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Sample records for quinolone antibacterial drug

  1. [The history of the development and changes of quinolone antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Hayakawa, Isao; Akimoto, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The quinolones, especially the new quinolones (the 6-fluoroquinolones), are the synthetic antibacterial agents to rival the Beta-lactam and the macrolide antibacterials for impact in clinical usage in the antibacterial therapeutic field. They have a broad antibacterial spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacterial pathogens as well as anaerobes. Further, they show good-to-moderate oral absorption and tissue penetration with favorable pharmacokinetics in humans resulting in high clinical efficacy in the treatment of many kinds of infections. They also exhibit excellent safety profiles as well as those of oral Beta-lactam antibiotics. The bacterial effects of quinolones inhibit the function of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The history of the development of the quinolones originated from nalidixic acid (NA), developed in 1962. In addition, the breakthrough in the drug design for the scaffold and the basic side chains have allowed improvements to be made to the first new quinolone, norfloxacin (NFLX), patented in 1978. Although currently more than 10,000 compounds have been already synthesized in the world, only two percent of them were developed and tested in clinical studies. Furthermore, out of all these compounds, only twenty have been successfully launched into the market. In this paper, the history of the development and changes of the quinolones are described from the first quinolone, NA, via, the first new quinolone (6-fluorinated quinolone) NFLX, to the latest extended-spectrum quinolone antibacterial agents against multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. NA has only modest activity against Gram-negative bacteria and low oral absorption, therefore a suitable candidate for treatment of systemic infections (UTIs) is required. Since the original discovery of NA, a series of quinolones, which are referred to as the old quinolones, have been developed leading to the first new quinolone, NFLX, with moderate improvements in over all properties starting in 1962 through and continuing throughout the 1970's. Especially, the drug design for pipemidic acid (PPA) indicated one of the important breakthroughs that lead to NFLX. The introduction of a piperazinyl group, which ia a basic moiety at the C7-position of the quinolone nuclei, improved activity against Gram-negative organisms broadening the spectrum to include Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PPA also showed soem activity against Gram-positive bac teria. The basic piperazine ring, which can form the zwitterionic natrure with the carboxylic acid at the C3-position, has subsequently been shown to increase the ability of the drugs to penetrate the bacterial cells resulting in enhanced activity. Further, the zwitterionic forms resulted in significant tissue penetration in the pharmacokinetics. On the other hand, the first compound with a fluorine atom at the C6-position of the related quinolone scaffold was flumequine and the compound indicated that activity against Gram-positive bacteria could be improved in the old quinolones. The addition of a flourine atom at the C6-position is essential for the inhibition of target enzymes. The results show the poten antibacterial activity and the penetration of the quinolone molecule into the bacterial cells and human tissue. The real breakthrough came with the combination of these two features in NFLX, a 6-fluorinated quinolone having a piperazinyl group at the C7-position, NFLX features significant differences from the old quinolones in the activities and pharmacokinetics in humans, resulting in high clinical efficacy in the treatment of many kinds of infections including RTIs.Consequently, those great discoveries are rapidly superseded by even better compounds and NFLX proved to be just the beginning of a highly successful period of research into the modifications of the new quinolone antibacterials. Simce the chemical structure and important features of NFLX had become apparent in 1978, many compounds were patented in the next three years, several of which reached the market. Among the drugs, oflo

  2. Mechanisms of drug resistance: quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Hooper, David C; Jacoby, George A

    2015-09-01

    Quinolone antimicrobials are synthetic and widely used in clinical medicine. Resistance emerged with clinical use and became common in some bacterial pathogens. Mechanisms of resistance include two categories of mutation and acquisition of resistance-conferring genes. Resistance mutations in one or both of the two drug target enzymes, DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV, are commonly in a localized domain of the GyrA and ParE subunits of the respective enzymes and reduce drug binding to the enzyme-DNA complex. Other resistance mutations occur in regulatory genes that control the expression of native efflux pumps localized in the bacterial membrane(s). These pumps have broad substrate profiles that include quinolones as well as other antimicrobials, disinfectants, and dyes. Mutations of both types can accumulate with selection pressure and produce highly resistant strains. Resistance genes acquired on plasmids can confer low-level resistance that promotes the selection of mutational high-level resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance is due to Qnr proteins that protect the target enzymes from quinolone action, one mutant aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme that also modifies certain quinolones, and mobile efflux pumps. Plasmids with these mechanisms often encode additional antimicrobial resistances and can transfer multidrug resistance that includes quinolones. Thus, the bacterial quinolone resistance armamentarium is large. PMID:26190223

  3. Separation and determination of quinolone antibacterials by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Aura; Hancu, Gabriel; Vlgyi, Gergely; Tth, Gerg?; Noszl, Bla; Gyresi, Arpd

    2014-09-01

    The migration behavior and separation of 13 quinolone antibacterials were investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). In order to predict the electrophoretic mobility, the protonation macroconstants of all the compounds were determined by pH-potentiometric titrations. We proved that the electrophoretic mobility of ionized quinolones (QNs) can be described with Offord's equation, and the migration order depends on their charge-to-mass ratios. A buffer of 25 mM sodium tetraborate adjusted to pH 9.3 was an efficient electrophoresis system for the separation of 12 QNs by capillary zone electrophoresis. This method can be considered a general method to separate quinolone derivatives. Ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin, fluoroquinoles with very similar structural characteristics, were separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Validation parameters, including linearity and detection and quantification limits, were also determined. Our results prove the applicability of CE for the simultaneous determination of QNs from complex mixtures. Our methods are environment-friendly replacement and improvement of a common high-performance liquid chromatography determination with rapid analysis time without using any organic solvents. PMID:23908264

  4. Looking for the new preparations for antibacterial therapy III. New antimicrobial agents from the quinolones group in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Karpiuk, Izabela; Tyski, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    There is an essential need for searching for the new compounds effective in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. This paper is the third part of a series associated with the exploration of new antibacterial agents and it discusses the compounds belonging to the group of quinolones and substances possessing a hybrid structure composed of the quinolone molecule and other compounds. Eleven new substances at the stage of clinical trials are presented. Three of them belong to the group of non-fluorinated quinolone (nemonoxacin, ozenoxacin and KRP-AM 1977X), while six are the quinolones containing fluorine atom at 6 position of the carbon atom in the quinoline ring (zabofloxacin, finafloxacin, delafloxacin, JNJ-Q2, WCK771 and KPI-10). The remaining two compounds possess a hybrid construction composed of the quinolone structure and other molecules (cadazolid and CBR-2092). There is a chance in the near future, that the presented compounds can extend the range of existing antibacterial drugs and provide an alternative to currently available medicinal products. PMID:24340560

  5. Design, synthesis, antibacterial evaluation and docking study of novel 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl-derived quinolone.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Xing, Junhao; Cheng, Haibo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl-derived quinolones 6a-o were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity. Most of the target compounds exhibited potent activity against Gram-positive strains. Among them, moxifloxacin analog 6n displayed the most potent activity against Gram-positive strains including S. epidermidis (MIC = 0.06 ?g/mL), MSSE (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), MRSE (MIC = 0.03 ?g/mL), S. aureus (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), MSSA (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), (MIC = 2 ?g/mL). Its activity against MRSA was eightfold more potent than reference drug gatifloxacin. Finally, docking study of the target compound 6n revealed that the binding model of quinolone nucleus was similar to that of gatifloxacin and the 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl group formed two additional hydrogen bonds. PMID:25048811

  6. In vitro evaluation of various quinolone antibacterial agents against veterinary mycoplasmas and porcine respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hannan, P C; O'Hanlon, P J; Rogers, N H

    1989-03-01

    The in vitro activities of 12 quinolones and four antibiotics were determined against 15 veterinary mycoplasmal species and four species of bacteria commonly involved in respiratory infections in pigs. The newer quinolones were markedly more active in vitro against a wide range of mycoplasmas than nalidixic acid and the earlier quinolones. Against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae ciprofloxacin was the most active quinolone with a geometric mean minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 16 strains of 0.01 microgram ml-1 compared with 0.04 microgram ml-1 for tiamulin, 0.06 microgram ml-1 for tylosin, 0.17 microgram ml-1 for oxytetracycline and 0.23 microgram ml-1 for gentamicin. M hyosynoviae was less sensitive to the quinolones with mean MICs of 0.6 microgram ml-1 for ofloxacin and 0.7 microgram ml-1 for ciprofloxacin compared with 0.034 microgram ml-1, or less, for tiamulin. Norfloxacin and its 6-chloro analogue were both mycoplasmacidal in vitro at five or 10 times their MICs against M hyopneumoniae UCD4. Tiamulin was mycoplasmastatic. The quinolones were also active against porcine Bordetella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida strains and Haemophilus species. Ciprofloxacin was the most active quinolone with mean MICs of 0.58 microgram ml-1 against B bronchiseptica (nine strains), 0.026 microgram ml-1 against P multocida (five strains) and 0.01 microgram ml-1, or less, against Haemophilus pleuropneumoniae (nine strains) and H parasuis (two strains) compared with mean MICs of from 0.5 microgram ml-1 to 64 micrograms ml-1, or more, for the antibiotics. This combination of excellent mycoplasmacidal activity against M hyopneumoniae and good antibacterial activity, suggests that the quinolones have great potential for treating respiratory infections in pigs, including enzootic pneumonia. PMID:2704885

  7. Design and biological evaluation of novel quinolone-based metronidazole derivatives as potent Cu(2+) mediated DNA-targeting antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kumar, Kannekanti Vijaya; Geng, Rong-Xia; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2015-09-01

    A series of novel quinolone-based metronidazole derivatives as new type of antimicrobial agents were developed and characterized. Most of them gave good antibacterial activity towards the Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Noticeably, quinolone derivative 3i exhibited low MIC value of 0.25 ?g/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was even superior to reference drugs Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Clinafloxacin. The further research revealed that compound 3i could intercalate into P. aeruginosa DNA through copper ion bridge to form a steady 3i-Cu(2+)-DNA ternary complex which might further block DNA replication to exert the powerful bioactivities. PMID:26149183

  8. Participation of reactive oxygen species in phototoxicity induced by quinolone antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, N; Arakane, K; Ryu, A; Mashiko, S; Hirobe, M; Nagano, T

    1997-06-15

    To elucidate the mechanism of phototoxicity induced as a side effect by some of the new quinolone antibiotics, we studied sparfloxacin (SPFX), lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. We first examined the photosensitized formation of reactive oxygen species such as singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide anion (O2-) mediated by the new quinolones. Although a large number of studies have been reported, there is no direct evidence that these drugs generate reactive oxygen species. We employed a near-infrared emission spectrometer to detect 1O2-specific emission (1268 nm), and the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction method to detect O2-. All the quinolones investigated in this study were found to produce 1O2. Four drugs, but not SPFX, produced O2-. We also examined photodynamic DNA strand-breaking activity as a possible mechanism to explain the participation of reactive oxygen species in the phototoxicity of the drugs. All the drugs exhibited photodynamic DNA strand-breaking activity. The inhibitory effect of scavengers of reactive oxygen species indicated that the main active species was 1O2. The DNA strand-breaking activity was correlated not with the 1O2-forming ability, but with the affinity of the drugs for DNA. This result may be due to the short lifetime of 1O2. These data suggested that the phototoxicity of the new quinolones was related to DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species, especially 1O2. PMID:9186488

  9. Biological Activity of Some Magnesium(II) Complexes of Quinolones

    PubMed Central

    onc, Andrej; Zupan?i?, Marija; Sep?i?, Kristina; Turk, Tom

    2000-01-01

    A new magnesium complex of quinolone antibacterial agent was prepared. This new complex as well as a previously isolated complex of magnesium with ciprofloxacin were tested against various Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms. Antimicrobial activities were evaluated using the agar diffusion test. The results have shown that all magnesium complexes are significantly less active than the parent quinolone drugs. It was also found that the activity of quinolones is reduced when the solutions of quinolones are titrated with magnesium ions. PMID:18475931

  10. Mechanistic studies of the phototoxic potential of PD 117596, a quinolone antibacterial compound.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D G; Epling, G A; Kiely, J S; Bailey, D L; Song, B

    1991-11-01

    PD 117596 is a novel quinolone compound that is being investigated for use as an antibacterial agent. Early investigations demonstrated a significant phototoxic liability associated with this compound. These studies were undertaken to investigate the mechanism of phototoxicity using an in vitro model. In the UVA region, PD 117596 was found to be a more efficient producer of singlet oxygen than rose bengal, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, or PD 118879, another quinolone under investigation. The quantum yield of photoreaction for PD 117596 was relatively low (phi = 0.021); however, it was approximately 10-fold higher than other tested quinolones. In vitro studies using a mouse erythrocyte model were used to further investigate the mechanism of phototoxicity. PD 117596-induced photohemolysis was found to be oxygen dependent with a relatively rapid onset that progressed even after removal of light. Preirradiation of the compound prevented subsequent hemolytic or photohemolytic action. BHA, BHT, alpha-tocopherol, and the iron chelator DTPA were all found to be effective at ameliorating the photohemolytic response. The photohemolytic response was markedly enhanced when D2O was substituted for H2O in the incubation medium, indicating a singlet oxygen-mediated mechanism of action. A rise in thiobarbituric acid products was noted within 1 hr of irradiation and was maximal at the time of onset of overt photohemolysis. These data suggest that singlet oxygen production by irradiated PD 117596 is responsible for secondary changes in mouse red blood cells including lipid peroxidation and ultimately results in cellular lysis. PMID:1659755

  11. Characterization of quinolone antibacterial-induced convulsions and increases in nuclear AP-1 DNA- and CRE-binding activities in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ito, Y; Ishige, K; Aizawa, M; Fukuda, H

    1999-05-01

    The quinolone antibacterials enoxacin and norfloxacin (2.5 mg/kg, i.v.) provoked clonic convulsions in mice treated concomitantly with biphenylacetic acid (BPAA, 100 mg/kg, i.p.), a major metabolite of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug fenbufen. Gel-shift assays showed that enoxacin-induced convulsions resulted in increases in nuclear activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA- and cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE)-binding activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, but not in other regions, such as the cerebellum and thalamus. In contrast, ofloxacin and levofloxacin, at the same doses, in the presence of BPAA did not evoke convulsions or increase these DNA-binding activities. Administration of these quinolones and BPAA alone elicited neither convulsions nor increases in these DNA-binding activities. These results suggest that the increased nuclear AP-1 DNA- and CRE-binding activities in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus induced by quinolones with BPAA correlated with seizure activities and that these brain regions play pivotal roles in quinolone-induced convulsions. PMID:10340309

  12. In vitro phototoxic activities of new quinolone antibacterial agents: lipid peroxidative potentials.

    PubMed

    Fujita, H; Matsuo, I

    1994-10-01

    To determine the fundamental photochemical properties of new quinolones that can induce photosensitivity, the in vitro phototoxicity of these drugs (enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and lomefloxacin) was examined with respect to photosensitizing ability to peroxidize unsaturated lipid squalene in ethanol solution. Lomefloxacin and ciprofloxacin showed the highest efficiency in sensitization of peroxidation of the lipid. Moderate repression of peroxidation occurred by addition of sodium azide (a quencher of singlet molecular oxygen), suggesting that the nonsinglet oxygen mechanism is operative in addition to the singlet oxygen mechanism. PMID:7880759

  13. Physicochemical Studies and Anticancer Potency of Ruthenium ?-p-Cymene Complexes Containing Antibacterial Quinolones.

