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1

New uses for old drugs: attempts to convert quinolone antibacterials into potential anticancer agents containing ruthenium.  

PubMed

Continuing the study of the physicochemical and biological properties of ruthenium-quinolone adducts, four novel complexes with the general formula [Ru([9]aneS3)(dmso-?S)(quinolonato-?(2)O,O)](PF6), containing the quinolones levofloxacin (1), nalidixic acid (2), oxolinic acid (3), and cinoxacin (4), were prepared and characterized in solid state as well as in solution. Contrary to their organoruthenium analogues, these complexes are generally relatively stable in aqueous solution as substitution of the dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) ligand is slow and not quantitative, and a minor release of the quinolonato ligand is observed only in the case of 4. The complexes bind to serum proteins displaying relatively high binding constants. DNA binding was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and performing viscosity measurements of CT DNA solutions in the presence of complexes 1-4. These experiments show that the ruthenium complexes interact with DNA via intercalation. Possible electrostatic interactions occur in the case of compound 4, which also shows the most pronounced rate of hydrolysis. Compounds 2 and 4 also exhibit a weak inhibition of cathepsins B and S, which are involved in the progression of a number of diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, complex 2 displayed moderate cytotoxicity when tested on the HeLa cell line. PMID:23886077

Kljun, Jakob; Bratsos, Ioannis; Alessio, Enzo; Psomas, George; Repnik, Urška; Butinar, Miha; Turk, Boris; Turel, Iztok

2013-08-01

2

Separation and determination of quinolone antibacterials by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The migration behavior and separation of 13 quinolone antibacterials were investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). In order to predict the electrophoretic mobility, the protonation macroconstants of all the compounds were determined by pH-potentiometric titrations. We proved that the electrophoretic mobility of ionized quinolones (QNs) can be described with Offord's equation, and the migration order depends on their charge-to-mass ratios. A buffer of 25 mM sodium tetraborate adjusted to pH 9.3 was an efficient electrophoresis system for the separation of 12 QNs by capillary zone electrophoresis. This method can be considered a general method to separate quinolone derivatives. Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin, fluoroquinoles with very similar structural characteristics, were separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Validation parameters, including linearity and detection and quantification limits, were also determined. Our results prove the applicability of CE for the simultaneous determination of QNs from complex mixtures. Our methods are environment-friendly replacement and improvement of a common high-performance liquid chromatography determination with rapid analysis time without using any organic solvents. PMID:23908264

Rusu, Aura; Hancu, Gabriel; Völgyi, Gergely; Tóth, Gerg?; Noszál, Béla; Gyéresi, Arpád

2014-09-01

3

Design, Synthesis, Antibacterial Evaluation and Docking Study of Novel 2-Hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl-derived Quinolone.  

PubMed

A novel series of 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl-derived quinolones 6a-o were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity. Most of the target compounds exhibited potent activity against Gram-positive strains. Among them, moxifloxacin analog 6n displayed the most potent activity against Gram-positive strains including S. epidermidis (MIC = 0.06 ?g/mL), MSSE (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), MRSE (MIC = 0.03 ?g/mL), S. aureus (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), MSSA (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), (MIC = 2 ?g/mL). Its activity against MRSA was eightfold more potent than reference drug gatifloxacin. Finally, docking study of the target compound 6n revealed that the binding model of quinolone nucleus was similar to that of gatifloxacin and the 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl group formed two additional hydrogen bonds. PMID:25048811

Li, Qing; Xing, Junhao; Cheng, Haibo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

2015-01-01

4

Microbial transformations of antimicrobial quinolones and related drugs.  

PubMed

The quinolones are an important group of synthetic antimicrobial drugs used for treating bacterial diseases of humans and animals. Microorganisms transform antimicrobial quinolones (including fluoroquinolones) and the pharmacologically related naphthyridones, pyranoacridones, and cinnolones to a variety of metabolites. The biotransformation processes involve hydroxylation of methyl groups; hydroxylation of aliphatic and aromatic rings; oxidation of alcohols and amines; reduction of carboxyl groups; removal of methyl, carboxyl, fluoro, and cyano groups; addition of formyl, acetyl, nitrosyl, and cyclopentenone groups; and cleavage of aliphatic and aromatic rings. Most of these reactions greatly reduce or eliminate the antimicrobial activity of the quinolones. PMID:23007957

Parshikov, Igor A; Sutherland, John B

2012-12-01

5

Factor analysis of microbiological activity data and structural parameters of antibacterial quinolones.  

PubMed

Factor analysis (FA) was performed on quinolone derivatives with antibacterial activity to model relationships between molecular descriptors and microbiological activities determined on five bacterial cell lines (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Molecular modeling studies were performed with the use of HyperChem software and MM+ molecular mechanics with the semi-empirical AM1 method. Factor analysis led to the extraction of two main factors, with the share of factor 1 amounting to about 76% and factor 2 to about 24% for all the parameters used in the statistical analysis. Moreover, FA results indicated that energy of orbitals lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, energy of ionization, electron affinity, electronegativity, maximum electron density, refraction and polarizability appeared to be descriptors important for the antibacterial activity of quinolones. PMID:19603202

Koba, Marcin; Baczek, Tomasz; Macur, Katarzyna; Bober, Leszek; Frackowiak, Teresa; Buci?ski, Adam; Rystok-Grabska, Danuta; Stasiak, Jolanta; Koba, Katarzyna

2010-02-01

6

In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of a new quinolone, OPC-17116.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of OPC-17116 were compared with those of ofloxacin, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, and tosufloxacin. The MICs of OPC-17116 for 90% of the strains tested were 0.125 to 8 micrograms/ml against gram-positive bacteria such as members of the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus: less than or equal to 0.063 to 16 micrograms/ml against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae; and less than or equal to 0.063 to 16 micrograms/ml against glucose-nonfermentative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The activity of OPC-17116 against gram-positive organisms was comparable to that of tosufloxacin and higher than those of other reference drugs. The in vitro activity of OPC-17116 against gram-negative bacteria was similar to those of the reference drugs. In experimental systemic infections in mice with various organisms, the efficacy of OPC-17116 was similar to that of tosufloxacin and greater than those of ofloxacin, enoxacin, and ciprofloxacin. In a pyelonephritic model in mice with P. aeruginosa KU-1, OPC-17116 was as active as ciprofloxacin and more active than ofloxacin, enoxacin, and tosufloxacin. In respiratory tract infections in mice with Staphylococcus aureus Smith, Streptococcus pneumoniae TMS 3, and Klebsiella pneumoniae 3K25, the efficacy of OPC-17116 was generally greater than that of tosufloxacin. The peak level of OPC-17116 in the lungs of mice was 10 times higher than that in serum and was significantly greater than levels in lung achieved with an equivalent dose of the other quinolones. The therapeutic efficacy of OPC-17116 may depend not only on its in vitro activity but also on its high concentration in tissue. PMID:1320364

Imada, T; Miyazaki, S; Nishida, M; Yamaguchi, K; Goto, S

1992-01-01

7

Mechanism of quinolone action and resistance.  

PubMed

Quinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibacterials in the world and are used to treat a variety of bacterial infections in humans. Because of the wide use (and overuse) of these drugs, the number of quinolone-resistant bacterial strains has been growing steadily since the 1990s. As is the case with other antibacterial agents, the rise in quinolone resistance threatens the clinical utility of this important drug class. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome. This review describes the development of the quinolones as antibacterials, the structure and function of gyrase and topoisomerase IV, and the mechanistic basis for quinolone action against their enzyme targets. It will then discuss the following three mechanisms that decrease the sensitivity of bacterial cells to quinolones. Target-mediated resistance is the most common and clinically significant form of resistance. It is caused by specific mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase IV that weaken interactions between quinolones and these enzymes. Plasmid-mediated resistance results from extrachromosomal elements that encode proteins that disrupt quinolone-enzyme interactions, alter drug metabolism, or increase quinolone efflux. Chromosome-mediated resistance results from the underexpression of porins or the overexpression of cellular efflux pumps, both of which decrease cellular concentrations of quinolones. Finally, this review will discuss recent advancements in our understanding of how quinolones interact with gyrase and topoisomerase IV and how mutations in these enzymes cause resistance. These last findings suggest approaches to designing new drugs that display improved activity against resistant strains. PMID:24576155

Aldred, Katie J; Kerns, Robert J; Osheroff, Neil

2014-03-18

8

Riboswitches as antibacterial drug targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

New validated cellular targets are needed to reinvigorate antibacterial drug discovery. This need could potentially be filled by riboswitches—messenger RNA (mRNA) structures that regulate gene expression in bacteria. Riboswitches are unique among RNAs that serve as drug targets in that they have evolved to form structured and highly selective receptors for small drug-like metabolites. In most cases, metabolite binding to

Kenneth F Blount; Ronald R Breaker

2006-01-01

9

Electrochemical characteristics of five quinolone drugs and their effect on DNA damage and repair in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The object of this study was to determine whether 4-quinolone antimicrobials were reduced under biologically attainable redox conditions and whether they had any effect on DNA in the absence of the DNA gyrase enzyme. Electrochemical characteristics of the drugs were investigated using d c polarography, differential pulse polarography and cyclic voltammetry. The ability of the drugs to interact with, and cause damage to, naked DNA was investigated by a phi X174 DNA double transfection assay. Induction of DNA SOS repair was assessed using a stain of Escherichia coli in which the synthesis of beta-galactosidase was under the control of the su1A gene. Growth studies were performed using a conductimetric method in a Malthus system. All five 4-quinolones examined had redox potentials lower (more negative) than -1.2 V and thus were incapable of being reduced in biological systems, even under strict anaerobiosis. Exposure of all drugs to single-stranded phi X174 DNA for up to 50 h engendered no detectable damage. However, all the drugs induced DNA SOS repair, in the order ciprofloxacin greater than fleroxacin = pefloxacin greater than norfloxacin greater than nalidixic acid. This rank order corresponds approximately with antibacterial efficiency. The growth studies indicated that redoxyendonuclease III and excision repair enzymes may be involved in the fixation of quinolone-induced damage. PMID:2165050

Thomas, A; Tocher, J; Edwards, D I

1990-05-01

10

Nonclassical biological activities of quinolone derivatives.  

PubMed

Quinolones are considered as a big family of multi-faceted drugs; their chemical synthesis is flexible and can be easily adapted to prepare new congeners with rationally devised structures. This is shown by the description of many thousands of derivatives in the literature. Scientists could accurately describe their QSAR, which is essential for effective drug design. This also gave them the chance to discover new and unprecedented activities, which makes quinolones an endless source of hope and enables further development of new clinically useful drugs. Quinolones are among the most common frameworks present in the bioactive molecules that have dominated the market for more than four decades. Since 1962, 4(1H)-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives are widely used as antibacterial agents. Quinolones have a broad and potent spectrum of activity and are also used as second-line drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB). Recently, quinolones have been reported to display "nonclassical" biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-HIV-1 integrase, anti-HCV-NS3 helicase and -NS5B-polymerase activities. The present review focuses on the structural modifications responsible for the transformation of an antibacterial into an anticancer agent and/or an antiviral agent. Indeed, quinolones' antimicrobial action is distinguishable among antibacterial agents, because they target different type II topoisomerase enzymes. Many derivatives of this family show high activity against bacterial topoisomerases and eukaryotic topoisomerases, and are also toxic to cultured mammalian cells and in vivo tumor models. Moreover, quinolones have shown antiviral activity against HIV and HCV viruses. In this context the quinolones family of drugs seem to link three different biological activities (antibacterial, anticancer, and the antiviral profiles) and the review will also provide an insight into the different mechanisms responsible for these activities among different species. PMID:22365088

Ahmed, Abeer; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

2012-01-01

11

[Sensitivity spectrum of Francisella tularensis to antibiotics and synthetic antibacterial drugs].  

PubMed

Sensitivity of 6 F. tularensis strains to 57 antibiotics and synthetic antibacterial drugs was studied. It was shown that the strains were highly sensitive to aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, anzamycins, quinolones, chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin, nitroxoline, novobiocin and fusidin and resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, polypeptides, vancomycin and sulfanylamides. The interrace differences in F. tularensis could be detected only by sensitivity to erythromycin, oleandomycin and spiramycin. There was observed no cross resistance to streptomycin and other aminoglycosides in F. tularensis. Assay of F. tularensis sensitivity to antibacterial drugs of various groups with the rapid photometric procedure and the agar diffusion method revealed that the results were highly comparable. PMID:2610533

Vasi'lev, N T; Oborin, V A; Vasi'lev, P G; Glushkova, O V; Kravets, I D; Levchuk, B A

1989-09-01

12

Recent advances in antibacterial drugs  

PubMed Central

The incidence of antimicrobial resistance is on continued rise with a threat to return to the “pre-antibiotic” era. This has led to emergence of such bacterial infections which are essentially untreatable by the current armamentarium of available treatment options. Various efforts have been made to develop the newer antimicrobials with novel modes of action which can act against these multi-drug resistant strains. This review aims to focus on these newly available and investigational antibacterials approved after year 2000, their mechanism of actions/resistance, and spectrum of activity and their phases of clinical trials. Newer unexploited targets and strategies for the next generation of antimicrobial drugs for combating the drug resistance and emerging pathogens in the 21st century have also been reviewed in the present article. PMID:23776832

Rai, Jaswant; Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Kaur, Mandeep

2013-01-01

13

Newer Antibacterial Drugs for a New Century  

PubMed Central

Antibacterial drug discovery and development has slowed considerably in recent years with novel classes discovered decades ago and regulatory approvals tougher to get. This article describes newer classes of antibacterial drugs introduced or approved after year 2000, their mechanisms of action/ resistance, improved analogs, spectrum of activity and clinical trials. It also discusses new compounds in development with novel mechanisms of action as well as novel unexploited bacterial targets and strategies which may pave the way for combating drug resistance and emerging pathogens in the 21st century. PMID:20053150

Devasahayam, Gina; Scheld, W. Michael; Hoffman, Paul S.

2010-01-01

14

Interaction of N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones with ATP-dependent MurE ligase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: antibacterial activity, molecular docking and inhibition kinetics  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the antibacterial activity and MurE inhibition of a set of N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones found to inhibit the growth of fast-growing mycobacteria. Methods Using the spot culture growth inhibition assay, MICs were determined for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155. MICs were determined for Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using microplate dilution assays. Inhibition of M. tuberculosis MurE ligase activity was determined both by colorimetric and HPLC methods. Computational modelling and binding prediction of the quinolones in the MurE structure was performed using Glide. Kinetic experiments were conducted for understanding possible competitive relations of the quinolones with the endogenous substrates of MurE ligase. Results The novel synthetic N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones were found to be growth inhibitors of M. tuberculosis and rapid-growing mycobacteria as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, while showing no inhibition for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The quinolones were found to be inhibitory to MurE ligase of M. tuberculosis in the micromolar range (IC50 ?40–200 ?M) when assayed either spectroscopically or by HPLC. Computational docking of the quinolones on the published M. tuberculosis MurE crystal structure suggested that the uracil recognition site is a probable binding site for the quinolones. Conclusions N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones are inhibitors of mycobacterial and staphylococcal growth, and show MurE ligase inhibition. Therefore, they are considered as a starting point for the development of increased affinity MurE activity disruptors. PMID:21622974

Guzman, Juan David; Wube, Abraham; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Gupta, Antima; Hüfner, Antje; Basavannacharya, Chandrakala; Rahman, Md. Mukhleshur; Thomaschitz, Christina; Bauer, Rudolf; McHugh, Timothy Daniel; Nobeli, Irene; Prieto, Jose M.; Gibbons, Simon; Bucar, Franz; Bhakta, Sanjib

2011-01-01

15

Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of a New Series of N-Alkyl-2-alkynyl/(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones  

PubMed Central

To gain further insight into the structural requirements of the aliphatic group at position 2 for their antimycobacterial activity, some N-alkyl-4-(1H)-quinolones bearing position 2 alkynyls with various chain length and triple bond positions were prepared and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against rapidly-growing strains of mycobacteria, the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, EMRSA-15 and -16. The compounds were also evaluated for inhibition of ATP-dependent MurE ligase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lowest MIC value of 0.5 mg/L (1.2-1.5 ?M) was found against M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis. These compounds displayed no or only weak toxicity to the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 at 100 ?M concentration. The quinolone derivatives exhibited pronounced activity against the epidemic MRSA strains (EMRSA-15 and -16) with MIC values of 2-128 mg/L (5.3-364.7 ?M), and M. bovis BCG with an MIC value of 25 mg/L (66.0-77.4 ?M). In addition, the compounds inhibited the MurE ligase of M. tuberculosis with moderate to weak activity showing IC50 values of 200-774 ?M. The increased selectivity towards mycobacterial bacilli with reference to MRC-5 cells observed for 2-alkynyl quinolones compared to their corresponding 2-alkenyl analogues serves to highlight the mycobacterial specific effect of the triple bond. Exploration of a terminal bromine atom at the side chain of N-alkyl-2-(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones showed improved antimycobacterial activity whereas a cyclopropyl residue at N-1 was suggested to be detrimental to antibacterial activity. PMID:22777190

Wube, Abraham; Guzman, Juan-David; Hüfner, Antje; Hochfellner, Christina; Blunder, Martina; Bauer, Rudolf; Gibbons, Simon; Bhakta, Sanjib; Bucar, Franz

2012-01-01

16

Mechanism of action of and resistance to quinolones  

PubMed Central

Summary Fluoroquinolones are an important class of wide?spectrum antibacterial agents. The first quinolone described was nalidixic acid, which showed a narrow spectrum of activity. The evolution of quinolones to more potent molecules was based on changes at positions 1, 6, 7 and 8 of the chemical structure of nalidixic acid. Quinolones inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activities, two enzymes essential for bacteria viability. The acquisition of quinolone resistance is frequently related to (i) chromosomal mutations such as those in the genes encoding the A and B subunits of the protein targets (gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE), or mutations causing reduced drug accumulation, either by a decreased uptake or by an increased efflux, and (ii) quinolone resistance genes associated with plasmids have been also described, i.e. the qnr gene that encodes a pentapeptide, which blocks the action of quinolones on the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV; the aac(6?)?Ib?cr gene that encodes an acetylase that modifies the amino group of the piperazin ring of the fluoroquinolones and efflux pump encoded by the qepA gene that decreases intracellular drug levels. These plasmid?mediated mechanisms of resistance confer low levels of resistance but provide a favourable background in which selection of additional chromosomally encoded quinolone resistance mechanisms can occur. PMID:21261881

Fŕbrega, Anna; Madurga, Sergi; Giralt, Ernest; Vila, Jordi

2009-01-01

17

Drugs for bad bugs: confronting the challenges of antibacterial discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequencing of the first complete bacterial genome in 1995 heralded a new era of hope for antibacterial drug discoverers, who now had the tools to search entire genomes for new antibacterial targets. Several companies, including GlaxoSmithKline, moved back into the antibacterials area and embraced a genomics-derived, target-based approach to screen for new classes of drugs with novel modes of

David J. Payne; Michael N. Gwynn; David J. Holmes; David L. Pompliano

2006-01-01

18

Antibacterial drug leads targeting isoprenoid biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

With the rise in resistance to antibiotics such as methicillin, there is a need for new drugs. We report here the discovery and X-ray crystallographic structures of 10 chemically diverse compounds (benzoic, diketo, and phosphonic acids, as well as a bisamidine and a bisamine) that inhibit bacterial undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase, an essential enzyme involved in cell wall biosynthesis. The inhibitors bind to one or more of the four undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitor binding sites identified previously, with the most active leads binding to site 4, outside the catalytic center. The most potent leads are active against Staphylococcus aureus [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 ?0.25 µg/mL], and one potently synergizes with methicillin (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 0.25) and is protective in a mouse infection model. These results provide numerous leads for antibacterial development and open up the possibility of restoring sensitivity to drugs such as methicillin, using combination therapies. PMID:23248302

Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yonghui; Sinko, William; Hensler, Mary E.; Olson, Joshua; Molohon, Katie J.; Lindert, Steffen; Cao, Rong; Li, Kai; Wang, Ke; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yi-Liang; Sankovsky, Anna; de Oliveira, César Augusto F.; Mitchell, Douglas A.; Nizet, Victor; McCammon, J. Andrew; Oldfield, Eric

2013-01-01

19

Quinolone-3-Diarylethers: A new class of drugs for a new era of malaria eradication  

PubMed Central

Ideally antimalarial drugs can be developed which target multiple life cycle stages, thus impacting prevention, treatment and transmission of disease. Here we introduce 4-(1H)-quinolone-3-diarylethers that are selectively potent inhibitors of the parasite’s mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. These compounds are highly active against the primary human malarias (falciparum and vivax), targeting the parasite at both the liver and blood stages as well as the forms that are crucial to disease transmission: gametocytes ? zygotes ? ookinetes ? oocysts. Chosen as the preclinical candidate, ELQ-300 has good oral bioavailability at efficacious dosages in mice, is metabolically stable, and is highly active in rodent malaria models. Given a low predicted dose in patients and a long predicted half-life, ELQ-300 offers the hope of a new molecule for the treatment, prevention and, ultimately, eradication of malaria. PMID:23515079

White, Karen L.; Forquer, Isaac P.; Cross, Richard M.; Marfurt, Jutta; Mather, Michael W.; Delves, Michael J.; Shackleford, David M.; Saenz, Fabian E.; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Steuten, Jessica; Mutka, Tina; Li, Yuexin; Wirjanata, Grennady; Ryan, Eileen; Duffy, Sandra; Kelly, Jane Xu; Sebayang, Boni F.; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Noviyanti, Rintis; Sinden, Robert E.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Price, Ric N.; Avery, Vicky M.; Angulo-Barturen, Ińigo; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Ferrer, Santiago; Herreros, Esperanza; Sanz, Laura M.; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Bathurst, Ian; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Siegl, Peter; Guy, R. Kiplin; Winter, Rolf W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Charman, Susan A.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Manetsch, Roman; Riscoe, Michael K.

2014-01-01

20

Application of SBDD to the discovery of new antibacterial drugs.  

PubMed

The emergence of bacteria that are multiply resistant to commonly used antibiotics has created the medical need for novel classes of antibacterial agents. The unique challenges to the discovery of new antibacterial drugs include the following: spectrum, selectivity, low emergence of new resistance, and high potency. With the emergence of genomic information, dozens of antibacterial targets have been pursued over the last 2 decades often using SBDD. This chapter reviews the application of structure-based drug design approaches on a selected group of antibacterial targets (DHFR, DHNA, PDF, and FabI) where significant progress has been made. We compare and contrast the different approaches and evaluate the results in terms of the biological profiles of the leads produced. Several common themes have emerged from this survey, resulting in a set of recommendations. PMID:22222458

Finn, John

2012-01-01

21

Cost-effectiveness and pricing of antibacterial drugs.  

PubMed

Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of 'value', which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

2015-01-01

22

[Susceptibility of Corynebacteria isolated in St Petersburg to antibacterial drugs].  

PubMed

Susceptibility of 150 Corynebacterium isolates (91 strains of C.pseudodiphtheriticum and 59 strains of the ANF group corynebacteria) to 21 antibacterial drugs was determined by the method of serial dilutions in a solid medium. It was shown that the MIC of the drugs for the diphtheroids was within the ranges of < 0.015 to > 32.0 micrograms/ml. 66 per cent of the Corynebacterium strains circulating in St. Petersburg was resistant at least to 1 antibacterial drug. The Corynebacterium isolates with moderate resistance to erythromycin and lincomycin (57.3 per cent) and resistant to trimethoprime (16.7 per cent) were the most frequent. 8.0 per cent of the diphtheroids was resistant at least to 4 antibacterial drugs. No significant difference in the susceptibility of the ANF group corynebacteria and C.pseudodiphtheriticum to the drugs was observed. Gentamicin, rifampicin, tetracycline and doxycycline showed high activity against the corynebacteria at present circulating in St. Petersburg. When antibacterial therapy of the infection due to corynebacteria fails it is necessary to estimate antibioticograms of Corynebacterium pure cultures. PMID:9480648

Gladin, D P; Kozlova, N S; Zaitseva, T K; Zveriakina, N N; Khval', S A

1997-01-01

23

Quinolones: review of psychiatric and neurological adverse reactions.  

PubMed

Quinolones are a class of antibacterial agents for the treatment of several infectious diseases (e.g. urinary and respiratory tract infections). They are used worldwide due to their broad spectrum of activity, high bioavailability and good safety profile. The safety profile varies from quinolone to quinolone. The aim of this article was to review the neurological and psychiatric adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of quinolones, using a literature search strategy designed to identify case reports and case series. A literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE (from inception to 31 October 2010) was performed to identify case reports and case series related to quinolone-associated neurological and psychiatric ADRs. The search was conducted in two phases: the first phase was the literature search and in the second phase relevant articles were identified through review of the references of the selected articles. Relevant articles were defined as articles referring to adverse events/reactions associated with the use of any quinolone. Abstracts referring to animal studies, clinical trials and observational studies were excluded. Identified case reports were analysed by age group, sex, active substances, dosage, concomitant medication, ambulatory or hospital-based event and seriousness, after Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) coding. From a total of 828 articles, 83 were identified as referring to nervous system and/or psychiatric disorders induced by quinolones. 145 individual case reports were extracted from the 83 articles. 40.7% of the individual case reports belonged to psychiatric disorders only, whereas 46.9% related to neurological disorders only. Eight (5.5%) individual case reports presented both neurological and psychiatric ADRs. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin were the quinolones with more neurological and psychiatric ADRs reported in the literature. Ciprofloxacin has been extensively used worldwide, which may explain the higher number of reports, while for ofloxacin and pefloxacin, the number of reports may be over-representative. A total of 232 ADRs were identified from the selected articles, with 206 of these related to psychiatric and/or neurological ADRs. The other 26 were related to other body systems but were reported together with the reactions of interest. Mania, insomnia, acute psychosis and delirium were the most frequently reported psychiatric adverse events; grand mal convulsion, confusional state, convulsions and myoclonus were the most frequently reported neurological adverse events. Several aspects should be taken into account in the development of CNS adverse effects, such as the pharmacokinetics of quinolones, chemical structure and quinolone uptake in the brain. These events may affect not only susceptible patients but also 'healthy' patients. PMID:21585220

Tomé, Ana M; Filipe, Augusto

2011-06-01

24

The introduction of antibacterial drug pipemidic acid into the POM field: Syntheses, characterization and antitumor activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new compounds based on polyoxometalates (POMs) and the quinolone antibacterial drug pipemidic acid (HPPA), {[Ni(PPA) 2]H 4[SiW 12O 40]}·HPPA·3H 2O ( 1), and {[Zn(PPA) 2] 2H 4[SiW 12O 40]}·3H 2O ( 2), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by routine technique. Single-crystal X-Ray diffraction analysis shows that compound 1 is constructed by Keggin clusters grafted by binuclear nickel clusters, isolated HPPA and water molecules, while compound 2 consists of Keggin clusters grafted by binuclear zinc clusters and water molecules. Due to the selection of different transition metal (TM) ions, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit different structures and antitumor activities. Compound 1 possesses 0D structure and shows no antitumor activities. However, compound 2 possesses 1D structure and exhibits higher antitumor activities than its parent compound. The results show that introduction of different TM-PPA moieties onto the polyoxoanion surface can affect not only the final structures but also their antitumor activities.

Sha, Jing-Quan; Li, Xin; Zhou, Ying-Hua; Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Guang-Ming; Wang, Cheng

2011-11-01

25

Fluoroquinolone antibacterials enhance UVA-induced skin tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoroquinolone antibacterials are known to be phototoxic, both in vivo and in vitro. The action spectrum for the phototoxicity of the quinolones lies mainly in the UVA region. During studies of systemic drug phototoxicity, Johnson et al. (Dundee) induced dose-dependent phototoxicity in Swiss albino mice, and severe phototoxic reactions were followed by the development of skin tumors. The present study

Georg Klecak; Frederick Urbach; Heinrich Urwyler

1997-01-01

26

The evolving role of chemical synthesis in antibacterial drug discovery.  

PubMed

The discovery and implementation of antibiotics in the early twentieth century transformed human health and wellbeing. Chemical synthesis enabled the development of the first antibacterial substances, organoarsenicals and sulfa drugs, but these were soon outshone by a host of more powerful and vastly more complex antibiotics from nature: penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin, among others. These primary defences are now significantly less effective as an unavoidable consequence of rapid evolution of resistance within pathogenic bacteria, made worse by widespread misuse of antibiotics. For decades medicinal chemists replenished the arsenal of antibiotics by semisynthetic and to a lesser degree fully synthetic routes, but economic factors have led to a subsidence of this effort, which places society on the precipice of a disaster. We believe that the strategic application of modern chemical synthesis to antibacterial drug discovery must play a critical role if a crisis of global proportions is to be averted. PMID:24990531

Wright, Peter M; Seiple, Ian B; Myers, Andrew G

2014-08-18

27

Innovative approaches to novel antibacterial drug discovery.  

PubMed

Increasing antibiotic resistance in microorganisms and new emerging pathogens have become a major problem in our society. Rising to satisfy this urgent medical need is a recent confluence of powerful new drug discovery technologies: combinatorial chemistry; sequence and functional genomic analysis; and novel methods of high-throughput screening. The combination of these technologies will bring to bear untapped power in the search for new antimicrobials. PMID:9425668

Trias, J; Gordon, E M

1997-12-01

28

Assessment of biological half life using in silico QSPkR approach: a self organizing molecular field analysis (SOMFA) on a series of antimicrobial quinolone drugs.  

PubMed

The quinolones belong to a family of synthetic potent broad-spectrum antibiotics and particularly active against gram-negative organisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A 3D-QSPkR approach has been used to obtain the quantitative structure pharmacokinetic relationship for a series of quinolone drugs using SOMFA. The series consisting of 28 molecules have been investigated for their pharmacokinetic performance using biological half life (t(1/2)). A statistically validated robust model for a diverse group of quinolone drugs having flexibility in structure and pharmacokinetic profile (t(1/2)) obtained using SOMFA having good cross-validated correlation coefficient r(cv)(2) (0.6847), non cross-validated correlation coefficient r(2) values (0.7310) and high F-test value (33.9663). Analysis of 3D-QSPkR models through electrostatic and shape grids provide useful information about the shape and electrostatic potential contributions on t(1/2). The analysis of SOMFA results provide an insight for the generation of novel molecular architecture of quinolones with optimal half life and improved biological profile. PMID:21664443

Goel, Honey; Sinha, V R; Thareja, Suresh; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Kumar, Manoj

2011-08-30

29

Preparation, structure and microbial evaluation of metal complexes of the second generation quinolone antibacterial drug lomefloxacin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lomefloxacinate of Y(III), Zr(IV) and U(VI) were isolated as solids with the general formula; [Y(LFX) 2Cl 2]Cl·12H 2O, [ZrO(LFX) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O and [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O. The new synthesized complexes were characterized with physicochemical and diverse spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopies) as well as thermal analyses. In these complexes lomefloxacin act as bidentate ligand bound to the metal ions through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylate oxygen. The kinetic parameters of thermogravimetric (TGA) and its differential (DTG), such as entropy of activation, activation energy, enthalpy of activation and Gibbs free energy evaluated by using Coats- Redfern and Horowitz- Metzger equations for free lomefloxacin and three complexes were carried out. The bond stretching force constant and length of the U dbnd O bond for the [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O complex were calculated. The antimicrobial activity of lomefloxacin and its metal complexes was tested against different bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species and also against two species of antifungal, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.). The three complexes are of a good action against three bacterial species but the Y(III) complex exhibit excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa), when compared to the free lomefloxacin.

Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

2010-09-01

30

Repurposing of gallium-based drugs for antibacterial therapy.  

PubMed

While the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is vanishing current anti-infective therapies, the antibiotic discovery pipeline is drying up. In the last years, the repurposing of existing drugs for new clinical applications has become a major research area in drug discovery, also in the field of anti-infectives. This review discusses the potential of repurposing previously approved gallium formulations in antibacterial chemotherapy. Gallium has no proven function in biological systems, but it can act as an iron-mimetic in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The activity of gallium mostly relies on its ability to replace iron in redox enzymes, thus impairing their function and ultimately hampering cell growth. Cancer cells and bacteria are preferential gallium targets due to their active metabolism and fast growth. The wealth of knowledge on the pharmacological properties of gallium has opened the door to the repurposing of gallium-based drugs for the treatment of infections sustained by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. The promising antibacterial activity of gallium both in vitro and in different animal models of infection raises the hope that gallium will confirm its efficacy in clinical trials, and will become a valuable therapeutic option to cure otherwise untreatable bacterial infections. PMID:24532037

Bonchi, Carlo; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

2014-01-01

31

Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(???), Zr(?V) and U(V?) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Ĺ and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

2010-08-01

32

Fluorinated 4-quinolones induce hyperproduction of interleukin 2.  

PubMed Central

The fluorinated 4-quinolones are a "new" group of antibiotics with a broad antibacterial spectrum. They are already widely used in clinical practice. Previous studies have shown that these drugs increase the uptake of [3H]thymidine into DNA of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes but inhibit cell growth and immunoglobulin secretion. This study shows that the 4-quinolones strongly (up to 100 times) increase the recovery of interleukin 2 (IL-2) in culture supernatants of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated normal human lymphocytes and also prolong the kinetics of IL-2 production. The effect was significant at clinically achievable concentrations (5 micrograms/ml). In addition to hyperproduction of IL-2, the level of RNA hybridizing with a human IL-2 cDNA probe was also intensely elevated (16-32 times) in PHA-stimulated lymphocytes cultured with ciprofloxacin (80 micrograms/ml). The mechanism responsible for 4-quinolone-mediated effects on T cells is at present unclear, but evidence is presented that suggests the effect is not exerted at the level of protein kinase C activation. Ciprofloxacin at 80 micrograms/ml also decreased the expression of IL-2 receptors measured by immunofluorescence with CD 25 antibodies and a radiolabeled IL-2 binding assay. At the same concentration of ciprofloxacin, there was a very low expression of the transferrin receptor and the cell size increased very little in human lymphocytes after PHA stimulation. The enhanced IL-2 production by 4-quinolones may contribute to side effects reported when these drugs are used for treatment of patients. Images PMID:2539601

Riesbeck, K; Andersson, J; Gullberg, M; Forsgren, A

1989-01-01

33

The future of new oral antibiotics including the quinolones.  

PubMed

It is estimated that more than 110 million dollars' worth of oral antibiotics will have been sold in Canada in 1987. In the next few years several new oral antimicrobial agents will reach the market, including beta-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins, monobactams, erythromycins and quinolones. Most of these new agents have a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity than the presently available oral antibiotics. A few have a longer half-life and can be administered once a day. The new oral drugs, especially the quinolones and possibly beta-lactams, will now be used to treat infections that in the past could be treated only parenterally. Exacerbations of pulmonary infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis can now be successfully treated at home with the new quinolones. Osteomyelitis, arthritis, pneumonia and pyelonephritis will most likely be treated at home in the future. In severe infections patients will be admitted to hospital for short courses of parenteral therapy, followed by oral treatment. If used appropriately the new oral agents may lead to new approaches to the treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:3275479

Bergeron, M G

1988-01-01

34

76 FR 39883 - Design of Clinical Trials for Systemic Antibacterial Drugs for the Treatment of Acute Otitis...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FDA-2011-N-0002] Design of Clinical Trials for Systemic Antibacterial Drugs...workshop regarding the design of Clinical Trials for Systemic Antibacterial Agents...various aspects of the design of clinical trials. The input from this...

2011-07-07

35

DRUG DISCOVERY AND RESISTANCE Antibacterial activities of dendritic amphiphiles against nontuberculous  

E-print Network

DRUG DISCOVERY AND RESISTANCE Antibacterial activities of dendritic amphiphiles against November 2011 Accepted 4 December 2011 Keywords: Dendritic amphiphiles Nontuberculous mycobacteria Anti of nine series of dicarboxyl and tricarboxyl dendritic amphiphiles with one alkyl, two alkyl

Falkinham, Joseph

36

Mechanism of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance  

PubMed Central

Quinolones are potent antibacterial agents that specifically target bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Widespread use of these agents has contributed to the rise of bacterial quinolone resistance. Previous studies have shown that quinolone resistance arises by mutations in chromosomal genes. Recently, a multiresistance plasmid was discovered that encodes transferable resistance to quinolones. We have cloned the plasmid-quinolone resistance gene, termed qnr, and found it in an integron-like environment upstream from qacE?1 and sulI. The gene product Qnr was a 218-aa protein belonging to the pentapeptide repeat family and shared sequence homology with the immunity protein McbG, which is thought to protect DNA gyrase from the action of microcin B17. Qnr had pentapeptide repeat domains of 11 and 28 tandem copies, separated by a single glycine with a consensus sequence of A/C D/N L/F X X. Because the primary target of quinolones is DNA gyrase in Gram-negative strains, we tested the ability of Qnr to reverse the inhibition of gyrase activity by quinolones. Purified Qnr-His6 protected Escherichia coli DNA gyrase from inhibition by ciprofloxacin. Gyrase protection was proportional to the concentration of Qnr-His6 and inversely proportional to the concentration of ciprofloxacin. The protective activity of Qnr-His6 was lost by boiling the protein and involved neither quinolone inactivation nor independent gyrase activity. Protection of topoisomerase IV, a secondary target of quinolone action in E. coli, was not evident. How Qnr protects DNA gyrase and the prevalence of this resistance mechanism in clinical isolates remains to be determined. PMID:11943863

Tran, John H.; Jacoby, George A.

2002-01-01

37

The 2012 Garrod lecture: discovery of antibacterial drugs in the 21st century.  

PubMed

The discovery and development of antibacterial drugs in the twentieth century were major scientific and medical achievements that have had profound benefits for human society. However, in the twenty-first century the widespread global occurrence of bacteria resistant to the antibiotics and synthetic drugs discovered in the previous century threatens to reverse our ability to treat infectious diseases. Although some new drugs are in development they do not adequately cover growing medical needs. Furthermore, these drugs are mostly derivatives of older classes already in use and therefore prone to existing bacterial resistance mechanisms. Thus, new drug classes are urgently needed. Despite investment in antibacterial drug discovery, no new drug class has been discovered in the past 20 years. In this review, based upon my career as a research scientist in the field of antibacterial drug discovery, I consider some of the technical reasons for the recent failure and look to the future developments that may help to reverse the poor current success rate. Diversification of screening libraries to include new natural products will be important as well as ensuring that the promising drug hits arising from structure-based drug design can achieve effective concentrations at their target sites within the bacterial cell. PMID:23134656

Chopra, Ian

2013-03-01

38

Evaluation of Quinolone Resistance in Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Community- and Hospital-Acquired Infections  

PubMed Central

Objective: Gram negative bacilli are among the most important microbial agents involved in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. The quinolones are preferred antibacterial agents for the treatment of both community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections caused by gram negative bacilli because of their strong antibacterial effects, and because they can be administered both orally and parenterally. In this study, it was aimed to determine the sensitivity of gram negative bacteria isolated from both hospital- and community-acquired infections, to quinolones. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains used in this study were isolated from pathologic samples of patients who were treated in different clinics or who were admitted to the polyclinics of Atatürk University Research Hospitals. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin was assessed for all strains included in the study via the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: Of the 205 strains tested, 116 (56.5%) were from community-acquired infections, and 89 (43.5%) were from hospital-acquired infections. Resistance rates of community-origin strains against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin were 25%, whereas they were 26.7% against norfloxacin. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective quinolone (65.2%) against hospital-origin strains. E. coli was the most commonly isolated etiological agent from both community- and hospital-acquired infections. Conclusion: In this study, resistance to quinolones was observed for gram negative bacilli isolated from both hospital- and community-acquired infections, with the exception of community-acquired Salmonella and Shigella. Thus, these drugs should not be used empirically in the treatment of infections caused by gram negative bacilli, and susceptibility test results should be considered when planning therapy.

Bastopcu, Ayse; Yazgi, Halil; Uyanik, M. Hamidullah; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

2008-01-01

39

FROM THE ANALYST'S COUCH The antibacterial drugs market  

E-print Network

, the development of antibacterials has become increasingly unattractive to big pharma for a number of reasons/or by picking up clinical programmes aborted by the larger companies. However, big pharma often becomes involved pharma markets (which has been primarily driven by price increases) has slowed to a compound annual

Cai, Long

40

Antiplasmodial Drugs in the Gas Phase: A CID and DFT Study of Quinolon-4( 1H)-Imine Derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas-phase behavior of 12 quinolon-4( 1H)-imine derivatives with antiplasmodial activity was investigated using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry together with collision induced dissociation and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The most probable protonation site was predicted by calculating the proton affinity (PA) values for each possible protonation site and it was found to be the imine nitrogen for all compounds under study. Fragmentation pathways of the protonated molecules were proposed and the assignment of product ion structures was performed taking into account theoretical calculations. The nature of the quinoline substituent was found to influence the gas-phase behavior of the compounds under study. The data acquired allowed to bracket the proton affinity of the quinolin-4-imine scaffold, which can be a useful starting point to choose appropriate references for determining PA values of this scaffold.

Amorim Madeira, Paulo J.; Sitoe, Ana Raquel Fernandes; Gonçalves, Daniel; Rodrigues, Tiago; Guedes, Rita C.; Lopes, Francisca; Moreira, Rui; Bronze, M. Rosário

2014-09-01

41

Impact of antibacterial drugs on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) activity: an in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the in vitro effects of the antibacterial drugs, meropenem trihydrate, piperacillin sodium, and cefoperazone sodium, on the activity of human serum paraoxonase (hPON1). Methods hPON1 was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods, including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. Results The three antibacterial drugs decreased in vitro hPON1 activity. Inhibition mechanisms meropenem trihydrate was noncompetitive while piperacillin sodium and cefoperazone sodium were competitive. Conclusions Our results showed that antibacterial drugs significantly inhibit hPON1 activity, both in vitro, with rank order meropenem trihydrate piperacillin sodium cefoperazone sodium in vitro. PMID:25183328

Söyüt, Hakan; Kaya, Elif Duygu; Beydemir, ?ükrü

2014-01-01

42

Antitubercular and antibacterial activity of quinonoid natural products against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens represent a major threat to human health. In view of the critical need to augment the current drug regime, we have investigated therapeutic potential of five quinonoids, viz. emodin, diospyrin, plumbagin, menadione and thymoquinone, derived from natural products. The antimicrobial activity of quinonoids was evaluated against a broad panel of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) strains, rapid growing mycobacteria and other bacterial isolates, some of which were producers of ?-lactamase, Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC ?-lactamase, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) enzymes, as well as their drug-sensitive ATCC counterparts. All the tested quinones exhibited antimycobacterial and broad spectrum antibacterial activity, particularly against M. tuberculosis (lowest MIC 0.25?µg/mL) and Gram-positive bacteria (lowest MIC <4?µg/mL) of clinical origin. The order of antitubercular activity of the tested quinonoids was plumbagin?>?emodin?~?menadione?~?thymoquinone?>?diospyrin, whereas their antibacterial efficacy was plumbagin?>?menadione?~?thymoquinone?>?diospyrin?>?emodin. Furthermore, this is the first evaluation performed on these quinonoids against a broad panel of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive clinical isolates, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24318724

Dey, Diganta; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

2014-07-01

43

Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies EHOMO and ELUMO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data.

Rotaru, Ileana; Varvara, Simona; Gaina, Luiza; Muresan, Liana Maria

2014-12-01

44

Nanosilver-based antibacterial drugs and devices: mechanisms, methodological drawbacks, and guidelines.  

PubMed

Despite the current advancement in drug discovery and pharmaceutical biotechnology, infection diseases induced by bacteria continue to be one of the greatest health problems worldwide, afflicting millions of people annually. Almost all microorganisms have, in fact, an intrinsic outstanding ability to flout many therapeutic interventions, thanks to their fast and easy-to-occur evolutionary genetic mechanisms. At the same time, big pharmaceutical companies are losing interest in new antibiotics development, shifting their capital investments in much more profitable research and development fields. New smart solutions are, thus, required to overcome such concerns, and should combine the feasibility of industrial production processes with cheapness and effectiveness. In this framework, nanotechnology-based solutions, and in particular silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), have recently emerged as promising candidates in the market as new antibacterial agents. AgNPs display, in fact, enhanced broad-range antibacterial/antiviral properties, and their synthesis procedures are quite cost effective. However, despite their increasing impact on the market, many relevant issues are still open. These include the molecular mechanisms governing the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, the physico-chemical parameters underlying their toxicity to prokaryotes, the lack of standardized methods and materials, and the uncertainty in the definition of general strategies to develop smart antibacterial drugs and devices based on nanosilver. In this review, we analyze the experimental data on the bactericidal effects of AgNPs, discussing the complex scenario and presenting the potential drawbacks and limitations in the techniques and methods employed. Moreover, after analyzing in depth the main mechanisms involved, we provide some general strategies/procedures to perform antibacterial tests of AgNPs, and propose some general guidelines for the design of antibacterial nanosystems and devices based on silver/nanosilver. PMID:24292075

Rizzello, Loris; Pompa, Pier Paolo

2014-03-01

45

Comparative Genomic Assessment of Novel Broad-Spectrum Targets for Antibacterial Drugs  

PubMed Central

Single and multiple resistance to antibacterial drugs currently in use is spreading, since they act against only a very small number of molecular targets; finding novel targets for anti-infectives is therefore of great importance. All protein sequences from three pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 EDL993) were assessed via comparative genomics methods for their suitability as antibacterial targets according to a number of criteria, including the essentiality of the protein, its level of sequence conservation, and its distribution in pathogens, bacteria and eukaryotes (especially humans). Each protein was scored and ranked based on weighted variants of these criteria in order to prioritize proteins as potential novel broad-spectrum targets for antibacterial drugs. A number of proteins proved to score highly in all three species and were robust to variations in the scoring system used. Sensitivity analysis indicated the quantitative contribution of each metric to the overall score. After further analysis of these targets, tRNA methyltransferase (trmD) and translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA) emerged as potential and novel antimicrobial targets very worthy of further investigation. The scoring strategy used might be of value in other areas of post-genomic drug discovery. PMID:18629165

White, Thomas A.

2004-01-01

46

Why is big Pharma getting out of antibacterial drug discovery?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the advent of the antibiotic era in the late 1940s drug discovery and development has evolved into an expensive, time consuming, cumbersome and bureaucratic process involving multiple interest groups such as pharmaceutical manufacturers, governmental regulatory authorities, patent officers, academic and clinical researchers and trial lawyers. It would seem that the least involved among the interest groups are the consumers

Steven J Projan

2003-01-01

47

Antimalarial Quinolones: Synthesis, potency, and mechanistic studies  

PubMed Central

In the present article we examine the antiplasmodial activities of novel quinolone derivatives bearing extended alkyl or alkoxy side chains terminated by a trifluoromethyl group. In the series under investigation, the IC50 values ranged from 1.2 to ? 30 nM against chloroquine-sensitive and multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. Modest to significant cross-resistance was noted in evaluation of these haloalkyl- and haloalkoxy-quinolones for activity against the atovaquone-resistant clinical isolate Tm90-C2B, indicating that a primary target for some of these compounds is the parasite cytochrome bc1 complex. Additional evidence to support this biochemical mechanism includes the use of oxygen biosensor plate technology to show that the quinolone derivatives block oxygen consumption by parasitized red blood cells in a fashion similar to atovaquone in side-by-side experiments. Atovaquone is extremely potent and is the only drug in clinical use that targets the Plasmodium bc1 complex, but rapid emergence of resistance to it in both mono- and combination therapy is evident and therefore additional drugs are needed to target the cytochrome bc1 complex which are active against atovaquone-resistant parasites. Our study of a number of halogenated alkyl and alkoxy 4(1H)-quinolones highlights the potential for development of “endochin-like quinolones” (ELQ) bearing an extended trifluoroalkyl moiety at the 3-position that exhibit selective antiplasmodial effects in the low nanomolar range and inhibitory activity against chloroquine and atovaquone resistant parasites. Further studies of halogenated alkyl and alkoxy quinolones may lead to the development of safe and effective therapeutics for use in treatment or prevention of malaria and other parasitic diseases. PMID:18082162

Winter, Rolf W.; Kelly, Jane X.; Smilkstein, Martin J.; Dodean, Rozalia; Hinrichs, David; Riscoe, Michael K.

2008-01-01

48

Machine-learning techniques applied to antibacterial drug discovery.  

