT, corresponding to LX ~ 3 × 1044 erg s-1. It has the optical spectrum of a quiescent galaxy (z = 0.146). Overall the X-ray flux has evolved consistently with the canonical t-5/3 model, expected for returning stellar debris, fading by a factor ~300 over 300 days. In detail the source is very variable and became invisible to Swift between 27 and 48 days after discovery, perhaps due to self-absorption. The X-ray spectrum is soft but is not the expected tail of optically thick thermal emission. It may be fit with a Bremsstrahlung or double-power-law model and is seen to soften with time and declining flux. Optical spectra taken 12 days and 11 months after discovery indicate a deficit of material in the broad line and coronal line regions of this galaxy, while a deep radio non-detection implies that a jet was not launched during this event. Partly based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) and observations made with the WHT operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

Saxton, R. D.; Read, A. M.; Esquej, P.; Komossa, S.; Dougherty, S.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Barrado, D.

2012-05-01

69

Accretion tomography with X-ray reverberation: Localizing the X-ray emission in AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic X-ray reverberation has emerged as a powerful probe of the inner accretion systems. It relies on the simple principle of a primary X-ray source reflected by a Compton-thick partially ionized material. By measuring the delay as a function of energy in the iron K band at different variability time-scales, emission from different region sizes is separated. Here, I will review some of the recent reverberation results, and present our latest work from a long joint campaign to study the highly variable AGN MCG-5-23-16 with XMM-Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR.

Zoghbi, A.

2014-07-01

70

X-Ray Emission from the Guitar Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have detected weak soft X-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula trailing the high-velocity star PSR 2224+65 (the "Guitar Nebula"). This X-ray flux gives evidence of gamma approximately 10(exp 7) eV particles in the pulsar wind and constrains the properties of the postshock flow. The X-ray emission is most easily understood if the shocked pulsar wind is partly confined in the nebula and if magnetic fields in this zone can grow to near-equipartition values.

Romani, Roger W.; Cordes, James M.; Yadigaroglu, I.-A.

1997-01-01

71

The correlation of solar flare hard X-ray bursts with Doppler blueshifted soft X-ray flare emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the temporal correlation between hard X-ray bursts and the intensity of Doppler blueshifted soft X-ray spectral line emission. We find a strong correlation for many events that have intense blueshifted spectral signatures and some correlation in events with modest blueshifts. The onset of hard X-rays frequently coincides to within a few seconds with the onset of blueshifted emission. The peak intensity of blueshifted emission is frequently close in time to the peak of the hard X-ray emission. Decay rates of the blueshifted and hard X-ray emission are similar, with the decay of the blueshifted emission tending to lag behind the hard X-ray emission in some cases. There are, however, exceptions to these conclusions, and, therefore, the results should not be generalized to all flares. Most of the data for this work were obtained from instruments flown on the Japanese Yohkoh solar spacecraft.

Bentley, R. D.; Doschek, G. A.; Simnett, G. M.; Rilee, M. L.; Mariska, J. T.; Culhane, J. L.; Kosugi, T.; Watanabe, T.

1994-01-01

72

Stimulated X-ray emission for materials science.  

PubMed

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy can be used to probe the energy and dispersion of the elementary low-energy excitations that govern functionality in matter: vibronic, charge, spin and orbital excitations. A key drawback of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has been the need for high photon densities to compensate for fluorescence yields of less than a per cent for soft X-rays. Sample damage from the dominant non-radiative decays thus limits the materials to which such techniques can be applied and the spectral resolution that can be obtained. A means of improving the yield is therefore highly desirable. Here we demonstrate stimulated X-ray emission for crystalline silicon at photon densities that are easily achievable with free-electron lasers. The stimulated radiative decay of core excited species at the expense of non-radiative processes reduces sample damage and permits narrow-bandwidth detection in the directed beam of stimulated radiation. We deduce how stimulated X-ray emission can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude to provide, with high yield and reduced sample damage, a superior probe for low-energy excitations and their dispersion in matter. This is the first step to bringing nonlinear X-ray physics in the condensed phase from theory to application. PMID:23965622

Beye, M; Schreck, S; Sorgenfrei, F; Trabant, C; Pontius, N; Schüßler-Langeheine, C; Wurth, W; Föhlisch, A

2013-09-12

73

Modeling the Non-Thermal X-ray Tail Emission of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars  

E-print Network

The paradigm for Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) has evolved recently with the discovery by INTEGRAL and RXTE of flat, hard X-ray components in three AXPs. These non-thermal spectral components differ dramatically from the steeper quasi-power-law tails seen in the classic X-ray band in these sources, and can naturally be attributed to activity in the magnetosphere. Resonant, magnetic Compton upscattering is a candidate mechanism for generating this new component, since it is very efficient in the strong fields present near AXP surfaces. In this paper, results from an inner magnetospheric model for upscattering of surface thermal X-rays in AXPs are presented, using a kinetic equation formalism and employing a QED magnetic scattering cross section. Characteristically flat and strongly-polarized emission spectra are produced by non-thermal electrons injected in the emission region. Spectral results depend strongly on the observer's orientation and the magnetospheric locale of the scattering, which couple directly to the angular distributions of photons sampled. Constraints imposed by the Comptel upper bounds for these AXPs are mentioned.

Matthew G. Baring; Alice K. Harding

2008-04-02

74

Modeling the Non-Thermal X-ray Tail Emission of Anomalous X-ray Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paradigm for Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) has evolved recently with the discovery by INTEGRAL and RXTE of flat, hard X-ray components in three AXPs. These non-thermal spectral components differ dramatically from the steeper quasi-power-law tails seen in the classic X-ray band in these sources, and can naturally be attributed to activity in the magnetosphere. Resonant, magnetic Compton upscattering is a candidate mechanism for generating this new component, since it is very efficient in the strong fields present near AXP surfaces. In this paper, results from an inner magnetospheric model for upscattering of surface thermal X-rays in AXPs are presented, using a kinetic equation formalism and employing a QED magnetic scattering cross section. Characteristically flat and strongly-polarized emission spectra are produced by non-thermal electrons injected in the emission region. Spectral results depend strongly on the observer's orientation and the magnetospheric locale of the scattering, which couple directly to the angular distributions of photons sampled. Constraints imposed by the Comptel upper bounds for these AXPs are mentioned.

Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.

2008-01-01

75

Uhuru observations of X-ray emission from Seyfert galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A point summation technique has been used to analyze systematically the Uhuru data for X-ray emission from the 88 Seyfert galaxies listed by Weedman (1977), plus MCG 8-11-11 reported by the Ariel 5 group. In addition to measuring the average X-ray intensity for 15 sources reported in the 4U and 2A catalogs, three new candidate sources are found. X-ray variability has previously been reported for NGC 4151, 3C 390.3, and MCG 8-11-11; Mrk 279 is now also found to vary. Furthermore, significant flaring activity from NGC 4151 was observed with as much as a factor of 10 increase in intensity on a time possibly as short as 730 seconds. The local X-ray volume emissivity of Seyfert galaxies is measured, and it is found, with standard assumptions, that from 6% to 25% of the diffuse 2-10-keV X-ray background can be attributed to emission from Seyfert galaxies. The data show that the luminosity function for X-ray Seyferts is rather steep.

Tananbaum, H.; Peters, G.; Forman, W.; Giacconi, R.; Jones, C.; Avni, Y.

1978-01-01

76

Correlation between the X-ray and TeV Gamma Ray Emission from an Accreting X-ray Binary  

E-print Network

Measurements of the signal strength of TeV gamma rays from the accreting X-ray binary Cen X-3 show evidence for correlation with both the RXTE/ASM and the BATSE X-ray signal strengths. There are indications that the time scale for the variability of the gamma rays may be similar to that of X-rays and as short as a day. These features of the X-ray and TeV emission from an accreting binary show many similarities with the recently discovered high energy behaviour of X-ray selected BL Lacs.

P. M. Chadwick; K. Lyons; T. J. L. Mccomb; S. Mcqueen; K. J. Orford; J. L. Osborne; S. M. Rayner; S. E. Shaw; K. E. Turver

1998-01-01

77

Unusual quiescent X-ray activity from XTE J0421+560 (CI Cam)  

E-print Network

We report on BeppoSAX observations of the X-ray transient XTE J0421+560 in quiescence 156, 541, and ~690 days after the maximum of the 1998 April outburst. In the first observation the source was soft with a power-law photon index of 4.0 (+1.9 -0.9) and absorption, NH, of (1.1 +4.9 -1.1) X 10^21 atom/cm2. In the second observation, the source brightened by a factor ~15 in the 1-10 keV energy range, became significantly harder with a photon index of 1.86 (+0.27 -0.32) and was strongly absorbed with NH = (4.0 +/- 0.8) X 10^23 atom/cm2. There is evidence for a narrow emission line in both spectra at \\~7 keV. In the third observation, the source had faded by a factor ~$8 from the previous observation to below the BeppoSAX detection level. It is possible that these variations result from orbital motion of a compact object around the B[e] star companion with the intense, absorbed, spectrum arising during passage through dense circumstellar material. If this is the case, the system may be continuing to exhibit periodic activity.

A. N. Parmar; T. Belloni; M. Orlandini; D. Dal Fiume; A. Orr; N. Masetti

2000-05-30

78

X-ray emission from two nearby millisecond pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant, titled 'X-Ray Emission from Two Nearby Millisecond Pulsars,' included ROSAT observations of the nearby pulsars PSR J2322+20 and PSR J2019+24. Neither was detected, although the observations were among the most sensitive ever made towards millisecond pulsars, reaching 1.5 x 10(exp 29) and 2.7 x 10(exp 29) erg s(exp -1) (0.1-2.4 keV), respectively. This is about, or slightly below, the predicted level of emission from the Seward and Wang empirical prediction, based on an extrapolation from slower pulsars. To understand the significance of this result, we have compared these limits with observations of four other millisecond pulsars, taken from the ROSAT archives. Except for the case of PSR B1821-21, where we identified a possible x-ray counterpart, only upper limits on x-ray flux were obtained. From these results, we conclude that x-ray emission beaming does not follow the same dependence on pulsar period as that of radio emission: while millisecond pulsars have beaming fractions near unity in the radio, x-ray emission is observed only for favorable viewing geometries.

Thorsett, S. E.

1994-01-01

79

XJET: X-ray Emission from Extragalactic Radio Jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years we have been collecting basic parameters for extragalactic jets detected in the X-rays. There are now about 90 sources for which X-ray detections of knots and hotspots have been published. In 2009 we have been adding a suite of fits files for each source consisting of flux maps in 3 X-ray energy bands together with an event file which has had pixel randomization removed and also been registered so that the nuclear emission is aligned with the radio nucleus to within approximately 0.1 arcsec. We also provide the radio map used for registration. In this poster, we show how users can obtain X-ray flux values for any region in the images and give some basic statistics of the sample. The XJET website (http://hea-www.harvard.edu/XJET/) is partially supported by NASA grant AR6-7013X.

Massaro, Francesco; Cheung, C. C.; Harris, D. E.

2009-09-01

80

Extended X-Ray Emission around Quasars at Intermediate Redshift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compare the optical to soft X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) of a sample of bright low-redshift (0.048 less than z less than 0.155), radio-quiet quasars, with a range of thermal models which have been proposed to explain the optical/UV/soft X-ray quasar emission: (a) optically thin emission from an ionized plasma, (b) optically thick emission from the innermost regions of an accretion disk in Schwarzschild and Kerr geometries. We presented ROSAT PSPC observations of these quasars in an earlier paper. Here our goals are to search for the signature of thermal emission in the quasar SED, and to investigate whether a single component is dominating at different frequencies. We find that isothermal optically thin plasma models can explain the observed soft X-ray color and the mean OUV color. However, they predict an ultraviolet (1325 Angstrom) luminosity a factor of 3 to 10 times lower than observed. Pure disk models, even in a Kerr geometry, do not have the necessary flexibility to account for the observed OUV and soft X-ray luminosities. Additional components are needed both in the optical and in the soft X-rays (e.g. a hot corona can explain the soft X-ray color). The most constrained modification of pure disk models, is the assumption of an underlying power law component extending from the infrared (3 micrometers) to the X-ray. This can explain both the OUV and soft X-ray colors and luminosities and does not exceed the 3 micrometers luminosity, where a contribution from hot dust is likely to be important. We also discuss the possibility that the observed soft X-ray color and luminosity are dominated by reflection from the ionized surface of the accretion disk. While modifications of both optically thin plasma models and pure disk models might account for the observed SED, we do not find any strong evidence that the OUV bump and soft X-ray emission are one and the same component. Likewise, we do not find any strong argument which definitely argues in favor of thermal models.

Fiore, Fabrizio

1998-01-01

81

Auroral X ray emission at Jupiter: Depth effects  

SciTech Connect

Auroral X-ray emissions from Jupiter with a total power of about 1 GW have been observed by the Einstein Observatory, Roentgen satellite, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton. Previous theoretical studies have shown that precipitating energetic sulfur and oxygen ions can produce the observed X-rays. This study presents the results of a hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) model for sulfur and oxygen ion precipitation at high latitudes, looks at differences with the continuous slow-down model, and compares the results to synthetic spectra fitted to observations. We concentrate on the effects of altitude on the observed spectrum. The opacity of the atmosphere to the outgoing X-ray photons is found to be important for incident ion energies greater than about 1.2 MeV per nucleon for both sulfur and oxygen. Model spectra are calculated for intensities with and without any opacity effects. These synthetic spectra were compared with the results shown by Hui et al. (2010) which fit Chandra X-ray Observatory observations for the north and south Jovian auroral emissions. Quenching of long-lived excited states of the oxygen ions is found to be important. Opacity considerably diminishes the outgoing X-ray intensity calculated, particularly when the viewing geometry is not favorable.

Ozak, Nataly [University of Kansas; Schultz, David Robert [ORNL; Cravens, Thomas E. E. [University of Kansas; Kharchenko, V. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Hui, Yawei [ORNL

2010-01-01

82

Extended X-ray emission in nearby Seyfert galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asymmetric extended X-ray emission was found to be present in three out of five Seyfert galaxies. This paper discusses various possible origins for this emission, including thermal bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering, and electron-scattered nuclear radiation. It was found that the presently available data cannot discriminate definitively between these possibilities.

Elvis, Martin; Fassnacht, C.; Wilson, A. S.; Briel, U.

1990-01-01

83

Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)  

SciTech Connect

Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

Jones, Keith W.

1999-09-01

84

X-ray emission from 4U 2129+47 (= V1727 Cygni) in quiescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations with the ROSAT HRI allow detection of weak X-ray flux from the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) 4U 2129+47 during its current quiescent state. The quiescent luminosity is similar to that seen in several other quiescent LMXBs containing neutron stars. The quiescent X-ray light curve may not show the eclipse seen when the source was in its high state, which would indicate that the enhanced vertical structure present in the disk during the high state has collapsed. This in turn provides support for the idea that the vertical structure in LMXB accretion disks is a consequence of high X-ray luminosity. A comparison of the absorption of low-energy X-rays due to the interstellar medium (determined from Einstein IPC observations) and the optical extinction does not rule out the triple system hypothesis.

Garcia, Michael R.

1994-01-01

85

Diffuse X-ray emission from the Dumbbell Nebula?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have analyzed ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter pointed observations of the Dumbbell Nebula and find that the previously reported 'extended' X-ray emission is an instrumental electronic ghost image at the softest energy band. At slightly higher energy bands, the image of the Dumbbell is not very different from that of the white dwarf HZ43. We conclude that the X-ray emission of the Dumbbell Nebula comes from its central star. A blackbody model is fitted to the spectrum and the best-fit temperature of not greater than 136,000 +/- 10,000 K is in excellent agreement with the Zanstra temperatures.

Chu, You-Hua; Kwitter, Karen B.; Kaler, James B.

1993-01-01

86

Hard X-ray emission from Eta Carinae  

E-print Network

Context : If relativistic particle acceleration takes place in colliding-wind binaries, hard X-rays and gamma-rays are expected through inverse Compton emission, but to date these have never been unambiguously detected. Aims : To detect this emission, observations of Eta Carinae were performed with INTEGRAL, leveraging its high spatial resolution. Methods : Deep hard X-ray images of the region of Eta Car were constructed in several energy bands. Results : The hard X-ray emission previously detected by BeppoSax around Eta Car originates from at least 3 different point sources. The emission of Eta Car itself can be isolated for the first time, and its spectrum unambiguously analyzed. The X-ray emission of Eta Car in the 22-100 keV energy range is very hard (photon index around 1) and its luminosity is 7E33 erg/s. Conclusions : The observed emission is in agreement with the predictions of inverse Compton models, and corresponds to about 0.1% of the energy available in the wind collision. Eta Car is expected to be detected in the GeV energy range.

Jean-Christophe Leyder; Roland Walter; Gregor Rauw

2007-12-10

87

X-rayEmissionfromMassiveStars: UsingEmissionLineProfilestoConstrainWind  

E-print Network

X-rayEmissionfromMassiveStars: UsingEmissionLineProfilestoConstrainWind Kinematics Introduction:thecontextofhotstarX-rays Lineprofilediagnostics Whatdotheobservationslooklike? Whattrendsemerge? Pup:windX-rays,butlessabsorptionthanexpected OriandOri:similarsituation,verylittlewind absorption

Cohen, David

88

Tracking of azobenzene isomerization by X-ray emission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Cis-trans isomerizations are among the fundamental processes in photochemistry. In azobenzene or its derivatives this dynamics is, due to its reversibility, one of the reactions widely used in photostimulation of molecular motors or in molecular electronics. Though intensively investigated in the optical regime, no detailed study exists in the X-ray regime so far. Because the X-ray emission spectroscopy echoes the electronic structure sensitive to the geometry, this theoretical report based on the density functional theory and its time-dependent version presents different nitrogen K-edge X-ray emission spectra for cis and trans isomers with close interrelation to their electron configuration. Considering the spectrum along the isomerization path, these structural signatures can be utilized to probe the isomerization dynamics in the excited molecule. The scheme can further be generalized to the element specific photoreactions. PMID:25134009

Ebadi, H

2014-09-11

89

Searching for radio emission from Be/X-ray transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project proposes to systematic search for radio emission from a small number of Be/X-ray transients with well-known orbits. These Be/X-ray transients undergo regular strong X-ray outbursts close periastron. It has been suggested that an accretion disc forms around the neutron star during these outbursts. Based on the analogy with microquasars we expect that a radio jet will form during the outburst, but with a delay of a couple of weeks relative to the X-ray outbursts, and we plan our observations accordingly. The detection of a radio jet and the measurement of the time delay between the X-ray outburst and the radio emission will provide constraints on the formation of jets from accretion discs and the viscous evolution of the disc. We request a total of 20 hours of observations with the ATCA in the 8 and 4.8 GHz bands divided into 1-hour blocks to be spread over the period October 08 - March 09 according to the schedule presented in the proposal.

Torkelsson, Ulf; Pestalozzi, Michele

2008-10-01

90

Anisotropic X-ray emission in AGN accretion discs  

E-print Network

Straight-forward models of X-ray reflection in the inner region of accretion discs predict that primary X-ray flux and the flux reflected off the surface of the disc should vary together, albeit a short light travel time delay. Most of the observations, however, show that the X-ray flux can vary while the reflected features remain constant. Here we propose a simple explanation to this. In all likelihood, the emission of a moderately optically thick magnetic flare atop an accretion disc is anisotropic. A constant energy release rate in a flare will appear to produce a variable X-ray flux as the flare rotates with the accretion disc anchoring the magnetic tube. The reflector, on the other hand, receives a constant X-ray flux from the flare. Since the reflected emission is azimuthally symmetric, the observer will see a roughly constant reflected flux (neglecting relativistic effects). The model does not produce quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) if magnetic flux tubes are sheared out faster than they complete one orbit.

Sergei Nayakshin

2006-11-10

91

Anisotropic X-ray emission in AGN accretion discs  

E-print Network

Straight-forward models of X-ray reflection in the inner region of accretion discs predict that primary X-ray flux and the flux reflected off the surface of the disc should vary together, albeit a short light travel time delay. Most of the observations, however, show that the X-ray flux can vary while the reflected features remain constant. Here we propose a simple explanation to this. In all likelihood, the emission of a moderately optically thick magnetic flare atop an accretion disc is anisotropic. A constant energy release rate in a flare will appear to produce a variable X-ray flux as the flare rotates with the accretion disc anchoring the magnetic tube. The reflector, on the other hand, receives a constant X-ray flux from the flare. Since the reflected emission is azimuthally symmetric, the observer will see a roughly constant reflected flux (neglecting relativistic effects). The model does not produce quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) if magnetic flux tubes are sheared out faster than they complete one...

Nayakshin, S

2006-01-01

92

A CHANGE IN THE QUIESCENT X-RAY SPECTRUM OF THE NEUTRON STAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY MXB 1659-29  

SciTech Connect

The quasi-persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1659-29 went into quiescence in 2001, and we have followed its quiescent X-ray evolution since. Observations over the first 4 yr showed a rapid drop in flux and temperature of the neutron star atmosphere, interpreted as cooling of the neutron star crust which had been heated during the 2.5 yr outburst. However, observations taken approximately 1400 and 2400 days into quiescence were consistent with each other, suggesting the crust had reached thermal equilibrium with the core. Here we present a new Chandra observation of MXB 1659-29 taken 11 yr into quiescence and 4 yr since the last Chandra observation. This new observation shows an unexpected factor of {approx}3 drop in count rate and change in spectral shape since the last observation, which cannot be explained simply by continued cooling. Two possible scenarios are that either the neutron star temperature has remained unchanged and there has been an increase in the column density, or, alternatively the neutron star temperature has dropped precipitously and the spectrum is now dominated by a power-law component. The first scenario may be possible given that MXB 1659-29 is a near edge-on system, and an increase in column density could be due to build-up of material in, and a thickening of, a truncated accretion disk during quiescence. But, a large change in disk height may not be plausible if standard accretion disk theory holds during quiescence. Alternatively, the disk may be precessing, leading to a higher column density during this latest observation.

Cackett, E. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, 666 W. Hancock Street, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Brown, E. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Cumming, A. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Fridriksson, J. K.; Wijnands, R. [Astronomical Institute ''Anton Pannekoek'', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, J., E-mail: ecackett@wayne.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2013-09-10

93

X-ray- and electron induced infrared emission spectroscopy.  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy for midinfrared emission measurements following x-ray or electron excitation. Spectra from an InAs low band-gap semiconductor film, which emits in the IR from 3000 to 3400 cm{sup -1}, are presented. There is good agreement between the present results and previously published laser-excited spectra. Using focused beams, it should be possible to perform sub-diffraction-limited IR imaging. In addition, simultaneous structural and electronic analysis could be performed using the x-ray or electron excitation probes.

Rosenberg, R. A.; Abu Haija, M.; Watkins, S. P. (X-Ray Science Division); (Simon Fraser Univ.)

2009-04-01

94

X-ray- and electron-induced infrared emission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy for midinfrared emission measurements following x-ray or electron excitation. Spectra from an InAs low band-gap semiconductor film, which emits in the IR from 3000 to 3400 cm(-1), are presented. There is good agreement between the present results and previously published laser-excited spectra. Using focused beams, it should be possible to perform sub-diffraction-limited IR imaging. In addition, simultaneous structural and electronic analysis could be performed using the x-ray or electron excitation probes. PMID:19405700

Rosenberg, R A; Abu Haija, M; Watkins, S P

2009-04-01

95

X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs with compact companions  

E-print Network

We review the X-ray observations of hot subdwarf stars. While no X-ray emission has been detected yet from binaries containing B-type subdwarfs, interesting results have been obtained in the case of the two luminous O-type subdwarfs HD 49798 and BD +37 442. Both of them are members of binary systems in which the X-ray luminosity is powered by accretion onto a compact object: a rapidly spinning (13.2 s) and massive (1.28 M_sun) white dwarf in the case of HD 49798 and most likely a neutron star, spinning at 19.2 s, in the case of BD +37 442. Their study can shed light on the poorly known processes taking place during common envelope evolutionary phases and on the properties of wind mass loss from hot subdwarfs.

Mereghetti, Sandro; Esposito, Paolo; Tiengo, Andrea

2012-01-01

96

Enhanced hard x-ray emission from microdroplet preplasma  

SciTech Connect

We perform a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from femtosecond laser plasmas in 15 {mu}m methanol microdroplets and Perspex target. The hard x-ray yield from droplet plasmas is {approx_equal}68 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas at 2x10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. A 10 ns prepulse at about 5% of the main pulse appears to be essential for hard x-ray generation from droplets. Hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8x10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}, whereas a three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperatures from Perspex plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations with very long scale-length density profiles support experimental observations.

Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Ravindra Kumar, G.; Krishnamurthy, M.; Sandhu, A.S.; Gibbon, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); John-von-Neumann Institute for Computing, ZAM, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

2006-05-01

97

X ray and gamma ray emission from classical nova outbursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The outbursts of classical novae are now recognized to be consequences of thermonuclear runaways proceeding in accreted hydrogen-rich shells on white dwarfs in close binary systems. For the conditions that are known to exist in these environments, it is expected that soft x-rays can be emitted, and indeed x-rays were detected from a number of novae. The circumstances for which we expect novae to produce significant x-ray fluxes and provide estimates of the luminosities and effective temperatures are described. It is also known that at the high temperatures that are known to be achieved in this explosive hydrogen-burning environment, significant production of both Na-22 and Al-26 will occur. In this context, we identify the conditions for which gamma-ray emission may be expected to result from nova outbursts.

Truran, James W.; Starrfield, Sumner; Sparks, Warren M.

1992-01-01

98

X-ray emission from the Pleiades cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection and identification of H0344+24, a new X-ray source located in the Pleiades cluster, is reported, based on observations made with HEAO A-2 low-energy detector 1 in the 0.15-3.0-keV energy band in August, 1977. The 90-percent-confidence error box for the new source is centered at 03 h 44.1 min right ascension (1950), near the center star of the 500-star Pleiades cluster, 25-eta-Tau. Since no likely galactic or extragalactic source of X-rays was found in a catalog search of the error-box region, identification of the source with the Pleiades cluster is considered secure. X-ray luminosity of the source is calculated to be about 10 to the 32nd ergs/sec, based on a distance of 125 pc. The X-ray characteristics of the Pleiades stars are discussed, and it is concluded that H0344+24 can best be explained as the integrated X-ray emission of all the B and F stars in the cluster.

Agrawal, P. C.; Singh, K. P.; Riegler, G. R.

1983-01-01

99

Fast photometry of quiescent soft X-ray transients with the Acquisition Camera on Gemini-South  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a compilation of high time-resolution photometric observations of quiescent soft X-ray transients obtained with the Acquisition Camera on Gemini-South. A0620-00 (V616 Mon) was observed with a short cycle time and high precision. Superimposed on the ellipsoidal modulation we find several prominent flares together with weaker continual variability. The flares seen sample a shorter time-scale than those reported in previous observations, with rise times as low as 30 s or less; most flares show unresolved peaks. The power density spectrum (PDS) of A0620-00 appears to exhibit band-limited noise closely resembling the X-ray PDS of black hole candidates in their low states, but with the low-frequency break at a lower frequency. X-ray Nova Muscae 1991 (XN Mus 1991, GU Mus) shows much larger-amplitude flares than A0620-00, and if a break is present it is at a lower frequency. X-ray Nova Velorum 1993 (XN Vel 1993, MM Vel) shows very little flaring and is, like A0620-00, dominated by the ellipsoidal modulation. We discuss the possible origins for the flares. They are clearly associated with the accretion flow rather than an active companion, but whether they originate in the outer disc, or are driven by events in the inner region, is not yet resolved. The similarities of the PDS to those of low/hard-state sources would support the latter interpretation, and the low break frequency is as would be expected if this frequency approximately scales with the size of an inner evaporated region. We also report the discovery of a new variable star only 14 arcsec from XN Mus 1991. This appears to be a W UMa star, with an orbital period of about 6 h.

Hynes, R. I.; Charles, P. A.; Casares, J.; Haswell, C. A.; Zurita, C.; Shahbaz, T.

2003-04-01

100

Hard X-ray emission of Sco X-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study hard X-ray emission of the brightest accreting neutron star Sco X-1 with INTEGRAL observatory. Up to now INTEGRAL have collected ˜4 Ms of deadtime corrected exposure on this source. We show that hard X-ray tail in time average spectrum of Sco X-1 has a power-law shape without cutoff up to energies ˜200-300 keV. An absence of the high energy cutoff does not agree with the predictions of a model, in which the tail is formed as a result of Comptonization of soft seed photons on bulk motion of matter near the compact object. The amplitude of the tail varies with time with factor more than 10 with the faintest tail at the top of the so-called flaring branch of its colour-colour diagram. We show that the minimal amplitude of the power-law tail is recorded when the component, corresponding to the innermost part of optically thick accretion disc, disappears from the emission spectrum. Therefore, we show that the presence of the hard X-ray tail may be related with the existence of the inner part of the optically thick disc. We estimate cooling time for these energetic electrons and show that they cannot be thermal. We propose that the hard X-ray tail emission originates as a Compton upscattering of soft seed photons on electrons, which might have initial non-thermal distribution.

Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Churazov, Eugene M.; Krivonos, Roman A.

2014-12-01

101

X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning  

ScienceCinema

How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

Joseph Dwyer

2010-01-08

102

A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements.  

PubMed

We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10(6)-10(7) photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species. PMID:25430123

Seidler, G T; Mortensen, D R; Remesnik, A J; Pacold, J I; Ball, N A; Barry, N; Styczinski, M; Hoidn, O R

2014-11-01

103

X-ray Emission Processes in Radio Jets  

E-print Network

The emission processes responsible for the observed X-rays from radio jets are commonly believed to be non-thermal, but in any particular case, it is unclear if synchrotron emission or one or more varieties of inverse Compton emission predominates. We present a formulation of inverse Compton emission from a relativistically moving jet (``IC/beaming'') which relies on radio emitting synchrotron sources for which the energy densities in particles and fields are comparable. We include the non-isotropic nature of inverse Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons on photons of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and provide beaming parameters for a number of jets. A list of X-ray emitting jets is given and the jets are classified on the basis of their morphology and spectral energy distribution to determine their likely emission process. We conclude that these jets have significant bulk relativistic velocities on kpc scales; that higher redshift sources require less beaming because the energy density of the CMB is significantly greater than locally; and that for some nearby sources, synchrotron X-ray emission predominates because the jet makes a large angle to the line of sight.

D. E. Harris; H. Krawczynski

2001-09-27

104

A rocket borne instrument for the study of soft X-ray emission from cosmic X-ray sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details about a rocket-borne instrument designed for studying the various characteristics of soft X-ray emission from cosmic X-ray sources in the energy range of 0.2 to 3 keV are presented. The X-ray detector consists of a bank of four multilayer, wall-less proportional counters, each with an area of 400 sq cm. The detectors are covered by windows of 1.4-micron polypropylene and are maintained at a constant pressure in flight using a gas control system. Two of the detectors are equipped with 0.4- by 10-deg collimators for mapping the spatial distribution of soft X-rays from extended X-ray sources. A pair of balanced filters consisting of oxygen and CF4 are used for detecting oxygen emission lines.

Agrawal, P. C.; Moore, W. E.; Garmire, G. P.

1974-01-01

105

X-ray emission and the winds of cataclysmic variables  

SciTech Connect

X-ray and ultraviolet observations of cataclysmic variable stars reveal a variety of exotic behavior - pulsations, winds, and episodic outbursts - are these related, what do they tell us about the nature of the outburst, about the environment of the accreting white dwarf. The author summarizes the observed changes in the x-ray and uv continuum and spectral features through the outbursts of the dwarf novae. The author then discusses how the modeling of these data have refined our ideas about the location and nature of the emissions, and the source of the outbursts. The author shows how comparisons of the x-ray and uv properties of cataclysmic variables with similar phenomena in other astronomical systems - the solar corona, OB stars, and Be stars - suggest ways in which the x-ray and uv emissions in CVs may be related, and point to further, specific observations that would elucidate our understanding of the behavior and role of the white dwarf in the outburst. 26 references.

Cordova, F.A.

1985-01-01

106

Synchrotron X-ray emission from old pulsars  

E-print Network

We study the synchrotron radiation as the observed non-thermal X-ray emission from old pulsars ($\\gtrsim1-10$Myr) to investigate the particle acceleration in their magnetospheres. We assume that the power-law component of the observed X-ray spectra is caused by the synchrotron radiation from electrons and positrons in the magnetosphere. We consider two pair production mechanisms of X-ray emitting particles, the magnetic and the photon-photon pair productions. High-energy photons, which ignite the pair production, are emitted via the curvature radiation of the accelerated particles. We use the analytical description for the radiative transfer and estimate the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation. We find that for pulsars with the spin-down luminosity $L_{\\rm sd}\\lesssim10^{33}$ erg s$^{-1}$, the locations of the particle acceleration and the non-thermal X-ray emission are within $\\lesssim10^7$cm from the centre of the neutron star, where the magnetic pair production occurs. For pulsars with the spin-down lu...

Kisaka, Shota

2014-01-01

107

Synchrotron X-ray emission from old pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the synchrotron radiation as the observed non-thermal emission by the X-ray satellites from old pulsars (?1-10 Myr) to investigate the particle acceleration in their magnetospheres. We assume that the power-law component of the observed X-ray spectra is caused by the synchrotron radiation from electrons and positrons in the magnetosphere. We consider two pair-production mechanisms of X-ray emitting particles, the magnetic and the photon-photon pair productions. High-energy photons, which ignite the pair production, are emitted via the curvature radiation of the accelerated particles. We use the analytical description for the radiative transfer and estimate the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation. We find that for pulsars with the spin-down luminosity Lsd ? 1033 erg s-1, the locations of the particle acceleration and the non-thermal X-ray emission are within ?107 cm from the centre of the neutron star, where the magnetic pair production occurs. For pulsars with the spin-down luminosity Lsd ? 1031 erg s-1 such as J0108-1431, the synchrotron radiation is difficult to explain the observed non-thermal component even if we consider the existence of the strong and small-scale surface magnetic field structures.

Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J.

2014-09-01

108

Determination of total x-ray absorption coefficient using non-resonant x-ray emission  

PubMed Central

An alternative measure of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) called inverse partial fluorescence yield (IPFY) has recently been developed that is both bulk sensitive and free of saturation effects. Here we show that the angle dependence of IPFY can provide a measure directly proportional to the total x-ray absorption coefficient, µ(E). In contrast, fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield (EY) spectra are offset and/or distorted from µ(E) by an unknown and difficult to measure amount. Moreover, our measurement can determine µ(E) in absolute units with no free parameters by scaling to µ(E) at the non-resonant emission energy. We demonstrate this technique with measurements on NiO and NdGaO3. Determining µ(E) across edge-steps enables the use of XAS as a non-destructive measure of material composition. In NdGaO3, we also demonstrate the utility of IPFY for insulating samples, where neither EY or FY provide reliable spectra due to sample charging and self-absorption effects, respectively. PMID:22355697

Achkar, A. J.; Regier, T. Z.; Monkman, E. J.; Shen, K. M.; Hawthorn, D. G.

2011-01-01

109

Determination of total x-ray absorption coefficient using non-resonant x-ray emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An alternative measure of x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) called inverse partial fluorescence yield (IPFY) has recently been developed that is both bulk sensitive and free of saturation effects. Here we show that the angle dependence of IPFY can provide a measure directly proportional to the total x-ray absorption coefficient, µ(E). In contrast, fluorescence yield (FY) and electron yield (EY) spectra are offset and/or distorted from µ(E) by an unknown and difficult to measure amount. Moreover, our measurement can determine µ(E) in absolute units with no free parameters by scaling to µ(E) at the non-resonant emission energy. We demonstrate this technique with measurements on NiO and NdGaO3. Determining µ(E) across edge-steps enables the use of XAS as a non-destructive measure of material composition. In NdGaO3, we also demonstrate the utility of IPFY for insulating samples, where neither EY or FY provide reliable spectra due to sample charging and self-absorption effects, respectively.

Achkar, A. J.; Regier, T. Z.; Monkman, E. J.; Shen, K. M.; Hawthorn, D. G.

2011-12-01

110

Metric Radio Emission Associated with X-Ray Plasmoid Ejections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the first detection of metric/decimetric radio emission associated with two soft X-ray plasmoid ejecta events that occurred during two limb flares observed by the Yohkoh SXT. In the first event a loop started to rise slowly (~10 km s-1) before the beginning of the hard X-ray impulsive phase of the flare. At about the onset of the impulsive flare, there was acceleration of the ejecta, resulting in a speed of 130 km s-1 and finally to ~200 km s-1. The associated radio emission was observed with the Nançay radioheliograph (NRH) in the frequency range of 230-450 MHz. It was an unpolarized continuum that lasted 8-10 minutes. The 410 MHz source was located close to the height where the plasmoid was last identified in the SXT images. In the second event an eruption resulted in the expansion of a large-scale, looplike feature and the development of two plasmoid ejecta which moved in different directions. The speed of the ejecta was 60-100 km s-1. In this event, the associated radio emission was a long-lasting (about 2 hr) continuum observed from 450 to 164 MHz. The onset of the low-frequency emission was delayed with respect to the onset of the high-frequency emission. In both cases the radio sources were located above the soft X-ray ejecta in the general direction of the prolongation of the ejecta movement. In both cases the radio emission comes from nonthermal electrons which are accelerated in close relationship with the propagation of the X-ray plasmoid: as the plasmoid reaches higher altitudes, it interacts with increasingly more extended magnetic field lines and new coronal sites of production of nonthermal electrons are created.

Kundu, M. R.; Nindos, A.; Vilmer, N.; Klein, K.-L.; Shibata, K.; Ohyama, M.

2001-09-01

111

Soft X-ray emission in flaring coronal loops  

E-print Network

Solar flares are associated with intense soft X-ray emission generated by the hot flaring plasma in coronal magnetic loops. Kink unstable twisted flux-ropes provide a source of magnetic energy which can be released impulsively and account for the heating of the plasma in flares. We investigate the temporal, spectral and spatial evolution of the properties of the thermal X-ray emission produced in such kink-unstable magnetic flux-ropes using a series of MHD simulations. We deduce emission diagnostics and their temporal evolution and discuss the results of the simulations with respect to observations. The numerical setup used consists of a highly twisted loop embedded in a region of uniform and untwisted background coronal magnetic field. We let the kink instability develop, compute the evolution of the plasma properties in the loop (density, temperature) and deduce the X-ray emission properties of the plasma during the whole flaring episode. During the initial phase of the instability plasma heating is mostly ...