    PubMed

    Kljun, Jakob; Bytzek, Anna K; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Bartel, Caroline; Jakupec, Michael A; Hartinger, Christian G; Keppler, Bernhard K; Turel, Iztok

    2011-05-01

    With the aim of exploring the anticancer properties of organometallic compounds with bioactive ligands, Ru(arene) compounds of the antibacterial quinolones nalidixic acid (2) and cinoxacin (3) were synthesized, and their physicochemical properties were compared to those of chlorido(?(6)-p-cymene)(ofloxacinato-?(2)O,O)ruthenium(II) (1). All compounds undergo a rapid ligand exchange reaction from chlorido to aqua species. 2 and 3 are significantly more stable than 1 and undergo minor conversion to an unreactive [(cym)Ru(?-OH)(3)Ru(cym)](+) species (cym = ?(6)-p-cymene). In the presence of human serum albumin 1-3 form adducts with this transport protein within 20 min of incubation. With guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP; as a simple model for reactions with DNA) very rapid reactions yielding adducts via its N7 atom were observed, illustrating that DNA is a possible target for this compound class. A moderate capacity of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation in vitro was observed for 1 in CH1 ovarian cancer cells, whereas 2 and 3 turned out to be inactive. PMID:21552495

  14. DNA Gyrase Is the Target for the Quinolone Drug Ciprofloxacin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Evans-Roberts, Katherine M; Mitchenall, Lesley A; Wall, Melisa K; Leroux, Julie; Mylne, Joshua S; Maxwell, Anthony

    2016-02-12

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains four genes that were originally annotated as potentially encoding DNA gyrase: ATGYRA, ATGYRB1, ATGYRB2, and ATGYRB3. Although we subsequently showed that ATGYRB3 does not encode a gyrase subunit, the other three genes potentially encode subunits of a plant gyrase. We also showed evidence for the existence of supercoiling activity in A. thaliana and that the plant is sensitive to quinolone and aminocoumarin antibiotics, compounds that target DNA gyrase in bacteria. However, it was not possible at that time to show whether the A. thaliana genes encoded an active gyrase enzyme, nor whether that enzyme is indeed the target for the quinolone and aminocoumarin antibiotics. Here we show that an A. thaliana mutant resistant to the quinolone drug ciprofloxacin has a point mutation in ATGYRA. Moreover we show that, as in bacteria, the quinolone-sensitive (wild-type) allele is dominant to the resistant gene. Further we have heterologously expressed ATGYRA and ATGYRB2 in a baculovirus expression system and shown supercoiling activity of the partially purified enzyme. Expression/purification of the quinolone-resistant A. thaliana gyrase yields active enzyme that is resistant to ciprofloxacin. Taken together these experiments now show unequivocally that A. thaliana encodes an organelle-targeted DNA gyrase that is the target of the quinolone drug ciprofloxacin; this has important consequences for plant physiology and the development of herbicides. PMID:26663076

  15. DNA Gyrase Is the Target for the Quinolone Drug Ciprofloxacin in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Roberts, Katherine M.; Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Wall, Melisa K.; Leroux, Julie; Mylne, Joshua S.; Maxwell, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains four genes that were originally annotated as potentially encoding DNA gyrase: ATGYRA, ATGYRB1, ATGYRB2, and ATGYRB3. Although we subsequently showed that ATGYRB3 does not encode a gyrase subunit, the other three genes potentially encode subunits of a plant gyrase. We also showed evidence for the existence of supercoiling activity in A. thaliana and that the plant is sensitive to quinolone and aminocoumarin antibiotics, compounds that target DNA gyrase in bacteria. However, it was not possible at that time to show whether the A. thaliana genes encoded an active gyrase enzyme, nor whether that enzyme is indeed the target for the quinolone and aminocoumarin antibiotics. Here we show that an A. thaliana mutant resistant to the quinolone drug ciprofloxacin has a point mutation in ATGYRA. Moreover we show that, as in bacteria, the quinolone-sensitive (wild-type) allele is dominant to the resistant gene. Further we have heterologously expressed ATGYRA and ATGYRB2 in a baculovirus expression system and shown supercoiling activity of the partially purified enzyme. Expression/purification of the quinolone-resistant A. thaliana gyrase yields active enzyme that is resistant to ciprofloxacin. Taken together these experiments now show unequivocally that A. thaliana encodes an organelle-targeted DNA gyrase that is the target of the quinolone drug ciprofloxacin; this has important consequences for plant physiology and the development of herbicides. PMID:26663076

  16. Newer Antibacterial Drugs for a New Century

    PubMed Central

    Devasahayam, Gina; Scheld, W. Michael; Hoffman, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial drug discovery and development has slowed considerably in recent years with novel classes discovered decades ago and regulatory approvals tougher to get. This article describes newer classes of antibacterial drugs introduced or approved after year 2000, their mechanisms of action/ resistance, improved analogs, spectrum of activity and clinical trials. It also discusses new compounds in development with novel mechanisms of action as well as novel unexploited bacterial targets and strategies which may pave the way for combating drug resistance and emerging pathogens in the 21st century. PMID:20053150

  17. Indomethacin/ibuprofen-like anti-inflammatory agents selectively potentiate the gamma-aminobutyric acid-antagonistic effects of several norfloxacin-like quinolone antibacterial agents on [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding.

    PubMed

    Squires, R F; Saederup, E

    1993-05-01

    Four piperazinoquinolone antibacterial drugs (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and pipemidic acid), known to be gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonists, fully reversed the inhibitory effect of GABA on [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate ([35S] TBPS) binding to rat brain membranes in vitro. Twelve indomethacin/ibuprofen-like arylalkanoic acid (AAA) anti-inflammatory drugs alone had no effect on [35S]TBPS binding, or on its inhibition by GABA, but potentiated the GABA-antagonistic effects of the four quinolones. Felbinac (4-biphenylacetic acid) was most potent in this respect (EC50 = 110 nM, together with 5 microM norfloxacin), followed by flurbiprofen > anirolac > metiazinic acid > tolmetin = ketoprofen = fenbufen = indomethacin > fenoprofen > ibuprofen = (+)-naproxen = sulindac. Other anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, including aspirin, diclofenac, diflunisal, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, nambumetone, phenacetin, piroxicam, and phenylbutazone, failed to potentiate the GABA-antagonistic effect of norfloxacin. Felbinac (1 microM) increased the GABA-antagonistic potencies of norfloxacin and enoxacin about 26-fold, while increasing those of ciprofloxacin and pipemidic acid 7-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively. Using subsaturating concentrations of the four quinolones, concentration-response curves for felbinac yielded EC50 values ranging from 110 nM with 5 microM norfloxacin to 1.3 microM with 100 microM pipemidic acid. Three other piperazinoquinolone antibacterial agents (amifloxacin, difloxacin, and fleroxacin) and four nonpiperazinoquinolone anti-bacterial agents (oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, nalidixic acid, and piromidic acid) were much weaker GABA antagonists and were not significantly potentiated by felbinac. All other known GABAA receptor blockers tested, including R 5135, pitrazepin, bicuculline, SR 95531, strychnine, D-tubocurarine, thebaine, securinine, theophylline, and caffeine, were not potentiated by felbinac. Our results suggest that norfloxacin and related piperazinoquinolones, acting at GABAA receptors, may induce a high affinity binding site for indomethacin/ibuprofen-like anti-inflammatory agents (the AAA site) that, when occupied, reciprocally increases the affinities of the quinolones for GABAA receptors. The AAA binding site may be a new site in the GABAA receptor complex. PMID:8388990

  18. The measurement of a new antimicrobial quinolone in hair as an index of drug exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, T; Nakano, M; Akiyama, H; Nakashima, M

    1993-01-01

    1. Scalp hair samples were obtained at 1 month intervals up to 5 months from healthy male volunteers participating in a phase I study of a new antimicrobial quinolone, OPC-17116. 2. Hair was sectioned into 1 cm lengths from the scalp end. Corresponding portions from five pieces of hair were dissolved in 1 N NaOH and assayed for OPC-17116 by h.p.l.c. 3. In all subjects taking a single dose (400 mg, n = 5) or repeated doses (400 mg day-1, twice daily, for 6.5 days, n = 6), the drug was detected in the portions of hair corresponding to the administration period, assuming a hair growth rate of 1 cm/month. 4. OPC-17116 (300 mg day-1, three times daily, for 2 days) was given to four healthy male volunteers, from whom hair samples were obtained at 1 month and 3 months. The drug was detected in 1 to 4 consecutive 2.5-mm long portions of a single hair and there was no significant axial diffusion of the agent along the hair shaft with time. 5. These findings indicate the utility of measuring this quinolone derivative in hair as an index of exposure, and as a time-marker for the hair analysis of other drugs. PMID:8382934

  19. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of a New Series of N-Alkyl-2-alkynyl/(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones

    PubMed Central

    Wube, Abraham; Guzman, Juan-David; Hfner, Antje; Hochfellner, Christina; Blunder, Martina; Bauer, Rudolf; Gibbons, Simon; Bhakta, Sanjib; Bucar, Franz

    2012-01-01

    To gain further insight into the structural requirements of the aliphatic group at position 2 for their antimycobacterial activity, some N-alkyl-4-(1H)-quinolones bearing position 2 alkynyls with various chain length and triple bond positions were prepared and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against rapidly-growing strains of mycobacteria, the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, EMRSA-15 and -16. The compounds were also evaluated for inhibition of ATP-dependent MurE ligase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lowest MIC value of 0.5 mg/L (1.2-1.5 ?M) was found against M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis. These compounds displayed no or only weak toxicity to the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 at 100 ?M concentration. The quinolone derivatives exhibited pronounced activity against the epidemic MRSA strains (EMRSA-15 and -16) with MIC values of 2-128 mg/L (5.3-364.7 ?M), and M. bovis BCG with an MIC value of 25 mg/L (66.0-77.4 ?M). In addition, the compounds inhibited the MurE ligase of M. tuberculosis with moderate to weak activity showing IC50 values of 200-774 ?M. The increased selectivity towards mycobacterial bacilli with reference to MRC-5 cells observed for 2-alkynyl quinolones compared to their corresponding 2-alkenyl analogues serves to highlight the mycobacterial specific effect of the triple bond. Exploration of a terminal bromine atom at the side chain of N-alkyl-2-(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones showed improved antimycobacterial activity whereas a cyclopropyl residue at N-1 was suggested to be detrimental to antibacterial activity. PMID:22777190

  20. Carriage of Class 1 and 2 Integrons in Quinolone, Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Producing and Multi Drug Resistant E.coli and K.pneumoniae: High Burden of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Froogh; Hasani, Alka; Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Mohammad; Nahaie, Mohammad Reza; Hasani, Akbar; Soroush Bar Haghi, Mohammad Hossein; Pormohammad, Ali; Elli Arbatan, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aimed at assessing any association between quinolone resistance, MDR and ESBL production and their relation with the presence of integrons in Esherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: E.coli and K.pneumoniae isolated from various clinical infections were fully identified and analyzed for being quinolone resistant. These isolates were further tested for ESBL production, multi drug resistance and carriage of integrons. Results: In total, 135 isolates were confirmed as quinolone resistant. K.pneumoniae was observed as potent ESBL producer in comparison to E.coli. Ciprofloxacin resistance in both organisms was related significantly with the presence of integron class 1, co-presence of class 1 and 2 as well as to the presence of ESBL production (p< 0.001). However, nalidixic acid resistance was related significantly (p< 0.01) with only integron class 1 and to the presence of ESBL production. Class 1 and 2 integrons were found in 73.5% of MDR isolates with 13.2% of them possessing both intI1 and intI2 genes. Conclusion: Prevalence of quinolone resistance together with ESBL production and MDR in E.coli and K.pneumoniae has contributed to the emergence of antibacterial resistance burden. The higher integron prevalence in our isolates advocates the potentiality of these isolates as a source for dissemination of resistance determinants. PMID:26504755

  1. Quinolone-3-Diarylethers: A new class of drugs for a new era of malaria eradication

    PubMed Central

    White, Karen L.; Forquer, Isaac P.; Cross, Richard M.; Marfurt, Jutta; Mather, Michael W.; Delves, Michael J.; Shackleford, David M.; Saenz, Fabian E.; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Steuten, Jessica; Mutka, Tina; Li, Yuexin; Wirjanata, Grennady; Ryan, Eileen; Duffy, Sandra; Kelly, Jane Xu; Sebayang, Boni F.; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Noviyanti, Rintis; Sinden, Robert E.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Price, Ric N.; Avery, Vicky M.; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Ferrer, Santiago; Herreros, Esperanza; Sanz, Laura M.; Gamo, Francisco-Javier; Bathurst, Ian; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Siegl, Peter; Guy, R. Kiplin; Winter, Rolf W.; Vaidya, Akhil B.; Charman, Susan A.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Manetsch, Roman; Riscoe, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Ideally antimalarial drugs can be developed which target multiple life cycle stages, thus impacting prevention, treatment and transmission of disease. Here we introduce 4-(1H)-quinolone-3-diarylethers that are selectively potent inhibitors of the parasite’s mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. These compounds are highly active against the primary human malarias (falciparum and vivax), targeting the parasite at both the liver and blood stages as well as the forms that are crucial to disease transmission: gametocytes ⇒ zygotes ⇒ ookinetes ⇒ oocysts. Chosen as the preclinical candidate, ELQ-300 has good oral bioavailability at efficacious dosages in mice, is metabolically stable, and is highly active in rodent malaria models. Given a low predicted dose in patients and a long predicted half-life, ELQ-300 offers the hope of a new molecule for the treatment, prevention and, ultimately, eradication of malaria. PMID:23515079

  2. 75 FR 33317 - Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug Development Research for Bacterial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug... resistance, rapid diagnostic device development for bacterial diseases, and antibacterial drug development. The workshop will address antibacterial drug resistance, mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology...