PubMed

The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria threatens to revert humanity back to the preantibiotic era. Even now, multidrug-resistant bacterial infections annually result in millions of hospital days, billions in healthcare costs, and, most importantly, tens of thousands of lives lost. As many pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic development in search of more lucrative therapeutics, academic researchers are uniquely positioned to fill the pipeline. Traditional high-throughput screens and lead-optimization efforts are expensive and labor intensive. Computer-aided drug-discovery techniques, which are cheaper and faster, can accelerate the identification of novel antibiotics, leading to improved hit rates and faster transitions to preclinical and clinical testing. The current review describes two machine-learning techniques, neural networks and decision trees, that have been used to identify experimentally validated antibiotics. We conclude by describing the future directions of this exciting field. PMID:25521642

Durrant, Jacob D; Amaro, Rommie E

2015-01-01

49

Discovery and development of new antibacterial agents targeting Gram-negative bacteria in the era of pandrug resistance: is the future promising?  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria continue to pose a threat, with many infections caused by these pathogens being virtually untreatable. A number of new antibacterial agents are in late stage clinical development to treat these infections. Drugs in known classes such as new quinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and ?-lactams have been designed to evade many of the known resistance mechanisms, whereas newer drug classes include novel ?-lactamase inhibitors in combination with new or approved ?-lactams, and a peptidomimetic that have entered full clinical development. The establishment of public-private partnerships and an increase in pharmaceutical interest in antibacterial R&D are encouraging signs for the future. PMID:25277839

Page, Malcolm G P; Bush, Karen

2014-10-01

50

Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection  

PubMed Central

The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity1-5. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions. Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures1,6,7. We developed a new model1 which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of powerful agents to combat superbug infections. PMID:24192763

Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Watari, Moyu; McKendry, Rachel A.

2013-01-01

51

Peptide deformylase: a new target in antibacterial, antimalarial and anticancer drug discovery.  

PubMed

Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a class of metalloenzyme responsible for catalyzing the removal of the N-formyl group from N-terminal methionine following translation. PDF inhibitors are moving into new phase of drug development. Initially, PDF was considered as an important target in antibacterial drug discovery; however genome database searches have revealed PDF-like sequences in parasites (P. falciparum) and human, widening the utility of this target in antimalarial and anticancer drug discovery along with antibacterial. Using structural and mechanistic information together with high throughput screening, several types of chemical classes of PDF inhibitors with improved efficacy and specificity have been identified. Various drugs like, GSK-1322322 (Phase II), BB-83698 (Phase I), and LBM-415 (Phase I) have entered into clinical developments. Developments in the field have prompted us to review the current aspects of PDFs, especially their structures, different classes of PDF inhibitors, and molecular modeling studies. In nut shell, this review enlightens PDF as a versatile target along with its inhibitors and future perspectives of different PDF inhibitors. PMID:25174923

Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N; Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Shinde, Devanand B

2015-01-01

52

Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.  

PubMed Central

The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

1994-01-01

53

Quinolone-Containing Therapies in the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Fluoroquinolones, especially levofloxacin, are used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori worldwide. Many consensus guidelines recommend that the second-line rescue therapy for H. pylori eradication consists of a proton pump inhibitor, a quinolone, and amoxicillin as an option. Unfortunately, quinolone is well associated with a risk of developing bacterial resistance. In this paper, we review quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens and the challenges that influence the efficacy of eradication. It is generally suggested that the use of levofloxacin should be confined to “rescue” therapy only, in order to avoid a further rapid increase in the resistance of H. pylori to quinolone. The impact of quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens on public health issues such as tuberculosis treatment must always be taken into account. Exposure to quinolone is relevant to delays in diagnosing tuberculosis and the development of drug resistance. Extending the duration of treatment to 14 days improves eradication rates by >90%. Tailored therapy to detect fluoroquinolone-resistant strains can be done by culture-based and molecular methods to provide better eradication rates. Molecular methods are achieved by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of a gyrA mutation, which is predictive of treatment failure with quinolones-containing triple therapy. PMID:25243116

Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liang, Chih-Ming; Hu, Tsung-Hui

2014-01-01

54

The usage of veterinary antibacterial drugs for mastitis in cattle in Norway and Sweden during 1990–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prescribing patterns and annual incidence of use of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of mastitis in cattle in Norway and Sweden during the period 1990–1997 were estimated from drug wholesaler statistics. Although the drugs included in this study are also used in other species and\\/or other indications, mastitis in cattle is by far the most-common indication for their use.

Kari Grave; Christina Greko; Lolita Nilsson; Kristina Odensvik; Tormod Mřrk; Marit Rřnning

1999-01-01

55

Microwave-assisted Heterocyclic Dicarboxylic Acids as Potential Antifungal and Antibacterial Drugs  

PubMed Central

A series of new dicarboxylic acid derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazines, 1,4-benzopiperizines, 1,4-thiazines, 1,3-thiazoles, 1,3-oxazoles and 1,3-imidazoles have been synthesized in 80-87% yield by the environmentally benign microwave induced technique involving the cyclocondensation of 2,3-dibromosuccinic acid with 2-aminothiophenol, o-phenylene diamine, 1,2,4-triazole, amidinothiocarbamide, amidinocarbamide and guanidine hydrochloride. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activity showed that almost all compounds exhibited better results than reference drugs thus they could be promising candidates for novel drugs. PMID:22303064

Dabholkar, V. V.; Parab, S. D.

2011-01-01

56

Honeydew honey as a potent antibacterial agent in eradication of multi-drug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cancer patients.  

PubMed

Multi-drug resistance in nosocomial pathogens is a continually evolving and alarming problem in health care units. Since ancient times, honey has been used successfully for the treatment of a broad spectrum of infections with no risk of resistance development. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of two natural honeys, namely honeydew and manuka, against 20 nosocomial multi-drug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) isolates from cancer patients. An antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the disk diffusion method with 20 antibiotic disks. The antibacterial activity of honey was determined using a broth dilution method. The concentration of honey used in the study was within the range of 3.75% to 25% (w/v). All 20 clinical isolates were multi-drug resistant against 11 to 19 antibiotics. The MICs for honeydew honey ranged from 6.25% to 17.5%, while those for active manuka honey ranged from 7.5% to 22.5%. Honeydew honey had lower MICs than manuka honey against 16 of the tested isolates. This study showed that Slovak honeydew honey has exceptional antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant S. maltophilia isolates and was more efficient than manuka honey (UMF 15+). Honeydew honey with strong antibacterial activity could be used as a potential agent to eradicate multi-drug resistant clinical isolates. PMID:20882522

Majtan, Juraj; Majtanova, Lubica; Bohova, Jana; Majtan, Viktor

2011-04-01

57

Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary. PMID:23569978

Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

2012-01-01

58

Rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Bacillus megaterium (NCIM 2326) and their antibacterial activity on multi drug resistant clinical pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion to fight against multi drug resistant pathogens is a great deal in the field of nanomedicine. The identifiable antimicrobial action of metal bionanoparticles on many microorganisms is reported earlier. As silver bionanoparticles (Ag-BNPs) are known to have efficient antibacterial properties they are synthesized in ecofriendly and biocompatible way. The present study is focused on the extracellular biosynthesis of

M. Saravanan; Anil Kumar Vemu; Sisir Kumar Barik

2011-01-01

59

Taguchi design for optimization and development of antibacterial drug-loaded PLGA nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This research report was to develop Cefixime loaded polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles using modified precipitation method. TEM analysis indicated formation of well-formed, smooth, spherical nanoparticles with no aggregates whereas XRD recommended dispersion of drug in PLGA carrier system in amorphous form. The polymer and stabilizer concentration and organic to aqueous ratio were found to be significant factors for nanoparticles and their optimization using Taguchi design (L9). The design formulations showed entrapment efficiency (EE), particle size and poly-dispersity index (PDI) ranging 68.31 ± 1.74%, 159.8-157.7 nm and 0.126-0.149, respectively indicated small and stable nanoparticles with good homogeneity and encapsulation. The design optimized formulation drug release and permeation studies demonstrated that it is four times sustained release behavior and 1.74 times better permeation than free drug. The result of microbiological assay also suggested that optimized formulation has significant antibacterial activity against intracellular multidrug resistance (MDR) of Salmonella typhi. PMID:24315945

Sonam; Chaudhary, Hema; Kumar, Vikash

2014-03-01

60

Quinolone-Induced Upregulation of Osteopontin Gene Promoter Activity in Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line A549  

PubMed Central

Quinolones, in addition to their antibacterial activities, act as immunomodulators. Osteopontin (OPN), a member of the extracellular matrix proteins, was found to play a role in the immune and inflammatory response. We found that quinolones significantly enhanced OPN secretion, namely, garenoxacin (220%), moxifloxacin (62%), gatifloxacin (82%), sparfloxacin, (79%), and sitafloxacin (60%). Enhancement of OPN secretion was shown to be due to the effect of quinolones on the OPN gene promoter activity. We also examined the role of quinolones on apoptosis and found that sparfloxacin decreased the late apoptosis of A549 cells, but garenoxacin did not show the antiapoptotic effect. The antiapoptotic effects of quinolones do not appear to be associated with OPN elevation. PMID:22430970

Shiratori, Beata; Zhang, Jing; Usami, Osamu; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Nakajima, Chie; Uede, Toshimitsu

2012-01-01

61

1. (a) Why are DNA-targeted drugs largely used as anticancer agents and not as, say, antibacterial or antifungal agents?  

E-print Network

CHEM 4170 Homework 4 1. (a) Why are DNA-targeted drugs largely used as anticancer agents and not as, say, antibacterial or antifungal agents? (b) Provide an explanation for how anticancer drugs can-damaging drugs mentioned in Question 1). (b) However, some medicinal chemists believe that these compounds

Gates, Kent. S.

62

Synthesis, antibacterial activity, and biological evaluation of formyl hydroxyamino derivatives as novel potent peptide deformylase inhibitors against drug-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

Peptide deformylase (PDF) has been identified as a promising target for novel antibacterial agents. In this study, a series of novel formyl hydroxyamino derivatives were designed and synthesized as PDF inhibitors and their antibacterial activities were evaluated. Among the potent PDF inhibitors (1o, 1q, 1o', 1q', and 1x), in vivo studies showed that compound 1q possesses mild toxicity, a good pharmacokinetic profile and protective effects. The good in vivo efficacy and low toxicity suggest that this class of compounds has potential for development and use in future antibacterial drugs. PMID:25151577

Yang, Shouning; Shi, Wei; Xing, Dong; Zhao, Zheng; Lv, Fengping; Yang, Liping; Yang, Yushe; Hu, Wenhao

2014-10-30

63

Studies of the photooxidant properties of antibacterial fluoroquinolones and their naphthalene derivatives.  

PubMed

We synthesized and determined the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as 1O2, *-O2, *OH, H2O2 during the photolysis with UV-A light of three antibacterial quinolones and their naphthyl ester derivatives. Singlet oxygen and ROS dose-dependant generation from norfloxacin (1), enoxacin (2), ciprofloxacin (3) and their respective naphthyl ester derivatives 4-6 were detecting in cell-free systems by the histidine assay and by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL). Both the electronic absorption and emission spectra were quantified and their photostability determined. The antibacterial activity in darkness and under irradiation of compounds 4, 5 and 6 was tested on E. coli and compared with their parent drugs. PMID:19320285

Vargas, F; Zoltan, T; Ramirez, A H; Cordero, T; Chavez, V; Izzo, C; López, V; Cárdenas, Y M; Fernández, A; Hincapie, L; Fuentes, A

2009-02-01

64

Antibacterial activities of Beilschmiedia obscura and six other Cameroonian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid spread of bacteria expressing multi-drug resistance propels the search for new antibacterial agents. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts from Beilschmiedia obscura and six other Cameroonian plants against a panel of twenty nine Gram-negative bacteria including Multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Methods The phytochemical investigations of the extracts were carried out according to the standard methods and the liquid micro-dilution assay was used for all antibacterial assays. Results Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids in all studied extracts. Other chemical classes of secondary metabolites such as anthocyanines, anthraquinones flavonoids, saponins, tannins, sterols and triterpenes were selectively detected in the extracts. The extract from the fruits of Beilschmiedia obscura, Pachypodanthium staudtii leaves and Peperomia fernandopoiana (whole plant) displayed the best spectrum of activity with MIC values ranging from 16 to 1024 ?g/mL against at least 65% and above of the tested bacteria. The extract from Beilschmiedia obscura was the most active with MIC values below 100 ?g/mL against ten of the tested bacteria. This extract also showed MBC values below 1024 ?g/mL against 55.17% of the studied microorganisms. Phenylalanine arginine ?-naphthylamide (PA?N) significantly modulated the activities of extracts from the leaves and fruits of Pachypodanthium staudtii and Beilschmiedia obscura respectively, by increasing their inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae KP55 strain at least four fold. Conclusion The overall results of the present investigation provide information for the possible use of the methanol extracts of the studied plant species, especially B. obscura to fight infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria including MDR phenotypes. PMID:25023038

2014-01-01

65

A Bi-Mix Antibacterial Drug-Delivery System for Regenerative Endodontics. Jadesada Palasuk1  

E-print Network

to characterize mechanical, chemical and antibacterial properties. One-way ANOVA (only for fiber diameter strength was not significantly decreased compared to the control except G3. Average fiber diameters were in the nano-scaled range and significantly lower then the control. SEM imaging indicated a submicron fibrous

Zhou, Yaoqi

66

Molecular modeling and bioinformatical analysis of the antibacterial target enzyme MurA from a drug design perspective.  

PubMed

The enzyme MurA (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase) catalyzes the first cytoplasmatic step in the synthesis of murein precursors. This function is of vital relevance for bacteria, and the enzyme therefore represents an important target protein for the development of novel antibacterial compounds. Several X-ray structures of liganded and un-liganded MurA have been published, which may be used for rational drug design. MurA, however, contains a highly flexible surface loop, which is involved in substrate and inhibitor binding. In the available X-ray structures, the conformation of this surface loop varies, depending on the presence or absence of ligands or substrate and probably also on the crystal packing. The uncertainty of the low-energy, or "resting state" conformation of this surface loop hampers the application of rational drug design to this class of enzymes. We have therefore performed an extensive molecular dynamics study of the enzyme in order to identify one or several low-energy conformers. The results indicate that, at least in some of the X-ray structures, the conformation of the flexible surface loop is influenced by crystallographic contacts. Furthermore, three partially helical foldamers of the surface loop are identified which may resemble the resting states of the enzyme or intermediate states that are "traversed" during the substrate binding process. Another, very important aspect for the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the inter- and intra-species variability of the target structure. We present a comparison of MurA sequences from 163 organisms which were analyzed under the aspects of enzyme mechanism, structure and drug design. The results allow us to identify the most promising binding sites for inhibitor interaction, which are present in MurA enzymes of most species and are expected to be insusceptible to resistance-inducing mutations. PMID:17124631

Klein, Christian D; Bachelier, Anke

2006-01-01

67

Conformational, spectroscopic, and molecular dynamics DFT study of precursors for new potential antibacterial fluoroquinolone drugs.  

PubMed

Biological activity, functionality, and synthesis of (fluoro)quinolones is closely related to their precursors (for instance 3-fluoroanilinoethylene derivatives) (i.e., their functional groups, conformational behavior, and/or electronic structure). Herein, the theoretical study of 3-fluoroanilinoethylene derivatives is presented. Impact of substituents (acetyl, methyl ester, and ethyl ester) on the conformational analysis and the spectral behavior is investigated. The B3LYP/6-311++G** computational protocol is utilized. It is found that the intramolecular hydrogen bond N-H···O is responsible for the energetic preference of anti (a) conformer (anti position of 3-fluoroanilino group with respect to the C?C double bond). The Boltzmann ratios of the conformers are related to the differences of the particular dipole moments and/or their dependence on the solvent polarity. The studied acetyl, ethyl ester, and methyl ester substituted fluoroquinolone precursors prefer in the solvent either EZa, ZZa, or both conformers equally, respectively. In order to understand the degree of freedom of rotation of the trans ethyl ester group, B3LYP/6-311G** molecular dynamic simulations were carried out. Vibrational frequencies, electron transitions, as well as NMR spectra are analyzed with respect to conformational analysis, including the effect of the substituent. X-ray structures of the precursors are presented and compared with the results of the conformational analysis. PMID:25188903

Dorotíková, Sandra; Plevová, Kristína; Bu?inský, Lukáš; Mal?ek, Michal; Herich, Peter; Kucková, Lenka; Bobeni?ová, Miroslava; Šoralová, Stanislava; Kožíšek, Jozef; Fronc, Marek; Milata, Viktor; Dvoranová, Dana

2014-10-01

68

Clinical Importance and Epidemiology of Quinolone Resistance  

PubMed Central

The quinolone class of antimicrobial agents is one of most widely used classes of antimicrobial agents in outpatient and inpatient treatment. However, quinolone resistance in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria has emerged and increased globally. This resistance limits the usefulness of quinolones in clinical practice. The review summarizes mechanisms of quinolone resistance and its epidemiology and implications in the most common clinical settings, urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, intraabdominal infections, skin and skin structure infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:25566402

Kim, Eu Suk

2014-01-01

69

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance  

PubMed Central

Summary Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6?)-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat. PMID:25584197

Jacoby, George A.; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C.

2014-01-01

70

An interpenetrated bioactive nonlinear optical MOF containing a coordinated quinolone-like drug and Zn(ii) for pH-responsive release.  

PubMed

A new interpenetrated bioactive nonlinear optical metal-organic framework [Zn2(ppa)2(1,3-bdc)(H2O)] has been designed and synthesized, which shows both a high drug content of 63.9% and a good slow release effect in simulated physical conditions compared to other non-interpenetrated bioactive MOFs. It also shows a large powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of 5.6 times that of KH2PO4 (particle size: 150-200 ?m). PMID:25473930

Duan, Li-Na; Dang, Qin-Qin; Han, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Xian-Ming

2014-12-23

71

Improved drug loading and antibacterial activity of minocycline-loaded PLGA nanoparticles prepared by solid/oil/water ion pairing method  

PubMed Central

Background Low drug entrapment efficiency of hydrophilic drugs into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles is a major drawback. The objective of this work was to investigate different methods of producing PLGA nanoparticles containing minocycline, a drug suitable for periodontal infections. Methods Different methods, such as single and double solvent evaporation emulsion, ion pairing, and nanoprecipitation were used to prepare both PLGA and PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed for their morphology, particle size and size distribution, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, thermal properties, and antibacterial activity. Results The nanoparticles prepared in this study were spherical, with an average particle size of 85–424 nm. The entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles prepared using different methods was as follows: solid/oil/water ion pairing (29.9%) > oil/oil (5.5%) > water/oil/water (4.7%) > modified oil/water (4.1%) > nano precipitation (0.8%). Addition of dextran sulfate as an ion pairing agent, acting as an ionic spacer between PEGylated PLGA and minocycline, decreased the water solubility of minocycline, hence increasing the drug entrapment efficiency. Entrapment efficiency was also increased when low molecular weight PLGA and high molecular weight dextran sulfate was used. Drug release studies performed in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 indicated slow release of minocycline from 3 days to several weeks. On antibacterial analysis, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles was at least two times lower than that of the free drug. Conclusion Novel minocycline-PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles prepared by the ion pairing method had the best drug loading and entrapment efficiency compared with other prepared nanoparticles. They also showed higher in vitro antibacterial activity than the free drug. PMID:22275837

Kashi, Tahereh Sadat Jafarzadeh; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Marashi, Seyyed Mahmoud Amin; Samadi, Nasrin; Fatemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Eshraghi, Saeed; Dinarvand, Rassoul

2012-01-01

72

21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert...or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of...

2010-04-01

73

21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.  

...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert...or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of...

2014-04-01

74

21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert...or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of...

2013-04-01

75

21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert...or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of...

2011-04-01

76

21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert...or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage...reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of...

2012-04-01

77

Dna Interactions and Promotion in Antibacterial Activities of Ciprofloxacin Drug Due to Formation of Mixed-Ligand Complexes of Oxovanadium(IV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed-ligand complexes of oxovanadium(IV) of the type [VOAL]·2H2O [where A = ciprofloxacin and L = uninegative bidentate ligands] have been synthesized and characterized using infrared spectra, electronic spectra, magnetic measurements, elemental analyses, thermal investigation, and mass spectroscopy. Here, we tried to increase an antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin drug due to formation of mixed-ligand complexes. The complexes were found to be

M. N. Patel; S. H. Patel; M. R. Chhasatia; C. R. Desai

2010-01-01

78

Influence of First-Line Antibiotics on the Antibacterial Activities of Acetone Stem Bark Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. against Drug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates  

PubMed Central

Background. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of A. mearnsii and its interactions with antibiotics against some resistant bacterial strains. Methods. The antibacterial susceptibility testing was determined by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while the checkerboard method was used for the determination of synergy between the antibiotics and the extract. Results. The results showed that the susceptibility of the different bacterial isolates was concentration dependent for the extract and the different antibiotics. With the exception of S. marcescens, the inhibition zones of the extract produced by 20?mg/mL ranged between 18 and 32?mm. While metronidazole did not inhibit any of the bacterial isolates, all the antibiotics and their combinations, except for ciprofloxacin and its combination, did not inhibit Enterococcus faecalis. The antibacterial combinations were more of being antagonistic than of being synergistic in the agar diffusion assay. From the macrobroth dilution, the extract and the antibiotics exerted a varied degree of inhibitory effect on the test organisms. The MIC values of the acetone extract which are in mg/mL are lower than those of the different antibiotics which are in ?g/mL. From the checkerboard assay, the antibacterial combinations showed varied degrees of interactions including synergism, additive, indifference, and antagonism interactions. While antagonistic and additive interactions were 14.44%, indifference interaction was 22.22% and synergistic interaction was 37.78% of the antibacterial combinations against the test isolates. While the additivity/indifference interactions indicated no interactions, the antagonistic interaction may be considered as a negative interaction that could result in toxicity and suboptimal bioactivity. Conclusion. The synergistic effects of the herbal-drug combinations may be harnessed for the discovery and development of more rational evidence-based drug combinations with optimized efficiency in the prevention of multidrug resistance and therapy of multifactorial diseases. PMID:25101132

Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.

2014-01-01

79

Synthesis of novel selenium-containing sulfa drugs and their antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

Synthesis of 3-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,9-dimethylpyrido[3',2':4,5]selenolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines, 7-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-3,4-diphenylpyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo [2,3-c]pyridazines and 1-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-1,11-dihydro-11-oxo-4-methylpyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo[2,3-b]quinolines is reported. 4-Amino-N-pyrimidine-2-ylbenzene sulfonamide (a), 4-amino-N-(2,6-dimetnylpyrimidin-4-yl)benzene sulfonamide (b), N-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl] acetamide (c) with N-ethoxymethyleneamino of selenolo pyridine, selenolo pyridazine and selenolo quinoline derivatives respectively were obtained starting from 1-amino-N-substituted sulfanilamides. Spectroscopic data (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass spectral) confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Substituted pyrimidines, pyridazines and quinolines were screened for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Selenolo derivative of N-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl] acetamide (substitutent of sulfacetamide c) showed strong bactericidal effect against all the tested organisms. Selenolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin (substitutent a) showed a good bactericidal effect against Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compounds Selenolo[2,3-c]pyridazine (substitutent b), Selenolo[2,3-b]quinoline(substitutents c)) exhibited a moderate bactericidal effect against Serratia marcescens. None of the synthesized selenopyridazines has a considerable antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active compound - 3-[4-(N-acetyl sulfamoyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,9-dimethylpyrido[3',2':4,5]selenolo [3,2-d]pyrimidine was 10 mg mL(-1). PMID:20644596

Abdel-Hafez, Sh H

2010-01-01

80

Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from disseminated and localised infections in pre-penicillin era. Auxotypes and antibacterial drug resistances.  

PubMed Central

Interest in the evolution of gonococcal auxotrophy led to a study of 72 strains isolated between 1935 and 1948 from the urogenital tract (57 patients), the eye (two patients), and from disseminated gonococcal infections (11 patients and probably two others). Two cervical isolates with nutritional requirements for proline, arginine, histidine, and biotin were oxidase-positive, Gram-negative diplococci, but their identity as Neisseria gonorrhoeae was uncertain because they were atypically susceptible to colistin and did not produce acid in glucose media. The N gonorrhoeae strains were highly susceptible to 11 other antibacterial drugs but not to sulphadiazine. Defects of one or more pathways for the biosynthesis of methionine, proline, arginine, threonine, lysine, the branched-chain amino acids, hypoxanthine, and thiamine pyrophosphate were found in 39 of the 70 strains, including four isolated in the presulphanilamide era. Unexpectedly, methionine was required for the growth of 11 (21%) of the 52 Danish strains and for 13 (72%) of 18 strains isolated in the USA. The Danish strains included 28 (54%) that did not require any of the compounds used for differentiating auxotypes, whereas this type was represented by only three (17%) of the USA strains. None of the gonococci required uracil or other pyrimidines. This suggests that the requirements for arginine, hypoxanthine, and uracil commonly found in recent isolates from disseminated gonococcal infections probably evolved treatment with sulphonamide was replaced by penicillin. PMID:6805848

Catlin, B W; Reyn, A

1982-01-01

81

Iron transport-mediated drug delivery: practical syntheses and in vitro antibacterial studies of tris-catecholate siderophore-aminopenicillin conjugates reveals selectively potent antipseudomonal activity.  

PubMed

An artificial tris-catecolate siderophore with a tripodal backbone and its conjugates with ampicillin and amoxicillin were synthesized. Both conjugates exhibited significantly enhanced in vitro antibacterial activities against Gram-negative species compared to the parent drugs, especially against Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The conjugates appeared to be assimilated by an induced bacterial iron transport process as their activities were inversely related to iron concentration. The easily synthesized tris-catecolate siderophore has great potential for future development of various drug conjugates to target antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22656303

Ji, Cheng; Miller, Patricia A; Miller, Marvin J

2012-06-20

82

Phytochemicals increase the antibacterial activity of antibiotics by acting on a drug efflux pump.  

PubMed

Drug efflux pumps confer resistance upon bacteria to a wide range of antibiotics from various classes. The expression of efflux pumps are also implicated in virulence and biofilm formation. Moreover, organisms can only acquire resistance in the presence of active drug efflux pumps. Therefore, efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are attractive compounds to reverse multidrug resistance and to prevent the development of resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. We investigated the potential of pure compounds isolated from plants to act as EPIs. In silico screening was used to predict the bioactivity of plant compounds and to compare that with the known EPI, phe-arg-?-naphthylamide (PA?N). Subsequently, promising products have been tested for their ability to inhibit efflux. Plumbagin nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA) and to a lesser degree shikonin, acted as sensitizers of drug-resistant bacteria to currently used antibiotics and were able to inhibit the efflux pump-mediated removal of substrate from cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of in silico screening to identify compounds that potentiate the action of antibiotics against drug-resistant strains and which might be potentially useful lead compounds for an EPI discovery program. PMID:25224951

Ohene-Agyei, Thelma; Mowla, Rumana; Rahman, Taufiq; Venter, Henrietta

2014-12-01

83

Biosurfactins production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens R3 and their antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogenic E. coli.  

PubMed

In this work, the anti-Escherichia coli activity of the bioactive substances produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens R3 was examined. A new and cheap medium for production of the anti-E. coli substances which contained 20.0 g L(-1) soybean powder, 20.0 g L(-1) wheat flour, pH 6.0 was developed. A crude surfactant concentration of 0.48 mg mL(-1) was obtained after 27 h of 10-L fermentation, and the diameter of the clear zone on the plate seeded with the pathogenic E. coli 2# was 23.3 mm. A preliminary characterization suggested that the anti-E. coli substances produced by B. amyloliquefaciens R3 were the biosurfactins (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5) with amino acids (GLLVDLL) and hydroxy fatty acids (of 12-15 carbons in length). It was found that all the strains of the pathogenic E. coli showed resistance to several different antibiotics, suggesting that they were the multi-drug resistance and all the strains of the pathogenic E. coli were sensitive to the biosurfactins, indicating that the biosurfactins produced by B. amyloliquefaciens R3 had a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against the pathogenic E. coli with multi-drug resistant profiles. After the treatment with the purified biosurfactin (F1), the cell membrane of both the whole cells and protoplasts of the E. coli 2# was damaged and the whole cells of the bacterium were broken. PMID:25407729

Chi, Zhe; Rong, Yan-Jun; Li, Yang; Tang, Mei-Juan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

2014-11-19

84

Quinolone antibiotics: a potential adjunct to intravesical chemotherapy for bladder cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Despite complete transurethral resection of superficial bladder tumors, the recurrence rate averages 88% at 15 years. Intravesical chemotherapy decreases the recurrence rate, particularly if given immediately after tumor resection. Anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin target topoisomerase II as do the quinolone antibiotics. We evaluated two fluoroquinolones independently and in combination with doxorubicin for cytotoxic effects against bladder cancer cells

Ashish M Kamat; Jean I DeHaven; Donald L Lamm

1999-01-01

85

Activity of Quinolone CP-115,955 Against Bacterial and Human Type II Topoisomerases Is Mediated by Different Interactions.  

PubMed

CP-115,955 is a quinolone with a 4-hydroxyphenyl at C7 that displays high activity against both bacterial and human type II topoisomerases. To determine the basis for quinolone cross-reactivity between bacterial and human enzymes, the activity of CP-115,955 and a series of related quinolones and quinazolinediones against Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV and human topoisomerase II? was analyzed. Results indicate that the activity of CP-115,955 against the bacterial and human enzymes is mediated by different interactions. On the basis of the decreased activity of quinazolinediones against wild-type and resistant mutant topoisomerase IV and the low activity of quinolones against resistant mutant enzymes, it appears that the primary interaction of CP-115,955 with the bacterial system is mediated through the C3/C4 keto acid and the water-metal ion bridge. In contrast, the drug interacts with the human enzyme primarily through the C7 4-hydroxyphenyl ring and has no requirement for a substituent at C8 in order to attain high activity. Despite the fact that the human type II enzyme is unable to utilize the water-metal ion bridge, quinolones in the CP-115,955 series display higher activity against topoisomerase II? in vitro and in cultured human cells than the corresponding quinazolinediones. Thus, quinolones may be a viable platform for the development of novel drugs with anticancer potential. PMID:25586498

Aldred, Katie J; Schwanz, Heidi A; Li, Gangqin; Williamson, Benjamin H; McPherson, Sylvia A; Turnbough, Charles L; Kerns, Robert J; Osheroff, Neil

2015-02-10

86

Distribution of Quinolones, Sulfonamides, Tetracyclines in Aquatic Environment and Antibiotic Resistance in Indochina  

PubMed Central

Southeast Asia has become the center of rapid industrial development and economic growth. However, this growth has far outpaced investment in public infrastructure, leading to the unregulated release of many pollutants, including wastewater-related contaminants such as antibiotics. Antibiotics are of major concern because they can easily be released into the environment from numerous sources, and can subsequently induce development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recent studies have shown that for some categories of drugs this source-to-environment antibiotic resistance relationship is more complex. This review summarizes current understanding regarding the presence of quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in aquatic environments of Indochina and the prevalence of bacteria resistant to them. Several noteworthy findings are discussed: (1) quinolone contamination and the occurrence of quinolone resistance are not correlated; (2) occurrence of the sul sulfonamide resistance gene varies geographically; and (3) microbial diversity might be related to the rate of oxytetracycline resistance. PMID:22363337

Suzuki, Satoru; Hoa, Phan Thi Phuong

2012-01-01

87

Economic Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Compared with Usual Antibacterial Care for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis in Patients Followed for 1 Year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To undertake a 1-year prospective economic evaluation of ciprofloxacin compared with usual antibacterial care (any antibacterial other than a quinolone) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) in adults presenting with a type I or type II AECB. Design: Patients entered the study with an initial AECB and were randomised to the ciprofloxacin group or the

George Torrance; Valery Walker; Ronald Grossman; Jayanti Mukherjee; David Vaughan; Jacques La Forge; Noel Lampron

1999-01-01

88

Study on the interaction between antibacterial drug and bovine serum albumin: A spectroscopic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binding of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectroscopic methods viz., fluorescence, FT-IR and UV-vis absorption techniques. The binding parameters have been evaluated by fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters, ? H°, ? S°and ? G° were observed to be -58.0 kJ mol -1, -111 J K -1 mol -1 and -24 kJ mol -1, respectively. These indicated that the hydrogen bonding and weak van der Waals forces played a major role in the interaction. Based on the Forster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding average distance, r, between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (SMZ) was evaluated and found to be 4.12 nm. Spectral results showed the binding of SMZ to BSA induced conformational changes in BSA. The effect of common ions and some of the polymers used in drug delivery for control release was also tested on the binding of SMZ to BSA. The effect of common ions revealed that there is adverse effect on the binding of SMZ to BSA.

Naik, P. N.; Chimatadar, S. A.; Nandibewoor, S. T.

2009-09-01

89

Quinolone levels in serum and maxillofacial tissues under ibuprofen co-administration following surgical trauma.  

PubMed

Administration of antibiotics is considered to be an important factor, during or after operational procedures in the maxillofacial area, in order to avoid post-surgical complications. Furthermore, administration of anti-inflammatory drugs is often prescribed for control of the post-operative pain. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of quinolones in serum and tissues (parotid gland, tongue, mandible), during traumatic injury in the oral cavity, with or without co-administration of ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Four groups of Wistar rats, (A, B control), (C, D experimental) were used. In the experimental group, traumatic injury was performed through the whole length of the cheek. Groups B and D received ibuprofen. The quinolone levels in serum and tissues were estimated by the inhibition zone of B. subtilis. Free fatty acid (FFA) levels and the adrenal weight, considered as a stress index, were increased in trauma groups. Quinolone concentrations in serum and in most of the tissues were significantly higher in the experimental groups compared to the controls. However, the co-administration of ibuprofen caused a higher increase of the quinolone levels in the control animals than in the experimental groups. PMID:15758358

Trachilis, A; Saranteas, T; Potamianou, A; Mourouzis, C; Tesseromatis, C

2003-06-01

90

Use of quinolones in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial enteropathogens are responsible for between 40 % and 80 % of diarrheal illness depending upon the age of the persons affected and geographic area where illness occurs. Antibacterial agents will shorten the illness associated with enteric infection caused by enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli, Shigella spp. andCampylobacter jejuni. These drugs also are effective in the therapy of certain clinical conditions (presumably because

H. L. DuPont

1991-01-01

91

The safety of quinolones in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are highly efficient antibiotics. However, concerns regarding possible harmful effects have limited their use during pregnancy. Nevertheless, accumulating clinical data suggest that they may be safe during pregnancy. This review aimed to explore the mechanisms of action of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, which set the stage for concerns regarding possible teratogenic and mutagenic effects; to clarify the clinical dilemmas that brought forth the necessity in reevaluating the use of those medications during pregnancy; and to review the accumulated data regarding their safety during pregnancy in animal models and humans. PMID:25409160

Yefet, Enav; Salim, Raed; Chazan, Bibiana; Akel, Hiba; Romano, Shabtai; Nachum, Zohar

2014-11-01

92

Antibacterial Sludge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, it's hard to find dishwashing liquids or hand soaps that don't advertise their "antibacterial" chemicals. But while it's unclear whether these chemicals actually help us, there's new reason to believe they might do more harm than good. This Science Update examines the common antibacterial agent, Triclocarban or TCC, which is found in hand soaps and other household products.

Science Update;

2004-10-04

93

Evaluation of a topical herbal drug for its in-vivo immunomodulatory effect on cytokines production and antibacterial activity in bovine subclinical mastitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Antibiotics have been in use in the treatment of bovine mastitis since decades; however, their use is associated with cost issues and human health concern. Use of herbal drugs does not generally carry these disadvantages. Many plants/herbs have been evaluated in the treatment of bovine mastitis with additional property of immunomodulation in affected mammary gland. Aim: To evaluate a topical herbal drug in two breeds of cattle for its in-vivo immunomodulatory effect on cytokines production and antibacterial activity in bovine subclinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial load, and studying the expression of different cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?). Results: The pre- and post-treatment SCC in mastitic quarters statistically did not differ significantly, however, total bacterial load declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Highly significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all the cytokines on day 0, 5, and 21 postlast treatment in both the breeds. The expression level of all the cytokines showed a significant increase on day 5, while a decrease was noticed on day 21 in both the breeds of cattle. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle revealed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-?. However, other cytokines exhibited a similar pattern of expression in both breeds, which was non-significant. Conclusion: The topical herbal drug exhibited antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities in subclinical mastitis and thus the work supports its use as alternative herbal therapy against subclinical udder infection in bovines.

Bhatt, Vaibhav D.; Shah, Tejas M.; Nauriyal, Dev S.; Kunjadia, Anju P.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

2014-01-01

94

Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections has increased markedly in many parts of the world in the last decade as has the number of quinolone-resistant and, to a lesser extent, macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains causing infections. We review macrolide and quinolone resistance in Campylobacter and track resistance trends in human clinical isolates in relation to use of these agents in food animals. Susceptibility data suggest that erythromycin and other macrolides should remain the drugs of choice in most regions, with systematic surveillance and control measures maintained, but fluoroquinolones may now be of limited use in the empiric treatment of Campylobacter infections in many regions. PMID:11266291

Engberg, J.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Taylor, D. E.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Nachamkin, I.

2001-01-01

95

Detection of quinolones in poultry meat obtained from retail centers in Santiago Province, the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 ?g/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bisonó, Puńal, Villa González, Licey, Jánico, and San José De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers. PMID:23433388

Silfrany, R O; Caba, R E; Solís de Los Santos, F; Hanning, I

2013-02-01

96

Cross-resistance to meropenem, cephems, and quinolones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

Multiple-drug-resistant mutants were isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on agar plates containing ofloxacin and cefsulodin. These mutants were four to eight times more resistant to meropenem, cephems, carbenicillin, quinolones, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol than the parent strain was. In contrast, these mutants showed no significant changes in their susceptibilities to all carbapenems except meropenem. In these mutants, the amounts of an outer membrane protein with an apparent molecular weight of 49,000 (designated OprM) were increased compared with the amount in PAO1. Multiple-drug-resistant mutants of this type were also isolated from PAO1 on agar plates containing meropenem. Approximately 5% of clinical isolates showed cross-resistance to meropenem, cephems, and quinolones, concomitant with overproduction of OprM. Moreover, these two phenotypes, i.e., multiple-drug resistance and overproduction of OprM, were cotransferable by transduction. These data suggest that overproduction of OprM is associated with cross-resistance to meropenem, cephems, and quinolones in P. aeruginosa. The ofloxacin-cefsulodin-resistant mutant required higher concentrations of meropenem to induce beta-lactamase than PAO1 did, indicating the possibility that this mutation involves decreased outer membrane permeability to meropenem. Images PMID:1416876

Masuda, N; Ohya, S

1992-01-01

97

Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some Novel Flouroquinolone Derivatives as Potent Antibacterial Agent  

PubMed Central

Objective. Quinolone moiety is an important class of nitrogen containing heterocycles widely used as key building blocks for medicinal agents. It exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacophores and has bactericidal, antiviral, antimalarial, and anticancer activities. In view of the reported antimicrobial activity of various fluoroquinolones, the importance of the C-7 substituents is that they exhibit potent antimicrobial activities. Our objective was to synthesize newer quinolone analogues with increasing bulk at C-7 position of the main 6-fluoroquinolone scaffold to produce the target compounds which have potent antimicrobial activity. Methods. A novel series of 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-{4-[2-(4-substituted phenyl)-2-(substituted)-ethyl]-1-piperazinyl}-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized. To understand the interaction of binding sites with bacterial protein receptor, the docking study was performed using topoisomerase II DNA gyrase enzymes (PDB ID: 2XCT) by Schrodinger's Maestro program. In vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds was studied and the MIC value was calculated by the broth dilution method. Results. Among all the synthesized compounds, some compounds showed potent antimicrobial activity. The compound 8g exhibited good antibacterial activity. Conclusion. This investigation identified the potent antibacterial agents against certain infections. PMID:25574496

Patel, Mehul M.; Patel, Laxman J.

2014-01-01

98

Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. Results The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64??g/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-?- Naphtylamide (PA?N), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25?% of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY). Conclusion The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria. PMID:22709668

2012-01-01

99

Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter infections: risk factors and clinical consequences.  

PubMed

We integrated data on quinolone and macrolide susceptibility patterns with epidemiologic and typing data from Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections in two Danish counties. The mean duration of illness was longer for 86 patients with quinolone-resistant C. jejuni infections (median 13.2 days) than for 381 patients with quinolone-sensitive C. jejuni infections (median 10.3 days, p = 0.001). Foreign travel, eating fresh poultry other than chicken and turkey, and swimming were associated with increased risk for quinolone-resistant C. jejuni infection. Eating fresh chicken (of presumably Danish origin) was associated with a decreased risk. Typing data showed an association between strains from retail food products and broiler chickens and quinolone-sensitive domestically acquired C. jejuni infections. An association between treatment with a fluoroquinolone before stool-specimen collection and having a quinolone-resistant C. jejuni infection was not observed. PMID:15207057

Engberg, Jřrgen; Neimann, Jakob; Nielsen, Eva Mřller; Aerestrup, Frank Mřller; Fussing, Vivian

2004-06-01

100

Morphology, drug release, antibacterial, cell proliferation, and histology studies of chamomile-loaded wound dressing mats based on electrospun nanofibrous poly(?-caprolactone)/polystyrene blends.  

PubMed

For the first time, it has been tried to achieve optimum conditions for electrospun poly(?-caprolactone)/polystyrene (PCL/PS) nanofibrous samples as active wound dressings containing chamomile via D-optimal design approach. In this work, systematic in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out by drug release rate, antibacterial and antifungal evaluations, cell culture, and rat wound model along with histology observation. The optimized samples were prepared under the following electrospinning conditions: PCL/PS ratio (65/35), PCL concentration 9%(w/v), PS concentration 14%(w/v), distance between the syringe needle tip and the collector 15.5 cm, applied voltage 18 kV, and solution flow rate 0.46 mL h(-1) . The FE-SEM micrographs showed electrospun PCL/PS (65/35) nanofibrous sample containing 15% chamomile had a minimum average diameter (?175 nm) compared to the neat samples (?268 nm). The drug released resulted in a gradual and high amount of chamomile from the optimized PCL/PS nanofibrous sample (?70%) in respect to PCL and PS nanofibers after 48 h. This claim was also confirmed by antibacterial and antifungal evaluations in which an inhibitory zone with a diameter of about 7.6 mm was formed. The rat wound model results also indicated that the samples loaded with 15% chamomile extract were remarkably capable to heal the wounds up to 99?±?0.5% after 14 days post-treatment periods. The adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells and their viability on the optimized samples were confirmed by MTT analysis. Also, the electrospun nanofibrous mats based on PCL/PS (65/35) showed a high efficiency in the wound closure and healing process compared to the reference sample, PCL/PS nanofibers without chamomile. Finally, the histology analysis revealed that the formation of epithelial tissues, the lack of necrosis and collagen fibers accumulation in the dermis tissues for the above optimized samples. PMID:24259351

Motealleh, Behrooz; Zahedi, Payam; Rezaeian, Iraj; Moghimi, Morvarid; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Zarandi, Mohammad Amin

2014-07-01

101

Phase composition control of calcium phosphate nanoparticles for tunable drug delivery kinetics and treatment of osteomyelitis. II. Antibacterial and osteoblastic response.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis has been traditionally treated by the combination of long-term antibiotic therapies and surgical removal of diseased tissue. The multifunctional material was developed in this study with the aim to improve this therapeutic approach by: (a) enabling locally delivered and sustained release of antibiotics at a tunable rate, so as to eliminate the need for repetitive administration of systemically distributed antibiotics; and (b) controllably dissolving itself, so as to promote natural remineralization of the portion of bone lost to disease. We report hereby on the effect of previously synthesized calcium phosphates (CAPs) with tunable solubilities and drug release timescales on bacterial and osteoblastic cell cultures. All CAP powders exhibited satisfying antibacterial performance against Staphylococcus aureus, the main causative agent of osteomyelitis. Still, owing to its highest drug adsorption efficiency, the most bacteriostatically effective phase was amorphous CAP with the minimal inhibitory concentration of less than 1 mg/mL. At the same time, the positive cell response and osteogenic effect of the antibiotic-loaded CAP particles was confirmed in vitro for all the sparsely soluble CAP phases. Adsorption of the antibiotic onto CAP particles reversed the deleterious effect that the pure antibiotic exerted on the osteogenic activity of the osteoblastic cells. The simultaneous osteogenic and antimicrobial performance of the material developed in this study, altogether with its ability to exhibit sustained drug release, may favor its consideration as a material base for alternative therapeutic approaches to prolonged antibiotic administration and surgical debridement typically prescribed in the treatment of osteomyelitis. PMID:23115128

Uskokovi?, Vuk; Desai, Tejal A

2013-05-01

102

[In vitro combined effects of double antibacterial drugs against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates: comparison among combinations of colistin, arbekacin, aztreonam, rifampicin and piperacillin].  

PubMed

This in vitro study examined the combined effects of double antibacterial drugs against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP). The tested clinical isolates from Hiroshima University Hospital were 40 strains which met the criteria for MDRP, that is, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was > or = 16 microg/mL of meropenem, > or = 4 microg/mL of ciprofloxacin and > or = 32 microg/mL of amikacin. Using the original checkerboard plates for colistin (CL), arbekacin (ABK), aztreonam (AZT), rifampicin (RFP) and piperacillin (PIPC), MIC values were determined for single and double combinations. Based on the MIC values, fractional inhibitory concentration index values were calculated and the combined effects (synergy action or additive action) were evaluated. The three strongest drugs among the tested combinations were i) CL + RFP (synergy, 80.0%; additive, 17.5%), ii) RFP + ABK (synergy, 7.5%; additive, 70.0%) and iii) RFP + AZT (synergy, 5.0%; additive, 77.5%). In these cases, the arithmetic mean MIC value of each drug significantly decreased as follows: i) 1.38 microg/mL (alone) and 0.26 microg/mL (with RFP) for CL, 19.85 microg/mL (alone) and 1.85 microg/mL (with CL) for RFP; ii) 19.85 microg/mL (alone) and 7.53 microg/mL (with ABK) for RFP, 8.87 microg/mL (alone) and 2.79 microg/mL (with RFP) for ABK; iii) 19.85 microg/mL (alone) and 10.15 microg/mL (with AZT) for RFP, 28.3 microg/ mL (alone) and 6.65 microg/mL (with RFP) for AZT. Of 40 strains, metallo-beta-lactamase and aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase were found in 20 and 37 strains, respectively; however, no significant influence of these factors was observed on the combined effects of i), ii) and iii). The results of this study provide an in vitro rationale for RFP plus CL, ABK or AZT as an effective combination therapy for MDRP infections, although the results should be verified and compared with other antibacterial drugs in further studies. PMID:25163250

Nagaoka, Rie; Ikawa, Kazuro; Onodera, Makoto; Koba, Yumiko; Hara, Toshinori; Joichi, Yumiko; Yokozaki, Michiya; Ohge, Hiroki; Morikawa, Norifumi

2014-06-01

103

[In vitro antibacterial activities of telithromycin against clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae].  

PubMed

In vitro antibacterial activity of telithromycin (TEL) against the isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (212 isolates) derived from urine or genital secretion in 2002 (April to December) was examined in comparison with those of macrolides (erythromycin [EM], clarithromycin [CAM]), penicillins (penicillin G [PCG]), cephems (cefodizime [CDZM], cefixime [CFIX]), quinolones (levofloxacin [LVFX]), tetracyclines (minocycline [MINO]), and aminoglycosides (spectinomycin [SPCM]). The MIC of TEL was ranged from < or = 0.039 to 0.25 microg/mL and the MIC50 and MIC90 of TEL were respectively 0.125 and 0.25 microg/mL, which were the lowest values compared with those of other oral antibacterial agents measured. When compared TEL with other agents in the order of the MIC50 and MIC90, TEL was more superior to EM and CAM (both eight times), MINO (four times and twice), and LVFX (16 and 64 times). The MIC90 of TEL was superior in twice though the MIC50 was the same in comparison with CFIX. The CDZM resistant strain did not exist and SPCM also inhibit growth with 32 microg/mL or less that was the breakpoint MIC excluding one stock though the PCG sensitive strain was only 1.4% in the injection drug. However, clinical breakpoint MIC is not established, but the efficacy of TEL is prospective because of its high antibacterial activity to inhibit growth of all stocks for gonococcus with 0.25 microg/mL. It is expected that TEL can become an oral antibiotic recommended for treatment of gonococcus if dosage and administration are considered. PMID:16161757

Muratani, Tetsuro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Arai, Susumu

2005-06-01

104

Pharmacoeconomics of antibacterial treatment.  