Pinto, R F; Brun, A S

2014-01-01

112

X-ray emission from high temperature plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bremsstrahlung X-rays from a plasma focus device were investigated with emphasis on the emission versus position, time, energy, and angle of emission. It is shown that low energy X-rays come from the plasma focus region, but that the higher energy components come from the anode. The emission is anisotropic, the low energy polar diagram resembling a cardioid, while the high energy emission is a lobe into the anode. The plasma parameters were considered indicating that even in the dense focus, the plasma is collisionless near the axis. By considering the radiation patterns of relativistic electrons a qualitative picture is obtained, which explains the measured polar diagrams, assuming the electrons that produce the X-rays have velocity vectors lying roughly in a cone between the point of focus and the anode. The average electron energy is about 3keV at the focus and about 10 keV on the anode surface. Results are consistent with the converging beam model of neutron production.

Harries, W. L.

1975-01-01

113

X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some X-ray spectral observations of approximately 30 clusters of galaxies from HEAO-1 are summarized. There exists strong correlations between X-ray luminosity, L(x), and temperature kT in the form L(x)alphaT to the 2.3 power. This result combined with the L(x) central galaxy density relation and the virial theorem indicates that the core dadius of the gas should be roughly independent of L(x) or KT and that more luminous clusters have a greater fraction of their virial mass in gas. The poor correlation of KT and optical velocity dispersion seems to indicate that clusters have a variety of equations of state. There is poor agreement between X-ray imaging observations and optical and X-ray spectral measures of the polytropic index. Most clusters show Fe emission lines with a strong indication that they all have roughly 1/2 solar abundance. The evidence for cooling in the cores of several clusters is discussed based on spectral observations with the Einstein solid state spectrometer.

Mushotzky, R. F.

1983-01-01

114

The X-ray emission of the polar BL Hydri  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the analysis of the ASCA and BeppoSAX X-ray observations of the polar system BL Hyi, performed in October 94 and September 96, respectively. Emission from both poles is apparent from the folded light curves of both observations; the emission from the second pole varies from cycle to cycle, indicating non-stationary accretion there. The temperature of the post-shock region is estimated to be about 10 keV. Inclusion of both complex absorption and Compton reflection significantly improves the quality of the fit. No soft X-ray component is observed; the BeppoSAX/LECS upper limit to the soft component is in agreement with theoretical expectations for this low magnetic field system.

Matt, G.; Barcaroli, R.; Belloni, T.; Beuermann, K.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.; de Martino, D.; Done, C.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Guainazzi, M.; Mouchet, M.; Mukai, K.

1998-06-01

115

Quantifying the Exospheric Component of Soft X-ray Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High charge state heavy ions in the solar wind exchange charge with ambient neutral gas. This process creates a product ion in an excited state. During the radiative cascade process, EUV and X-ray photons are emitted with energies in the range of about 100 eV to 1 keV. Because the terrestrial exospheric density at the nominal magnetopause location is relatively high, approx. 10 cu cm, solar wind charge exchange, or SWCX, can be observed by Earth-orbiting soft X-ray instruments such as the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC). In this presentation, we will compare simulated and observed soft Xray emission during an event on August 18-19, 1991 and discuss the role of exospheric SWCX emission for this and other events.

Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Snowden, Steven L.; Robertson, Ina; Hansen, Kenneth; Cravens, Thomas

2007-01-01

116

X-ray emission from the terrestrial magnetosheath  

E-print Network

Enhancements (LTE) as seen byROSAT[Snowden et al., 1994]. Freyberg [1998] also attributed the LTE to variations Copyrightby the American Geophysical Union. Paper number . 0094-8276/03/$5.00 1 2 ROBERTSON AND CRAVENS: MAGNETOSHEATH X-RAY EMISSIONS in the solar...) [Snowden et al., 1994] is a clear indication that a time variable signal can be detected with suitable techniques, although the LTEs are the (mainly) geocoronal emission seen from inside the mag- netosphere and the images are this emission seen from...

Robertson, Ina Picket; Cravens, Thomas Edward

2003-04-29

117

Multi-atom resonances and soft X-ray emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the effects of interatomic multi-atom resonant photoemission monitored by soft X-ray emission. The C K ? partial fluorescence yield is measured while the excitation energy is scanned through the higher lying TiL 2,3 threshold of the neighboring atoms in a multi-component system (TiNbC). No evidence for a resonant enhancement in the fluorescence signal as suggested by the MARPE effect is found.

Moewes, A.; Kurmaev, E. Z.

2001-07-01

118

The Evolution of Coronal X-ray Emission  

E-print Network

;7 How do we infer the past properties of the Sun? The rotation-age connection The age-dependence of X1 The Evolution of Coronal X-ray Emission The Sun in Time Rob Jeffries Keele University NASA GSFC The Sun has been around for 4.6 Gyr. After 10-20 Myr as a pre-main sequence star it settled onto the ZAMS

119

X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies Craig L. Sarazin  

E-print Network

galaxies. X-ray images from Einstein also suggest that the morphology of the gas mirrors the dynamical of galaxies in clusters 1. Two-body relaxation 2. Violent relaxation 3. Ellipsoidal clusters 4. Dynamical distribution of x-ray emission 1~ X-ray centers, sizes, and masses 2. X-ray images of clusters

Sarazin, Craig

120

Gamma-ray Emission from X-ray Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of PSR B1259-63, HESS J0632+057, LS 5039, LS I +61 303 at the TeV energies has established X-ray binaries (XRBs) as a new class of very-high-energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma-ray emitters. Among them, PSR B1259-63 is a Be/pulsar system, detected at TeV energies by HESS and Fermi LAT, while HESS J0632+057 is a recently discovered VHE emitter composed of a Be star and a compact object of unknown nature. LS 5039 and LS I +61 303 are possibly microquasars, a sub-class of XRBs that contain a black hole with collimated, relativistic jets. Powered by accretion from the companion stars, microquasars radiate strongly at X-ray and soft gamma-ray energies. Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-3 are two famous microquasars as well. Cygnus X-1 has been observed once at TeV energies while Cygnus X-3 is a known GeV emitter. Many theoretical models envision VHE emission when these sources manifest relativistic persistent jets or transient ejections. In light of these considerations, VERITAS has been employed to study two XRBs for possible TeV emission. The first Be/XRB is 1A 0535+262. No GeV or TeV emission was detected over the outburst and orbital period. The gamma-ray and X-ray observations suggest the absence of a significant population of non-thermal particles in the system, which distinguishes 1A 0535+262 from other Be/XRBs such as PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61 303. VERITAS has also been involved in the study of Cygnus X-3 as part of the multi-wavelength study effort in the radio, infra-red, soft x-ray, hard x-ray and gamma-ray (<100 GeV) bands, which has proven very useful in the understanding of the physics of the system, even in the lack of TeV emission. With the aid of VERITAS, it can be possible to cast light on the particular conditions which could trigger VHE emission. This can help us understand the mechanisms that may trigger VHE gamma-ray emission, thus improving our knowledge of particle acceleration and radiative processes in the jets. The implications have far reaching consequences on the understanding of other XRBs and microquasars and also of active galactic nuclei, which are in many ways similar to microquasars and are prominent VHE gamma-ray sources themselves.

Varlotta, Angelo; VERITAS; AGILE

2013-01-01

121

THE CHANDRA CARINA COMPLEX PROJECT: DECIPHERING THE ENIGMA OF CARINA'S DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

We present a 1.42 deg{sup 2} mosaic of diffuse X-ray emission in the Great Nebula in Carina from the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer camera. After removing >14,000 X-ray point sources from the field, we smooth the remaining unresolved emission, tessellate it into segments of similar apparent surface brightness, and perform X-ray spectral fitting on those tessellates to infer the intrinsic properties of the X-ray-emitting plasma. By modeling faint resolved point sources, we estimate the contribution to the extended X-ray emission from unresolved point sources and show that the vast majority of Carina's unresolved X-ray emission is truly diffuse. Line-like correlated residuals in the X-ray spectral fits suggest that substantial X-ray emission is generated by charge exchange at the interfaces between Carina's hot, rarefied plasma and its many cold neutral pillars, ridges, and clumps.

Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Gagne, Marc [Department of Geology and Astronomy, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383 (United States); Hamaguchi, Kenji [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Montmerle, Thierry [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis, Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Naze, Yael [GAPHE, Departement AGO, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17, Bat. B5C, B4000-Liege (Belgium); Oey, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Park, Sangwook [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Petre, Robert [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pittard, Julian M., E-mail: townsley@astro.psu.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

2011-05-01

122

Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ?2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with <~ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (?eff ? 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (gsim 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.; Scott, A. E.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

2014-10-01

123

Diffuse X-ray Emission from M101  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The total 0.45-2.0 keV luminosity of M101 is 3.1 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, of which 2.2 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s is due to diffuse emission. Of the diffuse emission, no more than 6% can be due to unresolved point sources such as X-ray binaries, and approx. 11% is due to dwarf stars. The diffuse emission traces the spiral arms and is roughly correlated with the H alpha and FUV (far ultraviolet) emission. The radial distribution closely follows the optical profile. The bulk of the diffuse emission is characterized by a two thermal component spectrum with kT = 0.20,0.75 keV, and the ratios of the emission measures of the two components is roughly constant as a function of both radius and surface brightness. The softer component has a sufficiently large covering factor that the bulk of the emission is likely extra-planar. We find no evidence of an extended axisymmetric X-ray halo, suggesting that any such halo has a strength much smaller than current predictions.

Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. L.; Pence, W. D.; Mukai, K.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

124

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Discharge Phenomena during X-Ray Emission from Pyroelectric Crystal  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 © X X Discharge Phenomena during X-Ray Emission from Pyroelectric Crystal and Energy Dependence of X-Ray Intensity Kengo OHIRA, Susumu IMASHUKU and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;45 181 X X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 45, pp.181-190 (2014) 606

Jun, Kawai

125

Discovery of Extended X-ray Emission around Adara  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adara (epsilon Canis Majoris) is a nearby (130 pc) B-type supergiant (B2 II) binary system. It in a direction of very low neutral column density and is a very bright UV and EUV source. It has been considered to be a dominant source of ionizing radiation in the Solar neighborhood. In a long (140 ks) Chandra observation with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS), we found an unusual feature which extends to about 5 arcsec from the star that is spectrally confined to the 20-30 A region. We confirmed that the LETGS data of other stars (from both zero order and dispersed X-rays) do not show such a feature. We will show the spatial and spectral data and discuss possible physical interpretation of the extended emission region. This work was supported by NASA through the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) contract SV3-73016 for the Chandra X-Ray Center and Science Instruments.

Huenemoerder, David; Marshall, H.

2008-03-01

126

X-ray Emission and Reprocessing in AGNs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this review, I discuss the primary X-ray emission of radio-quiet AGN and the reprocessing of this radiation by both the accretion disc and distant matter. Recent results, mostly from XMM-Newton, are reviewed, and the major open issues discussed. I will first treat the innermost regions, with respect to both the primary emission and the reprocessing by the accretion disc (with particular emphasis on the strong gravity effects on the iron line profile). I will then discuss absorption and reprocessing by distant matter, and in particular the ``torus'' and the disc of the host galaxy.

Matt, G.

2007-10-01

127

Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (>10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fail to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

Elsner, R F; Waite, J H; Crary, F J; Howell, R R; Johnson, R E; Ford, P G; Metzger, A E; Hurley, K C; Feigelson, E D; Garmire, G P; Bhardwaj, A I; Grodent, D C; Majeed, T; Tennant, A F; Weisskopf, M C; Elsner, Ronald F.; Crary, Frank J.; Howell, Robert R.; Johnson, Robert E.; Ford, Peter G.; Metzger, Albert E.; Hurley, Kevin C.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Bhardwaj, Anil; Grodent, Denis C.; Majeed, Tariq; Tennant, Allyn F.; Weisskop, Martin C.

2002-01-01

128

Discovery of Soft X-Ray Emission from Io, Europa and the Io Plasma Torus  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of soft (0.25--2 keV) x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites Io and Europa, probably Ganymede, and from the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). Bombardment by energetic (>10 keV) H, O, and S ions from the region of the IPT seems the likely source of the x-ray emission from the Galilean satellites. According to our estimates, fluorescent x-ray emission excited by solar x-rays, even during flares from the active Sun, charge-exchange processes, previously invoked to explain Jupiter's x-ray aurora and cometary x-ray emission, and ion stripping by dust grains fail to account for the observed emission. On the other hand, bremsstrahlung emission of soft X-rays from non-thermal electrons in the few hundred to few thousand eV range may account for a substantial fraction of the observed x-ray flux from the IPT.

Ronald F. Elsner; G. Randall Gladstone; J. Hunter Waite; Frank J. Crary; Robert R. Howell; Robert E. Johnson; Peter G. Ford; Albert E. Metzger; Kevin C. Hurley; Eric D. Feigelson; Gordon P. Garmire; Anil Bhardwaj; Denis C. Grodent; Tariq Majeed; Allyn F. Tennant; Martin C. Weisskop

2002-02-14

129

X-ray/UV variability and the origin of soft X-ray excess emission from II Zw 177  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a detailed broad-band X-ray/UV emission from the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy II Zw 177 based on two XMM-Newton and single Swift/XRT observations. Both XMM-Newton observations show the soft X-ray excess emission below 2 keV when the best-fit 2 - 10 keV power law is extrapolated down to 0.3 keV. We find the blurred reflection from an ionized accretion disc and Comptonized disc emission both describe the observed soft excess well. We find a remarkable trend of decreasing UV flux with increasing soft X-ray excess and power law emission. We suggest that this could be due to that the external edge of corona hide a fraction of accretion disk. Co-Author: Prof. Gulab C. Dewangan (IUCAA), Prof. Ranjeev Misra (IUCAA), Pramod Kumar (Nanded university)

Pal, Main

130

OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE BLACK HOLE X-RAY TRANSIENT MAXI J1659-152 DURING QUIESCENCE  

SciTech Connect

We report on the optical detection of the black hole X-ray transient MAXI J1659-152 during its quiescent state. By using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed MAXI J1659-152 about seven months after the end of an X-ray outburst. The optical counterpart of MAXI J1659-152 is clearly detected with an r'-band magnitude of 23.6-23.8. The detection confirms that the optical emission of MAXI J1659-152 during quiescence is relatively bright compared to other black hole X-ray transients. This implies that the distance to MAXI J1659-152 is 4.6-7.5 kpc for an M2 dwarf companion star or 2.3-3.8 kpc for an M5 dwarf companion star. By comparing with other measurements, an M2 dwarf companion is more likely.

Kong, Albert K. H., E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2012-12-01

131

Chandra ACIS Observations of Jovian X-Ray Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On November 25 and 26, 1999, the Chandra X-ray spacecraft conducted a set of four 19,000 sec observations of Jupiter. The ACIS-S instrument configuration was used for its good low energy efficiency and spatial resolution. An anomalous response was obtained which was subsequently attributed to strong jovian infrared radiation penetrating the detector and piling up spurious events across the entire X-ray range. However, the pre-observation establishment of an offsetting bias field has allowed the recovery of data from that portion of Jupiter's disc which remained within the elevated portion of the bias field during the observation. This ranges from fewer than 3000 sec to the entire observing time for about 10% of the planet. Auroral emission is seen near both poles in each observation. The northern aurora ia overall more intense than the southern, consistent with prior Einstein and ROSAT Observatory results. The southern aurora shows more modulation with Jupiter's rotation than the northern. Spatial resolution has been improved by at least a factor of two over prior measurements but convincing evidence of structure has not been seen. Lower latitude emission, first observed by ROSAT, is confirmed with flux levels averaging more than a factor of five below peak auroral values. Pronounced variation in the observed emission has occurred over the observing period. The spectral response extends from 0.24 keV, below which noise dominates, to about 1.2 keV. For all four observations the spectrum is clearly enhanced between 0.45 and 0.85 keV. This is apparently unequivocal evidence that Jupiter's X-ray emission is the result of oxygen and perhaps sulfur ions precipitating into the planet's atmosphere, where they undergo charge exchange interactions. The identification of specific transitions lines in the spectrum is among the ongoing efforts. A bremsstrahlung component has not yet been identified.

Garmire, Gordon; Elsner, Ronald; Feigelson, Eric; Ford, Peter; Gladstone, G. Randall; Hurley, Kevin; Metzger, Albert; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

132

Simultaneous COLTRIMS And X-Ray Spectroscopic Studies Relevant To Cometary, Planetary, And Heliospheric X-Ray Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent results from highly differential laboratory measurements of X-rays, scattered projectile, and recoil ions are reported for collisions relevant to cometary, planetary, and heliospheric X-ray emission. The studies employed supersonically cooled targets, position imaging detectors, and time-of-flight coincidence techniques; making it possible to simultaneously perform X-ray and cold-target recoil-ion momentum spectroscopic (COLTRIMS) measurements. The measurements provided unequivocal evidence for the importance of the role played by multiple-electron capture in the case of the many electron targets. Experimental relative n-selective single-electron capture (SEC) cross sections (?nrel) are also reported. State-selective He-like X-ray spectra originating in SEC to specific states characterized by the quantum numbers n that represent state-of-the-art testing tools for theories are also presented.

Ali, Rami

2007-08-01

133

Probing multilayer spintronic structures with photoelectron and x-ray emission spectroscopies excited by x-ray standing waves (invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a newly developed x-ray standing-wave/wedge (swedge) method for probing the composition, magnetization, and electronic densities of states in buried interfaces and layers in spintronic nanostructures. In work based on photoemission, this method has permitted determining concentration and magnetization profiles through giant magnetoresistive (GMR) and magnetic tunnel junctions structures, as well as individual layer densities of states near the Fermi level in a tunnel junction. Using x-ray emission and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering for detection has permitted probing deeper layers and interfaces in a GMR structure. Various future applications of this method in nanomagnetism are suggested, including using more energetic hard x-ray standing waves so as to probe more deeply below a surface and standing-wave excitation in spectromicroscopy to provide depth sensitivity.

Yang, S.-H.; Sell, B. C.; Fadley, C. S.

2008-04-01

134

Probing Multilayer Nanostructures with Photoelectron and X-Ray Emission Spectroscopies Excited by X-Ray Standing Waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a newly developed X-ray standing wave/wedge method for probing the composition, magnetization, and electronic densities of states in buried layers and interfaces of spintronic and other nanostructures. In work based on photoemission, this method has permitted determining concentration and magnetization profiles through giant magnetoresistive and magnetic tunnel junction structures, as well as individual layer densities of states near the Fermi level in a tunnel junction . Using X-ray emission and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering for detection has permitted probing deeper layers and interfaces in a giant magnetoresistance structure. Various future applications of this method in nanomagnetism and other fields of nanoscience are suggested, including using more energetic hard X-ray standing waves so as to probe more deeply below a surface and standing wave excitation in spectromicroscopy to provide depth sensitivity.

Yang, S.-H.; Sell, B. C.; Mun, B. S.; Fadley, C. S.

2013-01-01

135

DISCOVERY OF A CANDIDATE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6553  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the search for quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6553 using an XMM-Newton observation designed specifically for that purpose. We spectrally identify one candidate qLMXB in the core of the cluster, based on the consistency of the spectrum with a neutron star H-atmosphere model at the distance of NGC 6553. Specifically, the best-fit radius found using the three XMM European Photon Imaging Camera spectra is R{sub NS} = 6.3{sub -}0{sub .8}{sup +2.3} km (for M{sub NS} = 1.4 M{sub sun}) and the best-fit temperature is kT{sub eff} = 136{sub -34}{sup +21} eV. Both physical parameters are in accordance with typical values of previously identified qLMXBs in GC and in the field, i.e., R{sub NS} {approx} 5-20 km and kT{sub eff} {approx} 50-150 eV. A power-law (PL) component with a photon index {Gamma} = 2.1{sup +0.5}{sub -0.8} is also required for the spectral fit and contributes {approx}33% of the total flux of the X-ray source. A detailed analysis supports the hypothesis that the PL component originates from nearby sources in the core, unresolved with XMM. The analysis of an archived Chandra observation provides marginal additional support to the stated hypothesis. Finally, a catalog of all the sources detected within the XMM field of view is presented here.

Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A-2T8 (Canada); Brown, Edward F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 3250 Biomedical Physical Science Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Pavlov, George G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pennsylvania State University, 512 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zavlin, Vyacheslav E., E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca [Space Science Laboratory, Universities Space Research Association, NASA MSFC VP62, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

2011-09-10

136

Detection of 17 GHz radio emission from X-ray-bright points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using observations made with the Nobeyama radio heliograph (NRH) at 17 GHz and the Yohkoh/SXT experiment, we report the first detection of 17 GHz signatures of coronal X-ray-bright points (XBPs). This is also the first reported detection of flaring bright points in microwaves. We have detected four BPs at 17 GHz out of eight identified in SXT data on 1992 July 31, for which we looked for 17 GHz emission. For one XBP located in a quiet mixed-polarity region, the peak times at 17 GHz and X-rays are very similar, and both are long-lasting-about 2 hr in duration. There is a second BP (located near an active region) which is most likely flaring also, but the time profiles in the two spectral domains are not similar. The other two 17 GHz BPs are quiescent with fluctuations superposed upon them. For the quiet region XBP, the gradual, long-lasting, and unpolarized emission suggests that the 17 GHz emission is thermal.

Kundu, M. R.; Shibasaki, K.; Enome, S.; Nitta, N.

1994-08-01

137

A Laboratory-based Hard X-ray Monochromator for High-Resolution X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Measurements  

E-print Network

We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low poer x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically-bent crystal analyzer (SBCA), and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of 5 keV to 10 keV while also dmeonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) comparable to those achived at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-powered line-foc...

Seidler, G T; Remesnik, A J; Pacold, J I; Ball, N A; Barry, N; Styczinski, M; Hoidn, O R

2014-01-01

138

X-ray emission from middle-aged pulsars  

E-print Network

We present a simple, unified model which accounts for properties of the X-ray emission from the three middle-aged pulsars PSR 1055-52, PSR 0656+14 and PSR 0630+18 (Geminga). The X-ray radiation from these objects is pulsed more strongly at energies above a transition point around 0.5 keV. In addition, the phase of the pulses shifts by about 80-100 degrees around the same point. Geminga also has the peculiarity that its pulsed fraction decreases in the 0.3-0.5 keV energy range, attaining a minimum near 0.5 keV. We show that a two-component hydrogen atmosphere is able to account for these disparate features. In our model, the hotter component is powered by particle bombardment and is restricted to the polar regions, while the cooler one covers the entire stellar surface. The two components also differ in their emission patterns, with the hard and soft contributions coming from areas radiating into fan and pencil beams, respectively.

Rosalba Perna; Jeremy Heyl; Lars Hernquist

2001-04-30

139

Quiescent Microwave Emission from LateType Stars  

E-print Network

intense microwave radiation of the quiet Sun, which at centimeter wavelengths comes from freeQuiescent Microwave Emission from Late­Type Stars Manuel G¨udel Joint Institute for Laboratory of low­level, ``quiescent'' microwave radiation. This emission is, in most cases, attributed

Guedel, Manuel

140

Observation of 17 GHz Radio Emission from X-ray Bright Points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using observations made with the Nobeyama radio heliograph (NRH) at 17 GHz and the Yohkoh/SXT experiment, we report the first detection of 17 GHz signatures of coronal X-ray bright points (XBP's). This is also the first reported detection of flaring bright points in microwaves. We have detected four BP's at 17 GHz out of eight observed by SXT on July 31, 1992, for which we looked for 17 GHz emission. For one XBP located in a quiet mixed-polarity-region, the peak times at 17 GHz and X-rays are very similar, and both are long lasting -- at least 6 hours in duration. There is a second BP (located near an active region) which is most likely flaring also, but the time profiles in the two spectral domains are not similar. The other two 17 GHz BPs are quiescent with fluctuations superposed upon them. For the quiet region XBP, we believe that the 17 GHz emission is thermal.

Kundu, M. R.; Shibasaki, K.; Enome, S.; Nitta, N.

1994-07-01

141

X-ray emission from the galactic disk.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search was made for a diffuse component of greater than 1.5 keV X rays associated with an interarm region of the Galaxy at galactic longitudes in the vicinity of 60 degrees. A statistically significant excess associated with a narrow disk component was detected. The angular extent of this component has a most probable value of 2 degrees. The best-fit spectrum yields an intensity of 2.9 photons/sq cm per sec per sterad over the 2-10 keV range. The 3-sigma upper limit to any emission in a 1.5 keV band centered at 7 keV from galactic latitudes not greater than 3.5 deg is 0.3 photons/sq cm per sec per sterad. Several possible emission models are evaluated, with the most likely choice being a population of unresolvable low-luminosity sources.

Bleach, R. D.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

1972-01-01

142

X-Ray, UV, and Optical Observations of Supernova 2006bp with Swift: Detection of Early X-Ray Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results on the X-ray and optical/UV emission from the Type IIP supernova (SN) 2006bp and the interaction of the SW shock with its environment, obtained with the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on-board the Swift observatory. SN 2006bp is detected in X-rays at a 4.5 sigmalevel of significance in the merged XRT data from days 1 to 12 after the explosion. If the (0.2-10 keV band) X-ray luminosity of L(sub 0.2-10) = (1.8 plus or minus 0.4) x l0(exp 39 ergs s(exp -1) is caused by interaction of the SN shock with circumstellar material (CSM), deposited by a stellar wind from the progenitor's companion star, a mass-loss rate of M is approximately 2x10(exp -6) solar mass yr(exp -1) (v(sub w)/10 km s(exp -l) is inferred. The mass-loss rate is one of the lowest ever recorded for a core-collapse SN and consistent with the non-detection in the radio with the VLA on days 2, 9, and 11 after the explosion. The Swift data further show a fading of the X-ray emission starting around day 12 after the explosion. In combination with a follow-up XMM-Newton observation obtained on day 21 after the explosion, an X-ray rate of decline Lx, varies as t(exp -n) with index n = 1.2 plus or minus 0.6 is inferred. Since no other SN has been detected in X-rays prior to the optical peak and since Type IIP SNe have an extended 'plateau' phase in the optical, we discuss the scenario that the X-rays might be due to inverse Compton scattering of photospheric optical photons off relativistic electrons produced in circumstellar shocks. However, due to the high required value of the Lorentz factor (approximately 10-100), inconsistent with the ejecta velocity inferred from optical line widths, we conclude that Inverse Compton scattering is an unlikely explanation for the observed X-ray emission. The fast evolution of the optical/ultraviolet (1900-5500A) spectral energy distribution and the spectral changes observed with Swift reveal the onset of metal line-blanketing and cooling of the expanding photosphere during the first few weeks after the outburst.

Immler, S.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P.; Dessart, L.; Mazzali, P. A.; Landsman, W.; Gehrels, N.; Petre, R.; Burrows, D. N.; Nousek, J. A.; Chevalier, R. A.; Williams, C. L.; Koss, M.; Stockdale, C. J.; Kelley, M. T.; Weiler, K. W.; Holland, S. T.; Pian, E.; Roming, P. W. A.; Pooley, D.; Nomoto, K.; Greiner, J.; Campana, S.; Soderberg, A. M.

2007-01-01

143

Soft X-ray Emissions from Planets, Moons, and Comets  

E-print Network

A wide variety of solar system bodies are now known to radiate in the soft x-ray energy (10 keV) x-rays result mainly from the electron bremsstrahlung process. In this paper we present a brief review of the x-ray observations on each of the planetary bodies and discuss their characteristics and proposed source mechanisms.

A. Bhardwaj

2002-09-05

144

Soft X-ray emissions from planets, moons, and comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of solar system bodies are now known to radiate in the soft X-ray energy (10 keV) X-rays mainly result from the electron bremsstrahlung process. In this paper we present a brief review of the X-ray observations on each of the planetary bodies and discuss their characteristics and proposed source mechanisms.

A. Bhardwaj; G. R. Gladstone; R. F. Elsner; J. H. Waite Jr.; D. Grodent; T. E. Cravens; R. R. Howell; A. E. Metzger; N. Ostgaard; A. N. Maurellis; R. E. Johnson; M. C. Weisskopf; T. Majeed; P. G. Ford; A. F. Tennant; J. T. Clarke; W. S. Lewis; K. C. Hurley; F. J. Crary; E. D. Feigelson; G. P. Garmire; D. T. Young; M. K. Dougherty; S. A. Espinosa; J.-M. Jahn

2002-01-01

145

EUV and Soft X-Ray Emissions From Comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed 8 observations of comets with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). A soft X-ray camera in the range of 97-165 eV FWHM with a peak effective area of 28 cm2 and three spectrometers at 80-180, 170-360, and 300-720 Å with peak effective areas of 2.1, 0.5, and 0.8 cm2, respectively, were used for those observations. The detection limit of the X-ray camera corresponds to the X-ray luminosity of 1.9x 1014 ? 2 erg s-1 for photon energy ? > 100 eV. (? is the geocentric distance in AU.) Five comets were detected with the X-ray camera: Hyakutake, Borrelly, d'Arrest, pre- and postperihelion Hale-Bopp. Their images reveal a crescent-like structure with peak brightness offsets from the nuclei between the sunward and comet orbital velocity directions. X-ray luminosities and their spatial distributions were determined from the observations. The measured luminosities are in excellent correlation with gas production rates in comets, resulting in the efficiency of (6.4 +/- 0.9)x 10-5 AU3/2 in the range of 97-165 eV. Correlation with dust production rates is poor, and this favor a gas-related excitation process. The peak brightnesses scaled to r2 are constant and equal to 26+/- 9 millirayleighs. This means that comae are optically or collisionally thick near the brightness centers. Of a few suggested excitation mechanisms, only charge exchange between solar wind heavy ions and cometary neutrals agrees with both these facts. The EUVE spectra of comets Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake have been analyzed. Due to the close flyby of Hyakutake at 0.1 AU, its spectra are of exceptionally high quality and exceed the currently published spectra of comets by a factor of 3 in resolving power and by two orders of magnitude in photon statistics. The spectra reveal for the first time the emission lines of multiple charged ions which are brought to the comet by the solar wind and excited in charge exchange with cometary neutral species. The most prominent lines are O4+ 215 Å, C4+ 249 Å, and He+ 304 Å. Some other lines, which are of comparable strength, are blended. The results convincingly prove that the charge exchange mechanism is the dominant process in excitation of x-ray and EUV emissions from comets. The He+ line at 304 Å is emitted in a similar process by the solar-wind alpha-particles. The quantum yield of charge exchange is ?4 photons per heavy ion in collisionally thick parts of comae, and the photon luminosity of charge exchange at energy below 100 eV exceeds that above 100 eV by a factor of 2. However, the energetic luminosity below 100 eV is smaller than that above 100 eV by a factor of 2. The O+ lines at 538/539, 617, and 430/442 Å are formed by photoionization of atomic oxygen similar to those in Earth's dayglow. The observed depletion of neon relative to the solar abundance by more than a factor of 2600 confirms the current view that Oort cloud comets formed in the Jupiter-Neptune region of the solar nebula. Recent observations of comet McNaught-Hartley using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory will be also discussed. Detailed analyses of all papers that prove electron impact and bremsstrahlung as the main processes of X-ray excitation in comets reveal significant numerical and conceptual errors. Processes of excitation by electrons are proportional to square of gas production rate in comets, and this also disagrees with our observations. My calculations result in Mars' X-ray luminosity of 4x 1022 ph s-1. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-9732895.

Krasnopolsky, V. A.

2001-05-01

146

X-ray emission as a diagnostic from pseudospark-sourced electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray emission has been achieved using an electron beam generated by a pseudospark low-pressure discharge and utilised as a diagnostic for beam detection. A 300 A, 34 kV PS-sourced electron beam pulse of 3 mm diameter impacting on a 0.1 mm-thick molybdenum target generated X-rays which were detected via the use of a small, portable X-ray detector. Clear X-ray images of a micro-sized object were captured using an X-ray photodetector. This demonstrates the inducement of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) not only as an indicator of beam presence but also as a future X-ray source for small-spot X-ray imaging of materials.

Bowes, D.; Yin, H.; He, W.; Zhang, L.; Cross, A. W.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A. D. R.; Chen, D.; Zhang, P.; Chen, X.; Li, D.

2014-09-01

147

X-ray emission from young supernova remnants - Nonionization equilibrium abundances and emissivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray line emission from hot, low-density plasma in young supernova remnants is strongly enhanced by departures from ionization equilibrium. The X-ray emission from a Sedov blast wave has been calculated using a nonequilibrium evolutionary treatment of the ionization structure, and the resulting spectrum has been fitted to HEAO 2 SSS data for Tycho's remnant. These models yield dramatically different elemental abundances for heavy elements (Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe), compared with two-temperature component equilibrium models of Becker et al. (1979, 1980). Nonequilibrium broad-band X-ray emissivities result in lower mass determinations for the supernova ejecta. Areas of further improvement of remnant X-ray modeling are suggested.

Shull, J. M.

1982-01-01

148

Multiple X-ray emission components in low-power radio galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report x-ray observations of the first six sources observed with ROSAT in our study of low-power radio galaxies. Spatial and spectral measurements show that both resolved (thermal) and unresolved X-ray emission in a single source are typical, although the relative strength and size of the resolved component varies between objects. The unresolved X-ray component correlates well with the core radio emission and may be dominated by nonthermal emission associated with an inner radio jet.

Worrall, D. M.; Birkinshaw, M.

1994-01-01

149

Effect of insulator sleeve material on the x-ray emission from a plasma focus device  

SciTech Connect

The effect of insulator sleeve material on x-ray emission from a 2.3 kJ Mather type plasma focus device operated in argon-hydrogen mixture is investigated. The time and space resolved x-ray emission characteristics are studied by using a three channel p-i-n diode x-ray spectrometer and a multipinhole camera. The x-ray emission depends on the volumetric ratio of argon-hydrogen mixture as well as the filling pressure and the highest x-ray emission is observed for a volumetric ratio 40% Ar to 60%H{sub 2} at 2.5 mbar filling pressure. The fused silica insulator sleeve produces the highest x-ray emission whereas nonceramic insulator sleeves such as nylon, Perspex, or Teflon does not produce focus or x-rays. The pinhole images of the x-ray emitting zones reveal that the contribution of the Cu K{alpha} line is weak and plasma x-rays are intense. The highest plasma electron temperature is estimated to be 3.3 and 3.6 keV for Pyrex glass and fused silica insulator sleeves, respectively. It is speculated that the higher surface resistivity of fused silica is responsible for enhanced x-ray emission and plasma electron temperature.

Hussain, S.; Badar, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100 (Pakistan); Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

2010-09-15

150

X-Ray Emission from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth: A Short Review  

E-print Network

Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth - the three planets having dense atmosphere and a well developed magnetosphere - are known to emit X-rays. Recently, Chandra X-ray Observatory has observed X-rays from these planets, and XMM-Newton has observed them from Jupiter and Saturn. These observations have provided improved morphological, temporal, and spectral characteristics of X-rays from these planets. Both auroral and non-auroral (low-latitude) 'disk' X-ray emissions have been observed on Earth and Jupiter. X-rays have been detected from Saturn's disk, but no convincing evidence for X-ray aurora on Saturn has been observed. The non-auroral disk X-ray emissions from Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth, are mostly produced due to scattering of solar X-rays. X-ray aurora on Earth is mainly generated via bremsstrahlung from precipitating electrons and on Jupiter via charge exchange of highlyionized energetic heavy ions precipitating into the polar atmosphere. Recent unpublished work suggests that at higher (>2 keV) energies electron bremsstrahlung also plays a role in Jupiter's X-ray aurora. This paper summarizes the recent results of X-ray observations on Jupiter, Saturn, and Earth mainly in the soft energy (~0.1-2.0 keV) band and provides a comparative overview.

Anil Bhardwaj

2006-05-11

151

Quantitative Analysis of the Resolved X-ray Emission Line Profiles of O Stars  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of the Resolved X-ray Emission Line Profiles of O Stars David Cohen.swarthmore.edu/~cohen/presentations/CfA_11jun07.pdf #12;1. Chandra spectra: emission lines are broad and asymmetric 2. Hot-star X-rays in context 3. Hot-star winds 4. Emission line shapes: constraints on hot plasma distribution and wind mass

Cohen, David

152

X-ray Emission from Megamaser Galaxy IC 2560  

SciTech Connect

Observation of the H{sub 2}O megamaser galaxy IC 2560 with the Chandra Observatory reveals a complex spectrum composed of soft X-ray emission due to multi-temperature thermal plasma, and a hard continuum with strong emission lines. The continuum is most likely a Compton reflection (reprocessing) of primary emission that is completely absorbed at least up to 7 keV. The lines can be identified with fluorescence from Si, S and Fe in the lowest ionization stages. The equivalent widths of the Si and S lines are broadly compatible with those anticipated for reprocessing by optically thick cold plasma of Solar abundances, while the large equivalent width of the Fe line requires some overabundance of iron. A contribution to the line from a transmitted component cannot be ruled out, but the limits on the strength of the Compton shoulder make it less likely. From the bolometric luminosity of the nuclear region, we infer that the source radiates at 1-10% of its Eddington luminosity, for an adopted central mass of 3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The overall spectrum is consistent with the hypotheses that the central engines powering the detected megamsers in accretion disks are obscured from direct view by the associated accretion disk material itself, and that there is a correlation between the occurrence of megamaser emission and Compton-thick absorption columns. For the 11 known galaxies with both column density measurements and maser emission believed to arise from accretion disks, eight AGN are Compton thick.

Madejski, Greg; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Done, Chris; /Durham U.; Zycki, Piotr; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Greenhill, Lincoln; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2005-09-12

153

Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis with distributed field emission X-ray tube  

PubMed Central

Tomosynthesis requires projection images from different viewing angles. Using a distributed x-ray source this can be achieved without mechanical motion of the source with the potential for faster image acquisition speed. A distributed x-ray tube has been designed and manufactured specifically for breast tomosynthesis. The x-ray tube consists of 31 field emission x-ray sources with an angular range of 30°. The total dose is up to 100mAs with an energy range between 27 and 45 kVp. We discuss the source geometry and results from the characterization of the first prototype. The x-ray tube uses field emission cathodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) as electron source. Prior to the manufacturing of the sealed x-ray tube extensive testing on the field emission cathodes has been performed to verify the requirements for commercial tomosynthesis systems in terms of emission current, focal spot size and tube lifetime. PMID:21617760

Sprenger, F.; Calderon, X.; Gidcumb, E.; Lu, J.; Qian, X.; Spronk, D.; Tucker, A.; Yang, G.; Zhou, O.

2011-01-01

154

Stationary digital breast tomosynthesis with distributed field emission X-ray tube.  