  3. Antibacterial drug discovery in the resistance era.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric D; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-01-21

    The looming antibiotic-resistance crisis has penetrated the consciousness of clinicians, researchers, policymakers, politicians and the public at large. The evolution and widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistance elements in bacterial pathogens has made diseases that were once easily treatable deadly again. Unfortunately, accompanying the rise in global resistance is a failure in antibacterial drug discovery. Lessons from the history of antibiotic discovery and fresh understanding of antibiotic action and the cell biology of microorganisms have the potential to deliver twenty-first century medicines that are able to control infection in the resistance era. PMID:26791724

  4. UV-Vis spectrophotometrical and analytical methodology for the determination of singlet oxygen in new antibacterials drugs.

    PubMed

    Zoltan, Tamara; Vargas, Franklin; Izzo, Carla

    2007-01-01

    We have determined and quantified spectrophotometrically the capacity of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as (1)O(2) during the photolysis with UV-A light of 5 new synthesized naphthyl ester derivates of well-known quinolone antibacterials (nalidixic acid (1), cinoxacin (2), norfloxacin (3), ciprofloxacin (4) and enoxacin (5)). The ability of the naphthyl ester derivatives (6-10) to generate singlet oxygen were detecting and for the first time quantified by the histidine assay, a sensitive, fast and inexpensive method. The following tendency of generation of singlet oxygen was observed: compounds 7 > 10 > 6 > 8 > 9 > parent drugs 1-5. PMID:19662185

  5. UV-Vis Spectrophotometrical and Analytical Methodology for the Determination of Singlet Oxygen in New Antibacterials Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Zoltan, Tamara; Vargas, Franklin; Izzo, Carla

    2007-01-01

    We have determined and quantified spectrophotometrically the capacity of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as 1O2 during the photolysis with UV-A light of 5 new synthesized naphthyl ester derivates of well-known quinolone antibacterials (nalidixic acid (1), cinoxacin (2), norfloxacin (3), ciprofloxacin (4) and enoxacin (5)). The ability of the naphthyl ester derivatives (610) to generate singlet oxygen were detecting and for the first time quantified by the histidine assay, a sensitive, fast and inexpensive method. The following tendency of generation of singlet oxygen was observed: compounds 7 > 10 > 6 > 8 > 9 >> parent drugs 15. PMID:19662185

  6. Quinolones and coumarins eliminate chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Krajcovic, J; Ebringer, L; Polnyi, J

    1989-11-01

    Quinolones and coumarins were potent eliminators of chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis. There was a remarkable similarity between antichloroplastic and antibacterial activities of DNA gyrase inhibitors. Quinolones produced 100% chloroplast-free cells in concentrations which do not affect cell viability. Optimal conditions were exponential growth, continuous illumination, and neutral or slightly alkaline pH. Coumarins were more toxic than quinolones. Among the quinolones, ofloxacin was the most potent in eliminating chloroplasts. Among the coumarins, coumermycin A1 was the most potent. New quinolones and coumermycin A1 were able to induce the complete inability of originally green cells to form green colonies after 24 h of drug exposure, while clorobiocin and novobiocin required several days of exposure. Darkness, heat shock (42 degrees C, 10 min), or simultaneous treatment with chloramphenicol or rifampin decreased the potency of DNA gyrase inhibitors for producing chloroplast-free cells. Remarkably, in cells in which division was blocked by three different methods (resting medium, hyperthermic conditions [37 degrees C], or addition of cycloheximide), new quinolones and coumermycin A1 nevertheless eliminated chloroplasts. The antichloroplastic activity of DNA gyrase inhibitors is additional data suggesting an evolutionary relationship between chloroplasts and eubacteria. PMID:2558612

  7. Quinolones and coumarins eliminate chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed Central

    Krajcovic, J; Ebringer, L; Polnyi, J

    1989-01-01

    Quinolones and coumarins were potent eliminators of chloroplasts from Euglena gracilis. There was a remarkable similarity between antichloroplastic and antibacterial activities of DNA gyrase inhibitors. Quinolones produced 100% chloroplast-free cells in concentrations which do not affect cell viability. Optimal conditions were exponential growth, continuous illumination, and neutral or slightly alkaline pH. Coumarins were more toxic than quinolones. Among the quinolones, ofloxacin was the most potent in eliminating chloroplasts. Among the coumarins, coumermycin A1 was the most potent. New quinolones and coumermycin A1 were able to induce the complete inability of originally green cells to form green colonies after 24 h of drug exposure, while clorobiocin and novobiocin required several days of exposure. Darkness, heat shock (42 degrees C, 10 min), or simultaneous treatment with chloramphenicol or rifampin decreased the potency of DNA gyrase inhibitors for producing chloroplast-free cells. Remarkably, in cells in which division was blocked by three different methods (resting medium, hyperthermic conditions [37 degrees C], or addition of cycloheximide), new quinolones and coumermycin A1 nevertheless eliminated chloroplasts. The antichloroplastic activity of DNA gyrase inhibitors is additional data suggesting an evolutionary relationship between chloroplasts and eubacteria. Images PMID:2558612

  8. Genotypic diversity of multidrug-, quinolone- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Disratthakit, Areeya; Meada, Shinji; Prammananan, Therdsak; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Doi, Norio; Chaiprasert, Angkana

    2015-06-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), which includes multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), quinolone-resistant (QR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), is a serious threat to TB control. We aimed to characterize the genotypic diversity of drug-resistant TB clinical isolates collected in Thailand to establish whether the emergence of drug-resistant TB is attributable to transmitted resistance or acquired resistance. We constructed the first molecular phylogeny of MDR-TB (n=95), QR-TB (n=69) and XDR-TB (n=28) in Thailand based on spoligotyping and proposed 24-locus multilocus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Clustering analysis was performed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Spoligotyping identified the Beijing strain (SIT1) as the most predominant genotype (n=139; 72.4%). The discriminatory power of 0.9235 Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI) with the 15-locus variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units typing was improved to a 0.9574 HGDI with proposed 24-locus MLVA, thereby resulting in the subdivision of a large cluster of Beijing strains (SIT1) into 17 subclusters. We identified the spread of drug-resistant TB clones caused by three different MLVA types in the Beijing strain (SIT1) and a specific clone of XDR-TB caused by a rare genotype, the Manu-ancestor strain (SIT523). Overall, 49.5% of all isolates were clustered. These findings suggest that a remarkable transmission of drug-resistant TB occurred in Thailand. The remaining 50% of drug-resistant TB isolates were unique genotypes, which may have arisen from the individual acquisition of drug resistance. Our results suggest that transmitted and acquired resistance have played an equal role in the emergence of drug-resistant TB. Further characterization of whole genome sequences of clonal strains could help to elucidate the mycobacterial genetic factors relevant for drug resistance, transmissibility and virulence. PMID:25847698

  9. Nanofibers based antibacterial drug design, delivery and applications.

    PubMed

    Ulubayram, Kezban; Calamak, Semih; Shahbazi, Reza; Eroglu, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, etc. are the main obstacle in healing processes. Conventional antibacterial administration routes can be listed as oral, intravenous/intramuscular, topical and inhalation. These kinds of drug administrations are faced with critical vital issues such as; more rapid delivery of the drug than intended which can result in bacterial resistance, dose related systemic toxicity, tissue irritation and finally delayed healing process that need to be tackled. Recently, studies have been focused on new drug delivery systems, overcoming resistance and toxicological problems and finally localizing the molecules at the site of action in a proper dose. In this regard, many nanotechnological approaches such as nanoparticulate therapeutic systems have been developed to address accompanying problems mentioned above. Among them, drug loaded electrospun nanofibers propose main advantages like controlled drug delivery, high drug loading capacity, high encapsulation efficiency, simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs, ease of production and cost effectiveness for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Therefore, some particular attention has been devoted to the design of electrospun nanofibers as promising antibacterial drug carrier systems. A variety of antibacterials e.g., biocides, antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts, triclosan, metallic nanoparticles (silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide) and antibacterial polymers (chitosan, polyethyleneimine, etc.) have been impregnated by various techniques into nanofibers that exhibit strong antibacterial activity in standard assays. This review highlights the design and delivery of antibacterial drug loaded nanofibers with particular focus on their function in the fields of drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering, cosmetics and other biomedical applications. PMID:25732666

  10. Functional analysis of pneumococcal drug efflux pumps associates the MATE DinF transporter with quinolone susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Tocci, Nadia; Iannelli, Francesco; Bidossi, Alessandro; Ciusa, Maria Laura; Decorosi, Francesca; Viti, Carlo; Pozzi, Gianni; Ricci, Susanna; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The pneumococcal chromosome encodes about 140 transporters, many of which are predicted to be involved in efflux. In order to critically evaluate pneumococcal efflux, a series of transporter mutants were constructed, and their phenotypes were assayed by disk diffusion, microdilution drug susceptibility testing (MIC testing), growth of cultures at sub-MIC concentrations, and phenotype microarray analysis. Mutants with mutations in seven ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, three multiantimicrobial extrusion (MATE) family efflux pumps, and one major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter were obtained in Streptococcus pneumoniae strain DP1004. The susceptibility of these 11 mutants to over 250 different substances was compared to that of the parent strain. Of the tested transporters, only the ABC transporter PatAB (SP2073-5) presented a clear multidrug resistance (MDR) profile, as the mutant showed significantly increased susceptibility to ethidium bromide, acriflavine, and berberine. Among the other transporters analyzed, the mutants devoid of the MATE efflux pump SP2065 exhibited reduced susceptibility to novobiocin, and those with mutations of the MATE family DinF transport system (SP1939) exhibited increased susceptibility to moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. This change in quinolone MIC was found to be independent from the competence-mediated effect of quinolones on the cinA-recA-dinF operon. Furthermore, the dinF mutant, in contrast to the parental strain, allowed selection for quinolone-resistant mutants when exposed to moxifloxacin. These data confirm the clear MDR profile of the PatAB ABC transporter and suggest for the MATE DinF a phenotype associated with quinolone susceptibility, particularly for moxifloxacin. PMID:23114782

  11. Inhibition of GABAA receptor-mediated current responses by enoxacin (new quinolone) and felbinac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) in Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse-brain messenger RNA.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, J; Shimokawa, M; Yamamoto, K; Sawada, Y; Asanuma, A; Yanagisawa, K; Iga, T

    1993-07-01

    The convulsant interaction between enoxacin (ENX), a new quinolone antibacterial agent (NQ), and felbinac (FLB), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in vivo was reproduced as the change of GABA-induced current response in Xenopus oocytes injected with mouse brain mRNA. GABA (10 microM) response was inhibited by ENX in a dose-dependent manner, and IC50 of ENX was 96 microM. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of ENX was 80-fold potentiated in the presence of 10 microM FLB. The GABAA-antagonistic interaction between these two drugs in vitro was considered a possible mechanism of convulsant reaction after concomitant administration of NQs and NSAIDs in vivo. PMID:7691340

  12. Inhibitory effect of quinolone antimicrobial and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on a medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, F; Hiasa, M; Kawai, Y; Igarashi, K; Fukui, M

    2001-08-01

    The inhibitory effects of quinolone antimicrobial agents and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on purified mouse liver mitochondrial medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase catalyzing the first reaction of glycine conjugation were examined, using hexanoic acid as a substrate. Enoxacin, ofloxacin, nalidixic acid, diflunisal, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxynaphthoic acid, and 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid, which do not act as substrates, were potent inhibitors. Diflunisal, nalidixic acid, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxynaphthoic acid, and 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid inhibited competitively this medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase with K(i) values of 0.6, 12.4, 19.6, 13.4, and 15.0 microM, respectively. Enoxacin and ofloxacin inhibited this medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase in a mixed-type manner with K(i) values of 23.7 and 38.2 microM, respectively. Felbinac, which is a substrate, inhibited the activity of this medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase for hexanoic acid (IC50 = 25 microM). The concomitant presence of enoxacin and felbinac strongly inhibited this medium chain acyl-CoA synthetase. These findings indicate that medium chain acyl-CoA synthetases may be influenced by quinolone antimicrobial and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:11434910

  13. Antibacterial drug discovery and structure-based design.

    PubMed

    Barker, John J

    2006-05-01

    Bacterial resistance continues to develop and pose a significant threat, both in hospitals and, more recently, in the community. A focus on other therapeutic areas by the larger pharmaceutical companies has left a shortfall in the pipeline of novel antibacterials. Recently, many new structures have been studied by structure-genomics initiatives, delivering a wealth of targets to consider. Using the tools of structure-based design, antibacterial discovery must exploit these targets to accelerate the process of drug discovery. PMID:16635801

  14. Cost-effectiveness and Pricing of Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Morris, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Growing resistance to antibacterial agents has increased the need for the development of new drugs to treat bacterial infections. Given increasing pressure on limited health budgets, it is important to study the cost-effectiveness of these drugs, as well as their safety and efficacy, to find out whether or not they provide value for money and should be reimbursed. In this article, we systematically reviewed 38 cost-effectiveness analyses of new antibacterial agents. Most studies showed the new antibacterial drugs were cost-effective compared to older generation drugs. Drug pricing is a complicated process, involving different stakeholders, and has a large influence on cost-effectiveness. Value-based pricing is a method to determine the price of a drug at which it can be cost-effective. It is currently unclear what the influence of value-based pricing will be on the prices of new antibacterial agents, but an important factor will be the definition of ‘value’, which as well as the impact of the drug on patient health might also include other factors such as wider social impact and the health impact of disease. PMID:25521641

  15. Structural basis of quinolone inhibition of type IIA topoisomerases and target-mediated resistance.

    PubMed

    Wohlkonig, Alexandre; Chan, Pan F; Fosberry, Andrew P; Homes, Paul; Huang, Jianzhong; Kranz, Michael; Leydon, Vaughan R; Miles, Timothy J; Pearson, Neil D; Perera, Rajika L; Shillings, Anthony J; Gwynn, Michael N; Bax, Benjamin D

    2010-09-01

    Quinolone antibacterials have been used to treat bacterial infections for over 40 years. A crystal structure of moxifloxacin in complex with Acinetobacter baumannii topoisomerase IV now shows the wedge-shaped quinolone stacking between base pairs at the DNA cleavage site and binding conserved residues in the DNA cleavage domain through chelation of a noncatalytic magnesium ion. This provides a molecular basis for the quinolone inhibition mechanism, resistance mutations and invariant quinolone antibacterial structural features. PMID:20802486

  16. Effect of bile duct ligation and unilateral nephrectomy on brain concentration and convulsant potential of the quinolone antibacterial agent levofloxacin in rats.