PubMed

Antibacterial drugs account for between 3 and 25% of all prescriptions, between 6 and 21% of the total market value of drugs in a single country, and up to 50% of the drug budget in hospitals. Bacterial infection is widely perceived as disease caused by harmful outside agents which can be isolated and tested to select the best drug for treatment. In fact, the need for any treatment and the pros and cons of different drugs are just as debatable as in any other therapeutic area. Moreover, the bacteria which make up the normal flora of the body fulfil important roles, so that the ecological implications of treatment for the individual and for society should be considered in assessing the costs and consequences of antibacterial treatment. In this review we outline the most important issues relating to the treatment of bacterial infection in the community and in the hospital, contrasting information from developed and developing countries where appropriate. We review the existing literature on economic evaluation, but in general most of the literature deals with containing the costs of antibacterial drugs in hospitals, and there are many gaps in the literature on cost-effectiveness of treatment. Consequently there are still extreme variations in medical practice which present a challenge for future evaluation. As the outcomes of antibacterial treatment are apparent in a few weeks or months, this is an ideal field for testing pharmacoeconomic methodology. The desire to overcome medical practice variation through consensus statements should be avoided. Instead we recommend wider application of decision analysis to acknowledge that choices exist for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infection and to gather information about the implications of these choices. Much of the existing literature would be improved by a more explicit definition of costs. Direct costs to the health services should be distinguished from non medical costs. Moreover, the analysis should consider whether savings from one budget result in costs to another health service budget, or to the patient (transfer costs). These deficiencies in cost analysis will be relatively easy to correct. Of more concern is the fact that the efficacy of much antibacterial treatment is either totally debatable, or variable, depending on factors such as the type of patient treated or the quality of delivery of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10147022

Davey, P G; Malek, M M; Parker, S E

1992-06-01

105

Anti-inflammatory drugs interacting with Zn (II) metal ion based on thiocyanate and azide ligands: synthesis, spectroscopic studies, DFT calculations and antibacterial assays.  

PubMed

Zinc (II) complexes with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) naproxen (nap) and ibuprofen (ibu) were synthesized in the presence of nitrogen donor ligands (thiocyanate or azide). The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopes. The binding modes of the ligands in complexes were established by means of molecular modeling of the complexes, and calculation of their IR, NMR and absorption spectra at DFT (TDDFT)/B3LYP level were studied. The experimental and calculated data verified monodentate binding through the carboxylic oxygen atoms of anti-inflammatory drugs in the zinc complexes. The calculated (1)H, FT-IR and UV-Vis data are in better agreement with the experimental results, and confirm the predicted tetrahedral structures for the Zn (II) complexes. In addition to DFT calculations of complexes, natural bond orbital (NBO) was performed at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Biological studies showed the antibacterial activity of zinc complexes against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. PMID:24667423

Chiniforoshan, Hossein; Tabrizi, Leila; Hadizade, Morteza; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi; Rezapour, Mehdi

2014-07-15

106

Review article Epidemiology of resistance to quinolones in Salmonella  

E-print Network

Review article Epidemiology of resistance to quinolones in Salmonella Flemming BAGERa, Reiner, including Salmonella, started to emerge. Resistance to quinolones depends on chromosomal mutations. In view of the key role of this group of antimicrobials in human medicine and the position of Salmonella

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Review article Mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Salmonella  

E-print Network

Review article Mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Salmonella Axel CLOECKAERT*, Elisabeth CHASLUS-negative bacteria, mechanisms of resistance to quinolones in Salmonella include target gene mutations, active efflux resistance mechanisms in Salmonella by comparison with that of E. coli and future directions of research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Conversion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal (PQS) and Related Alkylhydroxyquinolines by Rhodococcus sp. strain BG43.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain, which based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA, gyrB, catA and qsdA genes was identified as a Rhodococcus sp. closely related to R. erythropolis, was isolated from soil by enrichment on PQS (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone), a quorum sensing signal employed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolate, termed Rhodococcus sp. BG43, cometabolically degraded PQS as well as its biosynthetic precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone (HHQ) to anthranilic acid. HHQ degradation was accompanied by transient formation of PQS, and HHQ hydroxylation by cell extracts required NADH, indicating that strain BG43 has a HHQ monooxygenase isofunctional to the biosynthetic enzyme PqsH of P. aeruginosa. The enzymes catalyzing HHQ hydroxylation and PQS degradation were inducible by PQS, suggesting a specific pathway. Remarkably, Rhodococcus sp. BG43 is also capable of transforming 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide to PQS. It thus converts an antibacterial secondary metabolite of P. aeruginosa to a quorum sensing signal molecule. PMID:25239889

Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Niewerth, Heiko; Fetzner, Susanne

2014-09-19

109

77 FR 49450 - Issues in the Design of Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Drugs for the Treatment of Non-Cystic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...will be held at the Sheraton Silver Spring Hotel, 8777 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910. The hotel's phone number is...Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 22, rm. 6204, Silver Spring, MD 20993-...

2012-08-16

110

Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%?83.3% and 79.4%?81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

111

Challenges of Antibacterial Discovery  

PubMed Central

Summary: The discovery of novel small-molecule antibacterial drugs has been stalled for many years. The purpose of this review is to underscore and illustrate those scientific problems unique to the discovery and optimization of novel antibacterial agents that have adversely affected the output of the effort. The major challenges fall into two areas: (i) proper target selection, particularly the necessity of pursuing molecular targets that are not prone to rapid resistance development, and (ii) improvement of chemical libraries to overcome limitations of diversity, especially that which is necessary to overcome barriers to bacterial entry and proclivity to be effluxed, especially in Gram-negative organisms. Failure to address these problems has led to a great deal of misdirected effort. PMID:21233508

Silver, Lynn L.

2011-01-01

112

Orally bioavailable 6-chloro-7-methoxy-4(1H)-quinolones efficacious against multiple stages of Plasmodium.  

PubMed

The continued proliferation of malaria throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world has promoted a push for more efficacious treatments to combat the disease. Unfortunately, more recent remedies such as artemisinin combination therapies have been rendered less effective due to developing parasite resistance, and new drugs are required that target the parasite in the liver to support the disease elimination efforts. Research was initiated to revisit antimalarials developed in the 1940s and 1960s that were deemed unsuitable for use as therapeutic agents as a result of poor understanding of both physicochemical properties and parasitology. Structure-activity and structure-property relationship studies were conducted to generate a set of compounds with the general 6-chloro-7-methoxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-quinolone scaffold which were substituted at the 3-position with a variety of phenyl moieties possessing various properties. Extensive physicochemical evaluation of the quinolone series was carried out to downselect the most promising 4(1H)-quinolones, 7, 62, 66, and 67, which possessed low-nanomolar EC50 values against W2 and TM90-C2B as well as improved microsomal stability. Additionally, in vivo Thompson test results using Plasmodium berghei in mice showed that these 4(1H)-quinolones were efficacious for the reduction of parasitemia at >99% after 6 days. PMID:25148516

Cross, R Matthew; Flanigan, David L; Monastyrskyi, Andrii; LaCrue, Alexis N; Sáenz, Fabián E; Maignan, Jordany R; Mutka, Tina S; White, Karen L; Shackleford, David M; Bathurst, Ian; Fronczek, Frank R; Wojtas, Lukasz; Guida, Wayne C; Charman, Susan A; Burrows, Jeremy N; Kyle, Dennis E; Manetsch, Roman

2014-11-13

113

Febrile Urinary Tract Infection After Prostate Biopsy and Quinolone Resistance  

PubMed Central

Purpose Complications after prostate biopsy have increased and various causes have been reported. Growing evidence of increasing quinolone resistance is of particular concern. In the current retrospective study, we evaluated the incidence of infectious complications after prostate biopsy and identified the risk factors. Materials and Methods The study population included 1,195 patients who underwent a prostate biopsy between January 2007 and December 2012 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Cases of febrile UTI that occurred within 7 days were investigated. Clinical information included age, prostate-specific antigen, prostate volume, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, and biopsy done in the quinolone-resistance era. Patients received quinolone (250 mg intravenously) before and after the procedure, and quinolone (250 mg) was orally administered twice daily for 3 days. We used univariate and multivariate analysis to investigate the predictive factors for febrile UTI. Results Febrile UTI developed in 39 cases (3.1%). Core numbers increased from 2007 (8 cores) to 2012 (12 cores) and quinolone-resistant bacteria began to appear in 2010 (quinolone-resistance era). In the univariate analysis, core number?12 (p=0.024), body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2 (p=0.004), and biopsy done in the quinolone-resistance era (p=0.014) were significant factors. However, in the multivariate analysis adjusted for core number, the results were not significant, with the exception of BMI>25 kg/m2 (p=0.011) and biopsy during the quinolone-resistance era (p=0.035), which were significantly associated with febrile UTI. Conclusions Quinolone resistance is the main cause of postbiopsy infections in our center. We suggest that further evaluation is required to validate similar trends. Novel strategies to find alternative prophylactic agents are also necessary. PMID:25324949

Choi, Joong Won; Chang, In Ho; Kim, Kyung Do; Moon, Young Tae; Myung, Soon Chul; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Min Su; Kwon, Jong Kyou

2014-01-01

114

Antibacterial Activity of Novel Cationic Peptides against Clinical Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Infected Dogs.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (?-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 µM and MIC90 of 2 µM. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 "D isoform" demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 µM and MIC90 of 8 µM. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 µM and MIC90 of 16 µM. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and ciprofloxacin increased 32 and 8 fold, respectively; under similar conditions. Taken together, these results support designing of peptide-based therapeutics for combating MRSP infections, particularly for topical application. PMID:25551573

Mohamed, Mohamed F; Hammac, G Kenitra; Guptill, Lynn; Seleem, Mohamed N

2014-01-01

115

Antibacterial Activity of Novel Cationic Peptides against Clinical Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Infected Dogs  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (?-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 µM and MIC90 of 2 µM. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 “D isoform” demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 µM and MIC90 of 8 µM. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 µM and MIC90 of 16 µM. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and ciprofloxacin increased 32 and 8 fold, respectively; under similar conditions. Taken together, these results support designing of peptide-based therapeutics for combating MRSP infections, particularly for topical application. PMID:25551573

Mohamed, Mohamed F.; Hammac, G. Kenitra; Guptill, Lynn; Seleem, Mohamed N.

2014-01-01

116

Electrochemical evaluation of antibacterial drugs as environment-friendly inhibitors for corrosion of carbon steel in HCl solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin drugs on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel (ASTM 1015) in 1.0 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these drugs was also studied. Some thermodynamic parameters were computed from the effect of temperature on corrosion and inhibition processes. Adsorption of these inhibitors was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. There was a case of mixed mode of adsorption here but while penicillin was adsorbed mainly through chemisorption, two other drugs were adsorbed mainly through physisorption. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed type. In addition, this paper suggests that the electrochemical noise (EN) technique under open circuit conditions as the truly noninvasive electrochemical method can be employed for the quantitative evaluation of corrosion inhibition. This was done by using the standard deviation of partial signal (SDPS) for calculation of the amount of noise charges at the particular interval of frequency, thereby obtaining the inhibition efficiency (IE) of an inhibitor. These IE values showed a reasonable agreement with those obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements.

Golestani, Gh.; Shahidi, M.; Ghazanfari, D.

2014-07-01

117

Quinolone resistance mediated by norA: physiologic characterization and relationship to flqB, a quinolone resistance locus on the Staphylococcus aureus chromosome.  

PubMed

We identified a quinolone resistance locus, flqB, linked to transposon insertion omega 1108 and fus on the SmaI D fragment of the Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 chromosome, the same fragment that contains the norA gene. S. aureus norA cloned from flqB and flqB+ strains in Escherichia coli differed only in a single nucleotide in the putative promoter region. There was no detectable change in the number of copies of norA on the chromosomes of flqB strains, but they had increased levels of norA transcripts. Cloned norA produced resistance to norfloxacin and other hydrophilic quinolones and reduced norfloxacin accumulation in intact cells that was energy dependent, suggesting active drug efflux as the mechanism of resistance. Drug efflux was studied by measurement of norfloxacin uptake into everted inner membrane vesicles prepared from norA-containing E. coli cells. Vesicles exhibited norfloxacin uptake after the addition of lactate or NADH, and this uptake was abolished by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and nigericin but not valinomycin, indicating that it was linked to the pH gradient across the cell membrane. Norfloxacin uptake into vesicles was also saturable, with an apparent Km of 6 microM, a concentration between those that inhibit the growth of flqB and flqB+ S. aureus cells, indicating that drug uptake is mediated by a carrier with a high apparent affinity for norfloxacin. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin competitively inhibited norfloxacin uptake into vesicles. Reserpine, which inhibits the multidrug efflux mediated by the bmr gene of bacillus subtilis, which is similar to norA, abolished norfloxacin uptake into vesicles as well as the norfloxacin resistance of an flqB mutant, suggesting a potential means for circumventing quinolone resistance as a result of drug efflux in S. aureus. These findings indicate that the chromosomal flqB resistance locus is associated with increased levels of expression of norA and strongly suggest that the NorA protein itself functions as a drug transporter that is coupled to the proton gradient across the cell membrane. PMID:8092836

Ng, E Y; Trucksis, M; Hooper, D C

1994-06-01

118

New poly(ester urea) derived from l-leucine: Electrospun scaffolds loaded with antibacterial drugs and enzymes.  

PubMed

Electrospun scaffolds from an amino acid containing poly(ester urea) (PEU) were developed as promising materials in the biomedical field and specifically in tissue engineering applications. The selected poly(ester urea) was obtained with a high yield and molecular weight by reaction of phosgene with a bis(?-aminoacyl)-?,?-diol-diester monomer. The polymer having l-leucine, 1,6-hexanediol and carbonic acid units had a semicrystalline character and relatively high glass transition and melting temperatures. Furthermore it was highly soluble in most organic solvents, an interesting feature that facilitated the electrospinning process and the effective incorporation of drugs with bactericidal activity (e.g. biguanide derivatives such as clorhexidine and polyhexamethylenebiguanide) and enzymes (e.g. ?-chymotrypsin) that accelerated the degradation process. Continuous micro/nanofibers were obtained under a wide range of processing conditions, being diameters of electrospun fibers dependent on the drug and solvent used. Poly(ester urea) samples were degradable in media containing lipases and proteinases but the degradation rate was highly dependent on the surface area, being specifically greater for scaffolds with respect to films. The high hydrophobicity of new scaffolds had repercussions on enzymatic degradability since different weight loss rates were found depending on how samples were exposed to the medium (e.g. forced or non-forced immersion). New scaffolds were biocompatible, as demonstrated by adhesion and proliferation assays performed with fibroblast and epithelial cells. PMID:25492010

Díaz, Angélica; Del Valle, Luis J; Tugushi, David; Katsarava, Ramaz; Puiggalí, Jordi

2015-01-01

119

Death inducing and cytoprotective autophagy in T-47D cells by two common antibacterial drugs: sulphathiazole and sulphacetamide.  

PubMed

The broad spectrum of the pharmacological effects of sulphonamide family of drugs motivated us to investigate the cellular mechanisms for anti-cancer effects of sulphathiazole and sulphacetamide on T-47D breast cancer cells. Fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation assays were used to detect apoptosis. The distribution of the cells among different phases of the cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of several genes with important roles in some critical cellular pathways including apoptosis, mTOR/AKT pathway and autophagy were determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis. Sulphathiazole and sulphacetamide induced anti-proliferative effects on T-47D cells were independent of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The overexpression of critical genes involved in autophagy including ATG5, p53 and DRAM indicated that the main effect of the drug-induced anti-proliferative effects was through induction of autophagy. This process was induced in two different forms, including death inducing and cytoprotective autophagy. Sulphathiazole treatment was followed by higher expression of p53/DRAM and downregulation of Akt/mTOR pathway resulting in death autophagy. In contrast, sulphacetamide treatment lowered expression of p53/DRAM pathway in parallel with upregulation of Akt/mTOR pathway promoting cytoprotective autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy is the main mechanism mediating the anti-cancer effects of sulphathiazole and sulphacetamide on T-47D cells. Alignment of the p53 and DRAM expression along with activation level of Akt survival pathway therefore determines the type of autophagy that occurs. PMID:23450781

Mohammadpour, Raziye; Safarian, Shahrokh; Sheibani, Nader; Norouzi, Saeed; Razazan, Atefeh

2013-04-01

120

Death Inducing and Cytoprotective Autophagy in T-47D Cells by Two Common Antibacterial Drugs: Sulfathiazole and Sulfacetamide  

PubMed Central

The broad spectrum of the pharmacological effects of sulfonamide family of drugs motivated us to investigate the cellular mechanisms for anti-cancer effects of sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide on T-47D breast cancer cells. Fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometric analysis, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation assays were used to detect apoptosis. The distribution of the cells among different phases of the cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of several genes with important roles in some critical cellular pathways including apoptosis, mTOR/AKT pathway and autophagy were determined by real time RT-PCR analysis. Sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide induced anti-proliferative effects on T-47D cells were independent of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. The overexpression of critical genes involved in autophagy including ATG5, p53 and DRAM indicated that the main effect of the drug-induced anti-proliferative effects was through induction of autophagy. This process was induced in 2 different forms, including death inducing and cytoprotective autophagy. Sulfathiazole treatment was followed by higher expression of p53/DRAM and downregulation of Akt/ mTOR pathway resulting in death autophagy. In contrast, sulfacetamide treatment lowered expression of p53/DRAM pathway in parallel with upregulation of Akt/mTOR pathway promoting cytoprotective autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy is the main mechanism mediating the anti-cancer effects of sulfathiazole and sulfacetamide on T-47D cells. Alignment of the p53 and DRAM expression along with activation level of Akt survival pathway therefore determines the type of autophagy that occurs. PMID:23450781

Mohammadpour, Raziye; Safarian, Shahrokh; Sheibani, Nader; Norouzi, Saeed; Razazan, Atefeh

2013-01-01

121

Sequence-motif Detection of NAD(P)-binding Proteins: Discovery of a Unique Antibacterial Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Many enzymes use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)) as essential coenzymes. These enzymes often do not share significant sequence identity and cannot be easily detected by sequence homology. Previously, we determined all distinct locally conserved pyrophosphate-binding structures (3d motifs) from NAD(P)-bound protein structures, from which 1d sequence motifs were derived. Here, we aim to establish the precision of these 3d and 1d motifs to annotate NAD(P)-binding proteins. We show that the pyrophosphate-binding 3d motifs are characteristic of NAD(P)-binding proteins, as they are rarely found in nonNAD(P)-binding proteins. Furthermore, several 1d motifs could distinguish between proteins that bind only NAD and those that bind only NADP. They could also distinguish between NAD(P)-binding proteins from nonNAD(P)-binding ones. Interestingly, one of the pyrophosphate-binding 3d and corresponding 1d motifs was found only in enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases, which are enzymes essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. This unique 3d motif serves as an attractive novel drug target, as it is conserved across many bacterial species and is not found in human proteins. PMID:25253464

Hua, Yun Hao; Wu, Chih Yuan; Sargsyan, Karen; Lim, Carmay

2014-01-01

122

Sequence-motif Detection of NAD(P)-binding Proteins: Discovery of a Unique Antibacterial Drug Target  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many enzymes use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)) as essential coenzymes. These enzymes often do not share significant sequence identity and cannot be easily detected by sequence homology. Previously, we determined all distinct locally conserved pyrophosphate-binding structures (3d motifs) from NAD(P)-bound protein structures, from which 1d sequence motifs were derived. Here, we aim to establish the precision of these 3d and 1d motifs to annotate NAD(P)-binding proteins. We show that the pyrophosphate-binding 3d motifs are characteristic of NAD(P)-binding proteins, as they are rarely found in nonNAD(P)-binding proteins. Furthermore, several 1d motifs could distinguish between proteins that bind only NAD and those that bind only NADP. They could also distinguish between NAD(P)-binding proteins from nonNAD(P)-binding ones. Interestingly, one of the pyrophosphate-binding 3d and corresponding 1d motifs was found only in enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases, which are enzymes essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. This unique 3d motif serves as an attractive novel drug target, as it is conserved across many bacterial species and is not found in human proteins.

Hua, Yun Hao; Wu, Chih Yuan; Sargsyan, Karen; Lim, Carmay

2014-09-01

123

In vitro antibacterial potency and spectrum of ABT-492, a new fluoroquinolone.  

PubMed

ABT-492 demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against most quinolone-susceptible pathogens. The rank order of potency was ABT-492 > trovafloxacin > levofloxacin > ciprofloxacin against quinolone-susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci. ABT-492 had activity comparable to those of trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against seven species of quinolone-susceptible members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, although it was less active than the comparators against Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The activity of ABT-492 was greater than those of the comparators against fastidious gram-negative species, including Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Legionella spp. and against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Helicobacter pylori. ABT-492 was as active as trovafloxacin against Chlamydia trachomatis, indicating good intracellular penetration and antibacterial activity. In particular, ABT-492 was more active than trovafloxacin and levofloxacin against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, including strains resistant to penicillin and macrolides, and H. influenzae, including beta-lactam-resistant strains. It retained greater in vitro activity than the comparators against S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae strains resistant to other quinolones due to amino acid alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the target topoisomerases. ABT-492 was a potent inhibitor of bacterial topoisomerases, and unlike the comparators, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from either Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli were almost equally sensitive to ABT-492. The profile of ABT-492 suggested that it may be a useful agent for the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, as well as infections of the urinary tract, bloodstream, and skin and skin structure and nosocomial lung infections. PMID:14506039

Nilius, Angela M; Shen, Linus L; Hensey-Rudloff, Dena; Almer, Laurel S; Beyer, Jill M; Balli, Darlene J; Cai, Yingna; Flamm, Robert K

2003-10-01

124

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Escherichia coli from Shanghai, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although quinolone resistance usually results from chromosomal mutations, recent studies indicate that quinolone resistance can also be plasmid mediated. The gene responsible, qnr, is distinct from the known quinolone resistance genes and in previous studies seemed to be restricted to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli isolates from the University of Alabama in Birmingham, where this resistance was discovered. In Shanghai,

Minggui Wang; John H. Tran; George A. Jacoby; Yingyuan Zhang; Fu Wang; David C. Hooper

2003-01-01

125

Identification and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase involved in quinolone alkaloid biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa.  

PubMed

Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

2013-03-01

126

Identification and Characterization of a Type III Polyketide Synthase Involved in Quinolone Alkaloid Biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa*  

PubMed Central

Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S.; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

2013-01-01

127

QSAR analysis of antitumor active amides and quinolones from thiophene series.  

PubMed

QSAR models for predicting antitumor activity of heterocyclic amides and quinolones from benzo[b]thiophene-, thieno[3,2-b]thiophene- and thieno[2,3-b], thiophene series against MiaPaCa-2 and MCF-7 cells were built. Complete dataset consisted of 59 compounds and several QSAR models with different predictive ability were derived. Beside standard approaches for building QSAR models, the approach based on a small dataset of 10 compounds selected regarding the results of principal component analysis was tested. The latter approach was shown as successful and can be useful for planning future experiments in order to speed up and simplify the search for new drug candidates. Based on the derived QSAR models, the most important properties for compound's antitumor activity against MiaPaCa-2 and MCF-7 cells were identified. Volume, sum of the hydrophobic surfaces and presence of the group that can be easily ionized in the pH range from 4 to 9, were found to be highly important for successful antitumor activity of the examined heterocyclic amides and quinolones. New compounds, with potentially higher biological activity against MiaPaCa-2 and MCF-7 cells, were proposed. Their activities were predicted using the derived QSAR models and the proposed compounds were shown as promising antitumor candidates. PMID:20472047

Bertosa, B; Aleksi?, M; Karminiski-Zamola, G; Tomi?, S

2010-07-15

128

Targeting virulence not viability in the search for future antibacterials.  

PubMed

New antibacterials need new approaches to overcome the problem of rapid antibiotic resistance. Here we review the development of potential new antibacterial drugs that do not kill bacteria or inhibit their growth, but combat disease instead by targeting bacterial virulence. PMID:24552512

Heras, Begońa; Scanlon, Martin J; Martin, Jennifer L

2015-02-01

129

Longitudinal surveillance of outpatient quinolone antimicrobial use in Canada  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Because antimicrobial use is commonly associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance, monitoring the volume and patterns of use of these agents is important. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of quinolone antimicrobials within Canadian provinces over time. METHODS: Antimicrobial prescribing data collected by IMS Health Canada were acquired from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance and the Canadian Committee for Antimicrobial Resistance, and were used to calculate two yearly metrics: prescriptions per 1000 inhabitant-days and the mean defined daily doses (DDDs) per prescription. These measures were used to produce linear mixed models to assess differences among provinces and over time, while accounting for repeated measurements. RESULTS: The quinolone class of antimicrobials is used similarly among Canadian provinces. Year-to-year increases in quinolone prescribing occurred from 1995 to 2010, with a levelling off in the latter years. Year-to-year decreases in the DDDs per prescription were found to be significant from 2000 to 2010. DISCUSSION: Although the overall use of antimicrobials differs significantly among Canadian provinces, the use of the quinolone class does not vary at the provincial level. Results suggest that prescribing of ciprofloxacin may be a potential target for antimicrobial stewardship programs; however, decreases in the average DDDs per prescription suggest continued uptake of appropriate treatment guidelines. PMID:24855478

Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Finley, Rita; Hutchinson, Jim; Patrick, David M; Weiss, Karl; Conly, John

2014-01-01

130

Functions Required for Extracellular Quinolone Signaling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 30 mutants exhibiting reduced production of the phenazine poison pyocyanin were isolated following transposon mutagenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The mutants could be subdivided into those with defects in the primary phenazine biosynthetic pathway and those with more pleiotropic defects. The largest set of pleiotropic mutations blocked the production of the extracellular Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a

Larry A. Gallagher; Susan L. McKnight; Marina S. Kuznetsova; Everett C. Pesci; Colin Manoil

2002-01-01

131

Computational methods to identify new antibacterial targets.  

PubMed

The development of resistance to all current antibiotics in the clinic means there is an urgent unmet need for novel antibacterial agents with new modes of action. One of the best ways of finding these is to identify new essential bacterial enzymes to target. The advent of a number of in silico tools has aided classical methods of discovering new antibacterial targets, and these programs are the subject of this review. Many of these tools apply a cheminformatic approach, utilizing the structural information of either ligand or protein, chemogenomic databases, and docking algorithms to identify putative antibacterial targets. Considering the wealth of potential drug targets identified from genomic research, these approaches are perfectly placed to mine this rich resource and complement drug discovery programs. PMID:24974974

McPhillie, Martin J; Cain, Ricky M; Narramore, Sarah; Fishwick, Colin W G; Simmons, Katie J

2015-01-01

132

Bypassing Fluoroquinolone Resistance with Quinazolinediones: Studies of Drug-Gyrase-DNA Complexes Having Implications for Drug Design.  

PubMed

Widespread fluoroquinolone resistance has drawn attention to quinazolinediones (diones), fluoroquinolone-like topoisomerase poisons that are unaffected by common quinolone-resistance mutations. To better understand differences between quinolones and diones, we examined their impact on the formation of cleaved complexes (drug-topoisomerase-DNA complexes in which the DNA moiety is broken) with gyrase, one of two bacterial targets of the drugs. Formation of cleaved complexes, measured by linearization of a circular DNA substrate, required lower concentrations of quinolone than dione. The reverse reaction, detected as resealing of DNA breaks in cleaved complexes, required higher temperatures and EDTA concentrations for quinolones than diones. The greater stability of quinolone-containing complexes was attributed to the unique ability of the quinolone C3/C4 keto acid to complex with magnesium and form a previously described drug-magnesium-water bridge with GyrA-Ser83 and GyrA-Asp87. A nearby substitution in GyrA (G81C) reduced activity differences between quinolone and dione, indicating that resistance due to this variation derives from perturbation of the magnesium-water bridge. To increase dione activity, we examined a relatively small, flexible C-7-3-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidinyl substituent, which is distal to the bridging C3/C4 keto acid substituent of quinolones. The 3-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidinyl group at position C-7 was capable of forming binding interactions with GyrB-Glu466, as indicated by inspection of crystal structures, computer-aided docking, and measurement of cleaved-complex formation with mutant and wild-type GyrB proteins. Thus, modification of dione C-7 substituents constitutes a strategy for obtaining compounds active against common quinolone-resistant mutants. PMID:25310082

Drlica, Karl; Mustaev, Arkady; Towle, Tyrell R; Luan, Gan; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M

2014-12-19

133

Association of mutation patterns in GyrA and ParC genes with quinolone resistance levels in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The quinolone resistance of 19 lactic acid bacterial strains belonging to the genera Enterococcus and Lactobacillus isolated from the natural fermented koumiss and yoghurt were investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the quinolone resistance levels and to explore the association of the resistance with the mutation patterns in gyrA and parC genes, as is currently recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee in Guidelines for Evaluation of Probiotics in Food for probiotic lactic acid bacteria drug resistance in 2001. The Oxford Cup method and double-tube dilution method were used to determine the quinolone resistance levels of the isolated strains. Generally, all of the 19 strains showed resistance towards norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin when the Oxford cup method was used, whereas the incidence was lower (to norfloxacin 89.5% and to ciprofloxacin 68.4%) when minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints (CLSI M100-S23) were tested. Furthermore, gene sequencing was conducted on gyrA and parC of topoisomerase II of these isolated strains. The genetic basis for quinolone resistance may be closely related to mutations in gyrA genes as there were 10 mutation sites in amino-acid sequences encoded by gyrA genes in 10 quinolone resistance strains and 14 mutation sites in Enterococcus durans HZ28, whereas no typical mutations were detected in parC genes.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 10 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.113. PMID:25204345

Li, Shaoying; Li, Zhen; Wei, Wan; Ma, Chunyan; Song, Xiaomin; Li, Shufen; He, Wenying; Tian, Jianjun; Huo, Xiaoyan

2014-09-10

134

[Experimental validation of the expediency of the use of ultra-high frequency therapy in combination with antibacterial drugs in infiltrative tuberculosis of the lungs].  

PubMed

The influence of the U.H.F. electric field in combination with specific antibacterial therapy on the character of morphological shifts, isoniazid accumulation, collagen fractional composition and tubercle bacilli population in the foci of infiltrative tuberculosis of the lungs was studied experimentally. The effect of this preformed physical factor on the process of tuberculosis was shown to be favourable. Under the action of the U.H.F. electric field microcirculation in the lungs improved, and the levels of isoniazid accumulation in tuberculosis foci increased 1.9-fold leading to decreasing of mycobacterial populations. By restricting specific inflammation, the U.H.F. electric field prevented excessive collagen formation. PMID:2726711

Lomachenkov, V D; Pavliunina, L D; Bazhenov, S M; Pavliunin, A M; Zhamo?do, S V

1989-01-01

135

Generation of quinolone antimalarials targeting the Plasmodium falciparum mitochondrial respiratory chain for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria.  

PubMed

There is an urgent need for new antimalarial drugs with novel mechanisms of action to deliver effective control and eradication programs. Parasite resistance to all existing antimalarial classes, including the artemisinins, has been reported during their clinical use. A failure to generate new antimalarials with novel mechanisms of action that circumvent the current resistance challenges will contribute to a resurgence in the disease which would represent a global health emergency. Here we present a unique generation of quinolone lead antimalarials with a dual mechanism of action against two respiratory enzymes, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Plasmodium falciparum NDH2) and cytochrome bc(1). Inhibitor specificity for the two enzymes can be controlled subtly by manipulation of the privileged quinolone core at the 2 or 3 position. Inhibitors display potent (nanomolar) activity against both parasite enzymes and against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum parasites as evidenced by rapid and selective depolarization of the parasite mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to a disruption of pyrimidine metabolism and parasite death. Several analogs also display activity against liver-stage parasites (Plasmodium cynomolgi) as well as transmission-blocking properties. Lead optimized molecules also display potent oral antimalarial activity in the Plasmodium berghei mouse malaria model associated with favorable pharmacokinetic features that are aligned with a single-dose treatment. The ease and low cost of synthesis of these inhibitors fulfill the target product profile for the generation of a potent, safe, and inexpensive drug with the potential for eventual clinical deployment in the control and eradication of falciparum malaria. PMID:22566611

Biagini, Giancarlo A; Fisher, Nicholas; Shone, Alison E; Mubaraki, Murad A; Srivastava, Abhishek; Hill, Alisdair; Antoine, Thomas; Warman, Ashley J; Davies, Jill; Pidathala, Chandrakala; Amewu, Richard K; Leung, Suet C; Sharma, Raman; Gibbons, Peter; Hong, David W; Pacorel, Bénédicte; Lawrenson, Alexandre S; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Taylor, Lee; Berger, Olivier; Mbekeani, Alison; Stocks, Paul A; Nixon, Gemma L; Chadwick, James; Hemingway, Janet; Delves, Michael J; Sinden, Robert E; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Kocken, Clemens H M; Berry, Neil G; O'Neill, Paul M; Ward, Stephen A

2012-05-22

136

Cystobactamids: myxobacterial topoisomerase inhibitors exhibiting potent antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

The development of new antibiotics faces a severe crisis inter?alia owing to a lack of innovative chemical scaffolds with activities against Gram-negative and multiresistant pathogens. Herein, we report highly potent novel antibacterial compounds, the myxobacteria-derived cystobactamids 1-3, which were isolated from Cystobacter sp. and show minimum inhibitory concentrations in the low ?g?mL(-1) range. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of three congeners as well as the identification and annotation of their biosynthetic gene cluster. By studying the self-resistance mechanism in the natural producer organism, the molecular targets were identified as bacterial type?IIa topoisomerases. As quinolones are largely exhausted as a template for new type II topoisomerase inhibitors, the cystobactamids offer exciting alternatives to generate novel antibiotics using medicinal chemistry and biosynthetic engineering. PMID:25510965

Baumann, Sascha; Herrmann, Jennifer; Raju, Ritesh; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Mohr, Kathrin I; Hüttel, Stephan; Harmrolfs, Kirsten; Stadler, Marc; Müller, Rolf

2014-12-22

137

Light induced changes in quinolone levels in rat serum and tissues.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythm may induce alterations of the pharmacokinetic properties of several drugs in clinical use. The aim of the study was to investigate whether lighting conditions alter the quinolone (pefloxacin) levels in serum and tissues and to determine any accumulation of the drug in the skin. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into groups A, B, C, (n=10). The animals of group A were housed under 12h light/12h dark conditions, group B under 24h UV and group C was kept in complete darkness. All animals received 5 doses of 11mg/Kg pefloxacin every 8h for 48h.Pefloxacin levels were determined in serum, skin and femur by the inhibition zone in E.coli. in vitro. Pefloxacin concentrations in serum were increased in 24h darkness living status and decreased in 24h UV conditions as compared to group A animals. Additionally, both skin and femur pefloxacin levels were decreased under dark and UV conditions. In conclusion total light as well as total dark exposure may lead to pefloxacin pharmacokinetic changes which may have implications in the effectiveness of the drug in tissues. PMID:15726883

Tesseromatis, C; Kotsiou, A; Mourouzis, C; Saranteas, Th; Potamianou, A; Vairactaris, E

2004-01-01

138

Emergence and Dissemination of Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli in the Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the evolution of resistance to quinolones in Escherichia coli from 1992 to 1997 in Barcelona, Spain. An increasing proportion of quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) infections was observed. QREC strains were more common in patients with nosocomial infections but also increased in patients with community- acquired infections (9% in 1992 to 17% in 1996). Seventy (12%) of 572 episodes

JAVIER GARAU; MARIONA XERCAVINS; MONICA RODRIGUEZ-CARBALLEIRA; JOSEP RAMONG OMEZ-VERA; IGNACIO COLL; DOLORS VIDAL; TERESA LLOVET; ANA RUIZ-BREMON

1999-01-01

139

Antibacterial kaolinite/urea/chlorhexidine nanocomposites: Experiment and molecular modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay minerals are commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of clay/antibacterial drug hybrids which can be further included in drug delivery systems for treatment oral infections. Novel nanocomposites with antibacterial properties were successfully prepared by ion exchange reaction from two types of kaolinite/urea intercalates and chlorhexidine diacetate. Intercalation compounds of kaolinite were prepared by reaction with solid urea in the absence of solvents (dry method) as well as with urea aqueous solution (wet method). The antibacterial activity of two prepared samples against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibacterial studies of both samples showed the lowest MIC values (0.01%, w/v) after 1 day against E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus. A slightly worse antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.12%, w/v) after 1 day. Since samples showed very good antibacterial activity, especially after 1 day of action, this means that these samples can be used as long-acting antibacterial materials. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental data are supported by results of molecular modelling.

Holešová, Sylva; Valášková, Marta; Hlavá?, Dominik; Madejová, Jana; Samlíková, Magda; Tokarský, Jonáš; Pazdziora, Erich

2014-06-01

140

Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene  

PubMed Central

Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo ?-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo ?-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

2008-01-01

141

Sophorolipids as antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Sophorolipids (SLs), glycolipids produced by yeasts, have been reported to have immunomodulating activity and to reduce the mortality rate in animal models of sepsis. In the present study, the antibacterial activities of SLs and several derivatives were tested against a selection of standard bacterial isolates using the broth microdilution method. The SL derivatives tested did not show any significant antibacterial activity in vitro when tested at clinically relevant concentrations. Most likely the reported decrease of mortality rate in the rat septic shock model was not secondary to antibacterial activity of SLs. The SLs may be used as anti-inflammatory agents or immunomodulators without affecting the host's bacterial flora. PMID:19201743

Sleiman, Joseph N; Kohlhoff, Stephan A; Roblin, Patricia M; Wallner, Sabine; Gross, Richard; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Zenilman, Michael E; Bluth, Martin H

2009-01-01

142

Antibacterial action of chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial action of chitosan hydroglutamate (CH), chitosan lactate (CL) and chitosan derived from fungal mycelia was examined against both gram?negative and gram?positive bacteria. Plate counts indicated inactivation rates of one? to five?log?cycles within one hour. Fungal chitosan had significantly less antibiotic effect than CH and CL. The antibacterial action of CH and CL was very similar and shown to

N. R. Sudarshan; D. G. Hoover; D. Knorr

1992-01-01

143

Extent of storage and wastage of antibacterial agents in Palestinian households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Inappropriate use of antibacterial agents may lead to drug wastage and potential therapeutic failures in the future. The\\u000a objective of this study was to investigate the extent of storage, and wastage of antibacterial agents in households in Palestine.\\u000a Method This was a cross sectional, questionnaire-based study of households in northern Palestine. Any antibacterial agents present\\u000a in the surveyed households

Ansam Sawalha

2010-01-01

144

[Comparison of antimicrobial use density (AUD) of carbapenem antibacterial agents and investigation of the drug susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 3 hospitals in southern Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan].  

PubMed

The optimal use of anti-Pseudomonas agents is an important issue in the prevention of a tolerance against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We evaluated the effect of antimicrobial use density (AUD) of carbapenem on drug susceptibility. The AUD of the four carbapenems, imipenem (IPM/CS), panipenem (PAPM/BP), meropenem (MEPM), and biapenem (BIPM), was examined at three hospitals in Ibaraki Prefecture, between April and September 2004. The AUD was calculated using the Defined Daily Doses (DDD) methodology developed by the WHO. A drug susceptibility test was conducted on the 306 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains randomly collected from clinical specimens at the three hospitals between September and December 2004. In accordance with the standards set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that the AUD of carbapenem at the three hospitals tended to be higher than that in other research results in Japan. At one of the three hospitals, the AUD of the PAPM was remarkably high compared to the other carbapenems. Furthermore, P. aeruginosa strains collected at this hospital showed a low susceptibility to carbapenem, and many highly tolerant strains were also observed in this hospital. In order to maintain the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to carbapenem, the overall extent of carbapenem use must be optimal. The use of antimicrobial drugs should be controlled properly at each hospital, in order to prevent excessive use of PAPM/BP from being used over a long period of time. PMID:18709988

Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Hitomi, Shigemi; Kamoshita, Masaharu; Fukue, Hidetaka; Kawahata, Daisuke; Fukutake, Katsuyuki

2008-07-01

145

Synthesis and in vitro antibacterial activity of oxazolidine LBM-415 analogs as peptide deformylase inhibitors.  

PubMed

The drug resistant bacteria pose a severe threat to human health. The increasing resistance of those pathogens to traditional antibacterial therapy renders the identification of new antibacterial agents with novel antibacterial mechanisms an urgent need. In this study, a series of (2S)-N-substituted-1-[(formyhydroxyamino)methyl]-1-oxohexyl]-2-oxazolidinecarboxamides were designed, synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antibacterial activity. Most of these compounds displayed good activities against Gram-positive organisms comparable to reference agent LBM-415. PMID:21288715

Yu, Linliang; Zhou, Weicheng; Wang, Zhenyu

2011-03-01

146

Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

2014-02-15

147

Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

1984-01-01

148

Increasing resistance to quinolones: A four-year prospective study of urinary tract infection pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A four-year prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence and rate of development of resistance by common urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens to quinolone antimicrobial agents. Results show that there is high intrinsic resistance to the quinolones among strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (43.4%), Escherichia coli (26.3%), and Proteus spp. (17.1%). Over four years, rising rates of resistance were

Patience Umolu; Gladys Ikuuh

149

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, Linn. for enhanced antibacterial activity against multi drug resistant clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Green synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles has attracted nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, L. at room temperature. Formation of stable AgNPs at 1mM concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) typically gave spherical shape particles with diameter range from 55 to 83nm. The kinetic properties of particle formation were proportional to the effect of concentration of AgNO3 solution. In order to identify the compounds responsible for the bioreduction of Ag(+) ion and the stabilization of AgNPs produced, the functional group present in Mimusops elengi, L. leaf extract was investigated using FTIR. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed using the surface plasmon resonance band shown in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed from the XRD pattern. Furthermore these green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy against multi drug resistant clinical isolates. PMID:23563291

Prakash, P; Gnanaprakasam, P; Emmanuel, R; Arokiyaraj, S; Saravanan, M

2013-08-01

150

Quinolone Resistance in Absence of Selective Pressure: The Experience of a Very Remote Community in the Amazon Forest  

PubMed Central

Background Quinolones are potent broad-spectrum bactericidal agents increasingly employed also in resource-limited countries. Resistance to quinolones is an increasing problem, known to be strongly associated with quinolone exposure. We report on the emergence of quinolone resistance in a very remote community in the Amazon forest, where quinolones have never been used and quinolone resistance was absent in 2002. Methods The community exhibited a considerable level of geographical isolation, limited contact with the exterior and minimal antibiotic use (not including quinolones). In December 2009, fecal carriage of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli was investigated in 120 of the 140 inhabitants, and in 48 animals reared in the community. All fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were genotyped and characterized for the mechanisms of plasmid- and chromosomal-mediated quinolone resistance. Principal Findings Despite the characteristics of the community remained substantially unchanged during the period 2002–2009, carriage of quinolone-resistant E. coli was found to be common in 2009 both in humans (45% nalidixic acid, 14% ciprofloxacin) and animals (54% nalidixic acid, 23% ciprofloxacin). Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of human and animal origin showed multidrug resistance phenotypes, a high level of genetic heterogeneity, and a combination of GyrA (Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn) and ParC (Ser80Ile) substitutions commonly observed in fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli. Conclusions Remoteness and absence of antibiotic selective pressure did not protect the community from the remarkable emergence of quinolone resistance in E. coli. Introduction of the resistant strains from antibiotic-exposed settings is the most likely source, while persistence and dissemination in the absence of quinolone exposure is likely mostly related with poor sanitation. Interventions aimed at reducing the spreading of resistant isolates (by improving sanitation and water/food safety) are urgently needed to preserve the efficacy of quinolones in resource-limited countries, as control strategies based only on antibiotic restriction policies are unlikely to succeed in those settings. PMID:22953012

Riccobono, Eleonora; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

2012-01-01

151

Metabolic suppression identifies new antibacterial inhibitors under nutrient limitation  

PubMed Central

Characterizing novel drugs and chemical probes of biological systems is hindered by difficulties in identifying the mechanism of action (MOA) of biologically active molecules. Here we present a metabolite suppression approach to explore the MOA of antibacterial compounds under nutrient restriction. We assembled an array of metabolites that can be screened for suppressors of inhibitory molecules. Further, we identified inhibitors of E. coli growth under nutrient limitation and charted their interactions with our metabolite array. This strategy led to the discovery and characterization of three novel antibacterial compounds, MAC168425, MAC173979 and MAC13772. We showed that MAC168425 interferes with glycine metabolism, MAC173979 is a time-dependent inhibitor of p-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis and MAC13772 inhibits biotin biosynthesis. We conclude that metabolite suppression profiling is an effective approach to focus MOA studies on compounds impairing metabolic capabilities. Such bioactives can serve as chemical probes of bacterial physiology and as leads for antibacterial drug development. PMID:24121552

Zlitni, S.; Ferruccio, L.F.

2014-01-01

152

Comparison of colistin-carbapenem, colistin-sulbactam, and colistin plus other antibacterial agents for the treatment of extremely drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to compare the efficacy of colistin-based therapies in extremely drug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infections (XDR-ABSI). A retrospective study was conducted in 27 tertiary-care centers from January 2009 to August 2012. The primary end-point was 14-day survival, and the secondary end-points were clinical and microbiological outcomes. Thirty-six and 214 patients [102 (47.7%): colistin-carbapenem (CC), 69 (32.2%): colistin-sulbactam (CS), and 43 (20.1%: tigecycline): colistin with other agent (CO)] received colistin monotherapy and colistin-based combinations, respectively. Rates of complete response/cure and 14-day survival were relatively higher, and microbiological eradication was significantly higher in the combination group. Also, the in-hospital mortality rate was significantly lower in the combination group. No significant difference was found in the clinical (p?=?0.97) and microbiological (p?=?0.92) outcomes and 14-day survival rates (p?=?0.79) between the three combination groups. Neither the timing of initial effective treatment nor the presence of any concomitant infection was significant between the three groups (p?>?0.05) and also for 14-day survival (p?>?0.05). Higher Pitt bacteremia score (PBS), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), and prolonged hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay before XDR-ABSI were significant risk factors for 14-day mortality (p?=?0.02, p?=?0.0001, p?=?0.0001, p?=?0.02, and p?=?0.01, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, PBS, age, and duration of ICU stay were independent risk factors for 14-day mortality (p?

Batirel, A; Balkan, I I; Karabay, O; Agalar, C; Akalin, S; Alici, O; Alp, E; Altay, F A; Altin, N; Arslan, F; Aslan, T; Bekiroglu, N; Cesur, S; Celik, A D; Dogan, M; Durdu, B; Duygu, F; Engin, A; Engin, D O; Gonen, I; Guclu, E; Guven, T; Hatipoglu, C A; Hosoglu, S; Karahocagil, M K; Kilic, A U; Ormen, B; Ozdemir, D; Ozer, S; Oztoprak, N; Sezak, N; Turhan, V; Turker, N; Yilmaz, H

2014-08-01

153

Antibacterial activity of human urine  

PubMed Central

The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

Kaye, Donald

1968-01-01

154

Concentration of Antibacterial Agents in Interstitial Tissue Fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of antibacterial agents in the interstitial tissue fluid has been studied in an experimental model using implanted perforated Silastic capsules (tissue cages). Tissue fluid concentrations were always lower than the initial peak concentration in the serum, but for those drugs that were more slowly excreted the tissue fluid was similar to the serum concentration after six hours. In

G. D. Chisholm; Pamela M. Waterworth; J. S. Calnan; L. P. Garrod

1973-01-01

155

Structural requirements of 3-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolones as potential antimalarials from 2D and 3D QSAR analysis.  

PubMed

Malaria is a fatal tropical and subtropical disease caused by the protozoal species Plasmodium. Many commonly available antimalarial drugs and therapies are becoming ineffective because of the emergence of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, which drives the need for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Recently, a series of 3-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolone analogs, derived from the famous compound endochin, were reported as promising candidates for orally efficacious antimalarials. In this study, to analyze the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these quinolones and investigate the structural requirements for antimalarial activity, the 2D multiple linear regressions (MLR) method and 3D comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods are employed to evolve different QSAR models. All these models give satisfactory results with highly accurate fitting and strong external predictive abilities for chemicals not used in model development. Furthermore, the contour maps from 3D models can provide an intuitive understanding of the key structure features responsible for the antimalarial activities. In conclusion, we summarize the detailed position-specific structural requirements of these derivatives accordingly. All these results are helpful for the rational design of new compounds with higher antimalarial bioactivities. PMID:23911994

Li, Jiazhong; Li, Shuyan; Bai, Chongliang; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

2013-07-01

156

Synthesis and antibacterial activity of catecholate-ciprofloxacin conjugates.  