PubMed

Tomosynthesis requires projection images from different viewing angles. Using a distributed x-ray source this can be achieved without mechanical motion of the source with the potential for faster image acquisition speed. A distributed x-ray tube has been designed and manufactured specifically for breast tomosynthesis. The x-ray tube consists of 31 field emission x-ray sources with an angular range of 30°. The total dose is up to 100mAs with an energy range between 27 and 45 kVp. We discuss the source geometry and results from the characterization of the first prototype. The x-ray tube uses field emission cathodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) as electron source. Prior to the manufacturing of the sealed x-ray tube extensive testing on the field emission cathodes has been performed to verify the requirements for commercial tomosynthesis systems in terms of emission current, focal spot size and tube lifetime. PMID:21617760

Sprenger, F; Calderon, X; Gidcumb, E; Lu, J; Qian, X; Spronk, D; Tucker, A; Yang, G; Zhou, O

2011-03-01

155

X-ray emission from the galactic disk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search was made of a diffuse component of X-rays 1.5 keV associated with an interarm region of the galaxy at galactic longitudes in the vicinity of 60 deg. A statistically significant excess associated with a narrow disk component was detected. The angular extent of this component has a most probable value of 2 deg and may be as large as 7 deg at 90% confidence. The best fit spectrum yields an intensity of 2.9 photons 1/(cm2-sec-ster) over the 2 to 10 keV range. The 3 sigma upper limit to any emission (e.g. iron line) in a 1.5 keV band centered at 7 keV from galactic latitudes h or = 3.5 deg is .3 photons 1/(cm2-sec-ster). Several possible emission models are discussed, with the most likely candidate being a population of unresolvable low luminosity discrete sources.

Bleach, R. D.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Schwartz, D. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

1972-01-01

156

X-ray Scattering Halos from the Galactic Center: Implications for Diffuse Emission Around SgrA*  

E-print Network

We consider the absorption and scattering of X-rays observed from the Galactic center. One objective is to characterize the intrinsic X-ray emission from the central black hole, SgrA*, in its quiescent and flaring states. We correct the fluxes observed by the Chandra and XMM telescopes for absorption and scattering, using realistic models for the dust grain size distribution, gas and dust abundances and spatial distributions. However, there are still large uncertainties. Since much of the intervening dust is close to SgrA*, the scattered halo of X-ray photons is very concentrated: its intensity can dominate the Chandra PSF inside 1", and so affects estimates of the point source flux. It also broadens the radial intensity profiles of Galactic center sources - observations of this effect can help constrain models of the spatial distribution of the dust. We estimate that the combined scattering halos from observed Galactic center sources within 10" of SgrA* contribute up to ~10% of the observed diffuse emission in this region. Dust-scattered photons suffer a time delay relative to the photons that arrive directly. For dust that is 100 pc towards us from the Galactic center, this delay is about 1000 s at angles of 1", and 100 ks at 10". We illustrate how the evolution of the scattering halo following X-ray flares from SgrA* or other sources can also help to constrain the dust's line of sight distribution. We discuss the implications of X-ray scattering halos for the intensity of diffuse emission that has been reported within a few arcseconds of SgrA*: in the most extreme, yet viable, model we consider, ~1/3 of it is due to dust scattering of an unresolved source. The remainder results from an extended source of emission.

Jonathan C. Tan; B. T. Draine

2003-10-16

157

X-ray Emission in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All HRI images of the LMC was mosaicked. The HRI mosaic has been presented in various meetings. We have identified point and diffuse X-ray sources and analyzing their X-ray properties. The HRI mosaic has been included in papers studying individual interstellar features as well as large-scale distribution of hot gas. The results have been published in several papers.

Chu, You-Hua; Snowden, Steve; Gruendl, Robert; Points, Sean

2003-01-01

158

Analysis and interpretation of diffuse x-ray emission using data from the Einstein satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ambitious program to create a powerful and accessible archive of the HEAO-2 Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) database was outlined. The scientific utility of that database for studies of diffuse x ray emissions was explored. Technical and scientific accomplishments are reviewed. Three papers were presented which have major new scientific findings relevant to the global structure of the interstellar medium and the origin of the cosmic x ray background. An all-sky map of diffuse x ray emission was constructed.

Helfand, David J.

1991-01-01

159

Characteristics of Diffuse X-Ray Line Emission within 20 Parsecs of the Galactic Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last three years, the Galactic center region has been monitored with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Besides the X-ray emission from the target object, Sgr A*, diffuse X-ray emission was detected throughout most of the 17'×17' field of view. With 11 Chandra observations through 2002 June, the total effective exposure reaches ~590 ks, providing significant photon statistics on much

Sangwook Park; Michael P. Muno; Frederick K. Baganoff; Yoshitomo Maeda; Mark Morris; Christian Howard; Mark W. Bautz; Gordon P. Garmire

2004-01-01

160

Diffuse X-Ray Emission in Three Poor Clusters of Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on ROSAT PSPC soft X-ray observations of three poor clusters of galaxies at distances above 100 Mpc (cz>8000 km s-1). In all three cases the emission is centered on the dominant member of the cluster, i.e., NGC 4104, NGC 6269, and NGC 6329, respectively. X-ray emission was detected out to radii of 400-600 kpc. The bolometric X-ray luminosities

M. Dahlem; I. Thiering

2000-01-01

161

High Resolution Temporal and Spectral Monitoring of Eta Carinae's X-Ray Emission the June Eclipse  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The supermassive and luminous star Eta Carinae undergoes strong X-ray variations every 5.5 years when its 2-10 keV X-ray emission brightens rapidly with wild fluctuations before dropping by a factor of 100 to a minimum lasting 3 months. The most recent X-ray "eclipse" began in June 2003 and during this time Eta Carinae was intensely observed throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. Here we report the first results of frequent monitoring of the 2-10 keV band X-ray emission by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer along wit high resolution X-ray spectra obtained with the transmission gratings on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We compare these observations to those results obtained during the previous X-ray eclipse in 1998, and interpret the variations in the X-ray brightness, in the amount of absorption, in the X-ray emission measure and in the K-shell emission lines in terms of a colliding wind binary model.

Corcoran, M. F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Henley, D.; Pittard, J. M.; Gull, T. R.; Davidson, K.; Swank, J. H.; Petre, R.; Ishibashi, K.

2004-01-01

162

Soft X-Ray Emissions from Planets and Moons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wide variety of solar system planetary bodies are now known to radiate in the soft x-ray energy (<5 keV) regime. These include planets (Earth, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn): bodies having thick atmosphere and with/without intrinsic magnetic field; planetary satellites (Moon, Io, Europa, Ganymede): bodies with no/thin atmosphere; and comets and Io plasma torus: bodies having extended tenuous atmosphere. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of soft x-rays from these objects. whereas in the hard x-ray energy range (>10 keV) x-rays mainly result from electron bremsstrahlung process. In this paper we present a brief review of the x-ray observations on each of the planetary bodies and discuss their characteristics and proposed source mechanisms.

Bhardwaj, A.; Gladstone, G. R.; Elsner, R. F.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Cravens, T. E.; Howell, R. R.; Metzger, A. E.; Ostgaard, N.; Maurellis, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

163

Persistent X-ray emission from a gamma-ray burst source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quiescent X-ray source detected with the Einstein X-ray Observatory in a location consistent with that of an intense gamma ray burst is shown to be also consistent with the location of the 1928 optical transient, the likely optical counterpart of the gamma ray burst source GBS0117-29. The system appears to be underluminous in X-rays by a factor of 10; possible reasons for this are discussed. The observed X-ray flux would require an accretion rate of about 10 to the -14th (d/1 kpc/)-squared solar masses per year, which is probably too low to be consistent with published nuclear flash models for gamma bursts, unless the distance is substantially greater than about 1 kpc or the burst recurrence time is greater than about 50 yrs, or the accretion rate is highly variable. Such a long recurrence time appears to be inconsistent with the detection of the optical burst.

Grindlay, J. E.; Cline, T.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Pizzichini, G.; Evans, W. D.; Laros, J. G.; Hurley, K. C.; Niel, M.; Klebesadel, R. W.

1982-01-01

164

Internal Energy Dissipation of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with Swift: Precursors, Prompt Gamma-Rays, Extended Emission, and Late X-Ray Flares  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and X-ray Telescope on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT light curves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share the same physical origin, which is the repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be a small part of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of Swift GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent gamma-ray peaks, implying that X-ray emission may be detectable prior the BAT trigger time. Future GRB alert instruments with soft X-ray capability are essential for revealing the early stages of GRB central engine activities, and shedding light on jet composition and the jet launching mechanism in GRBs.

Hu, You-Dong; Liang, En-Wei; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; Lü, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing

2014-07-01

165

Soft x-ray emission studies of several aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

During the first few months of operation of our soft x-ray spectrometer at the NSLS, we have measured the L emission spectrum for three classes of aluminum alloys: dilute aluminum-magnesium alloys to extend the Al-Mg system to the impurity limit; a 50-50 alloy of aluminum-lithium to characterize the band structure of bulk samples of this potential battery electrolite; and the icosahedral and normal Al-Mn alloys to see if the two phases had measurably different density of states which have been predicted. All spectra shown are produced when core holes generated by energetic electrons or photons are filled by radiative transitions from conduction band states. Dipole selection rules govern the transitions. Thus, K spectra provide a measure of the p-symmetic partial density of states (DOS) near the atom. Similarly, L spectra produced by transitions to p-core holes map the s and d symmetric DOS in the vicinity of the atom with the core hole.

Tsang, K.L.; Zhang, C.H.; Callcott, T.A.; Arakawa, E.T.; Ederer, D.L.; Biancaniello, F.; Curelaru, I.

1986-09-23

166

The oldest X-ray supernovae: X-ray emission from 1941C, 1959D, 1968D  

E-print Network

We have studied the X-ray emission from four historical Type-II supernovae (the newly-discovered 1941C in NGC 4631 and 1959D in NGC 7331; and 1968D, 1980K in NGC 6946), using Chandra ACIS-S imaging. In particular, the first three are the oldest ever found in the X-ray band, and provide constraints on the properties of the stellar wind and circumstellar matter encountered by the expanding shock at more advanced stages in the transition towards the remnant phase. We estimate emitted luminosities ~ 5 x 10^{37} erg/s for SN 1941C, ~ a few x 10^{37} erg/s for SN 1959D, ~ 2 x 10^{38} erg/s for SN 1968D, and ~ 4 x 10^{37} erg/s for SN 1980K, in the 0.3-8 keV band. X-ray spectral fits to SN 1968D suggest the presence of a harder component, possibly a power law with photon index ~ 2, contributing ~ 10^{37} erg/s in the 2-10 keV band. We speculate that it may be evidence of non-thermal emission from a Crab-like young pulsar.

Roberto Soria; Rosalba Perna

2008-05-02

167

High energy X-ray emission from recurrent novae in quiescence: T CrB  

E-print Network

We present Suzaku X-ray observations of the recurrent nova T CrB in quiescence. T CrB is the first recurrent nova to be detected in the hard-X-ray band (E ~ 40.0 keV) during quiescence. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with cooling-flow emission emanating from an optically thin region in the boundary layer of an accretion disk around the white dwarf. The detection of strong stochastic flux variations in the light curve supports the interpretation of the hard X-ray emission as emanating from a boundary layer.

Gerardo J. M. Luna; Jennifer L. Sokoloski; Koji Mukai

2007-11-05

168

The X-ray and radio emission from SN 2002ap: The importance of Compton scattering  

E-print Network

The radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic supernova SN 2002ap are modeled. We find that inverse Compton cooling by photospheric photons explains the observed steep radio spectrum, and also the X-ray flux observed by XMM. Thermal emission from the shock is insufficient to explain the X-ray flux. The radio emitting region expands with a velocity of, roughly, 70,000 km/s. From the ratio of X-ray to radio emission we find that the energy densities of magnetic fields and relativistic electrons are close to equipartion.

C. -I. Bjornsson; C. Fransson

2004-01-12

169

Beamed and Unbeamed X-ray Emission in FR1 Radio Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is good evidence for X-ray emission associated with AGN jets which are relativistically boosted towards the observer. But to what jet radius does such X-ray emission persist? To attempt to answer this question one can look at radio galaxies; their cores are sufficiently X-ray faint that any unbeamed X-ray emission in the vicinity of the central engine must be obscured. The jets of such sources are at unfavourable angles for relativistic boosting, and so their relatively weak X-ray emission must be carefully separated from the plateau of resolved X-ray emission from a hot interstellar, intragroup, or intracluster medium on which they are expected to sit. This paper presents results arguing that jet X-ray emission is generally detected in radio galaxies, even those of low intrinsic power without hot spots. The levels of emission suggest an extrapolated radio to soft X-ray spectral index, alpha(sub tao x) of about 0.85 at parsec to perhaps kiloparsec distances from the cores.

Worrall, Diana M.

1997-01-01

170

Multiple X-ray emission components in low-power radio galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report x-ray observations of the first six sources observed with ROSAT in our study of low-power radio galaxies. Spatial and spectral measurements show that both resolved (thermal) and unresolved X-ray emission in a single source are typical, although the relative strength and size of the resolved component varies between objects. The unresolved X-ray component correlates well with the core

D. M. Worrall; M. Birkinshaw

1994-01-01

171

Electronic Structure of In2O3 from Resonant X-ray Emission Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The valence and conduction band structures of In2O3 have been measured using a combination of valence band x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, O K-edge resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy, and O K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Excellent agreement is noted between the experimental spectra and O 2p partial density of states calculated within hybrid density functional theory. Our data are consistent with a direct band gap for In2O3.

Piper, L.; DeMasi, A; Cho, S; Smith, K; Fuchs, F; Bechstedt, F; Korber, C; Klein, A; Payne, D; Egdell, R

2009-01-01

172

Femtosecond X-ray line emission from multilayer targets irradiated by short laser pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention of high-power, ultra-short-pulse lasers has opened the way to investigations aimed at the creation of a new type of bright X-ray source for various uses including material science applications and time-resolved X-ray diffraction for biology. The efficiency with which laser energy incident on a solid target is converted into an X-ray emission depends on many factors, including the

H. Nakano; A. A. Andreev; J. Limpouch

2004-01-01

173

Characteristics of Diffuse X-Ray Line Emission within 20 pc of the Galactic Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 3 yrs, the Galactic center (GC) region has been monitored with\\u000athe Chandra X-Ray Observatory. With 11 Chandra observations through 2002 June,\\u000athe total effective exposure reaches ~590 ks, providing significant photon\\u000astatistics on the faint, filamentary, diffuse X-ray emission. The true-color\\u000aX-ray image and the equivalent width (EW) images for the detected elemental\\u000aspecies demonstrate that

Sangwook Park; Michael P. Muno; Frederick K. Baganoff; Yoshitomo Maeda; Mark Morris; Christian Howard; Mark W. Bautz; Gordon P. Garmire

2003-01-01

174

Chandra X-ray Observations of Jovian Low-latitude Emissions: Morphological, Temporal, and Spectral Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chandra observed X-rays from Jupiter during 24-26 February 2003 for about 40 hours with the ACIS-S and HRC-I instruments. The analysis of Jovian low-latitude "disk" Xray emissions are presented and compared with the high-latitude "auroral" emissions. We report the first Chandra ACIS-S measured X-ray spectrum (0.3-2 keV) of Jupiter's low-latitude disk The disk X-ray emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum. The temporal variation in the Jovian disk X-rays is on an average consistent with those in the solar X-rays observed by GOES, and TIMED/SSE. Contrary to the auroral X-rays, the disk emissions are uniformly distributed over Jupiter; no indication of longitudinal dependence or correlation with surface magneh field strength is visible. Also, unlike the approx. 40 +/- 20 min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations. The disk spectrum seems to be consistent with resonant and fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays by the Jovian upper atmosphere. Jupiter's disk is found to be about 50% dimmer in soft X-rays in February 2003 compared that in December 2000, which is consistent with the decrease in solar activity. No evidence of lightning-induced X-rays is seen in the Chandra X-ray data. The Jovian disk spectra observed with Chandra-ACIS is stronger than that observed with XMM-Newton two months later during April 28-29, 2003. The XMM-Newton Xray image of Jupiter shows evidence of limb darkening on the anti-sunward side as seen from Earth, as well as an asymmetry with respect to the subsolar point: suggesting a solar driven process.

Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Waiate J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ford, Peter

2004-01-01

175

X-Ray Emission from Magnetic Massive Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ~60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower-{\\dot{M}} B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher-{\\dot{M}} O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres. Based on data collected with XMM-Newton and Chandra.

Nazé, Yaël; Petit, Véronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Cohen, David; Owocki, Stan; ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

2014-11-01

176

X-ray emission possibly coincident with the radio tail of PKS 0301 - 123  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray, radio, and optical observations are reported for a very poor cluster of galaxies containing the radio source PKS 0301 - 123. A long, 100,000 second X-ray observation using the Einstein Observatory's IPC resulted in the serendipitous discovery of a peculiar extended X-ray morphology associated with the poor cluster. The X-ray emission is extended in the same direction and is approximately the same length as the radio-tailed source, PKS 0301 - 123, which was mapped at 6 and 20 cm with the VLA. Optical redshift observations with the KPNO IIDS on the 2.1 m telescope confirm the identification of the X-ray and radio emission with the poor cluster at z = 0.1. It is argued that the X-ray extension is unlikely to be a chance coincidence of a background source projected onto the foreground cluster. Therefore, four possible mechanisms which might physically link the X-ray and radio emission are considered: thermal bremsstrahlung from a cluster with a flattened potential well; inverse Compton scattering of the relativistic electrons in the radio source, X-ray synchrotron radiation; and heating the cluster gas by the turbulent wake of the radio galaxy. The prospects for future observations of such X-ray/radio coincidences are briefly discussed.

Burns, J. O.; Nelson, E. R.; White, R. A.; Gregory, S. A.

1985-01-01

177

Evidence of Non-thermal X-Ray Emission from HH 80  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s-1, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to non-thermal processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.

López-Santiago, J.; Peri, C. S.; Bonito, R.; Miceli, M.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; Benaglia, P.; de Castro, E.

2013-10-01

178

Correlated radio:X-ray emission in the hard states of Galactic microquasars  

E-print Network

We present results of our study of correlated radio and X-ray emission in two black hole candidates and Galactic microquasars GRS 1915+105 and Cygnus X-1 in their steady long term hard states, along with Cygnus X-3 (using data obtained from RXTE-ASM, CGRO-BATSE and GBI). We detect a pivotal behavior in the X-ray spectrum of GRS 1915+105, correlated to the radio emission. Similar to the results obtained for Cygnus X-3, the flux of X-rays softer than the pivoting point correlates with the radio emission, while the corresponding harder X-ray flux anti-correlates with both the radio and the softer X-ray emission, in this state. We examine all the previously reported correlations of X-ray properties with the radio emission in Galactic microquasars and argue that these are consistent with a general picture where a spectral pivoting is a common feature in these sources with the shape of the spectrum determining the flux of radio emission, during the hard states. We also detect a general monotonic increase in the radio emission of these sources with the soft X-ray emission spanning about 5 orders of magnitude. We qualitatively explain these findings with a Two Component Advective Flow model where the location of a boundary layer between the thin disk and the Comptonizing region determines the spectral shape and also the amount of outflow.

M. Choudhury; A. R. Rao; S. V. Vadawale; A. K. Jain

2003-04-22

179

EVIDENCE OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM HH 80  

SciTech Connect

Protostellar jets appear at all stages of star formation when the accretion process is still at work. Jets travel at velocities of hundreds of km s{sup –1}, creating strong shocks when interacting with the interstellar medium. Several cases of jets have been detected in X-rays, typically showing soft emission. For the first time, we report evidence of hard X-ray emission possibly related to non-thermal processes not explained by previous models of the post-shock emission predicted in the jet/ambient interaction scenario. HH 80 is located at the south head of the jet associated with the massive protostar IRAS 18162-2048. It shows soft and hard X-ray emission in regions that are spatially separated, with the soft X-ray emission region situated behind the region of hard X-ray emission. We propose a scenario for HH 80 where soft X-ray emission is associated with thermal processes from the interaction of the jet with denser ambient matter and hard X-ray emission is produced by synchrotron radiation at the front shock.

López-Santiago, J. [Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar, S. D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Matemática Interdisciplinar, S. D. Astronomía y Geodesia, Facultad de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR), CCT La Plata (CONICET), C.C.5, 1894 Villa Elisa, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía (IAR), CCT La Plata (CONICET), C.C.5, 1894 Villa Elisa, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonito, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Miceli, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)] [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Albacete-Colombo, J. F. [Universidad Nacional del COMAHUE, Monseñor Esandi y Ayacucho, 8500 Viedma, Río Negro (Argentina)] [Universidad Nacional del COMAHUE, Monseñor Esandi y Ayacucho, 8500 Viedma, Río Negro (Argentina); De Castro, E. [Dpto. de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Dpto. de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2013-10-20

180

X-ray emission from magnetic massive stars  

E-print Network

Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ~60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al. 2013). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss-rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower-Mdot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher-Mdot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (p...

Naze, Yael; Rinbrand, Melanie; Cohen, David; Owocki, Stan; ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A

2014-01-01

181

The 300 Kpc Long X-Ray Jet in PKS 1127-145, Z=1.18 Quasar: Constraining X-Ray Emission Models  

SciTech Connect

We present a {approx} 100 ksec Chandra X-ray observation and new VLA radio data of the large scale, 300 kpc long X-ray jet in PKS 1127-145, a radio loud quasar at redshift z=1.18. With this deep X-ray observation we now clearly discern the complex X-ray jet morphology and see substructure within the knots. The X-ray and radio jet intensity profiles are seen to be strikingly different with the radio emission peaking strongly at the two outer knots while the X-ray emission is strongest in the inner jet region. The jet X-ray surface brightness gradually decreases by an order of magnitude going out from the core. The new X-ray data contain sufficient counts to do spectral analysis of the key jet features. The X-ray energy index of the inner jet is relatively flat with {alpha}{sub x} = 0.66 {+-} 0.15 and steep in the outer jet with {alpha}{sub x} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2. We discuss the constraints implied by the new data on the X-ray emission models and conclude that ''one-zone'' models fail and at least a two component model is needed to explain the jet's broad-band emission. We propose that the X-ray emission originates in the jet proper while the bulk of the radio emission comes from a surrounding jet sheath. We also consider intermittent jet activity as a possible cause of the observed jet morphology.

Siemiginowska, Aneta; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Stawarz, Lukasz; /Heidelberg Observ. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Cheung, C.C.; /KIPAC,; Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Sikora, Marek; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bechtold,; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.

2006-11-20

182

Exploring the Hard and Soft X-ray Emission of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-negligible fraction of galactic hard (>20 keV) X-ray sources were identified as CVs of the magnetic Intermediate Polar type in INTEGRAL, SWIFT and RXTE surveys, that suggests a still hidden but potentially important population of faint hard X-ray sources. Simbol-X has the unique potential to simultaneously characterize their variable and complex soft and hard X-ray emission thus allowing to understand their putative role in galactic populations of X-ray sources.

de Martino, D.; Anzolin, G.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Falanga, M.; Matt, G.; Mouchet, M.; Mukai, K.; Masetti, N.

2009-05-01

183

Hard X-ray and Infrared Emission from Apparently Single White Dwarfs  

E-print Network

The photospheric emission of a white dwarf (WD) is not expected to be detectable in hard X-rays or the mid-IR. Hard X-ray (~1 keV) emission associated with a WD is usually attributed to a binary companion; however, emission at 1 keV has been detected from three WDs without companions: KPD 0005+5106, PG 1159, and WD 2226-210. The origin of their hard X-ray emission is unknown, although it has been suggested that WD 2226-210 has a late-type companion whose coronal activity is responsible for the hard X-rays. Recent Spitzer observations of WD 2226-210 revealed mid-IR excess emission indicative of the existence of a dust disk. It now becomes much less clear whether WD 2226-210's hard X-ray emission originates from the corona of a late-type companion or from the accretion of the disk material. High-quality X-ray observations and mid-IR observations of KPD 0005+5106 and PG 1159 are needed to help us understand the origin of their hard X-ray emission.

Y. -H. Chu; R. A. Gruendl; M. A. Guerrero; K. Y. -L. Su

2007-01-01

184

X-ray emission from a compact hot plasma: applications to radiology and mammography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot electrons confined in a compact magnetized plasma (in a 1 litre chamber) and heated by electron cyclotron resonance were used to provide an intense reproducible x-ray emission. Since electrons were generated in situ, the use of filaments and high voltages at the base of the x-ray tubes was avoided. The source can be pulsed or operated in a highly

C. Gaudin; M. Lamoureux; C. Rouillé

2001-01-01

185

Grazing emission x-ray fluorescence from multilayers H. P. Urbach and P. K. de Bokx  

E-print Network

Grazing emission x-ray fluorescence from multilayers H. P. Urbach and P. K. de Bokx Philips, the sensitivity to subsurface layers is considerably enhanced by mea- suring intensities at grazing angles.085408 PACS number s : 78.70.En, 41.50. h, 07.85.Nc I. INTRODUCTION The use of grazing-incident x-ray beams

186

A Study of Nonthermal X-Ray and Radio Emission from the O Star 9 Sgr  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observed X-ray and highly variable nonthermal radio emission from OB stars has eluded explanation for more than 18 years. The most favorable model of X-ray production in these stars (shocks) predicts both nonthermal radio and X-ray emission. The nonthermal X-ray emission should occur above 2 keV and the variability of this X-ray component should also be comparable to the observed radio variability. To test this scenario, we proposed an ASC/VLA monitoring program to observe the OB star, 9 Sgr, a well known nonthermal, variable radio source and a strong X-ray source. We requested 625 ks ASCA observations with a temporal spacing of approximately 4 days which corresponds to the time required for a density disturbance to propagate to the 6 cm radio free-free photosphere. The X-ray observations were coordinated with 5 multi-wavelength VLA observations. These observations represent the first systematic attempt to investigate the relationship between the X-ray and radio emission in OB stars.

Waldron, Wayne L.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Drake, Stephen A.

1999-01-01

187

Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on an experimental demonstration in an introductory modern physics course to elucidate the X-ray line spectra, and how they arise from transitions of electrons to inner shells. We seek to determine the effect of limited use of an interactive component as a supplement to a traditional lecture, and how it would improve the student achievement. In this preliminary

Jorge A. Lopez; Mario F. Borunda; Jaime Morales

2003-01-01

188

Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants  

SciTech Connect

I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and {gamma}-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification.The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations.Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

Vink, Jacco [Astronomical Institute Utrecht, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

2009-05-11

189

Detection of x-ray emission in a nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of x-ray emission is an important parameter to investigate runaway behavior of fast electrons produced in nanosecond-pulse gas discharge. An online detection system of x rays is described in this paper, and the system consists of an x-ray detector with NaI (Tl) scintillator and photomultiplier tube, and an integrated multichannel analyzer. The system is responsible for detecting x-ray emission signal, processing the detected signals, and scaling the energy distribution. The calibration results show that every channel of the detection system represents a given x-ray energy and various x rays can be divided into different energy ranges between 10 and 130 keV. For a repetitive nanosecond-pulse breakdown between highly nonuniform gaps in open air, an energy distribution is obtained using the online detection system. It shows that the x-ray emission is a continuous spectrum and the x rays of above 60 keV dominate in the detected energy distribution.

Zhang Cheng; Yu Yang; Niu Zheng; Yan Ping [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shao Tao [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); State Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipments, Electrical Engineering Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou Yuanxiang [State Key Laboratory of Control and Simulation of Power Systems and Generation Equipments, Electrical Engineering Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-11-15

190

A Comparison of X-Ray and Optical Emission in Cassiopeia A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadband optical and narrowband Si XIII X-ray images of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) obtained over several decades are used to investigate spatial and temporal emission correlations on both large and small angular scales. The data examined consist of optical and near-infrared ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope images taken between 1951 and 2011, and of X-ray images from Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra taken between 1979 and 2013. We find weak spatial correlations between the remnant's X-ray and optical emission features on large scales, but several cases of good optical/X-ray correlations on small scales for features which have brightened due to recent interactions with the reverse shock. We also find instances (1) where a time delay is observed between the appearance of a feature's optical and X-ray emissions, (2) of displacements of several arcseconds between a feature's X-ray and optical emission peaks, and (3) of regions showing no corresponding X-ray or optical emissions. To explain this behavior, we propose a highly inhomogeneous density model for Cas A's ejecta consisting of small, dense optically emitting knots (n ~102-3 cm-3) and a much lower density (n ~0.1-1 cm-3) diffuse X-ray emitting component often spatially associated with optical emission knots. The X-ray emitting component is sometimes linked to optical clumps through shock-induced mass ablation generating trailing material leading to spatially offset X-ray/optical emissions. A range of ejecta densities can also explain the observed X-ray/optical time delays since the remnant's ?5000 km s-1 reverse shock heats dense ejecta clumps to temperatures around 3 × 104 K relatively quickly, which then become optically bright while more diffuse ejecta become X-ray bright on longer timescales. Highly inhomogeneous ejecta as proposed here for Cas A may help explain some of the X-ray/optical emission features seen in other young core-collapse supernova remnants.

Patnaude, Daniel J.; Fesen, Robert A.

2014-07-01

191

The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS). II. X-Ray Emission from Compact Planetary Nebulae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the most recent set of observations obtained as part of the Chandra X-ray observatory Planetary Nebula Survey (CHANPLANS), the first comprehensive X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood (i.e., within ~1.5 kpc of the Sun). The survey is designed to place constraints on the frequency of appearance and range of X-ray spectral characteristics of X-ray-emitting PN central stars and the evolutionary timescales of wind-shock-heated bubbles within PNe. CHANPLANS began with a combined Cycle 12 and archive Chandra survey of 35 PNe. CHANPLANS continued via a Chandra Cycle 14 Large Program which targeted all (24) remaining known compact (R neb <~ 0.4 pc), young PNe that lie within ~1.5 kpc. Results from these Cycle 14 observations include first-time X-ray detections of hot bubbles within NGC 1501, 3918, 6153, and 6369, and point sources in HbDs 1, NGC 6337, and Sp 1. The addition of the Cycle 14 results brings the overall CHANPLANS diffuse X-ray detection rate to ~27% and the point source detection rate to ~36%. It has become clearer that diffuse X-ray emission is associated with young (lsim 5 × 103 yr), and likewise compact (R neb <~ 0.15 pc), PNe with closed structures and high central electron densities (ne >~ 1000 cm–3), and is rarely associated with PNe that show H2 emission and/or pronounced butterfly structures. Hb 5 is one such exception of a PN with a butterfly structure that hosts diffuse X-ray emission. Additionally, two of the five new diffuse X-ray detections (NGC 1501 and NGC 6369) host [WR]-type central stars, supporting the hypothesis that PNe with central stars of [WR]-type are likely to display diffuse X-ray emission.

Freeman, M.; Montez, R., Jr.; Kastner, J. H.; Balick, B.; Frew, D. J.; Jones, D.; Miszalski, B.; Sahai, R.; Blackman, E.; Chu, Y.-H.; De Marco, O.; Frank, A.; Guerrero, M. A.; Lopez, J. A.; Zijlstra, A.; Bujarrabal, V.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Nordhaus, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Sandin, C.; Schönberner, D.; Soker, N.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Steffen, M.; Toalá, J. A.; Ueta, T.; Villaver, E.

2014-10-01

192

Measurements of Peak X-ray Emission of imploding DT capsules using X-ray Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute time (bang time) and burn width of the x-ray emission from the imploding cores of deuterium-tritium capsules near peak compression are measured by several different but complimentary diagnostic instruments. These instruments report independent measurements for the bang time (BT) and burn width (BW). A summary of the results from recent DT experiments is presented contrasting the BT and BW reported by: SPIDER, an x-ray streak camera; Gamma Ray History, a gamma ray detector; and Hardened X-ray Gated Imager (HGXI), a gated micro-channel plate coupled to film camera. An evaluation of the shielding and design of the instruments is presented in order to compare the spectral sensitivity of the instruments. Simulations of the x-ray emission spectrum are examined with the results reported by these x-ray diagnostics.

Khan, Shahab; Macphee, Andrew; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Glenn, Steve; Kimbrough, Joe; Herrmann, Hans; Church, Jennifer; Bell, Perry; Bradley, David

2012-10-01

193

Characterization of nuclear physics targets using Rutherford backscattering and particle induced x-ray emission  

E-print Network

Rutherford backscattering and particle induced x-ray emission have been utilized to precisely characterize targets used in nuclear fission experiments. The method allows for a fast and non destructive determination of target thickness, homogeneity and element composition.

Th. Rubehn; G. J. Wozniak; L. Phair; L. G. Moretto; Kin M. Yu

1996-09-23

194

The Elusive Soft Emission from Hard X-ray Symbiotic System RT Cru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RT Cru is a fascinating member of a new class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic binaries showing X-ray emission extending to over 50keV. While its hard X-ray emission has been studied in detail, the soft component of the spectrum, including flares, remains elusive, since previous observations have focused on the high-energy regime. We propose Chandra HRC-S/LETG observations to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the source of the soft X-ray emission with a goal to establish the origin of the soft component, and determine whether and how it is tied to the hard component. Determining the origin of the soft emission is a crucial piece of the puzzle to understanding the geometry, energetics, and the environment of WD accretion in this class of symbiotic systems.

Karovska, Margarita

2014-09-01

195

Extended X-ray Emission From a Quasar-Driven Superbubble  

E-print Network

We present observations of extended, 20-kpc scale soft X-ray gas around a luminous obscured quasar hosted by an ultra-luminous infrared galaxy caught in the midst of a major merger. The extended X-ray emission is well fit as a thermal gas with a temperature of kT ~ 280 eV and a luminosity of L_X ~ 10^42 erg/s and is spatially coincident with a known ionized gas outflow. Based on the X-ray luminosity, a factor of ~10 fainter than the [OIII] emission, we conclude that the X-ray emission is either dominated by photoionization, or by shocked emission from cloud surfaces in a hot quasar-driven wind.

Greene, Jenny E; Zakamska, Nadia L; Comerford, Julia M; Sun, Ai-Lei

2014-01-01

196

Charge exchange-induced X-ray emission from comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR).  

PubMed

Using soft x-ray observations of the bright new comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) with the Chandra x-ray observatory, we have detected x-ray line emission created by charge exchange between highly ionized solar wind minor ions and neutral gases in the comet's coma. The emission morphology was symmetrically crescent shaped and extended out to 300,000 kilometers from the nucleus. The emission spectrum contains 6 lines at 320, 400, 490, 560, 600, and 670 electron volts, attributable to electron capture and radiative deexcitation by the solar wind species C(+5), C(+6), N(+7), O(+7), and O(+8). A contemporaneous 7-day soft x-ray light curve obtained using the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer demonstrates a large increase in the comet's emission coincident with a strong solar flare on 14 and 15 July 2000. PMID:11359004

Lisse, C M; Christian, D J; Dennerl, K; Meech, K J; Petre, R; Weaver, H A; Wolk, S J

2001-05-18

197

Soft X-ray emission from the inner disk of M33  

E-print Network

We present a study, based on archival XMM-Newton observations, of the extended X-ray emission associated with the inner disk of M33. After the exclusion of point sources with L_X > 2 x 10^{35} erg/s (0.3-6 keV), we investigate the morphology and spectrum of the residual X-ray emission. This residual emission has a soft X-ray spectrum which can be fitted with a two-temperature thermal model, with kT = 0.2 keV and 0.6 keV. The soft X-ray surface brightness distribution shows a strong correlation with FUV emission, indicative of a close connection between recent star-formation activity and the production of soft X-rays. Within 3.5 kpc of the nucleus of M33, the soft X-ray and FUV surface brightness distributions exhibit similar radial profiles. This implies that the ratio of the soft X-ray luminosity (0.3-2.0 keV) to the star formation rate (SFR) per unit disk area remains fairly constant within this inner disk region. We derive a value for this ratio of 1-1.5 x 10^{39} (erg/s)/(M_sun/yr), consistent with previo...

Owen, R A

2009-01-01

198

X-ray emission from clusters and groups of galaxies  

PubMed Central

Recent major advances in x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of clusters have allowed the determination of their mass and mass profile out to ?1/2 the virial radius. In rich clusters, most of the baryonic mass is in the gas phase, and the ratio of mass in gas/stars varies by a factor of 2–4. The baryonic fractions vary by a factor of ?3 from cluster to cluster and almost always exceed 0.09 h50?[3/2] and thus are in fundamental conflict with the assumption of ? = 1 and the results of big bang nucleosynthesis. The derived Fe abundances are 0.2–0.45 solar, and the abundances of O and Si for low redshift systems are 0.6–1.0 solar. This distribution is consistent with an origin in pure type II supernova. The amount of light and energy produced by these supernovae is very large, indicating their importance in influencing the formation of clusters and galaxies. The lack of evolution of Fe to a redshift of z ? 0.4 argues for very early enrichment of the cluster gas. Groups show a wide range of abundances, 0.1–0.5 solar. The results of an x-ray survey indicate that the contribution of groups to the mass density of the universe is likely to be larger than 0.1 h50?2. Many of the very poor groups have large x-ray halos and are filled with small galaxies whose velocity dispersion is a good match to the x-ray temperatures. PMID:9419327

Mushotzky, Richard

1998-01-01

199

HI Emission in Nearby X-ray Detected Active Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured HI profiles in 96 nearby, active galaxies using the 100-meter Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Our sources contain active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in the hard X-ray (14-195 keV) from Swift Gamma-ray Burst satellite’s Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 22-month survey. This survey is unique because the sources were detected in the hard X-ray, allowing us to include galaxies that are otherwise obscured in other bands. The HI profiles we gathered are combined with the published optical, infrared, and X-ray data. We present the systemic velocities, outflow velocities, and cold gas mass in the sources. The mass of the cold gas is compared to the luminous mass in stars in order to find clues to unlock the nature of the host galaxies. A comparison of HI with the bolometric luminosity of the AGN is made. Our observations examine how the reservoir of cold gas is correlated with luminosity, as well. Through these data, we look for evolutionary differences in host galaxy types in order to understand how super massive black holes are fueled.

George, Erin; Winter, L. M.; Zauderer, B.; Darling, J.; Koss, M.

2013-01-01

200

Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission in the Classroom  

SciTech Connect

We report on an experimental demonstration in an introductory modern physics course to elucidate the X-ray line spectra, and how they arise from transitions of electrons to inner shells. We seek to determine the effect of limited use of an interactive component as a supplement to a traditional lecture, and how it would improve the student achievement. In this preliminary study the students were exposed to traditional lectures on X-ray production and Bohr's model, they then were given a homework on the abc of X-ray spectra, after which they were given a pre-test on the materials, followed by an in-class demonstration, and a final post-exam. The gain, as measured from pre- to post-exams appears to remark the differences in how students approached the subject before and after the use of the demonstration. This initial study shows the validity of in-class demonstrations as teaching tools and opens a wide new area of research in modern physics teaching.