    PubMed

    Akahane, K; Ohkawara, S; Nomura, M; Kato, M

    1996-02-01

    To mimic the excretion route of the quinolone antibacterial agent levofloxacin (LVFX) in humans, we produced an excretion-limited (EL) model in male Sprague-Dawley rats by bile duct ligation and unilateral nephrectomy. We then examined the relationship between brain levels of LVFX and its convulsant effects in control and EL animals. Serum concentrations of LVFX in EL animals (EL + LVFX) were 2.38- and 1.59-fold and brain concentrations were 1.33- and 1.19-fold those of the controls (control + LVFX) at 30 min after a single intravenous injection of 10 and 100 mg/kg LVFX, respectively. Furthermore EL animals became more susceptible to the convulsant effect of LVFX with a 1.28-fold decrease in convulsion-inducing dose. In combination with oral pretreatment with 400 mg/kg 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), convulsion-inducing doses in the control (control + LVFX + BPAA) and EL (EL + LVFX + BPAA) groups were markedly decreased by 2.25 and 9 times that of the control + LVFX group. EL operation and BPAA pretreatment slowed the elimination of LVFX in the serum and brain 4 hr later in the following order: EL + LVFX + BPAA, control + LVFX + BPAA, EL + LVFX, and control + LVFX groups. This order reflects that for the convulsion-inducing doses. These results suggest that EL rats may be a useful model for humans and that the convulsant effect of LVFX with or without BPAA arises not only from the attainment of maximum brain concentration but also from delayed disappearance from the brain. PMID:8742326

  17. New natural products as new leads for antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dean G; Lister, Troy; May-Dracka, Tricia L

    2014-01-15

    Natural products have been a rich source of antibacterial drugs for many decades, but investments in this area have declined over the past two decades. The purpose of this review article is to provide a recent survey of new natural product classes and the mechanisms by which they work. PMID:24388805

  18. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products. 201.24 Section 201.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING General Labeling Provisions § 201.24 Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products. The labeling...

  19. The introduction of antibacterial drug pipemidic acid into the POM field: Syntheses, characterization and antitumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Jing-Quan; Li, Xin; Zhou, Ying-Hua; Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Guang-Ming; Wang, Cheng

    2011-11-01

    Two new compounds based on polyoxometalates (POMs) and the quinolone antibacterial drug pipemidic acid (HPPA), {[Ni(PPA) 2]H 4[SiW 12O 40]}HPPA3H 2O ( 1), and {[Zn(PPA) 2] 2H 4[SiW 12O 40]}3H 2O ( 2), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by routine technique. Single-crystal X-Ray diffraction analysis shows that compound 1 is constructed by Keggin clusters grafted by binuclear nickel clusters, isolated HPPA and water molecules, while compound 2 consists of Keggin clusters grafted by binuclear zinc clusters and water molecules. Due to the selection of different transition metal (TM) ions, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit different structures and antitumor activities. Compound 1 possesses 0D structure and shows no antitumor activities. However, compound 2 possesses 1D structure and exhibits higher antitumor activities than its parent compound. The results show that introduction of different TM-PPA moieties onto the polyoxoanion surface can affect not only the final structures but also their antitumor activities.

  20. Preparation, structure and microbial evaluation of metal complexes of the second generation quinolone antibacterial drug lomefloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-09-01

    Lomefloxacinate of Y(III), Zr(IV) and U(VI) were isolated as solids with the general formula; [Y(LFX) 2Cl 2]Cl12H 2O, [ZrO(LFX) 2Cl]Cl15H 2O and [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 24H 2O. The new synthesized complexes were characterized with physicochemical and diverse spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopies) as well as thermal analyses. In these complexes lomefloxacin act as bidentate ligand bound to the metal ions through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylate oxygen. The kinetic parameters of thermogravimetric (TGA) and its differential (DTG), such as entropy of activation, activation energy, enthalpy of activation and Gibbs free energy evaluated by using Coats- Redfern and Horowitz- Metzger equations for free lomefloxacin and three complexes were carried out. The bond stretching force constant and length of the U dbnd O bond for the [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 24H 2O complex were calculated. The antimicrobial activity of lomefloxacin and its metal complexes was tested against different bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species and also against two species of antifungal, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.). The three complexes are of a good action against three bacterial species but the Y(III) complex exhibit excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa), when compared to the free lomefloxacin.

  1. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(???), Zr(?V) and U(V?) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  2. The Evolving Role of Chemical Synthesis in Antibacterial Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter M.; Seiple, Ian B.; Myers, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and implementation of antibiotics in the early twentieth century transformed human health and wellbeing. Chemical synthesis enabled the development of the first antibacterial substances, organoarsenicals and sulfa drugs, but these were soon outshone by a host of more powerful and vastly more complex antibiotics from nature: penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin, among others. These primary defences are now significantly less effective as an unavoidable consequence of rapid evolution of resistance within pathogenic bacteria, made worse by widespread misuse of antibiotics. For decades medicinal chemists replenished the arsenal of antibiotics by semisynthetic and to a lesser degree fully synthetic routes, but economic factors have led to a subsidence of this effort, which places society on the precipice of a disaster. We believe that the strategic application of modern chemical synthesis to antibacterial drug discovery must play a critical role if a crisis of global proportions is to be averted. PMID:24990531

  3. The evolving role of chemical synthesis in antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter M; Seiple, Ian B; Myers, Andrew G

    2014-08-18

    The discovery and implementation of antibiotics in the early twentieth century transformed human health and wellbeing. Chemical synthesis enabled the development of the first antibacterial substances, organoarsenicals and sulfa drugs, but these were soon outshone by a host of more powerful and vastly more complex antibiotics from nature: penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin, among others. These primary defences are now significantly less effective as an unavoidable consequence of rapid evolution of resistance within pathogenic bacteria, made worse by widespread misuse of antibiotics. For decades medicinal chemists replenished the arsenal of antibiotics by semisynthetic and to a lesser degree fully synthetic routes, but economic factors have led to a subsidence of this effort, which places society on the precipice of a disaster. We believe that the strategic application of modern chemical synthesis to antibacterial drug discovery must play a critical role if a crisis of global proportions is to be averted. PMID:24990531

  4. The 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid motif as a multivalent scaffold in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Corelli, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Quinolones are among the most common frameworks present in the bioactive molecules and hence represent an attractive starting point for the design of combinatorial libraries. Since 1962 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives are clinically used as antibacterial agents worldwide. Currently, fluoroquinolones are approved by the WHO as second-line drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB), and their use in multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB is increasing due to the fact that they have a broad and potent spectrum of activity and can be administered orally. In the last years, quinolones endowed with "non-classical" biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-HIV-1 integrase, cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist/antagonist activities, have been reported by our research group as well as by other researchers. This review focuses on the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid motif as a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry for obtaining new compounds possessing antibacterial, antitumor, anti-HIV, and cannabinoid receptors modulating activities. Synthetic approaches, structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potentials of these novel classes of pharmacologically active compounds are presented. PMID:19442143

  5. Bacterial Transcription as a Target for Antibacterial Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is carried out by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) and is regulated through interaction with a series of protein transcription factors. RNAP and its associated transcription factors are highly conserved across the bacterial domain and represent excellent targets for broad-spectrum antibacterial agent discovery. Despite the numerous antibiotics on the market, there are only two series currently approved that target transcription. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of RNAP and transcription complexes at high resolution over the last 15 years has led to renewed interest in targeting this essential process for antibiotic development by utilizing rational structure-based approaches. In this review, we describe the inhibition of the bacterial transcription process with respect to structural studies of RNAP, highlight recent progress toward the discovery of novel transcription inhibitors, and suggest additional potential antibacterial targets for rational drug design. PMID:26764017

  6. The relationship between target-class and the physicochemical properties of antibacterial drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mugumbate, Grace; Overington, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of novel mechanism of action (MOA) antibacterials has been associated with the concept that antibacterial drugs occupy a differentiated region of physicochemical space compared to human-targeted drugs. With, in broad terms, antibacterials having higher molecular weight, lower logP and higher polar surface area (PSA). By analysing the physicochemical properties of about 1700 approved drugs listed in the ChEMBL database, we show, that antibacterials for whose targets are riboproteins (i.e., composed of a complex of RNA and protein) fall outside the conventional human drug-like chemical space; whereas antibacterials that modulate bacterial protein targets, generally comply with the rule-of-five guidelines for classical oral human drugs. Our analysis suggests a strong target-class association for antibacterialseither protein-targeted or riboprotein-targeted. There is much discussion in the literature on the failure of screening approaches to deliver novel antibacterial lead series, and linkage of this poor success rate for antibacterials with the chemical space properties of screening collections. Our analysis suggests that consideration of target-class may be an underappreciated factor in antibacterial lead discovery, and that in fact bacterial protein-targets may well have similar binding site characteristics to human protein targets, and questions the assumption that larger, more polar compounds are a key part of successful future antibacterial discovery. PMID:25975639

  7. Accelerating resistance, inadequate antibacterial drug pipelines and international responses.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Ursula

    2012-04-01

    The pandemic of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and their continuing spread is beyond dispute. In contrast to the past, today's antibacterial research and development (R&D) pipelines are nearly dry, failing to provide the flow of novel antibiotics required to match the clinical challenges of the multidrug resistance (MDR) crisis. Concerned over the rapidly worsening potential global healthcare crisis caused by MDR bacteria and the lack of robust drug pipelines, several multinational campaigns have issued policy recommendations and have initiated broad discussion with a goal of stimulating the development of novel antibacterial drugs and technologies. These activities have resulted in intensified co-operation between the USA and the EU. The recently announced extensive 'Action plan against the rising threats from antimicrobial resistance' substantially ramps up action within the EU. In recognising the potential crisis caused by MDR and the limited treatment options, the European Commission decided on an unprecedented approach to drive the search for novel antibiotics by integrating the pharmaceutical industry, the research capacities of universities and small companies supported by public funding along with pricing/reimbursement and regulatory bodies. The European Commission has shown leadership and put action plans in place. Only the future will tell whether these initiatives will help curb the impact of the MDR pandemic. PMID:22341298

  8. Topological Model for the Search of New Antibacterial Drugs. 158 Theoretical Candidates.

    PubMed

    Bueso-Bordils, Jose I; Aleman, Pedro A; Zamora, Luis Lahuerta; Martin-Algarra, Rafael; Duart, Maria J; Antn-Fos, Gerardo M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, molecular topology was used to develop a mathematical model capable of classifying compounds according to their antibacterial activity. Topological indices were used as structural descriptors and their relation to antibacterial activity was determined by applying linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on a group of quinolones, widely used nowadays because of their broad spectrum of activity, well tolerance profile and advantageous pharmacokinetic properties. The topological model of activity obtained included two discriminant functions, selected by a combination of various statistical paremeters such as Fisher-Snedecor F and Wilk's lambda, and allows the reliable prediction of antibacterial activity in any organic compound. After a virtual pharmacological screening on a library of 6375 compounds, the model has selected 263 as active compounds, from which 40% have proven antibacterial activity. The results obtained clearly reveal the high efficiency of molecular topology for the prediction of pharmacological activities. These models are very helpful in the discovery of new applications of natural and synthetic molecules with different chemical or biological properties. Therefore, we finally present 158 strong candidates to be developed as novel antibacterials. PMID:26750567

  9. Newer Antibacterials in Therapy and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Paknikar, Simi S; Narayana, Sarala

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with the rising problem of antibiotic resistance, newer antibacterials are being discovered and added to existing pool. Since the year 2000, however, only four new classes of antibacterials have been discovered. These include the oxazolidinones, glycolipopeptides, glycolipodepepsipeptide and pleuromutilins. Newer drugs were added to existing classes of antibiotics, such as streptogramins, quinolones, beta-lactam antibiotics, and macrolide-, tetracycline- and trimethoprim-related drugs. Most of the antibacterials are directed against resistant S. aureus infections, with very few against resistant gram-negative infections. The following article reviews the antibacterials approved by the FDA after the year 2000 as well as some of those in clinical trials. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and google as well as a detailed search of our library database. PMID:23181224

  10. The anti-bacterial poly(caprolactone)-poly(quaternary ammonium salt) as drug delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Leng, Mengtian; Hu, Shaodong; Lu, Aijing; Cai, Mengtan; Luo, Xianglin

    2016-04-01

    Anti-bacterial materials play significant role in biomedical field. Researches and applications of new anti-bacterial materials are necessary. Novel linear and star-shaped copolymers of poly(caprolactone)-poly(quaternary ammonium salt) (PCL-PJDMA) were synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization. The structures of the copolymers were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The copolymers self-assembled into ball-shaped micelles with low critical micelle concentration (10(-4)∼10(-3) mg/ml). An anti-bacterial drug, triclosan, was chosen as a model drug to investigate the potential application of the copolymers in drug-controlled release. The anti-bacterial experiments against Escherichia coli indicated that all the copolymer micelles had anti-bacterial ability and drug-loaded star-shaped PCL-PJDMA micelles were the best. The slow release of the drug from the drug-loaded micelles prolonged anti-bacterial effect. Therefore, PCL-PJDMA themselves have not only anti-bacterial ability but also the copolymer micelles can be used as carriers for anti-bacterial drugs. PMID:26615398

  11. Quinolones: from antibiotics to autoinducers

    PubMed Central

    Heeb, Stephan; Fletcher, Matthew P; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Diggle, Stephen P; Williams, Paul; Cmara, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Since quinine was first isolated, animals, plants and microorganisms producing a wide variety of quinolone compounds have been discovered, several of which possess medicinally interesting properties ranging from antiallergenic and anticancer to antimicrobial activities. Over the years, these have served in the development of many synthetic drugs, including the successful fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related bacteria produce a number of 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolones, some of which exhibit antimicrobial activity. However, quinolones such as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline act as quorum-sensing signal molecules, controlling the expression of many virulence genes as a function of cell population density. Here, we review selectively this extensive family of bicyclic compounds, from natural and synthetic antimicrobials to signalling molecules, with a special emphasis on the biology of P. aeruginosa. In particular, we review their nomenclature and biochemistry, their multiple properties as membrane-interacting compounds, inhibitors of the cytochrome bc1 complex and iron chelators, as well as the regulation of their biosynthesis and their integration into the intricate quorum-sensing regulatory networks governing virulence and secondary metabolite gene expression. PMID:20738404

  12. Metal complex of the first-generation quinolone antimicrobial drug nalidixic acid: structure and its biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Anamika; Mogha, Navin Kumar; Masram, Dhanraj T

    2015-03-01

    A novel binuclear squire planar complex of nalidixic acid with Ag(I) metal ion with the formula [Ag(Nal)2] has been synthesized. The synthesized metal complex was characterized using CHN analysis, Fourier-transformed infra-red (FT-IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), ultra violet-visible (Uv-vis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The newly synthesized complex shows more advanced antifungal activity compared to the parent quinolone against four fungi, namely Pythium aphanidermatum, Sclerotinia rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizoctonia bataticola. PMID:25547815

  13. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  14. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  15. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  16. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  17. Antiplasmodial Drugs in the Gas Phase: A CID and DFT Study of Quinolon-4( 1H)-Imine Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim Madeira, Paulo J.; Sitoe, Ana Raquel Fernandes; Gonalves, Daniel; Rodrigues, Tiago; Guedes, Rita C.; Lopes, Francisca; Moreira, Rui; Bronze, M. Rosrio

    2014-09-01

    The gas-phase behavior of 12 quinolon-4( 1H)-imine derivatives with antiplasmodial activity was investigated using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry together with collision induced dissociation and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The most probable protonation site was predicted by calculating the proton affinity (PA) values for each possible protonation site and it was found to be the imine nitrogen for all compounds under study. Fragmentation pathways of the protonated molecules were proposed and the assignment of product ion structures was performed taking into account theoretical calculations. The nature of the quinoline substituent was found to influence the gas-phase behavior of the compounds under study. The data acquired allowed to bracket the proton affinity of the quinolin-4-imine scaffold, which can be a useful starting point to choose appropriate references for determining PA values of this scaffold.