PubMed

The development of an efficient route to obtain artificial siderophore-antibiotic conjugates active against Gram-negative bacteria is crucial. Herein, a practical access to triscatecholate enterobactin analogues linked to the ciprofloxacin along with their antibacterial evaluation are described. Two series of conjugates were obtained with and without a piperazine linker which is known to improve the pharmacokinetics profile of a drug. A monocatecholate-ciprofloxacin conjugate was also synthesized and evaluated. The antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for some conjugates are related to the iron concentration in the culture medium and seem to depend on the bacterial iron uptake systems. PMID:24972726

Fardeau, Sylvain; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Audic, Nicolas; Sasaki, André; Pillon, Marine; Baudrin, Emmanuel; Mullié, Catherine; Sonnet, Pascal

2014-08-01

157

Metal-free transannulation reaction of indoles with nitrostyrenes: a simple practical synthesis of 3-substituted 2-quinolones.  

PubMed

3-Substituted 2-quinolones are obtained via a novel, metal-free transannulation reaction of 2-substituted indoles with 2-nitroalkenes in polyphosphoric acid. The reaction can be used in conjunction with the Fisher indole synthesis offering a practical three-component heteroannulation methodology to produce 2-quinolones from arylhydrazines, 2-nitroalkenes and acetophenone. PMID:23999797

Aksenov, Alexander V; Smirnov, Alexander N; Aksenov, Nicolai A; Aksenova, Inna V; Frolova, Liliya V; Kornienko, Alexander; Magedov, Igor V; Rubin, Michael

2013-10-18

158

Endochin-like quinolones are highly efficacious against acute and latent experimental toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan pathogen that causes devastating ocular and central nervous system disease. We show that the endochin-like quinolone (ELQ) class of compounds contains extremely potent inhibitors of T. gondii growth in vitro and is effective against acute and latent toxoplasmosis in mice. We screened 50 ELQs against T. gondii and selected two lead compounds, ELQ-271 and ELQ-316, for evaluation. ELQ-271 and ELQ-316, have in vitro IC50 values of 0.1 nM and 0.007 nM, respectively. ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 have ED50 values of 0.14 mg/kg and 0.08 mg/kg when administered orally to mice with acute toxoplasmosis. Moreover, ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 are highly active against the cyst form of T. gondii in mice at low doses, reducing cyst burden by 76–88% after 16 d of treatment. To investigate the ELQ mechanism of action against T. gondii, we demonstrate that endochin and ELQ-271 inhibit cytochrome c reduction by the T. gondii cytochrome bc1 complex at 8 nM and 31 nM, respectively. We also show that ELQ-271 inhibits the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytochrome bc1 complex, and an M221Q amino acid substitution in the Qi site of the protein leads to >100-fold resistance. We conclude that ELQ-271 and ELQ-316 are orally bioavailable drugs that are effective against acute and latent toxoplasmosis, likely acting as inhibitors of the Qi site of the T. gondii cytochrome bc1 complex. PMID:23019377

Doggett, J. Stone; Nilsen, Aaron; Forquer, Isaac; Wegmann, Keith W.; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H.; Bordón, Claudia; Charman, Susan A.; Katneni, Kasiram; Schultz, Tracey; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Hinrichs, David J.; Meunier, Brigitte; Carruthers, Vern B.; Riscoe, Michael K.

2012-01-01

159

Discovery, Synthesis, and Optimization of Antimalarial 4(1H)-Quinolone-3-Diarylethers  

PubMed Central

The historical antimalarial compound endochin served as a structural lead for optimization. Endochin-like quinolones (ELQ) were prepared by a novel chemical route and assessed for in vitro activity against multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and against malaria infections in mice. Here we describe the pathway to discovery of a potent class of orally active antimalarial 4(1H)-quinolone-3-diarylethers. The initial prototype, ELQ-233, exhibited low nanomolar IC50 values against all tested strains including clinical isolates harboring resistance to atovaquone. ELQ-271 represented the next critical step in the iterative optimization process, as it was stable to metabolism and highly effective in vivo. Continued analoging revealed that the substitution pattern on the benzenoid ring of the quinolone core significantly influenced reactivity with the host enzyme. This finding led to the rational design of highly selective ELQs with outstanding oral efficacy against murine malaria that is superior to established antimalarials chloroquine and atovaquone. PMID:24720377

2014-01-01

160

Characterization of selective antibacterial peptides by polarity index.  

PubMed

In the recent decades, antibacterial peptides have occupied a strategic position for pharmaceutical drug applications and became subject of intense research activities since they are used to strengthen the immune system of all living organisms by protecting them from pathogenic bacteria. This work proposes a simple and easy statistical/computational method through a peptide polarity index measure by which an antibacterial peptide subgroup can be efficiently identified, that is, characterized by a high toxicity to bacterial membranes but presents a low toxicity to mammal cells. These peptides also have the feature not to adopt to an alpha-helicoidal structure in aqueous solution. The double-blind test carried out to the whole Antimicrobial Peptide Database (November 2011) showed an accuracy of 90% applying the polarity index method for the identification of such antibacterial peptide groups. PMID:22611416

Polanco, C; Samaniego, J L; Buhse, T; Mosqueira, F G; Negron-Mendoza, A; Ramos-Bernal, S; Castanon-Gonzalez, J A

2012-01-01

161

Membrane active phenylalanine conjugated lipophilic norspermidine derivatives with selective antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic membrane active antibacterial agents offer hope as potential solutions to the problem of bacterial resistance as the membrane-active nature imparts low propensity for the development of resistance. In this report norspermidine based antibacterial molecules were developed that displayed excellent antibacterial activity against various wild-type bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and drug-resistant bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and ?-lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae). In a novel structure-activity relationship study it has been shown how incorporation of an aromatic amino acid drastically improves selective antibacterial activity. Additionally, the effect of stereochemistry on activity, toxicity, and plasma stability has also been studied. These rapidly bactericidal, membrane active antibacterial compounds do not trigger development of resistance in bacteria and hence bear immense potential as therapeutic agents to tackle multidrug resistant bacterial infections. PMID:25335118

Konai, Mohini M; Ghosh, Chandradhish; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Samaddar, Sandip; Haldar, Jayanta

2014-11-26

162

Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of metronidazole derivatives containing piperazine skeleton as potential antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Metronidazole has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Hereby a series of novel metronidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized based on nitroimidazole scaffold in order to find some more potent antibacterial drugs. For these compounds which were reported for the first time, their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were tested. These compounds showed good antibacterial activities against Gram-positive strains. Compound 4m represented the most potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC of 0.003 ?g/mL and it showed the most potent activity against S. aureus TyrRS with IC50 of 0.0024 ?M. Molecular docking of 4m into S. aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase active site were also performed to determine the probable binding mode. PMID:24680059

Wang, She-Feng; Yin, Yong; Qiao, Fang; Wu, Xun; Sha, Shao; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Hai-Liang

2014-04-15

163

Simultaneous formation of 2- and 4-quinolones from quinolinium cations catalysed by aldehyde oxidase.  

PubMed Central

Quinolinium salts were incubated with partially purified aldehyde oxidase, and the products were separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and fully characterized by u.v. spectroscopy, i.r. spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Oxidation of N-methylquinolinium salts with either rabbit or guinea-pig liver aldehyde oxidase in vitro gave two isomeric products, N-methyl-4-quinolone and N-methyl-2-quinolone. Incubation of N-phenylquinolinium perchlorate similarly yielded two oxidation products, N-phenyl-4-quinolone and N-phenyl-2-quinolone. The ratio of 2- to 4-quinolone production was species-dependent, the proportion of 4-quinolone with the guinea-pig enzyme being greater than that obtained with the rabbit liver enzyme. Kinetic constants were determined spectrophotometrically for both the quinolinium salts and a number of related quaternary compounds. In general, quaternization facilitated oxidation of a substrate, but a number of exceptions were noted, e.g. N-methylisoquinolinium and N-methylphen-anthridinium. Km values varied with the nature of electron acceptor employed, and this difference was more marked for quaternary substrates than the unquaternized counterparts. The product ratio obtained from N-methylquinolinium salts was found to be constant under various conditions, including purification of the enzyme and the use of either induced or inhibited aldehyde oxidase, but a change in the ratio was found at high pH values and in the presence of a competing substrate, N-methylphenanthridinium. This may indicate that a quaternary substrate binds to aldehyde oxidase in two alternative positions. PMID:6743274

Taylor, S M; Stubley-Beedham, C; Stell, J G

1984-01-01

164

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance; Interactions between Human, Animal, and Environmental Ecologies  

PubMed Central

Resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is being increasingly reported among human but also veterinary isolates during the last two to three decades, very likely as a consequence of the large clinical usage of those antibiotics. Even if the principle mechanisms of resistance to quinolones are chromosome-encoded, due to modifications of molecular targets (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV), decreased outer-membrane permeability (porin defect), and overexpression of naturally occurring efflux, the emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been reported since 1998. Although these PMQR determinants confer low-level resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, they are a favorable background for selection of additional chromosome-encoded quinolone resistance mechanisms. Different transferable mechanisms have been identified, corresponding to the production of Qnr proteins, of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6?)-Ib-cr, or of the QepA-type or OqxAB-type efflux pumps. Qnr proteins protect target enzymes (DNA gyrase and type IV topoisomerase) from quinolone inhibition. The AAC(6?)-Ib-cr determinant acetylates several fluoroquinolones, such as norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Finally, the QepA and OqxAB efflux pumps extrude fluoroquinolones from the bacterial cell. A series of studies have identified the environment to be a reservoir of PMQR genes, with farm animals and aquatic habitats being significantly involved. In addition, the origin of the qnr genes has been identified, corresponding to the waterborne species Shewanella sp. Altogether, the recent observations suggest that the aquatic environment might constitute the original source of PMQR genes, that would secondly spread among animal or human isolates. PMID:22347217

Poirel, Laurent; Cattoir, Vincent; Nordmann, Patrice

2012-01-01

165

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance; Interactions between Human, Animal, and Environmental Ecologies.  

PubMed

Resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is being increasingly reported among human but also veterinary isolates during the last two to three decades, very likely as a consequence of the large clinical usage of those antibiotics. Even if the principle mechanisms of resistance to quinolones are chromosome-encoded, due to modifications of molecular targets (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV), decreased outer-membrane permeability (porin defect), and overexpression of naturally occurring efflux, the emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been reported since 1998. Although these PMQR determinants confer low-level resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, they are a favorable background for selection of additional chromosome-encoded quinolone resistance mechanisms. Different transferable mechanisms have been identified, corresponding to the production of Qnr proteins, of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib-cr, or of the QepA-type or OqxAB-type efflux pumps. Qnr proteins protect target enzymes (DNA gyrase and type IV topoisomerase) from quinolone inhibition. The AAC(6')-Ib-cr determinant acetylates several fluoroquinolones, such as norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Finally, the QepA and OqxAB efflux pumps extrude fluoroquinolones from the bacterial cell. A series of studies have identified the environment to be a reservoir of PMQR genes, with farm animals and aquatic habitats being significantly involved. In addition, the origin of the qnr genes has been identified, corresponding to the waterborne species Shewanella sp. Altogether, the recent observations suggest that the aquatic environment might constitute the original source of PMQR genes, that would secondly spread among animal or human isolates. PMID:22347217

Poirel, Laurent; Cattoir, Vincent; Nordmann, Patrice

2012-01-01

166

Cytotoxic dimeric quinolone-terpene alkaloids from the root bark of Zanthoxylum rhetsa.  

PubMed

Four quinolone-terpene alkaloids, chelerybulgarine (1), 2'-episimulanoquinoline (3), 2,11-didemethoxyvepridimerine B (4), and rhetsidimerine (5) were isolated from the root bark of Zanthoxylum rhetsa DC. Chelerybulgarine (1) is a C-C linked terpene alkaloid where the C-6 of dihydrochelerythrine is linked to C-11 of the sesquiterpenoid 10?-methoxybulgarene. 2'-Episimulanoquinoline is a dimeric alkaloid containing dihydrochelerythrine and 8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine moieties, whereas 2,11-didemethoxyvepridimerine B and rhetsidimerine are dimeric prenylated quinolone alkaloids. Seven of the isolated compounds exhibited weak cytotoxicity when tested against a panel of six human stomach-cancer cell lines. PMID:24768324

Ahsan, Monira; Haque, Mohammad Rashedul; Hossain, Md Belayet; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Gray, Alexander I; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood

2014-07-01

167

Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Argentina  

PubMed Central

High quinolone resistance rates were observed among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria. In the present study, we searched for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes within the 55 oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria collected in a previous survey. The main PMQR determinants were aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB, which had prevalence rates of 42.4% and 33.3%, respectively. The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was more frequently found in CTX-M-15-producing isolates, while qnrB was homogeneously distributed among all CTX-M producers. PMID:24037111

Cruz, Giovanna Rincon; Radice, Marcela; Sennati, Samantha; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian María; Gutkind, Gabriel; Conza, Jose Alejandro Di

2013-01-01

168

Antibacterial polyelectrolyte-coated Mg alloys for biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study deals with two biomedical subjects: corrosion rates of polyelectrolyte-coated magnesium (Mg) alloys, mainly used for biomedical purposes, and antibacterial properties of these alloys. Thin sheets of Mg alloys were coated with cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (CHI) and anionic polyelectrolyte carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using a layer-by-layer coating method and then embedded with antibacterial agents under vacuum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze these samples in order to detect their corrosion properties at different conditions. In the electrochemical analysis section, a corrosion rate of 72 mille inches per year was found in a salt solution for the sample coated with a 12 phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer and 9 CHI/CMC multilayers. In the antibacterial tests, gentamicin was used to investigate the effects of the drug embedded with the coated surfaces against the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Antibacterial studies were tested using the disk diffusion method. Based on the standard diameter of the zone of inhibition chart, the antibacterial diffusion from the surface strongly inhibited bacterial growth in the regions. The largest recorded diameter of the zone of inhibition was 50 mm for the pre-UV treated and gentamicin-loaded sample, which is more than three times the standard diameter.

Seraz, Md. S.; Asmatulu, R.; Chen, Z.; Ceylan, M.; Mahapatro, A.; Yang, S. Y.

2014-04-01

169

Novel Antibacterial Nanofibrous PLLA Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

In order to achieve high local bioactivity and low systemic side effects of antibiotics in the treatment of dental, periodontal and bone infections, a localized and temporally controlled delivery system is crucial. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) porous tissue engineering scaffold was developed with the ability to release antibiotics in a controlled fashion for long-term inhibition of bacterial growth. The highly soluble antibiotic drug, Doxycycline (DOXY), was successfully incorporated into PLGA nanospheres using a modified water-in-oil-in-oil (w/o/o) emulsion method. The PLGA nanospheres (NS) were then incorporated into prefabricated nanofibrous PLLA scaffolds with a well interconnected macroporous structure. The release kinetics of DOXY from four different PLGA NS formulations on a PLLA scaffold was investigated. DOXY could be released from the NS-scaffolds in a locally and temporally controlled manner. The DOXY release is controlled by DOXY diffusion out of the NS and is strongly dependent upon the physical and chemical properties of the PLGA. While PLGA50-6.5K, PLGA50-64K, and PLGA75-113K NS-scaffolds discharge DOXY rapidly with a high initial burst release, PLGA85-142K NS-scaffold can extend the release of DOXY to longer than 6 weeks with a low initial burst release. Compared to NS alone, the NS incorporated on a 3-D scaffold had significantly reduced the initial burst release. In vitro antibacterial tests of PLGA85 NS-scaffold demonstrated its ability to inhibit common bacterial growth (S.aureus and E.coli) for a prolonged duration. The successful incorporation of DOXY onto 3-D scaffolds and its controlled release from scaffolds extends the usage of nano-fibrous scaffolds from the delivery of large molecules such as growth factors to the delivery of small hydrophilic drugs, allowing for a broader application and a more complex tissue engineering strategy. PMID:20570700

Feng, Kai; Sun, Hongli; Bradley, Mark A.; Dupler, Ellen J.; Giannobile, William V.; Ma, Peter X.

2010-01-01

170

EmmdR, a New Member of the MATE Family of Multidrug Transporters, Extrudes Quinolones from Enterobacter cloacae  

PubMed Central

We cloned a gene, ECL_03329, from the chromosome of Enterobacter cloacae ATCC13047, using a drug-hypersensitive Escherichia coli KAM32 cell as the host. We show here that this gene, designated emmdR, is responsible for multidrug resistance in E. cloacae. E. coli KAM32 host cells containing the cloned emmdR gene (KAM32/pEMMDR28) showed decreased susceptibilities to benzalkonium chloride, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ethidium bromide, acriflavine, rhodamine6G, and trimethoprim. emmdR-deficient E. cloacae cells (Ec?emmdR) showed increased susceptibilities to several of the antimicrobial agents tested. EmmdR has twelve predicted transmembrane segments and some shared identity with members of the Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion (MATE) family of transporters. Study of the antimicrobial agent efflux activities revealed that EmmdR is an H+-drug antiporter but not a Na+ driven efflux pump. These results indicate that EmmdR is responsible for multidrug resistance and pumps out quinolones from E. cloacae. PMID:21822795

He, Gui-Xin; Thorpe, Conner; Wash, Dennis; Crow, Robert; Chen, Hui-Zhong; Kumar, Sanath; Varela, Manuel F.

2011-01-01

171

In vitro and in vivo activities of sparfloxacin, other quinolones, and tetracyclines against Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed Central

Sparfloxacin was more potent than other quinolones (tosufloxacin, lomefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, fleroxacin, enoxacin, and norfloxacin) and as potent as minocycline and doxycycline in activity against Chlamydia trachomatis in vitro and in vivo. Sparfloxacin was more bactericidal than minocycline against C. trachomatis D/UW-3/Cx. PMID:1317145

Nakata, K; Maeda, H; Fujii, A; Arakawa, S; Umezu, K; Kamidono, S

1992-01-01

172

Function of the SOS process in repair of DNA damage induced by modern 4-quinolones.  

PubMed

The recA13 mutant of Escherichia coli strain K-12, which lacks recombination and SOS error-prone DNA repair is hypersensitive to nalidixic acid and to the newer 4-quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. However, whereas recombination-proficient but SOS repair-deficient strains, such as those carrying the lexA3 or recA430 alleles are no more sensitive to nalidixic than the lexA+ recA+ parent, they are more sensitive to the newer quinolones, although not as sensitive as the recA13 derivative. Nalidixic acid possesses only bactericidal mechanism A (which requires RNA and protein synthesis and is only effective on actively dividing cells), whereas the newer 4-quinolones exhibit additional mechanisms B (which does not require RNA and protein synthesis and is effective on bacteria unable to multiply) and C (which requires RNA and protein synthesis but does not depend on cell division). Results obtained with bacteria suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, which inhibits mechanism A, and with bacteria suspended in nutrient broth plus rifampicin, which inhibits mechanisms A and C, showed that the lexA3 mutant was still more sensitive than the lexA+ parent under these conditions. The results suggest that, unlike bactericidal mechanism A, DNA damage that results from bactericidal mechanisms B and C of the newer 4-quinolones is subject to SOS error-prone (mutagenic) repair. PMID:7692035

Howard, B M; Pinney, R J; Smith, J T

1993-07-01

173

Identification for mar mutants among quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Quinolone-resistant clinical Escherichia coli isolates were examined for mutations in the marRAB operon of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus. Among 23 strains evaluated, 8 were chosen for further study: 3 that showed relatively high levels of uninduced, i.e., constitutive, expression of the operon and 5 with variable responses to induction by salicylate or tetracyclines. The marR genes, specifying the repressor of the operon, cloned from the three strains constitutively expressing the operon did not reduce the level of expression of beta-galactosidase from a marO::lacZ transcriptional fusion and were therefore mutant; however, marR genes cloned from the five other clinical strains repressed LacZ expression and were wild type. All three mutant marR genes contained more than one mutation: a deletion and a point mutation. Inactivation of the mar locus in the three known marR mutant strains with a kanamycin resistance cassette introduced by homologous recombination reduced resistance to quinolones and multiple antibiotics. These findings indicate that mar operon mutations exist in quinolone-resistant clinical E. coli isolates and contribute to quinolone and multidrug resistance. PMID:8807064

Maneewannakul, K; Levy, S B

1996-01-01

174

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in gram-negative bacterial species: an update.  

PubMed

Resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones has been increasingly reported among human and veterinary isolates during the last three decades related to their wide clinical use. Until recently, the mechanisms of resistance to quinolones in Enterobacteriaceae were believed to be only chromosome-encoded, i.e. related to modifications of the molecular targets (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV), decreased outer-membrane permeability (porin defect) and overexpression of naturally-occurring efflux. However, emergence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) has been reported since 1998. Three mechanisms are known to date: Qnr proteins, aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib-cr, and efflux pump QepA. The Qnr proteins protect DNA gyrase and type IV topoisomerase from quinolone inhibition. Four types of Qnr protiens have been reported: QnrA (six variants), QnrB (19 variants), QnrC (one variant), and QnrS (three variants). The AAC(6')-Ib-cr determinant acetylates several fluoroquinolones, such as norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The protein AAC(6')-Ib-cr contains two amino acid substitutions as compared to the wild-type enzyme AAC(6')-Ib. Both Qnr and AAC(6')-Ib proteins have been reported worldwide. Lately reported, the plasmid-encoded QepA efflux pump may extrude hydrophilic fluoroquinolones (eg. norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin). PMID:19275610

Cattoir, Vincent; Nordmann, Patrice

2009-01-01

175

Controlled release of antibiotics encapsulated in the electrospinning polylactide nanofibrous scaffold and their antibacterial and biocompatible properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the drug loaded polylactide nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning. Morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties are characterized. Properties and mechanism of the controlled release of the nanofibers are investigated. The results show that the drug loaded polylactide nanofibers do not show dispersed phase, and there is a good compatibility between polylactide and drugs. FTIR spectra show that drugs are encapsulated inside the polylactide nanofibers, and drugs do not break the structure of polylcatide. Flexibility of drug loaded polylactide scaffolds is higher than that of the pure polylactide nanofibers. Release rate of the drug loaded nanofibers is significantly slower than that of the drug powder. Release rate increases with the increase of the drugs’ concentration. The research mechanism suggests a typical diffusion-controlled release of the three loaded drugs. Antibacterial and cell culture show that drug loaded nanofibers possess effective antibacterial activity and biocompatible properties.

Wang, Shu-Dong; Zhang, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Hua; Zhang, You-Zhu

2014-04-01

176

Assessment of the effectiveness of silver-coated dressing, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%), citric acid (3%), and silver sulfadiazine (1%) for topical antibacterial effects against the multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting full-skin thickness burn wounds on rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 10(8) CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp. PMID:24229034

Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

2013-01-01

177

Assessment of the Effectiveness of Silver-Coated Dressing, Chlorhexidine Acetate (0.5%), Citric Acid (3%), and Silver Sulfadiazine (1%) for Topical Antibacterial Effects Against the Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infecting Full-Skin Thickness Burn Wounds on Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 108 CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp. PMID:24229034

Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

2013-01-01

178

Prevalence of quinolone resistance determinants in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human origin in Extremadura, Spain.  

PubMed

Resistance to the quinolones nalidixic acid (NAL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and the occurrence of quinolone resistance determinants have been investigated in 300 non-typhoidal Salmonella from human origin, isolated in the years between 2004 and 2008, in 6 hospitals within Extremadura (Spain). Salmonella Enteritidis was the major serotype found among quinolone-resistant isolates, most of which were clustered by clonal analysis to a single clone, which presented D87 or S83 substitutions in GyrA. Eleven isolates presented the non-classical quinolone resistance phenotype (resistance to CIP and susceptibility to NAL), lacking mutations in the quinolone resistance determinant region of topoisomerase genes. Among them, one Salmonella Typhimurium isolate carried a qnrS1 gene in a low-molecular-weight plasmid, pQnrS1-HLR25, identical to plasmids previously found in the UK, Taiwan, and USA. The occurrence of this genetic element could represent a risk for the horizontal transmission of quinolone resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:24581744

Campos, Maria Jorge; Palomo, Gonzalo; Hormeńo, Lorena; Herrera-León, Silvia; Domínguez, Lucas; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

2014-05-01

179

Genotoxicity of quinolones: substituents contribution and transformation products QSAR evaluation using 2D and 3D models.  

PubMed

The genotoxicity of 21 quinolones antibiotics was determined using SOS/umu assay. Some quinolones exhibited high genotoxicity, and the chemical substituent on quinolone ring significantly affected genotoxicity. To establish the relationship between genotoxicity and substituent, a 2D-QSAR model based on quantum chemical parameters was developed. Calculation suggested that both steric and electrostatic properties were correlated well with genotoxicity. Furthermore, the specific effect on three key active sites (1-, 7- and 8-positions) of quinolone ring was investigated using a 3D-QSAR (comparative molecular field analysis, CoMFA) method. From our modeling, the genotoxicity increased when substituents had: (1) big volume and/or positive charge at 1-position; (2) negative charge at 7-position; and (3) small volume and/or negative charge at 8-position. The developed QSAR models were applicable to estimate genotoxicity of quinolones antibiotics and their transformation products. It is noted that some of the transformation products exhibited higher genotoxicity comparing to their precursor (e.g., ciprofloxacin). This study provided an alternative way to understand the molecule genotoxicity of quinolones derivatives, as well as to evaluate their potential environmental risks. PMID:24080009

Li, Min; Wei, Dongbin; Zhao, Huimin; Du, Yuguo

2014-01-01

180

Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Patchouli Oil  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the antimicrobial tests of patchouli oil were studied by using molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro. Five biological macromolecule enzymes, required by the bacteria in the process of biosynthesis were selected as target molecules. Five antibiotics benzylpenicillin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin, which are generally acknowledged as antibacterial drugs, were selected as reference compounds. The 3 three-dimensional (3D) structures of the 5 reference compounds and 26 compounds from patchouli oil were established by using surflex-dock software (8.1). And the 3D structures of five biological macromolecule enzymes derived from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Molecular docking was carried out between the 31 chemical compounds (ligands) and the 5 enzymes (receptors) by using surflex-dock function. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of 31 chemical compounds were investigated by the scoring function after molecular docking was completed. By comparing the scoring result of 26 compounds in patchouli oil with 5 compared components, we inferred antibacterial activity in about 26 compounds in patchouli oil. On the other hand, six frequently-used pathogenic bacteria were selected for antimicrobial test in vitro, patchouli oil and its two major compounds: (-)-patchouli alcohol and pogostone, which their contents exceeded 60% in patchouli oil samples, were selected antibacterial agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined. Molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro proved that patchouli oil had strong antimicrobial effects. Particularly, pogostone and (-)-patchouli alcohol have potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:24250637

Yang, Xian; Zhang, Xue; Yang, Shui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Qi

2013-01-01

181

An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.  

PubMed

In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations. PMID:22300895

Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

2012-10-01

182

Optimization of pyrrolamide topoisomerase II inhibitors toward identification of an antibacterial clinical candidate (AZD5099).  

PubMed

AZD5099 (compound 63) is an antibacterial agent that entered phase 1 clinical trials targeting infections caused by Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative bacteria. It was derived from previously reported pyrrolamide antibacterials and a fragment-based approach targeting the ATP binding site of bacterial type II topoisomerases. The program described herein varied a 3-piperidine substituent and incorporated 4-thiazole substituents that form a seven-membered ring intramolecular hydrogen bond with a 5-position carboxylic acid. Improved antibacterial activity and lower in vivo clearances were achieved. The lower clearances were attributed, in part, to reduced recognition by the multidrug resistant transporter Mrp2. Compound 63 showed notable efficacy in a mouse neutropenic Staphylococcus aureus infection model. Resistance frequency versus the drug was low, and reports of clinical resistance due to alteration of the target are few. Hence, 63 could offer a novel treatment for serious issues of resistance to currently used antibacterials. PMID:24959892

Basarab, Gregory S; Hill, Pamela J; Garner, C Edwin; Hull, Ken; Green, Oluyinka; Sherer, Brian A; Dangel, P Brian; Manchester, John I; Bist, Shanta; Hauck, Sheila; Zhou, Fei; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Illingworth, Ruth; Alm, Richard; Rooney, Mike; Eakin, Ann E

2014-07-24

183

Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties  

PubMed Central

Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Ró?ycka, Dagmara

2014-01-01

184

4(1H)-Quinolones with Liver Stage Activity against Plasmodium berghei  

PubMed Central

With the exception of primaquine, tafenoquine, and atovaquone, there are very few antimalarials that target liver stage parasites. In this study, a transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite (1052Cl1; PbGFP-Luccon) that expresses luciferase was used to assess the anti-liver stage parasite activity of ICI 56,780, a 7-(2-phenoxyethoxy)-4(1H)-quinolone (PEQ), as well as two 3-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolones (P4Q), P4Q-146 and P4Q-158, by using bioluminescent imaging (BLI). Results showed that all of the compounds were active against liver stage parasites; however, ICI 56,780 and P4Q-158 were the most active, with low nanomolar activity in vitro and causal prophylactic activity in vivo. This potent activity makes these compounds ideal candidates for advancement as novel antimalarials. PMID:23129047

LaCrue, Alexis N.; Sáenz, Fabián E.; Cross, R. Matthew; Udenze, Kenneth O.; Monastyrskyi, Andrii; Stein, Steven; Mutka, Tina S.; Manetsch, Roman

2013-01-01

185

In Vitro Activities of Three Nonfluorinated Quinolones against Representative Bacterial Isolates  

PubMed Central

In vitro susceptibility tests were performed to document the inhibitory activities of three nonfluorinated quinolone (NFQ) compounds (PGE 9262932, PGE 9509924, and PGE 4175997) compared to those of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin against 3,030 bacterial isolates. The spectra of the NFQ agents included most gram-positive species as well as quinolone-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae. Ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains were inhibited by the NFQ series at ?1.0 ?g/ml. The NFQ compounds were not very active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and most other nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli. Against other species, the potency of the NFQ agents was similar to that of trovafloxacin. Continued investigation of the NFQ compounds seems to be warranted. PMID:11353655

Barry, Arthur L.; Fuchs, Peter C.; Brown, Steven D.

2001-01-01

186

Interference with Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis inhibits virulence factor expression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that controls numerous virulence factors through intercellular signals. This bacterium has two quorum-sensing systems (las and rhl), which act through the intercellular signals N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C12-HSL) and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), respectively. P. aeruginosa also produces a third intercellular signal that is involved in virulence factor regulation. This signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone [referred to as the Pseudomonas

M. Worth Calfee; James P. Coleman; Everett C. Pesci

2001-01-01

187

Renaissance of antibiotics against difficult infections: Focus on oritavancin and new ketolides and quinolones.  

PubMed

Lipoglycopeptide, ketolide, and quinolone antibiotics are currently in clinical development, with specific advantages over available molecules within their respective classes. The lipoglycopeptide oritavancin is bactericidal against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and proved effective and safe for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) upon administration of a single 1200 mg dose (two completed phase III trials). The ketolide solithromycin (two phase III studies recruiting for community-acquired pneumonia) shows a profile of activity similar to that of telithromycin, but in vitro data suggest a lower risk of hepatotoxicity, visual disturbance, and aggravation of myasthenia gravis due to reduced affinity for nicotinic receptors. Among quinolones, finafloxacin and delafloxacin share the unique property of an improved activity in acidic environments (found in many infection sites). Finafloxacin (phase II completed; activity profile similar to that of ciprofloxacin) is evaluated for complicated urinary tract and Helicobacter pylori infections. The other quinolones (directed towards Gram-positive pathogens) show improved activity on MRSA and multiresistant S. pneumoniae compared to current molecules. They are in clinical evaluation for ABSSSI (avarofloxacin (phase II completed), nemonoxacin and delafloxacin (ongoing phase III)), respiratory tract infections (zabofloxacin and nemonoxacin (ongoing phase III)), or gonorrhea (delafloxacin). PMID:25058176

Van Bambeke, Françoise

2014-11-01

188

In Vitro Activities of Cephalosporins and Quinolones against Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Diarrheic Dairy Calves  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. PMID:10049259

Orden, José Antonio; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José Antonio; García, Silvia; Cid, Dolores; de la Fuente, Ricardo

1999-01-01

189

In vitro activities of cephalosporins and quinolones against Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic dairy calves.  

PubMed

The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from diary calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the result of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. PMID:10049259

Orden, J A; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J A; García, S; Cid, D; De La Fuente, R

1999-03-01

190

Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Mukne, Alka

2014-01-01

191

Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

Viswanathan, V; Phadatare, A G; Mukne, Alka

2014-05-01

192

Prediction of Mechanisms of Action of Antibacterial Compounds by Gene Expression Profiling  

PubMed Central

We have generated a database of expression profiles carrying the transcriptional responses of the model organism Bacillus subtilis following treatment with 37 well-characterized antibacterial compounds of different classes. The database was used to build a predictor for the assignment of the mechanisms of action (MoAs) of antibacterial compounds by the use of support vector machines. This predictor was able to correctly classify the MoA class for most compounds tested. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the in vivo MoA of hexachlorophene does not match the MoA predicted from in vitro data, a situation frequently faced in drug discovery. A database of this kind may facilitate the prioritization of novel antibacterial entities in drug discovery programs. Potential applications and limitations are discussed. PMID:15273089

Hutter, Bernd; Schaab, Christoph; Albrecht, Sebastian; Borgmann, Matthias; Brunner, Nina A.; Freiberg, Christoph; Ziegelbauer, Karl; Rock, Charles O.; Ivanov, Igor; Loferer, Hannes

2004-01-01

193

Molecular mechanisms of quinolone, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance among Campylobacter isolates from initial stages of broiler production.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanisms of quinolones, macrolides and tetracycline in campylobacter isolates from grandparent and parent broiler breeders in Spain. Twenty-six isolates were investigated for quinolone resistance, three isolates for macrolide resistance and 39 for tetracycline resistance. All of the quinolone-resistant isolates possessed the mutation Thr86Ile in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA and one isolate possessed the mutation Pro104Ser. Only one Campylobacter coli population (defined by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction of flaA and pulsed field gel electrophoresis) was resistant to erythromycin, and the mutation A2075G (23S rDNA) was responsible for macrolide resistance. The tetO gene was found in all of the tetracycline-resistant isolates. Twenty-two out of the 39 isolates investigated by Southern blot possessed chromosomic location of tetO and 17 were located on plasmids. Most of the plasmids with tetO were of around 60 kb and conjugation was demonstrated in a selection of them. In conclusion, we showed that Thr86Ile is highly prevalent in quinolone-resistant isolates as well as mutation A2075G in macrolide-resistant isolates of poultry origin. More variability was found for tetO. The possibility of horizontal transmission of tetO among campylobacter isolates is also an issue of concern in public health. PMID:24689432

Pérez-Boto, D; Herrera-León, S; García-Peńa, F J; Abad-Moreno, J C; Echeita, M A

2014-01-01

194

Interaction of vanadium (IV) solvates (L) with second-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin: Spectroscopic, structure, thermal analyses, kinetics and biological evaluation (L = An, DMF, Py and Et3N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation and characterization of the new solid complexes [VO(CIP)2L]SO4?nH2O, where L = aniline (An), dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine (Py) and triethylamine (Et3N) in the reaction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with VO(SO4)2·2H2O in ethanol. The isolated complexes have been characterized with their melting points, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, magnetic properties, conductance measurements, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods and thermal analyses. The results supported the formation of the complexes and indicated that ciprofloxacin reacts as a bidentate ligand bound to the vanadium ion through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylato oxygen. The activation energies, E*; entropies, ?S*; enthalpies, ?H*; Gibbs free energies, ?G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermo gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermo gravimetric (DTG) curves, using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzeger methods. The lowest energy model structure of each complex has been proposed by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/CEP-31G level of theory. The ligand and their metal complexes were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, such as Bacillus Subtilis (B. Subtilis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Nesseria Gonorrhoeae (N. Gonorrhoeae), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Escherichia coli (E. coli).

Zordok, Wael A.

2014-08-01

195

Shikimic acid, a base compound for the formulation of swine/avian flu drug: statistical optimization, fed-batch and scale up studies along with its application as an antibacterial agent.  

PubMed

The sudden outbreak of swine flu has increased the global demand of shikimic acid which is an industrially interesting compound, as it is used as a key starting material for the synthesis of a neuraminidase inhibitor Tamiflu(®), for the treatment of antiviral infections such as swine flu. Statistical optimization and evaluation of medium components for the production of shikimic acid by Citrobacter freundii is addressed in the present investigation. Plackett-Burman design was applied for the screening of the most significant variables affecting shikimic acid production, where glucose, asparagine, KH2PO4, CaCO3 and agitation rate were the most significant factors. Response surface methodology was also employed to study the interaction among the most significant variables through which shikimic acid production increased to 12.76 g/L. Further, fed-batch studies resulted in the production of 22.32 g/L of shikimic acid. The scalability of the process was also confirmed by running 14 L bioreactor (7.5 L production medium) where 20.12 g/L of shikimic acid was produced. In addition the antibacterial activity of the shikimic acid produced was analysed against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and it was found to have a greater inhibition effect against the Gram negative bacteria. PMID:25563634

Tripathi, P; Rawat, G; Yadav, S; Saxena, R K

2015-02-01

196

Pyrazinamide drug interacting with Co(III) and Zn(II) metal ions based on 2,2?-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands: Synthesis, studies and crystal structure, DFT calculations and antibacterial assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three novel compounds, [Co(PZAH)(bipy)2](ClO4)2 (1), [Zn(PZAH)(bipy)2]ClO4 (2), [Zn(PZAH)(phen)2]ClO4 (3), which PZAH2 = pyrazinamide, bipy = 2,2?-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopies. The crystal structure of 1 has been determined in an orthorhombic Pbca space group. The binding modes of the ligands in complex 1 were established by means of molecular modeling of the complex, and calculation of their IR and absorption spectra DFT calculations. The calculated FT-IR and UV-Vis data are in good agreement with the experimental results, and confirmed the experimental one. In addition to DFT calculations of the complex 1, natural bond orbital (NBO) was performed to obtain atomic charges. Biological studies also showed the antibacterial activity of complexes 1-3 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

Chiniforoshan, Hossein; Radani, Zahra Sadeghian; Tabrizi, Leila; Tavakol, Hossein; Sabzalian, Mohammad R.; Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Görls, Helmar; Plass, Winfried

2015-02-01

197

Recent Advances in Drugs and Prodrugs Design of Chitosan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to outline the recent advances in chitosan molecular modeling, especially its usage as a prodrug or drug in a field of antibacterial, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant activity. Polymeric materials like peptides, polysaccharides and other natural products have recently attracted attention as biodegradabile drug car- riers. They can optimize clinical drug application, minimize the undesirable drug

J. Vinsova; E. Vavrikova

198

Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of

Frank M Frey; Ryan Meyers

2010-01-01

199

[Antibacterial chemotherapy--are we really at the end of the antibiotic era?].  

PubMed

Antimicrobial chemotherapy undergoes a global crisis. The nineties brought the unprecedented spread of resistance of main pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics, with an extent and intensity varying from negligible to threatening, depending largely on the local or regional or nationwide approach to prescribing antibiotics. In some reqions the microbial multiresistance led to various bacterial infections becoming untreatable, however, substantial increase of costs of antibacterial chemotherapy--somewhere even prohibitive--has been felt everywhere, depending on the necessity of using reserve drugs instead of basic ones. In he mid of nineties, the advent of a post-antibiotic era seemed almost inevitable. Concentrated efforts aimed at rationalizing the antibiotic usage, at decreasing the useless prescribing, at creating antibiotic policies as well as the development of new at the antibacterials have diminished the danger, at least for some time. Brief descriptions of new drugs (linezolide, quinupristine/dalfoprostine, new chinolones and naphythyridones and telithromycine) are given and some other, in the near future possibly useful antibacterials (daptomycine, glycycyclines, oral carbapenems and trinems) are mentioned as well as some new ways of antibacterial research. In a long-term view, however, rationalization of antibiotic prescribing is the only and irreplaceable mean of maintaining the efficacy of antibacterial chemotherapy at acceptable costs. PMID:11715728

Vacek, V

2001-09-27

200

An insight into the drug resistance profile & mechanism of drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Among the aetiological agents of treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Neissseria gonorrhoeae is considered to be most important because of emerging antibiotic resistant strains that compromise the effectiveness of treatment of the disease - gonorrhoea. In most of the developing countries, treatment of gonorrhoea relies mainly on syndromic management rather than the aetiological based therapy. Gonococcal infections are usually treated with single-dose therapy with an agent found to cure > 95 per cent of cases. Unfortunately during the last few decades, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance not only to less expensive antimicrobials such as sulphonamides, penicillin and tetracyclines but also to fluoroquinolones. The resistance trend of N. gonorrhoeae towards these antimicrobials can be categorised into pre-quinolone, quinolone and post-quinolone era. Among the antimicrobials available so far, only the third-generation cephalosporins could be safely recommended as first-line therapy for gonorrhoea globally. However, resistance to oral third-generation cephalosporins has also started emerging in some countries. Therefore, it has become imperative to initiate sustained national and international efforts to reduce infection and misuse of antibiotics so as to prevent further emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is necessary not only to monitor drug resistance and optimise treatment regimens, but also to gain insight into how gonococcus develops drug resistance. Knowledge of mechanism of resistance would help us to devise methods to prevent the occurrence of drug resistance against existing and new drugs. Such studies could also help in finding out new drug targets in N. gonorrhoeae and also a possibility of identification of new drugs for treating gonorrhoea. PMID:22089602

Patel, Achchhe Lal; Chaudhry, Uma; Sachdev, Divya; Sachdeva, Poonam Nagpal; Bala, Manju; Saluja, Daman

2011-01-01

201

Antibacterial activity on Citrullus colocynthis Leaf extract.  

PubMed

Studies on the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract of Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae), a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments was carried out using agar disc diffusion technique. The results revealed that the crude acetone extract exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zones of inhibition measuring 14.0mm. The chloroform leaf extract exhibited no antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration for the chloroform extract was 4.0mm for Escherichia coli. PMID:22557336

Gowri, S Shyamala; Priyavardhini, S; Vasantha, K; Umadevi, M

2009-07-01

202

Recombinant bacteriophage lysins as antibacterials  

PubMed Central

With the increasing worldwide prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, bacteriophage endolysins (lysins) represent a very promising novel alternative class of antibacterial in the fight against infectious disease. Lysins are phage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases which, when applied exogenously (as purified recombinant proteins) to Gram-positive bacteria, bring about rapid lysis and death of the bacterial cell. A number of studies have recently demonstrated the strong potential of these enzymes in human and veterinary medicine to control and treat pathogens on mucosal surfaces and in systemic infections. They also have potential in diagnostics and detection, bio-defence, elimination of food pathogens and control of phytopathogens. This review discusses the extensive research on recombinant bacteriophage lysins in the context of antibacterials, and looks forward to future development and potential. PMID:21327123

Fenton, Mark; Ross, Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; O'Mahony, Jim

2010-01-01

203

Antibacterial screening of Citrullus colocynthis.  

PubMed

Crude ethanolic extracts of fruits, leaves, stems and roots of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad were examined for their antibacterial potentialities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts of fruits, leaves, stems and roots were found to be active against Gram positive bacilli, viz., Bacillus pumilus and Staphylococcus aureus, while fruit and root extracts in double strength gave positive results against Gram positive bacillus (Bacillus subtilis). The Gram negative bacilli viz., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed no response. PMID:16414561

Memon, Usman; Brohi, Abdul Hakeem; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Azhar, Iqbal; Bano, Husan

2003-01-01

204

Efficacies of ABT-719 and related 2-pyridones, members of a new class of antibacterial agents, against experimental bacterial infections.  

PubMed Central

The 2-pyridones are a new class of broad-spectrum orally bioavailable antibacterial agents. These compounds are potent bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitors which differ from fluoroquinolones by placement of the nitrogen atom in the ring juncture. ABT-719 is an S isomer and a representative 2-pyridone. ABT-719 administered orally or subcutaneously was 4- to 10-fold more effective than ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes infections in normal mice. ABT-719 was equivalent in efficacy to ciprofloxacin for treatment of gram-negative bacterial infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli. The racemate and R forms of ABT-719 produced similar results against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. The 50% effective doses of ABT-719 were at least threefold lower than those of ciprofloxacin for therapy of intracellular infections caused by Salmonella typhimurium or Listeria monocytogenes. In immunosuppressed mice, ABT-719 was more effective than ciprofloxacin against quinolone-sensitive S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium. The pharmacokinetic properties of ABT-719 were consistent with its relative efficacy. The 2-pyridones are potent, orally available antibacterial agents with efficacy against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections in mice. PMID:7786005

Alder, J; Clement, J; Meulbroek, J; Shipkowitz, N; Mitten, M; Jarvis, K; Oleksijew, A; Hutch, T; Paige, L; Flamm, B

1995-01-01

205

Oxabicyclooctane-linked novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors as broad spectrum antibacterial agents.  

PubMed

Bacterial resistance is eroding the clinical utility of existing antibiotics necessitating the discovery of new agents. Bacterial type II topoisomerase is a clinically validated, highly effective, and proven drug target. This target is amenable to inhibition by diverse classes of inhibitors with alternative and distinct binding sites to quinolone antibiotics, thus enabling the development of agents that lack cross-resistance to quinolones. Described here are novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs), which are a new class of gyrase and topo IV inhibitors and consist of three distinct structural moieties. The substitution of the linker moiety led to discovery of potent broad-spectrum NBTIs with reduced off-target activity (hERG IC50 > 18 ?M) and improved physical properties. AM8191 is bactericidal and selectively inhibits DNA synthesis and Staphylococcus aureus gyrase (IC50 = 1.02 ?M) and topo IV (IC50 = 10.4 ?M). AM8191 showed parenteral and oral efficacy (ED50) at less than 2.5 mg/kg doses in a S. aureus murine infection model. A cocrystal structure of AM8191 bound to S. aureus DNA-gyrase showed binding interactions similar to that reported for GSK299423, displaying a key contact of Asp83 with the basic amine at position-7 of the linker. PMID:24900889

Singh, Sheo B; Kaelin, David E; Wu, Jin; Miesel, Lynn; Tan, Christopher M; Meinke, Peter T; Olsen, David; Lagrutta, Armando; Bradley, Prudence; Lu, Jun; Patel, Sangita; Rickert, Keith W; Smith, Robert F; Soisson, Stephen; Wei, Changqing; Fukuda, Hideyuki; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Fukuda, Yasumichi

2014-05-01

206

Synthesis of new sugar derivatives and evaluation of their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A series of sugar derivatives (1-13) were synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis (MTB), especially multi-drug resistant (MDR) MTB, and the structure-activity relationships of these compounds were studied. The results showed that the compound OCT313 (2-acetamido-2deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate) (4) exhibited significant in vitro bactericidal activity, and that the dithiocarbamate group at C-1 position of the glucopyranoside ring was requisite for the antibacterial activity. PMID:19828313

Horita, Yasuhiro; Takii, Takemasa; Chiba, Taku; Kuroishi, Ryuji; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Kurono, Yukihisa; Inagaki, Emi; Nishimura, Kenji; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Abe, Chiyoji; Mori, Masami; Onozaki, Kikuo

2009-11-15

207

[Resistance to antituberculous drugs].  

PubMed

Mycobacteria responsible for tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum) are susceptible to a very small number of antibiotics. As soon as these drugs were used in humans all gave rise to the selection of resistant mycobacteria. Study of the mechanisms of acquired resistance, with the help of the genetics of mycobacteria, led to a more accurate understanding of the mode of action of antituberculous drugs. The antibiotics isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethionamide and ethambutol are mycobacteria-specific because they inhibit the synthesis of mycolic acids, which are specific constituants of the bacterial wall. Mutations responsible for resistance to these drugs affect genes coding for activator enzymes (katg for isoniazid, pncA for pyrazinamide) or genes coding for their target (inhA for isoniazid/ethionamide, embB for ethambutol). With rifamycins, aminosides and quinolones, mechanisms of action and resistance are the same for mycobacteria as for non-mycobacterial organisms. No plasmid or resistance transposon has been described in M. tuberculosis. Currently a test for the quick detection of resistance to rifampicin is widely available but in the future DNA chips may allow the simultaneous detection of multiple resistances. Monitoring of antituberculous drugs shows that in France the prevalence of multiresistance ( resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin) is 0.5%, primary resistance (before treatment) is 9%, and secondary resistance (after treatment) is 16%. PMID:16129320

Veziris, N; Cambau, E; Sougakoff, W; Robert, J; Jarlier, V

2005-08-01

208

Antibiotics Threaten Wildlife: Circulating Quinolone Residues and Disease in Avian Scavengers  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic residues that may be present in carcasses of medicated livestock could pass to and greatly reduce scavenger wildlife populations. We surveyed residues of the quinolones enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics (amoxicillin and oxytetracycline) in nestling griffon Gyps fulvus, cinereous Aegypius monachus and Egyptian Neophron percnopterus vultures in central Spain. We found high concentrations of antibiotics in the plasma of many nestling cinereous (57%) and Egyptian (40%) vultures. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also found in liver samples of all dead cinereous vultures. This is the first report of antibiotic residues in wildlife. We also provide evidence of a direct association between antibiotic residues, primarily quinolones, and severe disease due to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Our results indicate that, by damaging the liver and kidney and through the acquisition and proliferation of pathogens associated with the depletion of lymphoid organs, continuous exposure to antibiotics could increase mortality rates, at least in cinereous vultures. If antibiotics ingested with livestock carrion are clearly implicated in the decline of the vultures in central Spain then it should be considered a primary concern for conservation of their populations. PMID:18197254

Lemus, Jesús Á.; Blanco, Guillermo; Grande, Javier; Arroyo, Bernardo; García-Montijano, Marino; Martínez, Felíx

2008-01-01

209

Role of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) in sensitising Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation.  