Lopez, Jorge A.; Borunda, Mario F.; Morales, Jaime [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

2003-08-26

201

Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Emission in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an experimental demonstration in an introductory modern physics course to elucidate the X-ray line spectra, and how they arise from transitions of electrons to inner shells. We seek to determine the effect of limited use of an interactive component as a supplement to a traditional lecture, and how it would improve the student achievement. In this preliminary study the students were exposed to traditional lectures on X-ray production and Bohr's model, they then were given a homework on the abc of X-ray spectra, after which they were given a pre-test on the materials, followed by an in-class demonstration, and a final post-exam. The gain, as measured from pre- to post-exams appears to remark the differences in how students approached the subject before and after the use of the demonstration. This initial study shows the validity of in-class demonstrations as teaching tools and opens a wide new area of research in modern physics teaching.

Lopez, Jorge A.; Borunda, Mario F.; Morales, Jaime

2003-08-01

202

A Comparison of X-ray and Radio Emission from the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the radio and soft X-ray brightness as a function of position\\u000awithin the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. A moderately strong\\u000acorrelation (r = 0.7) was found between the X-ray emission (corrected for\\u000ainterstellar absorption) and radio emission, showing that the thermal and\\u000arelativistic plasmas occupy the same volumes and are regulated by common\\u000aunderlying parameters. The logarithmic

Jonathan W. Keohane; Lawrence Rudnick; Martha C. Anderson

1996-01-01

203

Design of a novel transmission-grating spectrometer for soft X-ray emission studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a transmission-grating spectrometer for high-resolution soft X-ray emission studies has been proposed. It is different from conventional types of soft X-ray emission spectrometers; that is, the spectrometer has a Wolter type I mirror, a free-standing transmission grating, and a back-illuminated CCD. A high collection angle up to 1.5×10?3sr is achieved by utilizing the Wolter mirror as a

Takaki Hatsui; Hiroyuki Setoyama; Eiji Shigemasa; Nobuhiro Kosugi

2005-01-01

204

A unified model of accretion flows and X ray emission in low mass X ray binary systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work on a unified model of accretion flows and X-ray emission in low mass X-ray binaries is summarized. In this model, a weakly magnetic neutron star accretes gas simultaneously from a Keplerian disk and a corona above the inner part of the disk. Photons are produced and escape through an approximately radial inflow of gas captured from the inner disk corona. Changes in the optical depths of the central corona and the radial flow may explain the Z-shaped hardness-intensity and color-color tracks observed in the most luminous sources. Numerical simulations show that the radial flow oscillates when the luminosity rises to within a few percent of the Eddington critical luminosity L sub E, and that the oscillation frequency is approximately 5 to 10 Hz if the radial flow develops approximately 300 km from the neutron star. The 10 to 20 Hz oscillations observed in Sco X-1 when it is on the flaring branch are discussed.

Lamb, F. K.

1989-01-01

205

Correlated radio:X-ray emission in the hard states of Galactic microquasars  

E-print Network

We present results of our study of correlated radio and X-ray emission in two black hole candidates and Galactic microquasars GRS 1915+105 and Cygnus X-1 in their steady long term hard states, along with Cygnus X-3 (using data obtained from RXTE-ASM, CGRO-BATSE and GBI). We detect a pivotal behavior in the X-ray spectrum of GRS 1915+105, correlated to the radio emission. Similar to the results obtained for Cygnus X-3, the flux of X-rays softer than the pivoting point correlates with the radio emission, while the corresponding harder X-ray flux anti-correlates with both the radio and the softer X-ray emission, in this state. We examine all the previously reported correlations of X-ray properties with the radio emission in Galactic microquasars and argue that these are consistent with a general picture where a spectral pivoting is a common feature in these sources with the shape of the spectrum determining the flux of radio emission, during the hard states. We also detect a general monotonic increase in the rad...

Choudhury, M; Vadawale, S V; Jain, A K

2003-01-01

206

CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6304  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the analysis of candidate low-mass X-ray binaries in quiescence (qLMXBs) observed during a short Chandra/ACIS observation of the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6304. Two out of the three candidate qLMXBs of this cluster, XMMU 171433-292747 and XMMU 171421-292917, lie within the field of view. This permits comparison with the discovery observation of these sources. The one in the GC core-XMMU 171433-292747-is spatially resolved into two separate X-ray sources, one of which is consistent with a pure H-atmosphere qLMXB, and the other is an X-ray power-law spectrum source. These two spectral components separately account for those observed from XMMU 171433-292747 in its discovery observation. We find that the observed flux and spectral parameters of the H-atmosphere spectral components are consistent with the previous observation, as expected from a qLMXB powered by deep crustal heating. XMMU 171421-292917 also has neutron star atmosphere spectral parameters consistent with those in the XMM-Newton observation and the observed flux has decreased by a factor 0.54{sup +0.30}{sub -0.24}.

Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC H2X-3R4 (Canada); Brown, Edward F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 3250 Biomedical Physical Science Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Pavlov, George G. [Pennsylvania State University, 512 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zavlin, Vyacheslav E. [Space Science Laboratory, Universities Space Research Association, NASA MSFC VP62, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)], E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca

2009-07-10

207

Astrophysics Research Projects:Astrophysics Research Projects: massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,massive star winds, x-ray emission, theoretical models,  

E-print Network

Astrophysics Research Projects:Astrophysics Research Projects: massive star winds, x-ray emission astrophysicsspectroscopy, laboratory plasma astrophysics David CohenDavid Cohen on leave 2007-08on leave 2007-08......but ­­ 11 Ori COri C ­­ is hotteris hotter Mg XIMg XIMg XIIMg XII #12;Laboratory Astrophysics

Cohen, David

208

Energetics and timing of the hard and soft X-ray emissions in white light flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By comparing the light curves in optical, hard X-ray, and soft X-ray wavelengths for eight well-observed flares, we confirm previous results indicating that the white light flare (WLF) is associated with the flare impulsive phase. The WLF emission peaks within seconds after the associated hard X-ray peak, and nearly two minutes before the 1-8 A soft X-ray peak. It is further shown that the peak power in nonthermal electrons above 50 keV is typically an order of magnitude larger, and the power in 1-8 A soft X-rays radiated over 2pi sr, at the time of the WLF peak, is an order of magnitude smaller than the peak WLF power.

Neidig, Donald F.; Kane, Sharad R.

1993-01-01

209

Discovery of Oxygen Kalpha X-ray Emission from the Rings of Saturn  

E-print Network

Using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observed the Saturnian system for one rotation of the planet (~37 ks) on 20 January, 2004, and again on 26-27 January, 2004. In this letter we report the detection of X-ray emission from the rings of Saturn. The X-ray spectrum from the rings is dominated by emission in a narrow (~130 eV wide) energy band centered on the atomic oxygen K-alpha fluorescence line at 0.53 keV. The X-ray power emitted from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band is 84 MW, which is about one-third of that emitted from Saturn disk in the photon energy range 0.24-2.0 keV. Our analysis also finds a clear detection of X-ray emission from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band in an earlier (14-15 April, 2003) Chandra ACIS observation of Saturn. Fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays from oxygen atoms in the H2O icy ring material is the likely source mechanism for ring X-rays, consistent with the scenario of solar photo-production of a tenuous ring oxygen atmosphere and ionosphere recently discovered by Cassini.

Anil Bhardwaj; Ronald F. Elsner; J. Hunter Waite, Jr.; G. Randall Gladstone; Thomas E. Cravens; Peter G. Ford

2005-05-19

210

The Discovery of Oxygen K? X-Ray Emission from the Rings of Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), the Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Saturnian system for one rotation of the planet (~37 ks) on 2004 January 20 and again on January 26-27. In this Letter we report the detection of X-ray emission from the rings of Saturn. The X-ray spectrum from the rings is dominated by emission in a narrow (~130 eV-wide) energy band centered on the atomic oxygen K? fluorescence line at 0.53 keV. The X-ray power emitted from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band is 84 MW, which is about one-third of that emitted from Saturn's disk in the photon energy range 0.24-2.0 keV. Our analysis also finds a clear detection of X-ray emission from the rings in the 0.49-0.62 keV band in an earlier (2003 April 14-15) Chandra ACIS observation of Saturn. Fluorescent scattering of solar X-rays from oxygen atoms in the H2O icy ring material is the likely source mechanism for ring X-rays, consistent with the scenario of the solar photoproduction of a tenuous oxygen atmosphere and ionosphere over the rings recently discovered by Cassini.

Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ford, Peter G.

2005-07-01

211

X-Ray Emission from Jet-Wind Interaction in Planetary Nebulae  

E-print Network

We conduct 2D numerical simulations of jets expanding into the slow wind of asymptotic giant branch stars. We show that the post-shock jets' material can explain the observed extended X-ray emission from some planetary nebulae (PNs). Such jets are thought to shape many PNs, and therefore it is expected that this process will contribute to the X-ray emission from some PNs. In other PNs (not simulated in this work) the source of the extended X-ray emission is the shocked spherical wind blown by the central star. In a small fraction of PNs both sources might contribute, and a two-temperatures gas will fit better the X-ray properties than a one-temperature gas. A spacial separation between these two components is expected.

Muhammad Akashi; Yohai Meiron; Noam Soker

2007-11-21

212

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double pulses  

E-print Network

Enhancement of x-ray line emission from plasmas produced by short high-intensity laser double laser-produced plasmas are bright ultrafast line x-ray sources potentially suitable for different onto a solid target into the x-ray emission is significantly enhanced when a laser prepulse precedes

Limpouch, Jiri

213

An X-ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies  

E-print Network

Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, & Ryde for the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubi\\'nski, & Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum, and as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those which have been observed from these objects can be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate which satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the hard X-ray continuum above $\\sim 50$ keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft $\\gamma$-ray telescopes, in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

James Chiang

2002-02-12

214

Catalytic action of {beta} source on x-ray emission from plasma focus  

SciTech Connect

The influence of preionization around the insulator sleeve by a mesh-type {beta} source ({sub 28}Ni{sup 63}) for the x-ray emission from a (2.3-3.9 kJ) plasma focus device is investigated. Quantrad Si p-i-n diodes along with suitable filters are employed as time-resolved x-ray detectors and a multipinhole camera with absorption filters is used for time-integrated analysis. X-ray emission in 4{pi} geometry is measured as a function of argon and hydrogen gas filling pressures with and without {beta} source at different charging voltages. It is found that the pressure range for the x-ray emission is broadened, x-ray emission is enhanced, and shot to shot reproducibility is improved with the {beta} source. With argon, the Cu K{alpha} emission is estimated to be 27.14 J with an efficiency of 0.7% for {beta} source and 21.5 J with an efficiency of 0.55% without {beta} source. The maximum x-ray yield in 4{pi} geometry is found to be about 68.90 J with an efficiency of 1.8% for {beta} source and 54.58 J with an efficiency of 1.4% without {beta} source. With hydrogen, Cu K{alpha} emission is 11.82 J with an efficiency of 0.32% for {beta} source and 10.07 J with an efficiency of 0.27% without {beta} source. The maximum x-ray yield in 4{pi} geometry is found to be 30.20 J with an efficiency of 0.77% for {beta} source and 25.58 J with an efficiency of 0.6% without {beta} source. The x-ray emission with Pb insert at the anode tip without {beta} source is also investigated and found to be reproducible and significantly high. The maximum x-ray yield is estimated to be 46.6 J in 4{pi} geometry with an efficiency of 1.4% at 23 kV charging voltage. However, degradation of x-ray yield is observed when charging voltage exceeds 23 kV for Pb insert. From pinhole images it is observed that the x-ray emission due to the bombardment of electrons at the anode tip is dominant in both with and without {beta} source.

Ahmad, S.; Sadiq, Mehboob; Hussain, S.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.; Waheed, A. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, Sargodha (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); PINSTECH, P.O. Box 1331, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

2006-01-15

215

SphinX Measurements of the 2009 Solar Minimum X-Ray Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 × 1047 cm-3 and 1.1 × 1048 cm-3. Comparing SphinX emission with that from the Hinode X-ray Telescope, we deduce that most of the emission is from general coronal structures rather than confined features like bright points. For one of 27 intervals of exceptionally low activity identified in the SphinX data, the Sun's X-ray luminosity in an energy range roughly extrapolated to that of ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) was less than most nearby K and M dwarfs.

Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Baka?a, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

2012-06-01

216

A Study of the X-Ray Emission from Three Radio Pulsars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The subject grant is for work on a study of x-ray emission from isolated pulsars. The purpose of the study was to: determine whether the pulsars were x-ray sources; and, if so, search for evidence of pulsations at the known radio period; and study the nature of the x-ray emission. Observation of the pulsar PSR 0355+54 were obtained, and the analysis of these data is complete. These results were reported at the 183rd AAS Meeting, and in a paper entitled 'X-Ray Emission from PSR 0355+54' which as published in the The Astrophysical Journal. Also obtained an approx. 3 ks PSPC observations of PSR 1642-03. A summary of the results from these data were reported in a Conference Proceedings for the 'New Horizon of X-ray Astronomy' symposium. In addition, as part of a study with a student from the SAO Summer Intern Program, I incorporated ROSAT archival data in an extended study of pulsar emission. These results were reported at the 185th AAS Meeting, and in a paper entitled 'Soft X-ray Emission from Selected Isolated Pulsars' which was published in The Astrophysical Journal (Letters).

Slane, Patrick O. (Principal Investigator)

1996-01-01

217

Contour shape analysis of hollow ion x-ray emission  

SciTech Connect

Hollow ion x-ray transitions originating from the configurations K{sup 0}L{sup N} have been studied via relativistic atomic structure and Stark broadening calculations. The broadening of the total contour is largely influenced by the oscillator strengths distribution over wavelengths rather than by Stark broadening alone. Interference effects between the upper and lower levels are shown to result in a considerable contour narrowing as well as in a shift of the total contour which could be either red or blue.

Rosmej, F. B.; Angelo, P. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LULI-PAPD, UMR 7605, case 128, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire pour Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, Physique Atomique dans les Plasmas Denses, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Aouad, Y. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LULI-PAPD, UMR 7605, case 128, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2008-10-22

218

X-ray emission in collisions of highly charged I, Pr, Ho, and Bi ions with a W surface  

SciTech Connect

X-ray emission yields, which are defined as the total number of emitted x-ray photons per incident ion, and dissipated fractions of potential energies through x-ray emission have been measured for slow highly charged ions of I, Pr, Ho, and Bi colliding with a W surface. A larger amount of potential energy was consumed for the x-ray emission with increasing the atomic number and the charge state. The present measurements show that x-ray emission is one of the main decay channels of hollow atoms produced in collisions of very highly charged ions of heavy elements.

Watanabe, H.; Tona, M.; Ohtani, S. [Institute for Laser Science and Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Sun, J.; Nakamura, N.; Yamada, C.; Yoshiyasu, N. [Institute for Laser Science and Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Sakurai, M. [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, 657-8501 (Japan)

2007-06-15

219

The evolution of planetary nebulae. V. The diffuse X-ray emission  

E-print Network

Observations with space-borne X-ray telescopes revealed the existence of soft, diffuse X-ray emission from the inner regions of planetary nebulae. Although the existing images support the idea that this emission arises from the hot shocked central-star wind which fills the inner cavity of a planetary nebula, existing models have difficulties to explain the observations consistently. We investigate how the inclusion of thermal conduction changes the physical parameters of the hot shocked wind gas and the amount of X-ray emission predicted by time-dependent hydrodynamical models of planetary nebulae with central stars of normal, hydrogen-rich surface composition. The radiation hydrodynamical models show that heat conduction leads to lower temperatures and higher densities within a bubble and brings the physical properties of the X-ray emitting domain into close agreement with the values derived from observations. Depending on the central-star mass and the evolutionary phase, our models predict X-ray [0.45--2.5 keV] luminosities between $10^{-8}$ and $10^{-4}$ of the stellar bolometric luminosities, in good agreement with the observations. Less than 1% of the wind power is radiated away in this X-ray band. Although temperature, density, and also the mass of the hot bubble is significantly altered by heat conduction, the dynamics of the whole system remains practically the same. Heat conduction allows the construction of nebular models which predict the correct amount of X-ray emission and at the same time are fully consistent with the observed mass-loss rate and wind speed. Thermal conduction must be considered as a viable physical process for explaining the diffuse X-ray emission from planetary nebulae with closed inner cavities. Magnetic fields must then be absent or extremely weak.

M. Steffen; D. Schoenberner; A. Warmuth

2008-07-21

220

Relative L-shell X-ray emission rates in PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

L shell X-ray emission rates usually used as a part of a data base for analysis of PIXE spectra are theoretical values based on Dirac-Hartree-Slater (DHS) [J.H. Scofield, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14 (1974) 121] or Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) [J.H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 10 (1974) 1507] calculations, or semiempirical data of Salem et al. [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 14 (1974) 91], obtained from pre-1974 experiments with radioactive sources or sources ionized by photon or electron bombardment. Recently published L-subshell X-ray production cross sections by proton impact have been used to extract relative L-shell X-ray emission rates for some groups of L-shell X-ray lines, in order to compare them with the values from the three data bases mentioned before.

Fazini?, S.

1996-04-01

221

NuSTAR observation of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paradigm of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE) or hard X-ray background of the Milky Way has been dramatically changed over the past years. The stellar origin of the GRXE has been strongly supported by morphological and spectral studies. The GRXE does not arise from the interaction of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium, as was believed before, but is associated with the (predominantly old) stellar population of the Galaxy, namely with hard X-ray emission from accreting white dwarfs and coronally active stars. I will present results of the GRXE spectral study with NuSTAR hard X-ray mission launched into the orbit in 2012. The GRXE measurements have been done in a part of the Galactic Center survey program 2012-2014. New data allow us to reconstruct both GRXE spatial distribution and broadband (3-80 keV) spectrum, providing another test for its interpretation.

Krivonos, Roman

222

Association between gradual hard X-ray emission and metric continua during large flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray radiation is used to study coronal phenomena in conjunction with meter wave observations during some large solar flares. It is found that metric flare continua and moving type IV bursts are associated with gradual and long lasting (a few tens of minutes) microwave and hard X-ray emissions. The detailed temporal analysis reveals that although metric and hard X-ray sources are located at very different heights, both kinds of emission result from a common and continuous/repetitive injection of electrons in the corona. The late part of the metric event (stationary type IV burst) is only associated with soft X-ray radiation. This indicates that the mean energy of the radiating electrons is lower during stationary type IV bursts than during the earlier parts of the event.

Klein, L.; Pick, M.; Trottet, G.; Vilmer, N.; Anderson, K.; Kane, S.

1983-01-01

223

Soft X-Ray Emission and Charged Particles Beams from a Plasma Focus of Hundreds Joules  

SciTech Connect

In a new stage of characterization of our plasma focus devices of hundred and tens of joules (PF-400J and PF-50J), preliminary series of measurements on soft X-ray and ion beams have been performed in the device PF-400J (176-539 J, 880 nF, T/4 {approx}300 ns). The device was operated in hydrogen to 7 mbar of pressure . The temporal and spatial X-ray characteristics are investigated by means filtered PIN diodes and a multipinhole camera. Graphite collectors, operating in the bias ion collector mode, are used to estimate the characteristic ion energy using the time flight across the probe array. The time of the ion beam emission to be correlated with plasma emission events associated with the soft X-ray pulses detected by the probes. Temporal correlations between soft X-ray signals and ion beams are performed.

Silva, Patricio; Moreno, Jose; Soto, Leopoldo [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, Cristian [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Arancibia, Jaime [Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica, Santiago (Chile)

2006-12-04

224

Chandra Observations and Modeling of Geocoronal Charge Exchange X-Ray Emission During Solar Wind Gusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O7+ collide with neutral gas. The best known examples of this occur around comets, but SWCX emission also arises in the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere and throughout the heliosphere as neutral H and He from the interstellar medium flows into the solar system. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises much of the soft X-ray background and is seen in every X-ray observation. Geocoronal emission, although usually weaker than heliospheric emission, arises within a few tens of Earth radii and therefore responds much more quickly (on time scales of less than an hour) to changes in solar wind intensity than the widely distributed heliospheric emission.We have studied a dozen Chandra observations when the flux of solar wind protons and O7+ ions was at its highest. These gusts of wind cause correspondingly abrupt changes in geocoronal SWCX X-ray emission,which may or may not be apparent in Chandra data depending on a given observation's line of sight through the magnetosphere. We compare observed changes in the X-ray background with predictions from a fully 3D analysis of SWCX emission based on magnetospheric simulations using the BATS-R-US model.

Kornbleuth, Marc; Wargelin, Bradford J.; Juda, Michael

2014-06-01

225

AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. III. THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements of the Galactic halo's X-ray emission for 110 XMM-Newton sight lines selected to minimize contamination from solar wind charge exchange emission. We detect emission from few million degree gas on {approx}4/5 of our sight lines. The temperature is fairly uniform (median = 2.22 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K, interquartile range = 0.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K), while the emission measure and intrinsic 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness vary by over an order of magnitude ({approx}(0.4-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -6} pc and {approx}(0.5-7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} deg{sup -2}, respectively, with median detections of 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} cm{sup -6} pc and 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} deg{sup -2}, respectively). The high-latitude sky contains a patchy distribution of few million degree gas. This gas exhibits a general increase in emission measure toward the inner Galaxy in the southern Galactic hemisphere. However, there is no tendency for our observed emission measures to decrease with increasing Galactic latitude, contrary to what is expected for a disk-like halo morphology. The measured temperatures, brightnesses, and spatial distributions of the gas can be used to place constraints on models for the dominant heating sources of the halo. We provide some discussion of such heating sources, but defer comparisons between the observations and detailed models to a later paper.

Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L., E-mail: dbh@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

2013-08-20

226

THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES  

SciTech Connect

Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M. [Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: vzabalza@am.ub.es [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

2011-12-10

227

a Search for Nonthermal Hard X-Ray Emission from Abell Clusters of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to search for nonthermal hard X-ray emission in 3 bright clusters of galaxies: A576, A4059 and A262. Recent detection of hard X- ray emission from A2199 with SAX suggests that the excess emission may be a major contributor to the cluster luminosity. Two possible origins of the emission are inverse Compton scattering of microwave background photons off relativistic electrons and bremsstrahlung of high energy electrons, stochastically accelerated in the intracluster medium (ICM). If this emission is a common feature of clusters, it has strong implications for the derivation of the cluster mass and baryonic fraction from imaging X-ray spectroscopy. These observations may also provide clues to the process of formation and evolution of the cluster thermal and nonthermal components.

Valinia, Azita

228

The Morphology of the X-ray Emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's Aurorae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery in XMM-Newton X-ray data of X-ray emission above 2 keY from Jupiter's aurorae has led us to reexamine the Chandra ACIS-S observations taken in Feb 2003. Chandra's superior spatial resolution has revealed that the auroral X-rays with E > 2 keV are emitted from the periphery of the region emitting those with E < 1 keV. We are presently exploring the relationship of this morphology to that of the FUV emission from the main auroral oval and the polar cap. The low energy emission has previously been established as due to charge exchange between energetic precipitating ions of oxygen and either sulfur or carbon. It seems likely to us that the higher energy emission is due to precipitation of energetic electrons, possibly the same population of electrons responsible for the FUV emission. We discuss our analysis and interpretation.

Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M.; Grodent, D.; Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T.; Ford, P.

2007-01-01

229

The Morphology of the X-ray Emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's Aurorae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery in XMM-Newton X-ray data of X-ray emission above 2 keV from Jupiter's aurorae has led us to reexamine the Chandra ACIS-S observations taken in Feb 2003. Chandra's superior spatial resolution has revealed that the auroral X-rays with E > 2 keV are emitted from the periphery of the region emitting those with E < 1 keV. We are presently exploring the relationship of this morphology to that of the FUV emission from the main auroral oval and the polar cap. The low energy emission has previously been established as due to charge exchange between energetic precipitating ions of oxygen and either sulfur or carbon. It seems likely to us that the higher energy emission is due to precipitation of energetic electrons, possibly the same population of electrons responsible for the FUV emission. We discuss our analysis and interpretation.

Elsner, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Galand, M.; Grodent, D.; Waite, J. H.; Cravens, T.; Ford, P.

2007-01-01

230

Thermal X-Ray Emission and Cosmic-Ray Production in Young Supernova Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple model to investigate the modifications of the hydrodynamics and nonequilibrium ionization X-ray emission in young supernova remnants due to nonlinear particle acceleration. In nonlinear, diffusive shock acceleration, the heating of the gas to X-ray-emitting temperatures is strongly coupled to the acceleration of cosmic-ray ions. If the acceleration is efficient and a significant fraction of the

Anne Decourchelle; Donald C. Ellison; Jean Ballet

2000-01-01

231

The X-ray Emission of Low-Power Radio Galaxies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our Chandra survey of the B2 bright sample finds low-power radio galaxies to have galaxy-scale atmospheres and a compact, largely unabsorbed X-ray core. Cluster-scale gas, known to be present from ROSAT, appears as structureless background in our high-resolution images. We find kpc-scale X-ray jet emission to be common. Deep Chandra mapping of the brightest low-power radio galaxies now makes possible

D. M. Worrall; M. Birkinshaw; M. J. Hardcastle

2003-01-01

232

The Sun's X-ray Emission During the Recent Solar Minimum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sun recently underwent a period of a remarkable lack of major activity such as large flares and sunspots, without equal since the advent of the space age a half century ago. A widely used measure of solar activity is the amount of solar soft X-ray emission, but until recently this has been below the threshold of the X-ray-monitoring Geostationary

Janusz Sylwester; Mirek Kowalinski; Szymon Gburek; Marek Siarkowski; Sergey Kuzin; Frantisek Farnik; Fabio Reale; Kenneth J. H. Phillips

2010-01-01

233

ISOCAM Photometry of Narrow-Line X-ray Galaxies  

E-print Network

Mid-infrared photometry of the hosts of Narrow-Line X-ray Galaxies at 6 microns and 12 microns has been attempted with ISOCAM. No conclusive detections have been made. This implies that these are quiescent objects with little or no active star-formation. Neither X-ray binaries nor starburst-driven superwinds are consistent explanations for the X-ray emission in these objects. We conclude that these NLXGs are predominantly AGN-powered.

J. D. Law-Green; A. Zezas; M. J. Ward; C. Boisson

1998-12-23

234

X-ray emission from hot accretion flows  

E-print Network

Radiatively inefficient, hot accretion flows are widely considered as a relevant accretion mode in low-luminosity AGNs. We study spectral formation in such flows using a refined model with a fully general relativistic description of both the radiative (leptonic and hadronic) and hydrodynamic processes, as well as with an exact treatment of global Comptonization. We find that the X-ray spectral index--Eddington ratio anticorrelation as well as the cut-off energy measured in the best-studied objects favor accretion flows with rather strong magnetic field and with a weak direct heating of electrons. Furthermore, they require a much stronger source of seed photons than considered in previous studies. The nonthermal synchrotron radiation of relativistic electrons seems to be the most likely process capable of providing a sufficient flux of seed photons. Hadronic processes, which should occur due to basic properties of hot flows, provide an attractive explanation for the origin of such electrons.

Niedzwiecki, Andrzej; Stepnik, Agnieszka

2014-01-01

235

X-Ray Emission from a Simulated Cluster of Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the 1993 cluster simulation of Katz & White, we analyze the intracluster medium and investigate the accuracy of the standard hydrostatic method for determining cluster masses. We show that the simulated cluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with a subsonic flow toward the center. Inside a radius of (approx.) 100 kpc, this flow is in a steady state. The cooling time is shorter than a Hubble time within the central 50 kpc. The flow rate is regulated by the gas sink in the middle of the cluster and the PdV work done as the gas flows in, verifying the standard cooling flow scenario. We simulate observations of the cluster using the instrument parameters of the EXOSAT ME detector and the Einstein IPC detector. Even though the intracluster gas is not isothermal, isothermal models of the cluster, excluding regions within 100 kpc of galaxies, fit the EXOSAT X-ray spectra as well as they fit real clusters. The X- ray surface brightness distribution is similar to that of real clusters, again excluding the galaxies. We simulate the procedure used to determine the masses of real clusters. We use the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium together with the temperature derived from an isothermal fit to the simulated EXOSAT spectrum and the density profile derived from a fit to the simulated IPC surface brightness profile to determine the mass. A comparison of the derived mass profile to the actual mass profile shows that errors of a factor of 2 are possible. If the actual temperature profile is used, the cluster mass is found to an accuracy of better than 25% within the virial radius.

Tsai, John C.; Katz, Neal; Bertschinger, Edmund

1994-01-01

236

X-Ray Emission from a Simulated Cluster of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the 1993 cluster simulation of Katz & White, we analyze the intracluster medium and investigate the accuracy of the standard hydrostatic method for determining cluster masses. We show that the simulated cluster gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with a subsonic flow toward the center. Inside a radius of ˜100 kpc, this flow is in a steady state. The cooling time is shorter than a Hubble time within the central 50 kpc. The flow rate is regulated by the gas sink in the middle of the cluster and the PdV work done as the gas flows in, verifying the standard cooling flow scenario. We simulate observations of the cluster using the instrument parameters of the EXOSAT ME detector and the Einstein IPC detector. Even though the intracluster gas is not isothermal, isothermal models of the cluster, excluding regions within 100 kpc of galaxies, fit the EXOSAT X-ray spectra as well as they fit real clusters. The X-ray surface brightness distribution is similar to that of real clusters, again excluding the galaxies. We simulate the procedure used to determine the masses of real clusters. We use the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium together with the temperature derived from an isothermal fit to the simulated EXOSAT spectrum and the density profile derived from a fit to the simulated IPC surface brightness profile to determine the mass. A comparison of the derived mass profile to the actual mass profile shows that errors of a factor of 2 are possible. If the actual temperature profile is used, the cluster mass is found to an accuracy of better than 25% within the virial radius.

Tsai, John C.; Katz, Neal; Bertschinger, Edmund

1994-03-01

237

JUXTA: A new probe of X-ray emission from the Jupiter system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the future Japanese exploration mission of the Jupiter's magnetosphere (JMO: Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter), a unique instrument named JUXTA (Jupiter X-ray Telescope Array) is being developed. It aims at the first in-situ measurement of X-ray emission associated with Jupiter and its neighborhood. Recent observations with Earth-orbiting satellites have revealed various X-ray emission from the Jupiter system. X-ray sources include Jupiter's aurorae, disk emission, inner radiation belts, the Galilean satellites and the Io plasma torus. X-ray imaging spectroscopy can be a new probe to reveal rotationally driven activities, particle acceleration and Jupiter-satellite binary system. JUXTA is composed of an ultra-light weight X-ray telescope based on micromachining technology and a radiation-hard semiconductor pixel detector. It covers 0.3-2 keV with the energy resolution of <100 eV at 0.6 keV. Because of proximity to Jupiter (˜30 Jovian radii at periapsis), the image resolution of <5 arcmin and the on-axis effective area of >3 cm2 at 0.6 keV allow extremely high photon statistics and high resolution observations.

Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kimura, Tomoki; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Masaki; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Ishikawa, Kumi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Kakiuchi, Takuya; Ohashi, Takaya

2013-05-01

238

Hard X-Ray Emission and the Ionizing Source in LINERs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report X-ray luminosities of 21 LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) and 17 low-luminosity Seyferts obtained with ASCA and discuss the ionizing source in LINERs. Most LINERs with broad H-alpha emission in their optical spectra (LINER 1s) have a compact hard X-ray source and their 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities (LX) are proportional to their H alpha luminosities (L-H-alpha). This correlation strongly supports the hypothesis that the dominant ionizing source in LINER 1s is photoionization by hard photons from low-luminosity AGNs. Although some LINERs without broad H-alpha emission (LINER 2s) have X-ray properties similar to LINER 1s, the X-ray luminosities of many LINER 2s in our sample are lower than LINER 1s at a given H-alpha luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities in these objects are insufficient to power their H-alpha luminosities, suggesting that their primary ionizing source is something other than an AGN, or that an AGN, if present, is obscured even at energies above 2 keV. LINER 2s having small LX/LH-alpha occupy a localized region with small [OI]/H-alpha on the excitation diagram. Such LINER spectra can be reproduced by photoionization by very hot stars.

Terashima, Y.; Ho, L. C.; Ptak, A. F.

2004-01-01

239

Infrared Line Emission from Molecular Gas Heated by X-Rays and Energetic Electrons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"I propose to carry out a detailed study using infrared observations (and in some cases, optical and ultraviolet observations) of dense interstellar gas exposed to intense fluxes of X-rays and/or energetic electrons. This is undoubtedly the dominant source of line emission for clouds exposed to X-rays from active galactic nuclei, supernova shocks, or embedded X-ray sources (e.g., X-ray binaries), or to high-temperature or relativistic electrons in galaxy clusters, near powerful radio sources, or supernova remnants. Detailed physical and chemical models of such clouds will be used to analyze infrared observations of the Great Annihilator X-ray source in the Galactic Center, cD galaxies in massive cooling flows, and the nuclei of Seyfert galaxies which will be obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), UV and optical observations of the Crab Nebula obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, and ground-based near-infrared observations of Seyfert nuclei. Results from this work will also be of great relevance to observations obtained with the Submillimeter Wave Astronomical Satellite (SWAS). In the first year of funding of this proposal, my chief collaborators (D.J. Hollenbach and A.G.G.M. Tielens, both of NASA Ames Research Center) and I concentrated on completing our models of the physical conditions in, and the resulting line emission from, dense gas irradiated by X-rays. As noted in the original proposal, some important physical processes were not yet thoroughly incorporated into our models at the time of submission. We completed our modeling of the physical conditions and line emission for essentially the entire range of parameter space (five orders of magnitude in X-ray flux to gas density ratio) occupied by typical dense interstellar clouds in which the gas is mostly neutral and X-rays are important for the ionization, chemistry, and thermal balance.

Maloney, Philip R.

1997-01-01

240

A study of X-ray and infrared emissions from dusty nonradiative shock waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have constructed models that predict the dynamic evolution and infrared (IR) emission of grains behind nonradiative shock waves. We present a self-consistent treatment of the effect of grain destruction and heating on the ionization structure and X-ray emission of the postshock gas. Incorporating thermal sputtering, collisional heating, and deceleration of grains in the postshock flow, we predict the IR and X-ray fluxes from the dusty plasma as a function of swept-up column density. Heavy elements such as C, O, Mg, S, Si and Fe are initially depleted from the gas phase but are gradually returned as the grains are destroyed. The injected neutral atoms require some time to 'catch up' with the ionization state of the ambient gas. The nonequilibrium ionization state and gradient in elemental abundances in the postshock flow produces characteristic X-ray signatures that can be related to the age of the shock and amount of grain destruction. We study the effects of preshock density and shock velocity on the X-ray and IR emission from the shock. We show that the effects of graindestruction on the X-ray spectra of shock waves are substantial. In particular, temperatures derived from X-ray spectra of middle-aged remnants are likely to be overestimated by approximately 15% if cosmic abundances are assumed. Due to the long timescales for grain destruction in X-ray gases over a wide range of temperatures, we suggest that future X-ray spectra studies of supernova remnants be based on depleted abundances instead of cosmic abundances. Our model predictions agree reasonably well with IRAS and Einstein IPC observations of the Cygnus Loop.

Vancura, Olaf; Raymond, John C.; Dwek, Eli; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S.; Foster, Scott

1994-01-01

241

The extended X-ray emission around RRAT J1819-1458  

E-print Network

We present new imaging and spectral analysis of the recently discovered extended X-ray emission around the high magnetic field rotating radio transient RRAT J1819-1458. We used two Chandra observations performed for this object in 2008 May 31 and 2011 May 28, respectively. The diffuse X-ray emission was detected with a significance of \\sim19 sigma in the image obtained by combining the two observations. Neither long-term spectral nor timing variability have been observed from the source or the nebula. RRAT J1819-1458 shows an unusual high X-ray efficiency of L_x(0.3-5 keV)/Edot_{rot} \\sim 0.15 at converting spin-down power into X-ray luminosity. The most favourable scenario for the origin of this extended X-ray emission is either a pulsar-wind nebula (PWN) or a scattering halo. A magnetically powered scenario for the extended emission is viable only in the case of a Compton nebula, while can be tentatively disfavoured in the case of synchrotron emission.

Camero-Arranz, A; Bucciantini, N; McLaughlin, M A; Slane, P; Gaensler, B M; Torres, D F; Stella, L; de Oña, E; Israel, G L; Camilo, F; Possenti, A

2012-01-01

242

Beamed and Unbeamed X-Ray Emission in FR1 Radio Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research exploited ROSAT's sensitivity, together with its spatial and spectral resolution, to separate X-ray emission components in the sources. Prior to ROSAT, the dominant X-ray emission mechanism in radio galaxies as a class was unclear, with correlations between the X-ray and radio emission used on one hand to argue for a nuclear origin for the X-rays, and on the other hand for a thermal origin. Our observations (normally between 10 and 25 ks in length) routinely detected the target sources, and demonstrated that both resolved (thermal) and unresolved X-ray emission are typically present. Highlights of our work included two of the first detections of high-power radio galaxies at high redshift, 3C 280 and 3C 220.1. When combined with the work of two other groups, we find that of the 38 radio galaxies at z > 0.6 in the 3CRR sample, 12 were observed in ROSAT pointed observations and 9 were detected with the four most significant detections exhibiting source extent, including 3C 280 and 3C 220.1. Moreover, we discovered extended emission around five 3CRR quasars at redshift greater than about 0.4, one of which is at z > 0.6. Unification predicts that the X-ray environments of powerful radio galaxies and quasars should be similar, and our results show that powerful radio sources are finding some of the highest-redshift X-ray clusters known to date, pointing to deep gravitational potential wells early in the Universe.

Worrall, Diana M.

2000-01-01

243

Fading Hard X-ray Emission from the Galactic Center Molecular Cloud Sgr B2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The center of our Galaxy harbors a four million solar mass black hole that is unusually quiet: its present X-ray luminosity is more than 10 orders of magnitude less than its Eddington luminosity. The observation of iron fluorescence and hard X-ray emission from some of the massive molecular clouds surrounding the Galactic center has been interpreted as an echo of a past 1039 erg s-1 flare. Alternatively, low-energy cosmic rays propagating inside the clouds might account for the observed emission, through inverse bremsstrahlung of low-energy ions or bremsstrahlung emission of low-energy electrons. Here, we report the observation of a clear decay of the hard X-ray emission from the molecular cloud Sgr B2 during the past seven years, thanks to more than 20 Ms of INTEGRAL exposure. This confirms the decay previously observed comparing the 6.4 keV line fluxes measured by various X-ray instruments, but without intercalibration effects. The measured decay time is 8.2 ± 1.7 yr, compatible with the light crossing time of the molecular cloud core. Such a short timescale rules out inverse bremsstrahlung by cosmic-ray ions as the origin of the X ray emission. We also obtained 2-100 keV broadband X-ray spectra by combining INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton data and compared them with detailed models of X-ray emission due to irradiation of molecular gas by (1) low-energy cosmic-ray electrons and (2) hard X-rays. Both models can reproduce the data equally well, but the time variability constraints and the huge cosmic-ray electron luminosity required to explain the observed hard X-ray emission strongly favor the scenario in which the diffuse emission of Sgr B2 is scattered and reprocessed radiation emitted in the past by Sgr A*. The spectral index of the illuminating power-law source is found to be ? ~ 2 and its luminosity 1.5-5 × 1039 erg s -1, depending on the relative positions of Sgr B2 and Sgr A*. Using recent parallax measurements that place Sgr B2 in front of Sgr A*, we find that the period of intense activity of Sgr A* ended between 75 and 155 years ago.