  18. Effects on the sodium channel of some new cardiotonic drugs: the 4-, 5-, and 6-pyridyl-2(1H)-quinolone derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Grima, M.; Beguin, M.F.; Millanvoye-Van Brussel, E.M.; Decker, N.; Schwartz, J.

    1988-09-01

    To study the action of some new cardiotonic drugs, the 4-, 5-, and 6-pyridyl-2(1H)-quinolone series, on the fast Na+ channel, we compared the effects of eight compounds of this series and milrinone on /sup 22/Na uptake in rat brain synaptosomes and in rat heart muscle cells in culture. The action of tetrodotoxin, a specific Na+ channel blocker, on the positive inotropic effect of these compounds on guinea pig atria was also examined. The new positive inotropic agents enhance /sup 22/Na uptake in synaptosomes in a dose-dependent manner. The activities, expressed as percentage of the maximum activity of protoveratrine B, a classic Na+ channel agonist, reached 70% for milrinone, 60% for compound 7, 57% for compound 6, and less than 50% for the other drugs. For compound 8, but not for milrinone, it was possible to observe a stimulatory effect of the /sup 22/Na uptake on heart muscle cells in culture. Tetrodotoxin (1 and 100 microM) inhibited the stimulatory effects of the inotropic drugs on both preparations. The positive inotropic activities of protoveratrine B, milrinone, and compounds 5 and 8, in guinea pig atria, were inhibited by tetrodotoxin. The affinity and the activity of the other compounds were unchanged in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Our results showed that the stimulation of Na+ influx through the fast Na+ channel might represent a part of the mechanism of action of the inotropic effect of some new cardiotonic drugs.

  19. In vivo and in vitro toxicodynamic analyses of new quinolone-and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced effects on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kita, H; Matsuo, H; Takanaga, H; Kawakami, J; Yamamoto, K; Iga, T; Naito, M; Tsuruo, T; Asanuma, A; Yanagisawa, K; Sawada, Y

    1999-05-01

    We investigated the correlation between an in vivo isobologram based on the concentrations of new quinolones (NQs) in brain tissue and the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the occurrence of convulsions in mice and an in vitro isobologram based on the concentrations of both drugs for changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced current response in Xenopus oocytes injected with mRNA from mouse brains in the presence of NQs and/or NSAIDs. After the administration of enoxacin (ENX) in the presence or absence of felbinac (FLB), ketoprofen (KTP), or flurbiprofen (FRP), a synergistic effect was observed in the isobologram based on the threshold concentration in brain tissue between mice with convulsions and those without convulsions. The three NSAIDs did not affect the pharmacokinetic behavior of ENX in the brain. However, the ENX-induced inhibition of the GABA response in the GABAA receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes was enhanced in the presence of the three NSAIDs. The inhibition ratio profiles of the GABA responses for both drugs were analyzed with a newly developed toxicodynamic model. The inhibitory profiles for ENX in the presence of NSAIDs followed the order KTP (1.2 microM) > FRP (0. 3 microM) > FLB (0.2 microM). These were 50- to 280-fold smaller than those observed in the absence of NSAIDs. The inhibition ratio (0.01 to 0.02) of the GABAA receptor in the presence of both drugs was well-fitted to the isobologram based on threshold concentrations of both drugs in brain tissue between mice with convulsions and those without convulsions, despite the presence of NSAIDs. In mice with convulsions, the inhibitory profiles of the threshold concentrations of both drugs in brain tissue of mice with convulsions and those without convulsions can be predicted quantitatively by using in vitro GABA response data and toxicodynamic model. PMID:10223919

  20. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicodynamic Analyses of New Quinolone-and Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Effects on the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Hideki; Matsuo, Hirotami; Takanaga, Hitomi; Kawakami, Junichi; Yamamoto, Koujirou; Iga, Tatsuji; Naito, Mikihiko; Tsuruo, Takashi; Asanuma, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Keiji; Sawada, Yasufumi

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between an in vivo isobologram based on the concentrations of new quinolones (NQs) in brain tissue and the administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the occurrence of convulsions in mice and an in vitro isobologram based on the concentrations of both drugs for changes in the ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced current response in Xenopus oocytes injected with mRNA from mouse brains in the presence of NQs and/or NSAIDs. After the administration of enoxacin (ENX) in the presence or absence of felbinac (FLB), ketoprofen (KTP), or flurbiprofen (FRP), a synergistic effect was observed in the isobologram based on the threshold concentration in brain tissue between mice with convulsions and those without convulsions. The three NSAIDs did not affect the pharmacokinetic behavior of ENX in the brain. However, the ENX-induced inhibition of the GABA response in the GABAA receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes was enhanced in the presence of the three NSAIDs. The inhibition ratio profiles of the GABA responses for both drugs were analyzed with a newly developed toxicodynamic model. The inhibitory profiles for ENX in the presence of NSAIDs followed the order KTP (1.2 ?M) > FRP (0.3 ?M) > FLB (0.2 ?M). These were 50- to 280-fold smaller than those observed in the absence of NSAIDs. The inhibition ratio (0.01 to 0.02) of the GABAA receptor in the presence of both drugs was well-fitted to the isobologram based on threshold concentrations of both drugs in brain tissue between mice with convulsions and those without convulsions, despite the presence of NSAIDs. In mice with convulsions, the inhibitory profiles of the threshold concentrations of both drugs in brain tissue of mice with convulsions and those without convulsions can be predicted quantitatively by using in vitro GABA response data and toxicodynamic model. PMID:10223919

  1. Phototoxic potential of quinolones.

    PubMed

    Crdenas, A M; Vargas, F; Fernndez, E; Hidalgo, M E

    1991-08-01

    The photohaemolytic potentials of the quinolones oxolinic acid, pipemidic acid, rosoxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and M-193324 (synthesis intermediary) were evaluated and compared with the photohaemolysis induced by nalidixic acid. Quinolones with a piperazine group in position 7 (pipemidic acid, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin) did not induce photohaemolysis. However, oxolinic acid, rosoxacin and M-193324 produced a concentration- and oxygen-dependent photohaemolysis. Ascorbic acid, histidine and thiourea inhibited the photohaemolysis induced by oxolinic acid, rosoxacin and M-193324, suggesting a photodynamic mechanism similar to that found with nalidixic acid. In addition, deuterium oxide increased the photohaemolysis induced by photohaemolytic quinolones, indicating that this process is mediated by singlet oxygen. PMID:1663996

  2. 77 FR 49450 - Issues in the Design of Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Drugs for the Treatment of Non-Cystic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Issues in the Design of Clinical Trials of Antibacterial... announcing a public workshop focusing on the design of clinical trials of antibacterial drugs for the..., academia, and industry on various aspects of the design of clinical trials. The input from this...

  3. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activity, SOD mimic and interaction with DNA of drug based copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Dosi, Promise A.; Bhatt, Bhupesh S.; Thakkar, Vasudev R.

    2011-02-01

    Novel metal complexes of the second-generation quinolone antibacterial agent enrofloxacin with copper(II) and neutral bidentate ligands have been prepared and characterized with elemental analysis reflectance, IR and mass spectroscopy. Complexes have been screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against two Gram (+ve)Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram (-ve)Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa organisms using the double dilution technique. The binding of this complex with CT-DNA has been investigated by absorption titration, salt effect and viscosity measurements. Binding constant is ranging from 1.3 10 4-3.7 10 4. The cleavage ability of complexes has been assessed by gel electrophoresis using pUC19 DNA. The catalytic activity of the copper(II) complexes towards the superoxide anion (O 2rad -) dismutation was assayed by their ability to inhibit the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT).

  4. Combination of extracts from Aristolochia cymbifera with streptomycin as a potential antibacterial drug.

    PubMed

    Silva, Willer F; Ceclio, Samyra G; Magalhes, Cintia Lb; Ferreira, Jaqueline Ms; Ttola, Antonio H; de Magalhaes, Jose C

    2013-01-01

    The appearance of new antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a societal problem that requires the development of new alternative treatments. Therefore, this work evaluated the antibacterial activity of ethanolic (EHI), dichloromethanic (EDI) and hexanic (EHE) extracts from Aristolochia cymbifera stems and the combination of these extracts with an antimicrobial drug to develop a new antibacterial therapy. The EDI, EHE and EHI extracts were obtained by maceration using three different solvents. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these extracts were determined using the microdilution test to determine the antibacterial potential of these extracts and their combination with streptomycin against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella flexneri. The extract dose leading to the cytotoxicity of 50% of the cells (CC50) was evaluated using mammalian cells MA104 and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. The extracts had a MIC under 500mg/L and a CC50 lower than 50mg/L. The antibiotic/extract proportion influenced the antibacterial activity of the mixtures, and the proportion that optimized the antibacterial activity of streptomycin was a mixture that contained 75 percent of extract. This composition included less than 6.5mg/L of extract and 2.5mg/L of streptomycin and has potential as a new antibacterial therapy. PMID:24040585

  5. The 10 x '20 Initiative: pursuing a global commitment to develop 10 new antibacterial drugs by 2020.

    PubMed

    2010-04-15

    The time has come for a global commitment to develop new antibacterial drugs. Current data document the impending disaster due to the confluence of decreasing investment in antibacterial drug research and development concomitant with the documented rapid increase in the level of resistance to currently licensed drugs. Despite the good faith efforts of many individuals, professional societies, and governmental agencies, the looming crisis has only worsened over the past decade. PMID:20214473

  6. DNA replication is the target for the antibacterial effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhou; Wang, Yao; Whittell, Louise R; Jergic, Slobodan; Liu, Michael; Harry, Elizabeth; Dixon, Nicholas E; Kelso, Michael J; Beck, Jennifer L; Oakley, Aaron J

    2014-04-24

    Evidence suggests that some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) possess antibacterial properties with an unknown mechanism. We describe the invitro antibacterial properties of the NSAIDs carprofen, bromfenac, and vedaprofen, and show that these NSAIDs inhibit the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III ? subunit, an essential interaction hub that acts as a mobile tether on DNA for many essential partner proteins in DNA replication and repair. Crystal structures show that the three NSAIDs bind to the sliding clamp at a common binding site required for partner binding. Inhibition of interaction of the clamp loader and/or the replicative polymerase ? subunit with the sliding clamp is demonstrated using an invitro DNA replication assay. NSAIDs thus present promising lead scaffolds for novel antibacterial agents targeting the sliding clamp. PMID:24631121

  7. The ATP-binding site of type II topoisomerases as a target for antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Anthony; Lawson, David M

    2003-01-01

    DNA topoisomerases are essential enzymes in all cell types and have been found to be valuable drug targets both for antibacterial and anti-cancer chemotherapy. Type II topoisomerases possess a binding site for ATP, which can be exploited as a target for chemo-therapeutic agents. High-resolution structures of protein fragments containing this site complexed with antibiotics or an ATP analogue have provided vital information for the understanding of the action of existing drugs and for the potential development of novel anti-bacterial agents. In this article we have reviewed the structure and function of the ATPase domain of DNA gyrase (bacterial topoisomerase II), particularly highlighting novel information that has been revealed by structural studies. We discuss the efficacy and mode of action of existing drugs and consider the prospects for the development of novel agents. PMID:12570764

  8. Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Ileana; Varvara, Simona; Gaina, Luiza; Muresan, Liana Maria

    2014-12-01

    The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies EHOMO and ELUMO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data.

  9. Antitubercular and antibacterial activity of quinonoid natural products against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Dey, Diganta; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

    2014-07-01

    Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens represent a major threat to human health. In view of the critical need to augment the current drug regime, we have investigated therapeutic potential of five quinonoids, viz. emodin, diospyrin, plumbagin, menadione and thymoquinone, derived from natural products. The antimicrobial activity of quinonoids was evaluated against a broad panel of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) strains, rapid growing mycobacteria and other bacterial isolates, some of which were producers of β-lactamase, Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) enzymes, as well as their drug-sensitive ATCC counterparts. All the tested quinones exhibited antimycobacterial and broad spectrum antibacterial activity, particularly against M. tuberculosis (lowest MIC 0.25 µg/mL) and Gram-positive bacteria (lowest MIC <4 µg/mL) of clinical origin. The order of antitubercular activity of the tested quinonoids was plumbagin > emodin ~ menadione ~ thymoquinone > diospyrin, whereas their antibacterial efficacy was plumbagin > menadione ~ thymoquinone > diospyrin > emodin. Furthermore, this is the first evaluation performed on these quinonoids against a broad panel of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive clinical isolates, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24318724

  10. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Hamed, Maha I.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin’s ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections. PMID:26553420

  11. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Hamed, Maha I; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Hedrick, Victoria E; Paul, Lake N; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin's ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections. PMID:26553420

  12. Machine-Learning Techniques Applied to Antibacterial Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Jacob D.; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria threatens to catapult humanity back to the pre-antibiotic era. Even now, multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections annually result in millions of hospital days, billions in healthcare costs, and, most importantly, tens of thousands of lives lost. As many pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic development in search of more lucrative therapeutics, academic researchers are uniquely positioned to fill the resulting vacuum. Traditional high-throughput screens and lead-optimization efforts are expensive and labor intensive. Computer-aided drug discovery techniques, which are cheaper and faster, can accelerate the identification of novel antibiotics in an academic setting, leading to improved hit rates and faster transitions to pre-clinical and clinical testing. The current review describes two machine-learning techniques, neural networks and decision trees, that have been used to identify experimentally validated antibiotics. We conclude by describing the future directions of this exciting field. PMID:25521642

  13. Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.