PubMed

One of the main stress factors that bacteria face in the environment is solar ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation, which leads to lethal effects through oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxi-4-quinolone (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal or PQS) in the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation. PQS is an intercellular quorum sensing signal associated to membrane vesicles which, among other functions, regulates genes related to iron acquisition, forms stable complexes with iron and participates in oxidative phenomena. UVA exposure of the wild-type PAO1 strain and a pqsA mutant unable to produce PQS revealed a sensitising role for this signal. Research into the mechanism involved in this phenomenon revealed that catalase, an essential factor in the UVA defence, is not related to PQS-mediated UVA sensitivity. Absorption of UVA by PQS produced its own photo-degradation, oxidation of the probe 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein and generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion, suggesting that this signal could be acting as an endogenous photosensitiser. The results presented in this study could explain the high sensitivity to UVA of P. aeruginosa when compared to enteric bacteria. PMID:25535873

Pezzoni, Magdalena; Meichtry, Martín; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

2015-01-01

210

Synthesis of optically active 2,3-substituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-quinolones using polyleucine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyleucine catalyzes the asymmetric epoxidation of enone (1) in a non-aqueous medium to provide epoxy-ketones (2) and (3) (81 and 84% yields respectively; >98% ee). The epoxy-ketones (2) and (3) are subsequently cyclized to give 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-4-quinolones (4) and (5) respectively.

Wei-ping Chen; Ann L. Egar; Michael B. Hursthouse; K. M. Abdul Malik; Judo E. Mathews; Stanley M. Roberts

1998-01-01

211

Quinolones control in milk and eggs samples by liquid chromatography using a surfactant-mediated mobile phase.  

PubMed

Four quinolones (danofloxacin, difloxacin, flumequine and marbofloxacin) were determined in milk and egg samples by a simplified high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure using a micellar mobile phase. No extraction was needed to precipitate the proteins from the matrices since they were solubilised in micelles. The only pretreatment steps required were homogenisation, dilution and filtration before injecting the sample into the chromatographic system. An adequate resolution of the quinolones was achieved by a chemometrics approach where retention was modelled as a first step using the retention factors in only five mobile phases. Afterwards, an optimisation criterion was applied to consider the position and shape of the chromatographic peaks. Analytical separation involved a C18 reversed-phase column, a hybrid micellar mobile phase of 0.05 M sodium dodecyl sulphate, 10% (v/v) butanol and 0.5% (v/v) triethylamine buffered at pH 3 and fluorimetric detection. Quinolones were eluted in less than 15 min without the protein band or other endogenous compounds from the food matrices interfering. The calculated relevant validation parameters, e.g., decision limit (CC(?)), detection capability (CC(?)), repeatability, within-laboratory reproducibility, recoveries and robustness, were acceptable and complied with European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Finally, the proposed method was successfully employed in quantifying the four quinolones in spiked egg and milk samples. PMID:21085936

Rambla-Alegre, M; Collado-Sánchez, M A; Esteve-Romero, J; Carda-Broch, S

2011-05-01

212

Analysis of quinolone antibiotics in eggs: preparation and characterization of a raw material for method validation and quality control.  

PubMed

A quality control material for the analysis of quinolone residues in egg samples has been prepared. Homogenized fresh whole egg spiked with nine quinolones (marbofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine), at the concentration level of 500 ?g kg(-1) was lyophilized and homogenized to obtain the reference material. The homogeneity of both the bulk and the packed material was verified. Two different strategies, classical and isochronous, were used for the stability study. Conclusions obtained with the classical and isochronous approaches were similar, but the variability of the isochronous results was lower and this led to lower material uncertainty. The reference material was found to be stable for at least 1 year when stored at either room temperature, 4 °C or -20 °C; -80 °C was taken as reference temperature in all cases. The determination of quinolones in eggs was carried out by a previously developed and validated method making use of a pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The suitability of the material prepared was demonstrated by using a lyophilized egg material spiked with nine quinolones as sample in a proficiency test. PMID:25005999

Jiménez, V; Companyó, R; Guiteras, J

2012-10-01

213

Mesoporous TiO2 implants for loading high dosage of antibacterial agent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have fabricated mesoporous thin films composed of TiO2 nanoparticles on anodized titanium implant surfaces for loading drugs at high doses. Surface anodization followed by treatment with TiO2 paste leads to the formation of mechanically stable mesoporous thin films with controllable thickness. A series of antibacterial agents (silver nanoparticles, cephalothin, minocycline, and amoxicillin) were loaded into the mesoporous thin films and their antibacterial activities were evaluated against five bacterial species including three oral pathogens. Additionally, two agents (silver nanoparticles and minocycline) were loaded together on the thin film and tested for antibacterial effectiveness. The combination of silver nanoparticles and minocycline was found to display a wide range of effectiveness against all tested bacteria.

Park, Se Woong; Lee, Donghyun; Choi, Yong Suk; Jeon, Hoon Bong; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kwon, Il Keun

2014-06-01

214

SAR Studies for a New Class of Antibacterial NAD Biosynthesis Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

A new lead class of antibacterial drug-like NAD synthetase (NADs) inhibitors was previously identified from a virtual screening study. Here a solution-phase synthetic library of 76 compounds, analogs of the urea-sulfonamide 5838, was synthesized in parallel to explore SAR on the sulfonamide aryl group. All library members were tested for enzyme inhibition against NADs and nicotinic acid mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NaMNAT), the last two enzymes in the biosynthesis of NAD, and for growth inhibition in a B. anthracis antibacterial assay. Most compounds that inhibited bacterial growth also showed inhibition against one of the enzymes tested. While only modest enhancements in the enzyme inhibition potency against NADs were observed, of significance was the observation that the antibacterial urea-sulfonamides more consistently inhibited NaMNAT. PMID:19408950

Moro, Whitney Beysselance; Yang, Zhengrong; Kane, Tasha A.; Zhou, Qingxian; Harville, Steve; Brouillette, Christie G.; Brouillette, Wayne J.

2009-01-01

215

Synthesis of linear and cyclic guazatine derivatives endowed with antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance has reached alarming levels in many clinically-relevant human pathogens, and there is an increasing clinical need for new antibiotics active on drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens who rapidly evolve towards pandrug resistance phenotypes. Here, we report on two related classes of guanidinic compounds endowed with antibacterial activity. The two best compounds (9a and 13d) exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity with MIC values ranging 0.12-8?g/ml with most tested pathogens, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, MIC values were not affected (1-8?g/ml) when measured using recent clinical isolates with various antibiotic resistance determinants. The results reported herein identify guazatine derivatives as an interesting starting point for the optimization of a potentially novel class of antibacterial agents. PMID:25455183

Maccari, Giorgio; Sanfilippo, Stefania; De Luca, Filomena; Deodato, Davide; Casian, Alexandru; Dasso Lang, Maria Chiara; Zamperini, Claudio; Dreassi, Elena; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Botta, Maurizio

2014-12-01

216

An antibacterial thiophene from Balsamorhiza sagittata.  

PubMed

Balsamorhiza sagittata, a species of ethnopharmacological interest in British Columbia, is reported to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. An antibacterial compound isolated from this species was identified as 7,10-epithio-7,9-tridecadiene-3,5,11-triyne-1,2-diol based on the HMQC and HMBC experiments. PMID:8720391

Matsuura, H; Saxena, G; Farmer, S W; Hancock, R E; Towers, G H

1996-02-01

217

Transformation of the Antibacterial Agent Sulfamethoxazole in  

E-print Network

transformation during disinfection of such waters with free chlorine residuals. Introduction Sulfamethoxazole of antibacterial resistance has yet to be proven, singly and multiply antibacterial resistant bacteria have been water (8-11). The detection in aquatic environ- mental systems of resistant bacteria

Huang, Ching-Hua

218

Antibacterial Effect of Fisetin and Fisetinidin  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE antibacterial effect of numerous bioflavonoids is not yet known, and on the basis of chemical structure it seemed worth while to investigate the possible antibacterial effect of fisetin, dihydrofisetin and fisetinidin chloride. Fisetin and dihydrofisetin are commercial products, but we have synthesized fisetinidin chloride. Fisetin is found in Butea frondosa, Gleditschia triacanthos, Quebracho Colorado and the genus Rhus1,2.

M. Gábor; E. Eperjessy

1966-01-01

219

Proteolytically activated anti-bacterial hydrogel microspheres  

PubMed Central

Hydrogels are finding increased clinical utility as advances continue to exploit their favorable material properties. Hydrogels can be adapted for many applications, including surface coatings and drug delivery. Anti-infectious surfaces and delivery systems that actively destroy invading organisms are alternative ways to exploit the favorable material properties offered by hydrogels. Sterilization techniques are commonly employed to ensure the materials are non-infectious upon placement, but sterilization is not absolute and infections are still expected. Natural, anti-bacterial proteins have been discovered which have the potential to act as anti-infectious agents; however, the proteins are toxic and need localized release to have therapeutic efficacy without toxicity. In these studies, we explore the use of the glutathione s-transferase (GST) to anchor the bactericidal peptide, melittin, to the surface of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel microspheres. We show that therapeutic levels of protein can be anchored to the surface of the microspheres using the GST anchor. We compared the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant melittin released from PEGDA microspheres to melittin. We found that, when released by an activating enzyme, thrombin, recombinant melittin efficiently inhibits growth of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes as effectively as melittin created by solid phase peptide synthesis. We conclude that a GST protein anchor can be used to immobilize functional protein to PEGDA microspheres and the protein will remain immobilized under physiological conditions until the protein is enzymatically released. PMID:23816641

Buhrman, Jason S.; Cook, Laura C.; Rayahin, Jamie E.; Federle, Michael J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

2013-01-01

220

Proteolytically activated anti-bacterial hydrogel microspheres.  

PubMed

Hydrogels are finding increased clinical utility as advances continue to exploit their favorable material properties. Hydrogels can be adapted for many applications, including surface coatings and drug delivery. Anti-infectious surfaces and delivery systems that actively destroy invading organisms are alternative ways to exploit the favorable material properties offered by hydrogels. Sterilization techniques are commonly employed to ensure the materials are non-infectious upon placement, but sterilization is not absolute and infections are still expected. Natural, anti-bacterial proteins have been discovered which have the potential to act as anti-infectious agents; however, the proteins are toxic and need localized release to have therapeutic efficacy without toxicity. In these studies, we explore the use of the glutathione s-transferase (GST) to anchor the bactericidal peptide, melittin, to the surface of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel microspheres. We show that therapeutic levels of protein can be anchored to the surface of the microspheres using the GST anchor. We compared the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant melittin released from PEGDA microspheres to melittin. We found that, when released by an activating enzyme, thrombin, recombinant melittin efficiently inhibits growth of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes as effectively as melittin created by solid phase peptide synthesis. We conclude that a GST protein anchor can be used to immobilize functional protein to PEGDA microspheres and the protein will remain immobilized under physiological conditions until the protein is enzymatically released. PMID:23816641

Buhrman, Jason S; Cook, Laura C; Rayahin, Jamie E; Federle, Michael J; Gemeinhart, Richard A

2013-11-10

221

Detection of quinolones in commercial eggs obtained from farms in the espaíllat province in the dominican republic.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported the use of quinolones in broiler chickens resulted in residues in retail poultry meat obtained from nine districts in the Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic. Residues in poultry products are a concern due to consumer allergies and the potential to develop antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the use of quinolones in poultry production and our previous findings in poultry meat, the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of quinolone residues in eggs. Samples were collected from 48 different farms located in three of the four municipalities (Moca, Cayetano Germosén, and Jamao) of the Espaíllat Province. Each farm was sampled three times between July and September for a total of 144 samples. Samples were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for quinolone residues using the Equinox test. Operation systems (cage or floor), seasonality, and location were considered along with egg-producer sizes that were defined as small scale, <30,000 eggs per day; medium scale, 30,000 to 60,000 eggs per day; or large scale, >60,000 eggs per day. From small-, medium-, and large-scale producers, 69, 50, and 40% of samples were positive for quinolone residues, respectively. A greater number of samples were positive (61%) in floor-laying hen producers compared with those using cages (40%). In the Jamao municipality, 67% of the samples were positive compared with Moca and Cayetano Germosén, where 56 and 25% of samples were positive, respectively. Sampling time had an effect on percent positives: samples collected in July, August, and September were 71, 19, and 63% positive, respectively. Overall, 51% of the samples obtained from eggs produced in the province of Espaíllat were positive for quinolone residues at levels higher than the maximum limits for edible tissue established by the regulatory agencies, including the European Union and U.S. Department of Agriculture. The results obtained from this research confirmed the presence of quinolone residue in eggs, which may present a health risk to some consumers. PMID:25581199

Moscoso, S; de Los Santos, F Solís; Andino, A G; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Hanning, I

2015-01-01

222

In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom  

PubMed Central

Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2 mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128 ?g/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107 ?g/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0 ?g/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7 ?g/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2 ?g/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs. PMID:24955088

2014-01-01

223

Random Mutagenesis of the Aspergillus oryzae Genome Results in Fungal Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause severe infections in hospitals and communities. Development of new drugs to combat resistant microorganisms is needed. Natural products of microbial origin are the source of most currently available antibiotics. We hypothesized that random mutagenesis of Aspergillus oryzae would result in secretion of antibacterial compounds. To address this hypothesis, we developed a screen to identify individual A. oryzae mutants that inhibit the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. To randomly generate A. oryzae mutant strains, spores were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Over 3000 EMS-treated A. oryzae cultures were tested in the screen, and one isolate, CAL220, exhibited altered morphology and antibacterial activity. Culture supernatant from this isolate showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not Klebsiella pneumonia or Proteus vulgaris. The results of this study support our hypothesis and suggest that the screen used is sufficient and appropriate to detect secreted antibacterial fungal compounds resulting from mutagenesis of A. oryzae. Because the genome of A. oryzae has been sequenced and systems are available for genetic transformation of this organism, targeted as well as random mutations may be introduced to facilitate the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds using this system. PMID:23983696

Leonard, Cory A.; Brown, Stacy D.; Hayman, J. Russell

2013-01-01

224

Development of antibacterial coating on silicone surface via chlorhexidine-loaded nanospheres.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of hospital-acquired infection which cause significant morbidity and mortality. Antibacterial urinary devices to prevent UTIs are in great demand, while the problem of releasing antibacterials is still limited by duration of antibacterial release and hinders their clinical applications. This study investigated a new approach to sustain release of chlorhexidine (CHX) from urinary devices by coating of chlorhexidine-loaded nanospheres (CHX-NPs) on the surface. CHX-NPs were prepared by high-pressure emulsification-solvent evaporation technique that provided the size of nanospheres at 198.8 nm and the drug loading content at 5.6 %. These nanospheres were spray-coated on silicone surface with reproducible and predictable amount of CHX. Release studies conducted in artificial urine to mimic in vivo condition showed that suitable dose of CHX was released in a sustained manner within a couple of weeks. Additionally, CHX-NPs showed antibacterial activity against common bacteria causing UTIs up to 15 days, which is threefold longer than that of physical mixing between CHX and polymer. Results from this study suggest possible applications of CHX-NPs in coating the surface of ureteral-relating devices for sustained antibacterial release. PMID:25631275

Phuengkham, Hathaichanok; Nasongkla, Norased

2015-02-01

225

Toxicity and antibacterial assessment of chitosancoated silver nanoparticles on human pathogens and macrophage cells  

PubMed Central

Background Pathogenic bacteria are able to develop various strategies to counteract the bactericidal action of antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potent antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to synthesize chitosan-stabilized AgNPs (CS-AgNPs) and test for their cytotoxic, genotoxic, macrophage cell uptake, antibacterial, and antibiofilm activities. Methods AgNPs were synthesized using chitosan as both a stabilizing and a reducing agent. Antibacterial activity was determined by colony-forming unit assay and scanning electron microscopy. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activity were determined by DNA fragmentation, comet, and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays. Cellular uptake and intracellular antibacterial activity were tested on macrophages. Results CS-AgNPs exhibited potent antibacterial activity against different human pathogens and also impeded bacterial biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that CS-AgNPs kill bacteria by disrupting the cell membrane. CS-AgNPs showed no significant cytotoxic or DNA damage effect on macrophages at the bactericidal dose. Propidium iodide staining indicated active endocytosis of CS-AgNPs resulting in reduced intracellular bacterial survival in macrophages. Conclusion The present study concludes that at a specific dose, chitosan-based AgNPs kill bacteria without harming the host cells, thus representing a potential template for the design of antibacterial agents to decrease bacterial colonization and to overcome the problem of drug resistance. PMID:22619529

Jena, Prajna; Mohanty, Soumitra; Mallick, Rojee; Jacob, Biju; Sonawane, Avinash

2012-01-01

226

A Function of SmeDEF, the Major Quinolone Resistance Determinant of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Is the Colonization of Plant Roots  

PubMed Central

Quinolones are synthetic antibiotics, and the main cause of resistance to these antimicrobials is mutation of the genes encoding their targets. However, in contrast to the case for other organisms, such mutations have not been found in quinolone-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates, in which overproduction of the SmeDEF efflux pump is a major cause of quinolone resistance. SmeDEF is chromosomally encoded and highly conserved in all studied S. maltophilia strains; it is an ancient element that evolved over millions of years in this species. It thus seems unlikely that its main function would be resistance to quinolones, a family of synthetic antibiotics not present in natural environments until the last few decades. Expression of SmeDEF is tightly controlled by the transcriptional repressor SmeT. Our work shows that plant-produced flavonoids can bind to SmeT, releasing it from smeDEF and smeT operators. Antibiotics extruded by SmeDEF do not impede the binding of SmeT to DNA. The fact that plant-produced flavonoids specifically induce smeDEF expression indicates that they are bona fide effectors regulating expression of this resistance determinant. Expression of efflux pumps is usually downregulated unless their activity is needed. Since smeDEF expression is triggered by plant-produced flavonoids, we reasoned that this efflux pump may have a role in the colonization of plants by S. maltophilia. Our results showed that, indeed, deletion of smeE impairs S. maltophilia colonization of plant roots. Altogether, our results indicate that quinolone resistance is a recent function of SmeDEF and that colonization of plant roots is likely one original function of this efflux pump. PMID:24837376

García-León, Guillermo; Hernández, Alvaro; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Alavi, Peyman; Berg, Gabriele

2014-01-01

227

Cloning and Structure-Function Analyses of Quinolone- and Acridone-producing Novel Type III Polyketide Synthases from Citrus microcarpa*  

PubMed Central

Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56–60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the “single product” by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?3) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?3), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?3) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

2013-01-01

228

Cloning and structure-function analyses of quinolone- and acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthases from Citrus microcarpa.  

PubMed

Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56-60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the "single product" by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?(3)) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?(3)), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?(3)) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

2013-10-01

229

Antibacterial coatings on titanium implants.  

PubMed

Titanium and titanium alloys are key biomedical materials because of their good biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Nevertheless, infection on and around titanium implants still remains a problem which is usually difficult to treat and may lead to eventual implant removal. As a result, preventive measures are necessary to mitigate implant-frelated infection. One important strategy is to render the implant surface antibacterial by impeding the formation of a biofilm. A number of approaches have been proposed for this purpose and they are reviewed in this article. PMID:19637369

Zhao, Lingzhou; Chu, Paul K; Zhang, Yumei; Wu, Zhifen

2009-10-01

230

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:11524862

Drake, D

1996-01-01

231

Antibacterial activity of baking soda.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:12017929

Drake, D

1997-01-01

232

Overcoming scientific and structural bottlenecks in antibacterial discovery and development  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasing threat, with too few novel antibiotics coming to market to replace those lost due to resistance development. Efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to screen for and design novel antibacterials have not been successful, with several companies minimizing or closing down their antibacterial research units, leading to a loss of skills and know-how. At the same time, antibiotic innovation in academia is not filling the void due to misaligned incentive structures and lack of vital knowledge of drug discovery. The scientific and structural difficulties in discovering new antibiotics have only begun to be appreciated in the latest years. Part of the problem has been a paradigm shift within both industry and academia to focus on ‘rational’ drug development with an emphasis on single targets and high-throughput screening of large chemical libraries, which may not be suited to target bacteria. The very particular aspects of ‘targeting an organism inside another organism’ have not been given enough attention. In this paper, researcher interviews have complemented literature studies to delve deeper into the specifics of the different scientific and structural barriers, and some potential solutions are offered. PMID:24646118

2014-01-01

233

Application of electrolysis to inactivation of antibacterials in clinical use.  

PubMed

Contamination of surface water by antibacterial pharmaceuticals (antibacterials) from clinical settings may affect aquatic organisms, plants growth, and environmental floral bacteria. One of the methods to decrease the contamination is inactivation of antibacterials before being discharged to the sewage system. Recently, we reported the novel method based on electrolysis for detoxifying wastewater containing antineoplastics. In the present study, to clarify whether the electrolysis method is applicable to the inactivation of antibacterials, we electrolyzed solutions of 10 groups of individual antibacterials including amikacin sulfate (AMK) and a mixture (MIX) of some commercial antibacterials commonly prescribed at hospitals, and measured their antibacterial activities. AMK was inactivated in its antibacterial activities and its concentration decreased by electrolysis in a time-dependent manner. Eighty to ninety-nine percent of almost all antibacterials and MIX were inactivated within 6h of electrolysis. Additionally, cytotoxicity was not detected in any of the electrolyzed solutions of antibacterials and MIX by the Molt-4-based cytotoxicity test. PMID:23337489

Nakano, Takashi; Hirose, Jun; Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hiro, Naoki; Kondo, Fumitake; Tamai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Sano, Kouichi

2013-04-01

234

Voreloxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, acts synergistically with cytarabine in vitro and induces bone marrow aplasia in vivo  

PubMed Central

Main purpose Voreloxin is a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative that intercalates DNA and inhibits topoisomerase II, inducing site-selective DNA damage. Voreloxin is in clinical studies, as a single agent and in combination with cytarabine, for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The preclinical studies reported here were performed to investigate the activity of voreloxin alone and in combination with cytarabine, in support of the clinical program. Research questions Is single agent voreloxin active in preclinical models of AML? Does the combination of voreloxin and cytarabine enhance the activity of either agent alone? Methods Inhibition of proliferation was studied in three cancer cell lines: HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukemia), MV4-11 (AML), and CCRF-CEM (Acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Combination index (CI) analysis established the effect of the drugs in combination. A mouse model of bone marrow ablation was used to investigate in vivo efficacy of the drugs alone and in combination. Peripheral white blood cell and platelet counts were followed to assess marrow impact and recovery. Results Voreloxin and cytarabine alone and in combination exhibited cytotoxic activity in human leukemia cell lines and in vivo. The two drugs had additive or synergistic activity in vitro and supra-additive activity in vivo. Bone marrow ablation was accompanied by reductions in peripheral white blood cells and platelets that were reversible within 1 week, consistent with the AML treatment paradigm. Conclusions These data support ongoing clinical evaluation of voreloxin both alone and in combination with cytarabine for the treatment of AML. PMID:20058009

Scatena, Caroline D.; Kumer, Jeffrey L.; Arbitrario, Jennifer P.; Howlett, Anthony R.; Hawtin, Rachael E.; Silverman, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

235

Resistance patterns to beta-lactams and quinolones in clinical isolates of bacteria from Cuban hospitals.  

PubMed

The resistance patterns to 26 beta-lactams and 8 quinolones of clinical isolates from Cuban hospitals were evaluated using the disk susceptibility test, according to the NCCLS guidelines (1992). The genera studied were Escherichia sp (320), Enterobacter sp (10), Klebsiella sp (90), Proteus sp (10), Pseudomonas sp (90), Serratia sp (20), and Staphylococcus sp (80). Higher resistance to beta-lactams was observed in the genera Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Klebsiella. For fluoroquinolones we found no significant resistance, with the exception of the genus Klebsiella. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generations, fluoroquinolones, and non-classical beta-lactams (cephamycins, moxalactam and monobactams). On the contrary, a pronounced resistance was found to penicillin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, methicillin, nalidixic acid and cinoxacin. These resistance patterns correspond to the high consumption of these antibiotics throughout the country. PMID:7490170

Gonzáles, I; Niebla, A; Vallin, C

1995-01-01

236

Classification SAR modeling of diverse quinolone compounds for antimalarial potency against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Both a development of resistance to artemisinin monotherapy and lack of effective vaccine against malaria have created the urgent need for the development of new and efficient antimalarial agents. In this background, we have developed here a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) model and a few 3D-pharmacophore models for the classification of diverse quinolone compounds based on their antimalarial potency against Plasmodium falciparum. The discriminant model shows 70% correct classification for the test set compounds into higher active and lower active analogues. The best pharmacophore model (Hypo-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 shows one hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) and two ring aromatic (RA) features as the essential structural requirements for antimalarial activity against P falciparum. Both the models may act as in silico filters for a virtual screening and could be utilized for the selection of higher active molecules falling within the applicability of the models. PMID:24372050

Aher, Rahul Balasaheb; Roy, Kunal

2014-01-01

237

Susceptibilities of healthcare- and community-associated methicillin-resistant staphylococci to the novel des-F(6)-quinolone DX619  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of the study was to test in vitro activities of the novel des-F(6)-quinolone DX-619 against methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) isolated in hospitals and communities and to compare its activity with other quinolones, sitafloxacin and levofloxacin, and antibiotics used for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, including vancomycin, teicoplanin, arbekacin, linezolid and quinupristin\\/dalfopristin. Methods: MICs were determined by

Shinya Watanabe; Teruyo Ito; Keiichi Hiramatsu

238

Influence of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal on Denitrification in Pseudomonas aeruginosa?  

PubMed Central

Denitrification is a well-studied respiratory system that is also important in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Environmental signals such as oxygen and N-oxides have been demonstrated to regulate denitrification, though how denitrification is regulated in a bacterial community remains obscure. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous bacterium that controls numerous genes through cell-to-cell signals. The bacterium possesses at least two N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals. In our previous study, these quorum-sensing signals controlled denitrification in P. aeruginosa. In addition to the AHL signals, a third cell-to-cell communication signal, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone, referred to as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), has been characterized. In this study, we examined the effect of PQS on denitrification to obtain more insight into the respiratory regulation in a bacterial community. Denitrification in P. aeruginosa was repressed by PQS, which was partially mediated by PqsR and PqsE. Measuring the denitrifying enzyme activities indicated that nitrite reductase activity was increased by PQS, whereas PQS inhibited nitric oxide reductase and the nitrate-respiratory chain activities. This is the first report to demonstrate that PQS influences enzyme activities, suggesting this effect is not specific to P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, when iron was supplied to the PQS-added medium, denitrifying activity was almost restored, indicating that the iron chelating property of PQS affected denitrification. Thus, our data indicate that PQS regulates denitrification primarily through iron chelation. The PQS effect on denitrification was relevant in a condition where oxygen was limited and denitrification was induced, suggesting its role in controlling denitrification where oxygen is present. PMID:18931133

Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Kuno, Eriko; Tashiro, Yosuke; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Uchiyama, Hiroo

2008-01-01

239

Complete proteome of a quinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT104B clinical strain.  

PubMed

Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne diseases. The emergence of Salmonella strains that are resistant to a variety of antimicrobials is a serious global public health concern. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (DT104) is one of these emerging epidemic multidrug resistant strains. Here we collate information from the diverse and comprehensive range of experiments on Salmonella proteomes that have been published. We then present a new study of the proteome of the quinolone-resistant Se20 strain (phage type DT104B), recovered after ciprofloxacin treatment and compared it to the proteome of reference strain SL1344. A total of 186 and 219 protein spots were recovered from Se20 and SL1344 protein extracts, respectively, after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The signatures of 94% of the protein spots were successfully identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Three antimicrobial resistance related proteins, whose genes were previously detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were identified in the clinical strain. The presence of these proteins, dihydropteroate synthase type-2 (sul2 gene), aminoglycoside resistance protein A (strA gene) and aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib-cr4 (aac(6')-Ib-cr4 gene), was confirmed in the DT104B clinical strain. The aac(6')-Ib-cr4 gene is responsible for plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance. This is a preliminary analysis of the proteome of these two S. Typhimurium strains and further work is being developed to better understand how antimicrobial resistance is developing in this pathogen. PMID:25196519

Correia, Susana; Nunes-Miranda, Júlio D; Pinto, Luís; Santos, Hugo M; de Toro, María; Sáenz, Yolanda; Torres, Carmen; Capelo, José Luis; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto

2014-01-01

240

rpoN Gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alters Its Susceptibility to Quinolones and Carbapenems?  

PubMed Central

The alternative sigma factor ?54 has been implicated in diverse functions within the cells. In this study, we have constructed an rpoN mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and investigated its importance as a target for antimicrobial agents, such as quinolones and carbapenems. The stationary-phase cells of the rpoN mutant displayed a survival rate approximately 15 times higher than that of the wild-type cells in the presence of quinolones and carbapenems. The stationary phase led to substantial production of pyoverdine by the P. aeruginosa rpoN mutant. Pyoverdine synthesis correlated with decreased susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that stationary-phase cells of the rpoN mutant grown without an antimicrobial agent had approximately 4- to 140- and 2- to 14-fold-higher levels of transcripts of the pvdS and vqsR genes, respectively, than the wild-type strain. In the presence of an antimicrobial agent, levels of pvdS and vqsR transcripts were elevated 400- and 5-fold, respectively, in comparison to the wild-type levels. Flow cytometry assays using a green fluorescent protein reporter demonstrated increased expression of the vqsR gene in the rpoN mutant throughout growth. A pvdS mutant of P. aeruginosa, deficient in pyoverdine production, was shown to be susceptible to biapenem. These findings suggest that rpoN is involved in tolerance to antimicrobial agents in P. aeruginosa and that its tolerant effect is partly dependent on increased pyoverdine production and vqsR gene expression. PMID:17261620

Viducic, Darija; Ono, Tsuneko; Murakami, Keiji; Katakami, Mikiko; Susilowati, Heni; Miyake, Yoichiro

2007-01-01

241

Complete Proteome of a Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium Phage Type DT104B Clinical Strain  

PubMed Central

Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne diseases. The emergence of Salmonella strains that are resistant to a variety of antimicrobials is a serious global public health concern. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (DT104) is one of these emerging epidemic multidrug resistant strains. Here we collate information from the diverse and comprehensive range of experiments on Salmonella proteomes that have been published. We then present a new study of the proteome of the quinolone-resistant Se20 strain (phage type DT104B), recovered after ciprofloxacin treatment and compared it to the proteome of reference strain SL1344. A total of 186 and 219 protein spots were recovered from Se20 and SL1344 protein extracts, respectively, after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The signatures of 94% of the protein spots were successfully identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Three antimicrobial resistance related proteins, whose genes were previously detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were identified in the clinical strain. The presence of these proteins, dihydropteroate synthase type-2 (sul2 gene), aminoglycoside resistance protein A (strA gene) and aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib-cr4 (aac(6')-Ib-cr4 gene), was confirmed in the DT104B clinical strain. The aac(6')-Ib-cr4 gene is responsible for plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance. This is a preliminary analysis of the proteome of these two S. Typhimurium strains and further work is being developed to better understand how antimicrobial resistance is developing in this pathogen. PMID:25196519

Correia, Susana; Nunes-Miranda, Júlio D.; Pinto, Luís; Santos, Hugo M.; de Toro, María; Sáenz, Yolanda; Torres, Carmen; Capelo, José Luis; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto

2014-01-01

242

Antibacterial phenylpropanoid glycosides from Paulownia tomentosa Steud.  

PubMed

The butanol extract of Paulownia tomentosa stem showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (SG511, 285 and 503), Streptococcus pyogenes (A308 and A77) and Streptococcus faecium MD8b etc. The most active compound of the extract was identified to be campneoside I, which had a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 150 micrograms/ml against Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species. From such antibacterial activity, the methoxy group of campneoside I was postulated to be the essential element for the antibacterial activity. PMID:10319161

Kang, K H; Jang, S K; Kim, B K; Park, M K

1994-12-01

243

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Yanglingmycin Analogues.  

PubMed

The synthesis of Yanglingmycin and its enantiomer, along with eighteen Yanglingmycin analogues is reported. The structures were confirmed mainly by analyses of NMR spectral data. Antibacterial activity assays showed that Yanglingmycin and some of its analogues exhibited significant antibacterial activities against two important agricultural pathogenic bacteria, Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, with MIC values ranging from 3.91 to 15.62 ?g/mL. The antibacterial activities exhibited by Yanglingmycin and its analogues are promising, suggesting potential in the development of compounds for novel bactericides. PMID:25355464

Li, Long-Bo; Dan, Wen-Jia; Tan, Fang-Fang; Cui, Li-Hui; Yuan, Zhi-Peng; Wu, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Wen

2014-10-30

244

Stimuli-responsive self-assembling peptides made from antibacterial peptides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to use bioactive peptide sequences as fundamental building blocks to make hydrogel materials which are stimuli-responsive? In this article, we provide a novel designed peptide comprising two antibacterial peptide sequences (KIGAKI)3-NH2 and a central tetrapeptide linker. Results show that balancing the forces of the electrostatic repulsion of the charged lysine residues against the hydrophobic collapse of the isoleucine and alanine residues and backbone ?-sheet hydrogen bonding allows the structural transition and formation of individually dispersed nanofibers. Circular Dichroism (CD) and rheology analysis demonstrated that the designed peptide can undergo an abrupt structural transition from a random coil to a stable unimolecular ?-hairpin conformation and subsequently form an elastic hydrogel when exposed to external stimuli such as pH, ionic strength and heat. The assembly kinetics of the obtained antibacterial sequence comprising peptide (ASCP) was studied by time-lapse Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay. In addition, the inherent antibacterial activity of the peptide hydrogel was confirmed by the antibacterial assay against Escherichia coli. This example described epitomizes the use of bioactive peptide sequences in the design of finite self-assembled structures with potential inherent activity. These hydrogel materials may find applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.How to use bioactive peptide sequences as fundamental building blocks to make hydrogel materials which are stimuli-responsive? In this article, we provide a novel designed peptide comprising two antibacterial peptide sequences (KIGAKI)3-NH2 and a central tetrapeptide linker. Results show that balancing the forces of the electrostatic repulsion of the charged lysine residues against the hydrophobic collapse of the isoleucine and alanine residues and backbone ?-sheet hydrogen bonding allows the structural transition and formation of individually dispersed nanofibers. Circular Dichroism (CD) and rheology analysis demonstrated that the designed peptide can undergo an abrupt structural transition from a random coil to a stable unimolecular ?-hairpin conformation and subsequently form an elastic hydrogel when exposed to external stimuli such as pH, ionic strength and heat. The assembly kinetics of the obtained antibacterial sequence comprising peptide (ASCP) was studied by time-lapse Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay. In addition, the inherent antibacterial activity of the peptide hydrogel was confirmed by the antibacterial assay against Escherichia coli. This example described epitomizes the use of bioactive peptide sequences in the design of finite self-assembled structures with potential inherent activity. These hydrogel materials may find applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00225j

Liu, Yanfei; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Xiaojun

2013-06-01

245

Drug-induced nail disorders.  

PubMed

Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

2014-07-01

246

Bio-inspired flavonol and quinolone dioxygenation by a non-heme iron catalyst modeling the action of flavonol and 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone 2,4-dioxygenases.  

PubMed

The mononuclear complex, Fe(III)(O-bs)(salen) (salenH(2)=1,6-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,5-diaza-hexa-1,5-diene; O-bsH=O-benzoylsalicylic acid) was synthesized as synthetic enzyme-depside complex, and characterized by spectroscopic methods and X-ray crystal analysis. The dioxygenation of flavonol (flaH) and 3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (quinH(2)) derivatives in the presence of catalytic amounts of Fe(III)(O-bs)(salen) results in the oxidative cleavage of the heterocyclic ring to give the corresponding O-benzoylsalicylic and anthranilic acid derivatives with concomitant release of carbon monoxide. These reactions can be regarded as biomimetic functional models with relevance to the iron-containing flavonol and the cofactor-independent 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone 2,4-dioxygenases. PMID:22265834

Pap, József S; Matuz, Andrea; Baráth, Gábor; Kripli, Balázs; Giorgi, Michel; Speier, Gábor; Kaizer, József

2012-03-01

247

DX-619, a novel des-fluoro(6) quinolone manifesting low frequency of selection of resistant Staphylococcus aureus mutants: quinolone resistance beyond modification of type II topoisomerases.  

PubMed

DX-619, a novel des-fluoro(6) quinolone, was 16- to 32-fold, twofold, and four- to eightfold more potent than ciprofloxacin, gemifloxacin, and garenoxacin, respectively, against wild-type Staphylococcus aureus. DX-619 manifested equal fourfold increases in MIC against a common parC mutant and a common gyrA mutant and selected for mutants at up to two- to fourfold its MIC, consistent with dual-targeting properties. Of the four independent single-step mutants selected, two had new single mutations in parC (V87F and R17H), and two shared a new gyrA mutation (A26V), one with an additional deletion mutation in parE (delta215-7). By allelic exchange, the ParC but not the GyrA or ParE mutation was shown to be fully responsible for the resistance phenotypes, suggesting an as yet undefined mechanism of resistance operating in conjunction with type II topoisomerase mutations contributed to resistance to DX-619. Studies with purified topoisomerase IV and gyrase from S. aureus also showed that DX-619 had similar activity against topoisomerase IV and gyrase (50% stimulation of cleavage complexes concentration, 1.25 and 0.62 to 1.25 mug/ml, respectively). Susceptibility studies with DX-619 and an array of efflux pump substrates with and without reserpine, an inhibitor of efflux pumps, suggested that resistance in DX-619-selected mutants is affected by mechanisms other than mutations in topoisomerases or known reserpine-inhibitable pumps in S. aureus and thus are likely novel. PMID:16304172

Strahilevitz, Jacob; Truong-Bolduc, Que Chi; Hooper, David C

2005-12-01

248

In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of

Assam Assam JP; JP Dzoyem; CA Pieme; VB Penlap

2010-01-01

249

A class of selective antibacterials derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore  

PubMed Central

As the need for novel antibiotic classes to combat bacterial drug resistance increases, the paucity of leads resulting from target-based antibacterial screening of pharmaceutical compound libraries is of major concern. One explanation for this lack of success is that antibacterial screening efforts have not leveraged the eukaryotic bias resulting from more extensive chemistry efforts targeting eukaryotic gene families such as G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases. Consistent with a focus on antibacterial target space resembling these eukaryotic targets, we used whole-cell screening to identify a series of antibacterial pyridopyrimidines derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore. In bacteria, the pyridopyrimidines target the ATP-binding site of biotin carboxylase (BC), which catalyzes the first enzymatic step of fatty acid biosynthesis. These inhibitors are effective in vitro and in vivo against fastidious Gram-negative pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae. Although the BC active site has architectural similarity to those of eukaryotic protein kinases, inhibitor binding to the BC ATP-binding site is distinct from the protein kinase-binding mode, such that the inhibitors are selective for bacterial BC. In summary, we have discovered a promising class of potent antibacterials with a previously undescribed mechanism of action. In consideration of the eukaryotic bias of pharmaceutical libraries, our findings also suggest that pursuit of a novel inhibitor leads for antibacterial targets with active-site structural similarity to known human targets will likely be more fruitful than the traditional focus on unique bacterial target space, particularly when structure-based and computational methodologies are applied to ensure bacterial selectivity. PMID:19164768

Miller, J. Richard; Dunham, Steve; Mochalkin, Igor; Banotai, Craig; Bowman, Matthew; Buist, Susan; Dunkle, Bill; Hanna, Debra; Harwood, H. James; Huband, Michael D.; Karnovsky, Alla; Kuhn, Michael; Limberakis, Chris; Liu, Jia Y.; Mehrens, Shawn; Mueller, W. Thomas; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Ogden, Adam; Ohren, Jeff; Prasad, J. V. N. Vara; Shelly, John A.; Skerlos, Laura; Sulavik, Mark; Thomas, V. Hayden; VanderRoest, Steve; Wang, LiAnn; Wang, Zhigang; Whitton, Amy; Zhu, Tong; Stover, C. Kendall

2009-01-01

250

Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v\\/v) acetonitrile, containing 0·1% (v\\/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme

Tor Haug; Anita K. Kjuul; Klara Stensvĺg; Erling Sandsdalen; Olaf B. Styrvold

2002-01-01

251

Glucosamine sulfate—environmental antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently showed antibacterial activity against E. coli in vitro of a trademark Mega-Gluflex-containing glucosamine sulfate (GS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). The purpose of this\\u000a study was to examine the antibacterial activity of GS as a new trademark Arthryl (Manufacturer Rottapharm Ltd, Ireland; Distributor\\u000a in Israel Rafa Laboratories Ltd) in vitro. We used cabbage and chicken broths and milk

Alexander P. Rozin

2009-01-01

252

Co-trimoxazole and quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections over the last 10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 10 years the treatment of choice for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Turkey has changed from co-trimoxazole to quinolones owing to the rate of resistance to co-trimoxazole and its high level of therapeutic failure. The resistance ratio of 1939 UTI Escherichia coli from outpatients (1994–2003) was evaluated by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method for the aforementioned antibiotics to

Y?lmaz Karaca; Nilay Coplu; Aysegül Gozalan; Ozgur Oncul; Burak E. Citil; Berrin Esen

2005-01-01

253

Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24607424

Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

2014-05-01

254

Epidemiology of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium isolates from food-producing animals in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 225 isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from food-producing animals collected between 2003 and 2007 were examined for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants, namely qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qepA and aac(6')Ib-cr, in Japan. Two isolates (0.8%) of S. Typhimurium DT104 from different dairy cows on a single farm in 2006 and 2007 were

Tetsuo Asai; Chizuru Sato; Kaori Masani; Masaru Usui; Manao Ozawa; Tomoe Ogino; Hiroshi Aoki; Takuo Sawada; Hidemasa Izumiya; Haruo Watanabe

2010-01-01

255

Solubility and Bioactivity of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Are Increased by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Produced Surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that causes serious infections in immunocompromised individuals and cystic fibrosis patients. This opportunistic pathogen controls many of its virulence factors and cellular functions through the activity of three cell-to-cell signals, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone, and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). The activity of these signals is dependent upon their ability to dissolve in and

M. Worth Calfee; John G. Shelton; James A. McCubrey; Everett C. Pesci

2005-01-01

256

Bacteriophages as twenty-first century antibacterial tools for food and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an increasing source of concern in all environments in which these drugs have been used.\\u000a More stringent regulations have led to a slow but sure decrease in antibiotic use in the food industry worldwide, but have\\u000a also stimulated the search for alternative antibacterial agents. In medicine, the number of people infected with pan-resistant\\u000a bacteria is driving research

Damien Maura; Laurent Debarbieux

2011-01-01

257

Multifunctional upconverting nanoparticles for near-infrared triggered and synergistic antibacterial resistance therapy.  

PubMed

To integrate photodynamic therapy with photothermal therapy for improved multidrug-resistant bacteria therapy, we have constructed a novel multifunctional core/satellite nanostructure by decorating CuS nanoparticles onto the surface of NaYF4:Mn/Yb/Er@photosensitizer doped SiO2. This system exhibited a superior antibacterial activity towards drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. PMID:25068798

Yin, Meili; Li, Zhenhua; Ju, Enguo; Wang, Zhenzhen; Dong, Kai; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

2014-09-18

258

High Resolution Melting Analysis for Rapid Mutation Screening in Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica  

PubMed Central

The increased Salmonella resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is a public health concern in the Southeast Asian region. The objective of this study is to develop a high resolution melt curve (HRM) assay to rapidly screen for mutations in quinolone-resistant determining region (QRDR) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. DNA sequencing was performed on 62 Salmonella strains to identify mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Mutations were detected in QRDR of gyrA (n = 52; S83F, S83Y, S83I, D87G, D87Y, and D87N) and parE (n = 1; M438I). Salmonella strains with mutations within QRDR of gyrA are generally more resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC 16 > 256??g/mL). Mutations were uncommon within the QRDR of gyrB, parC, and parE genes. In the HRM assay, mutants can be distinguished from the wild-type strains based on the transition of melt curves, which is more prominent when the profiles are displayed in difference plot. In conclusion, HRM analysis allows for rapid screening for mutations at the QRDRs of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in Salmonella. This assay markedly reduced the sequencing effort involved in mutational studies of quinolone-resistance genes. PMID:25371903

Thong, Kwai Lin

2014-01-01

259

Virulence genes, quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance, and phylogenetic background of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated in Japan.  

PubMed

A total of 312 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens in 7 hospitals in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Among them, 113 strains were resistant to quinolone, and 49 strains were resistant to fluoroquinolone. Phylogenetic group B2 was most prevalent in both susceptible strains (148 of 199 strains, 74.4%) and resistant strains (quinolone-resistant strains, 73 of 113 strains, 64.6%; fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, 40 of 49 strains, 81.6%). The resistant strains showed a significantly lower prevalence of virulence genes papA, hlyA, and cnf1 than did the susceptible strains, and this observation was further obvious when compared within B2 group strains. Among the 40 fluoroquinolone-resistant strains belonging to group B2, 37 (92.5%) strains carried PAIusp subtype IIa, 36 strains of which carried E84V mutation in parC, whereas none of the 9 strains belonging to group D carried PAIusp subtype IIa, and only one strain carried the mutation. These observations indicate that the differences of phenotypes including resistance of quinolone and carriage of virulence genes are associated with the complex context of genetic background, including the phylogenetic group and PAIusp subtype. PMID:20332573

Kawamura-Sato, Kumiko; Yoshida, Risa; Shibayama, Keigo; Ohta, Michio

2010-03-01

260

Antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Cefquinome is known for its use as an antibacterial drug in cattle and pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefquinome was determined for a total of 205 strains, which had recently been isolated in Europe from diseased horses (respiratory infection, foal septicaemia). The bactericidal activity was tested against 19 strains using the time killing method. The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) and post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA SME) were determined against 12 strains. Cefquinome showed high activity against Actinobacillus equuli and streptococci (MIC(90) of 0.016 and 0.032microg/mL), Enterobacteriaceae (MIC(90)=0.125microg/mL) and staphylococci (MIC(90)=0.5microg/mL). The activity was limited against Rhodococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Cefquinome was shown to be a time dependent bactericidal antibiotic against the target pathogens, killing occurring at a concentration close to the MIC. A PAE of 0.5-10h was calculated against streptococci whereas no PAE was observed for Escherichia coli. A longer PA SME was determined for streptococci (3.3 to >24h with a killing effect) and E. coli (0.5-13.9h). Cefquinome was shown to have a broad spectrum of activity which covers many equine pathogens. PMID:16455213

Thomas, E; Thomas, V; Wilhelm, C

2006-06-15

261

Drug-induced tendinopathy: from physiology to clinical applications.  

PubMed

Drug-induced tendon toxicity is rare but often underestimated. To date, four main drug classes have been incriminated in tendinopathies. Quinolones and long-term glucocorticoids are the most widely known, but statins and aromatase inhibitors can also induce tendon damage. The specific pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for drug-induced tendinopathies remain unknown. Proven risk factors have been identified, such as age older than 60 years, pre-existing tendinopathy, and potentiation of toxic effects when several drug classes are used in combination. Mean time to symptom onset varies from a few days with quinolones to several months with statins and several years for long-term glucocorticoid therapy. The most common sites of involvement are the lower limb tendons, most notably the body of the Achilles tendon. The first part of this review discusses tendon anatomy and the pathophysiology and radiological manifestations of tendinopathies. The second part provides details on the main characteristics of each of the drugs classes associated with tendon toxicity. PMID:24962977

Kirchgesner, Thomas; Larbi, Ahmed; Omoumi, Patrick; Malghem, Jacques; Zamali, Nadia; Manelfe, Julien; Lecouvet, Frédéric; Vande Berg, Bruno; Djebbar, Sahlya; Dallaudičre, Benjamin

2014-12-01

262

Novel N-linked aminopiperidine inhibitors of bacterial topoisomerase type II with reduced pK(a): antibacterial agents with an improved safety profile.  