Terrier, R.; Ponti, G.; Bélanger, G.; Decourchelle, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Goldwurm, A.; Trap, G.; Morris, M. R.; Warwick, R.

2010-08-01

244

FADING HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC CENTER MOLECULAR CLOUD Sgr B2  

SciTech Connect

The center of our Galaxy harbors a four million solar mass black hole that is unusually quiet: its present X-ray luminosity is more than 10 orders of magnitude less than its Eddington luminosity. The observation of iron fluorescence and hard X-ray emission from some of the massive molecular clouds surrounding the Galactic center has been interpreted as an echo of a past 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} flare. Alternatively, low-energy cosmic rays propagating inside the clouds might account for the observed emission, through inverse bremsstrahlung of low-energy ions or bremsstrahlung emission of low-energy electrons. Here, we report the observation of a clear decay of the hard X-ray emission from the molecular cloud Sgr B2 during the past seven years, thanks to more than 20 Ms of INTEGRAL exposure. This confirms the decay previously observed comparing the 6.4 keV line fluxes measured by various X-ray instruments, but without intercalibration effects. The measured decay time is 8.2 {+-} 1.7 yr, compatible with the light crossing time of the molecular cloud core. Such a short timescale rules out inverse bremsstrahlung by cosmic-ray ions as the origin of the X ray emission. We also obtained 2-100 keV broadband X-ray spectra by combining INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton data and compared them with detailed models of X-ray emission due to irradiation of molecular gas by (1) low-energy cosmic-ray electrons and (2) hard X-rays. Both models can reproduce the data equally well, but the time variability constraints and the huge cosmic-ray electron luminosity required to explain the observed hard X-ray emission strongly favor the scenario in which the diffuse emission of Sgr B2 is scattered and reprocessed radiation emitted in the past by Sgr A*. The spectral index of the illuminating power-law source is found to be {Gamma} {approx} 2 and its luminosity 1.5-5 x 10{sup 39} erg s {sup -1}, depending on the relative positions of Sgr B2 and Sgr A*. Using recent parallax measurements that place Sgr B2 in front of Sgr A*, we find that the period of intense activity of Sgr A* ended between 75 and 155 years ago.

Terrier, R.; Ponti, G.; Goldwurm, A.; Trap, G. [Astroparticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris7/CNRS/CEA, Batiment Condorcet, 75013 Paris (France); Belanger, G. [European Space Agency, ESAC, P.O. Box 78, 28691, Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Decourchelle, A. [Service d'Astrophysique (SAp)/IRFU/DSM/CEA Saclay, Bt. 709, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Tatischeff, V. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS/IN2P3 and Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Warwick, R., E-mail: rterrier@in2p3.f [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2010-08-10

245

Diagnosing residual motion via the x-ray self emission from indirectly driven inertial confinement implosionsa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of the x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.

Pak, A.; Field, J. E.; Benedetti, L. R.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Knauer, J.; Ma, T.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K.

2014-11-01

246

Specific features of thermocouple calorimeter application for measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from plasma  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the accuracy of time-integrated measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from hot plasma with calibrated thermocouple calorimeters is mainly determined by two factors. The first and the most important factor is heating of the filter by the absorbed X-rays; as a result, the calorimeter measures the thermal radiation of the filter, which causes appreciable distortion of the temporal profile and amplitude of the recorded signal. The second factor is the dependence of the effective depth of X-ray absorption in the dielectric that covers the entrance window of the calorimeter on the energy of X-ray photons, i.e., on the recorded radiation spectrum. The results of model calculations of the calorimeter signal are compared with the experimental data.

Gavrilov, V. V.; Fasakhov, I. K. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

2012-01-15

247

Extended X-ray Emission From a Quasar-driven Superbubble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to look for the X-ray component of a bona-fide quasar-driven wind, manifested as a 20 kpc-scale superbubble in the warm ionized gas. With ALMA and JVLA observations, we have ruled out star formation or a radio jet as the source of the outflow, and we have detected very soft (<1 keV) X-ray photons spatially coincident with the superbubble. With our existing 20 ks observation, we cannot determine whether the X-rays arise from the hot outflow or photoionized gas. With an additional 80ks observation (100 ks total), we will use the X-ray morphology and spectrum to distinguish these two possibilities. A single-orbit HST observation will allow us to both build a pure emission line map of the outflow and (via scattered light) teach us about the ambient density in the outflow.

Greene, Jenny

2014-09-01

248

X-ray emission from relativistically moving electron density cusps  

SciTech Connect

We report on novel methods to generate ultra-short, coherent, X-rays using a laserplasma interaction. Nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma creates stable, specific structures such as electron cusps. For example, wake waves excited in an underdense plasma by an intense, short-pulse laser become dense and propagate along with the laser pulse. This is called a relativistic flying mirror. The flying mirror can reflect a counter-propagating laser pulse and directly convert it into high-frequency radiation, with a frequency multiplication factor of {approx} 4{gamma}{sup 2} and pulse shortening with the same factor. After the proof-of-principle experiments, we observed that the photon number generated in the flying mirror is close to the theoretical estimate. We present the details of the experiment in which a 9 TW laser pulse focused into a He gas jet generated the Flying Mirror, which partly reflected a 1 TW pulse, giving up to {approx} 10{sup 10} photons, 60 nJ (1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} photons/sr) in the XUV spectral region (12.8-22 nm).

Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nakamura, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Kawase, K.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Daito, I.; Kameshima, T.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Daido, H.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.-M.; Ragozin, E. N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Osaka University (Japan); Joint Institute for High Temperature of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky prospekt 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Japan Atomic Energy Agency and Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries (Japan); Ludwig-Maximilians-University (Germany); and others

2012-07-11

249

X-ray emission from relativistically moving electron density cusps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on novel methods to generate ultra-short, coherent, X-rays using a laserplasma interaction. Nonlinear interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma creates stable, specific structures such as electron cusps. For example, wake waves excited in an underdense plasma by an intense, short-pulse laser become dense and propagate along with the laser pulse. This is called a relativistic flying mirror. The flying mirror can reflect a counter-propagating laser pulse and directly convert it into high-frequency radiation, with a frequency multiplication factor of ˜ 4?2 and pulse shortening with the same factor. After the proof-of-principle experiments, we observed that the photon number generated in the flying mirror is close to the theoretical estimate. We present the details of the experiment in which a 9 TW laser pulse focused into a He gas jet generated the Flying Mirror, which partly reflected a 1 TW pulse, giving up to ˜ 1010 photons, 60 nJ (1.4×1012 photons/sr) in the XUV spectral region (12.8-22 nm).

Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nakamura, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Kawase, K.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Fukuda, Y.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Daito, I.; Kameshima, T.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Daido, H.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.; Ma, J.; Chen, L.-M.; Ragozin, E. N.; Kawachi, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.; Bulanov, S. V.

2012-07-01

250

The quiescent emission of the first low-B soft gamma repeater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) are part of a rapidly increasing group of X-ray sources exhibiting sporadic and powerful emission of short bursts and outbursts, believed to be magnetars, i.e. neutron stars powered by extreme magnetic fields (Bsim10(14}-10({15)) G). We have recently discovered the first SGR with a low magnetic field (Rea et al. 2010, Science, 330, 944; Rea et al. 2013, ApJ 770, 65), SGR 0418+5729 discovered in outburst after it emitted bursts similar to those of magnetars. We ask for a 120,ks XMM observation to measure SGR 0418+5729 's quiescent flux and surface temperature, crucial for tuning the magnetar model as well as predict how many "hidden" magnetars there might be within the pulsar population (abridged).

Rea, Nanda

2013-10-01

251

Origin of Thermal and Non-Thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from the Galactic Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse new results of Chandra and Suzaku Observatories which found a flux of hard X-ray emission from the compact region around Sgr A* (r ˜ 100 pc). We suppose that this emission is generated by accretion processes onto the central supermassive blackhole when an unbound part of captured stars obtains an additional momentum. As a result a flux of

Vladimir A. Dogiel; Dmitrii O. Chernyshov; Takayuki Yuasa; Dmitrii Prokhorov; Kwong-Sang Cheng; Aya Bamba; Hajime Inoue; Chung-Ming Ko; Motohide Kokubun; Yoshitomo Maeda; Kazuhisa Mitsuda; Kazuhiro Nakazawa; Noriko Y. Yamasaki

2009-01-01

252

Xe(L) x-ray emission from laser-cluster interaction* , O.Gobert4  

E-print Network

Xe(L) x-ray emission from laser-cluster interaction* L. Adoui2 , O.Gobert4 , P. Indelicato3 , E-ray emission yields from (Xe)n clusters (with n in the range 105 ­ 107 atoms/cluster) irradiated by 60. Measurements have been performed as a function of cluster size (backing pressure) and laser peak intensity

253

Observation and Modeling of Geocoronal Charge Exchange X-Ray Emission during Solar Wind Gusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) X-rays are emitted when highly charged solar wind ions such as O7 + collide with neutral gas, including the Earth's tenuous outer atmosphere (exosphere or geocorona) and hydrogen and helium from the local interstellar medium drifting through the heliosphere. This geocoronal and heliospheric emission comprises a significant and varying fraction of the soft X-ray background (SXRB) and is seen in every X-ray observation, with the intensity dependent on solar wind conditions and observation geometry. Under the right conditions, geocoronal emission can increase the apparent SXRB by roughly an order of magnitude for an hour or more. In this work, we study a dozen occasions when the near-Earth solar wind flux was exceptionally high. These gusts of wind lead to abrupt changes in SWCX X-ray emission around Earth, which may or may not be seen by X-ray observatories depending on their line of sight. Using detailed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the solar wind's interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere, and element abundances and ionization states measured by ACE, we model the time-dependent brightness of major geocoronal SWCX emission lines during those gusts and compare with changes in the X-ray background measured by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We find reasonably good agreement between model and observation, with measured geocoronal line brightnesses averaged over 1 hr of up to 136 photons s–1 cm–2 sr–1 in the O VII K? triplet around 564 eV.

Wargelin, B. J.; Kornbleuth, M.; Martin, P. L.; Juda, M.

2014-11-01

254

Discovery of pulsed X-ray emission from PSR J0737-3039B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present recent results on high-energy studies of the relativistic double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039 in the light of a ˜230 ks long X-ray observation obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite in 2006 October. We confirm the detection in X-rays of pulsed emission from PSR A, mostly ascribed to a soft non-thermal power-law component (? ˜ 3.3) with a 0.2-3 keV luminosity of ˜1.9 × 1030 erg/s (assuming a distance of 500 pc). No signs of X-ray emission from a bow-shock between PSR A's wind and the interstellar medium or PSR B's magnetosphere are present. The upper limit on the luminosity of such a shock component (˜1029 erg/s) constrains the wind magnetization parameter ?M of PSR A to values >1. For the first time, pulsed X-ray emission from PSR B is also detected in part of the orbit. The phenomenology of the slow PSR B is completely different from that of any other pulsar: its X-ray emission can be only powered by an external source, i.e. the spin-down energy from PSR A. PSR A's wind is likely heating B's surface producing thermal radiation with temperature kB T 30 eV, although also other viable scenarios are possible and discussed.

Pellizzoni, Alberto

255

Low- to Middle-Latitude X-Ray Emission from Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observed Jupiter during the period 24-26 February 2003 for approx. 40 hours (4 Jupiter rotations), using both the spectroscopy array of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) and the imaging array of the High-Resolution Camera (HRC-I). Two ACIS-S exposures, each -8.5 hours long, were separated by an HRC-I exposure of approx. 20 hours. The low- to middle-latitude nonauroral disk X-ray emission is much more spatially uniform than the auroral emission. However, the low- to middle-latitude X-ray count rate shows a small but statistically significant hour angle dependence and depends on surface magnetic field strength. In addition, the X-ray spectra from regions corresponding to 3-5 gauss and 5-7 gauss surface fields show significant differences in the energy band 1.26-1.38 keV, perhaps partly due to line emission occurring in the 3-5 gauss region but not the 5-7 gauss region. A similar correlation of surface magnetic field strength with count rate is found for the 18 December 2000 HRC-I data, at a time when solar activity was high. The low- to middle-latitude disk X-ray count rate observed by the HRC-I in the February 2003 observation is about 50% of that observed in December 2000, roughly consistent with a decrease in the solar activity index (F10.7 cm flux) by a similar amount over the same time period. The low- to middle-latitude X-ray emission does not show any oscillations similar to the approx. 45 min oscillations sometimes seen from the northern auroral zone. The temporal variation in Jupiter's nonauroral X-ray emission exhibits similarities to variations in solar X-ray flux observed by GOES and TIMED/SEE. The two ACIS-S 0.3-2.0 keV low- to middle-latitude X-ray spectra are harder than the auroral spectrum and are different from each other at energies above 0.7 keV, showing variability in Jupiter's nonauroral X-ray emission on a timescale of a day. The 0.3-2.0 keV X-ray power emitted at low to middle latitudes is 0.21 GW and 0.39 GW for the first and second ACIS-S exposures, respectively. We suggest that X-ray emission from Jupiter's disk may be largely generated by the scattering and fluorescence of solar X rays in its upper atmosphere, especially at times of high incident solar X-ray flux. However, the dependence of count rate on surface magnetic-field strength may indicate the presence of some secondary component, possibly ion precipitation from radiation belts close to the planet.

Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ford, Peter G.

2006-01-01

256

Relativistic calculations of x-ray emission following a Xe-Bi83+ collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the x-ray emission following the collision of a Bi83+ ion with a neutral Xe atom at the projectile energy 70 MeV/u. The collisional and post-collisional processes are treated separately. The probabilities of various many-electron processes at the collision are calculated within a relativistic independent electron model using the coupled-channel approach with atomiclike Dirac-Fock-Sturm orbitals. The analysis of the post-collisional processes resulting in the x-ray emission is based on the fluorescence yields, the radiation, and Auger decay rates, and allows one to derive intensities of the x-ray emission and compare them with experimental data. A reasonable agreement between the theoretical results and the recent experimental data is observed. The role of the relativistic effects is investigated.

Kozhedub, Y. S.; Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Gumberidze, A.; Hagmann, S.; Plunien, G.; Stöhlker, Th.

2014-10-01

257

Magnetic Circular Dichroism in 3d- 2p X-Ray Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic circular dichroism in XAS, XPS, and XES at the 2plevels of magnetic 3d transition metals is analyzed using apedagogical method. A back-of-the-envelope analysis of the dichroismin X-ray absorption is extended to circular dichroism in 2pphotoemission. X-ray emission from the polarized 2p core holes isthen analyzed using the same graphic single-particle model. The fact thatspin is not a constant of motion at the spin-orbit split 2p levelsis included. This gives MCD ratios of L? emission that are muchsmaller and in much better agreement with experiment than those predictedby [Joand Parlebas: J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 68 (1999) 1392]. The sameanalysis is also applied to dichroism in X-ray emission on the L2and L3 absorption resonances.

Kuiper, Pieter

2000-03-01

258

Discovery of X-ray emission associated with the Gum Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Gum Nebula was observed by the A-2 LED proportional counters on the HEAO-1 satellite as part of the all-sky survey. The first detection of X-ray emission associated with the Gum Nebula is reported. Soft X-ray spectra were constructed from the A-2 LED PHA data. Single temperature Raymond-Smith models were fitted to the observed spectra to yield temperature, column density and emission measure. The temperature is 6 x 10 exp 5 K, the column density 4 x 10 exp 20/sq cm, and the emission measure 5 cm exp-6 pc. The X-ray and optical properties of the Gum Nebula are consistent with a supernova remnant in the shell stage of evolution, which was the product of an energetic (3 x 10 exp 51 ergs) supernova explosion which occurred about 2 x 10 exp 6 yr ago.

Leahy, D. A.; Nousek, J.; Garmire, G.

1992-01-01

259

Quiescent Diffusive and Fumarolic Volcanic Bromocarbon Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future scenarios of declining atmospheric burdens of Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) such as halocarbons after phase-out following international regulation (Montreal Protocol) vary strongly depending on what contribution from natural sources is taken into account. In addition, current and pre-industrial global atmospheric budgets of ODS are poorly balanced by known natural and anthropogenic sources of halocarbons (Butler, 2000). Brominated halocarbons have a high Ozone Depletion Potential, Br is at least 40x as efficient as Cl in polar stratospheric ozone destruction (Solomon et al., 1992). CH3Br is the dominant Br carrier to the stratosphere with sources being ca.: 32% anthropogenic, 39% natural, but ca. 29% unaccounted for (WMO, 1998). Natural sources have been reviewed recently (Gribble, 2000, Butler, 2000), including magmatic inorganic (Bureau, 2000) and volcanic organic sources (Rassmussen et al., 1980; Schwandner et al., 2002). CH3Br and other bromocarbons have been reported in non-eruptive volcanic gases previously (Jordan et al., 2000; Schwandner et al., 2000). Due to its capability to extremely rapidly hydrolyse (Gan et al., 1995), CH3Br should not be sampled by the caustic soda bottle technique as used by Jordan et al. (2000) whose samples also show signs of air contamination, but by cryogenic separation of steam with subsequent sorbent trapping, as used by Isidorov (1990), Wahrenberger (1996) and Schwandner et al. (2000, 2001). To contribute significantly to the natural Br budget, volcanic gases would have to at least contain 2 ppmv (dry gas) CH3Br, scaled to a global CO2 emission of 66 Tgy-1 (Stoiber, 1995) based on CO2 flux to halocarbon concentration correlations (e.g. CFC-11: R2=0.91, Schwandner et al., 2002). However, CH3Br is not the only volcanogenic bromocarbon. Analysis of diffusive flank and crater degassing on Vulcano island (Italy) showed a strong diffusive component of CH3Br and C2H5Br emissions in 60-100°C hot pristine unvegetated volcanic "soil" close to high-temperature fumaroles. Other ODS found significantly above air, field and analytical system blanks include CH3Cl, CH3I, chlorophenols and chlorobenzenes. Abundances range from upper pptv to ppmv (e.g. CFC-11: max. 1200 pptv diffusive, 3700 pptv fumarolic/dry gas, dry air: 268 pptv). References\\ Bureau H. et al. (2000), EPSL 183 (1-2):51-60.\\Butler J.H. (2000), Nature 403:560-261.\\Gan J. Y. et al. (1995), J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:1361-1367.\\Gribble G. W. (2000), Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 7(1), 37-49.\\Isidorov V. A. et al. (1990), J. Atmos. Chem. 10(3):329-340.\\Jordan A. et al.(2000), ES&T 34:1122-1124.\\Rasmussen R. A. et al. (1980), EOS Transact. 61(6):67.\\Schwandner F. M. et al. (2000), J. Conf. Abs. 5(2):898.\\Schwandner F. M. et al. (2001), Chimia 55(7-8):590.\\Schwandner F.M. et al. (2002), Geoch. Soc. Spec. Publ. 8 (subm.).\\Solomon S. et al. (1992), JGR-A. 97:825-842.\\Stoiber R. E. (1995), In: A handbook of physical constants, AGU Reference Shelf 1:308-319.\\Wahrenberger C. et al. (1996), EOS Trans. 77(46):804.\\WMO (1998) Scientific assessment of ozone depletion. WMO Rep. No. 44, World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), Geneva.

Schwandner, F. M.; Gi?e, A. P.; Seward, T. M.; Hall, P. A.; Dietrich, V. J.

2002-12-01

260

HARD X-RAY AND ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION DURING THE 2011 JUNE 7 SOLAR FLARE  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between X-ray and UV emission during flares, particularly in the context of quasi-periodic pulsations, remains unclear. To address this, we study the impulsive X-ray and UV emission during an eruptive flare on 2011 June 7 utilizing X-ray imaging from RHESSI and UV 1700 Å imaging from SDO/AIA. This event is associated with quasi-periodic pulsations in X-ray and possibly UV emission, as well as substantial parallel and perpendicular motion in the hard X-ray footpoints. The motion of the footpoints parallel to the flare ribbons is unusual; it reverses direction on at least two occasions. However, there is no associated short timescale motion of the UV bright regions. Over the same time interval, the footpoints also gradually move apart at v ? 12 km s{sup –1}, consistent with the gradual outward expansion of the UV ribbons and the standard flare model. Additionally, we find that the locations of the brightest X-ray and UV regions are different, particularly during the early portion of the flare impulsive phase, despite their integrated emission being strongly correlated in time. Correlation analysis of measured flare properties, such as the footpoint separation, flare shear, photospheric magnetic field, and coronal reconnection rate, reveals that—in the impulsive phase—the 25-50 keV hard X-ray flux is only weakly correlated with these properties, in contrast with previous studies. We characterize this event in terms of long-term behavior, where the X-ray non-thermal, thermal, and UV emission sources appear temporally and spatially consistent, and short-term behavior, where the emission sources are inconsistent and quasi-periodic pulsations are a dominant feature requiring explanation. We suggest that the short timescale behavior of hard X-ray footpoints and the nature of the observed quasi-periodic pulsations are determined by fundamental, as yet unobserved properties of the reconnection region and particle acceleration sites. This presents a challenge for current three-dimensional flare reconnection models.

Inglis, A. R.; Gilbert, H. R. [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-11-01

261

Non-Detection of X-Ray Emission From Sterile Neutrinos in Stacked Galaxy Spectra  

E-print Network

We conduct a comprehensive search for X-ray emission lines from sterile neutrino dark matter, motivated by recent claims of unidentified emission lines in the stacked X-ray spectra of galaxy clusters and the centers of the Milky Way and M31. Since the claimed emission lines lie around 3.5 keV, we focus on galaxies and galaxy groups (masking the central regions), since these objects emit very little radiation above ~2 keV and offer a clean background against which to detect emission lines. We develop a formalism for maximizing the signal-to-noise of sterile neutrino emission lines by weighing each X-ray event according to the expected dark matter profile. In total, we examine 81 and 89 galaxies with Chandra and XMM-Newton respectively, totaling 15.0 and 14.6 Ms of integration time. We find no significant evidence of any emission lines, placing strong constraints on the mixing angle of sterile neutrinos with masses between 4.8-12.4 keV. In particular, if the 3.57 keV feature from Bulbul et al. (2014) were due to 7.1 keV sterile neutrino emission, we would have detected it at 4.4 sigma and 11.8 sigma in our two samples. Unlike previous constraints, our measurements do not depend on the model of the X-ray background or on the assumed logarithmic slope of the center of the dark matter profile.

Michael E. Anderson; Eugene Churazov; Joel N. Bregman

2014-08-18

262

DISCOVERY OF EXTENDED X-RAY EMISSION AROUND THE HIGHLY MAGNETIC RRAT J1819-1458  

SciTech Connect

We report on the discovery of extended X-ray emission around the high magnetic field rotating radio transient J1819-1458. Using a 30 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation, we found significant evidence for extended X-ray emission with a peculiar shape: a compact region out to {approx}5.''5, and more diffuse emission extending out to {approx}13'' from the source. The most plausible interpretation is a nebula somehow powered by the pulsar, although the small number of counts prevents a conclusive answer on the nature of this emission. RRAT J1819-1458's spin-down energy loss rate (E-dot{sub rot}{approx}3 x 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}) is much lower than that of other pulsars with observed spin-down-powered pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), and implies a rather high X-ray efficiency of eta{sub X}ident toL{sub pwn:0.5-8keV}/E-dot{sub rot}{approx}0.2 at converting spin-down power into the PWN X-ray emission. This suggests the need of an additional source of energy rather than the spin-down power alone, such as the high magnetic energy of this source. Furthermore, this Chandra observation allowed us to refine the positional accuracy of RRAT J1819-1458 to a radius of {approx}0.''3, and confirms the presence of X-ray pulsations and the {approx}1 keV absorption line, previously observed in the X-ray emission of this source.

Rea, N. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26501 (United States); Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Slane, P. O. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stella, L.; Israel, G. L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Reynolds, S. P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, P.O. Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Burgay, M.; Possenti, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Loc. Poggio dei Pini, Strada 54, 09012 Capoterra (Italy); Chatterjee, S., E-mail: n.rea@uva.n [Department of Astronomy and National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States)

2009-09-20

263

X-Ray Emission and Absorption Features during an Energetic Thermonuclear X-Ray Burst from IGR J17062-6143  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type-I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions occurring in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. These events are powerful probes of the physics of neutron stars and their surrounding accretion flow. We analyze a very energetic type-I X-ray burst from the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143 that was detected with Swift on 2012 June 25. The light curve of the sime18 minute long X-ray burst tail shows an episode of sime10 minutes during which the intensity is strongly fluctuating by a factor of sime3 above and below the underlying decay trend on a timescale of seconds. The X-ray spectrum reveals a highly significant emission line around sime1 keV, which can be interpreted as an Fe-L shell line caused by the irradiation of cold gas. We also detect significant absorption lines and edges in the Fe-K band, which are strongly suggestive of the presence of hot, highly ionized gas along the line of sight. None of these features are present in the persistent X-ray spectrum of the source. The timescale of the strong intensity variations, the velocity width of the Fe-L emission line (assuming Keplerian motion), and photoionization modeling of the Fe-K absorption features each independently point to gas at a radius of ~= 103 km as the source of these features. The unusual X-ray light curve and spectral properties could have plausibly been caused by a disruption of the accretion disk due to the super-Eddington fluxes reached during the X-ray burst.

Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Fabian, A. C.

2013-04-01

264

X-RAY EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES DURING AN ENERGETIC THERMONUCLEAR X-RAY BURST FROM IGR J17062-6143  

SciTech Connect

Type-I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions occurring in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. These events are powerful probes of the physics of neutron stars and their surrounding accretion flow. We analyze a very energetic type-I X-ray burst from the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143 that was detected with Swift on 2012 June 25. The light curve of the {approx_equal}18 minute long X-ray burst tail shows an episode of {approx_equal}10 minutes during which the intensity is strongly fluctuating by a factor of {approx_equal}3 above and below the underlying decay trend on a timescale of seconds. The X-ray spectrum reveals a highly significant emission line around {approx_equal}1 keV, which can be interpreted as an Fe-L shell line caused by the irradiation of cold gas. We also detect significant absorption lines and edges in the Fe-K band, which are strongly suggestive of the presence of hot, highly ionized gas along the line of sight. None of these features are present in the persistent X-ray spectrum of the source. The timescale of the strong intensity variations, the velocity width of the Fe-L emission line (assuming Keplerian motion), and photoionization modeling of the Fe-K absorption features each independently point to gas at a radius of {approx_equal} 10{sup 3} km as the source of these features. The unusual X-ray light curve and spectral properties could have plausibly been caused by a disruption of the accretion disk due to the super-Eddington fluxes reached during the X-ray burst.

Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D. [Astronomical Institute ''Anton Pannekoek'', University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fabian, A. C., E-mail: degenaar@umich.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom)

2013-04-20

265

New Chandra observations of the jet in 3C273. 1. Softer X-ray than radio spectra and the X-ray emission mechanism  

SciTech Connect

The jet in 3C273 is a high-power quasar jet with radio, optical and X-ray emission whose size and brightness allow a detailed study of the emission processes acting in it. We present deep Chandra observations of this jet and analyze the spectral properties of the jet emission from radio through X-rays. We find that the X-ray spectra are significantly softer than the radio spectra in all regions of the bright part of the jet except for the first bright ''knot A'', ruling out a model in which the X-ray emission from the entire jet arises from beamed inverse-Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons in a single-zone jet flow. Within two-zone jet models, we find that a synchrotron origin for the jet's X-rays requires fewer additional assumptions than an inverse-Compton model, especially if velocity shear leads to efficient particle acceleration in jet flows.

Jester, Sebastian; /Fermilab; Harris, D.E.; /Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ.; Marshall, H.L.; /MIT, MKI; Meisenheimer, K.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. Astron.

2006-05-01

266

Testing the ionized disc reprocessing model for the soft X- ray emission of quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the current explanations for the soft X-ray emission of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is reprocessing of the hard X-rays by partially ionized, optically thick matter. This idea is very appealing because it would explain the shape of the AGN soft X-ray spectrum in terms of atomic physics. While at present the reflection model correctly describes the soft X-ray spectra of a few low-luminosity Seyfert galaxies, it is not clear whether or not it can be applied to higher luminosity quasars. To investigate this issue quantitatively, we have fitted the high signal-to-noise ratio Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectra of 11 AGN of different luminosities with a model consisting of a direct hard X-ray component, reflection from the ionized surface of an accretion disc and the direct thermal emission of the disc. We find that the AGN with an acceptable fit are a minority, and all have a low optical (and bolometric) luminosity, flat PSPC energy index alpha_PSPC and the flattest alpha_OX of the sample, while those with the worst fit all have high optical (and bolometric) luminosity, steep alpha_PSPC and the steepest alpha_OX of the sample. We conclude that either the reprocessing model is not correct and the form of the soft X-ray spectrum of AGN cannot be simply explained in terms of characteristic atomic features (i.e. highly ionized oxygen K-edges), or the origin of the soft X-ray emission of AGN is not `universal'.

Fiore, Fabrizio; Matt, Giorgio; Nicastro, Fabrizio

1997-01-01

267

The angular distribution of energetic electron and X-ray emissions from triggered lightning leaders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate individual X-ray bursts from lightning leaders to determine if energetic electrons at the source (and hence X-rays) are emitted isotropically or with some degree of anisotropy. This study was motivated by the work of Saleh et al. (2009), which found the falloff of X-rays in concentric radial annuli, covering all azimuthal directions in each annulus, from the lightning channel to be most consistent with an isotropic electron source. Here we perform a statistical analysis of angular and spatial distributions of X-rays measured by up to 21 NaI/PMT detectors at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing site for 21 leader X-ray bursts from five leaders (including four dart-stepped leaders and one dart leader). Two procedures were used to complete this analysis. Procedure 1 found the first-order anisotropy, and procedure 2 tested whether or not the angular distribution was consistent with an isotropic distribution. Because higher-order anisotropies could be present in the data, a distribution that is not isotropic does not necessarily have a significant first-order anisotropy. Using these procedures, we find that at least 11 out of 21 X-ray bursts have a statistically significant first-order anisotropy, and hence those 11 are inconsistent with an isotropic emission. The remaining 10 bursts do not have significant first-order anisotropy. However, of those 10 bursts, 9 are inconsistent with isotropic emission, since they exhibit significant higher-order anisotropies. Since Saleh et al. (2009) did not consider anisotropies in the azimuthal direction, these new measurements of anisotropy do not necessarily contradict that work. Indeed, our analysis supports the finding that the X-ray emissions from lightning are inconsistent with a vertically downward beam. The level of anisotropy of the runaway electrons is important because it provides, in principle, information on the streamer zone in front of the leader and the electric field near the lightning leader tip.

Schaal, M. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.

2013-10-01

268

Hard X-Ray Emission and the Ionizing Source in LINERs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report X-ray fluxes in the 2-10 keV band from LINERs (low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions) and low-luminosity Seyfert galaxies obtained with the ASCA satellite. Observed X-ray luminosities are in the range between 4 x 10(exp 39) and 5 x 10(exp 41) ergs/s, which are significantly smaller than that of the "classical" low-luminosity Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051. We found that X-ray luminosities in 2-10 keV of LINERs with broad H.alpha emission in their optical spectra (LINER 1s) are proportional to their Ha luminosities. This correlation strongly supports the hypothesis that the dominant ionizing source in LINER 1s is photoionization by hard photons from low-luminosity AGNs. On the other hand, the X-ray luminosities of most LINERs without broad H.alpha emission (LINER 2s) in our sample are lower than LINER 1s at a given H.alpha luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities in these objects are insufficient to power their H.alpha luminosities, suggesting that their primary ionizing source is other than an AGN, or that an AGN, if present, is obscured even at energies above 2 keV.

Terashima, Yuichi; Ho, Luis C.; Ptak, Andrew F.

2000-01-01

269

A Comparison of X-ray and Radio Emission from the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A  

E-print Network

We compare the radio and soft X-ray brightness as a function of position within the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. A moderately strong correlation (r = 0.7) was found between the X-ray emission (corrected for interstellar absorption) and radio emission, showing that the thermal and relativistic plasmas occupy the same volumes and are regulated by common underlying parameters. The logarithmic slope of the relationship, ln(Sx-ray) = 1.2 x Sradio + ln(k) implies that the variations in brightness are primarily due to path length differences. The X-ray and radio emissivities are both high in the same general locations, but their more detailed relationship is poorly constrained and probably shows significant scatter. The strongest radio and X-ray absorption is found at the western boundary of Cas A. Based on the properties of Cas A and the absorbing molecular cloud, we argue that they are physically interacting. We also compare ASCA derived column densities with 21 cm H I and 18 cm OH optical depths in the direction of Cas A, in order to provide an independent estimate of ISM properties. We derive an average value for the H I spin temperature of about 40 K and measure the ratio of OH to molecular hydrogen to be nominally larger than previous estimates. Keywords: Cas A, Cassiopeia A, interstellar medium, molecular clouds, radio astronomy, supernova remnants, X-ray astronomy

Jonathan W. Keohane; Lawrence Rudnick; Martha C. Anderson

1996-03-14

270

Supernova Remnants in the Sedov Expansion Phase: Thermal X-Ray Emission  

E-print Network

Improved calculations of X-ray spectra for supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Sedov-Taylor phase are reported, which for the first time include reliable atomic data for Fe L-shell lines. This new set of Sedov models also allows for a partial collisionless heating of electrons at the blast wave and for energy transfer from ions to electrons through Coulomb collisions. X-ray emission calculations are based on the updated Hamilton-Sarazin spectral model. The calculated X-ray spectra are succesfully interpreted in terms of three distribution functions: the electron temperature and ionization timescale distributions, and the ionization timescale averaged electron temperature distribution. The comparison of Sedov models with a frequently used single nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) timescale model reveals that this simple model is generally not an appropriate approximation to X-ray spectra of SNRs. We find instead that plane-parallel shocks provide a useful approximation to X-ray spectra of SNRs, particularly for young SNRs. Sedov X-ray models described here, together with simpler plane shock and single ionization timescale models, have been implemented as standard models in the widely used XSPEC v11 spectral software package.

K. J. Borkowski; W. J. Lyerly; S. P. Reynolds

2000-08-03

271

Field-emission-type x-ray source using carbon-nanofibers  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray irradiation system of field-emission type has been constructed using carbon-nanofibers (CNFs) grown on a palladium wire that is 50 {mu}m in diameter. The electron current emitted from the CNFs was approximately 1 mA and was stable within 10% for a long time t>5000 h. The electrons passing through a slit in the gate electrode were accelerated to the desired energy, and were made to impinge on the metal target (Ti, Cu, Mo, and W) for generating x rays. The x-rays transmitted through Be-window were characterized using energy analyzers and a dosimeter. At an acceleration voltage of V{sub a}=50 kV, the energy spectra of the x-rays were exclusively composed of characteristic signals except for the Mo-target, and the dose rates of x-rays were D=2.5-14 Gy/min, depending on the target metals. This system also provides sharp x-ray images of both biological and nonbiological materials.

Kita, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Ogawa, A.; Ogura, K.; Sakai, Y.; Matsumoto, Y.; Isokane, Y.; Okuyama, F. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Nakazato, T.; Otsuka, T. [Department of Musculoskeletal Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

2008-03-15

272

Low- to Mid-Latitude X-Ray Emission from Jupiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observed Jupiter during the period 2003 February 24-26 for approx.40 hours (4 Jupiter rotations), using both the spectroscopy array of the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) and the imaging array of the High-Resolution Camera (HRC-I). Two ACIS-S exposures, each approx.8.5 hr long, were separated by an HRC-I exposure of approx.20 hr. The low- to mid-latitude non-auroral disk X-ray emission is much more spatially uniform than the auroral emission. However, the low- to mid-latitude X-ray count rate shows a small but statistically significant hour angle dependence, and is higher in regions of relatively low surface magnetic field strength, confirming ROSAT results. In addition, the spectrum from the low surface field region shows an enhancement in the energy band 1.14- 1.38 keV, perhaps partly due to line emission from that region. Correlation of surface magnetic field strength with count rate is not found for the 2000 December HRC-I data, at a time when solar activity was high. The low- to mid-latitude disk X-ray count rate observed by the HRC-I in the 2003 February observation is about 50% of that observed in 2000 December, roughly consistent with a decrease in the solar activity index (F10.7 cm flux) by a similar amount over the same time period. The low- to mid-latitude X-ray emission does not show any oscillations similar to the -45 minute oscillations sometimes seen from the northern auroral zone. The temporal variation in Jupiter's non-auroral X-ray emission exhibits similarities to variations in solar X-ray flux observed by GOES and TIMED/SEE. The two ACIS-S 0.3-2 keV low- to mid-latitude X-ray spectra are harder than the auroral spectrum, and are different from each other at energies above 0.7 keV, showing variability in Jupiter s non-auroral X-ray emission on a time scale of a day. The 0.3-2.0 keV X-ray power emitted at low- to mid-latitudes is 0.21 GW and 0.39 GW for the first and second ACIS-S exposures, respectively. We suggest that X-ray emission from Jupiter's disk may be largely generated by solar X-rays resonantly and fluorescently scattered in its upper atmosphere, especially at times of high incident solar X-ray flux. However, the correlation of higher count rate with low surface magnetic-field strength indicates the presence of some secondary component, possibly ion precipitation from radiation belts closer to the planet than elsewhere at low- to mid-latitudes.