    PubMed

    Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

    1994-10-01

    The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

  14. Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

    1994-01-01

    The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

  15. Structural basis of DNA gyrase inhibition by antibacterial QPT-1, anticancer drug etoposide and moxifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pan F; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Huang, Jianzhong; Cui, Haifeng; Fosberry, Andrew P; Gu, Minghua; Hann, Michael M; Hibbs, Martin; Homes, Paul; Ingraham, Karen; Pizzollo, Jason; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony J; Spitzfaden, Claus E; Tanner, Robert; Theobald, Andrew J; Stavenger, Robert A; Bax, Benjamin D; Gwynn, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    New antibacterials are needed to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Type IIA topoisomerases (topo2As), the targets of fluoroquinolones, regulate DNA topology by creating transient double-strand DNA breaks. Here we report the first co-crystal structures of the antibacterial QPT-1 and the anticancer drug etoposide with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, showing binding at the same sites in the cleaved DNA as the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Unlike moxifloxacin, QPT-1 and etoposide interact with conserved GyrB TOPRIM residues rationalizing why QPT-1 can overcome fluoroquinolone resistance. Our data show etoposide's antibacterial activity is due to DNA gyrase inhibition and suggests other anticancer agents act similarly. Analysis of multiple DNA gyrase co-crystal structures, including asymmetric cleavage complexes, led to a 'pair of swing-doors' hypothesis in which the movement of one DNA segment regulates cleavage and religation of the second DNA duplex. This mechanism can explain QPT-1's bacterial specificity. Structure-based strategies for developing topo2A antibacterials are suggested. PMID:26640131

  16. Structural basis of DNA gyrase inhibition by antibacterial QPT-1, anticancer drug etoposide and moxifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pan F.; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Huang, Jianzhong; Cui, Haifeng; Fosberry, Andrew P.; Gu, Minghua; Hann, Michael M.; Hibbs, Martin; Homes, Paul; Ingraham, Karen; Pizzollo, Jason; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony J.; Spitzfaden, Claus E.; Tanner, Robert; Theobald, Andrew J.; Stavenger, Robert A.; Bax, Benjamin D.; Gwynn, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    New antibacterials are needed to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Type IIA topoisomerases (topo2As), the targets of fluoroquinolones, regulate DNA topology by creating transient double-strand DNA breaks. Here we report the first co-crystal structures of the antibacterial QPT-1 and the anticancer drug etoposide with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, showing binding at the same sites in the cleaved DNA as the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Unlike moxifloxacin, QPT-1 and etoposide interact with conserved GyrB TOPRIM residues rationalizing why QPT-1 can overcome fluoroquinolone resistance. Our data show etoposide's antibacterial activity is due to DNA gyrase inhibition and suggests other anticancer agents act similarly. Analysis of multiple DNA gyrase co-crystal structures, including asymmetric cleavage complexes, led to a ‘pair of swing-doors' hypothesis in which the movement of one DNA segment regulates cleavage and religation of the second DNA duplex. This mechanism can explain QPT-1's bacterial specificity. Structure-based strategies for developing topo2A antibacterials are suggested. PMID:26640131

  17. Three years of antibacterial consumption in Indonesian Community Health Centers: The application of anatomical therapeutic chemical/defined daily doses and drug utilization 90% method to monitor antibacterial use

    PubMed Central

    Pradipta, Ivan S.; Ronasih, Elis; Kartikawati, Arrum D.; Hartanto, Hartanto; Amelia, Rizki; Febrina, Ellin; Abdulah, Rizky

    2015-01-01

    Context: Irrational use of antibacterial drugs in Community Health-Care Centers (CHCs) may lead to increased resistance, morbidity, and mortality. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine patterns of antibacterial use at CHCs in a district of Indonesia and use this as data for an antibiotic policy. Settings and Design: The observational-descriptive study was conducted in a district of Indonesia to obtain antibacterial use from 2008 to 2010. Subjects and Methods: The data obtained from the report on the use of medicines were classified and processed using the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) and defined daily doses (DDD) method, with DDD/1000 patients as a unit measurement. The number of patients was obtained from attending patients in that research period. The most abundant antibacterial drugs use segment was identified by the drug utilization 90% (DU90%) method. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis were performed in this study. Results: Fourteen kinds of antibacterial drugs were used in 61 CHCs. The total of antibacterial drug use during the period 2008–2010 was 871.36 DDD/1000 patients/day. Declining antibacterial use was observed between 2008 and 2010. Six kinds of antibacterial drugs were the most commonly used. The data show that the average use per visit was as high as 24.41 DDD. Conclusions: Amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim are antibacterials that have to be reconsidered by physicians for use in the Bandung CHC. The high use of antibacterial drugs, as described in the study, can be used as reference to develop an antimicrobial stewardship program and increase awareness of resistance, adverse drug reaction and drug interaction of antibacterial drugs. PMID:25983606

  18. Machine-learning techniques applied to antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Jacob D; Amaro, Rommie E

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria threatens to revert humanity back to the preantibiotic era. Even now, multidrug-resistant bacterial infections annually result in millions of hospital days, billions in healthcare costs, and, most importantly, tens of thousands of lives lost. As many pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic development in search of more lucrative therapeutics, academic researchers are uniquely positioned to fill the pipeline. Traditional high-throughput screens and lead-optimization efforts are expensive and labor intensive. Computer-aided drug-discovery techniques, which are cheaper and faster, can accelerate the identification of novel antibiotics, leading to improved hit rates and faster transitions to preclinical and clinical testing. The current review describes two machine-learning techniques, neural networks and decision trees, that have been used to identify experimentally validated antibiotics. We conclude by describing the future directions of this exciting field. PMID:25521642

  19. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of auranofin against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods employed to discover new antibiotics are both a time-consuming and financially-taxing venture. This has led researchers to mine existing libraries of clinical molecules in order to repurpose old drugs for new applications (as antimicrobials). Such an effort led to the discovery of auranofin, a drug initially approved as an anti-rheumatic agent, which also possesses potent antibacterial activity in a clinically achievable range. The present study demonstrates auranofin’s antibacterial activity is a complex process that involves inhibition of multiple biosynthetic pathways including cell wall, DNA, and bacterial protein synthesis. We also confirmed that the lack of activity of auranofin observed against Gram-negative bacteria is due to the permeability barrier conferred by the outer membrane. Auranofin’s ability to suppress bacterial protein synthesis leads to significant reduction in the production of key methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) toxins. Additionally, auranofin is capable of eradicating intracellular MRSA present inside infected macrophage cells. Furthermore, auranofin is efficacious in a mouse model of MRSA systemic infection and significantly reduces the bacterial load in murine organs including the spleen and liver. Collectively, this study provides valuable evidence that auranofin has significant promise to be repurposed as a novel antibacterial for treatment of invasive bacterial infections. PMID:26936660

  20. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of auranofin against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Hedrick, Victoria E; Paul, Lake N; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods employed to discover new antibiotics are both a time-consuming and financially-taxing venture. This has led researchers to mine existing libraries of clinical molecules in order to repurpose old drugs for new applications (as antimicrobials). Such an effort led to the discovery of auranofin, a drug initially approved as an anti-rheumatic agent, which also possesses potent antibacterial activity in a clinically achievable range. The present study demonstrates auranofin's antibacterial activity is a complex process that involves inhibition of multiple biosynthetic pathways including cell wall, DNA, and bacterial protein synthesis. We also confirmed that the lack of activity of auranofin observed against Gram-negative bacteria is due to the permeability barrier conferred by the outer membrane. Auranofin's ability to suppress bacterial protein synthesis leads to significant reduction in the production of key methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) toxins. Additionally, auranofin is capable of eradicating intracellular MRSA present inside infected macrophage cells. Furthermore, auranofin is efficacious in a mouse model of MRSA systemic infection and significantly reduces the bacterial load in murine organs including the spleen and liver. Collectively, this study provides valuable evidence that auranofin has significant promise to be repurposed as a novel antibacterial for treatment of invasive bacterial infections. PMID:26936660

  1. Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Watari, Moyu; McKendry, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity1-5. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions. Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures1,6,7. We developed a new model1 which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of powerful agents to combat superbug infections. PMID:24192763

  2. Analysis toward innovative herbal antibacterial and antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Kumar, Manish; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Chhillar, Anil K

    2012-12-01

    The antimicrobial activities of four medicinal plants Argemona mexicana, Achyranthes aspera, Catharanthus roseus, and Syzygium cumini were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and three Aspergillus species. Extracts from Achyranthes aspera and Catharanthus roseus showed the highest antimicrobial potential (MIC 0.375-0.750 mg/ml) while extract from Argemona mexicana and Syzygium cumini, showed less activity. In disc diffusion assay, only eight out of twenty extracts showed antimicrobial activity at a concentration of 25.0 ?g/ disc. The GCMS investigation reveals the existence of 2-bornanone; 1, 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis (2-methylpropyl) ester; hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester and hexatriacontane in water extract fraction of C. roseus. The present research article provides a review of some medicinal plants incorporating antimicrobial drugs, together with recent advances in emerging therapeutics in clinical development and related patents for exploitation of herbal medicine. PMID:23072646

  3. Fate and antibacterial potency of anticoccidial drugs and their main abiotic degradation products.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Brandt, Asbjrn; Christensen, Jan H; Halling-Srensen, Bent

    2009-02-01

    The antibacterial potency of eight anticoccidial drugs was tested in a soil bacteria bioassay (pour plate method), EC(50)-values between 2.4 and 19.6 microM were obtained; however, one compound, nicarbazin exhibited an EC(50)-value above the maximum tested concentration (21 microM, 9.1 mg L(-1)). The potency of mixtures of two of the compounds, narasin and nicarbazin, was synergistic (more than additive) with 10-fold greater antibacterial potency of the mixture than can be explained by their individual EC(50)-values. The influence of pH, temperature, oxygen concentration and light on the transformation of robenidine and salinomycin was investigated. Robenidine was transformed by photolysis (DT(50) of 4.1 days) and was unstable at low pH (DT(50) of approximately 4 days); salinomycin was merely transformed at low pH, the latter into an unknown number of products. The antibacterial potency of the mixtures of transformation products of robenidine after photolysis and at low pH was comparable with that of the parent compound. Finally five photo-transformation products of robenidine were structural elucidated by accurate mass measurements, i-FIT values (isotopic pattern fit) and MS/MS fragmentation patterns. PMID:18976841

  4. 75 FR 37818 - Issues in the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials for Antibacterial Drug Development; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Issues in the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials for... regarding scientific issues in the design and conduct of clinical trials for antibacterial drug development... providers, researchers, academia, industry, and regulators on various aspects of design and conduct...

  5. An analysis of FDA-approved drugs for infectious disease: antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Kinch, Michael S; Patridge, Eric; Plummer, Mark; Hoyer, Denton

    2014-09-01

    Drugs targeting infectious diseases have greatly improved public health. A study to evaluate all US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved new molecular entities (NMEs) reveals that the number of new agents targeting infectious disease peaked during the 1990s and declined rapidly thereafter. Molecules targeting bacterial pathogens represent the most common component of anti-infectives followed by antivirals and antifungals. Focusing on antibacterial agents, an increase in new NMEs predominated from the 1960s through to the 1990s, dropping sharply thereafter. Obsolescence and resistance has eliminated one-third of these drugs. Consequently, the arsenal of antibiotics peaked in 2000 and is declining. Likewise, the number of organizations awarded at least one NME for a bacterial indication has declined to a level not seen in more than a half century. PMID:25043770

  6. Improvement of antibacterial activity of some sulfa drugs through linkage to certain phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M

    2014-10-01

    RAB1 5 is a lead antibacterial agent in which trimethoprim is linked to phthalazine moiety. Similarly, our strategy in this research depends on the interconnection between some sulfa drugs and certain phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffolds in an attempt to enhance their antibacterial activity. This approach was achieved through the combination of 4-substituted phthalazin-1(2H)-ones 9a, b or 14a, b with sulfanilamide 1a, sulfathiazole 1b or sulfadiazine 1c through amide linkers 6a, b to produce the target compounds 10a-d and 15a-e, respectively. The antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized compounds showed that all tested compounds have antibacterial activity higher than that of their reference sulfa drugs 1a-c. Compound 10c represented the highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC = 0.39 μmol/mL. Moreover, compound 10d displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium with MIC = 0.39 and 0.78 μmol/mL, respectively. PMID:25113876

  7. Microwave-assisted Heterocyclic Dicarboxylic Acids as Potential Antifungal and Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Dabholkar, V. V.; Parab, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of new dicarboxylic acid derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazines, 1,4-benzopiperizines, 1,4-thiazines, 1,3-thiazoles, 1,3-oxazoles and 1,3-imidazoles have been synthesized in 80-87% yield by the environmentally benign microwave induced technique involving the cyclocondensation of 2,3-dibromosuccinic acid with 2-aminothiophenol, o-phenylene diamine, 1,2,4-triazole, amidinothiocarbamide, amidinocarbamide and guanidine hydrochloride. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds have been established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activity showed that almost all compounds exhibited better results than reference drugs thus they could be promising candidates for novel drugs. PMID:22303064

  8. Investigation of the composition and antibacterial activity of Ukrain drug using liquid chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Fornal, Emilia; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara; Mricz, gnes M; Nowicky, Wassil; Choma, Irena M

    2016-01-15

    The greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) has been known for the centuries as a medicinal plant. One of the therapeutic agents based on C. majus is anticancer drug Ukrain known as a semi-synthetic C. majus alkaloid derivative. Although there are no doubts about antitumor properties of the drug, there is still controversy about its composition. In this study, Ukrain was subjected to TLC and LC-MS/MS analyses to compare it with C. majus alkaloid root extract and to determine its composition. Moreover, microbiological activity of both Ukrain and the alkaloid extract were tested against Bacillus subtilis strains using TLC-direct bioautography. Sanguinarine, chelidonine, ?-homochelidonie and chelerythrine were found to have antibacterial properties. Besides chelidonine, sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protopine, allocryptopine, homochelidonie, berberine and coptisine reported earlier in literature, the presence of stylopine, norchelidonine, dihydrochelidonine and hydroberberine in Ukrain was detected, and here they have been reported for the first time. PMID:26718183

  9. [New antibacterial agents on the market and in the pipeline].