PubMed

Novel non-fluoroquinolone inhibitors of bacterial type II topoisomerases (DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) are of interest for the development of new antibacterial agents that are not impacted by target-mediated cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. N-Linked amino piperidines, such as 7a, generally show potent antibacterial activity, including against quinolone-resistant isolates, but suffer from hERG inhibition (IC(50) = 44 ?M for 7a) and QT prolongation in vivo. We now disclose the finding that new analogues of 7a with reduced pK(a) due to substitution with an electron-withdrawing substituent in the piperidine moiety, such as R,S-7c, retained the Gram-positive activity of 7a but showed significantly less hERG inhibition (IC(50) = 233 ?M for R,S-7c). This compound exhibited moderate clearance in dog, promising efficacy against a MRSA strain in a mouse infection model, and an improved in vivo QT profile as measured in a guinea pig in vivo model. As a result of its promising activity, R,S-7c was advanced into phase I clinical studies. PMID:22779424

Reck, Folkert; Alm, Richard A; Brassil, Patrick; Newman, Joseph V; Ciaccio, Paul; McNulty, John; Barthlow, Herbert; Goteti, Kosalaram; Breen, John; Comita-Prevoir, Janelle; Cronin, Mark; Ehmann, David E; Geng, Bolin; Godfrey, Andrew Aydon; Fisher, Stewart L

2012-08-01

263

Type II NADH Dehydrogenase Inhibitor 1-Hydroxy-2-Dodecyl- 4(1H)Quinolone Leads to Collapse of Mitochondrial Inner- Membrane Potential and ATP Depletion in Toxoplasma gondii?  

PubMed Central

The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii expresses type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH2s) instead of canonical complex I at the inner mitochondrial membrane. These non-proton-pumping enzymes are considered to be promising drug targets due to their absence in mammalian cells. We recently showed by inhibition kinetics that T. gondii NDH2-I is a target of the quinolone-like compound 1-hydroxy-2-dodecyl-4(1H)quinolone (HDQ), which inhibits T. gondii replication in the nanomolar range. In this study, the cationic fluorescent probes Mitotracker and DiOC6(3) (3,3?-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodine) were used to monitor the influence of HDQ on the mitochondrial inner membrane potential (??m) in T. gondii. Real-time imaging revealed that nanomolar HDQ concentrations led to a ??m collapse within minutes, which is followed by severe ATP depletions of 30% after 1 h and 70% after 24 h. ??m depolarization was attenuated when substrates for other dehydrogenases that can donate electrons to ubiquinone were added to digitonin-permeabilized cells or when infected cultures were treated with the Fo-ATPase inhibitor oligomycin. A prolonged treatment with sublethal concentrations of HDQ induced differentiation into bradyzoites. This dormant stage is likely to be less dependent on the ??m, since ??m-positive parasites were found at a significantly lower frequency in alkaline-pH-induced bradyzoites than in tachyzoites. Together, our studies reveal that oxidative phosphorylation is essential for maintaining the ATP level in the fast-growing tachyzoite stage and that HDQ interferes with this pathway by inhibiting the electron transport chain at the level of ubiquinone reduction. PMID:19286986

Lin, San San; Groß, Uwe; Bohne, Wolfgang

2009-01-01

264

Quinolone resistance mutations in the DNA gyrase gyrA and gyrB genes of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

A 6.4-kb DNA fragment containing the DNA gyrase gyrA and gyrB genes was cloned and sequenced from the quinolone-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus type strain ATCC 12600. An expression plasmid was constructed by inserting the cloned genes into the Escherichia coli-S. aureus shuttle vector pAT19, and deletion plasmids carrying only functional gyrA and gyrB genes were derived from this plasmid. An efficient transformation system for S. aureus RN4220 was established by using these plasmids. Quinolone-resistant mutants of S. aureus RN4220 were isolated by three-step selection with quinolones. The first- and second-step mutants were considered to be transport mutants, and the third-step mutants were divided into five groups with respect to their resistance patterns and transformation results with gyrA and gyrB genes. Sequencing analysis of the resulting mutant gyrase genes showed that they had the following point mutations: group 1, Ser-84 (TCA) to Leu (TTA) in GyrA; group 2, Ser-84 (TCA) to Ala (GCA), Ser-85 (TCT) to Pro (CCT), or Glu-88 (GAA) to Lys (AAA) in GyrA; group 3, Asp-437 (GAC) to Asn (AAC) in GyrB; group 4, Arg-458 (CGA) to Gln (CAA) in GyrB; and group 5, Ser-85 (TCT) to Pro (CCT) in GyrA and Asp-437 (GAC) to Asn (AAC) in GyrB. When the gyrA and/or gyrB mutants were transformed with the wild-type gyrA and/or gyrB plasmids, they became quinolone susceptible, but transformants with the plasmids having the same mutations on the gyrA and/or gyrB genes did not confer susceptibility. These results indicate that mutations in both gyrA and gyrB can be responsible for quinolone resistance in S. aureus. PMID:7811012

Ito, H; Yoshida, H; Bogaki-Shonai, M; Niga, T; Hattori, H; Nakamura, S

1994-01-01

265

Analysis of veterinary drug residues in shrimp: A multi-class method by liquid chromatography–quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) method was developed to screen and confirm veterinary drug residues in raw shrimp meat. This method simultaneously monitors 18 drugs of different classes, including oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfonamides, quinolones, cationic dyes, and toltrazuril sulfone (TOLS). The homogenized shrimp meat is extracted with 5% trichloroacetic acid. The extract is further cleaned using polymer-based SPE. A 50mm phenyl

Hui Li; Philip James Kijak; Sherri B. Turnipseed; Wei Cui

2006-01-01

266

Stimuli-responsive self-assembling peptides made from antibacterial peptides.  

PubMed

How to use bioactive peptide sequences as fundamental building blocks to make hydrogel materials which are stimuli-responsive? In this article, we provide a novel designed peptide comprising two antibacterial peptide sequences (KIGAKI)3-NH2 and a central tetrapeptide linker. Results show that balancing the forces of the electrostatic repulsion of the charged lysine residues against the hydrophobic collapse of the isoleucine and alanine residues and backbone ?-sheet hydrogen bonding allows the structural transition and formation of individually dispersed nanofibers. Circular Dichroism (CD) and rheology analysis demonstrated that the designed peptide can undergo an abrupt structural transition from a random coil to a stable unimolecular ?-hairpin conformation and subsequently form an elastic hydrogel when exposed to external stimuli such as pH, ionic strength and heat. The assembly kinetics of the obtained antibacterial sequence comprising peptide (ASCP) was studied by time-lapse Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay. In addition, the inherent antibacterial activity of the peptide hydrogel was confirmed by the antibacterial assay against Escherichia coli. This example described epitomizes the use of bioactive peptide sequences in the design of finite self-assembled structures with potential inherent activity. These hydrogel materials may find applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:23739953

Liu, Yanfei; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Xiaojun

2013-07-21

267

76 FR 59406 - Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...antibacterials for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and the draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment,'' published March 2009...

2011-09-26

268

Antibacterial activity in four marine crustacean decapods.  

PubMed

A search for antibacterial activity in different body-parts of Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp), Pagurus bernhardus (hermit crab), Hyas araneus (spider crab) and Paralithodes camtschatica (king crab) was conducted. Dried samples were extracted with 60% (v/v) acetonitrile, containing 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid, and further extracted and concentrated on C18 cartridges. Eluates from the solid phase extraction were tested for antibacterial, lysozyme and haemolytic activity. Antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, Corynebacterium glutamicum and Staphylococcus aureus was detected in extracts from several tissues in all species tested, but mainly in the haemolymph and haemocyte extracts. V. anguillarum and C. glutamicum were generally the most sensitive micro-organisms. In P. borealis and P. bernhardus most of the active fractions were not affected by proteinase K treatment, while in H. araneus and P. camtschatica most fractions were sensitive to proteinase K treatment, indicating antibacterial factors of proteinaceous nature. In P. bernhardus the active fractions were generally heat labile, whereas in H. araneus the activities were resistant to heat. Differences between active extracts regarding hydrophobicity and sensitivity for heat and proteinase K treatment indicate that several compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activities detected. Lysozyme-like activity could be detected in some fractions and haemolytic activity against human red blood cells could be detected in haemolymph/haemocyte and exoskeleton extracts from all species tested. PMID:12194450

Haug, Tor; Kjuul, Anita K; Stensvĺg, Klara; Sandsdalen, Erling; Styrvold, Olaf B

2002-05-01

269

Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS): ?-Lactam and Quinolone Antibiotics Stimulate Virulent Phage Growth  

PubMed Central

Although the multiplication of bacteriophages (phages) has a substantial impact on the biosphere, comparatively little is known about how the external environment affects phage production. Here we report that sub-lethal concentrations of certain antibiotics can substantially stimulate the host bacterial cell's production of some virulent phage. For example, a low dosage of cefotaxime, a cephalosporin, increased an uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain's production of the phage ?MFP by more than 7-fold. We name this phenomenon Phage-Antibiotic Synergy (PAS). A related effect was observed in diverse host-phage systems, including the T4-like phages, with ?-lactam and quinolone antibiotics, as well as mitomycin C. A common characteristic of these antibiotics is that they inhibit bacterial cell division and trigger the SOS system. We therefore examined the PAS effect within the context of the bacterial SOS and filamentation responses. We found that the PAS effect appears SOS-independent and is primarily a consequence of cellular filamentation; it is mimicked by cells that constitutively filament. The fact that completely unrelated phages manifest this phenomenon suggests that it confers an important and general advantage to the phages. PMID:17726529

Trojet, Sabrina N.; Prčre, Marie-Françoise; Krisch, H.M.

2007-01-01

270

Conformational analysis of a quinolonic ribonucleoside with anti-HSV-1 activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infections caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus are one of the most common sources of diseases in adults and several natural nucleoside analogues are currently used in the treatment of these infections. In vitro tests of a series of quinolonic ribonucleosides derivatives synthesized by part of our group indicated that some of them have antiviral activity against HSV-1. The conformational analysis of bioactive compounds is extremely important in order to better understand their chemical structures and biological activity. In this work, we have carried out a nuclear relaxation NMR study of 6-Me ribonucleoside derivative in order to determine if the syn or anti conformation is preferential. The NMR analysis permits the determination of inter-atomic distances by using techniques which are based on nuclear relaxation and related phenomena. Those techniques are non-selective longitudinal or spin-lattice relaxation rates and NULL pulse sequence, which allow the determination of distances between pairs of hydrogen atoms. The results of NMR studies were compared with those obtained by molecular modeling.

Yoneda, Julliane D.; Velloso, Marcia Helena R.; Leal, Kátia Z.; Azeredo, Rodrigo B. de V.; Sugiura, Makiko; Albuquerque, Magaly G.; Santos, Fernanda da C.; Souza, Maria Cecília B. V. de; Cunha, Anna Claudia; Seidl, Peter R.; Alencastro, Ricardo B. de; Ferreira, Vitor F.

2011-01-01

271

A new antibacterial titanium-copper sintered alloy: preparation and antibacterial property.  

PubMed

Copper element was added in pure titanium by a powder metallurgy to produce a new antibacterial titanium-copper alloy (Ti-Cu alloy). This paper reported the very early stage results, emphasizing on the preparation, mechanical property and antibacterial activity. The phase constitution was analyzed by XRD and the microstructure was observed under SEM equipped with EDS. The hardness, the compressive strength and the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu alloy were tested in comparison with cp-Ti. The antibacterial property of the Ti-Cu alloy was assessed by two methods: agar diffusion assay and plate-count method, in which Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used. XRD and SEM results showed that Ti2Cu phase and Cu-rich phase were synthesized in the Ti-Cu sintered alloy, which significantly increases the hardness and the compressive strength compared with cp-Ti and slightly improves the corrosion resistance. No antibacterial activity was detected by the agar diffusion assay on the Ti-Cu alloy, but the plate-count results indicated that the Ti-Cu alloy exhibited strong antibacterial property against both bacteria even after three polishing treatments, which demonstrates strongly that the whole alloy is of antibacterial activity. The antibacterial mechanism was thought to be in associated with the Cu ion released from the Ti-Cu alloy. PMID:23910344

Zhang, Erlin; Li, Fangbing; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Jie; Wang, Chunmin; Li, Muqin; Yang, Ke

2013-10-01

272

A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study).  

PubMed

Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ? 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ? 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments. PMID:24551800

Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

2013-01-01

273

A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study)  

PubMed Central

Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ? 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ? 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments. PMID:24551800

Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

2013-01-01

274

Drug forecast – the peptide deformylase inhibitors as antibacterial agents  

PubMed Central

The relatively rapid development of microbial resistance after the entry of every new antimicrobial into the marketplace necessitates a constant supply of new agents to maintain effective pharmacotherapy. Despite extensive efforts to identify novel lead compounds from molecular targets, only the peptide deformylase inhibitors (PDIs) have shown any real promise, with some advancing to phase I human trials. Bacterial peptide deformylase, which catalyzes the removal of the N-formyl group from N-terminal methionine following translation, is essential for bacterial protein synthesis, growth, and survival. The majority of PDIs are pseudopeptide hydroxamic acids and two of these (IV BB-83698 and oral NVP LBM-415) entered phase I human trials. However, agents to the present have suffered from major potential liabilities. Their in vitro activity has been limited to gram-positive aerobes and some anaerobes and has been quite modest against the majority of such species (MIC90 values ranging from 1–8 mg/L). They have exerted bacteriostatic, not bacteriocidal, activity, thus reducing their potential usefulness in the management of serious infections in the immunocompromised. The relative ease with which microorganisms have been able to develop resistance and the multiple available mechanisms of resistance (mutations in fmt, defB, folD genes; AcrAB/TolC efflux pump; overexpression of peptide deformylase) are worrisome. These could portend a short timespan of efficacy after marketing. Despite these current liabilities, further pursuit of more potent and broader spectrum PDIs which are less susceptible to bacterial mechanisms of resistance is still warranted. PMID:18472972

Guay, David R P

2007-01-01

275

Target-directed synthesis of antibacterial drug candidate GSK966587.  

PubMed

An efficient enantioselective total synthesis of the potent antibiotic GSK966587 was accomplished. Highlights of the synthesis include two innovative Heck reactions, a highly selective zincate base directed ortho-metalation, Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, and a fully convergent final step fragment coupling. PMID:20670007

Voight, Eric A; Yin, Hao; Downing, Susan V; Calad, Stacie A; Matsuhashi, Hayao; Giordano, Ilaria; Hennessy, Alan J; Goodman, Richard M; Wood, Jeffery L

2010-08-01

276

Isolation, structure elucidation, and antibacterial activity of methiosetin, a tetramic acid from a tropical sooty mold (Capnodium sp.).  

PubMed

Drug-resistant bacteria continue to make many existing antibiotic classes ineffective. In order to avoid a future epidemic from drug-resistant bacterial infections, new antibiotics with new modes of action are needed. In an antibiotic screening program for new drug leads with new modes of action using antisense Staphylococcus aureus Fitness Test screening, we discovered a new tetramic acid, methiosetin, from a tropical sooty mold, Capnodium sp. The fungus also produced epicorazine A, a known antibiotic. The structure and relative configuration of methiosetin was elucidated by 2D NMR and ESIMS techniques. Methiosetin and epicorazine A showed weak to modest antibacterial activity against S. aureus and Haemophilus influenzae. The isolation, structure elucidation, and antibacterial activity of both compounds are described. PMID:22288374

Herath, Kithsiri; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi; Zink, Deborah L; Sigmund, Jan; Vicente, Francisca; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Basilio, Angela; Bills, Gerald F; Polishook, Jon D; Donald, Robert; Phillips, John; Goetz, Michael; Singh, Sheo B

2012-03-23

277

Injectable Bioadhesive Hydrogels with Innate Antibacterial Properties  

PubMed Central

Surgical site infections cause significant postoperative morbidity and increased healthcare costs. Bioadhesives used to fill surgical voids and support wound healing are typically devoid of antibacterial activity. Here, we report novel syringe-injectable bioadhesive hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties prepared from mixing polydextran aldehyde (PDA) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). These adhesives kill both Gram-negative and Gram–positive bacteria, while sparing human erythrocytes. An optimal composition of 2.5 wt % oxidized dextran and 6.9 wt % PEI sets within seconds forming a mechanically rigid (~1700 Pa) gel offering a maximum adhesive stress of ~ 2.8 kPa. A murine infection model showed that the adhesive is capable of killing S. pyogenes introduced subcutaneously at the bioadhesive’s surface, with minimal inflammatory response. The adhesive was also effective in a cecal ligation and puncture model, preventing sepsis and significantly improving survival. These bioadhesives represent novel, inherently antibacterial materials for wound filling applications. PMID:24958189

Giano, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Medina, Scott H.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Christensen, Joani M.; Yamada, Yuji; Brandacher, Gerald; Schneider, Joel P.

2014-01-01

278

Improved antibacterial activity and biocompatibility on vancomycin-loaded TiO2 nanotubes: in vivo and in vitro studies  

PubMed Central

The goal for current orthopedic implant research is to design implants that have not only good biocompatibility but also antibacterial properties. TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) were fabricated on the titanium surface through electrochemical anodization, which added new properties, such as enhanced biocompatibility and potential utility as drug nanoreservoirs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial properties and biocompatibility of NTs loaded with vancomycin (NT-V), both in vitro and in vivo. Staphylococcus aureus was used to study the antibacterial properties of the NT-V. There were three study groups: the commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) group, the NT group (nonloaded vancomycin), and the NT-V group. We compared NT-V biocompatibility and antibacterial efficacy with those of the NT and Cp-Ti groups. Compared with Cp-Ti, NT-V showed good antibacterial effect both in vitro and in vivo. Although the NTs reduced the surface bacterial adhesion in vitro, implant infection still developed in in vivo studies. Furthermore, the results also revealed that both NTs and NT-V showed good biocompatibility. Therefore, the NTs loaded with antibiotic might be potentially used for future orthopedic implants. PMID:24403827

Zhang, Hangzhou; Sun, Yu; Tian, Ang; Xue, Xiang Xin; Wang, Lin; Alquhali, Ali; Bai, Xizhuang

2013-01-01

279

New indolicidin analogues with potent antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Indolicidin is a 13-residue antimicrobial peptide amide, ILPWKWPWWPWRR-NH2, isolated from the cytoplasmic granules of bovine neutrophils. Indolicidin is active against a wide range of microorganisms and has also been shown to be haemolytic and cytotoxic towards erythrocytes and human T lymphocytes. The aim of the present paper is two-fold. First, we examine the importance of tryptophan in the antibacterial activity of indolicidin. We prepared five peptide analogues with the format ILPXKXPXXPXRR-NH2 in which Trp-residues 4,6,8,9,11 were replaced in all positions with X = a single non-natural building block; N-substituted glycine residue or nonproteinogenic amino acid. The analogues were tested for antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus American type culture collection (ATCC) 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. We found that tryptophan is not essential in the antibacterial activity of indolicidin, and even more active analogues were obtained by replacing tryptophan with non-natural aromatic amino acids. Using this knowledge, we then investigated a new principle for improving the antibacterial activity of small peptides. Our approach involves changing the hydrophobicity of the peptide by modifying the N-terminus with a hydrophobic non-natural building block. We prepared 22 analogues of indolicidin and [Phe(4,6,8,9,11)] indolicidin, 11 of each, carrying a hydrophobic non-natural building block attached to the N-terminus. Several active antibacterial analogues were identified. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the analogues against sheep erythrocytes was assessed in a haemolytic activity assay. The results presented here suggest that modified analogues of antibacterial peptides, containing non-natural building blocks, are promising lead structures for developing future therapeutics. PMID:15485555

Ryge, T S; Doisy, X; Ifrah, D; Olsen, J E; Hansen, P R

2004-11-01

280

Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

281

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Analysis of the Influence of Inoculum Size on the Selection of Resistance in Escherichia coli by a Quinolone in a Mouse Thigh Bacterial Infection Model?  

PubMed Central

Maintaining quinolone concentrations outside the mutant selection window (MSW) between the MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) was suggested by in vitro and in vivo studies to prevent the selection of resistant mutants. However, selection also may depend on the presence of resistant bacterial mutants at the start of treatment, which is highly dependent on the initial inoculum size. In this study, a mouse thigh bacterial infection model was used to test the influence of different exposures to marbofloxacin on the selection of resistant bacteria after infection with a low (105 CFU) or high (108 CFU) initial inoculum of Escherichia coli. The inoculum size was shown to influence the exposure to marbofloxacin and the values of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices. When the abilities of the indices time within the MSW (TMSW), area under the concentration-time curve of 0 to 24 h divided by the MIC, and the maximum concentration of drug in plasma divided by the MIC to predict the selection of resistant bacteria were compared, only TMSW appeared to be a good predictor of the prevention of resistance for values less than 30%. When the TMSW was higher than 34%, the selection of resistant bacteria occurred less often in thighs initially infected with the low inoculum (11/24; 46%) than in those infected with the high inoculum (30/36; 80%), suggesting that the selection of resistant mutants depends on both the TMSW and inoculum size. The relevance of these results merits further investigation to test different strategies of antibiotic therapy depending on the expected bacterial burden at the infectious site. PMID:19487439

Ferran, Aude A.; Kesteman, Anne-Sylvie; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

2009-01-01

282

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of the influence of inoculum size on the selection of resistance in Escherichia coli by a quinolone in a mouse thigh bacterial infection model.  

PubMed

Maintaining quinolone concentrations outside the mutant selection window (MSW) between the MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC) was suggested by in vitro and in vivo studies to prevent the selection of resistant mutants. However, selection also may depend on the presence of resistant bacterial mutants at the start of treatment, which is highly dependent on the initial inoculum size. In this study, a mouse thigh bacterial infection model was used to test the influence of different exposures to marbofloxacin on the selection of resistant bacteria after infection with a low (10(5) CFU) or high (10(8) CFU) initial inoculum of Escherichia coli. The inoculum size was shown to influence the exposure to marbofloxacin and the values of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices. When the abilities of the indices time within the MSW (T(MSW)), area under the concentration-time curve of 0 to 24 h divided by the MIC, and the maximum concentration of drug in plasma divided by the MIC to predict the selection of resistant bacteria were compared, only T(MSW) appeared to be a good predictor of the prevention of resistance for values less than 30%. When the T(MSW) was higher than 34%, the selection of resistant bacteria occurred less often in thighs initially infected with the low inoculum (11/24; 46%) than in those infected with the high inoculum (30/36; 80%), suggesting that the selection of resistant mutants depends on both the T(MSW) and inoculum size. The relevance of these results merits further investigation to test different strategies of antibiotic therapy depending on the expected bacterial burden at the infectious site. PMID:19487439

Ferran, Aude A; Kesteman, Anne-Sylvie; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

2009-08-01

283

[Infectious diseases caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae--a particular challenge for antibacterial therapy].  

PubMed

Enterobacteriaceae species such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are among the most common human pathogens. They are responsible for a wide range of community-acquired and nosocomial diseases. Many of the illnesses caused by these bacteria could be treated with beta-lactams for several decades. The increasing use of carbapenems for the treatment of diseases caused by Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended spectrum beta-lactamases, however, lead to the selection and spread of carbapenemase-producing pathogens. Such bacteria are not only resistant to virtually all beta-lactams, but also to numerous other antibiotics such as quinolones, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, tetracyclines and most aminoglycosides. During the last years, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have spread into almost all regions of the world. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC, belonging to Ambler class A), OXA-48 enzymes and their derivatives (belonging to Ambler class D) as well as some metallo-beta-lactamases (Ambler class B) such as NDM, VIM and IMP are the most important carbapenemases produced by Enterobacteriaceae strains. In Germany, the metallo-carbapenemase GIM-1, which has never been proven in bacteria outside Germany, is also of clinical significance. There is no established antibacterial therapy for these difficult-to-treat diseases. For the treatment of severe diseases caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria, fosfomycin, gentamicin and tigecycline, polymyxins such as polymyxin B or colistin as well as carbapenems, are frequently applied. Combination antibiotic treatment may be more effective than monotherapy for severe ill patients with serious diseases. The most promising new treatment options arise with the development of avibactam. This non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor shows good activity against (nearly) all class A and class C beta-lactamases (including strains expressing class A carbapenemases and/or derepressed AmpC enzymes) as well as OXA-48 carbapenemases. It may be used successfully in combination with ceftazidime, ceftaroline or aztreonam. PMID:24908928

Stock, Ingo

2014-05-01

284

Restriction of the Conformational Dynamics of the Cyclic Acyldepsipeptide Antibiotics Improves Their Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

The cyclic acyldepsipeptide (ADEP) antibiotics are a new class of antibacterial agents that kill bacteria via a mechanism that is distinct from all clinically used drugs. These molecules bind and dysregulate the activity of the ClpP peptidase. The potential of these antibiotics as antibacterial drugs has been enhanced by the elimination of pharmacological liabilities through medicinal chemistry efforts. Here, we demonstrate that the ADEP conformation observed in the ADEP–ClpP crystal structure is fortified by transannular hydrogen bonding and can be further stabilized by judicious replacement of constituent amino acids within the peptidolactone core structure with more conformationally constrained counterparts. Evidence supporting constraint of the molecule into the bioactive conformer was obtained by measurements of deuterium-exchange kinetics of hydrogens that were proposed to be engaged in transannular hydrogen bonds. We show that the rigidified ADEP analogs bind and activate ClpP at lower concentrations in vitro. Remarkably, these compounds have up to 1200-fold enhanced antibacterial activity when compared to those with the peptidolactone core structure common to two ADEP natural products. This study compellingly demonstrates how rational modulation of conformational dynamics may be used to improve the bioactivities of natural products. PMID:24422534

2015-01-01

285

Interference of Antibacterial Agents with Phagocyte Functions: Immunomodulation or “Immuno-Fairy Tales”?  

PubMed Central

Professional phagocytes (polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages) are a main component of the immune system. These cells are involved in both host defenses and various pathological settings characterized by excessive inflammation. Accordingly, they are key targets for immunomodulatory drugs, among which antibacterial agents are promising candidates. The basic and historical concepts of immunomodulation will first be briefly reviewed. Phagocyte complexity will then be unravelled (at least in terms of what we know about the origin, subsets, ambivalent roles, functional capacities, and transductional pathways of this cell and how to explore them). The core subject of this review will be the many possible interactions between antibacterial agents and phagocytes, classified according to demonstrated or potential clinical relevance (e.g., neutropenia, intracellular accumulation, and modulation of bacterial virulence). A detailed review of direct in vitro effects will be provided for the various antibacterial drug families, followed by a discussion of the clinical relevance of these effects in two particular settings: immune deficiency and inflammatory diseases. The prophylactic and therapeutic use of immunomodulatory antibiotics will be considered before conclusions are drawn about the emerging (optimistic) vision of future therapeutic prospects to deal with largely unknown new diseases and new pathogens by using new agents, new techniques, and a better understanding of the phagocyte in particular and the immune system in general. PMID:11023961

Labro, Marie-Thérése

2000-01-01

286

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and mutations in the topoisomerase genes of Salmonella enterica strains from Brazil  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to identify mutations in the Quinolone Resistance Determining sources Regions (QRDR) of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes and to determine if any of the qnr variants or the aac(6?)-Ib-cr variant were present in strains of Salmonella spp. isolated in Brazil. A total of 126 Salmonella spp. strains from epidemic (n = 114) and poultry (n = 12) origin were evaluated. One hundred and twelve strains (88.8%) were resistant to nalidixic acid (NAL) and 29 (23.01%) showed a reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (Cip). The mutations identified were substitutions limited to the QRDR of the gyrA gene in the codons for Serine 83, Aspartate 87 and Alanine 131. The sensitivity to NAL seems to be a good phenotypic indication of distinguishing mutated and non-mutated strains in the QRDR, however the double mutation in gyrA did not cause resistance to ciprofloxacin. The qnrA1 and qnrB19 genes were detected, respectively, in one epidemic strain of S. Enteritidis and one strain of S. Corvallis of poultry origin. Despite previous detection of qnr genes in Brazil, this is the first report of qnr gene detection in Salmonella, and also the first detection of qnrB19 gene in this country. The results alert for the continuous monitoring of quinolone resistance determinants in order to minimize the emergence and selection of Salmonella spp. strains showing reduced susceptibility or resistance to quinolones. PMID:24294265

Ferrari, Rafaela; Galiana, Antonio; Cremades, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Magnani, Marciane; Tognim, M.C.B.; Oliveira, Tereza C.R.M.; Royo, Gloria

2013-01-01

287

Coastal seawater bacteria harbor a large reservoir of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Jiaozhou Bay, China.  

PubMed

Diversity and prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants were investigated in environmental bacteria isolated from surface seawater of Jiaozhou Bay, China. Five qnr gene alleles were identified in 34 isolates by PCR amplification, including qnrA3 gene in a Shewanella algae isolate, qnrB9 gene in a Citrobacter freundii isolate, qnrD gene in 22 Proteus vulgaris isolates, qnrS1 gene in 1 Enterobacter sp. and 4 Klebsiella spp. isolates, and qnrS2 gene in 1 Pseudomonas sp. and 4 Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolates. The qnrC, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA genes could not be detected in this study. The 22 qnrD-positive Proteus vulgaris isolates could be differentiated into four genotypes based on ERIC-PCR assay. The qnrS1 and qnrD genes could be transferred to Escherichia coli J53 Azi(R) or E. coli TOP10 recipient strains using conjugation or transformation methods. Among the 34 qnr-positive isolates, 30 had a single point mutation in the QRDRs of GyrA protein (Ala67Ser, Ser83Ile, or Ser83Thr), indicating that cooperation of chromosome- and plasmid-mediated resistance contributed to the spread and evolution of quinolone resistance in this coastal bay. Eighty-five percent of the isolates were also found to be resistant to ampicillin, and bla(CMY), bla(OXY), bla(SHV), and bla(TEM) genes were detected in five isolates that also harbored the qnrB9 or qnrS1 gene. Our current study is the first identification of qnrS2 gene in Pseudoalteromonas and Pseudomonas strains, and qnrD gene in Proteus vulgaris strains. High prevalence of diverse qnr genes in Jiaozhou Bay indicates that coastal seawater may serve as an important reservoir, natural source, and dissemination vehicle of quinolone resistance determinants. PMID:22252223

Zhao, Jing-yi; Dang, Hongyue

2012-07-01

288

2D, 3D-QSAR and molecular docking of 4(1H)-quinolones analogues with antimalarial activities.  

PubMed

Cytochrome bc1 has become a major focus as a molecular target in malaria parasites, which are the most important vector-borne infectious disease in the world. The inhibition of cytochrome bc1 blocks the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the consequent arrest of pyrimidine biosynthesis, which is essential for parasite development. The authors developed a theoretical study of two-dimensional, three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and a docking analysis of a series of 4(1H)-quinolones acting as cytochrome bc1 inhibitors. The predictive ability of the quantitative structure-activity relationship models was assessed using internal (leave-one-out cross-validation) and external (test set with 8 compounds) validation. From the two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship models, the authors emphasized the following descriptors: GCUT_SLOGP_0, SLogP_VSA_5, Kier molecular flexibility index, electrophilicity index, the partition coefficient and the charge of atom 5 of the quinolone ring as the most important to explain the antimalarial activity of the compounds studied. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship models showed that the substituents R1 and R4 in 4(1H)-quinolones analogues are key modulators to enhance the antimalarial activity. The appropriate binding conformations and orientations of these compounds interacting with cytochrome bc1 were also revealed by molecular docking. Based on the established models, 8 new compounds with highly predicted antimalarial activity have been theoretically designed and presented as a reference for synthesis and antimalarial evaluation. PMID:24185373

Jiménez Villalobos, Thulie Paulinne; Gaitán Ibarra, Ricardo; Montalvo Acosta, Joel José

2013-11-01

289

Removal and degradation characteristics of quinolone antibiotics in laboratory-scale activated sludge reactors under aerobic, nitrifying and anoxic conditions.  

PubMed

This work describes the removal of 6 quinolone antibiotics from wastewaters under different redox conditions (aerobic, nitrifying and anoxic) through batch experiments in laboratory scale activated sludge reactors using mixed liquor from a membrane bioreactor pilot plant (MBR). The main removal pathways for antibiotics from wastewaters involved in each treatment are described. Mass balances indicated that sorption on sludge played a dominating role in the elimination of antibiotics. Sorption potential depended on the redox conditions, being lower in nitrifying (Kd, 414-876 L kg(-1)) and anoxic (Kd, 471-930 L kg(-1)) sludge in comparison with aerobic sludge (Kd, 534-1137 L kg(-1)). Kd was higher for piperazinylic quinolones. Redox conditions also influenced biodegradation, a secondary pathway, which followed first-order kinetics with degradation rates constants ranging from 1.8·10(-3) to 8.2·10(-3) h(-1). Biodegradation rates under anoxic conditions were negligible. The experimental results have also demonstrated much higher removal efficiency by biodegradation (36.2-60.0%) under nitrifying conditions in comparison with aerobic conditions (14.9-43.8%). The addition of allylthiourea, an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, inhibited nitrification completely and reduced significantly the biodegradation of target antibiotics (16.5-29.3%). The residual biodegradation in the presence of allylthiourea may be due to the activity of heterotrophs in the enriched nitrifier culture. The removal of the selected antibiotics under the studied redox conditions depended significantly on the bacteria composition of the sludge. These results suggest that despite the known persistence of this group of antibiotics it is possible to enhance their degradation using nitrifying conditions, which at adequate working conditions as high SRT, typical in MBR, become a promising alternative for improving quinolones removal from environment. PMID:23507246

Dorival-García, N; Zafra-Gómez, A; Navalón, A; González-López, J; Hontoria, E; Vílchez, J L

2013-05-15

290

Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract mediated green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles against selected human pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simple, effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora and their in vitro antibacterial activity against selected human pathogens has been demonstrated in the study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized AgNPs viz. UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, TEM, EDX and AFM. Surface Plasmon spectra for AgNPs are centered at 422 nm with dark brown color. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 10-25 nm. The presence of water soluble proteins in the leaf extract was identified by FTIR which were found to be responsible for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) to AgNPs. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs showed potent antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria such as Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus.

Das, J.; Paul Das, M.; Velusamy, P.

2013-03-01

291

Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinedione derivatives as antibacterial agents  

PubMed Central

Several thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinediones have been synthesized and examined for antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. Two compounds displayed potent activity (2–16 mg/L) against multi-drug resistant Gram-positive organisms, including methicillin, vancomycin-intermediate, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, VISA, VRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Only one of these agents possessed moderate activity (16–32 mg/L) against Gram-negative strains. An examination of the cytotoxicity of these agents revealed that they displayed low toxicity (40–50 mg/L) against mammalian cell and very low hemolytic activity (2–7%). Taken together, these studies suggest that thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidinediones are interesting scaffolds for the development of novel Gram-positive antibacterial agents. PMID:22405289

Dewal, Mahender B.; Wani, Amit S.; Vidaillac, Celine; Oupicky, David; Rybak, Michael J.

2012-01-01

292

Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract mediated green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles against selected human pathogens.  

PubMed

Simple, effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Sesbania grandiflora and their in vitro antibacterial activity against selected human pathogens has been demonstrated in the study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized AgNPs viz. UV-Vis, FTIR, XRD, TEM, EDX and AFM. Surface Plasmon spectra for AgNPs are centered at 422 nm with dark brown color. The synthesized AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 10-25 nm. The presence of water soluble proteins in the leaf extract was identified by FTIR which were found to be responsible for the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to AgNPs. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs showed potent antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria such as Salmonella enterica and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23270884

Das, J; Paul Das, M; Velusamy, P

2013-03-01

293

Total Synthesis of Albicidin: A Lead Structure from Xanthomonas albilineans for Potent Antibacterial Gyrase Inhibitors.  

PubMed

The peptide antibiotic albicidin, which is synthesized by the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans, displays remarkable antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The low amounts of albicidin obtainable from the producing organism or through heterologous expression are limiting factors in providing sufficient material for bioactivity profiling and structure-activity studies. Therefore, we developed a convergent total synthesis route toward albicidin. The unexpectedly difficult formation of amide bonds between the aromatic amino acids was achieved through a triphosgene-mediated coupling strategy. The herein presented synthesis of albicidin confirms the previously determined chemical structure and underlines the extraordinary antibacterial activity of this compound. The synthetic protocol will provide multigram amounts of albicidin for further profiling of its drug properties. PMID:25504839

Kretz, Julian; Kerwat, Dennis; Schubert, Vivien; Grätz, Stefan; Pesic, Alexander; Semsary, Siamak; Cociancich, Stéphane; Royer, Monique; Süssmuth, Roderich D

2015-02-01

294

Lead structures for new antibacterials: stereocontrolled synthesis of a bioactive muraymycin analogue.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring muraymycin nucleoside antibiotics represent a promising class of novel antibacterial agents. The structural complexity suggests the investigation of simplified analogues as potential lead structures, which can then be further optimized towards highly potent antimicrobials. Herein we report studies on muraymycin-derived potential lead structures lacking an aminoribose motif found in most naturally occurring muraymycins. We have identified a 5'-defunctionalized motif to be ideal in terms of stability and chemical accessibility and have synthesized a full-length muraymycin analogue based on this structure using a novel fully stereocontrolled route. The obtained 5'-deoxy analogue of the natural product muraymycin C4 showed good inhibitory properties towards the bacterial target protein MraY, sufficient pharmacokinetic stability and no cytotoxicity against human cells, thus making it a promising lead for antibacterial drug development. PMID:25318977

Spork, Anatol P; Büschleb, Martin; Ries, Oliver; Wiegmann, Daniel; Boettcher, Stefan; Mihalyi, Agnes; Bugg, Timothy D H; Ducho, Christian

2014-11-17

295

Synthesis, spectral features and biological activity of some novel hetarylazo dyes derived from 8-chloro-4-hydroxyl-2-quinolone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, 8-chloro-4-hydroxyl-2-quinolone was synthesized from cyclocondensation of corresponding dianilide and subsequently used as a potent coupling component with some diazotized heterocyclic amines. These compounds were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques and elemental analysis. Absorption spectra of these dyes were measured in six polar solvents and discussed with respect to the nature of solvents and substituted groups. The effects of acid, base, temperature and concentration on the visible absorption spectra of the dyes were reported. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the dyes was explored in detail.

Yahyazadeh, Asieh; Yousefi, Hessamoddin

2014-01-01

296

Flavones as isosteres of 4(1H)-quinolones: discovery of ligand efficient and dual stage antimalarial lead compounds.  

PubMed

Malaria is responsible for nearly one million deaths annually, and the increasing prevalence of multi-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum poses a great challenge to controlling the disease. A diverse set of flavones, isosteric to 4(1H)-quinolones, were prepared and profiled for their antiplasmodial activity against the blood stage of P. falciparum W2 strain, and the liver stage of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Ligand efficient leads were identified as dual stage antimalarials, suggesting that scaffold optimization may afford potent antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:24125849

Rodrigues, Tiago; Ressurreiçăo, Ana S; da Cruz, Filipa P; Albuquerque, Inęs S; Gut, Jiri; Carrasco, Marta P; Gonçalves, Daniel; Guedes, Rita C; dos Santos, Daniel J V A; Mota, Maria M; Rosenthal, Philip J; Moreira, Rui; Prudęncio, Miguel; Lopes, Francisca

2013-11-01

297

Antibacterial activity and bonding ability of an adhesive incorporating an antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the antibacterial effect and microtensile bond strength of a resin-based adhesive containing an antibacterial monomer DMAE-CB (methacryloxylethyl cetyl dimethyl ammonium chloride). Cured specimens of 1, 2, and 3% DMAE-CB-containing Single Bond 2 (crosslinking monomer: Bis-GMA, dimethacrylates; functional monomer: HEMA) were prepared, and their antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were investigated. Antibacterial property after 0, 30, 90, and 180 days of aging was also tested. Bonding ability of the experimental adhesive incorporating 3% DMAE-CB was evaluated by microtensile bond strength test. The cured experimental adhesive exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth, and the adhesive containing 3% DMAE-CB showed higher antibacterial efficiency compared with those incorporating 1 or 2% anibacterial monomer. Antibacterial activities of the specimens lasted for at least 180 days. Microtensile bond strength test revealed that the bonding ability of the experimental adhesive was not significantly adversely affected by the incorporation of DMAE-CB. Therefore, dental adhesives with strong and long-lasting bacteriostatic property could be achieved by incorporating DMAE-CB without negatively influencing bonding ability. PMID:19280645

Xiao, Yu-Hong; Ma, Sai; Chen, Ji-Hua; Chai, Zhi-Guo; Li, Fang; Wang, Ying-Jie

2009-08-01

298

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities. Methods The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. Results All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Citrobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63- 250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25- 250 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. Conclusions The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens. Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp. PMID:23998016

Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Mustaffa, Muhammed

2013-01-01

299

Antibacterial activity of nanosilver ions and particles.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of nanosilver against Gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria is investigated by immobilizing nanosilver on nanostructured silica particles and closely controlling Ag content and size. These Ag/SiO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by S/TEM, EDX spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction the exposed Ag surface area was measured qualitatively by O(2) chemisorption. Furthermore, the fraction of dissolved nanosilver was determined by measuring the released (leached) Ag(+) ion concentration in aqueous suspensions of such Ag/SiO(2) particles. The antibacterial effect of Ag(+) ions was distinguished from that of nanosilver particles by monitoring the growth of E. coli populations in the presence and absence of Ag/SiO(2) particles. The antibacterial activity of nanosilver was dominated by Ag(+) ions when fine Ag nanoparticles (less than about 10 nm in average diameter) were employed that release high concentrations of Ag(+) ions. In contrast, when relatively larger Ag nanoparticles were used, the concentration of the released Ag(+) ions was lower. Then the antibacterial activity of the released Ag(+) ions and nanosilver particles was comparable. PMID:20583805

Sotiriou, Georgios A; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

2010-07-15

300

Antibacterial activity of Turkish spice hydrosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro antibacterial activity of the hydrosols of (distilled spice water) sixteen spices (anise, basil, cumin, dalamagia sage, dill, fennel, laurel, mint, oregano, pickling herb, rosemary, sage, summer savory, seafennel, sumac and black thyme) were tested on fifteen bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842, B. brevis FMC 3, B. cereus FMC 19, B. subtilis var. niger ATCC 10, Enterobacter aerogenes

Osman Sa?d?ç; Musa Özcan

2003-01-01

301

Antibacterial Activity of Honey on Cariogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objective: Honey has antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, solutions containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% and 100%(w/v) of natural Hamadan honey were prepared. Each blood (nutrient) agar plate was then filled with dilutions of the honey. The strains of bacteria were inoculated in blood agar for 24 hours at 37°C and were adjusted according to the McFarland scale (10×10 cfumcl?1). All assays were repeated 10 times for each of the honey concentrations. Data were analyzed by non parametric Chi-Square test. Statistical significance was set at ?=0.05. Results: Significant antibacterial activity was detected for honey on Streptococcus mutans in concentrations more than 20% and on Lactobacillus in 100% concentration (P<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that antibacterial activity of honey could be used for prevention and reduction of dental caries. PMID:23724198

Ahmadi – Motamayel, Fatemeh; Hendi, Seyedeh Sare; Alikhani, Mohammad Yusof; Khamverdi, Zahra

2013-01-01

302

Long-Circulating Bacteriophage as Antibacterial Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased prevalence of multidrugresistant bacterial pathogens motivated us to attempt to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriophages. The therapeutic application of phages as antibacterial agents was impeded by several factors: (i) the failure to recognize the relatively narrow host range of phages; (ii) the presence of toxins in crude phage lysates; and (iii) a lack of appreciation for the

Carl R. Merril; Biswajit Biswas; Richard Carlton; Nicole C. Jensen; G. Joseph Creed; Steve Zullo; Sankar Adhya

1996-01-01

303

Antibacterial activity of Helichrysum aureonitens (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial activity of extracts from Helichrysum aureonitens was investigated. The dichloromethane extract was active against all five gram positive bacteria tested and the methanol extract was active only against Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus and Micrococcus kristinae, while the water extract had no activity against any of the organisms. None of the extracts inhibited the growth of the five gram

J. J. M. Meyer; A. J. Afolayan

1995-01-01

304

Antibacterial activity of four dentin bonding systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial action of bonding systems Gluma 2000, Syntac, Prisma Universal Bond 3, Scotchbond Multipurpose and Prime-Bond was tested against 32 strains of the caries-producing bacteria Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Actinomyces spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Clostridium spp. An agar plate diffusion method was used with chlorhexidine as the positive control. Assays were performed in triplicate for each component (primer and

Manuela Herrera; Paula Carrión; Manuel Bravo; Ana Castillo

2000-01-01

305

Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey  

PubMed Central

Background Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were performed for semi-quantitative evaluation. Agar well diffusion assay was used to investigate peroxide and non-peroxide activities of honey. Results The results showed that gelam honey possessed lowest MIC value against S. aureus with 5% (w/v) MIC and MBC of 6.25% (w/v). Highest MIC values were shown by pineapple honey against E. coli and P. aeruginosa as well as acacia honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) MIC and 50% (w/v) MBC values. Agar inhibition assay showed kelulut honey to possess highest total antibacterial activity against S. aureus with 26.49 equivalent phenol concentrations (EPC) and non-peroxide activity of 25.74 EPC. Lowest antibacterial activity was observed in acacia honey against E. coli with total activity of 7.85 EPC and non-peroxide activity of 7.59 EPC. There were no significant differences (p?>?0.05) between the total antibacterial activities and non-peroxide activities of Malaysian honey. The intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC of E. coli (r?=?-0.8559) was high while that between MIC and EPC of P. aeruginosa was observed to be moderate (r?=?-0.6469). S. aureus recorded a smaller correlation towards the opposite direction (r?=?0.5045). In contrast, B.cereus showed a very low intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC (r?=?-0.1482). Conclusions Malaysian honey, namely gelam, kelulut and tualang, have high antibacterial potency derived from total and non-peroxide activities, which implies that both peroxide and other constituents are mutually important as contributing factors to the antibacterial property of honey. PMID:23758747

2013-01-01

306

Outer membrane proteins responsible for multiple drug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

Three types of multiple-drug-resistant mutants which were phenotypically similar to previously described nalB, nfxB, and nfxC mutants were isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and two clinical isolates. Type 1 (nalB-type) mutants showed cross-resistance to meropenem, cephems, and quinolones. They overproduced an outer membrane protein with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa (OprM). Type 2 (nfxB-type) mutants showed cross-resistance to quinolones and new cephems, i.e., cefpirome and cefozopran, concomitant with overproduction of an outer membrane protein with an apparent molecular mass of 54 kDa (OprJ). Type 3 (nfxC-type) mutants showed cross-resistance to carbapenems and quinolones. They produced decreased amounts of OprD and increased amounts of a 50-kDa protein (OprN), which was almost the same molecular weight as that of OprM, but it was distinguishable from OprM by its heat modifiability on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the presence of salicylate, the parent strains showed an increased level of resistance to carbapenems and quinolones and produced decreased amounts of OprD and increased amounts of OprN. Salicylate caused the repression of OprJ production and the loss of resistance to cefpirome and cefozopran in two of the three OprJ-overproducing mutants, although salicylate slightly increased the level of resistance in the parent strains. The changes in susceptibilities were transient in the presence of salicylate. These data suggest that at least three different outer membrane proteins, OprM, OprJ, and OprN, are associated with multiple drug resistance in P. aeruginosa. PMID:7793866

Masuda, N; Sakagawa, E; Ohya, S

1995-01-01

307

Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alkyl Quinolones Repress Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) Signaling through HIF-1? Degradation  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) has recently emerged to be a crucial regulator of the immune response following pathogen perception, including the response to the important human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, as mechanisms involved in HIF-1 activation by bacterial pathogens are not fully characterized, understanding how bacteria and bacterial compounds impact on HIF-1? stabilization remains a major challenge. In this context, we have focused on the effect of secreted factors of P. aeruginosa on HIF-1 regulation. Surprisingly, we found that P. aeruginosa cell-free supernatant significantly repressed HIF-1? protein levels. Further characterization revealed that HIF-1? downregulation was dependent on a subset of key secreted factors involved in P. aeruginosa pathogenesis, the 2-alkyl-4-quinolone (AQ) quorum sensing (QS) signaling molecules, and in particular the pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Under hypoxic conditions, the AQ-dependent downregulation of HIF-1? was linked to the suppressed induction of the important HIF-1 target gene hexokinase II. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AQ molecules directly target HIF-1? protein degradation through the 26S-proteasome proteolytic pathway but independently of the prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD). In conclusion, this is the first report showing that bacterial molecules can repress HIF-1? protein levels. Manipulation of HIF-1 signaling by P. aeruginosa AQs could have major consequences for the host response to infection and may facilitate the infective properties of this pathogen. PMID:22949552

Legendre, Claire; Reen, F. Jerry; Mooij, Marlies J.; McGlacken, Gerard P.; Adams, Claire

2012-01-01

308

A rapid microbial inhibition-based screening strategy for fluoroquinolone and quinolone residues in foods of animal origin.  