Bhardwaj, Anil; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Cravens, Thomas E.; Ford, Peter

2006-01-01

273

An X-Ray Reprocessing Model of Disk Thermal Emission in Type 1 Seyfert Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a geometry consisting of a hot central Comptonizing plasma surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we model the optical through hard X-ray spectral energy distributions of the type 1 Seyfert. galaxies NGC 3516 and NGC 7469. As in the model proposed by Poutanen, Krolik, and Ryde for the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1 and later applied to Seyfert galaxies by Zdziarski, Lubifiski, and Smith, feedback between the radiation reprocessed by the disk and the thermal Comptonization emission from the hot central plasma plays a pivotal role in determining the X-ray spectrum, and as we show, the optical and ultraviolet spectra as well. Seemingly uncorrelated optical/UV and X-ray light curves, similar to those which have been observed from these objects can, in principle, be explained by variations in the size, shape, and temperature of the Comptonizing plasma. Furthermore, by positing a disk mass accretion rate which satisfies a condition for global energy balance between the thermal Comptonization luminosity and the power available from accretion, one can predict the spectral properties of the heretofore poorly measured hard X-ray continuum above approximately 50 keV in type 1 Seyfert galaxies. Conversely, forthcoming measurements of the hard X-ray continuum by more sensitive hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray telescopes, such as those aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) in conjunction with simultaneous optical, UV, and soft X-ray monitoring, will allow the mass accretion rates to be directly constrained for these sources in the context of this model.

Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

274

The optical emission lines of type 1 X-ray bright Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A strong X-ray emission is one of the defining signatures of nuclear activity in galaxies. According to the Unified Model for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), both the X-ray radiation and the prominent broad emission lines, characterizing the optical and UV spectra of Type 1 AGNs, are originated in the innermost regions of the sources, close to the Super Massive Black Holes (SMBH), which power the central engine. Since the emission is concentrated in a very compact region (with typical size r?0.1 pc) and it is not possible to obtain resolved images of the source, spectroscopic studies of this radiation represent the only valuable key to constrain the physical properties of matter and its structure in the center of active galaxies. Based on previous studies on the physics of the Broad Line Region (BLR) and on the X-ray spectra of broad (FWHMH? ? 2000 km s-1) and narrow line (1000 km s-1 ?FWHMH? ? 2000 km s-1) emitting objects, it has been observed that the kinematic and ionization properties of matter close to the SMBHs are related together, and, in particular, that ionization is higher in narrow line sources. Here we report on the study of the optical and X-ray spectra of a sample of Type 1 AGNs, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, within an upper redshift limit of z=0.35, and detected at X-ray energies. We present analysis of the broad emission line fluxes and profiles, as well as the properties of the X-ray continuum and Fe K? emission and we use these parameters to assess the consistency of our current AGN understanding.

La Mura, G.; Berton, M.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.; Di Mille, F.; Rafanelli, P.

2014-10-01

275

X-ray Emission From Eta Carinae near Periastron in 2009 I: A Two State Solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray emission from the supermassive binary system Eta Carinae declines sharply around periastron. This X-ray minimum has two distinct phases the lowest flux phase in the first 3 weeks and a brighter phase thereafter. In 2009, the Chandra X-ray Observatory monitored the first phase five times and found the lowest observed flux at 1.91012 ergs/sq cm/s (38 keV). The spectral shape changed such that the hard band above 4 keV dropped quickly at the beginning and the soft band flux gradually decreased to its lowest observed value in 2 weeks. The hard band spectrum had begun to recover by that time. This spectral variation suggests that the shocked gas producing the hottest X-ray gas near the apex of the wind-wind collision (WWC) is blocked behind the dense inner wind of the primary star, which later occults slightly cooler gas down-stream. Shocked gas previously produced by the system at earlier orbital phases is suggested to produce the faint residual X-ray emission seen when the emission near the apex is completely blocked by the primary wind. The brighter phase is probably caused by the re-appearance of the WWC plasma, whose emissivity significantly declined during the occultation. We interpret this to mean that the X-ray minimum is produced by a hybrid mechanism of an occultation and a decline in emissivity of the WWC shock. We constrain timings of superior conjunction and periastron based on these results.

Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Russell, Christopher; Pollock, Andrew M. T.; Gull, Theodore R.; Teodoro, Mairan; Madura, Thomas I.; Damineli, Augusto; Pittard, Julian M.

2014-01-01

276

WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?  

SciTech Connect

We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

2013-08-01

277

Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain ?400-600 hard X-ray (gsim 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N H <~ 1024 cm-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N H ? 7 × 1024 cm-2 if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K? line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fiore, F.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R.; Madsen, K. K.; Matt, G.; Ogle, P.; Risaliti, G.; Saez, C.; Teng, S. H.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

2013-08-01

278

Measurement of the Radius of Neutron Stars with High Signal-to-noise Quiescent Low-mass X-Ray Binaries in Globular Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter—present in the core of NSs—is best described by "normal matter" equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R NS, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of ~10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M NS>0.5 M ?). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R NS value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R NS, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R_NS =9.1^{+ 1.3}_{- 1.5} \\,km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R NS equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

Guillot, Sebastien; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A.; Rutledge, Robert E.

2013-07-01

279

An unexpectedly rapid decline in the X-ray afterglow emission of long ?-ray bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

`Long' ?-ray bursts (GRBs) are commonly accepted to originate in the explosion of particularly massive stars, which give rise to highly relativistic jets. Inhomogeneities in the expanding flow result in internal shock waves that are believed to produce the ?-rays we see. As the jet travels further outward into the surrounding circumstellar medium, `external' shocks create the afterglow emission seen in the X-ray, optical and radio bands. Here we report observations of the early phases of the X-ray emission of five GRBs. Their X-ray light curves are characterised by a surprisingly rapid fall-off for the first few hundred seconds, followed by a less rapid decline lasting several hours. This steep decline, together with detailed spectral properties of two particular bursts, shows that violent shock interactions take place in the early jet outflows.

Tagliaferri, G.; Goad, M.; Chincarini, G.; Moretti, A.; Campana, S.; Burrows, D. N.; Perri, M.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Kumar, P.; Mészáros, P. I.; Kobayashi, S.; Zhang, B.; Angelini, L.; Banat, P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Capalbi, M.; Covino, S.; Cusumano, G.; Giommi, P.; Godet, O.; Hill, J. E.; Kennea, J. A.; Mangano, V.; Morris, D. C.; Nousek, J. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Page, K. L.; Romano, P.; Stella, L.; Wells, A.

2005-08-01

280

The Nature Of X-Ray Emission In Nearby Dwarf Galaxies: The Case Of NGC 625  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to add a 60 ksec ACIS-S observation to a multi-wavelength (XMM, FUSE, HST, CTIO, JCMT, ATCA) study of NGC 625, a nearby dwarf starburst galaxy showing coincident diffuse X-ray and H-alpha emission indicative of an active outflow from the starburst region. Chandra observations will allow us to isolate point sources and determine the distribution and temperature of the diffuse X-ray emission. We can then study the energetics of the X-ray superbubble and compare NGC 625 with the few other well-studied low-mass systems harboring active galactic winds, furthering our understanding of the impact of star formation on galaxy evolution.

Skillman, Evan

2003-09-01

281

X-ray and molecular emission from the nearest region of recent star formation.  

PubMed

The isolated, young, sunlike star TW Hya and four other young stars in its vicinity are strong x-ray sources. Their similar x-ray and optical properties indicate that the stars make up a physical association that is on the order of 20 million years old and that lies between about 40 and 60 parsecs (between about 130 and 200 light years) from Earth. TW Hya itself displays circumstellar CO, HCN, CN, and HCO+ emission. These molecules probably orbit the star in a solar-system-sized disk viewed more or less face-on, whereas the star is likely viewed pole-on. Being at least three times closer to Earth than any well-studied region of star formation, the TW Hya Association serves as a test-bed for the study of x-ray emission from young stars and the formation of planetary systems around sunlike stars. PMID:9204898

Kastner, J H; Zuckerman, B; Weintraub, D A; Forveille, T

1997-07-01

282

HEAO 1 observations of X-ray emission from flares on dMe stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reports the detection of two X-ray flares from each of the nearby dMe stars, AT Mic and AD Leo, with the A-2 experiment on board HEAO 1. A spectrum obtained during the brighter AT Mic flare, the first X-ray spectrum of a stellar flare, is well matched by a thermal model with a temperature 3 x 10 to the 7 K and an iron K-alpha emission line. The X-ray luminosities derived are in the range 1.3-16 x 10 to the 30th ergs/s, while emission measures are in the range 1.1-14 x 10 to the 53rd/cu cm. The estimated Lx/Lopt ratios exceed unity and are inconsistent with Mullan's flare model. Several scenarios to explain this discrepancy are proposed.

Kahn, S. M.; Mason, K. O.; Bowyer, C. S.; Linsky, J. L.; Haisch, B. M.; White, N. E.; Pravdo, S. H.

1979-01-01

283

X-ray emission and absorption features during an energetic thermonuclear X-ray burst from IGR J17062-6143  

E-print Network

Type-I X-ray bursts are thermonuclear explosions occurring in the surface layers of accreting neutron stars. These events are powerful probes of the physics of neutron stars and their surrounding accretion flow. We analyze a very energetic type-I X-ray burst from the neutron star low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17062-6143 that was detected with Swift on 2012 June 25. The light curve of the ~18 min long X-ray burst tail shows an episode of ~10 min during which the intensity is strongly fluctuating by a factor of ~3 above and below the underlying decay trend, on a time scale of seconds. The X-ray spectrum reveals a highly significant emission line around ~1 keV, which can be interpreted as a Fe-L shell line caused by irradiation of cold gas. We also detect significant absorption lines and edges in the Fe-K band, which are strongly suggestive of the presence of hot, highly ionized gas along the line of sight. None of these features are present in the persistent X-ray spectrum of the source. The time scale of the stro...

Degenaar, N; Wijnands, R; Altamirano, D; Fabian, A C

2012-01-01

284

Hard X-ray diffuse emission from the Galactic Center seen by INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

We study the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) variability of the Galactic Center (GC) and of the nearby sources on the time scale of 1000 s. We find that 3 of the 6 hard X-ray sources detected by INTEGRAL within the central 1 degree of the Galaxy are not variable on this time scale: the GC itself (the source IGR J1745.6-2901) as well as the source 1E 1743.1-2843 and the molecular cloud Sgr B2. We put an upper limit of 5 x 10^{-12} erg/(cm^2 sec) (in 20 to 60 keV band) on the variable emission form the supermassive black hole (the source Sgr A*) which powers the activity of the GC(although we can not exclude the possibility of rare stronger flares). The non-variable 20-100 keV emission from the GC turns out to be the high-energy non-thermal tail of the diffuse hard ``8 keV'' component of emission from Sgr A region. Combining the XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL data we find that the size of the extended hard X-ray emission region is about 20 pc. The only physical mechanism of production of diffuse non-thermal hard X-ray flux, which does not contradict the multi-wavelength data on the GC, is the synchrotron emission from electrons of energies 10-100 TeV.

A. Neronov; M. Chernyakova; T. J. -L. Courvoisier; R. Walter

2005-06-18

285

The Cygnus loop - A detailed comparison of X-ray and optical emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison at a resolution of 17 arcsec is presented between optical emission from forbidden O III and forbidden S II and the thermal X-ray emission for a field on the southeast edge of the Cygnus Loop SNR. The relationship between optical and X-ray emission in the field is described, generalizing to the Loop as a whole when possible. Several possible explanations for the presence of bright X-ray emission in the vicinity of optical emission are presented and evaluated based on the data. These mechanisms involve evaporation, gradual variations and gradients in the density of the preshock intercloud medium, and additional compression of material which has already been heated to X-ray temperatures by the adiabatic blast wave. The additional compression could result from rapid deceleration of the blast wave itself or from reshocking by reflected or bow shocks around dense clouds. Implications of the observations for models of SNR evolution and the interstellar medium are discussed.

Cox, D. P.; Hester, J. J.

1986-01-01

286

Accretion shocks in young stars: the role of local absorption on the X-ray emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the X-ray emission from accretion shocks formed where the infalling material impact the surface of young stars. Several aspects in observations and in models of accretion are still debated: the density vs temperature structure of the shocked plasma is opposite of what expected from simple accretion shock models and the X-ray luminosity detected from post-shock plasma is below the predicted value. To address these open issues we performed numerical simulations describing the impact of an accretion stream onto the stellar surface (exploring different configurations of the magnetic field) and taken into account the local absorption due to the surrounding medium. We investigated the effects of absorption for different viewing angles and wavelengths. From the model results we synthesize the X-ray emission from the accretion shock and perform density and temperature diagnostics on the synthetic spectra. By comparing our results with the observations, we find that the X-ray fluxes detected are lower than expected because of the local absorption. The emerging spectra suggest higher density for higher temperature as derived from the observations, proving that a detailed model accounting for a realistic treatment of the local absorption is needed to interpret the observations of X-ray emitting accretion shocks.

Bonito, R.; Argiroffi, C.; Orlando, S.; Miceli, M.

2014-07-01

287

The Sun's X-ray Emission During the Recent Solar Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun recently underwent a period of a remarkable lack of major activity such as large flares and sunspots, without equal since the advent of the space age a half century ago. A widely used measure of solar activity is the amount of solar soft X-ray emission, but until recently this has been below the threshold of the X-ray-monitoring Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). There is thus an urgent need for more sensitive instrumentation to record solar X-ray emission in this range. Anticipating this need, a highly sensitive spectrophotometer called Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was included in the solar telescope/spectrometer TESIS instrument package on the third spacecraft in Russia's Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun (CORONAS-PHOTON) program, launched 30 January 2009 into a near-polar orbit. SphinX measures X-rays in a band similar to the GOES longer-wavelength channel.

Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Mirek; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Kuzin, Sergey; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

2010-02-01

288

Hard X-ray emission of the Earth's atmosphere: Monte Carlo simulations  

E-print Network

We perform Monte Carlo simulations of cosmic-ray induced hard X-ray emission in the Earth's atmosphere. We find that the shape of the spectrum emergent from the atmosphere in the energy range ~25-300 keV is determined by Compton scattering and photoabsorption and is virtually independent of the incident cosmic ray spectrum. We provide a fitting formula for the spectral intensity as a function of energy, solar modulation level, geomagnetic cutoff rigidity and zenith angle. A recent measurement of the atmospheric hard X-ray emission together with the cosmic X-ray background by the INTEGRAL observatory agrees with our prediction within 10%. This suggests a possibility of using Earth observations for in-orbit calibration of future hard X-ray telescopes. We also demonstrate that the hard X-ray spectra generated by cosmic rays in the crusts of the Moon, Mars and Mercury are expected to significantly differ from that emitted by the Earth's atmosphere.

Sazonov, S; Sunyaev, R A; Revnivtsev, M

2006-01-01

289

Solar Control on Jupiter's Equatorial X-ray Emissions: 26-29 November 2003 XMM-Newton Observation  

E-print Network

During November 26-29, 2003 XMM-Newton observed soft (0.2-2 keV) X-ray emission from Jupiter for 69 hours. The low-latitude X-ray disk emission of Jupiter is observed to be almost uniform in intensity with brightness that is consistent with a solar-photon driven process. The simultaneous lightcurves of Jovian equatorial X-rays and solar X-rays (measured by the TIMED/SEE and GOES satellites) show similar day-to-day variability. A large solar X-ray flare occurring on the Jupiter-facing side of the Sun is found to have a corresponding feature in the Jovian X-rays. These results support the hypothesis that X-ray emission from Jovian low-latitudes are solar X-rays scattered from the planet's upper atmosphere, and suggest that the Sun directly controls the non-auroral X-rays from Jupiter's disk. Our study also suggests that Jovian equatorial X-rays can be used to monitor the solar X-ray flare activity on the hemisphere of the Sun that is invisible to space weather satellites.

Anil Bhardwaj; Graziella Branduardi-Raymont; Ronald F. Elsner; G. Randall Gladstone; Gavin Ramsay; Pedro Rodriguez; Roberto Soria; J. Hunter Waite Jr.; Thomas E. Cravens

2005-04-29

290

RX J1301.9+2747: A HIGHLY VARIABLE SEYFERT GALAXY WITH EXTREMELY SOFT X-RAY EMISSION  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a temporal and spectral analysis of X-ray data from XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the ultrasoft and variable Seyfert galaxy RX J1301.9+2747. In both observations the source clearly displays two distinct states in the X-ray band: a long quiescent state and a short flare (or eruptive) state which differs in count rates by a factor of 5-7. The transition from the quiescent to the flare state occurs in 1-2 ks. We have observed that the quiescent state spectrum is unprecedentedly steep with a photon index {Gamma} {approx} 7.1, and the spectrum of the flare state is flatter with {Gamma} {approx} 4.4. X-rays above 2 keV were not significantly detected in either state. In the quiescent state, the spectrum appears to be dominated by a blackbody component of temperature about {approx}30-40 eV, which is comparable to the expected maximum effective temperature from the inner accretion disk. The quiescent state, however, requires an additional steep power law, presumably arising from Comptonization by transient heated electrons. The optical spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows Seyfert-like narrow lines for RX J1301.9+2747, while Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals a central point source for the object. In order to precisely determine the hard X-ray component, future longer X-ray observations are required. This will help constrain the accretion disk model for RX J1301.9+2747, and shed new light on the characteristics of the corona and accretion flows around black holes.

Sun Luming; Shu Xinwen; Wang Tinggui, E-mail: lmsun@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xwshu@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-05-10

291

10 micron detection of the hard X-ray transient GRO J0422+32: Free-free emission from an X-ray-driven accretion disk wind?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the detection of 10 micrometer emission from the transient low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) and optical nova GRO J0422+32 near the maximum of its outburst. We discuss this result in terms of (1) a 'standard' model according to which low-energy radiation of LMXB is caused by reprocessing of X-rays in an accretion disk; (2) emission from a cool secondary star; (3) emission from dust grains heated by the transient X-rays, and (4) free-free emission from an X-ray-driven wind from the accretion disk. Only the fourth alternative provides a viable explanation for the observed 10 micrometer emission, with a mass-loss rate in the disk wind that may be substantially higher than the rate of accretion onto the compact star. The presence of such a wind may have a profound effect on the evolution of the binary, and contribute to the solution of the 'birthrate problem' of millisecond ratio pulsars.

Paradijs, Van J.; Telesco, C. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.

1994-01-01

292

X-ray Emission Spectroscopic Investigation of Sealing of Anodic Oxide Films on Aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

`SEALING' of oxide coatings produced on aluminium and its alloys by anodic treatment in sulphuric acid solutions is the reaction between the amorphous alumina (containing about 15 per cent sulphate) and boiling water or aqueous metal salt solutions. X-ray emission spectroscopy provides a new and useful technique to study the sealing reaction through its quantitative and quick determination of the

Roy C. Spooner; W. J. Forsyth

1963-01-01

293

X-RAY EMISSION ANALYSIS OF PLUTONIUM AND URANIUM COMPOUND MIXTURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A timesaving and reliable x-ray emission method was developed for the ; simultaneous determination of plutonium and uranium in refractory oxide mixtures ; and fused alloys. The measurements of characteristic L alpha lines of uranium ; and plutonium, with thorium used as an internal standard, were carried out after ; a fusion of the refractory mixtures in a flux of

Oscar Menis; E. K. Halteman; E. E. Garcia

1963-01-01

294

Mechanism for the Hard-X-Ray Emission in Vacuum Spark Discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible mechanism is discussed for the hard-x-ray emission observed in vacuum spark plasmas. The mechanism is based on the hypothesis that in the process of a sausage instability in a plasma pinch the plasma can have very high resistivity due to the constriction and strong turbulence, so that the conduction current is virtually cut off. In such a case

J. Fukai; E. J. Clothiaux

1975-01-01

295

The X-ray emission of Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author briefly summarizes some theoretical and observational results on the X-ray emission of Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies, i.e. sources in which the obscuring torus is optically thick to Compton scattering (NH ? 1024cm-2).

Matt, G.

1996-02-01

296

Surface Science Letters Surface X-ray emission from lanthanide metals  

E-print Network

Surface Science Letters Surface X-ray emission from lanthanide metals F. Huubinger a , A. The energy separation of surface and bulk XE peaks is explained by the surface core-level shift of La new opportunities in studying surface phenomena in lanthanide metals and com- pounds. Ã? 2002 Elsevier

Grigoriev, Alexei

297

THE MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF DRINKING WATER USING PROTON-INDUCED X-RAY EMISSION (PIXE)  

EPA Science Inventory

A new, rapid, and economical method for the multielemental analysis of drinking water samples is described. The concentrations of 76 elements heavier than aluminum are determined using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technology. The concentration of sodium is evaluated using...

298

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) Spectroscopy Microscope (FE-SEM) as shown in Figure 1. The FE-SEM combines the versatility of PC control with a novel mm working distance. The FE-SEM also offers excellent low kV performance with resolution of 2.5 nm

Gelfond, Michael

299

Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy using monochromatized synchrotron radiation (invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy is a common tool for the study of the electronic structure of molecules and solids. However, the interpretation of spectra is sometimes made difficult by overlaying lines due to satellite transitions or close-lying core holes. Also, irrelevant inner core transitions may accidentally fall in the wavelength region under study. These problems, which often arise for spectra

J. Nordgren; G. Bray; S. Cramm; R. Nyholm; J.-E. Rubensson; N. Wassdahl

1989-01-01

300

Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in Upstate New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected in the historic Stockade District of Schenectady, New York, was performed using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy. This is part of a systematic study in the Mohawk River Valley of upstate New York to identify the sources and understand the transport, transformation, and effects of airborne pollutants and the connection between aerosols, the

Colin Gleason; Charles Harrington; Katie Schuff; Scott Labrake; Michael Vineyard

2009-01-01

301

X-ray emission associated with radio galaxies in the Perseus cluster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we report on new x-ray observations of the Perseus cluster made using four separate pointings of the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Positron Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). We searched for x-ray emission associated with 16 radio galaxies and detected six above 3 sigma. We made use of the PSPC spectra to determine if the x-ray emission associated with radio galaxies in Perseus is thermal or nonthermal in origin (i.e., hot gas or an active galactic nuclei (AGN)). For the head-tail radio galaxy IC 310, we find that the data are best fit by a power law model with an unusually large spectral index alpha = 2.7. This is consistent with its unresolved spatial structure. On the other hand, a second resolved x-ray source associated with another radio galaxy 2.3 Mpc from the Perseus center (V Zw 331) is best fit by a thermal model. For three sources with insufficient flux for a full spectral analysis, we calculated hardness ratios. On this basis, the x-ray emission associated with the well known head-tail source NGC 1265 is consistent with thermal radiation. The x-ray spectra of UGC 2608 and UGC 2654 probably arise from hot gas, although very steep power-law spectra (alpha greater than 3.2) are also possible. The spectrum of NGC 1275 is quite complex due to the presence of an AGN and the galaxy's location at the center of a cluster cooling flow.

Rhee, George; Burns, Jack O.; Kowalski, Michael P.

1994-01-01

302

The electronic structure of polyaniline and doped phases studied by soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies  

E-print Network

The electronic structure of the conjugated polymer, polyaniline, has been studied by resonant and nonresonant X-ray emission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for the excitation. The measurements were made on polyaniline and a few doped (protonated) phases for both the carbon and nitrogen contents. The resonant X-ray emission spectra show depletion of the {\\pi} electron bands due to the selective excitation which enhances the effect of symmetry selection rules. The valence band structures in the X-ray emission spectra attributed to the {\\pi} bands show unambiguous changes of the electronic structure upon protonation. By comparing to X-ray absorption measurements, the chemical bonding and electronic configuration is characterized.

Magnuson, M; Butorin, S M; Agui, A; Såthe, C; Nordgren, J; Monkman, A P; 10.1063/1.479238

2012-01-01

303

X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays in 5-MA Saturn discharges is reported. The timing of multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra (1 to 10 keV) agree with 2D radiation-hydrocode simulations. Nonthermal x-ray emission (10 to 100 keV) correlates with pinch spots distributed along the z-axis. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum,

T. W. L. Sanford; D. Mosher; J. S. De Groot

1996-01-01

304

Intense Non-Linear Soft X-Ray Emission from a Hydride Target during Pulsed D Bombardment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation emission from low-energy nuclear radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and X-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft X-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An X-ray intensity of 13.4 mW\\/cm2 and a dose of 3.3 muJ\\/cm2 were

George H. Miley; Yang Yang; Andrei Lipson; Munima Haque; Ian Percel; Michael Romer

2006-01-01

305

Diffuse thermal X-ray emission in the core of the young massive cluster Westerlund 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of the diffuse hard X-ray emission in the core of the young massive Galactic cluster Westerlund 1 based on a 48 ks XMM-Newton observation. Chandra results for the diffuse X-ray emission have indicated a soft thermal component together with a hard component that could be either thermal or non-thermal. We seek to resolve this ambiguity regarding the hard component exploiting the higher sensitivity of XMM-Newton to diffuse emission. Our new X-ray spectra from the central (2' radius) diffuse emission are found to exhibit He-like Fe 6.7 keV line emission, demonstrating that the hard emission in the cluster core is predominantly thermal in origin. Potential sources of this hard component are reviewed, namely an unresolved Pre-Main Sequence population, a thermalized cluster wind and Supernova Remnants interacting with stellar winds. We find that the thermalized cluster wind likely contributes the majority of the hard emission with some contribution from the Pre-Main Sequence population. It is unlikely that Supernova Remnants are contributing significantly to the Westerlund 1 diffuse emission at the current epoch.

Kavanagh, P. J.; Norci, L.; Meurs, E. J. A.

2011-11-01

306

The hard X-ray emission spectra from accretion columns in intermediate polars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the hard (greater than 2 keV) X-ray emission from accretion columns in an intermediate polar system, GK Per, using a simple settling solution. The rate of photon emission per logarithmic energy interval can be fitted with a power law, E(exp -gamma), with gamma approximately 2.0, in agreement with observations. This index is only weakly dependent on the mass accretion rate, dot-M, for dot-M in the range of a few times 10(exp 16-18) g/s. The peak energy of the photon spectra (after photoelectric absorption) is expected to be E(sub p) approximately (5 keV) gamma(exp -1/3) (N(sub H)/10(exp 23)/sq cm)(exp 1/3) where N(sub H) is the hydrogen column density along the line of sight. The observed spectra of GK Per and possibly of V1223 Sgr suggest N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 23)/sq cm. This large N(sub H) may be due to partially ionized preshock column material. Alternatively, we also consider absorption by the cool outer parts of an accretion disk. In this case the photoelectric absorption depth in the disk is a sensitive function of inclination. For GK Per the required inclination is approximately 83 deg. For mass accretion rates larger than a critical rate of approximately 10(exp 18) g/s, X-ray emission from the column accretion is significantly affected by radiation drag. Although the mass accretion rate increases dramatically during outbursts, the observed hard (greater than 2 keV) X-ray luminosity will not rise proportionately. The slope and peak energy of the outburst spectra are only weakly affected. We conclude that the observed X-ray spectra can be explained by this simple analytic solution and that the production of hard X-rays from the accretion shock at the magnetic poles in the intermediate polars is in general agreement with the observations. However, since the X-ray emission and absorption depend on the mass accretion rate in a complicated manner, observed hard X-ray luminosities (greater than 2 keV) are not a good indicator of the mass accretion rate in the X-ray emitting regions.

Yi, Insu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

1994-01-01

307

Model for the X-ray and optical emission from A0620-00  

SciTech Connect

Model continuum spectra of the accretion disk in the black hole binary A0620-00 are calculated assuming it has a standard alpha-disk structure. The optical and X-ray fluxes obtained are in very good agreement with the observations, provided the mass transfer rate is about 5 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/yr during outburst and less than 10 to the -11th solar masses/yr in quiescence. The absence of significant X-ray emission in quiescence is a natural consequence of the relatively low temperatures encountered in accretion disks with very low mass throughput. 12 references.

De Kool, M.

1988-11-01

308

Radio/X-Ray Luminosity Relation for Advection Dominated Accretion: Implications for Emission-Line Galaxies and the X-Ray Background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies of the cosmic X-ray background (XRB) have suggested the possible existence of a population of relatively faint sources with hard X-ray spectra; however, the emission mechanism remains unclear. If the hard X-ray emission is from the radiatively inefficient, advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) around massive black holes in galactic nuclei, X-ray luminosity and radio luminosity satisfy the approximate relation L(sub R) approx. 7 x 10(exp 35)(upsilon/15 GHz)(sup 7/5(M/10(exp 7)solar mass)(L(sub X) ergs/s)(sup 1/10 ergs/s, where L(sub R) = (upsilon)L(sub upsilon) is the radio luminosity at frequency upsilon, M is the mass of the accreting black hole, and 10(exp 40) less than or equal to L(sub X) less than or equal to 10(exp 42) ergs/s is the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity. These sources are characterized by inverted radio spectra I(sub upsilon) varies as upsilon(exp 2/5). For example, an ADAF X-ray source with luminosity L(sub X) approx. 10(exp 41) ergs/s has a nuclear radio luminosity of approx. 4 x 10(M/3 x 10(exp 7) solar mass) ergs/s at approx. 20 GHz, and if it is at a distance of approx. 10(M/3 x 10(exp 7) solar mass) Mpc, it would be detected as a approx. 1 mJy point radio source. High-frequency (approx. 20 GHz), high angular resolution radio observations provide an important test of the ADAF emission mechanism. Since L,, depends strongly on black hole mass and only weakly on X-ray luminosity, the successful measurement of nuclear radio emission could provide an estimate of black hole mass. Because the X-ray spectra produced by ADAFs are relatively hard, sources of this emission are natural candidates for contributing to the hard (greater than 2 keV) background.

Yi, Insu; Boughn, Stephen P.

1998-01-01

309

X-Ray Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introduction; 2. Contact microradiography; 3. Microscopy by point projection; 4. Reflexion x-ray microscopy: mirror systems; 5. Reflexion x-ray microscopy: curved crystals; 6. X-ray absorption microanalysis; 7. X-ray emission microanalysis; 8. Production of x-rays; 9. Specimen preparation techniques; 10. Techniques of contact microradiography; 11. Techniques of projection microscopy; 12. Applications of x-ray microscopy in biology and medicine; 13. Inorganic applications of x-ray microscopy; 14. Microdiffraction; 15. Some new experimental methods; Appendix. Absorption and emission data; References; Index.

Cosslett, V. E.; Nixon, W. C.

2014-06-01

310

A waveguide electron cyclotron resonance source of X-ray emission for low-dose introscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a "point" target in a conventional evacuated waveguide in the magnetic field of a mirror trap formed by two disk magnets axially magnetized in the direction perpendicular to the electric field vector represents a source of X-ray bremsstrahlung of electrons accelerated in an ECR discharge with a broad range of photon energies up to 0.8 MeV. The dosage rate of the source is ˜1 R/h. The source fed from a conventional microwave oven has small dimensions and a low weight. It is easy-to-use and is suitable as a laboratory tool, in particular, in radiobiology and introscopy. After passing through the object, X-ray emission is recorded by a digital camera with the help of a highly sensitive X-ray fluorescent screen, which converts it into an optical image.

Sergeichev, K. F.; Ionidi, V. Yu.; Karfidov, D. M.; Lukina, N. A.

2013-12-01

311

X-ray vs. H2O maser emission in AGN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Correlations between X-ray and water maser emission in AGN have been recently reported. However, the lack of systematic studies affects the confidence level of these results. In the following, we introduce a project aimed at studying all the water maser sources believed to be associated with AGN activity through X-ray data obtained with the XRT and BAT instruments on-board the Swift satellite. Preliminary results of this work indicate a promising rate of XRT detections allowing us to refine follow-up observing strategies focused on investigating the nuclei of individual galaxies and deriving, on statistical basis, the main characteristics of water maser hosts. In addition, a cross-correlation between our sample and the BAT 22-months all-sky survey provides an exceptionally high detection rate at hard X-ray energies when compared to other AGN-related catalogs.

Castangia, Paola; Tilak, Avanti; Kadler, Matthias; Henkel, Christian; Greenhill, Lincoln; Tueller, Jack

2010-07-01

312

DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION IN THE OLD CLASSICAL NOVA DK LACERTAE  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of X-ray emission at the position of the old classical nova DK Lacertae using the Swift satellite. Three observations were conducted using the X-Ray Telescope 62 years after the discovery of the nova, yielding 46 source signals in an exposure time of 4.8 ks. A background-subtracted count rate was 9 {+-} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} counts s{sup -1}, corresponding to a detection significance level of 5{sigma}. The X-ray spectrum was characterized by a continuum extending up to about 7 keV, which can be modeled by a power-law component with a photon index of 1.4-5.6, or by a thermal bremsstrahlung component with a temperature of 0.7-13.3 keV, convolved with interstellar absorption with an equivalent hydrogen column density of 0.3-2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. Assuming a distance of 3900 pc to the source, the luminosity was 10{sup 32}-10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.3-10 keV energy band. The origin of X-rays is considered to be either mass accretion on the white dwarf or adiabatic shocks in nova ejecta, with the former appearing much more likely. In either case, DK Lacertae represents a rare addition to the exclusive club of X-ray emitting old novae.

Takei, D.; Drake, J. J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sakamoto, T., E-mail: dtakei@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Mathematics, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

2013-01-01

313

The X-ray spectrum and time variability of narrow emission line galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray spectral and temporal observations are reported for six narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs), all of which are fitted by power-law X-ray spectra of energy slope 0.8 and have column densities in the line of sight greater than 1 x 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. Three of the objects, NGC 526a, NGC 2110 and MCG-5-23-16 are variable in their X-ray flux, and the latter two, along with NGC 5506 and NGC 7582, showed detectable variability in at least one observation. The measured X-ray properties of these NELGs, which also included NGC 2992, strongly resemble those of previously-measured type 1 Seyferts of the same X-ray luminosity and lead to the conclusion of great similarity between the NELGs and low-luminosity type 1 Seyferts. The implications of these observations for the optical line-emitting region structure of these galaxies are discussed.

Mushotzky, R. F.

1982-01-01

314

The X-ray spectrum and time variability of narrow emission line galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray spectral and temporal observations are reported for six narrow emission line galaxies (NELGs), all of which are fitted by power-law X-ray spectra of energy slope 0.8 and have column densities in the line of sight greater than 1 x 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm. Three of the objects, NGC 526a, NGC 2110 and MCG-5-23-16 are variable in their X-ray flux, and the latter two, along with NGC 5506 and NGC 7582, showed detectable variability in at least one observation. The measured X-ray properties of these NELGs, which also included NGC 2992, strongly resemble those of previously-measured type 1 Seyferts of the same X-ray luminosity and lead to the conclusion of great similarity between the NELGs and low-luminosity type 1 Seyferts. The implications of these observations for the optical line-emitting region structure of these galaxies are discussed.

Mushotzky, R.

1981-01-01

315

X-Ray Emission from the Unidentified Gamma-Ray Transient GRO J1838-0415  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The gamma-ray transient GRO J1838-04 is one of the most enigmatic sources in the sky. Despite its closeness to the Galactic plane, it showed a strong gamma-ray flare in 1995 typical of blazars. However, no blazar is detected in its approx. 1 deg. error box, and a Galactic source is suspected. Other time variable gamma-ray sources are known in the Galactic disk, and GRO J1838-04 may belong to a new class of sources (isolated young pulsars, the only proven Galactic gamma-ray sources, do not show variability). The Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observed the centroid of the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) error box of GRO J1838-04 in April 1997. Five weak X-ray sources are detected, one of which appears to be diffuse (3 arcmins). No known radio source is coincident with the X-ray sources. A preliminary report of our results appeared and a more systematic report is being written . The fact that no prominent X-ray source appears in the field, excludes an X-ray transient source with strong persistent emission is a possible counterpart of GRO JI838- 04 (such as superluminal transients). To uncover the nature of GRO J1838-04 requires more study of the weak X-ray sources in its error box, and a long-time scale monitoring of their variability.

Tavani, Marco

1998-01-01

316

X-ray emission processes in stars and their immediate environment  

PubMed Central

A decade of X-ray stellar observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton has led to significant advances in our understanding of the physical processes at work in hot (magnetized) plasmas in stars and their immediate environment, providing new perspectives and challenges, and in turn the need for improved models. The wealth of high-quality stellar spectra has allowed us to investigate, in detail, the characteristics of the X-ray emission across the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Progress has been made in addressing issues ranging from classical stellar activity in stars with solar-like dynamos (such as flares, activity cycles, spatial and thermal structuring of the X-ray emitting plasma, and evolution of X-ray activity with age), to X-ray generating processes (e.g., accretion, jets, magnetically confined winds) that were poorly understood in the preChandra/XMM-Newton era. I will discuss the progress made in the study of high energy stellar physics and its impact in a wider astrophysical context, focusing on the role of spectral diagnostics now accessible. PMID:20360562

Testa, Paola

2010-01-01

317

RECONNECTION ELECTRIC FIELD AND HARDNESS OF X-RAY EMISSION OF SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the prime mechanism that triggers solar flares and accelerates electrons up to energies of MeV. In the classical two-dimensional reconnection model, the separation motion of chromospheric ribbons, manifests the successive reconnection that takes place higher up in the corona. Meanwhile, downward traveling energetic electrons bombard the dense chromosphere and create hard X-ray (HXR) emissions, which provide a valuable diagnostic of electron acceleration. Analyses of ribbon dynamics and the HXR spectrum have been carried out separately. In this Letter, we report a study of the comparison of reconnection electric field measured from ribbon motion and hardness (spectral index) of X-ray emission derived from X-ray spectrum. Our survey of the maximum average reconnection electric field and the minimum overall spectral index for 13 two-ribbon flares shows that they are strongly anticorrelated. The former is also strongly correlated with flare magnitude measured using the peak flux of soft X-ray emissions. These provide strong support for electron acceleration models based on the electric field generated at reconnecting current sheet during flares.

Liu Chang; Wang Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)], E-mail: chang.liu@njit.edu, E-mail: haimin@flare.njit.edu

2009-05-01

318

Electronic emission of radio-sensitizing gold nanoparticles under X-ray irradiation : experiment and simulations  

E-print Network

In this paper we present new results on electronic emission of Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and compare them to the gold bulk electron emission. This subject has undergone new interest within the perspective of using GNPs as a radiotherapy enhancer. The experimental results were simulated using various models (Livermore and PENELOPE) of the Geant 4 simulation toolkit dedicated to the calculation of the transportation of particles through the matter. Our results show that the GNPs coating is a key parameter to correctly construe the experimental GNPs electronic emission after X-ray irradiation and point out some limitations of the PENELOPE model. Using XPS spectra and Geant4 Livermore simulations,we propose a method to determine precisely the coating surface density of the GNPs. We also show that the expected intrinsic nano-scale electronic emission enhancement effect - suspected to contribute to the GNPs radio-sensitizing properties - participates at most for a few pe...

Casta, R; Sence, M; Moretto-Capelle, P; Cafarelli, P; Amsellem, A; Sicard-Roselli, C

2014-01-01

319

EARLY THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We performed a series of hydrodynamical calculations of an ultrarelativistic jet propagating through a massive star and the circumstellar matter (CSM) to investigate the interaction between the ejecta and the CSM. We succeed in distinguishing two qualitatively different cases in which the ejecta are shocked and adiabatically cool. To examine whether the cocoon expanding at subrelativistic speeds emits any observable signal, we calculate the expected photospheric emission from the cocoon. It is found that the emission can explain early thermal X-ray emission recently found in some long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The result implies that the difference of the circumstellar environment of long GRBs can be probed by observing their early thermal X-ray emission.