    PubMed

    Kern, W V

    2015-11-01

    After some years of stagnation there have been several new successful developments in the field of antibacterial agents. Most of these new developments have been in conventional antibacterial classes. New drugs among the beta-lactam agents are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) active cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and new combinations of beta-lactam with beta-lactamase inhibitors (ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam and meropenem/RPX7009). New developments can also be observed among oxazolidinones (tedizolid, radezolid, cadazolid and MRX-I), macrolides/ketolides (modithromycin and solithromycin), aminoglycosides (plazomicin), quinolones (nemonoxacin, delafloxacin and avarofloxacin), tetracyclines (omadacycline and eravacycline) as well as among glycopeptides and lipopeptides (oritavancin, telavancin, dalbavancin and surotomycin). New agents in a very early developmental phase are FabI inhibitors, endolysines, peptidomimetics, lipid A inhibitors, methionyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors and teixobactin. PMID:26475603

  10. Potential antibacterial activity of triazine dendrimer: Synthesis and controllable drug release properties.

    PubMed

    Vembu, Sandhirakasu; Pazhamalai, Srinivasan; Gopalakrishnan, Mannathusamy

    2015-08-01

    A novel sustained release delivery system of ciprofloxacin was developed. The system consists of a viscosity enhancer plus a penetration enhancer to overcome penetration barriers and loss due to wash-out and thus achieve the desired ciprofloxacin ocular absorption. A macromolecule of piperazine core 1,3,5-triazine dendrimer with eight molecules of ciprofloxacin drug as a surface moiety has been synthesized in five steps. Antibacterial activities of this compound have been investigated for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (mtcc 737), Bacillus subtilis (mtcc 2063), Escherichia coli (mtcc-443), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (mtcc 741) and Proteus mirabilis (mtcc425). It was observed that the influence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic balance per repeat unit of these dendrimer has profound effects for antibacterial activities. The MIC value of the compound very lower at 100 μg/mL(-1) when compared with standard ciprofloxacin at 500 μg/mL(-1). The compound (10) exhibits five times higher activity against tested organisms when compared with ciprofloxacin as standard. The structures of the dendrimers were determined by means of MALDI-TOF MS, NMR and IR studies. The in vitro release of ciprofloxacin from obtained dendrimer was investigated. PMID:26113186

  11. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Methods Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia) were tested against five Escherichia coli isolated from potable water sources at kushtia, Bangladesh. Results All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. None of them were found to be susceptible against the aqueous extracts of garlic, onion, coriander, pepper and ginger alone. However, all the isolates were susceptible when subjected to 1:1:1 aqueous extract of lime, garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with lime (11 mm). Conclusion Natural spices might have anti-bacterial activity against enteric pathogens and could be used for prevention of diarrheal diseases. Further evaluation is necessary. PMID:21406097

  12. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary. PMID:23569978

  13. Nanotechnology approaches for antibacterial drug delivery: Preparation and microbiological evaluation of fusogenic liposomes carrying fusidic acid.

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, Daria; Cupri, Sarha; Genovese, Carlo; Tempera, Gianna; Mattina, Roberto; Pignatello, Rosario

    2015-06-01

    Many antibacterial drugs have some difficulty passing through the bacterial cell membrane, especially if they have a high molecular weight or large spatial structure. Consequently, intrinsic resistance is shown by some bacterial strains. Reduced cell membrane permeability is one of the mechanisms of resistance known for fusidic acid (FUS), a bacteriostatic steroidal compound with activity limited to Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, the lipophilic character of FUS has been shown to cause drug retention inside the bilayers of cell membranes, preventing its diffusion towards target sites inside the cytoplasm. Targeting antimicrobial agents by means of liposomes may be a valid strategy in the treatment of infections refractory to conventional routes of antimicrobial treatment. On this basis, loading of FUS in fusogenic liposomes (FLs) was planned in this study. Fusogenic small unilamellar vesicles loaded with FUS were produced to evaluate their influence on improving the cell penetration and antibacterial activity of the antibiotic. The produced carriers were technologically characterised and were subjected to an in vitro microbiological assay against several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The experimental results showed that encapsulating FUS in a liposomal carrier can improve antimicrobial efficacy and reduce the effective concentration required, probably through putative mechanisms of increased diffusion through the bacterial cell membrane. In fact, whilst free FUS was active only on the tested Gram-positive strains, incubation of FUS-loaded FLs exhibited growth inhibitory activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. The lowest MICs were obtained against Staphylococcus epidermidis (≤0.15 μg/mL) and Acinetobacter baumannii (37.5 μg/mL) clinical strains. PMID:25816979

  14. Human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment of China: implication for ecopharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; He, Bingshu; Hu, Xiamin

    2015-06-01

    Antibacterial residues in the natural environment have been of increasing concern due to their impact on bacteria resistance development and toxicity to natural communities and ultimately to public health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of antibacterials for its population growth and economic development in recent years. In this article, we summarized the current situation of human-use antibacterial pollution in Chinese water (wastewaters, natural and drinking waters) and solid matrices (sludge, sediment, and soil) reported in 33 peer-reviewed papers. We found that, although there are adequate wastewater treatment systems in China, human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment were reported almost throughout the whole country. Three most frequently prescribed classes of antibacterials in China, including quinolones, macrolides, and ?-lactam, were also the predominant classes of residues in Chinese environment, manifested as the high concentration and detection frequency. In view of this alarming situation, we have presented that ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) might be implemented in the antibacterial drug administration of China, as the active participation of the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory authorities from the diffuse source of antibacterial pollution. Considering EPV experience of developed countries together with the actual conditions of China, we have identified some approaches that can be taken, including: Focus on education; Further strengthening and persevering the antibacterial stewardship strategies and pharmaceutical take-back programs in China; Designing greener antibacterials with better degradability in the environment; Implementing environmental risk assessment prior to launch of new drugs; Strengthening collaboration in EPV-related areas. PMID:25947893

  15. Multi-target spectral moments for QSAR and Complex Networks study of antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Prado-Prado, Francisco J; Uriarte, Eugenio; Borges, Fernanda; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2009-11-01

    There are many of pathogen bacteria species which very different susceptibility profile to different antibacterial drugs. There are many drugs described with very different affinity to a large number of receptors. In this work, we selected Drug-Bacteria Pairs (DBPs) of affinity/non-affinity drugs with similar/dissimilar bacteria and represented it as a large network, which may be used to identify drugs that can act on bacteria. Computational chemistry prediction of the biological activity based on one-target Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (ot-QSAR) studies substantially increases the potentialities of this kind of networks avoiding time and resource consuming experiments. Unfortunately almost all ot-QSAR models predict the biological activity of drugs against only one bacterial species. Consequently, multi-tasking learning to predict drug's activity against different species with a single model (mt-QSAR) is a goal of major importance. These mt-QSARs offer a good opportunity to construct drug-drug similarity Complex Networks. Unfortunately, almost QSAR models are unspecific or predict activity against only one receptor. To solve this problem, we developed here a multi-bacteria QSAR classification model. The model correctly classifies 202 out of 241 active compounds (83.8%) and 169 out of 200 non-active cases (84.5%). Overall training predictability was 84.13% (371 out of 441 cases). The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series, classifying the model 197 out of 221 (89.4%) cases. In order to show how the model functions in practice a virtual screening was carried out recognizing the model as active 86.7%, 520 out of 600 cases not used in training or predicting series. Outputs of this QSAR model were used as inputs to construct a network. The observed network has 1242 nodes (DBPs), 772,736 edges or DBPs with similar activity (sDBPs). The network predicted has 1031 nodes, 641,377 sDBPs. After edge-to-edge comparison, we have demonstrated that the predicted network is significantly similar to the observed one and both have distribution closer to exponential than to normal. PMID:19631422

  16. Unique Biological Properties and Molecular Mechanism of 5,6-Bridged Quinolones

    PubMed Central

    Macinga, David R.; Renick , Paul J.; Makin, Kelly M.; Ellis, David H.; Kreiner, Allison A.; Li, Min; Rupnik, Kirk J.; Kincaid, Erica M.; Wallace, Cynthia D.; Ledoussal, Benoit; Morris, Timothy W.

    2003-01-01

    We have characterized an early series of 5,6-bridged dioxinoquinolones which behaved strikingly different from typical quinolones. The 5,6-bridged dioxinoquinolones inhibited Escherichia coli DNA gyrase supercoiling activity but, unlike typical quinolones, failed to stimulate gyrase-dependent cleavable complex formation. Analogous unsubstituted compounds stimulated cleavable complex formation but were considerably less potent than the corresponding 5,6-bridged compounds. Consistent with a previous report (M. Antoine et al., Chim. Ther. 7:434-443, 1972) and contrary to established quinolone SAR trends, a compound with an N-1 methyl substitution (PGE-8367769) was more potent than its analog with an N-1 ethyl substitution (PGE-6596491). PGE-8367769 was shown to antagonize ciprofloxacin-mediated cleavable complex formation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting an interaction with the gyrase-DNA complex that overlaps that of ciprofloxacin. Resistance to PGE-8367769 in E. coli was found to arise through missense mutations in gyrA, implicating DNA gyrase as the primary antibacterial target. Notably, only 1 of 15 distinct mutations selected on PGE-8367769 (D87G) has previously been implicated in quinolone resistance in E. coli. The remaining 14 mutations (E16V, G31V, R38L, G40A, Y50D, V70A, A84V, I89L, M135T, G173S, T180I, F217C, P218T, and F513C) have not been previously reported, and most were located outside of the traditional quinolone resistance-determining region. These novel GyrA mutations decreased sensitivity to 5,6-bridged dioxinoquinolones by four- to eightfold, whereas they did not confer resistance to other quinolones such as ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, or nalidixic acid. These results demonstrate that the 5,6-bridged quinolones act via a mechanism that is related to but qualitatively different from that of typical quinolones. PMID:12878515

  17. Comparative in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, and other quinolones against clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Lai, Jui-Fen; Chen, Hua-Chien; King, Chi-Hsin R

    2010-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, against 770 clinical isolates were investigated. Nemonoxacin (tested as its malate salt, TG-875649) showed better in vitro activity than ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against different species of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae. The in vitro activity of TG-875649 was also comparable to or better than that of moxifloxacin against these pathogens, which included ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:20065058

  18. Comparative In Vitro Activities of Nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a Novel Nonfluorinated Quinolone, and Other Quinolones against Clinical Isolates ?

    PubMed Central

    Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Lai, Jui-Fen; Chen, Hua-Chien; King, Chi-Hsin R.

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, against 770 clinical isolates were investigated. Nemonoxacin (tested as its malate salt, TG-875649) showed better in vitro activity than ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against different species of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae. The in vitro activity of TG-875649 was also comparable to or better than that of moxifloxacin against these pathogens, which included ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:20065058

  19. [Norfloxacin: a broad-spectrum quinolone for superficial eye infections].

    PubMed

    Grosset, J

    1990-09-01

    Norfloxacin is a synthetic antibiotic belonging to the fluoroquinolone class. At present, an oral formulation is available and indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections. Because of the properties of norfloxacin, a 0.3% norfloxacin ophtalmic solution may be used by ophtalmologists. The molecular target of norfloxacin is DNA gyrase that regulates DNA replication. Norfloxacin is a broad spectrum antibiotic. A flurin atome in position 6 is responsible for the broad spectrum of activity as compared with the first generation quinolones. MICs of norfloxacin against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and enterbacteriaceae are low or intermediate. Norfloxacin is a bactericidal drug of which MBCs are equivalent to or twice as high as MICs against the majority of organisms. The proportion of norfloxacin resistant strains is limited and, at present, no plasmid resistance has been observed. This explains the activity of norfloxacin against clinical isolates whose drug resistance is plasmid-mediated. Norfloxacin resistance is chromosomic, but the mutation rate is low. There is no cross-resistance between quinolones and other classes of drug, with the exception of drug resistance related to changes in the bacterial outer membrane proteins. A low decrease in norfloxacin susceptibility is observed in case of resistance to first generation quinolones. The above-mentioned properties make norfloxacin in ophtalmic solution a first line drug for treatment of superficial ocular infections and a second line drug for treatment of infections due to organisms resistant to other drugs. PMID:2235090

  20. Two approaches to form antibacterial surface: Doping with bactericidal element and drug loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukova, I. V.; Sheveyko, A. N.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Anisimova, N. Y.; Gloushankova, N. A.; Zhitnyak, I. Y.; Benesova, J.; Amler, E.; Shtansky, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    Two approaches (surface doping with bactericidal element and loading of antibiotic into specially formed surface microcontainers) to the fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces are described. A network structure with square-shaped blind pores of 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10-3 mm3 for drug loading was obtained by selective laser sintering (SLS). The SLS-fabricated samples were loaded with 0.03, 0.3, 2.4, and 4 mg/cm2 of co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). Ag-doped TiCaPCON films with 0.4, 1.2, and 4.0 at.% of Ag were obtained by co-sputtering of composite TiC0.5-Ca3(PO4)2 and metallic Ag targets. The surface structure of SLS-prepared samples and cross-sectional morphology of TiCaPCON-Ag films were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The through-thickness of Ag distribution in the TiCaPCON-Ag films was obtained by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The kinetics of Ag ion release in normal saline solution was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bacterial activity of the samples was evaluated against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and K. pneum. ozaenae using the agar diffusion test and photometric method by controlling the variation of optical density of the bacterial suspension over time. Cytocompatibility of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films was observed in vitro using chondrocytic and MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The viability and proliferation of chondrocytic cells were determined using the MTS assay and PicoGreen assay tests, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the SLS-fabricated samples loaded with co-amoxiclav was also studied. The obtained results showed that the moderate bacteriostatic effect of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films is mainly manifested in the change of bacterial colony morphology and optical densities of bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the SLS-prepared samples showed a very rapid initial drug release resulting in strong bactericidal effect just from the start of the test and for as long as several days. Cytocompatibility and ALP activity tests demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a pronounced antibacterial effect compatible or even higher than that in the control sample (standard disk loaded with the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid mixture (30 μg)) without compromising the material biocompatibility and bioactivity.