PubMed

A rapid, high-throughput antimicrobial screening assay for the detection of fluoroquinolone and 4-quinolone residues in foods of animal origin has been developed in ampoule format. The assay employs a single Escherichia coli species sensitive to those Gram-negative inhibitiory antimicrobial compounds and is presented in a comparable format to the existing commercially available Premi Test and Delvotest ampoule-based microbial inhibition tests (DSM, Delft, The Netherlands). In the novel E. coli assay the microorganism, in vegetative state, is inoculated into a nutrient agar pellet containing a pH sensitive acid-base indicator dye. A simple extraction protocol that is selective for fluoroquinolone and quinolone compounds was developed to recover, cleanup and concentrate the target analyte(s) from a variety of tissue types and matrices prior to screening analysis. The method detected 16 target compounds at concentrations equal to or below the maximum residue limits (where applicable). The method has been validated using the prototype assay in accordance with the 2002/657/EC guidelines for the validation of qualitative screening assays. False positive and false negative responses rates for the procedure have been determined as less than 5%. The stability of a selection of representative target analytes has been demonstrated for a 20-week period under a variety of storage conditions both in tissue and in extract. PMID:19286036

Ashwin, Helen; Stead, Sara; Caldow, Marianne; Sharman, Matthew; Stark, Jacques; de Rijk, Angelique; Keely, Brendan J

2009-04-01

309

QapR (PA5506) Represses an Operon That Negatively Affects the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in varied sites within the human body and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in those afflicted with cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa is able to coordinate group behaviors, such as virulence factor production, through the process of cell-to-cell signaling. There are three intercellular signaling systems employed by P. aeruginosa, and one of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]). PQS is required for virulence in multiple infection models and has been found in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients colonized by P. aeruginosa. In this study, we have identified an RpiR family transcriptional regulator, QapR, which is an autoregulatory repressor. We found that mutation of qapR caused overexpression of the qapR operon. We characterized the qapR operon to show that it contains genes qapR, PA5507, PA5508, and PA5509 and that QapR directly controls the transcription of these genes in a negative manner. We also show that derepression of this operon greatly reduces PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. Our results suggest that qapR affects PQS concentration by repressing an enzymatic pathway that acts on PQS or a PQS precursor to lower the PQS concentration. We believe that this operon comprises a novel mechanism to regulate PQS concentration in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23708133

Tipton, Kyle A.; Coleman, James P.

2013-01-01

310

L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL): a putative target for the development of narrow-spectrum antibacterial compounds  

PubMed Central

Despite the urgent need for sustained development of novel antibacterial compounds to combat the drastic rise in antibiotic resistant and emerging bacterial infections, only a few clinically relevant antibacterial drugs have been recently developed. One of the bottlenecks impeding the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the identification of new enzymatic targets. The nutritionally essential amino acid anabolic pathways, for example lysine biosynthesis, provide an opportunity to explore the development of antibacterial compounds, since human genomes do not possess the genes necessary to synthesize these amino acids de novo. The diaminopimelate (DAP)/lysine (lys) anabolic pathways are attractive targets for antibacterial development since the penultimate lys precursor meso-DAP (m-DAP) is a cross-linking amino acid in the peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall of most Gram-negative bacteria and lys plays a similar role in the PG of most Gram-positive bacteria, in addition to its role as one of the 20 proteogenic amino acids. The L,L-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) pathway was recently identified as a novel variant of the DAP/lys anabolic pathways. The DapL pathway has been identified in the pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus; Chlamydia, Leptospira, and Treponema. The dapL gene has been identified in the genomes of 381 or approximately 13% of the 2771 bacteria that have been sequenced, annotated and reposited in the NCBI database, as of May 23, 2014. The narrow distribution of the DapL pathway in the bacterial domain provides an opportunity for the development and or discovery of narrow spectrum antibacterial compounds. PMID:25309529

Triassi, Alexander J.; Wheatley, Matthew S.; Savka, Michael A.; Gan, Han Ming; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Hudson, André O.

2014-01-01

311

Novel substituted benzothiophene and thienothiophene carboxanilides and quinolones: synthesis, photochemical synthesis, DNA-binding properties, antitumor evaluation and 3D-derived QSAR analysis.  

PubMed

A series of new N,N-dimethylaminopropyl- and 2-imidazolinyl-substituted derivatives of benzo[b]thienyl- and thieno[2,3-b]thienylcarboxanilides and benzo[b]thieno[2,3-c]- and thieno[3',2':4,5]thieno[2,3-c]quinolones were prepared. Quinolones were prepared by the reaction of photochemical dehydrohalogenation of corresponding anilides. Carboxanilides and quinolones were tested for the antiproliferative activity. 2-Imidazolinyl-substituted derivatives showed very prominent activity. By use of the experimentally obtained antitumor measurements, 3D-derived QSAR analysis was performed for the set of compounds. Highly predictive 3D-derived QSAR models were obtained, and molecular properties that have the highest impact on antitumor activity were identified. Carboxanilides 6a-c and quinolones 9a-c and 11a were evaluated for DNA binding propensities and topoisomerases I and II inhibition as part of their mechanism of action assessment. The evaluated differences in the mode of action nicely correlate with the results of the 3D-QSAR analysis. Taken together, the results indicate which modifications of the compounds from the series should further improve their anticancer properties. PMID:22620261

Aleksi?, Maja; Bertoša, Branimir; Nhili, Raja; Uzelac, Lidija; Jarak, Ivana; Depauw, Sabine; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélčne; Kralj, Marijeta; Tomi?, Sanja; Karminski-Zamola, Grace

2012-06-14

312

Development of a copper-catalyzed amidation-base-promoted cyclization sequence for the synthesis of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl1-4 quinolones  

E-print Network

A direct two-step method for the preparation of 2-aryl- and 2-vinyl-4-quinolones that utilizes a copper-catalyzed amidation of ortho-halophenones followed by a base-promoted Camps cyclization of the resulting N-(2-keto-aryl)amides ...

Jones, Carrie Preston

2007-01-01

313

Diverse models for the prediction of HIV integrase inhibitory activity of substituted quinolone carboxylic acids.  

PubMed

In the present study both classification and correlation techniques of diverse nature were successfully employed for the development of models for the prediction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitory activity using a dataset comprising 50 analogs of quinolone carboxylic acid. The values of various molecular descriptors (MDs) for each analog in the dataset were computed using the MDS V-life science QSAR plus module. The values of other MDs which are not part of MDS V-life science were computed using an in-house computer program. A decision tree (DT) was constructed for the HIV integrase inhibitory activity to determine the importance of MDs. The DT learned the information from the input data with an accuracy of 98% and correctly predicted the cross-validated (10 fold) data with an accuracy of 96%. Three MDs, E-state contribution descriptor (SssOHE), molecular connectivity topochemical index ($\\chi {}^{{\\rm A}} $), and eccentric connectivity topochemical index ($\\xi _{{\\rm C}}^{{\\rm C}} $), were used to develop the models using moving average analysis (MAA). The accuracy of classification of single descriptor based models using MAA was found to vary from a minimum of 96% to a maximum of 98%. The statistical significance of the models was assessed through specificity, sensitivity, overall accuracy, Mathew's correlation coefficient, and intercorrelation analysis. The widely used methods like multiple linear regression, partial least squares, and principal component regression were employed for development of correlation models. The models were generated on a training set of 36 molecules. The models had a correlation coefficient (r(2) ) of 0.86 to 0.92, significant cross validated correlation coefficient (q(2) ) of 0.79 to 0.85, F-test from 63.2 to 93.06, r(2) for external test set (pred_r(2) ) from 0.69, coefficient of correlation of predicted dataset (pred_ r(2) Se) of 0.77, and degree of freedom from 27 to 30. Alignment independent descriptors, SsOHE-index, SaaCHE index, SssCH2, and x?log?P were found to be the most important descriptors for the development of correlation models for the prediction of HIV integrase inhibitory activity. PMID:22945879

Gupta, Monika; Madan, Anil Kumar

2012-12-01

314

Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity. PMID:24959601

Arciola, Carla Renata; Monaco, Annachiara; Lombardini, Marco

2014-01-01

315

Antibacterial and antioxidant constituents of Acalypha wilkesiana.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at characterising the secondary metabolites responsible for antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Acalypha wilkesiana. Purification of the defatted methanol leaves extract was guided by the DPPH free radical scavenging assay as well as by evaluation of the antibacterial activity against four bacterial strains. As a result, geraniin, corilagin, quadrangularic acid M and shikimic acid were purified and isolated. Shikimic acid, reported for the first time from this plant, proved to be the major metabolite of the extract. All the four isolated compounds showed bactericidal activity against extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (700603), while corilagin was the single compound to exhibit antioxidant activity (IC50 53 ?g/mL). PMID:25426700

Anokwuru, Chinedu P; Sinisi, Annamaria; Samie, Amidou; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

2014-11-26

316

Cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of capping materials.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity. PMID:24959601

Poggio, Claudio; Arciola, Carla Renata; Beltrami, Riccardo; Monaco, Annachiara; Dagna, Alberto; Lombardini, Marco; Visai, Livia

2014-01-01

317

(-)-Menthol based thixotropic hydrogel and its application as a universal antibacterial carrier.  

PubMed

A kind of novel hydrogelator based on (-)-menthol, a traditional cooling compound, tailed by an amino acid derivate through an alkyl chain, has been designed and synthesized. The hydrogelator containing an l-lysine can form a stable hydrogel with thixotropic character in a large pH range. An interesting feature is that the viscoelastic character of the hydrogel can be enhanced by mechanical force. The mechanism of the self-assembly process was investigated by means of IR, SEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The formation of three dimensional multiporous networks through acid base interactions and strong double hydrogen bonding between amino acids is proposed to be the driving force for the construction of the stable hydrogel. As a result, the hydrogelator can further gelate aqueous solutions of some confirmed antibacterial agents such as Zn(2+) and a series of water soluble organic antibiotic medicines like lincomycin, amoxicillin, etc., in such a unique way that the concentration of the antibacterial agents loaded into the hydrogel can be tuned to a large extent. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the hydrogels loaded with Zn(2+) or lincomycin is much more effective than that of the corresponding aqueous solution tested by the Oxford cup method. Furthermore, the hydrogelator is completely innoxious to living cells by measurement of MTT assay. Thus, the hydrogel can be developed as a universal carrier for antibacterial agents and may also be widely used in the fields of cell culture, tissue engineering, or drug delivery systems. PMID:24695880

Li, Yi; Zhou, Feng; Wen, Ying; Liu, Keyin; Chen, Liming; Mao, Yueyuan; Yang, Shiping; Yi, Tao

2014-05-01

318

Antibacterial, antisecretory and antihemorrhagic activity of Azadirachta indica used to treat cholera and diarrhea in India.  

PubMed

Indigenous uses of Azadirachta indica A. juss (Maliaceae) (locally known as neem) leaves in different parts of India for curing gastrointestinal disorder such as diarrhea and cholera is wide spread. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antisecretory activity of neem extract against Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of watery diarrhea such as cholera. The methanol extract of neem leaf was tested for its antibacterial, antisecretory and antihemorrhagic activity against Vibrio cholerae. Azadirachta indica extract had significant antibacterial activity against the multi-drug-resistant Vibrio cholerae of serotypes O1, O139 and non-O1, non-O139. The minimum inhibitory concentration reached by 50% (MIC50) and 90% (MIC90), and minimum bactericidal concentration for the extract were 2.5, > 5, and 10 mg/ml, respectively. Neem extract showed antisecretory activity on Vibrio cholerae induced fluid secretion in mouse intestine with inhibition values of 27.7%, 41.1%, 43.3%, 57.0%, and 77.9% at doses of 100, 200, 300, 450 and 1800 mg/kg, respectively. Oral administration of the extract inhibited hemorrhage induced by Vibrio cholerae in mouse intestine at a dose > or = 300 mg/kg. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the uses of neem employed by the indigenous people in India employed for the treatment of diarrhea and dreadful disease cholera. PMID:17314018

Thakurta, Prarthana; Bhowmik, Poulami; Mukherjee, Souryadeep; Hajra, Tapas K; Patra, Amarendra; Bag, Prasanta K

2007-05-22

319

Nitric oxide integrated polyethylenimine-based tri-block copolymer for efficient antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

The work demonstrated a successful synthesis of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing material and its antibacterial effect on Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The polymeric support composed of thermosensitive Pluronic F68 having good biocompatibility and branched polyethylenimine (BPEI) housed N-diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) which could store and release NO under appropriate physiological condition. The developed F68-BPEI-NONOates releases a sufficient amount of NO under physiological condition to elicit effective killing of E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. The antibacterial ability of the released NO was compared to untreated control or unmodified F68 polymer by using confocal microscopy; F68-BPEI-NONOates demonstrated excellent antibacterial activity with in vitro low cytotoxicity. TEM investigation also revealed the destruction of bacteria membrane caused by NO. The effectiveness of F68-BPEI-NONOates against resistant strains such as MRSA provides a very simple but highly efficient strategy to combat drug-resistant bacterial infections. PMID:23932499

Park, Junghong; Kim, Jihoon; Singha, Kaushik; Han, Dong-Keun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong

2013-11-01

320

The use of FTIR microscopy for the evaluation of anti-bacterial agents activity.  

PubMed

FTIR spectroscopy has been used by chemists as a powerful tool to characterize inorganic and organic compounds. In this study we examined the potential of FTIR microspectroscopy for early evaluation of the efficiency of anti-bacterial therapy. For this purpose, the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and ampicillin on the development of bacterial infection in cell culture was examined. CAPE is one of the most active components of propolis which is a natural honeybee product with a potent anti-bacterial activity. Our results show early (2h post-treatment), unique and significant spectral indicators for successful treatment with CAPE although some of these biomarkers showed different trends in Gram (-) compared with Gram (+) bacteria. For instance, the intensity of bands at 682 and 1316 cm(-1) decreases in all examined Gram (-) bacterial strains while significantly increases in all examined Gram (+) bacterial strains. On the other hand, both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria treated with ampicillin did not show any spectral differences compared with the control untreated bacteria. It seems that FTIR spectroscopy can be used as an effective tool for an early evaluation of the efficiency of the anti-bacterial effect of CAPE and probably other used drugs. PMID:19394246

Huleihel, Mahmoud; Pavlov, Valentina; Erukhimovitch, Vitaly

2009-07-17

321

Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background In response to the propagation of bacteria resistant to many antibiotics also called multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is primordial. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium. mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratissimum and Tamarindus indica). Methods The phytochemical screening of the studied extracts was performed using described methods whilst the liquid broth micro dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays against 27 Gram-negative bacteria. Results The results of the phytochemical tests indicate that all tested extracts contained phenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively present. The studied extracts displayed various degrees of antibacterial activities. The extracts of A. digitata, H. sabdarifa, A. polyanthum, A. alboviolaceum and O. gratissimum showed the best spectra of activity, their inhibitory effects being recorded against 81.48%, 66.66%, 62.96%, 55.55%, and 55.55% of the 27 tested bacteria respectively. The extract of A. polyanthum was very active against E. aerogenes EA294 with the lowest recorded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 ?g/ml. Conclusion The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied edible plants in the fight against both sensitive and MDR phenotypes. PMID:23837916

2013-01-01

322

Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of seven Cameroonian dietary plants against bacteria expressing MDR phenotypes.  

PubMed

The morbidity and mortality caused by bacterial infections significantly increased with resistance to commonly used antibiotics. This is partially due to the activation of efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. The present work designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Sesamum indicum, Sesamum radiatum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Corchous olitorius, Cyperus esculentus, Adansonia digitata, Aframomum kayserianum), against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria over expressing active efflux pumps. The standard phytochemical methods were used to detect the main classes of secondary metabolites in the extracts. The antibacterial activities of the studied extracts in the absence or presence of an efflux pump inhibitor (PA?N) were evaluated using liquid microbroth dilution method. The results obtained indicated that apart from the extract of C. esculentus, all other samples contained alkaloids, phenols and polyphenols meanwhile other classes of chemicals were selectively present. The studied extracts displayed antibacterial activities with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 64 to 1024 ?g/mL on the majority of the 27 tested microbial strains. The extract of S. indicum was active against 77.77% of the tested microorganisms whilst the lowest MIC value (64 ?g/mL) was recorded with that of A. kayserianum against E. aerogenes EA294. The results of the present work provide baseline information on the possible used of the tested Cameroonian dietary plants in the treatment of bacterial infections including multi-drug resistant phenotypes. PMID:23961425

Seukep, Jackson A; Fankam, Aimé G; Djeussi, Doriane E; Voukeng, Igor K; Tankeo, Simplice B; Noumdem, Jaurčs Ak; Kuete, Antoine Hln; Kuete, Victor

2013-01-01

323

Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Cross-Linked Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde  

PubMed Central

This present study deals with synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde. Results from this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde markedly inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Burkholderia cepacia complex regardless of bacterial species and incubation time while bacterial growth was unaffected by solid chitosan. Furthermore, high temperature treated cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde showed strong antibacterial activity against the selected strain 0901 although the inhibitory effects varied with different temperatures. In addition, physical-chemical and structural characterization revealed that the cross-linking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde resulted in a rougher surface morphology, a characteristic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) band at 1559 cm?1, a specific X-ray diffraction peak centered at 2? = 15°, a lower contents of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, and a higher stability of glucose units compared to chitosan based on scanning electron microscopic observation, FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, as well as elemental and thermo gravimetric analysis. Overall, this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde is promising to be developed as a new antibacterial drug. PMID:23670533

Li, Bin; Shan, Chang-Lin; Zhou, Qing; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Yang-Li; Xu, Fei; Han, Li-Rong; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Guo, Long-Biao; Xie, Guan-Lin; Sun, Guo-Chang

2013-01-01

324

New antibacterial peptide derived from bovine hemoglobin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peptic digestion of bovine hemoglobin at low degree of hydrolysis yields an intermediate peptide fraction exhibiting antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus A270, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis after separation by reversed-phase HPLC. From this fraction a pure peptide was isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS\\/MS). This peptide

Rachid Daoud; Veronique Dubois; Loredana Bors-Dodita; Naima Nedjar-Arroume; Francois Krier; Nour-Eddine Chihib; Patrice Mary; Mostafa Kouach; Gilbert Briand; Didier Guillochon

2005-01-01

325

Antibacterial iodine-supported titanium implants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep infection remains a serious complication in orthopedic implant surgery. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, several biomaterial surface treatments have been proposed. This study focused on evaluating the antibacterial activity of iodine-supported titanium (Ti–I2) and its impact on post-implant infection, as well as determining the potential suitability of Ti–I2 as a biomaterial. External fixation pins were

T. Shirai; T. Shimizu; K. Ohtani; Y. Zen; M. Takaya; H. Tsuchiya

2011-01-01

326

Antibacterial biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys.  

PubMed

The use of magnesium alloys as degradable metals for biomedical applications is a topic of ongoing research and the demand for multifunctional materials is increasing. Hence, binary Mg-Ag alloys were designed as implant materials to combine the favourable properties of magnesium with the well-known antibacterial property of silver. In this study, three Mg-Ag alloys, Mg2Ag, Mg4Ag and Mg6Ag that contain 1.87 %, 3.82 % and 6.00 % silver by weight, respectively, were cast and processed with solution (T4) and aging (T6) heat treatment. The metallurgical analysis and phase identification showed that all alloys contained Mg4Ag as the dominant ? phase. After heat treatment, the mechanical properties of all Mg-Ag alloys were significantly improved and the corrosion rate was also significantly reduced, due to presence of silver. Mg(OH)? and MgO present the main magnesium corrosion products, while AgCl was found as the corresponding primary silver corrosion product. Immersion tests, under cell culture conditions, demonstrated that the silver content did not significantly shift the pH and magnesium ion release. In vitro tests, with both primary osteoblasts and cell lines (MG63, RAW 264.7), revealed that Mg-Ag alloys show negligible cytotoxicity and sound cytocompatibility. Antibacterial assays, performed in a dynamic bioreactor system, proved that the alloys reduce the viability of two common pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (DSMZ 20231) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (DSMZ 3269), and the results showed that the killing rate of the alloys against tested bacteria exceeded 90%. In summary, biodegradable Mg-Ag alloys are cytocompatible materials with adjustable mechanical and corrosion properties and show promising antibacterial activity, which indicates their potential as antibacterial biodegradable implant materials. PMID:23771512

Tie, D; Feyerabend, F; Müller, W D; Schade, R; Liefeith, K; Kainer, K U; Willumeit, R

2013-01-01

327

Antibacterial activity of novel benzopolycyclic amines.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus, especially strains resistant to multiple antibiotics, is a major pathogen for humans and animals. In this paper we have synthesized and evaluated the antibacterial activity of a new series of benzopolycyclic amines. Some of them exhibited ?M MIC values against Staphylococcus aureus and other bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA. Compound 8 that displayed a good selectivity index, showed to be active in eliminating bacterial cells forming a preexisting biofilm. PMID:25515953

Barniol-Xicota, Marta; Escandell, Alex; Valverde, Elena; Julián, Esther; Torrents, Eduard; Vázquez, Santiago

2015-01-15

328

Antibacterial activity of ? 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibiting concentrations (MIC) of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) for staphylococci and streptococci in broth are in the range of 1–5 ?g\\/ml. In the same range, both compounds are also bactericidal. In media containing 4% serum or 5% blood the antibacterial activity is strongly reduced (MIC 50?g\\/ml). Gram-negative bacteria are resistant to THC and CBD.

B. van Klingeren; M. ten Ham

1976-01-01

329

Antibacterial properties of resin composites and dentin bonding systems.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the research conducted on the evaluation of antibacterial properties of commercial composites and adhesive systems, in addition to the discussion on many attempts to achieve antibacterial composites or adhesives. With regard to composites, commercially available products including fluoride-releasing materials have no antibacterial effect after being cured, which may explain why composites accumulate more plaque than other filling materials. The attempts to provide composites with antibacterial properties involve alterations to the resin components and filler components, and the trials can be subsequently classified into two groups based on the release profile of antibacterial components; agent-releasing or non-agent-releasing materials. Each type of antibacterial composite has advantages and disadvantages, and further modifications are needed to achieve clinically useful materials. Among proprietary dentin bonding systems (DBS), the products which contain glutaraldehyde or have an acidic property exhibit some antibacterial effects. However, the antibacterial properties shown by these products are only side-effects which are derived from the constituents included to produce superior bonding characteristics, and appear to be unreliable. Inclusion of antibacterial components into DBS has also been attempted using several methods, and the results of in vitro tests indicate that some of the trials seem promising. It is worthy of continuing the attempts to develop DBS which can inhibit invading bacteria after the placement of restoration as well as residual bacteria in the cavity. Achievement of bio-functional composites or DBS with therapeutic effects would contribute to prevent secondary caries. PMID:12837391

Imazato, Satoshi

2003-09-01

330

Clinical pharmacokinetics of linezolid, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial.  

PubMed

Linezolid is the first antibacterial to be approved from the oxazolidinone class. The drug has substantial antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive organisms such as streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci, including species resistant to conventional antibacterial treatment. Linezolid is fully bioavailable following oral administration when compared with intravenous administration. Maximum plasma linezolid concentrations are usually achieved between 1 and 2 hours after oral administration. Food slightly decreases the rate, but not the extent, of absorption. The distribution of linezolid is approximately equivalent to total body water, and there is low protein binding (31%) to serum albumin. The elimination half-life of linezolid is 5-7 hours, and twice-daily administration of 400-600 mg provides steady-state concentrations in the therapeutic range. Linezolid is mainly cleared by non-renal clearance to two metabolites and renal clearance of the parent compound. Approximately 50% of an administered dose appears in the urine as the two major metabolites, and approximately 35% appears as parent drug. A small degree of nonlinearity has been observed, with a 30% decrease in clearance after a 5-fold increase in dose. The nonlinearity is not relevant over the therapeutic dosage range. Plasma linezolid concentrations in elderly patients, patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment or mild to severe renal impairment are similar to those achieved in young or healthy volunteers. Higher concentrations are observed in women as compared with men, but the difference is not sufficient to warrant an adjustment in dosage. In patients with severe renal impairment requiring haemodialysis, the exposure to the two primary metabolites was 7 to 8-fold higher than in patients with normal renal function. Therefore, linezolid should be used with caution in patients with severe renal insufficiency. A higher clearance of linezolid was found in children as compared with adults, and therefore higher daily dosages per kg bodyweight are required in children. There is no pharmacokinetic interaction when linezolid is coadministered with aztreonam, gentamicin or warfarin. Linezolid is a mild, reversible, inhibitor of monoamine oxidases A and B. Coadministration of linezolid with the adrenergic agents pseudoephedrine and phenylpropanolamine resulted in increases in blood pressure relative to these agents alone or to placebo. The degree of the change in blood pressure was within that associated with normal daily activities. No interaction was observed when linezolid was coadministered with the serotonergic agent dextromethorphan. PMID:14531724

Stalker, Dennis J; Jungbluth, Gail L

2003-01-01

331

Non-antibacterial tetracycline formulations: clinical applications in dentistry and medicine  

PubMed Central

In 1983, it was first reported that tetracyclines (TCs) can modulate the host response, including (but not limited to) inhibition of pathologic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and by mechanisms unrelated to the antibacterial properties of these drugs. Soon thereafter, strategies were developed to generate non-antibacterial formulations (subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline; SDD) and compositions (chemically modified tetracyclines; CMTs) of TCs as host-modulating drugs to treat periodontal and other inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the history and rationale for the development of: (a) SDD which led to two government-approved medications, one for periodontitis and the other for acne/rosacea and (b) CMTs, which led to the identification of the active site of the drugs responsible for MMP inhibition and to studies demonstrating evidence of efficacy of the most potent of these, CMT-3, as an anti-angiogenesis agent in patients with the cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and as a potential treatment for a fatal lung disease (acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARDS). In addition, this review discusses a number of clinical studies, some up to 2 years’ duration, demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy of SDD formulations in humans with oral inflammatory diseases (periodontitis, pemphigoid) as well as medical diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, post-menopausal osteopenia, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and a rare and fatal lung disease, lymphangioleiomyomatosis. PMID:23071896

Gu, Ying; Walker, Clay; Ryan, Maria E.; Payne, Jeffrey B.; Golub, Lorne M.

2012-01-01

332

Non-antibacterial tetracycline formulations: clinical applications in dentistry and medicine.  

PubMed

In 1983, it was first reported that tetracyclines (TCs) can modulate the host response, including (but not limited to) inhibition of pathologic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and by mechanisms unrelated to the antibacterial properties of these drugs. Soon thereafter, strategies were developed to generate non-antibacterial formulations (subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline; SDD) and compositions (chemically modified tetracyclines; CMTs) of TCs as host-modulating drugs to treat periodontal and other inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the history and rationale for the development of: (a) SDD which led to two government-approved medications, one for periodontitis and the other for acne/rosacea and (b) CMTs, which led to the identification of the active site of the drugs responsible for MMP inhibition and to studies demonstrating evidence of efficacy of the most potent of these, CMT-3, as an anti-angiogenesis agent in patients with the cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and as a potential treatment for a fatal lung disease (acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARDS). In addition, this review discusses a number of clinical studies, some up to 2 years' duration, demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy of SDD formulations in humans with oral inflammatory diseases (periodontitis, pemphigoid) as well as medical diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, post-menopausal osteopenia, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and a rare and fatal lung disease, lymphangioleiomyomatosis. PMID:23071896

Gu, Ying; Walker, Clay; Ryan, Maria E; Payne, Jeffrey B; Golub, Lorne M

2012-01-01

333

Substrate independent silver nanoparticle based antibacterial coatings.  

PubMed

Infections arising from bacterial adhesion and colonization on medical device surfaces are a significant healthcare problem. Silver based antibacterial coatings have attracted a great deal of attention as a potential solution. This paper reports on the development of a silver nanoparticles based antibacterial surface that can be applied to any type of material surface. The silver nanoparticles were surface engineered with a monolayer of 2-mercaptosuccinic acid, which facilitates the immobilization of the nanoparticles to the solid surface, and also reduces the rate of oxidation of the nanoparticles, extending the lifetime of the coatings. The coatings had excellent antibacterial efficacy against three clinically significant pathogenic bacteria i.e. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Studies with primary human fibroblast cells showed that the coatings had no cytotoxicity in vitro. Innate immune studies in cultures of primary macrophages demonstrated that the coatings do not significantly alter the level of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines or the adhesion and viability of these cells. Collectively, these coatings have an optimal combination of properties that make them attractive for deposition on medical device surfaces such as wound dressings, catheters and implants. PMID:24630091

Taheri, Shima; Cavallaro, Alex; Christo, Susan N; Smith, Louise E; Majewski, Peter; Barton, Mary; Hayball, John D; Vasilev, Krasimir

2014-05-01

334

Antibacterial activity of dentinal bonding agents.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of five bacterial species to seven dentinal bonding agents was examined in vitro. Agar diffusion tests using filterpaper disks containing 10 microL each of conditioner, primer, or resin were performed on blood agar and mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) was used as a positive control. After incubation, zones of inhibited bacterial growth were measured. Of all the compounds tested, Gluma cleanser and Gluma etchant showed the strongest growth inhibition for all bacterial strains. No antibacterial effect was noted for Prisma Universal Bond 2 and Superlux Universal Bond 2 systems. The primers of Gluma, Denthesive, and Scotchbond 2 displayed antibacterial activity that, in some cases, was comparable to that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. Zones of inhibition were seen for the resin materials of Scotchbond 2 and Tripton with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus. No inhibition was seen after these resins were cured, whereas the antibacterial effect of XR-Bond on S sanguis and A viscosus was not affected by light curing. PMID:8210322

Emilson, C G; Bergenholtz, G

1993-07-01

335

Antibacterial Efficacy of Raw and Processed Honey  

PubMed Central

In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of raw and processed honey was tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi). Both types of honey showed antibacterial activity against tested organisms with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 6.94 to 37.94?mm, while E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa showed that sensibility towards all the extracts with ZOI ranges between 13.09 to 37.94?mm. The methanol extract showed more potent activity than other organic extracts. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible as compared to Gram-positive bacteria except E. faecalis. The broth microdilution assay gave minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 625??g/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges between 625??g/mL 2500??g/mL. The study showed that honey has antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect), similar to antibiotics, against test organisms and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria. PMID:21350671

Mohapatra, D. P.; Thakur, V.; Brar, S. K.

2011-01-01

336

Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. PMID:23569748

Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada

2011-04-01

337

Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity  

PubMed Central

Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. PMID:23569748

Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada

2011-01-01

338

Microsomal metabolism of quinifuryl--a nitrofuryl-ethenyl-quinolone antiseptic possessing antitumor activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Quinifuryl, 2-(5'-nitro-2'-furanyl)ethenyl-4-[N-[4'-(N,N-diethylamino)-1'-methylbuty l] carbamoyl] quinoline, is a representative of a family of nitrofuran-ethenyl-quinoline antibiotics synthesized in the USSR by Dr N.M. Sukhova. The drug has been shown to be an effective cytostatic and radiosensitizer towards cancer cells in culture. While rapid metabolic consumption of these drugs by liver tissue has been shown, none of the drug metabolites have been isolated and characterized. Here, we present the results of experiments focusing on the isolation and characterization of quinifuryl metabolites. A pyridine derivative was the sole product detected and characterized by GC-MS analysis. An alteration of quinifuryl metabolism by peroxynitrite formed during the metabolism of the drug was assumed to be responsible for an unexpectedly high drug decomposition. PMID:10412887

Degterev, I A; Nogueira, P C; Marsaioli, A J; Verces, A E

1999-01-01

339

Antibacterial Activity of Pepducins, Allosterical Modulators of Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling  

PubMed Central

Pepducins containing a fatty acid linked to an amino acid sequence derived from cytosolic parts of a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) constitute a new group of lipopeptide tools in GPCR studies. Pepducins corresponding to the third intracellular loop of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) activate human neutrophils, and we show here that, in addition, these allosteric modulators of receptor activity also kill bacteria. The functional dualism of FPR2 pepducins could potentially be explored as a novel class of antibacterial drugs with immunomodulatory properties. PMID:24590483

Winther, Malene; Gabl, Michael; Oprea, Tudor I.; Jönsson, Bodil; Boulay, Francois; Bylund, Johan; Dahlgren, Claes

2014-01-01

340

Antibacterial activity of pepducins, allosterical modulators of formyl peptide receptor signaling.  

PubMed

Pepducins containing a fatty acid linked to an amino acid sequence derived from cytosolic parts of a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) constitute a new group of lipopeptide tools in GPCR studies. Pepducins corresponding to the third intracellular loop of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) activate human neutrophils, and we show here that, in addition, these allosteric modulators of receptor activity also kill bacteria. The functional dualism of FPR2 pepducins could potentially be explored as a novel class of antibacterial drugs with immunomodulatory properties. PMID:24590483

Winther, Malene; Gabl, Michael; Oprea, Tudor I; Jönsson, Bodil; Boulay, Francois; Bylund, Johan; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei

2014-05-01

341

Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

2010-01-01

342

Addition of antibacterial agents to MMA-TBB dentin bonding systems--influence on tensile bond strength and antibacterial effect.  

PubMed

To produce a bonding system which has both high bond strength and antibacterial properties, an antibacterial agent (vancomycin: VCM or metronidazol: MN) was added to the PMMA powder of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (CB). The influence of the addition of an antibacterial agent on tensile bond strength to dentin and the antibacterial effect were investigated in this study. Forty-seven freshly extracted bovine first or second incisors were used to measure the tensile bond strength to dentin. The bond strengths to bovine dentin were not significantly decreased by addition of VCM (1%, 2%, 5%), or MN (1%) to CB (p < 0.05). The antibacterial effect of CB containing antibacterial agent on six strains of bacteria was investigated by the agar plate diffusion method, analyzing the appearance of the inhibition zone around a resin disk following anaerobic culturing. The resin disks containing VCM showed antibacterial effects on all of the strains examined; the widths of the inhibition zones were 4-15 mm. The resin disks containing MN showed antibacterial effects on three strains; the widths of the inhibition zones were 0-4 mm. It was thus possible to produce a bonding system with both antibacterial effect and high tensile bond strength by addition of VCM to PMMA powder. PMID:11219091

Kudou, Y; Obara, K; Kawashima, T; Kubota, M; Abe, S; Endo, T; Komatsu, M; Okuda, R

2000-03-01

343

Antibacterial activity against ?- lactamase producing Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants Staphylococcus aureus: fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination  

PubMed Central

Background The present study reports the antibacterial capacity of alkaloid compounds in combination with Methicillin and Ampicillin-resistants bacteria isolated from clinical samples. The resistance of different bacteria strains to the current antibacterial agents, their toxicity and the cost of the treatment have led to the development of natural products against the bacteria resistant infections when applied in combination with conventional antimicrobial drugs. Method The antibacterial assays in this study were performed by using inhibition zone diameters, MIC, MBC methods, the time-kill assay and the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index (FICI) determination. On the whole, fifteen Gram-positive bacterial strains (MRSA/ARSA) were used. Negative control was prepared using discs impregnated with 10 % DMSO in water and commercially available Methicillin and Ampicillin from Alkom Laboratories LTD were used as positive reference standards for all bacterial strains. Results We noticed that the highest activities were founded with the combination of alkaloid compounds and conventional antibiotics against all bacteria strains. Then, results showed that after 7 h exposition there was no viable microorganism in the initial inoculums. Conclusion The results of this study showed that alkaloid compounds in combination with conventional antibiotics (Methicillin, Ampicillin) exhibited antimicrobial effects against microorganisms tested. These results validate the ethno-botanical use of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae) in Burkina Faso. Moreover, this study demonstrates the potential of this herbaceous as a source of antibacterial agent that could be effectively used for future health care purposes. PMID:22716026

2012-01-01

344

Antibacterial activity of extracts from plants of central Argentina--isolation of an active principle from Achyrocline satureioides.  

PubMed

The great increase in bacterial infections is fueling interest in the search for antibacterial products of plant origin. Extracts obtained from 51 native and naturalized plants from central Argentina were therefore evaluated for their IN VITRO inhibitory activity on pathogenic bacteria with the aim of selecting the most active ones as new sources of effective antibiotics. The susceptibility of reference and clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus was determined. Extracts from Achyrocline satureioides, Flourensia oolepis, Lepechinia floribunda, and Lithrea molleoides were the most potent, with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.006 to 2 and 0.012 to 10 mg/mL, respectively, on both gram-positive and negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity-guided isolation of A. satureioides ethanol extract showed 23-methyl-6-O-desmethylauricepyrone (1) to be the most active compound. This compound showed inhibitory effects against gram-positive bacteria with MIC and MBC values of 0.002 and 0.008 mg/mL, respectively, while on gram-negative strains, the MIC and MBC were 0.062-0.250 and 0.062-0.500 mg/mL, respectively. The strong antibacterial activity shown by the four plant extracts or the compound isolated from A. satureioides suggests that they could become part of the arsenal of antibacterial drugs currently used. PMID:20645245

Joray, Mariana B; del Rollán, María R; Ruiz, Gustavo M; Palacios, Sara M; Carpinella, María C

2011-01-01

345

Club Drugs  

MedlinePLUS

... Rohypnol, ketamine, as well as MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine ( Drug Facts: Club Drugs , National Institute on Drug ... Club Drugs , National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010). Methamphetamine is a powerfully addictive stimulant associated with serious ...

346

Geographical epidemiology of antibacterials in the preschool age  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Thematic maps allow a more rapid and immediate reading of the geographical differences in the distribution of data referred to a specific territory. The aim of this study was to show, for the first time, the application of some statistical and cartographic tools in the analysis of drug utilization in the pediatric population of an Italian region, and to assess the intra-regional difference in the antibiotic prescriptions. Methods To assess the type of geographic distribution of the prescriptions, the analyses were based on the standardized prevalence rate (z-score) calculated at the local health unit, health district, and municipality levels. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the correlation with hospitalization and the Moran’s I index was used to evaluate the existence of spatial autocorrelation. With the use of Getis-Ord’s G statistic, clusters of areas with high and low levels of prevalence were identified and mapped. The probability of receiving at least one prescription of antibacterials during the year for all the children included in the study was evaluated with a logistic regression model. Results With the use of the maps it was possible to see that the prescriptions were not correlated with the health status of the population, but with the tendency of the pediatrician to prescribe drugs. This was also confirmed by the logistic regression model constructed to estimate the probability of receiving at least one prescription of antibacterials considering, as independent variables: age, sex, prevalence of hospitalizations in the district of residence, prescriptive attitude of the pediatrician, sex of the pediatrician, pediatrician’s age group, and duration of the pediatrician’s contract with the local health unit (LHU). Conclusions The priority actions to rationalize the use of antibacterials in the preschool age should concentrate on the active participation of the pediatricians in permanent education activities. Moreover, the competent authorities should increasing their efforts to limit unnecessary prescriptions and increase appropriateness of prescribing. Riassunto Introduzione Le mappe tematiche consentono una piů rapida ed immediata lettura delle differenze geografiche nella distribuzione di dati riferiti ad un territorio specifico. Lo scopo dello studio č mostrare, per la prima volta, l’applicazione di alcuni strumenti statistici e cartografici, nell’analisi dell’uso dei farmaci nella popolazione pediatrica di una regione italiana e valutare le differenze intra-regionali. Metodi Per valutare il tipo di distribuzione geografica delle prescrizioni, sono stati calcolati i tassi di prevalenza standardizzati (punteggi-z) a livello di ASL, Distretti Sanitari e Comuni. Per valutare la correlazione con le ospedalizzazioni č stato usato il coefficiente di correlazione di Pearson; per valutare l’esistenza di autocorrelazione spaziale č stato usato l’indice I di Moran. Tramite l’uso della statistica G di Getis-Ord sono stati identificati cluster di aree ad alto e basso livello di prevalenza. Infine con un modello di regressione logistica č stata stimata la probabilitŕ di ricevere almeno una prescrizione nel corso dell’anno per tutti i pazienti inclusi nello studio. Risultati Con l’uso delle mappe č possibile vedere che le prescrizioni non sono correlate con lo stato di salute della popolazione, ma sono correlate con l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra. Questo č confermato anche dal modello di regressione logistica costruito per stimare la probabilitŕ di ricevere almeno una prescrizione considerando come variabili indipendenti l’etŕ, il sesso, la prevalenza di ricoveri nel distretto di residenza, l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra, la classe di etŕ del pediatra e la durata della convenzione del pediatra con l’Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL). Conclusioni Gli interventi primari per razionalizzare lȁ

2012-01-01

347

Drug Tolerance, Drug Addiction, and Drug Anticipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental cues associated with drugs often elicit withdrawal symptoms and relapse to drug use. Such cues also modulate drug tolerance. The contribution of drug-associated stimuli to withdrawal and tolerance is emphasized in a Pavlovian-conditioning analysis of drug administration. Conditional responses occur in the presence of cues that have been associated with the drug in the past, such as the setting

Shepard Siegel

2005-01-01

348

Over-expression of bael quinolone synthase in tobacco improves plant vigor under favorable conditions, drought, or salt stress.  

PubMed

Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of various medicinally important secondary metabolites in plants, but their role in growth and stress response is unclear. Here, we overexpressed quinolone synthase (QNS) from bael in tobacco. QNS-overexpressing plants showed an overall increase in growth, photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content compared to wild type plants. Second-generation (T2) transgenic plants grew to maturity, flowered early and set viable seeds under favorable conditions without yield penalty. An increased accumulation of flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids was associated with higher tolerance to drought and salinity stress in transgenic plants. Thus, bael QNS seems to function as a positive regulator of plant growth and stress response, and could be potentially used for engineering plants tolerant to abiotic stress. PMID:25555382

Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Vivek, Padmanabhan Jayanthi; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

2015-01-30

349

Clonal expansion and microevolution of quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhi in Vietnam from 1996 to 2004.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi clinical isolates (n = 91) resistant to nalidixic acid (Nal(r)) were collected from sporadic cases and minor outbreaks throughout Vietnam between 1996 and 2004. These isolates were typed and compared by four methods: Vi phage typing, PstI ribotyping, XbaI and SpeI pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The results indicated that 65% of the isolates were not typeable by Vi phage typing. In contrast, the ribotyping and, with more accuracy, the SNP analysis methods indicated that all Nal(r) isolates belonged to a single clone (ribotype 3a, haplotype H58) that was found previously and that largely consisted of plasmid-encoded multidrug-resistant serotype Typhi isolates. PFGE demonstrated the occurrence of microevolution within this clone. We identified two major combined PFGE profiles: X1-S1 and X3-S6. X3-S6 predominated between 1996 and 2002 but was replaced by X1-S1 after 2002. Nevertheless, PFGE, with a Simpson's index of 0.78, was not considered an optimal discriminatory method for investigating typhoid fever outbreaks in Vietnam. The rate of quinolone resistance increased and the rate of multidrug resistance decreased during the study period. From 2002 to 2004, 80.6% of the isolates from South Vietnam were resistant only to Nal. The mechanism of Nal resistance in most of the isolates (94%) was a mutation in the quinolone resistance-determining chromosomal region of gyrA that led to the amino acid substitution Ser83Phe. No plasmid-located qnrA, qnrB, or qnrS was detected. PMID:17728470

Le, Thi Anh Hong; Fabre, Laëtitia; Roumagnac, Philippe; Grimont, Patrick A D; Scavizzi, Maurice R; Weill, François-Xavier

2007-11-01

350

Hydrophilicity of quinolones is not an exclusive factor for decreased activity in efflux-mediated resistant mutants of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

The elevated expression of the norA gene is responsible for efflux-mediated resistance to quinolones in Staphylococcus aureus (E.Y.W. Ng, M. Trucksis, and D.C. Hooper, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1345-1355, 1994). For S. aureus transformed with a plasmid containing the cloned norA gene, SA113(pTUS20) (H. Yoshida, M. Bogaki, S. Nakamura, K. Ubukata, and M. Konno, J. Bacteriol. 172:6942-6949, 1990), and an overexpressed mutant, SA-1199B (G.W. Kaatz, S.M. Seo, and C.A. Ruble, J. Infect. Dis. 163:1080-1086, 1991), the MICs of norfloxacin increased 16 and 64 times compared with its MICs for the recipient and wild-type strains, SA113 and SA-1199, respectively. MICs of CS-940, however, increased only two and eight times, even though these two fluoroquinolones are similarly hydrophilic (apparent logPs of approximately -1). No good correlation was found, among 15 developed and developing quinolones, between the increment ratio in MICs and hydrophobicity (r = 0.61). Analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationship among 40 fluoroquinolones revealed that the MIC increment ratio was significantly correlated with the bulkiness of the C-7 substituent and bulkiness and hydrophobicity of the C-8 substituent of fluoroquinolones (r = 0.87) and not with its molecular hydrophobicity (r = 0.47). Cellular accumulation of norfloxacin in SA-1199B was significantly lower than that in SA-1199, and it was increased by addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone. On the other hand, accumulations of CS-940 in these strains were nearly identical, and they were not affected by addition of the protonophore. PMID:8843290

Takenouchi, T; Tabata, F; Iwata, Y; Hanzawa, H; Sugawara, M; Ohya, S

1996-01-01

351

Tricyclic GyrB/ParE (TriBE) Inhibitors: A New Class of Broad-Spectrum Dual-Targeting Antibacterial Agents  

PubMed Central

Increasing resistance to every major class of antibiotics and a dearth of novel classes of antibacterial agents in development pipelines has created a dwindling reservoir of treatment options for serious bacterial infections. The bacterial type IIA topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, are validated antibacterial drug targets with multiple prospective drug binding sites, including the catalytic site targeted by the fluoroquinolone antibiotics. However, growing resistance to fluoroquinolones, frequently mediated by mutations in the drug-binding site, is increasingly limiting the utility of this antibiotic class, prompting the search for other inhibitor classes that target different sites on the topoisomerase complexes. The highly conserved ATP-binding subunits of DNA gyrase (GyrB) and topoisomerase IV (ParE) have long been recognized as excellent candidates for the development of dual-targeting antibacterial agents with broad-spectrum potential. However, to date, no natural product or small molecule inhibitors targeting these sites have succeeded in the clinic, and no inhibitors of these enzymes have yet been reported with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity encompassing the majority of Gram-negative pathogens. Using structure-based drug design (SBDD), we have created a novel dual-targeting pyrimidoindole inhibitor series with exquisite potency against GyrB and ParE enzymes from a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Inhibitors from this series demonstrate potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens of clinical importance, including fluoroquinolone resistant and multidrug resistant strains. Lead compounds have been discovered with clinical potential; they are well tolerated in animals, and efficacious in Gram-negative infection models. PMID:24386374

Tari, Leslie W.; Li, Xiaoming; Trzoss, Michael; Bensen, Daniel C.; Chen, Zhiyong; Lam, Thanh; Zhang, Junhu; Lee, Suk Joong; Hough, Grayson; Phillipson, Doug; Akers-Rodriguez, Suzanne; Cunningham, Mark L.; Kwan, Bryan P.; Nelson, Kirk J.; Castellano, Amanda; Locke, Jeff B.; Brown-Driver, Vickie; Murphy, Timothy M.; Ong, Voon S.; Pillar, Chris M.; Shinabarger, Dean L.; Nix, Jay; Lightstone, Felice C.; Wong, Sergio E.; Nguyen, Toan B.; Shaw, Karen J.; Finn, John

2013-01-01

352

Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

353

Antibacterial effect of essential oils and interaction with food components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial effect of essential oils (EOs) derived from Citrus lemon, Juniperus communis, Origanum majorana, and Salvia sclarea, was investigated either alone or in combination, on 2 food related bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli). The influence of food ingredients — hydrolyzed proteins originating from animal and plant (meat extract and soy peptone)\\u000a and sucrose — on the antibacterial effect

Rentsenkhand Tserennadmid; Miklós Takó; László Galgóczy; Tamás Papp; Csaba Vágvölgyi; László Ger?; Judit Krisch

2010-01-01

354

Cationic amphiphilic non-hemolytic polyacrylates with superior antibacterial activity.  