Suzuki, Akihiro [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2013-02-10

320

X-ray Emission Processes in Extragalactic Jets, Lobes and Hot Spots  

E-print Network

This paper is a brief review of the processes responsible for X-ray emission from radio jets, lobes and hot spots. Possible photons in inverse Compton scattering models include the radio synchrotron radiation itself (i.e. synchrotron self-Compton [SSC] emission), the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the galaxy starlight and radiation from the active nucleus. SSC emission has been detected from a number of hot spots. Scattering of the CMB is expected to dominate for jets (and possibly hot spots) undergoing bulk relativistic motion close to the direction towards the observer. Scattering of infrared radiation from the AGN should be observable from radio lobes, especially if they are close to the active nucleus. Synchrotron radiation is detected in some sources, most notably the jet of M87. I briefly discuss why different hot spots emit X-rays by different emission mechanisms and the nature of the synchrotron spectra.

Andrew S. Wilson

2003-01-07

321

JUXTA: A Probe of X-ray Emission from Jupiter's Magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce an unique instrument for the future Japanese exploration mission of Jupiter's magnetosphere (JMO: Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter). The proposed launch year of JMO is around 2022. Our instrument named JUXTA (Jupiter X-ray Telescope Array) aims at the first in-situ measurement of X-ray emission associated with acceleration processes in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Recent observations with Earth-orbiting satellites have revealed the existence of various X-ray emissions from the Jupiter system. For instance, Jupiter's aurorae emit X-rays by bremsstrahlung of keV electrons (Gladstone et al. 2002 Nature) and also charge exchange interaction of MeV ions from the solar wind and magnetospheric ions (Branduardi-Raymont et al. 2007 A&A). Inner radiation belts could emit diffuse X-ray emission by inverse-Compton scattering of solar photons by tens MeV electrons (Ezoe et al. 2009 ApJL). Thus, the X-ray imaging spectroscopy is a direct probe of dynamic accelerated particles, their coupling to the plasma waves and their solar wind interaction in Jupiter's magnetosphere. However, the limited photon statistics and image/time resolution hinder us from fully utilizing these phenomena. Therefore, we have proposed and been developing an in-situ X-ray imaging spectroscopy instrument, JUXTA. It is composed of an ultra-light weight X-ray telescope based on micromachining technology and a radiation-hard semiconductor pixel detector. JUXTA is a Latin word meaning proximity. JUXTA covers 0.3--2 keV with the energy resolution of <100 eV at 0.6 keV. Because of its proximity to Jupiter (˜30 Rj at periapsis), the image resolution of <5 arcmin corresponds to <˜10000 km on the surface of Jupiter and the effective area of >3 cm^2 at 0.6 keV allows high quality light curves from auroral hot spots with the time resolution of <˜60 s. In this presentation, science target and instrument design of JUXTA are presented.

Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kasahara, Satoshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kimura, Tomoki; Ohashi, Takaya; Ishikawa, Kumi; Fujimoto, Masaki

2012-07-01

322

Comparative study of x ray and microwave emissions during solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work supported by the grant consisted of two projects. The first project involved making detailed case studies of two flares using SMM data in conjunction with ground based observations. The first flare occurred at 1454 UT on June 20, 1989 and involved the eruption of a prominence near the limb. In the study we used data from many wavelength regimes including the radio, H-alpha, hard X-rays, and soft X-rays. We used a full gyrosynchrotron code to model the apparent presence of a 1.4 GHz source early in the flare that was in the form of a large coronal loop. The model results lead us to conclude that the initial acceleration occurs in small, dense loops which also produced the flare's hard X-ray emission. We also found evidence that a source at 1.4 GHz later in the event was due to second harmonic plasma emission. This source was adjacent to a leg of the prominence and comes from a dense column of material in the magnetic structure supporting the prominence. Finally, we investigated a source of microwaves and soft X-rays, occurring approximately 10 min after the hard X-ray peak, and calculate a lower limit for the density of the source. The second flare that was studied occurred at 2156 UT on June 20, 1989 and was observed with the VLA and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Frequency Agile Array. We have developed a gyrosynchrotron model of the sources at flare peak using a new gyrosynchrotron approximation which is valid at very low harmonics of the gyrofrequency. We found that the accelerated particle densities of the sources decreased much more with radius from the source center than had been supposed in previous work, while the magnetic field varied less. We also used the available data to analyze a highly polarized source which appeared late in the flare. The second project involved compiling a statistical base for the relative timing of the hard X-ray peak, the turbulent and blue-shift velocities inferred from soft X-ray line emissions observed by SMM and the microwave peak as determined from ground-based observations. This timing was then used to aid the testing of newly developed global models for flares that incorporate the global magnetic topology as well as the electron dynamics that are responsible for the hard X-rays and microwaves.

Winglee, Robert M.

1993-01-01

323

The Discovery of X-ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Back in 1974 the UHURU catalog (3U) had been published with many UHGLS - unidentified high galactic latitude sources. Identifications were hampered by the square degree sized error boxes (positional uncertainties). Could these explain the cosmic X-ray background? Could UHGLS be "X-ray galaxies"? Only three active galaxies (AGNs) had been found as X-ray sources: 3C273, Cen A and NGC 4151, while others had upper limits. What was the difference between X-ray and non-X-ray AGNs? It turned out that the slightly better positioning capability and slightly deeper sensitivity of the Ariel V Sky Survey Instrument (SSI), launched in October 1974, were just enough to show that the UHGLS were Seyfert galaxies. And I was lucky enough that I'd joined the Leicester X-ray group and had taken on the UHGLS for my PhD thesis, with Ken Pounds as my supervisor. With the SSI we made a catalog of high latitude sources, the "2A" catalog, including about a dozen known Seyfert galaxies (lowish luminosity nearby AGNs) and, with Mike Penston and Martin Ward, we went on to identify many of them with both newly discovered normal broad emission line AGNs and a few new "narrow emission line galaxies", or NELGs, as we called them. We are now convinced that it is summation of many obscured NELGs that produce the flat spectrum of the X-ray background, and we are still searching for them in Chandra deep surveys and at higher energies with NuSTAR. There was an obvious connection between the X-ray obscuration and the optical reddening, which must lie outside the region emitting the broad optical spectral lines. Andy Lawrence and I, following a clue from Bill Keel, put this together into what we now call the Unified Scheme for AGN structure. This idea of a flattened torus obscuring the inner regions of the AGN was so dramatically confirmed a few years later -- by Ski Antonucci and Joe Miller's discovery of polarized broad emission lines in NGC1068 -- that the precursor papers became irrelevant. But Ariel V had provided the seeds for this advance too. Not bad for 100cm2 and 1/2 degree collimators.

Elvis, Martin

2013-01-01

324

Electronic structure of black phosphorus studied by polarized soft-x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft-x-ray emission (Kbeta emission) and absorption (K absorption) spectra of a black P single crystal polarized along each crystalline axis are presented for the first time. The experimental results indicate (1) the upper part of the valence band near the Fermi level is largely contributed by the 3pz states, (2) the 3py orbital forms the middle to lower part of

Y. Hayasi; T. Takahashi; H. Asahina; T. Sagawa; A. Morita; I. Shirotani

1984-01-01

325

X-Ray Emission from Early-Type Galaxies: A Complete Sample Observed by ROSAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the cooling flow model of early-type galaxies, we obtained a complete\\u000amagnitude-limited sample of 34 early-type galaxies, observed with the PSPC and\\u000aHRI on ROSAT. The X-ray to optical distribution of galaxies implies a lower\\u000aenvelope that is consistent with the stellar emission inferred from Cen A. When\\u000athis stellar component is removed, the gaseous emission is related

Beth A. Brown; Joel N. Bregman

1997-01-01

326

Proton-induced X-ray and gamma ray emission analysis of biological samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 4.1 MeV external proton beam was employed to simultaneously induce X-ray emission (PIXE) and gamma ray emission (PIGE) in biological samples that included human colostrum, spermatozoa, teeth, tree-rings, and follicular fluids. The analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine the elements lithium (Z = 3) through uranium (Z = 92) in the samples. PIXE-PIGE experimental design is described as well as applications in environmental and medical fields.

Hall, Gene S.; Navon, Eliahu

1986-04-01

327

X-ray secondary heating and ionization in quasar emission-line clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate Monte Carlo computations of the X-ray secondary electron heating, ionization, and excitation of H and He gas in interstellar space and in quasar emission-line clouds, are presented. The fraction of energy deposited in each form is sensitive to the background ionization fraction, x = n(H+)\\/n(Htot), and can affect the temperature, ionization state, and line emissivities at large depths in

J. M. Shull; M. E. van Steenberg

1985-01-01

328

THE SIZES OF THE X-RAY AND OPTICAL EMISSION REGIONS OF RXJ 1131-1231  

SciTech Connect

We use gravitational microlensing of the four images of the z = 0.658 quasar RXJ 1131-1231 to measure the sizes of the optical and X-ray emission regions of the quasar. The (face-on) scale length of the optical disk at rest frame 400 nm is R{sub l}ambda{sub ,O} = 1.3 x 10{sup 15} cm, while the half-light radius of the rest frame 0.3-17 keV X-ray emission is R{sub 1/2,X} = 2.3 x 10{sup 14} cm. The formal uncertainties are factors of 1.6 and 2.0, respectively. With the exception of the lower limit on the X-ray size, the results are very stable against any changes in the priors used in the analysis. Based on the Hbeta line width, we estimate that the black hole mass is M{sub 1131} approx = 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, which corresponds to a gravitational radius of r{sub g} approx = 2 x 10{sup 13} cm. Thus, the X-ray emission is emerging on scales of approx10r{sub g} and the 400 nm emission on scales of approx70r{sub g} . A standard thin disk of this size should be significantly brighter than observed. Possible solutions are to have a flatter temperature profile or to scatter a large fraction of the optical flux on larger scales after it is emitted. While our calculations were not optimized to constrain the dark matter fraction in the lens galaxy, dark matter-dominated models are favored. With well-sampled optical and X-ray light curves over a broad range of frequencies, there will be no difficulty in extending our analysis to completely map the structure of the accretion disk as a function of wavelength.

Dai, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kochanek, C. S.; Kozlowski, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Chartas, G.; Garmire, G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Morgan, C. W. [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, 572C Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Agol, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, 3910 15th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

2010-01-20

329

Glancing Angle Dependence of the X-Ray Emission Measured under Total Reflection Angle X-Ray Spectroscopy (TRAXS) Condition during Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the glancing angle (?g) dependence of the X-ray emission from Si(111)-\\sqrt{3}×\\sqrt{3}-Ag and ?-\\sqrt{3}×\\sqrt{3}-Au surfaces during Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction observation under the Total Reflection Angle X-ray Spectroscopy condition. The characteristic X-rays AgL and AuM decreased according to 1/sin ?g. The function 1/\\sin?g is easily understood in terms of Ag and Au atoms located at the top layer of the surface. The SiK and the bremsstrahlung showed broad peaks around 8°. These trends of the curves are explained by an analysis using Monte Carlo electron trajectory simulation. By measuring the glancing angle dependence we can easily distinguish whether or not a specific kind of atom is confined at the top layer of the surface.

Yamanaka, Toshiro; Hanada, Takashi; Ino, Shozo; Daimon, Hiroshi

1992-10-01

330

Making use of x-ray optical effects in photoelectron-, Auger electron-, and x-ray emission spectroscopies: Total reflection, standing-wave excitation, and resonant effects  

SciTech Connect

We present a general theoretical methodology and related open-access computer program for carrying out the calculation of photoelectron, Auger electron, and x-ray emission intensities in the presence of several x-ray optical effects, including total reflection at grazing incidence, excitation with standing-waves produced by reflection from synthetic multilayers and at core-level resonance conditions, and the use of variable polarization to produce magnetic circular dichroism. Calculations illustrating all of these effects are presented, including in some cases comparisons to experimental results. Sample types include both semi-infinite flat surfaces and arbitrary multilayer configurations, with interdiffusion/roughness at their interfaces. These x-ray optical effects can significantly alter observed photoelectron, Auger, and x-ray intensities, and in fact lead to several generally useful techniques for enhancing surface and buried-layer sensitivity, including layer-resolved densities of states and depth profiles of element-specific magnetization. The computer program used in this study should thus be useful for a broad range of studies in which x-ray optical effects are involved or are to be exploited in next-generation surface and interface studies of nanoscale systems.

Yang, S.-H. [IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, California 95120 (United States); Gray, A. X. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94740 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, Stanford University and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Kaiser, A. M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94740 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Peter Grunberg Institute, PGI-6, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Mun, B. S. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Gyeonggi 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sell, B. C. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94740 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Department of Physics, Otterbein College, Westerville, Ohio 43081 (United States); Kortright, J. B. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94740 (United States); Fadley, C. S. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94740 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2013-02-21

331

The X-ray eclipse of OY Car resolved with XMM-Newton: X-ray emission from the polar regions of the white dwarf  

E-print Network

We present the XMM-Newton X-ray eclipse lightcurve of the dwarf nova OY Car. The eclipse ingress and egress are well resolved for the first time in any dwarf nova placing strong constraints on the size and location of the X-ray emitting region. We find good fits to a simple linear eclipse model, giving ingress/egress durations of 30+/-3 sec. Remarkably this is shorter than the ingress/egress duration of the sharp eclipse in the optical as measured by Wood et al. (1989) and ascribed to the white dwarf (43+/-2 sec). We also find that the X-ray eclipse is narrower than the optical eclipse by 14+/-2 sec, which is precisely the difference required to align the second and third contact points of the X-ray and optical eclipses. We discuss these results and conclude that X-ray emission in OY Car most likely arises from the polar regions of the white dwarf. Our data were originally reported by Ramsay et al (2001), but they did not make a quantitative measurement of eclipse parameters. We have also corrected important timing anomalies present in the data available at that time.

Peter J. Wheatley; Richard G. West

2003-07-24

332

Synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence analysis of the calibration samples used in surface sensitive total reflection and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) are surface sensitive techniques and can be used for detailed surface studies of different materials, including ultra-low concentration contamination or the lateral and depth distributions of elements. The calibration procedure typically used involves placing a micro-droplet (˜?l) of the standard solution onto a silicon wafer (or quartz backing). After evaporation of the solvent, the residual amount of elements is used as a reference standard. Knowledge of the distribution of residue material on the substrate surface is crucial for precise quantification. In the present work the investigation of the lateral distribution of elements in the multielemental calibrating samples, containing the 23 most commonly studied elements, by using the synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence is presented. The goal of this project was the study of a uniformity of the elemental distributions and determination of the residual elements morphology depending on the temperature of the drying process. The X-ray images were compared with optical and SEM images. Paper presents in details the experimental setup, sample preparation procedures, measurements and results. In the analysis of the X-ray images of the sample dried in high temperature the censoring approach was applied improving the quality of statistical analysis. The information on the elements distribution in the calibrating samples can be useful for developing more accurate calibration procedures applied in quantitative analysis of surface sensitive TXRF and GEXRF techniques.

Kubala-Kuku?, A.; Bana?, D.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, J.; Jagodzi?ski, P.; Susini, J.; Salomé, M.

2013-12-01

333

Disk instability and the time-dependent X-ray emission from the intermediate polar GK Persei  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The correlation between the disk instability model for the 1981-1989 optical outbursts of the intermediate polar GK Per and the accompanying X-ray emission is examined, and the self-consistency of the combined optical-X-ray model is investigated. Special attention is given to the nature of the transition in the X-ray emission due to the time-dependent accretion rates in the simple column accretion model. The large variation in the efficiency of hard X-ray production is explained.

Yi, Insu; Kim, Soon-Wook; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Wheeler, J. C.

1992-01-01

334

The XMM-Newton X-ray emission of the SNR N120 in the LMC  

E-print Network

We present new XMM-Newton observations of the supernova remnant N120 in the LMC, and numerical simulations on the evolution of this supernova remnant which we compare with the X-ray observations. The supernova remnant N120, together with several HII regions, forms a large nebular complex5D (also called N120) whose shape resembles a semicircular ring. From the XMM-Newton data we generate images and spectra of this remnant in the energy band between 0.2 to 2.0 keV. The images show that the X-ray emission is brighter towards the east (i.e., towards the rim of the large nebular complex). The EPIC/MOS1 and MOS2 data reveal a thermal spectrum in soft X-rays. 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations with the Yguaz\\'u-a code were carried out assuming that the remnant is expanding into an inhomogeneous ISM with an exponential density gradient and showing that thermal conduction effects are negligible. Simulated X-ray emission maps were obtained from the numerical simulations in order to compare them with the observations...

Reyes-Iturbide, Jorge; Velazquez, Pablo F

2009-01-01

335

Thermal disc emission from a rotating black hole: X-ray polarization signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal emission from the accretion disc around a black hole can be polarized, due to Thomson scattering in a disc atmosphere. In Newtonian space, the polarization angle must be either parallel or perpendicular to the projection of the disc axis on the sky. As first pointed out by Stark and Connors in 1977, General Relativity effects strongly modify the polarization properties of the thermal radiation as observed at infinity. Among these effects, the rotation of the polarization angle with energy is particularly useful as a diagnostic tool. In this paper, we extend the Stark and Connors calculations by including the spectral hardening factor, several values of the optical depth of the scattering atmosphere and rendering the results to the expected performances of planned X-ray polarimeters. In particular, to assess the perspectives for the next generation of X-ray polarimeters, we consider the expected sensitivity of the detectors on board the planned POLARIX and International X-ray Observatory missions. We assume the two cases of a Schwarzschild and an extreme Kerr black hole with a standard thin disc and a scattering atmosphere. We compute the expected polarization degree and the angle as functions of the energy as they could be measured for different inclinations of the observer, optical thickness of the atmosphere and different values of the black hole spin. We assume the thermal emission dominates the X-ray band. Using the flux level of the microquasar GRS 1915+105 in the thermal state, we calculate the observed polarization.

Dov?iak, M.; Muleri, F.; Goosmann, R. W.; Karas, V.; Matt, G.

2008-11-01

336

X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPERGIANT SHELL IN IC 2574  

SciTech Connect

The M81 group member dwarf galaxy IC 2574 hosts a supergiant shell of current and recent star formation activity surrounding a 1000 Multiplication-Sign 500 pc hole in the ambient H I gas distribution. Chandra X-ray Observatory imaging observations reveal a luminous, L{sub X} {approx} 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.3-8.0 keV band, point-like source within the hole but offset from its center and fainter diffuse emission extending throughout and beyond the hole. The star formation history at the location of the point source indicates a burst of star formation beginning {approx}25 Myr ago and currently weakening and there is a young nearby star cluster, at least 5 Myr old, bracketing the likely age of the X-ray source at between 5 and {approx}25 Myr. The source is thus likely a bright high-mass X-ray binary-either a neutron star or black hole accreting from an early B star undergoing thermal-timescale mass transfer through Roche lobe overflow. The properties of the residual diffuse X-ray emission are consistent with those expected from hot gas associated with the recent star formation activity in the region.

Yukita, Mihoko [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Swartz, Douglas A. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP12 Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

2012-05-01

337

Equation of motion coupled cluster theory calculations of the X-ray emission spectroscopy of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equation of motion coupled cluster theory including single and double excitations (EOM-CCSD) method is applied to study the X-ray emission spectroscopy of water. For the 1b1 orbital, a difference of about 0.7 eV is predicted between a tetrahedrally coordinated water molecule and a water molecule in which water molecules accepting hydrogen bonds are absent, and as a proton is dissociated emission from the 1b1 and 3a1 orbitals become closer in energy. The resonantly excited X-ray emission spectrum for the 4a1 orbital shows a red-shift in the bands and a reduction in intensity for the 3a1 band.

Besley, Nicholas A.

2012-07-01

338

Hard X-ray and radio emission at the onset of great solar flares  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of the onset phase of ten great hard X-ray bursts is presented. It is shown from hard X-ray and radio observations in different wavelength ranges that the energization of the electrons proceeds on a global time-scale for some tens of seconds. In nine of the bursts, two phases of emission can be distinguished during the onset phase: the preflash phase (during which emission up to an energy limit ranging from some tens of keV to 200 keV is observed) followed ten to some tens of seconds later by the flash phase (where the count rate in all detector channels rises simultaneously to within some seconds). For two of the events, strong gamma-ray line emission is observed and is shown to start close to the onset of the flash phase.

Klein, K.-L.; Pick, M.; Magun, A.; Dennis, B. R.

1987-01-01

339

X-ray emission from an adolescent classical T Tauri star  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to perform high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of MP Muscae, a classical T Tauri star with an age of about 10 Myr, and hence quite old for its class. In fact, MP Mus is the only known star of this age with evidence of an accretion disk, found in a survey of the Lower Centaurus-Crux subgroup in the Scorpius- Centaurus association. Moreover, this star also shows evidence of a cold dusty disk, as indicated by excess emission at IR and mm wavelengths. The proposed observation will allow us to address several issues concerning the evolution of the X-ray emission in pre-main-sequence stars, the mechanism(s) of such emission, the element abundances of the emitting plasma, and the influence of high-energy radiation on the surrounding medium where planetary formation is likely occurring.

Maggio, Antonio

2005-10-01

340

Soft x-ray emission from solar wind charge exchange in the laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have observed the emission spectra in collisions of bare oxygen ions with a helium gas target in the soft x-ray region with a window-less silicon drift detector at the collision energy range of 48-80 keV. The dominant soft x-ray emission corresponds to the 1s-2p transition of hydrogen-like oxygen O7+ produced by the single-electron charge exchange reaction. Other emission lines are the 1s-3p, 1s-4p and 1s-5p transitions of O7+, and also the 1s2-1s2p transition of O6+ produced by the true double-electron capture. The cascades from the upper states result in a large population of the 2p state, even though the direct capture into the 2p state is extremely scarcer than those into the 3p, 4p and 5p states.

Shimaya, H.; Ishida, T.; Ishikawa, S.; Suda, S.; Tanuma, H.; Akamatsu, H.; Ohashi, H.; Ijima, N.; Inoue, M.; Ezoe, Y.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Shinozaki, K.; Mitsuda, K.; Liu, L.; Wang, J.

2013-09-01

341

Coronal Hard X-Ray Emission Associated with Radio Type III Bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a purely coronal hard X-ray source detected in a partially disk-occulted solar flare by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) that is associated with radio type III bursts and a suprathermal electron event detected near 1 AU by the WIND 3-D Plasma and Energetic Particle (3DP) instrument. Several observational characteristics suggest that the coronal hard X-ray source is thin target bremsstrahlung emission from the escaping electrons that produce the radio type III bursts. The hard X-ray emission correlates in time with the radio type III bursts and originates from a radially elongated source in the corona with a length (~65 Mm) similar to typical coronal density scale heights. Furthermore, the difference between the hard X-ray photon spectral index (?=4.1+/-0.4) and the electron spectral index of the in situ observed event (?insitu=2.9+/-0.3) is around 1, consistent with the thin target interpretation. A further test for the thin target scenario is to compare the number of electrons needed to produce the observed hard X-ray emission with the number of in situ observed electrons. However, the number of escaping electrons derived from the single-spacecraft WIND measurement is in the best case an order of magnitude estimate and could easily underestimate the actual number of escaping electrons. Using the WIND observations, the estimated number of escaping electrons is about an order of magnitude too low. Thus, the thin target interpretation only holds if the WIND measurements are significantly underestimating the actual number of escaping electrons. Future multispacecraft observations with STEREO, Solar Orbiter, and Sentinels will resolve this uncertainty.

Krucker, Säm; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Christe, S.; White, S. M.; Chavier, A. D.; Bale, S. D.; Lin, R. P.

2008-07-01

342

Solar Control on Jupiter's Equatorial X-ray Emissions: 26-29 November 2003 XMM-Newton Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During November 26-29,2003 XMM-Newton observed X-ray emissions from Jupiter for 69 hours. The 0.7-2.0 keV X-ray disk of Jupiter is observed to be brightest at the subsolar point, and limb darkening is seen in the 0.2-2.0 keV and 0.7-2.0 keV images. We present simultaneous lightcurves of Jovian equatorial X-rays and solar X-rays measured by the GOES, SOHO/SEM, and TIMED/SEE satellites. The solar X-ray flares occurring on the Jupiter-facing side of the Sun are matched by corresponding features in the Jovian X- rays. These results support the hypothesis that X-ray emissions from Jovian low-latitudes are solar X-rays scattered and fluoresced from the planet's upper atmosphere, and confirm that the Sun directly controls the non-auroral X-rays fiom Jupiter's disk. Our study suggest that Jovian equatorial X-rays; during certain Jupiter phase, can be used to predict the occurrence of solar flare on the hemisphere of the Sun that is invisible to space weather satellites.

Bhardwaj, Anil; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Ramsay, G.; Rodriquez, P.; Soria, R.; Waite, J. Hunter, Jr.; Cravens, Thomas E.

2004-01-01

343

Spot the differences: the X-ray spectrum of SU Aur compared to TW Hya  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present high-resolution Chandra HETGS X-ray spectra of the classical T Tauri star SU Aur. The quiescent X-ray emission is dominated by a 20-40 MK plasma, which contrasts strongly with the cool 3 MK plasma dominating the X-ray emission of the CTTS TW Hya. A large flare occurred during the first half of our 100 ks observation, and we have

K. Smith; M. Audard; M. Güdel; S. Skinner; R. Pallavicini

2005-01-01

344

The Soft X-Ray Emission in a Large Sample of Galaxy Clusters with ROSAT PSPC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of soft X-ray emission of 38 X-ray selected galaxy clusters observed by ROSAT PSPC indicates that the soft excess phenomenon may be a common occurrence in galaxy clusters. Excess soft X-ray radiation, above the contribution from the hot intra-cluster medium, is evident in a large fraction of sources, and is clearly detected with large statistical significance in the deepest observations. The investigation relies on new, high resolution 21 cm HI observations. The sample selection also features analysis of infrared images, to further ensure reliability of results with respect to the characteristics of Galactic absorption. The possibility of background or calibration effects as cause of the excess emission is likewise investigated; a detailed analysis of the distribution of the excess emission with respect to detector position and Galactic HI column density shows that the excess emission is a genuine celestial phenomenon. We find evidence for a preferential distribution of the soft excess emission at distances larger than approx. 150-200 kpc from the centers of clusters; this behavior may be naturally explained in the context of a non-thermal Inverse-Compton scenario. Alternatively, we propose that the phenomenon maybe caused by thermal emission of very large-scale 'warm' filaments seen in recent hydrodynamic simulations. This new interpretation relieves the very demanding requirements of either the traditional intra-cluster 'warm' gas and the non-thermal scenarios. We also investigate the possibility of the soft excess originating from unresolved, X-ray faint cluster galaxies.

Bonamente, Massimiliano; Lieu, Richard; Joy, Marshall K.; Nevalainen, Jukka H.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

345

Possible Charge-Exchange X-Ray Emission in the Cygnus Loop Detected with Suzaku  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant indicate that metal abundances throughout most of the remnant s rim are depleted to approx.0.2 times the solar value. However, recent X-ray studies have revealed in some narrow regions along the outermost rim anomalously "enhanced" abundances (up to approx. 1 solar). The reason for these anomalous abundances is not understood. Here, we examine X-ray spectra in annular sectors covering nearly the entire rim of the Cygnus Loop using Suzaku (21 pointings) and XMM-Newton (1 pointing). We find that spectra in the "enhanced" abundance regions commonly show a strong emission feature at approx.0.7 keV. This feature is likely a complex of He-like O K(gamma + delta + epsilon), although other possibilities cannot be fully excluded. The intensity of this emission relative to He-like O K(alpha) appears to be too high to be explained as thermal emission. This fact, as well as the spatial concentration of the anomalous abundances in the outermost rim, leads us to propose an origin from charge-exchange processes between neutrals and H-like O. We show that the presence of charge-exchange emission could lead to the inference of apparently "enhanced" metal abundances using pure thermal emission models. Accounting for charge-exchange emission, the actual abundances could be uniformly low throughout the rim. The overall abundance depletion remains an open question. Subject headings: ISM: abundances ISM: individual objects (Cygnus Loop) ISM: supernova remnants X-rays: ISM atomic processes

Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Hiroko; Kimura, Masashi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Takakura, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hewitt. John W.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

2011-01-01

346

Suzaku Observations of the Diffuse X-Ray Emission across the Fermi Bubbles' Edges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Suzaku X-ray observations along two edge regions of the Fermi Bubbles, with eight ~= 20 ks pointings across the northern part of the North Polar Spur (NPS) surrounding the north bubble and six across the southernmost edge of the south bubble. After removing compact X-ray features, diffuse X-ray emission is clearly detected and is well reproduced by a three-component spectral model consisting of unabsorbed thermal emission (temperature kT ~= 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT ~= 0.3 keV thermal emission related to the NPS and/or Galactic halo (GH), and a power-law component at a level consistent with the cosmic X-ray background. The emission measure (EM) of the 0.3 keV plasma decreases by ~= 50% toward the inner regions of the northeast bubble, with no accompanying temperature change. However, such a jump in the EM is not clearly seen in the south bubble data. While it is unclear whether the NPS originates from a nearby supernova remnant or is related to previous activity within or around the Galactic center, our Suzaku observations provide evidence that suggests the latter scenario. In the latter framework, the presence of a large amount of neutral matter absorbing the X-ray emission as well as the existence of the kT ~= 0.3 keV gas can be naturally interpreted as a weak shock driven by the bubbles' expansion in the surrounding medium, with velocity v exp ~ 300 km s-1 (corresponding to shock Mach number {M} \\simeq 1.5), compressing the GH gas to form the NPS feature. We also derived an upper limit for any non-thermal X-ray emission component associated with the bubbles and demonstrate that, in agreement with the aforementioned findings, the non-thermal pressure and energy estimated from a one-zone leptonic model of its broadband spectrum, are in rough equilibrium with that of the surrounding thermal plasma.

Kataoka, J.; Tahara, M.; Totani, T.; Sofue, Y.; Stawarz, ?.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Kimura, M.; Takei, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Inoue, Y.; Nakamori, T.

2013-12-01

347

A von Hamos x-ray spectrometer based on a segmented-type diffraction crystal for single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy and time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies  

SciTech Connect

We report on the design and performance of a wavelength-dispersive type spectrometer based on the von Hamos geometry. The spectrometer is equipped with a segmented-type crystal for x-ray diffraction and provides an energy resolution in the order of 0.25 eV and 1 eV over an energy range of 8000 eV-9600 eV. The use of a segmented crystal results in a simple and straightforward crystal preparation that allows to preserve the spectrometer resolution and spectrometer efficiency. Application of the spectrometer for time-resolved resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and single-shot x-ray emission spectroscopy is demonstrated.

Szlachetko, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Nachtegaal, M.; Boni, E. de; Willimann, M.; Safonova, O.; Sa, J.; Smolentsev, G.; Szlachetko, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Schmitt, B.; David, C.; Luecke, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bokhoven, J. A. van [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Kayser, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Jagodzinski, P. [University of Technology, Kielce (Poland)

2012-10-15

348

RS Ophiuchi in Quiescence: Why Is It X-ray Faint?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The short interval between successive outbursts of RS Oph strongly suggests that it has a high mass white dwarf accreting at a high rate. This, in turn, suggests the possibility of prominent X-ray emission from RS Oph in quiescence. However, archival quiescent X-ray observations of RS Oph show it to be a modest soft X-ray source but not a strong 2-10 keV X-ray source. In this aspect, RS Oph differs markedly from T CrB. We speculate on the possible mechanisms that could significantly suppress the 2-10 keV X-ray emission in RS Oph.

Mukai, Koji

2007-01-01

349

Internal Energy Dissipation of Gamma-Ray Bursts Observed with Swift: Precursors, Prompt Gamma-rays, Extended emission and Late X-ray Flares  

E-print Network

We jointly analyze the gamma-ray burst (GRB) data observed with BAT and XRT on board the Swift mission to present a global view on the internal energy dissipation processes in GRBs, including precursors, prompt gamma-ray emission, extended soft gamma-ray emission, and late X-ray flares. The Bayesian block method is utilized to analyze the BAT lightcurves to identify various emission episodes. Our results suggest that these emission components likely share a same physical origin, which is repeated activation of the GRB central engine. What we observe in the gamma-ray band may be the tip-of-iceberg of more extended underlying activities. The precursor emission, which is detected in about 10% of {\\em Swift} GRBs, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a massive star core-collapse origin. The soft extended emission (EE) tail, on the other hand, is preferably detected in those GRBs that have a compact star merger origin. Bright X-ray emission is detected during the BAT quiescent phases prior to subsequent ...

Hu, You-Dong; Xi, Shao-Qiang; Peng, Fang-Kun; Lu, Rui-Jing; LV, Lian-Zhong; Zhang, Bing

2014-01-01

350

Long-term X-ray Changes in the Emission from the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 4U 0142+61  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results obtained from X-ray observations of the anomalous X-ray pulsar (AXP) 4U 0142+61 taken between 2000 and 2008 using XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Swift. These observations coincide with periods of long-term changes and burst epochs previously reported using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). In observations taken before 2006, we find that the pulse profile became more sinusoidal and the pulsed fraction increased with time. These results confirm those derived using RXTE and expand the observed evolution to energies below 2 keV. The total flux in the 0.5-10 keV band determined with XMM-Newton is observed to be nearly constant in observations taken before 2006, while an increase of ~10% is seen afterwards and coincides with the burst activity detected from the source in 2006-2007. After these bursts, the evolution toward more sinusoidal pulse profiles ceased while the flux and pulsed fraction returned to pre-bursts levels. No evidence for large-scale, long-term changes in the emission as a result of the bursts is seen. We also report on observations taken with the Gemini telescope after two bursts which show source magnitudes consistent with previous measurements. Our results demonstrate the wide range of X-ray variability characteristics seen in AXPs and we discuss them in light of current emission models for these sources.

Gonzalez, M. E.; Dib, R.; Kaspi, V. M.; Woods, P. M.; Tam, C. R.; Gavriil, F. P.

2010-06-01

351

DIFFUSE HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN STARBURST GALAXIES AS SYNCHROTRON FROM VERY HIGH ENERGY ELECTRONS  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the diffuse hard X-ray (2-10 keV) emission from starburst galaxies is a long-standing problem. We suggest that synchrotron emission of 10-100 TeV electrons and positrons (e {sup {+-}}) can contribute to this emission, because starbursts have strong magnetic fields. We consider three sources of e {sup {+-}} at these energies: (1) primary electrons directly accelerated by supernova remnants, (2) pionic secondary e {sup {+-}} created by inelastic collisions between cosmic ray (CR) protons and gas nuclei in the dense interstellar medium of starbursts, and (3) pair e {sup {+-}} produced between the interactions between 10 and 100 TeV {gamma}-rays and the intense far-infrared (FIR) radiation fields of starbursts. We create one-zone steady-state models of the CR population in the Galactic center (R {<=} 112 pc), NGC 253, M82, and Arp 220's nuclei, assuming a power-law injection spectrum for electrons and protons. We consider different injection spectral slopes, magnetic field strengths, CR acceleration efficiencies, and diffusive escape times, and include advective escape, radiative cooling processes, and secondary and pair e {sup {+-}}. We compare these models to extant radio and GeV and TeV {gamma}-ray data for these starbursts, and calculate the diffuse synchrotron X-ray and inverse Compton (IC) luminosities of these starbursts in the models which satisfy multiwavelength constraints. If the primary electron spectrum extends to {approx}PeV energies and has a proton/electron injection ratio similar to the Galactic value, we find that synchrotron emission contributes 2%-20% of their unresolved, diffuse hard X-ray emission. However, there is great uncertainty in this conclusion because of the limited information on the CR electron spectrum at these high energies. IC emission is likewise a minority of the unresolved X-ray emission in these starbursts, from 0.1% in the Galactic center to 10% in Arp 220's nuclei, with the main uncertainty being the starbursts' magnetic field. We also model generic starbursts, including submillimeter galaxies, in the context of the FIR-X-ray relation, finding that anywhere between 0% and 16% of the total hard X-ray emission is synchrotron for different parameters, and up to 2% in the densest starbursts assuming an E {sup -2.2} injection spectrum and a diffusive escape time of 10 Myr (E/3 GeV){sup -1/2} (h/100 pc). Neutrino observations by IceCube and TeV {gamma}-ray data from HESS, VERITAS, and CTA can further constrain the synchrotron X-ray emission of starbursts. Our models do not constrain the possibility of hard, second components of primary e {sup {+-}} from sources like pulsars in starbursts, which could enhance the synchrotron X-ray emission further.

Lacki, Brian C. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)] [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Thompson, Todd A. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

2013-01-01

352

Iron line and diffuse hard X-ray emission from the starburst galaxy M82  

E-print Network

We examine the properties of the diffuse hard X-ray emission in the classic starburst galaxy M82. We use new Chandra ACIS-S observations in combination with reprocessed archival Chandra ACIS-I and XMM-Newton observations. We find E~6.7 keV Fe He-alpha emission is present in the central |r| iron line fluxes in the 2004 April 21 XMM-Newton observation are consistent with those of the Chandra-derived diffuse component, but in the 2001 May 6 XMM-Newton observation they are significantly higher and also both E=6.4 and E=6.9 keV iron lines are detected. We attribute the excess iron line emission to the Ultra-Luminous X-ray source in its high state. In general the iron K-shell luminosity of M82 is dominated by the diffuse component. The total X-ray luminosity of the diffuse hard X-ray emission (corrected for emission by unresolved low luminosity compact objects) is L_X ~ 4.4 x 10^39 erg/s in the E=2-8 keV energy band, and the 6.7 keV iron line luminosity is L_X ~ (1.1 -- 1.7) x 10^38 erg/s. The 6.7 keV iron line luminosity is consistent with that expected from the previously unobserved metal-enriched merged supernova ejecta that is thought to drive the larger-scale galactic superwind. The iron line luminosity implies a thermal pressure within the starburst region of P/k ~ 2 x 10^7 K/cm^3, which is consistent with independent observational estimates of the starburst region pressure [Abstract abridged].