PubMed

Acrylic copolymers with appropriate compositions of counits having cationic charge with 2-carbon and 6-carbon spacer arms can show superior antibacterial activities with concomitant very low hemolytic effect. These amphiphilic copolymers represent one of the most promising synthetic polymer antibacterial systems reported. PMID:24854366

Punia, Ashish; He, Edward; Lee, Kevin; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

2014-07-01

355

An Antibacterial Substance from Arctium minus and Onopordon tauricum  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXTRACTS of Arctium minus Bernh. (a plant which was erroneously listed in a previous publication1 as Arctium lappa L.) were found by Osborn1 to contain an antibacterial principle. In May 1945 the substance responsible for the antibacterial action of the extracts was isolated from the radical leaves of Arctium minus Bernh. in a crystalline form. More recently, the same substance

E. P. Abraham; A. E. Joseph; D. M. Crowfoot; E. M. Osborn

1946-01-01

356

Original article Does Bacillus larvae produce an antibacterial  

E-print Network

Original article Does Bacillus larvae produce an antibacterial substance in infected honey bee larvae? Z Gli&jadnr;ski J Jarosz 1 University of Agriculture, Bee Diseases Research Laboratory the question of whether production of antibacterial sub- stance by Bacillus larvae, the cause of American

Boyer, Edmond

357

Synthesis and characterization of antibacterial dental monomers and composites  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to synthesize antibacterial methacrylate and methacrylamide monomers and formulate antibacterial fluoride-releasing dental composites. Three antibacterial methacrylate or methacrylamide monomers containing long-chain quaternary ammonium fluoride, 1,2-methacrylamido-N,N,N-trimethyldodecan-1-aminium fluoride (monomer I), N-benzyl-11-(methacryloyloxy)-N,N-dimethylundecan-1-aminium fluoride (monomer II), and methacryloxyldecylpyridinium fluoride (monomer III) have been synthesized and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). The cytotoxicity test and bactericidal test against Streptococcus mutans indicate that antibacterial monomer II is superior to monomers I and III. A series of dental composites containing 0–6% of antibacterial monomer II have been formulated and tested for degree of conversion (DC), flexure strength, water sorption, solubility, and inhibition of S. mutans biofilms. An antibacterial fluoride-releasing dental composite has also been formulated and tested for flexure strength and fluoride release. The dental composite containing 3% of monomer II has a significant effect against S. mutans biofilm formation without major adverse effects on its physical and mechanical properties. The new antibacterial monomers can be used together with the fluoride-releasing monomers containing a ternary zirconiun- fluoride chelate to formulate a new antibacterial fluoride- releasing dental composite. Such a new dental composite is expected to have higher anticaries efficacy and longer service life. PMID:22447582

Xu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yapin; Liao, Sumei; Wen, Zezhang T.; Fan, Yuwei

2012-01-01

358

Antibacterial activity of Helichrysum pedunculatum used in circumcision rites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial assays of Helichrysum pedunculatum showed that dichloromethane extracts are active against all the gram positive bacteria tested, as well as two gram negative bacteria, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens. A water extract was effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus kristinae, while a methanol extract showed no activity against any of the tested organisms. The antibacterial activity of dichloromethane extract

J. J. M. Meyer; F. Dilika

1996-01-01

359

Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most

T Essawi; M Srour

2000-01-01

360

Promises and failures of gallium as an antibacterial agent.  

PubMed

Gallium has a long history as a diagnostic and chemotherapeutic agent. The pharmacological properties of Ga(III) rely on chemical mimicry; when Ga(III) is exogenously supplied to living cells it can replace Fe(III) within target molecules, thereby perturbing bacterial metabolism. Ga(III)-induced metabolic distresses are dramatic in fast-growing cells, like bacterial cells. Interest in the antibacterial properties of Ga(III) has been raised by the compelling need for novel drugs to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and by the shortage of new antibiotic candidates in the pharmaceutical pipeline. Ga(III) activity has been demonstrated, both in vitro and in animal models of infections, on several bacterial pathogens, also including intracellular and biofilm-forming bacteria. Ga(III) activity is affected by iron availability and the metabolic state of the cell, being maximal in iron-poor media and in respiring cells. Synergism between Ga(III) and antibiotics holds promise as last resort therapy for infections sustained by pandrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:24762310

Minandri, Fabrizia; Bonchi, Carlo; Frangipani, Emanuela; Imperi, Francesco; Visca, Paolo

2014-01-01

361

Exploring Anti-Bacterial Compounds against Intracellular Legionella  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous fresh-water bacterium which reproduces within its erstwhile predators, environmental amoeba, by subverting the normal pathway of phagocytosis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms which confer resistance to amoeba are apparently conserved and also allow replication within macrophages. Thus, L. pneumophila can act as an ‘accidental’ human pathogen and cause a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires’ disease. The intracellular localisation of L. pneumophila protects it from some antibiotics, and this fact must be taken into account to develop new anti-bacterial compounds. In addition, the intracellular lifestyle of L. pneumophila may render the bacteria susceptible to compounds diminishing bacterial virulence and decreasing intracellular survival and replication of this pathogen. The development of a single infection cycle intracellular replication assay using GFP-producing L. pneumophila and Acanthamoebacastellanii amoeba is reported here. This fluorescence-based assay allows for continuous monitoring of intracellular replication rates, revealing the effect of bacterial gene deletions or drug treatment. To examine how perturbations of the host cell affect L. pneumophila replication, several known host-targeting compounds were tested, including modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle scission and Ras GTPase localisation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrealized potential antibiotic property of the ?-lactone-based Ras depalmitoylation inhibitor palmostatin M, but not the closely related inhibitor palmostatin B. Further characterisation indicated that this compound caused specific growth inhibition of Legionella and Mycobacterium species, suggesting that it may act on a common bacterial target. PMID:24058631

Harrison, Christopher F.; Kicka, Sébastien; Trofimov, Valentin; Berschl, Kathrin; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Ackermann, Nikolaus; Hedberg, Christian; Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry; Hilbi, Hubert

2013-01-01

362

Exploring anti-bacterial compounds against intracellular Legionella.  

PubMed

Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous fresh-water bacterium which reproduces within its erstwhile predators, environmental amoeba, by subverting the normal pathway of phagocytosis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms which confer resistance to amoeba are apparently conserved and also allow replication within macrophages. Thus, L. pneumophila can act as an 'accidental' human pathogen and cause a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease. The intracellular localisation of L. pneumophila protects it from some antibiotics, and this fact must be taken into account to develop new anti-bacterial compounds. In addition, the intracellular lifestyle of L. pneumophila may render the bacteria susceptible to compounds diminishing bacterial virulence and decreasing intracellular survival and replication of this pathogen. The development of a single infection cycle intracellular replication assay using GFP-producing L. pneumophila and Acanthamoebacastellanii amoeba is reported here. This fluorescence-based assay allows for continuous monitoring of intracellular replication rates, revealing the effect of bacterial gene deletions or drug treatment. To examine how perturbations of the host cell affect L. pneumophila replication, several known host-targeting compounds were tested, including modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, vesicle scission and Ras GTPase localisation. Our results reveal a hitherto unrealized potential antibiotic property of the ?-lactone-based Ras depalmitoylation inhibitor palmostatin M, but not the closely related inhibitor palmostatin B. Further characterisation indicated that this compound caused specific growth inhibition of Legionella and Mycobacterium species, suggesting that it may act on a common bacterial target. PMID:24058631

Harrison, Christopher F; Kicka, Sébastien; Trofimov, Valentin; Berschl, Kathrin; Ouertatani-Sakouhi, Hajer; Ackermann, Nikolaus; Hedberg, Christian; Cosson, Pierre; Soldati, Thierry; Hilbi, Hubert

2013-01-01

363

Transformation of the Antibacterial Agent Norfloxacin by Environmental Mycobacteria  

PubMed Central

Because fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents may be released into the environment, the potential for environmental bacteria to biotransform these drugs was investigated. Eight Mycobacterium sp. cultures in a sorbitol-yeast extract medium were dosed with 100 ?g ml?1 of norfloxacin and incubated for 7 days. The MICs of norfloxacin for these strains, tested by an agar dilution method, were 1.6 to 25 ?g ml?1. Cultures were extracted with ethyl acetate, and potential metabolites in the extracts were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The metabolites were identified using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. N-Acetylnorfloxacin (5 to 50% of the total absorbance at 280 nm) was produced by the eight Mycobacterium strains. N-Nitrosonorfloxacin (5 to 30% of the total absorbance) was also produced by Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR100 and Mycobacterium gilvum PYR-GCK. The MICs of N-nitrosonorfloxacin and N-acetylnorfloxacin were 2- to 38- and 4- to 1,000-fold higher, respectively, than those of norfloxacin for several different bacteria, including the two strains that produced both metabolites. Although N-nitrosonorfloxacin had less antibacterial activity, nitrosamines are potentially carcinogenic. The biotransformation of fluoroquinolones by mycobacteria may serve as a resistance mechanism. PMID:16957195

Adjei, Michael D.; Heinze, Thomas M.; Deck, Joanna; Freeman, James P.; Williams, Anna J.; Sutherland, John B.

2006-01-01

364

Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of some flavonoids.  

PubMed

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of six plant-derived flavonoids representing two different structural groups were evaluated against standard strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and their drug-resistant isolates, as well as fungi (Candida albicans, C. krusei) using the microdilution broth method. Herpes simplex virus Type-1 and Parainfluenza-3 virus were employed for antiviral assessment of the flavonoids using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines. Ampicillin, gentamycin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, fluconazole, ketoconazole, acyclovir, and oseltamivir were used as the control agents. All tested compounds (32-128 microg/ml) showed strong antimicrobial and antifungal activities against isolated strains of P. aeruginosa, A. baumanni, S. aureus, and C. krusei. Rutin, 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-flavanone-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.2-0.05 microg/ml) were active against PI-3, while 5,7-dimethoxyflavanone-4'-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (0.16-0.2 microg/ml) inhibited potently HSV-1. PMID:19840899

Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Ozçelik, Berrin; Ozgen, Selda; Ergun, Fatma

2010-08-20

365

In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

2013-01-01

366

Antibacterial activity of and resistance to small molecule inhibitors of the ClpP peptidase.  

PubMed

There is rapidly mounting evidence that intracellular proteases in bacteria are compelling targets for antibacterial drugs. Multiple reports suggest that the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other actinobacteria may be particularly sensitive to small molecules that perturb the activities of self-compartmentalized peptidases, which catalyze intracellular protein turnover as components of ATP-dependent proteolytic machines. Here, we report chemical syntheses and evaluations of structurally diverse ?-lactones, which have a privileged structure for selective, suicide inhibition of the self-compartmentalized ClpP peptidase. ?-Lactones with certain substituents on the ?- and ?-carbons were found to be toxic to M. tuberculosis. Using an affinity-labeled analogue of a bioactive ?-lactone in a series of chemical proteomic experiments, we selectively captured the ClpP1P2 peptidase from live cultures of two different actinobacteria that are related to M. tuberculosis. Importantly, we found that the growth inhibitory ?-lactones also inactivate the M. tuberculosis ClpP1P2 peptidase in vitro via formation of a covalent adduct at the ClpP2 catalytic serine. Given the potent antibacterial activity of these compounds and their medicinal potential, we sought to identify innate mechanisms of resistance. Using a genome mining strategy, we identified a genetic determinant of ?-lactone resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor, a non-pathogenic relative of M. tuberculosis. Collectively, these findings validate the potential of ClpP inhibition as a strategy in antibacterial drug development and define a mechanism by which bacteria could resist the toxic effects of ClpP inhibitors. PMID:24047344

Compton, Corey L; Schmitz, Karl R; Sauer, Robert T; Sello, Jason K

2013-12-20

367

Antibacterial Activity of and Resistance to Small Molecule Inhibitors of the ClpP Peptidase  

PubMed Central

There is rapidly mounting evidence that intracellular proteases in bacteria are compelling targets for antibacterial drugs. Multiple reports suggest that the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other actinobacteria may be particularly sensitive to small molecules that perturb the activities of self-compartmentalized peptidases, which catalyze intracellular protein turnover as components of ATP-dependent proteolytic machines. Here, we report chemical syntheses and evaluations of structurally diverse ?-lactones, which have a privileged structure for selective, suicide inhibition of the self-compartmentalized ClpP peptidase. ?-lactones with certain substituents on the ?- and ?-carbons were found to be toxic to M. tuberculosis. Using an affinity-labeled analog of a bioactive ?-lactone in a series of chemical proteomic experiments, we selectively captured the ClpP1P2 peptidase from live cultures of two different actinobacteria that are related to M. tuberculosis. Importantly, we found that the growth inhibitory ?-lactones also inactivate the M. tuberculosis ClpP1P2 peptidase in vitro via formation of a covalent adduct at the ClpP2 catalytic serine. Given the potent antibacterial activity of these compounds and their medicinal potential, we sought to identify innate mechanisms of resistance. Using a genome mining strategy, we identified a genetic determinant of ?-lactone resistance in Streptomyces coelicolor, a non-pathogenic relative of M. tuberculosis. Collectively, these findings validate the potential of ClpP inhibition as a strategy in antibacterial drug development and define a mechanism by which bacteria could resist the toxic effects of ClpP inhibitors. PMID:24047344

Compton, Corey L.; Schmitz, Karl R.; Sauer, Robert T.; Sello, Jason K.

2014-01-01

368

Quorum-sensing control in Staphylococci – a target for antimicrobial drug therapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, we find ourselves in an urgent need for novel antibacterial drugs, as many important human pathogens have acquired multiple antibiotic resistance factors. Among those, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis play a major role as the leading sources of nosocomial infections. Recently, it has been suggested to develop therapeutics that attack bacterial virulence rather than kill bacteria. Such drugs are

Michael Otto

2004-01-01

369

Antibacterial Mechanisms of Polymyxin and Bacterial Resistance  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance in pathogens is an increasingly significant threat for human health. Indeed, some strains are resistant to almost all currently available antibiotics, leaving very limited choices for antimicrobial clinical therapy. In many such cases, polymyxins are the last option available, although their use increases the risk of developing resistant strains. This review mainly aims to discuss advances in unraveling the mechanisms of antibacterial activity of polymyxins and bacterial tolerance together with the description of polymyxin structure, synthesis, and structural modification. These are expected to help researchers not only develop a series of new polymyxin derivatives necessary for future medical care, but also optimize the clinical use of polymyxins with minimal resistance development.

Qin, Wangrong; Fang, Shisong; Qiu, Juanping

2015-01-01

370

Cytotoxic and antibacterial sesquiterpenes from Thespesia populnea.  

PubMed

Eight new sesquiterpenoids, named populene A-H (1-8), were isolated from dichloromethane extracts of the wood and dark heartwood of Thespesia populnea, together with 11 known compounds (9-19). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxic activity of isolated compounds was evaluated against four cancer cell lines: MCF-7, HeLa, HT-29, and KB. Mansonone E (11) and (+)-gossypol (18) showed significant activities. Their antibacterial properties against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis are also presented. PMID:18553924

Boonsri, Sompong; Karalai, Chatchanok; Ponglimanont, Chanita; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Kanjana-Opas, Akkharawit

2008-07-01

371

Drug allergies  

MedlinePLUS

Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... vomiting to life-threatening anaphylaxis . A true drug allergy is caused by a series of chemical steps ...

372

An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Nisin on the Antibacterial Activities of 18 Antibiotics against Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

Enterococcus faecalis rank among the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide and possesses both intrinsic and acquired resistance to a variety of antibiotics. Development of new antibiotics is limited, and pathogens continually generate new antibiotic resistance. Many researchers aim to identify strategies to effectively kill this drug-resistant pathogen. Here, we evaluated the effect of the antimicrobial peptide nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis. The MIC and MBC results showed that the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against E. faecalis OG1RF, ATCC 29212, and strain E were significantly improved in the presence of 200 U/ml nisin. Statistically significant differences were observed between the results with and without 200 U/ml nisin at the same concentrations of penicillin or chloramphenicol (p<0.05). The checkerboard assay showed that the combination of nisin and penicillin or chloramphenicol had a synergetic effect against the three tested E. faecalis strains. The transmission electron microscope images showed that E. faecalis was not obviously destroyed by penicillin or chloramphenicol alone but was severely disrupted by either antibiotic in combination with nisin. Furthermore, assessing biofilms by a confocal laser scanning microscope showed that penicillin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol all showed stronger antibiofilm actions in combination with nisin than when these antibiotics were administered alone. Therefore, nisin can significantly improve the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of many antibiotics, and certain antibiotics in combination with nisin have considerable potential for use as inhibitors of this drug-resistant pathogen. PMID:24586598

Ling, Junqi; Ma, Jinglei; Huang, Lijia; Zhang, Luodan

2014-01-01

373

Antibacterial efficiency of vermiculite/chlorhexidine nanocomposites and results of the in vivo test of harmlessness of vermiculite.  

PubMed

Clay minerals have been proposed as very useful materials for modulating drug delivery. These are the commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. We focused on the development of suitable long-acting material for local treatment of oral infection where clay minerals act as inorganic drug carriers. Organovermiculites with antibacterial activity were prepared by ion exchange reactions using different concentrations of chlorhexidine diacetate. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal analysis (TGA). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All studied organoclays possessed good antibacterial activity after 24h exposure against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and particularly against Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa however proved very resistant as only the sample with the highest concentration of CA that successfully inhibited bacterial growth. Furthermore, clay mineral vermiculite was subjected to in vivo toxicological analysis and its influence on gastrointestinal tract during its oral application was investigated. Tissue samples from buccal mucosa, tongue, esophagus, stomach, terminal duodenum, small intestine, caecum, distal colon and liver were subjected to histological examination, both macroscopically and microscopically. Neither systemic nor local reactions were observed. Therefore the toxicity of vermiculite to a mammal model organism can be excluded. PMID:25063143

Holešová, Sylva; Stembírek, Jan; Bartošová, Ladislava; Pražanová, Gabriela; Valášková, Marta; Samlíková, Magda; Pazdziora, Erich

2014-09-01

374

Development of biodegradable antibacterial cellulose based hydrogel membranes for wound healing.  

PubMed

Cellulose-based hydrogels have wide applications in tissue engineering and controlled delivery systems. In this study, chloramphenicol (CAP) loaded 2,3 dialdehyde cellulose (DABC) hydrogel membranes were prepared, characterized and their antibacterial efficacy was evaluated. Bacterial cellulose (BC) secreted by Acetobacter xylinum was modified to become DABC by oxidation via the sodium metaperiodate method. CAP-BC and CAP-DABC interactions were illustrated via ATR-FTIR analysis. Water retention capacity of BC and DABC membranes were determined as 65.6±1.6% and 5.3±0.3%, respectively. CAP release profiles were determined via HPLC analysis. The drug-loading capacities of BC and DABC membranes were 5mg/cm(2) and 0.1mg/cm(2), respectively. Membranes released 99-99.5% of the contained CAP within 24h and an initial burst release effect was not observed. In vitro antibacterial tests of BC and DABC, both CAP-loaded, demonstrated their ability to inhibit bacterial growth for a prolonged duration. Antimicrobial effect against bacteria was still prevalent after 3 days of incubation period with disc diffusion tests. The MTT test results reveal that fibroblast adhesion and proliferation on CAP-loaded DABC membranes were noticeably higher than CAP-loaded BC membrane. This newly developed drug containing DABC membranes seem to be highly suitable for wound healing due to its unique properties of biodegradability, biocompatibility, and antimicrobial effectiveness. PMID:24631550

Laçin, Nelisa Türko?lu

2014-06-01

375

Biotin Analogues with Antibacterial Activity Are Potent Inhibitors of Biotin Protein Ligase  

PubMed Central

There is a desperate need to develop new antibiotic agents to combat the rise of drug-resistant bacteria, such as clinically important Staphylococcus aureus. The essential multifunctional enzyme, biotin protein ligase (BPL), is one potential drug target for new antibiotics. We report the synthesis and characterization of a series of biotin analogues with activity against BPLs from S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Homo sapiens. Two potent inhibitors with Ki < 100 nM were identified with antibacterial activity against a panel of clinical isolates of S. aureus (MIC 2–16 ?g/mL). Compounds with high ligand efficiency and >20-fold selectivity between the isozymes were identified and characterized. The antibacterial mode of action was shown to be via inhibition of BPL. The bimolecular interactions between the BPL and the inhibitors were defined by surface plasmon resonance studies and X-ray crystallography. These findings pave the way for second-generation inhibitors and antibiotics with greater potency and selectivity. PMID:24900501

2012-01-01

376

Isolation and identification of a potent antimalarial and antibacterial polyacetylene from Bidens pilosa.  

PubMed

Diseases caused by malaria parasites and pathogenic bacteria were thought to be on the brink of eradication in the 1950-1960s, but they have once again become a serious threat to mankind as a result of the appearance of multidrug resistant strains. The spread of these multidrug resistant organisms has prompted a worldwide search for new classes of effective antimalarial and antibacterial drugs. Natural products have been recognized as highly important candidates for this purpose. Our attention has focused on the herbal plant Bidens pilosa, a weed common throughout the world, as one of the target plants in the search for new active compounds, owing to its empirical use in the treatment of infectious diseases and to pharmaco-chemical studies of its crude extract. We report the isolation of two new compounds of B. pilosa, the linear polyacetylenic diol 1 and its glucoside 2 which have previously been isolated from different plants. Compound 1 exhibited highly potent antimalarial and antibacterial properties in vitro as well as potent antimalarial activity by way of intravenous injection in vivo, thereby representing a promising new class of drugs potentially effective in the treatment of malarial and bacterial diseases. We suspect that discovery of these compounds in B. pilosa in appreciable quantity is because the Fijian tradition of using the fresh plant for extraction rather than the Asian tradition of using dried plants (1 is unstable in the dried state) was followed. PMID:19263339

Tobinaga, Seisho; Sharma, Mukesh K; Aalbersberg, William G L; Watanabe, Kinzo; Iguchi, Kazuo; Narui, Koji; Sasatsu, Masanori; Waki, Seizi

2009-05-01

377

Multiresidue determination of quinolones regulated by the European Union in bovine and porcine plasma. Application of chromatographic and capillary electrophoretic methodologies.  

PubMed

This paper presents the multiresidue determination of the series of quinolones regulated by the European Union (marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine) in bovine and porcine plasma using capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (CE-UV, LC-UV), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and -tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS, LC-MS/MS) methods. These procedures involve a sample preparation by solid-phase extraction for clean-up and preconcentration of the analytes before their injection into the separation system. All methods give satisfactory results in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of quantification. The suitability of the methods to determine quinolones was evaluated by determining the concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in real samples from pig plasma and cow plasma. PMID:20641008

Hermo, M P; Nemutlu, E; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

2011-05-01

378

Synthesis, characterization, controlled release, and antibacterial studies of a novel streptomycin chitosan magnetic nanoantibiotic.  

PubMed

This study describes the preparation, characterization, and controlled release of a streptomycin-chitosan-magnetic nanoparticle-based antibiotic in an effort to improve the treatment of bacterial infections. Specifically, chitosan-magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by an incorporation method and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Streptomycin was incorporated into the nanoparticles to form a streptomycin-coated chitosan-magnetic nanoparticle (Strep-CS-MNP) nanocomposite. The release profiles showed an initially fast release, which became slower as time progressed. The percentage of drug released after 350 minutes was around 100%, and the best fit mathematical model for drug release was the pseudo-second order model. The Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite showed enhanced antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This study forms a significant basis for further investigation of the Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite in the treatment of various bacterial infections. PMID:24549109

Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Webster, Thomas J

2014-01-01

379

Synthesis, characterization, controlled release, and antibacterial studies of a novel streptomycin chitosan magnetic nanoantibiotic  

PubMed Central

This study describes the preparation, characterization, and controlled release of a streptomycin-chitosan-magnetic nanoparticle-based antibiotic in an effort to improve the treatment of bacterial infections. Specifically, chitosan-magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by an incorporation method and were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Streptomycin was incorporated into the nanoparticles to form a streptomycin-coated chitosan-magnetic nanoparticle (Strep-CS-MNP) nanocomposite. The release profiles showed an initially fast release, which became slower as time progressed. The percentage of drug released after 350 minutes was around 100%, and the best fit mathematical model for drug release was the pseudo-second order model. The Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite showed enhanced antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This study forms a significant basis for further investigation of the Strep-CS-MNP nanocomposite in the treatment of various bacterial infections. PMID:24549109

Hussein-Al-Ali, Samer Hasan; Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat El; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ismail, Maznah; Webster, Thomas J

2014-01-01

380

Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes and Antibiotic Residues in Wastewater and Soil Adjacent to Swine Feedlots: Potential Transfer to Agricultural Lands  

PubMed Central

Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in swine feed could cause accelerated emergence of antibiotic resistance genes, and agricultural application of swine waste could spread antibiotic resistance genes to the surrounding environment. Objectives: We investigated the distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes from swine feedlots and their surrounding environment. Methods: We used a culture-independent method to identify PMQR genes and estimate their levels in wastewater from seven swine feedlot operations and corresponding wastewater-irrigated farm fields. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater and soil samples were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Results: The predominant PMQR genes in both the wastewater and soil samples were qnrD, qepA, and oqxB, whereas qnrS and oqxA were present only in wastewater samples. Absolute concentrations of all PMQR genes combined ranged from 1.66 × 107 to 4.06 × 108 copies/mL in wastewater and 4.06 × 106 to 9.52 × 107 copies/g in soil. Concentrations of (fluoro)quinolones ranged from 4.57 to 321 ng/mL in wastewater and below detection limit to 23.4 ng/g in soil. Significant correlations were found between the relative abundance of PMQR genes and (fluoro)quinolone concentrations (r = 0.71, p = 0.005) and the relative abundance of PMQR genes in paired wastewater and agricultural soil samples (r = 0.91, p = 0.005). Conclusions: Swine feedlot wastewater may be a source of PMQR genes that could facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in animal husbandry environments using a culture-independent method. PMID:22569244

Li, Juan; Wang, Thanh; Shao, Bing; Shen, Jianzhong; Wang, Shaochen

2012-01-01

381

High prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant qnrA in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from blood cultures in Liverpool, UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnrA gene in a selected collection of blood culture isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to both ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. Methods: Over a 29 month period, a total of 47 non-repetitive isolates of Enterobacteriaceae resistant to both ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were identified. Isolates were screened for the presence of the qnrA gene,

John E. Corkill; James J. Anson; C. Anthony Hart

382

Light-activated antibacterial surfaces comprise photosensitizers.  

PubMed

Antibacterial surfaces were prepared using a base polyethylene sheet topped with a layer containing a mixed powder of poly (vinylidene fluoride) and photosensitizers (PSs). A crimpled stamp was placed on the mixed powder, and then it was passed through a heating and pressing device. The three chosen PSs were rose bengal, toluidine blue O and methylene blue. Scanning electron microscope analysis showed that the PS surface texture was coarse and highly developed. Measurement of the apparent contact angles of the droplets deposited on the PS surfaces using goniometry showed that all three surfaces were hydrophobic. Photodynamic analysis of the surfaces into which the PSs were incorporated indicated significant reactive oxygen species formation after illumination with light fluency rate of 1.46 mW cm(-2) for 30 min. Photodynamic inactivation assays performed in nutrient broth demonstrated more than 4 log reduction of the attached Escherichia coli after illumination (1.46 mW cm(-2)) for 24 h when the inoculum was 10(3) CFU mL(-1). However, more than 4 log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus occurred even when the cultures were illuminated for only 6 h. Our results provide an inexpensive, simple, state-of-the-art method for preparing antibacterial surfaces that may help prevent infections in hospital surroundings and in some medical devices. PMID:21883241

Cahan, Rivka; Schwartz, Ronen; Langzam, Yakov; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

2011-01-01

383

Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots.  

PubMed

Synthesis of new antibacterial agents is becoming increasingly important in light of the emerging antibiotic resistance. In the present study we report that electrochemically produced graphene quantum dots (GQD), a new class of carbon nanoparticles, generate reactive oxygen species when photoexcited (470 nm, 1 W), and kill two strains of pathogenic bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Bacterial killing was demonstrated by the reduction in number of bacterial colonies in a standard plate count method, the increase in propidium iodide uptake confirming the cell membrane damage, as well as by morphological defects visualized by atomic force microscopy. The induction of oxidative stress in bacteria exposed to photoexcited GQD was confirmed by staining with a redox-sensitive fluorochrome dihydrorhodamine 123. Neither GQD nor light exposure alone were able to cause oxidative stress and reduce the viability of bacteria. Importantly, mouse spleen cells were markedly less sensitive in the same experimental conditions, thus indicating a fairly selective antibacterial photodynamic action of GQD. PMID:24612819

Ristic, Biljana Z; Milenkovic, Marina M; Dakic, Ivana R; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana M; Milosavljevic, Momir S; Budimir, Milica D; Paunovic, Verica G; Dramicanin, Miroslav D; Markovic, Zoran M; Trajkovic, Vladimir S

2014-05-01

384

Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of fluoroquinolones containing bulky arenesulfonyl fragment: 2D-QSAR and docking study.  

PubMed

Here in, we report the design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity of series of bulky arenesulfonamido derivatives using ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin as scaffolds. All the synthesized compounds were investigated in vitro for their antibacterial activities against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative organisms using dilution broth method. Among the tested compounds examined, compounds 3-7 showed significance difference from the standard drug ciprofloxacin. 2D-QSAR study provides details on the fine relationship linking structure and activity and offers clues for structural modifications that can improve the activity. Docking study of the compound 3b into the active site of the topoisomerase II DNA-gyrase enzymes revealed a similar binding mode to ciprofloxacin with additional classical and nonclassical hydrogen bonds. PMID:21982337

Abdel-Aziz, Alaa A-M; Asiri, Yousif A; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H M

2011-11-01

385

Drug Reactions  

MedlinePLUS

... version Drug Reactions Drug Reactions What is an adverse drug reaction? Medicines can treat or prevent illness and ... medicines can cause problems. These problems are called adverse drug reactions. You should know what to do if ...

386

Drug Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

387

Preparation and in vitro antibacterial evaluation of gatifloxacin mucoadhesive gellan system  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study The poor bioavailability and therapeutic response exhibited by the conventional ophthalmic solutions due to precorneal elimination of the drug may be overcome by the use of mucoadhesive in situ gel forming systems that are instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol-gel transition in the cul-de-sac and have good mucoadhesion with ocular mucus layers. The objective of this study was to formulate ophthalmic mucoadhesive system of gatifloxacin (GTN) and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial potential against, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methods : Mucoadhesive systems were prepared using gellan combined with sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) or sodium alginate to enhance the gel bioadhesion properties. The prepared formulations were evaluated for their gelation, and rheological behaviors, mucoadhesion force, in vitro drug release, and antibacterial activity. Results All formulations in non-physiological or physiological conditions showed pseudoplastic behaviors. Increase in the concentration of mucoadhesive agent enhanced the mucoadhesive force significantly. In vitro release of gatifloxacin from the mucoadhesive system in simulated tear fluid (STF, pH of 7.4) was influenced significantly by the properties and concentration of gellan, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. Significant reduction in the total bacterial count was observed between drug solution (control) and mucoadhesive batches against both tested organisms. Major conclusion The developed mucoadhesive system is a viable alternative to conventional eye drops of GTN due to its ability to enhance bioavailability through its longer precorneal residence time and ability to sustain the release of the drug. PMID:22615622

Kesavan, K.; Nath, G.; Pandit, JK.

2010-01-01

388

Bad bugs, no drugs: no ESKAPE! An update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  

PubMed

The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to view with concern the lean pipeline for novel therapeutics to treat drug-resistant infections, especially those caused by gram-negative pathogens. Infections now occur that are resistant to all current antibacterial options. Although the IDSA is encouraged by the prospect of success for some agents currently in preclinical development, there is an urgent, immediate need for new agents with activity against these panresistant organisms. There is no evidence that this need will be met in the foreseeable future. Furthermore, we remain concerned that the infrastructure for discovering and developing new antibacterials continues to stagnate, thereby risking the future pipeline of antibacterial drugs. The IDSA proposed solutions in its 2004 policy report, "Bad Bugs, No Drugs: As Antibiotic R&D Stagnates, a Public Health Crisis Brews," and recently issued a "Call to Action" to provide an update on the scope of the problem and the proposed solutions. A primary objective of these periodic reports is to encourage a community and legislative response to establish greater financial parity between the antimicrobial development and the development of other drugs. Although recent actions of the Food and Drug Administration and the 110th US Congress present a glimmer of hope, significant uncertainly remains. Now, more than ever, it is essential to create a robust and sustainable antibacterial research and development infrastructure--one that can respond to current antibacterial resistance now and anticipate evolving resistance. This challenge requires that industry, academia, the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Department of Defense, and the new Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority at the Department of Health and Human Services work productively together. This report provides an update on potentially effective antibacterial drugs in the late-stage development pipeline, in the hope of encouraging such collaborative action. PMID:19035777

Boucher, Helen W; Talbot, George H; Bradley, John S; Edwards, John E; Gilbert, David; Rice, Louis B; Scheld, Michael; Spellberg, Brad; Bartlett, John

2009-01-01

389

Simultaneous Quantification of Limonin, Two Indolequinazoline Alkaloids, and Four Quinolone Alkaloids in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth by HPLC-DAD Method  

PubMed Central

A simple and efficient HPLC-DAD (225?nm) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of limonin and six key alkaloids (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone, evocarpine, 1-methy-2-[(6Z,9Z)]-6,9-pentadecadienyl-4-(1H)-quinolone, and dihydroevocarpine) in Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth, which has been widely used as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicines. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil BDS C18 column, and gradient elution was employed with a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water. Contents of the analytes in 18 batches of samples were analyzed by ultrasonic extraction with ethanol and water mixture (80?:?20, v/v) followed by HPLC analysis. Separation of the seven analytes was achieved within 60?min with good linearity (r > 0.999). The RSD of both the intraday and interday precision was below 1.85%. The accuracy at different concentrations was within the range of 97.91 to 100.49%. Hierarchical clustering analysis was performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of the seven constituents. This study indicated that the quality control of E. rutaecarpa could be simplified to the measurement of four constituents, and that limonin, 1-methyl-2-undecyl-4(1H)-quinolone, and dihydroevocarpine should also be served as the chemical markers together with evodiamine for the quality control of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. PMID:23738236

Zhang, Pei-ting; Pan, Bi-yan; Liao, Qiong-feng; Yao, Mei-cun; Xu, Xin-jun; Wan, Jin-zhi; Liu, Dan; Xie, Zhi-yong

2013-01-01

390

High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in commensal members of the Enterobacteriaceae in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae are a well-defined global problem. We hypothesized that one of the main reservoirs of dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes in Vietnam is non-pathogenic intestinal flora, and sought to isolate antimicrobial-resistant organisms from hospitalized patients and non-hospitalized healthy individuals in Ho Chi Minh City. The results identified substantial faecal carriage of gentamicin-, ceftazidime- and nalidixic acid-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae in both hospitalized patients and non-hospitalized healthy individuals. A high prevalence of quinolone resistance determinants was identified, particularly the qnrS gene, in both community- and hospital-associated strains. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that a combination of quinolone resistance determinants can confer resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, even in the apparent absence of additional chromosomal resistance mutations in wild-type strains and laboratory strains with transferred plasmids. These data suggest that intestinal commensal organisms are a significant reservoir for the dissemination of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Ho Chi Minh City. PMID:19696153

Minh Vien, Le Thi; Baker, Stephen; Phuong Thao, Le Thi; Phuong Tu, Le Thi; Thu Thuy, Cao; Thu Nga, Tran Thi; Minh Hoang, Nguyen Van; Campbell, James Iain; Minh Yen, Lam; Trong Hieu, Nguyen; Vinh Chau, Nguyen Van; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

2009-01-01

391

Evaluation of Antibacterial Effectiveness of Desensitizers against Oral Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives Desensitizers contribute to better clinical results by reducing the rate of cervical dentin sensitivity. However, information on their antibacterial effect is limited. This study examined the antibacterial activities of a triclosan containing (Seal & Protect), a benzalconium containing desensitizer (Micro Prime), a fluoride containing prophilaxy paste (Sultan Desensitizer), two fluoride containing varnishes (Cavity Shealth and Ultra EZ), and a dentin bonding primer (All Bond). Methods The test materials were inserted in the wells of Muller Hinton agar plates inoculated with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarious, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The diameters of the inhibition zones produced around the materials were measured after 24 h of incubation. The results were analyzed by the Kruskal Wallis one way ANOVA and the Mann-Whitney tests at a significance level of P<.05. Results Micro Prime Desensitizer containing benzalkonium chloride had the highest antibacterial effectiveness compared to other desensitizers used in this study. In addition, triclosan containing Seal & Protect and acidic components containing All Bond showed very high antibacterial efficacy. On the other hand, fluoride within both varnishes had little antibacterial effectiveness. However a fluoride component in a paste (Sultan Desensitizer) showed very high bactericidal effect. Conclusions All desensitizers except fluoride varnishes showed various degrees of antibacterial effect against the bacteria tested in this study. If antibacterial effect is also required from the desensitizers’ clinicians should avoid use of varnishes. PMID:19212508

Duran, Ismet; Sengun, Abdulkadir; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin; Ulker, Mustafa

2008-01-01

392

Isolation, identification, and quantification of roasted coffee antibacterial compounds.  

PubMed

Coffee brew is a widely consumed beverage with multiple biological activities due both to naturally occurring components and to the hundreds of chemicals that are formed during the roasting process. Roasted coffee extract possesses antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans, whereas green coffee extract exhibits no such activity. The naturally occurring coffee compounds, such as chlorogenic acids and caffeine, cannot therefore be responsible for the significant antibacterial activity exerted by coffee beverages against both bacteria. The very low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) found for standard glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl compounds formed during the roasting process points to these alpha-dicarbonyl compounds as the main agents responsible for the antibacterial activity of brewed coffee against Sa. aureus and St. mutans. However, their low concentrations determined in the beverage account for only 50% of its antibacterial activity. The addition of caffeine, which has weak intrinsic antibacterial activity, to a mixture of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds at the concentrations found in coffee demonstrated that caffeine synergistically enhances the antibacterial activity of alpha-dicarbonyl compounds and that glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl in the presence of caffeine account for the whole antibacterial activity of roasted coffee. PMID:18001036

Daglia, Maria; Papetti, Adele; Grisoli, Pietro; Aceti, Camilla; Spini, Valentina; Dacarro, Cesare; Gazzani, Gabriella

2007-12-12

393

In vitro antibacterial activities of antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in peritoneal dialysis fluid.  

PubMed Central

Intraperitoneal antibiotics are used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa peritonitis, a serious complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. However, P. aeruginosa killing is often inefficient despite low MBCs. Broth dilution MIC/MBC and time kill curves of tobramycin, amikacin, netilmicin, azlocillin, piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefsulodin, and ciprofloxacin were determined in peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF), buffered PDF, fluid recovered from patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (RPF), and cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth. MBCs of all antibiotics were 8 to 16 times greater in PDF and RPF than in Mueller-Hinton broth or buffered PDF. Use of the time kill curve technique and Mueller-Hinton broth showed that aminoglycosides killed greater than or equal to 99.9% of P. aeruginosa at 1 h, ciprofloxacin killed greater than or equal to 99.9% at 2 h, and beta-lactams killed greater than or equal to 99.9% at 6 h. In contrast, killing was not demonstrated in PDF by any drug at 6 h and by aminoglycosides only at 24 h. Bactericidal activity was optimal in RPF for ciprofloxacin at 1 h and for aminoglycosides at 2 h; bactericidal activity was not demonstrated in RPF with any beta-lactam (no kill by penicillins; less than 99% kill by cephalosporins). Slow bacterial growth, increased protein binding, and glucose concentrations and other inhibitors may interfere with beta-lactam activity in RPF. These considerations and reported clinical failures and toxicity of aminoglycoside therapy warrant further study of quinolones and drug combinations in P. aeruginosa peritonitis. PMID:3927837

Shalit, I; Welch, D F; San Joaquin, V H; Marks, M I

1985-01-01

394

Antibacterial activity of honey from stingless honeybees (Hymenoptera; Apidae; Meliponinae).  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine antibacterial activity of the honey of stingless honeybees (Meliponinae). An agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that many honey samples of stingless honeybees inhibited the growth of test strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; moreover, they exhibited non-peroxide antibacterial activity against those strains. This is the first time that non-peroxide antimicrobial activity of honey from a number of species of stingless honeybees has been demonstrated. These antibacterial activities appear to be powerful, even when compared to those of"manuka honey" from Apinae honeybees. PMID:18254500

Temaru, Emi; Shimura, Satoshi; Amano, Kazuhiro; Karasawa, Tadahiro

2007-01-01

395

Synthesis and Antibacterial Activities of Antibacterial Peptides with a Spiropyran Fluorescence Probe  

PubMed Central

In this report, antibacterial peptides1-3 were prepared with a spiropyran fluorescence probe. The probe exhibits a change in fluorescence when isomerized from a colorless spiro-form (spiropyran, Sp) to a colored open-form (merocyanine, Mc) under different chemical environments, which can be used to study the mechanism of antimicrobial activity. Peptides 1-3 exhibit a marked decrease in antimicrobial activity with increasing alkyl chain length. This is likely due to the Sp-Mc isomers in different polar environments forming different aggregate sizes in TBS, as demonstrated by time-dependent dynamic light scattering (DLS). Moreover, peptides 1-3 exhibited low cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. These probe-modified peptides may provide a novel approach to study the effect of structural changes on antibacterial activity, thus facilitating the design of new antimicrobial agents to combat bacterial infection. PMID:25358905

Chen, Lei; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Danling; Zou, Rongfeng; Wu, Junchen; Tian, He

2014-01-01

396

Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds. Conclusion: As results confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

2014-01-01

397

The role of topical moxifloxacin, a new antibacterial in Europe, in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.  

PubMed

This article discusses current practice in the treatment of conjunctivitis and how the use of topical moxifloxacin can increase therapeutic effectiveness, reduce treatment failures and, consequently, be cost effective and reduce the societal burden of the disorder. Current practice and effectiveness data were derived from the literature. Data on healthcare utilization as a result of treatment failure were collected by survey and the cost of treatment was defined using national costings. A decision-analytic model to assess cost effectiveness was developed and the impact on the healthcare budget was calculated to define the health economic impact. Bacterial conjunctivitis represents a significant health problem and accounts for an estimated 1-1.5% of primary-care consultations. The disorder is highly contagious and causes a substantial healthcare and societal burden. Bacterial conjunctivitis is generally self-limiting, resolving within 1-2 weeks. However, the use of antibacterials significantly improves clinical and microbiological remission, shortens symptom duration, and enables more effective use of healthcare resources, compared with placebo. From a health economic perspective this benefits the healthcare system and society, since fewer healthcare resources are needed and the adult affected, or the parent/caregiver of the child affected, can return to full work capacity sooner, reducing loss of productivity. Treatment strategies vary significantly between countries. Most patients are first seen in primary care, where 'wait-and-see', lubrification and antiseptic or antibacterial treatment is provided. In Europe, when antibacterials are prescribed most general practitioners (GPs) prescribe a broad-spectrum topical antibacterial. The most commonly used drugs are chloramphenicol and fusidic acid, with fluoroquinolones rarely reported as first-line treatment by GPs. At the specialist (ophthalmologist) level, or for second-line treatment at the GP level, topical antibacterials are frequently used. However, in most countries, topical fluoroquinolones, particularly those recently approved by the European Medicines Agency, such as topical levofloxacin and topical moxifloxacin, are rarely used and instead are reserved for use as a last resort. In other parts of the world topical lomefloxacin, gatifloxacin and/or besifloxacin are also available. The strategy of using novel topical fluoroquinolones as a last resort reflects a belief that the use of topical fluoroquinolones may enhance the development of resistance, jeopardizing future availability of antibacterial treatment for ocular infections. In fact, most cases of bacterial resistance arise as a result of systemic treatment. Thus, this concern should not be extrapolated to topical use of fluoroquinolones, which results in antibacterial concentrations at the ocular surface that can significantly exceed mutant prevention concentrations. In addition, with products such as topical moxifloxacin, a dual-step mutation is required for resistance to emerge. Moxifloxacin restricts the selection of resistant mutants, meaning that emergence of resistance is unlikely. The strategy of not using the most effective fluoroquinolones such as topical moxifloxacin may lead to more patients with no improvement or worsening of symptoms, requiring re-intervention, additional examination and new treatment; these outcomes are defined as 'treatment failures'. Treatment failures cause an extra societal burden and increased costs due to the extra healthcare resources required (additional GP/specialist visits, laboratory tests, additional treatment, etc.). Compared with non-fluoroquinolones, topical moxifloxacin has a higher potency and faster in vitro 'speed-to-kill'. It has also been shown that, within the fluoroquinolone class, topical moxifloxacin and besifloxacin achieve the highest mean concentrations in conjunctival tissue, have the longest residence times and display favourable area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to 24 hours (AUC(24))/minimum inhibitory concentration ratio requ

Benitez-Del-Castillo, Jose; Verboven, Yves; Stroman, David; Kodjikian, Laurent

2011-01-01

398

Bactericidal activities of BMS-284756, a novel Des-F(6)-quinolone, against Staphylococcus aureus strains with topoisomerase mutations.  

PubMed

The antistaphylococcal activities of BMS-284756 (T-3811ME), levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were compared against wild-type and grlA and grlA/gyrA mutant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. BMS-284756 was the most active quinolone tested, with MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations against S. aureus wild-type strain MT5, grlA mutant MT5224c4, and grlA/gyrA mutant EN8 of 0.03 and 0.06, 0.125 and 0.125, and 4 and 4 microg/ml, respectively. In the time-kill studies, BMS-284756 and levofloxacin exhibited rapid killing against all strains. Ciprofloxacin, however, was not bactericidal for the double mutant, EN8. BMS-284756 and levofloxacin were bactericidal (3 log(10) decrease in CFU/ml) against the MT5 and MT5224c4 strains at two and four times the MIC within 2 to 4 h. Against EN8, BMS-284756 was bactericidal within 4 h at two and four times the MIC, and levofloxacin achieved similar results within 4 to 6 h. Both the wild-type strain MT5 and grlA mutant MT5224c4 should be considered susceptible to both BMS-284756 and levofloxacin, and both quinolones are predicted to have clinical efficacy. The in vivo efficacy of BMS-284756, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin against S. aureus strain ISP794 and its single mutant 2C6(1)-1 directly reflected the in vitro activity: increased MICs correlated with decreased in vivo efficacy. The 50% protective doses of BMS-284756 against wild-type and mutant strains were 2.2 and 1.6 mg/kg of body weight/day, respectively, compared to the levofloxacin values of 16 and 71 mg/kg/day and moxifloxacin values of 4.7 and 61.6 mg/kg/day. BMS-284756 was more potent than levofloxacin and equipotent with moxifloxacin against ISP794 both in vitro and in vivo, while BMS-284756 was more potent than levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against 2C6(1)-1. PMID:11751133

Lawrence, Laura E; Frosco, MaryBeth; Ryan, Brenda; Chaniewski, Susan; Yang, Hyekyung; Hooper, David C; Barrett, John F

2002-01-01

399

Antibacterial properties of composite UHMWPE/ surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the diffusion of severe pathogens, everyday life is exposed to the risks of contracting severe diseases. For this reason, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are of paramount importance. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain an antibacterial ultra high molecular weight polyethylene based on a non-stoichiometric, visible light responsive, titanium oxide coating. The coating was obtained through a process in which titanium ions, resulting from laser ablation of a corresponding target, were accelerated and implanted on the samples. The samples were tested against a Staphylococcus aureus strain, in order to assay their antimicrobial efficacy. Results show that this treatment strongly discourages bacterial colonization of the treated surfaces.

Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talŕ, A.; Tredici, S. M.

2014-10-01

400

Antibacterial effect of five Zingiberaceae essential oils.  

PubMed

Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation and two different solvent extractions (petroleum ether and ethanol) from five Zingiberaceae species: ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.), galanga (Alpinia galanga Sw.), turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), kaempferia (Boesenbergia pandurata Holtt.) and bastard cardamom (Amomum xanthioides Wall.) was characterized. Volatile components of all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major components of ginger, turmeric, galangal, bastard cardamom and kaempferia were zingiberene, turmerone, methyl chavicol, and gamma-terpinene, respectively. Their antibacterial effects towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were tested by a disc diffusion assay. Essential oil of kaempferia and bastard cardamom obtained by hydrodistillation extraction could inhibit growth of all tested bacteria. Essential oil of ginger extracted by hydrodistillation had the highest efficiency against three positive strains of bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus and L. monocytogenes), with a minimum concentration to inhibit B. cereus and L. monocytogenes of 6.25 mg/mL. PMID:17960105

Norajit, Krittika; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

2007-01-01