D. K. Strickland; T. M. Heckman

2006-11-28

353

A Decline in the Nonthermal X-ray Emission from Cassiopeia A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new Chandra ACIS-S3 observations of Cassiopeia A which, when combined with earlier ACIS-S3 observations, show evidence for a steady ~1.5%-2% yr-1 decline in the 4.2-6.0 keV X-ray emission between the years 2000 and 2010. The computed flux from exposure corrected images over the entire remnant showed a 17% decline over the entire remnant and a slightly larger (21%) decline from regions along the remnant's western limb. Spectral fits of the 4.2-6.0 keV emission across the entire remnant, forward shock filaments, and interior filaments indicate that the remnant's nonthermal spectral power-law index has steepened by about 10%, with interior filaments having steeper power-law indices. Since TeV electrons, which give rise to the observed X-ray synchrotron emission, are associated with the exponential cutoff portion of the electron distribution function, we have related our results to a change in the cutoff energy and conclude that the observed decline and steepening of the nonthermal X-ray emission is consistent with a deceleration of the remnant's sime5000 km s-1 forward shock of ?30-70 km s-1 yr-1.

Patnaude, Daniel J.; Vink, Jacco; Laming, J. Martin; Fesen, Robert A.

2011-03-01

354

Optimization of neon soft X-ray emission from 200 J plasma focus device for application in soft X-ray lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fast Miniature Plasma Focus (FMPF) device is basically made up of coaxial electrodes with centrally placed anode and six cathode rods surrounding them concentrically. They are enclosed in a vacuum chamber, filled with low pressure operating gas. However, in our experiments, these cathode rods were removed to investigate the influence of them on neon soft X-ray (SXR) and hard X-ray (HXR) emission from the device. On removal of cathode rods, the cathode base plate serves as cathode and the plasma sheath is formed between the anode and the base plate of cathode. Neon was used as the operating gas for our experiments and the FMPF device used is of 235 J energy capacities. The experimental results showed that the FMPF device was able to focus better and the SXR emission efficiency was five times higher without cathode rods than with cathode rods. On the contrary, HXR emission did not vary with and without cathode rods. This observed phenomenon was further cross-checked through imaging of plasma dynamics, with and without cathode rods. FMPF device consists of 4 Pseudo Spark Gap (PSG) switches, which need to operate synchronously to deliver high voltage from capacitors to the anode. It was also seen that, the presence or absence of cathode rods also influence the synchronous operation of PSG switches. It also implies that this is one definite way to optimize the SXR emission from the FMPF device. This study reveals an important finding that, cathode rods play a vital role in the formation of plasma sheath with consequential influence on the radiation emission from plasma focus devices. Enhancement of the X-ray emission from this device is definitely a stepping stone in the realization of this device for industrial applications such as X-ray lithography for semiconductor industries.

Kalaiselvi, S. M. P.; Tan, T. L.; Talebitaher, A.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R. S.

2014-08-01

355

Diffuse X-Ray Emission from the Superbubbles N70 and N185 in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the diffuse X-ray emission from superbubbles (SBs) N70 (DEM L301) and N185 (DEM L25) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on data from the XMM-Newton Satellite. We obtained spectra and images of these objects in the soft X-ray energy band. These X-ray spectra were fitted by a thermal plasma model, with temperatures of 2.6× {{10}6} K and 2.3× {{10}6} K, for N70 and N185, respectively. For N70, images show that X-ray emission comes from the inner regions of the SB when we compare the distribution of the X-ray and the optical emission, while for N185, the X-ray emission is partially confined by the optical shell. We suggest that the observed X-ray emission is caused by shock-heated gas, inside of the optical shells. We also obtained X-ray luminosities which exceed the values predicted by the standard analytical model. This fact shows that, in addition to the winds of the interior stars, it is necessary to consider another ingredient in the description, such as a supernova explosion, as has been proposed in previous numerical models.

Reyes-Iturbide, J.; Rosado, M.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Sánchez-Cruces, M.; Ambrocio-Cruz, P.

2014-11-01

356

Diffuse X-ray emission from the superbubbles N 70 and N 185 in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

E-print Network

We present a study of the diffuse X-ray emission from superbubbles N 70 (DEM L301) and N 185 (DEM L25) located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, based on data from the XMM-Newton Satellite. We obtained spectra and images of these objects in the soft X-ray energy band. These X-ray spectra were fitted by a thermal plasma model, with temperatures of $2.6 \\times 10^{6}$ K and $2.3 \\times 10^{6}$ K, for N 70 and N 185, respectively. For N 70, images show that X-ray emission comes from the inner regions of the superbubble, when we compare the distribution of the X-ray and the optical emission; while for N 185, the X-ray emission is partially confined by the optical shell. We suggest that the observed X-ray emission is caused by shock-heated gas, inside of the optical shells. We also obtained X-ray luminosities which exceed the values predicted by the standard analytical model. This fact shows that, in addition to the winds of the interior stars, it is necessary to consider another ingredient in the description, such a...

Reyes-Iturbide., Jorge; Rodríguez-González., Ary; Velázquez., Pablo F; Sánchez-Cruces, Mónica; Ambrocio-Cruz, Patricia

2014-01-01

357

Experimental study of hard-X ray emission from laboratory sparks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the characterization of hard-X rays produced by meter-long laboratory sparks carried out at the high-voltage laboratory of RSE, Milano, Italy. Sparks are known to emit X-rays when positive and negative streamers connect, before breakdown. Numerical simulations suggest that X-rays are produced by Bremsstrahlung in air by electrons accelerated to the runaway regime in the high electric field at the streamers tip. Positive meter-long discharges are produced by a Marx generator loaded by a meter-long air gap formed by a spherical anode and a conical-shaped cathode. Maximum voltage at breakdown is about 1 MV. We investigate the production of X-rays by means of an array of scintillation detectors deployed around the cathode. Each detector is a 2'' NaI(Tl) scintillating crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT). Each detector is battery-powered and enclosed in a metallic housing for EM shielding. Analog signal output is trasmitted to a shielded control room by means of optical fibre tranceivers, and then collected by a fast digitizer. We present the experimental setup and first results concerning detection efficiency, energy spectra, and geometrical distribution of the emission.

Marisaldi, Martino; Rizzi, Rolando; Levi, Giuseppe; Malgesini, Roberto; Villa, Andrea; Mazza, Paolo; Labanti, Claudio; Fuschino, Fabio; Campana, Riccardo; Bianchini, David; Brancaccio, Rossella; Montanari, Alessandro; Patrizii, Laura

2014-05-01

358

Search for induced emission from the 178Hfm2 isomer by low-energy x rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether or not the 178Hfm2 isomer has the characteristic of induced ? emission by low-energy x rays has been a focus of attention for many scientists and researchers in recent decades. In this paper, an experiment regarding triggering 178Hfm2 emission decay is conducted at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. An x-ray beam with 20.825-keV energy irradiates a rectangular sample containing about 1011178Hfm2 nuclides. By comparing the net gamma count rates during the irradiation with those after the irradiation, the data show that at the 426-, 495-, and 574-keV gamma lines, there is no significant enhancement, indicating that the induced ? decay of 178Hfm2 has not been observed.

Yang, Tian li; Ze, Ren de; Wu, Huai long; Jiang, Tao; He, Yu hui

2013-07-01

359

Electrochemical flowcell for in-situ investigations by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new liquid flow-cell designed for electronic structure investigations at the liquid-solid interface by soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented. A thin membrane serves simultaneously as a substrate for the working electrode and solid state samples as well as for separating the liquid from the surrounding vacuum conditions. In combination with counter and reference electrodes this approach allows in-situ studies of electrochemical deposition processes and catalytic reactions at the liquid-solid interface in combination with potentiostatic measurements. As model system in-situ monitoring of the deposition process of Co metal from a 10 mM CoCl2 aqueous solution by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented.

Schwanke, C.; Golnak, R.; Xiao, J.; Lange, K. M.

2014-10-01

360

X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopic investigation of Mn doped ZnO films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of (Zn,Mn)O films with different Mn concentrations has been investigated by element-selective soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. The band gap narrowing of (Zn,Mn)O with increase of Mn concentration (<20% Mn) is attributed to the Mn doping and sp- d exchange interactions. According to analysis of the O K? and resonant Mn L2,3 X-ray emission spectra, the splitting of Mn 3 d subbands is related to Mn-derived states. It indicates that ferromagnetic coupling in (Zn,Mn)O can be taken into account to be carrier-induced. The presence of antiferromagnetism in the heavier Mn-doped films can be explained in terms of the existence of MnO secondary phases.

Jin, J.; Chang, G. S.; Zhou, Y. X.; Zhang, X. Y.; Boukhvalov, D. W.; Kurmaev, E. Z.; Moewes, A.

2011-10-01

361

Multilayer mirror monochromatic self-emission x-ray imaging on the Z accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A time-resolved, monochromatic soft x-ray diagnostic has been developed for self-emission imaging of imploding z pinches on the Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)] at Sandia National Laboratories. Multiple pinhole images are reflected from a planar multilayer mirror with narrow photon energy bandwidth (<10 eV) onto a 1 ns gated microchannel plate detector. High-energy bremsstrahlung x rays are not reflected, providing improved signal to noise in comparison to a standard filtered pinhole camera included in the same beamline of the instrument. An example of data from the existing {approx}277 eV imaging system is presented, showing cooler imploding mass extending to larger radius than the on-axis K-shell emission of an aluminum wire array. Multilayer mirror and filter pair configurations ranging from 96 to 769 eV are discussed.

Jones, B.; Deeney, C.; Coverdale, C. A.; Meyer, C. J.; Le Pell, P. D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

2006-10-15

362

X-Ray emission following low-energy charge exchange collisions of highly charged ions  

PubMed

K-shell x-ray emission following low-energy charge exchange collisions ( x-ray emission represents a diagnostic of the dynamics of ion-atom interactions in situations where the energy is below 1 keV/amu, e.g., in solar wind collisions. PMID:11102193

Beiersdorfer; Olson; Brown; Chen; Harris; Neill; Schweikhard; Utter; Widmann

2000-12-11

363

Electrochemical flowcell for in-situ investigations by soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A new liquid flow-cell designed for electronic structure investigations at the liquid-solid interface by soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented. A thin membrane serves simultaneously as a substrate for the working electrode and solid state samples as well as for separating the liquid from the surrounding vacuum conditions. In combination with counter and reference electrodes this approach allows in-situ studies of electrochemical deposition processes and catalytic reactions at the liquid-solid interface in combination with potentiostatic measurements. As model system in-situ monitoring of the deposition process of Co metal from a 10 mM CoCl2 aqueous solution by X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy is presented. PMID:25362384

Schwanke, C; Golnak, R; Xiao, J; Lange, K M

2014-10-01

364

X-ray continuum emission spectroscopy from hot dense matter at Gbar pressuresa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the time-resolved x-ray continuum emission spectrum of ˜30 times compressed polystyrene created at stagnation of spherically convergent shock waves within the Gbar fundamental science campaign at the National Ignition Facility. From an exponential emission slope between 7.7 keV and 8.1 keV photon energy and using an emission model which accounts for reabsorption, we infer an average electron temperature of 375 ± 21 eV, which is in good agreement with HYDRA-1D simulations.

Kraus, D.; Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Chapman, D. A.; Collins, G. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Le Pape, S.; Neumayer, P.; Swift, D. C.; Falcone, R. W.

2014-11-01

365

On the X-Ray Baldwin Effect for Narrow Fe Kalpha Emission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most active galactic nuclei (AGNs) exhibit a narrow Fe Kalpha line at ~6.4 keV in the X-ray spectra, due to the fluorescent emission from cold material far from the inner accretion disk. Using XMM-Newton observations, Page et al. found that the equivalent width (EW) of the narrow Fe Kalpha line decreases with increasing luminosity (EW~L-0.17+\\/-0.08), suggesting a decrease in the

P. Jiang; J. X. Wang; T. G. Wang

2006-01-01

366

Resolved X-ray emission line profiles Clumping in Hot Star Winds  

E-print Network

Resolved X-ray emission line profiles Clumping in Hot Star Winds W.-R. Hamann, A. Feldmeier & L and wind porosity. We find that reducing the mass-loss rate of Pup by roughly a factor of four, to 1.5 Ã? 10-6 M yr-1 , enables simple non-porous wind models to provide good fits to the data. If

Cohen, David

367

Dissipation of potential energy through x-ray emission in slow highly charged ion-surface collisions  

SciTech Connect

X-ray emission yields from highly charged iodine ions incident on a hydrogen terminated silicon surface were measured. It was found that the K shell vacancies were filled through x-ray transitions with the probability of approximately 100%, while only about 20% of L shell vacancies were filled through x-ray transitions and almost all the M shell vacancies were filled nonradiatively. Dissipation of the potential energy E{sub p} of an incident ion through x-ray emissions increases gradually with the number of L shell vacancies and amounts to 10% of E{sub p} for the He-like I{sup 51+} ion. 30 to 40 % of E{sub p} for I{sup 52+} and I{sup 53+} with K shell vacancies was measured to be dissipated mainly by K x-ray emissions.

Watanabe, H.; Tona, M.; Ohtani, S. [Institute for Laser Science and Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Takahashi, S.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Nakamura, N.; Yamada, C. [Institute for Laser Science and Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Sakurai, M. [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501 (Japan)

2006-10-15

368

Design of a transmission grating spectrometer and an undulator beamline for soft x-ray emission studies  

SciTech Connect

A soft x-ray undulator beamline and an x-ray emission spectrometer have been designed for soft x-ray emission studies. The beamline has a varied-line-spacing plane grating monochromator, which enables the energy resolution over 104 with a beam size down to 10 x 60 {mu}m2. The x-ray emission spectrometer has a Wolter type I mirror, a free-standing transmission grating, and a back-illuminated CCD. A high collection angle up to 1.5 x 10-3 sr is achieved by utilizing the Wolter mirror as a prefocusing system. The CCD is mounted at 1400 mm downstream of the grating on a Rowland torus mount. Diffracted x-rays are detected in the normal incidence geometry, resulting in high detection efficiency. The energy resolution is limited by the figure errors of the optical elements and the spatial resolution of the detector.

Hatsui, Takaki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro [Institute for Molecular Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Shigemasa, Eiji [Institute for Molecular Sciences, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

2004-05-12

369

X-ray observations of high-excitation emission-line galaxies with the HEAO 1 scanning modulation collimator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the scanning modulation collimator on HEAO 1 are presented which firmly establish high-excitation emission-line galaxies as a class of X-ray source. For NGC 5506 and M82, the X-ray emission (1-13 keV) is shown to originate in the nuclear region of the galaxy; NGC 2992 and NGC 526a are also identified as X-ray emitters, but are not resolved. The latter is a new identification for 2A 0120-353, previously associated with the NGC 526/527 group. In these four particular cases, the observed X-ray-emitting galaxies have a close companion, and the X-ray emission may have been triggered by a close encounter

Griffiths, R. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Schwarz, J.; Doxsey, R. E.; Johnston, M. D.; Blades, J. C.

1979-01-01

370

Diffuse, Non-Thermal X-ray Emission from the Galactic Star Cluster Westerlund 1  

E-print Network

We present the diffuse X-ray emission identified in Chandra observations of the young, massive Galactic star cluster Westerlund 1. After removing point-like X-ray sources down to a completeness limit of 2e31 erg/s, we identify 3e34 erg/s (2--8 keV) of diffuse emission. The spatial distribution of the emission can be described as a slightly-elliptical Lorentzian core with a half-width half-maximum along the major axis of 25+/-1", similar to the distribution of point sources in the cluster, plus a 5' halo of extended emission. The spectrum of the diffuse emission is dominated by a hard continuum component that can be described as a kT>3 keV thermal plasma that has a low iron abundance (<0.3 solar), or as non-thermal emission that could be stellar light that is inverse-Compton scattered by MeV electrons. Only 5% of the flux is produced by a kT=0.7 keV plasma. The low luminosity of the thermal emission and the lack of a 6.7 keV iron line suggests that <40,000 unresolved stars with masses between 0.3 and 2 Msun are present in the cluster. Moreover, the flux in the diffuse emission is a factor of two lower than would be expected from a supersonically-expanding cluster wind, and there is no evidence for thermal remnants produced by supernovae. Less than 1e-5 of the mechanical luminosity of the cluster is dissipated as 2--8 keV X-rays, leaving a large amount of energy that either is radiated at other wavelengths, is dissipated beyond the bounds of our image, or escapes into the intergalactic medium.

Michael P. Muno; Casey Law; J. Simon Clark; Sean M. Dougherty; Richard de Grijs; Simon Portegies Zwart; Farhad Yusef-Zadeh

2006-06-20

371

X-ray emission from the PSR B1259-63 system near apastron  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The PSR B1259-63 system contains a 47 ms radio pulsar in a highly eccentric binary with a Be-star companion. Strongly time-variable X-ray emission was reported from this system as the pulsar was near apastron in 1992- early 1993. The variability was primarily deduced from an apparent nondetection of the PSR B1259-63 system during a first preapastron ROSAT observation in 1992 February. We have reanalyzed the ROSAT observations of the PSR B1259-63 system. Contrary to the results of a previous analysis, we find that the PSR B1259-63 system was detected by ROSAT during the first off-axis 1992 February observation. The intensity of the soft X-ray emission of the PSR B1259-63 system before and after the 1992 apastron appears to vary at most by a factor of approx. 2. Our results sensibly constrain theoretical models of X-ray emission from the PSR B1259-63 system.

Greiner, J.; Tavani, M.; Belloni, T.

1995-01-01

372

X-ray photo-emission and energy dispersive spectroscopy of HA coated titanium  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition changes of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated titanium using surface analysis (x-ray photo-emission) and bulk analysis (energy dispersive spectroscopy). The specimens examined were controls, 30 minutes and 3 hours aged specimens in distilled water or 0.2M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.2) at room temperature. Each x-ray photo-emission cycle consisted of 3 scans followed by argon sputtering for 10 minutes for a total of usually 20 cycles, corresponding to a sampling depth of {approximately} 1500 {angstrom}. The energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis was on a 110 by 90 {mu}m area for 500 sec. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed crystal formation (3P{sub 2}O{sub 5}*2CAO*?H{sub 2}O by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis) on the HA coating for the specimens aged in sodium phosphate buffer. The x-ray photo-emission results indicated the oxidation effect of water on the titanium (as TiO{sub 2}) and the effect of the buffer to increase the surface concentration of phosphorous. No differences in the chemical composition were observed by energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The crystal growth was only observed for the sodium phosphate buffer specimens and only on the HA surface.

Drummond, J.L.; Steinberg, A.D. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Krauss, A.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

373

Soft x-ray emission spectra and ferromagnetism in wide-gap doped semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is made of the resonant and nonresonant L x-ray emission spectra of impurities in the semiconducting compounds ZnS:Mn, ZnO:Mn, ZnO:Co, and Co2O:Mn. An analysis of the Mn L2,3 x-ray emission spectra of Zn1-xMnxS (x=0.1-0.3) reveals that the Mn impurities do not form clusters in the ZnS lattice. Studies of the Mn L2,3 spectra and electronic structure of epitaxial films of Zn0.8Mn0.2O annealed at different temperatures show that the cause of the observed suppression of ferromagnetism at T >600°C is segregation of Mn atoms. In this case the Mn atoms occupy both Zn sites and interstitial positions. For Zn1-xCoxO (x =0.02, 0.06, and 0.10) the absence of free carriers that could mediate an exchange interaction between Co ions is established. Mn L2,3 x-ray emission measurements show that in Mn-doped oxides Cu2O synthesized at 650 and 800°C the Mn atoms are found both in interstitial positions and occupy Cu sites, but the configurations of these defects depend on the synthesis temperature. A decrease of the Curie temperature with increasing synthesis temperature may be explained as a manifestation of antiferromagnetic superexchange between substituent Mn atoms via oxygen.

Surkova, T. P.; Galakhov, V. R.; Kurmaev, É. Z.

2009-01-01

374

Static and Dynamic Modeling of a Solar Active Region. I: Soft X-Ray Emission  

E-print Network

Recent simulations of solar active regions have shown that it is possible to reproduce both the total intensity and the general morphology of the high temperature emission observed at soft X-ray wavelengths using static heating models. There is ample observational evidence, however, that the solar corona is highly variable, indicating a significant role for dynamical processes in coronal heating. Because they are computationally demanding, full hydrodynamic simulations of solar active regions have not been considered previously. In this paper we make first application of an impulsive heating model to the simulation of an entire active region, AR8156 observed on 1998 February 16. We model this region by coupling potential field extrapolations to full solutions of the time-dependent hydrodynamic loop equations. To make the problem more tractable we begin with a static heating model that reproduces the emission observed in 4 different \\textit{Yohkoh} Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) filters and consider dynamical heating scenarios that yield time-averaged SXT intensities that are consistent with the static case. We find that it is possible to reproduce the total observed soft X-ray emission in all of the SXT filters with a dynamical heating model, indicating that nanoflare heating is consistent with the observational properties of the high temperature solar corona.

Harry P. Warren; Amy R. Winebarger

2006-09-01

375

Suzaku Observation of Diffuse X-ray Emission from the Carina Nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied extended X-ray emission from the Carina Nebula taken with the Suzaku CCD camera XIS on 2005 Aug. 29. The X-ray morphology, plasma temperature and absorption to the plasma are consistent with the earlier Einstein results. The Suzaku spectra newly revealed emission lines from various spices including oxygen, but not from nitrogen. This result restricts the N/O ratio significantly low, compared with evolved massive stellar winds, suggesting that the diffuse emission is originated in an old supernova remnant or a super shell produced by multiple supernova remnants. The X-ray spectra from the north and south of eta Car showed distinct differences between 0.3-2 keV. The south spectrum shows strong L-shell lines of iron ions and K-shell lines of silicon ions, while the north spectrum shows them weak in intensity. This means that silicon and iron abundances are a factor of 2-4 higher in the south region than in the north region. The abundance variation may be produced by an SNR ejecta, or relate to the dust formation around the star forming core.

Hamaguchi, Kenji; Petre, Robert; Matsumoti, Hironori; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Holt, Stephan S.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Hideki; Tsuboi, Yohko; Soong, Yang; Kitamoto, Shunji; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Kokubun, Motohide

2007-01-01

376

Non-thermal emissions from accreting X-ray binary pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study non-thermal emissions from cascade processes in accreting X-ray binary pulsars. In the framework of the magnetospheric gap model, we consider three photon fields, which are respectively from the polar cap of a pulsar, its surrounding accretion disk and a massive companion star with a circumstellar disk, to shield the gap. The gap-accelerated ultra-relativistic electrons emit high-energy photons via curvature radiation and an inverse Compton scattering process, in which part of these high-energy photons absorbed by interactions with the surrounding photon fields can facilitate the following electromagnetic cascades. We first carry out numerical calculations of the cascade processes in order to obtain the predicted emission spectra. As an example, we subsequently apply this model to reproduce observations of LS I +61° 303. We find that the results can fit observations ranging from hard X-ray to ?-ray bands. In particular, they can explain the spectral cutoff feature at a few GeV. Finally, we suggest that the emissions detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope from X-ray binary pulsars originate in the magnetosphere region of the pulsar.

Zhang, Jian-Fu; Jin, Hui; Dong, Ai-Jun

2014-03-01

377

X-ray emission scaling law from a plasma focus with different anode tip materials (Cu, Mo, and W)  

SciTech Connect

X-ray emission from a 2.3-5.3 kJ Mather-type plasma focus [Phys. Fluids 7, 5 (1964)] employing copper, molybdenum, and tungsten anode tip is studied. Argon is used as a working gas. Characteristic Cu K{alpha} and Mo K-series emission and their ratio to the continuous x-rays are determined. From the variation of the x-ray yield data with filling pressure at different charging voltages, scaling laws are obtained. X-ray pinhole images demonstrate that a significant amount of x-ray emission is from the anode tip. The comparison of the ratio of characteristic to continuum radiation for copper anode with typical x-ray tube data reveals that the contribution of very high energy electron beam from the focus region for x-ray generation through thick target bremsstrahlung mechanism is not significant. Rather, electrons with energy of the order of, or even less than, the charging voltage are responsible for bulk of the x-ray emission.

Sharif, M.; Ahmad, S.; Zakaullah, M.; Hussain, S.; Waheed, A. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, 40100 Sargodha (Pakistan); PINSTECH, P.O. Box 1331, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan)

2006-10-01

378

TRANSIENT EXTREMELY SOFT X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT CATACLYSMIC VARIABLE IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3: A NEW CV X-RAY LUMINOSITY RECORD?  

SciTech Connect

We observed the accreting white dwarf (WD) 1E1339.8+2837 (1E1339) in the globular cluster M3 in 2003 November, 2004 May, and 2005 January, using the Chandra ACIS-S detector. The source was observed in 1992 to possess traits of a supersoft X-ray source (SSS), with a 0.1-2.4 keV luminosity as large as 2 x 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}, after which time the source's luminosity fell by roughly two orders of magnitude, adopting a hard X-ray spectrum more typical of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our observations confirm 1E1339's hard CV-like spectrum, with photon index {Gamma} = 1.3 {+-} 0.2. We found 1E1339 to be highly variable, with a 0.5-10 keV luminosity ranging from (1.4 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} to 8.5{sup +4.9}{sub -4.6} x 10{sup 32} erg s{sup -1}, with 1E1339's maximum luminosity being perhaps the highest yet recorded for hard X-ray emission from a WD. In 2005 January, 1E1339 displayed substantial low-energy emission below {approx}0.3 keV. Although current Chandra responses cannot properly model this emission, its bolometric luminosity appears comparable to or greater than that of the hard spectral component. This raises the possibility that the supersoft X-ray emission seen from 1E1339 in 1992 may have shifted to the far-UV.

Stacey, W. S.; Heinke, C. O. [Physics Department, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G7 (Canada); Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Edmonds, P. D.; Grindlay, J. E., E-mail: heinke@ualberta.ca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-05-01

379

Discovery of X-Ray Emission from the First Be/Black Hole System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MWC 656 (=HD 215227) was recently discovered to be the first binary system composed of a Be star and a black hole (BH). We observed it with XMM-Newton, and detected a faint X-ray source compatible with the position of the optical star, thus proving it to be the first Be/BH X-ray binary. The spectrum analysis requires a model fit with two components, a blackbody plus a power law, with k_BT = 0.07^{+0.04}_{-0.03} keV and a photon index ? = 1.0 ± 0.8, respectively. The non-thermal component dominates above sime0.8 keV. The obtained total flux is F(0.3-5.5\\, keV) = (4.6^{+1.3}_{-1.1})\\times 10^{-14} erg cm-2 s-1. At a distance of 2.6 ± 0.6 kpc the total flux translates into a luminosity L X = (3.7 ± 1.7) × 1031 erg s-1. Considering the estimated range of BH masses to be 3.8-6.9 M ?, this luminosity represents (6.7 ± 4.4) × 10-8 L Edd, which is typical of stellar-mass BHs in quiescence. We discuss the origin of the two spectral components: the thermal component is associated with the hot wind of the Be star, whereas the power-law component is associated with emission from the vicinity of the BH. We also find that the position of MWC 656 in the radio versus X-ray luminosity diagram may be consistent with the radio/X-ray correlation observed in BH low-mass X-ray binaries. This suggests that this correlation might also be valid for BH high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) with X-ray luminosities down to ~10-8 L Edd. MWC 656 will allow the accretion processes and the accretion/ejection coupling at very low luminosities for BH HMXBs to be studied.

Munar-Adrover, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Ribó, M.; Iwasawa, K.; Zabalza, V.; Casares, J.

2014-05-01

380

The X-ray emission of the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J17200-3116  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The source IGR J17200-3116 was discovered in the hard X-ray band by INTEGRAL. A periodic X-ray modulation at ˜326 s was detected in its Swift light curves by our group (and subsequently confirmed by a Swift campaign). In this paper, we report on the analysis of all the Swift observations, which were collected between 2005 and 2011, and of an ˜20 ks XMM-Newton pointing that was carried out in 2013 September. During the years covered by the Swift and XMM-Newton observations, the 1-10 keV fluxes range from ˜1.5 to 4 × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. IGR J17200-3116 displays spectral variability as a function of the pulse phase and its light curves show at least one short (a few hundreds of seconds) dip, during which the flux dropped at 20-30 per cent of the average level. Overall, the timing and spectral characteristics of IGR J17200-3116 point to an accreting neutron star in a high-mass system but, while the pulse-phase spectral variability can be accounted for by assuming a variable local absorbing column density, the origin of the dip is unclear. We discuss different possible explanations for this feature, favouring a transition to an ineffective accretion regime, instead of an enhanced absorption along the line of sight.

Esposito, P.; Israel, G. L.; Sidoli, L.; Tiengo, A.; Campana, S.; Moretti, A.

2014-06-01

381

X-RAY EMISSION LINE PROFILES FROM WIND CLUMP BOW SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STARS  

SciTech Connect

The consequences of structured flows continue to be a pressing topic in relating spectral data to physical processes occurring in massive star winds. In a preceding paper, our group reported on hydrodynamic simulations of hypersonic flow past a rigid spherical clump to explore the structure of bow shocks that can form around wind clumps. Here we report on profiles of emission lines that arise from such bow shock morphologies. To compute emission line profiles, we adopt a two-component flow structure of wind and clumps using two 'beta' velocity laws. While individual bow shocks tend to generate double-horned emission line profiles, a group of bow shocks can lead to line profiles with a range of shapes with blueshifted peak emission that depends on the degree of X-ray photoabsorption by the interclump wind medium, the number of clump structures in the flow, and the radial distribution of the clumps. Using the two beta law prescription, the theoretical emission measure and temperature distribution throughout the wind can be derived. The emission measure tends to be power law, and the temperature distribution is broad in terms of wind velocity. Although restricted to the case of adiabatic cooling, our models highlight the influence of bow shock effects for hot plasma temperature and emission measure distributions in stellar winds and their impact on X-ray line profile shapes. Previous models have focused on geometrical considerations of the clumps and their distribution in the wind. Our results represent the first time that the temperature distribution of wind clump structures are explicitly and self-consistently accounted for in modeling X-ray line profile shapes for massive stars.

Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Waldron, W. L. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Cassinelli, J. P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Burke, A. E., E-mail: ignace@etsu.edu, E-mail: wwaldron@satx.rr.com, E-mail: cassinelli@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: burke.alexander@gmail.com [990 Washington Street 317, Dedham, MA 02026 (United States)

2012-05-01

382

X-Ray Emission Line Profiles from Wind Clump Bow Shocks in Massive Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consequences of structured flows continue to be a pressing topic in relating spectral data to physical processes occurring in massive star winds. In a preceding paper, our group reported on hydrodynamic simulations of hypersonic flow past a rigid spherical clump to explore the structure of bow shocks that can form around wind clumps. Here we report on profiles of emission lines that arise from such bow shock morphologies. To compute emission line profiles, we adopt a two-component flow structure of wind and clumps using two "beta" velocity laws. While individual bow shocks tend to generate double-horned emission line profiles, a group of bow shocks can lead to line profiles with a range of shapes with blueshifted peak emission that depends on the degree of X-ray photoabsorption by the interclump wind medium, the number of clump structures in the flow, and the radial distribution of the clumps. Using the two beta law prescription, the theoretical emission measure and temperature distribution throughout the wind can be derived. The emission measure tends to be power law, and the temperature distribution is broad in terms of wind velocity. Although restricted to the case of adiabatic cooling, our models highlight the influence of bow shock effects for hot plasma temperature and emission measure distributions in stellar winds and their impact on X-ray line profile shapes. Previous models have focused on geometrical considerations of the clumps and their distribution in the wind. Our results represent the first time that the temperature distribution of wind clump structures are explicitly and self-consistently accounted for in modeling X-ray line profile shapes for massive stars.

Ignace, R.; Waldron, W. L.; Cassinelli, J. P.; Burke, A. E.

2012-05-01

383

Theoretically predicted soft X-ray emission and absorption spectra of fullerene-like carbon nitride (C 24N 36)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical C K and N K X-ray emission\\/absorption spectra of fullerene-like-structured carbon nitride (C24N36) clusters were obtained using discrete-variational (DV)-X? molecular orbital calculations. These calculations predicted that the energy widths of the C K and N K X-ray emission peaks would be about 8 and 6 eV, respectively; three low-energy satellites would appear in each emission spectrum; and there would

Yasuji Muramatsu; Takayoshi Hayashi; Rupert C. C. Perera

1999-01-01

384

Modulations of broad-band radio continua and X-ray emissions in the large X-ray flare on 03 November 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GOES X3.9 flare on 03 November 2003 at ˜09:45 UT was observed from metric to millimetric wavelengths by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH), the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN) and by radio instruments operated by the Institute of Applied Physics (University of Bern). This flare was simultaneously observed and imaged up to several 100 keV by the RHESSI experiment. The time profile of the X-ray emission above 100 keV and of the radio emissions shows two main parts, impulsive emission lasting about 3 min and long duration emission (partially observed by RHESSI) separated in time by 4 min. We shall focus here on the modulations of the broad-band radio continua and of the X-ray emissions observed in the second part of the flare. The observations suggest that gyrosynchrotron emission is the prevailing emission mechanism even at decimetric wavelengths for the broad-band radio emission. Following this interpretation, we deduce the density and the magnetic field of the decimetric sources and briefly comment on possible interpretations of the modulations.

Dauphin, C.; Vilmer, N.; Lüthi, T.; Trottet, G.; Krucker, S.; Magun, A.

385

Transient Extremely Soft X-ray Emission from the Unusually Bright CV in the Globular Cluster M3: a New CV X-ray Luminosity Record?  

E-print Network

We observed the accreting white dwarf 1E1339.8+2837 (1E1339) in the globular cluster M3 in Nov. 2003, May 2004 and Jan. 2005, using the Chandra ACIS-S detector. The source was observed in 1992 to possess traits of a supersoft X-ray source (SSS), with a 0.1-2.4 keV luminosity as large as 2x10^{35} erg/s, after which time the source's luminosity fell by roughly two orders of magnitude, adopting a hard X-ray spectrum more typical of CVs. Our observations confirm 1E1339's hard CV-like spectrum, with photon index Gamma=1.3+-0.2. We found 1E1339 to be highly variable, with a 0.5-10 keV luminosity ranging from 1.4+-0.3x10^{34} erg/s to 8.5+4.9-4.6x10^{32} erg/s, with 1E1339's maximum luminosity being perhaps the highest yet recorded for hard X-ray emission onto a white dwarf. In Jan. 2005, 1E1339 displayed substantial low-energy emission below 0.3 keV. Although current Chandra responses cannot properly model this emission, its bolometric luminosity appears comparable to or greater than that of the hard spectral comp...

Stacey, W S; Elsner, R F; Edmonds, P D; Weisskopf, M C; Grindlay, J E

2011-01-01

386

The Bursty Nature of Solar Flare X-Ray Emission. II. The Neupert Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carry out a novel statistical test of the Neupert effect based on multifractal spectra. The multifractal spectrum is the number distribution of the strengths (i.e., the Hölder exponents) of bursts in a signal. This is tested on simulations and carried out on RHESSI X-ray data from a well observed GOES X4.8 magnitude flare. The multifractal spectra is ideally suited to quantifying the relative smooth and bursty signals typically found in (thermal) soft X-ray and (non-thermal) hard X-ray data of solar flares. We show that light curves from all energies between 3 keV and 25 keV are statistically similar, suggesting that all these signals are dominated by the same (presumably thermal) emission. Emission lying between 25 keV and 100 keV probably contains some contribution from both thermal and non-thermal sources. The multifractal spectrum of a signal and that of its (cumulative) temporal integration are statistically similar (i.e., low residuals upon subtraction), but shifted by one in the peak Hölder exponent. We find the pairs of 3-6 keV and 100-300 keV emissions, the 6-12 keV and 100-300 keV emissions and the 12-25 keV and 100-300 keV emissions are all consistent with the Neupert effect. The best agreement with the Neupert effect is between the 12-25 keV and 100-300 keV pair, although possibly with some secondary source of thermal emission present.

McAteer, R. T. James; Bloomfield, D. Shaun

2013-10-01

387

THE BURSTY NATURE OF SOLAR FLARE X-RAY EMISSION. II. THE NEUPERT EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

We carry out a novel statistical test of the Neupert effect based on multifractal spectra. The multifractal spectrum is the number distribution of the strengths (i.e., the Hölder exponents) of bursts in a signal. This is tested on simulations and carried out on RHESSI X-ray data from a well observed GOES X4.8 magnitude flare. The multifractal spectra is ideally suited to quantifying the relative smooth and bursty signals typically found in (thermal) soft X-ray and (non-thermal) hard X-ray data of solar flares. We show that light curves from all energies between 3 keV and 25 keV are statistically similar, suggesting that all these signals are dominated by the same (presumably thermal) emission. Emission lying between 25 keV and 100 keV probably contains some contribution from both thermal and non-thermal sources. The multifractal spectrum of a signal and that of its (cumulative) temporal integration are statistically similar (i.e., low residuals upon subtraction), but shifted by one in the peak Hölder exponent. We find the pairs of 3-6 keV and 100-300 keV emissions, the 6-12 keV and 100-300 keV emissions and the 12-25 keV and 100-300 keV emissions are all consistent with the Neupert effect. The best agreement with the Neupert effect is between the 12-25 keV and 100-300 keV pair, although possibly with some secondary source of thermal emission present.

McAteer, R. T. James [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Bloomfield, D. Shaun, E-mail: mcateer@nmsu.edu [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

2013-10-20

388

X-RAY EMISSION FROM TRANSIENT JET MODEL IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES  

SciTech Connect

While the non-thermal radio through at least near-infrared emission in the hard state in X-ray binaries (XRBs) is known to originate in jets, the source of the non-thermal X-ray component is still uncertain. We introduce a new model for this emission, which takes into account the transient nature of outflows, and show that it can explain the observed properties of the X-ray spectrum. Rapid radiative cooling of the electrons naturally accounts for the break often seen below around 10 keV, and for the canonical spectral slope F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -1/2} observed below the break. We derive the constraints set by the data for both synchrotron- and Compton-dominated models. We show that for the synchrotron-dominated case, the jet should be launched at radii comparable to the inner radius of the disk ({approx}few 100 r{sub s} for the 2000 outburst of XTE J1118+480), with typical magnetic field B {approx}> 10{sup 6} G. We discuss the consequences of our results for the possible connection between the inflow and outflow in the hard state of XRBs.

Pe'er, Asaf [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Markoff, Sera [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-07-10

389

Non-thermal X-ray Emission: An Alternative to Cluster Cooling Flows?  

E-print Network

We report the results of experiments aimed at reducing the major problem with cooling flow models of rich cluster X-ray sources: the fact that most of the cooled gas or its products have not been found. Here we show that much of the X-ray emission usually attributed to cooling flows can, in fact, be modeled by a power-law component which is indicative of a source(s) other than thermal bremsstrahlung from the intracluster medium. We find that adequate simultaneous fits to ROSAT PSPCB and ASCA GIS/SIS spectra of the central regions of ten clusters are obtained for two-component models that include a thermal plasma component that is attributable to hot intracluster gas and