  1. Immobilisation of an antibacterial drug to Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Kilsby, Samuel; Goodridge, Ruth D.; Christie, Steven D. R.; Edmondson, Steve; Hague, Richard J. M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial infections from biomedical implants and surgical devices are a major problem in orthopaedic, dental and vascular surgery. Although the sources of contaminations that lead to bacterial infections are known, it is not possible to control or avoid such infections completely. In this study, an approach to immobilise Ciprofloxacin® (an antibacterial drug) to phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) adsorbed on a selectively laser melted (SLM) Ti6Al4V structure, has been presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurements confirmed the attachment of SAMs and the drug. Results showed that Ciprofloxacin® is highly stable under the oxidative conditions used in this study. In-vitro stability was estimated by immersing the Ciprofloxacin® immobilised substrates in 10 mM of Tris-HCl buffer (pH-7.4) for 42 days. The Tris-HCl buffer was analysed using UV-vis spectrophotometry at 7, 14, 28 and 42 day time intervals to determine the release of the immobilised drug. The drug was observed to release in a sustained manner. 50% of the drug was released after 4 weeks with approximately 40% of the drug remaining after 6 weeks. Antibacterial susceptibility tests revealed that the immobilised drug was therapeutically active upon its release. This study demonstrates the potential to use self-assembled monolayers to modify SLM fabricated surfaces with therapeutics.

  2. Alkaloids: an overview of their antibacterial, antibiotic-enhancing and antivirulence activities.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Cushnie, Benjamart; Lamb, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    With reports of pandrug-resistant bacteria causing untreatable infections, the need for new antibacterial therapies is more pressing than ever. Alkaloids are a large and structurally diverse group of compounds that have served as scaffolds for important antibacterial drugs such as metronidazole and the quinolones. In this review, we highlight other alkaloids with development potential. Natural, semisynthetic and synthetic alkaloids of all classes are considered, looking first at those with direct antibacterial activity and those with antibiotic-enhancing activity. Potent examples include CJ-13,136, a novel actinomycete-derived quinolone alkaloid with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.1 ng/mL against Helicobacter pylori, and squalamine, a polyamine alkaloid from the dogfish shark that renders Gram-negative pathogens 16- to >32-fold more susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Where available, information on toxicity, structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action and in vivo activity is presented. The effects of alkaloids on virulence gene regulatory systems such as quorum sensing and virulence factors such as sortases, adhesins and secretion systems are also described. The synthetic isoquinoline alkaloid virstatin, for example, inhibits the transcriptional regulator ToxT in Vibrio cholerae, preventing expression of cholera toxin and fimbriae and conferring in vivo protection against intestinal colonisation. The review concludes with implications and limitations of the described research and directions for future research. PMID:25130096

  3. Investigations into the Antibacterial Activity of the Silver-Based Antibiotic Drug Candidate SBC3

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Michael A.; O’Gara, James P.; Gordon, Stephen V.; Hackenberg, Frauke; Healy, Claire; Paradisi, Francesca; Patil, Siddappa; Schaible, Bettina; Tacke, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) silver(I) acetate complexes with varying lipophilic benzyl-substituents at the 1 and 3 positions starting from 4,5-diphenylimidazole, opened a new class of antibiotic drug candidates. These NHC-silver(I) acetate derivatives exhibit interesting structural motifs in the solid state and proved to be soluble and stable in biological media. The leading candidate, SBC3, which was known to exhibit good antibacterial activity in preliminary Kirby-Bauer tests, was tested quantitatively using minimum inhibitory concentrations. NHC-silver(I) acetate complexes were found to have MIC values ranging from 20 to 3.13 μg/mL for a variety of Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacteria tested. These values represent good antibiotic activities against potential pathogens when compared to clinically approved antibiotics. Most striking is the fact that SBC3 is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC value of 12.5 μg/mL.

  4. LD50 value, phototoxicity and convulsion induction test of the new quinolone antibacterial agent (S)-10-[(S)-(8-amino-6-azaspiro[3,4]octan-6-yl)]-9-fluoro-2, 3-dihydro-3-methyl-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de][1,4]benzoxazine-6-carboxyl ic acid hemihydrate in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, K; Akahane, K; Nomura, M; Kato, M

    1996-06-01

    (S)-10-[(S)-(8-Amino-6-azaspiro[3,4]octan-6-yl)]-9-fluoro-2, 3-dihydro-3-methyl-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de][1,4]benzoxazine-6-carboxyli c acid hemihydrate (CAS 151390-79-3, DV-7751a) a new quinolone antibacterial agent, was examined for LD50 value, phototoxicity and convulsion inducing potential in laboratory animals. A single oral administration of DV-7751a induced soft stool in rats at 1000 and 2000 mg/ kg and in monkeys at 250 mg/kg and vomiting in monkeys at 500 mg/kg or more. A single intravenous administration caused a decrease in locomotor activity, respiratory depression, convulsion, pulmonary edema and death in rats and mice. The LD50 values with oral administration were more than 2000 mg/ kg for rats and mice and more than 250 mg/kg for monkeys, and those with intravenous administration were 164.3 mg/kg for rats of both sexes at an injection rate of 2 ml/min, 118.8 mg/kg for male rats and 104 to 125 mg/kg for female rats at 0.5 ml/min, and 184.7 mg/kg for male mice and 187.4 mg/kg for female mice. DV-7751a showed very weak phototoxicity in mice after single oral administration of 600 mg/kg, followed by UVA irradiation, but no convulsion after oral administration of 200 or 1000 mg/kg in combination with 4-biphenylacetic acid at 400 mg/kg. PMID:8767355

  5. Quinolone Resistance: Much More than Predicted

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alvaro; Sánchez, María B.; Martínez, José L.

    2011-01-01

    Since quinolones are synthetic antibiotics, it was predicted that mutations in target genes would be the only mechanism through which resistance could be acquired, because there will not be quinolone-resistance genes in nature. Contrary to this prediction, a variety of elements ranging from efflux pumps, target-protecting proteins, and even quinolone-modifying enzymes have been shown to contribute to quinolone resistance. The finding of some of these elements in plasmids indicates that quinolone resistance can be transferable. As a result, there has been a developing interest on the reservoirs for quinolone-resistance genes and on the potential risks associated with the use of these antibiotics in non-clinical environments. As a matter of fact, plasmid-encoded, quinolone-resistance qnr genes originated in the chromosome of aquatic bacteria. Thus the use of quinolones in fish-farming might constitute a risk for the emergence of resistance. Failure to predict the development of quinolone resistance reinforces the need of taking into consideration the wide plasticity of biological systems for future predictions. This plasticity allows pathogens to deal with toxic compounds, including those with a synthetic origin as quinolones. PMID:21687414

  6. Visible-Light-Triggered Drug Release from TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: A Controllable Antibacterial Platform.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingwen; Zhou, Xuemei; Gao, Zhida; Song, Yan-Yan; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-11

    In this work, we use a double-layered stack of TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) to construct a visible-light-triggered drug delivery system. The key for visible light drug release is a hydrophobic cap on the nanotubes containing Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). The AuNPs allow for a photocatalytic scission of the hydrophobic chain under visible light. To demonstrate this principle, we loaded ampicillin (AMP) into the lower part of the TiO2 nanotube stack, triggered visible-light-induced release, and carried out antibacterial studies. The release from the platform becomes most controllable if the drug is silane-grafted in the hydrophilic bottom layer for drug storage. Thus, visible light photocatalysis can also determine the release kinetics of the active drug from the nanotube wall. PMID:26592984

  7. Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Arfat Yousaf; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Rabbani, Masood; Aslam, Asim; Bibi, Tasra; Liaqat, Fakhra; Muhammad, Javed; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Increasing incidence rate of multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to extensive uses of antibiotics is a serious challenge to disease treatment. Contaminated retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. Current study has been conducted to study the prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat samples from Lahore city of Pakistan and it was found that 73.86% of E. coli isolates have MDR pattern. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of six herbs against MDR E. coli phenotypes has revealed that clove and cinnamon have maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts. Mint and coriander gave the intermediate results while garlic and kalonji showed the least antibacterial activity against the MDR E. coli phenotypes using the agar well diffusion technique. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for clove, mint, cinnamon, coriander, kalonji and garlic extracts were 1.15, 1.38, 0.5, 1.99, 2.41, 8.60 mg/mL respectively using the broth micro dilution method. The results obtained in present study were revealed that crude ethanol extracts of selected herbs have had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against MDR E. coli species and can be used for cooked food preservation. PMID:26142503

  8. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George A.; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat. PMID:25584197

  9. Clinical Importance and Epidemiology of Quinolone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eu Suk

    2014-01-01

    The quinolone class of antimicrobial agents is one of most widely used classes of antimicrobial agents in outpatient and inpatient treatment. However, quinolone resistance in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria has emerged and increased globally. This resistance limits the usefulness of quinolones in clinical practice. The review summarizes mechanisms of quinolone resistance and its epidemiology and implications in the most common clinical settings, urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, intraabdominal infections, skin and skin structure infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:25566402

  10. Studies of the photooxidant properties of antibacterial fluoroquinolones and their naphthalene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F; Zoltan, T; Ramirez, A H; Cordero, T; Chavez, V; Izzo, C; Lpez, V; Crdenas, Y M; Fernndez, A; Hincapie, L; Fuentes, A

    2009-02-01

    We synthesized and determined the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as 1O2, *-O2, *OH, H2O2 during the photolysis with UV-A light of three antibacterial quinolones and their naphthyl ester derivatives. Singlet oxygen and ROS dose-dependant generation from norfloxacin (1), enoxacin (2), ciprofloxacin (3) and their respective naphthyl ester derivatives 4-6 were detecting in cell-free systems by the histidine assay and by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LCL). Both the electronic absorption and emission spectra were quantified and their photostability determined. The antibacterial activity in darkness and under irradiation of compounds 4, 5 and 6 was tested on E. coli and compared with their parent drugs. PMID:19320285

  11. Characterization of a human peptide deformylase: implications for antibacterial drug design.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kiet T; Hu, Xubo; Colton, Craig; Chakrabarti, Ratna; Zhu, Michael X; Pei, Dehua

    2003-08-26

    Ribosomal protein synthesis in eubacteria and eukaryotic organelles initiates with an N-formylmethionyl-tRNA(i), resulting in N-terminal formylation of all nascent polypeptides. Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the subsequent removal of the N-terminal formyl group from the majority of bacterial proteins. Deformylation was for a long time thought to be a feature unique to the prokaryotes, making PDF an attractive target for designing novel antibiotics. However, recent genomic sequencing has revealed PDF-like sequences in many eukaryotes, including man. In this work, the cDNA encoding Homo sapiens PDF (HsPDF) has been cloned and a truncated form that lacks the N-terminal 58-amino-acid targeting sequence was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant, Co(2+)-substituted protein is catalytically active in deformylating N-formylated peptides, shares many of the properties of bacterial PDF, and is strongly inhibited by specific PDF inhibitors. Expression of HsPDF fused to the enhanced green fluorescence protein in human embryonic kidney cells revealed its location in the mitochondrion. However, HsPDF is much less active than its bacterial counterpart, providing a possible explanation for the apparent lack of deformylation in the mammalian mitochondria. The lower catalytic activity is at least partially due to mutation of a highly conserved residue (Leu-91 in E. coli PDF) in mammalian PDF. PDF inhibitors had no detectable effect on two different human cell lines. These results suggest that HsPDF is likely an evolutional remnant without any functional role in protein formylation/deformylation and validates PDF as an excellent target for antibacterial drug design. PMID:12924944

  12. In Vitro Activity of Ozenoxacin against Quinolone-Susceptible and Quinolone-Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lpez, Y.; Tato, M.; Espinal, P.; Garcia-Alonso, F.; Gargallo-Viola, D.; Cantn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro activity of ozenoxacin, a novel nonfluorinated topical (L. D. Saravolatz and J. Leggett, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:12101215, 2003) quinolone, was compared with the activities of other quinolones against well-characterized quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Ozenoxacin was 3-fold to 321-fold more active than other quinolones. Ozenoxacin could represent a first-in-class nonfluorinated quinolone for the topical treatment of a broad range of dermatological infections. PMID:24080666

  13. Evaluating the impact of a novel restricted reimbursement policy for quinolone antibiotics: A time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans often use prior authorization policies to limit drug prescribing. To guide physician prescribing of a class of antibiotics with broad antimicrobial activity (quinolone antibiotics) in accordance with new prescribing guidelines, Albertas provincial health ministry implemented a new mechanism for formulary restriction entitled the optional special authorization (OSA) program. We conducted an observational study to determine the impact of this new formulary restriction policy on antimicrobial prescription rates as well as any clinical consequences. Methods Quinolone antibiotic use, and adherence with quinolone prescribing guidelines, was assessed before and after implementation of the OSA program in patients with common outpatient infections using an administrative data cohort and a chart review cohort, respectively. At the same time this policy was implemented to limit quinolone prescribing, two new quinolone antibiotics were added to the formulary. Using administrative data, we analysed a total of 397,534 unique index visits with regard to overall antibiotic utilization, and through chart review, we analysed 1681 charts of patients with infections of interest to determine the indications for quinolone usage. Results Using segmented regression models adjusting for age, sex and physician enrollment in the OSA program, there was no statistically significant change in the monthly rate of all quinolone use (?3.5 (95% CI ?5.5, 1.4) prescriptions per 1000 index visits) following implementation of the OSA program (p?=?0.74). There was a significant level change in the rate of quinolone antibiotic use for urinary tract infection (?33.6 (95% CI: -23.8, -43.4) prescriptions and upper respiratory tract infection (?16.1 (95%CI: -11.6, -20.6) prescriptions per 1000 index visits. Among quinolone prescriptions identified on chart review, 42.5% and 58.5% were consistent with formulary guidelines before and after the implementation of the OSA program, respectively (p?=?0.002). There was no change in hospitalization, mortality or use of physician services after implementation of the OSA program. Conclusions Despite the addition of two new quinolone antibiotics to the formulary, we found that there was no change in the use of quinolones after implementation of a new formulary restriction policy for outpatients with common outpatient infections. PMID:22935100

  14. Antibacterial to antifungal conversion of neamine aminoglycosides through alkyl modification. Strategy for reviving old drugs into agrofungicides.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Wei T; Fosso, Marina; Kawasaki, Yukie; Shrestha, Sanjib; Bensaci, Mekki F; Wang, Jinhua; Evans, Conrad K; Takemoto, Jon Y

    2010-11-01

    Many Actinomycetes aminoglycosides are widely used antibiotics. Although mainly antibacterials, a few known aminoglycosides also inhibit yeasts, protozoans and important crop pathogenic fungal oomycetes. Here we show that attachment of a C8 alkyl chain to ring III of a neamine-based aminoglycoside specifically at the 4?-o position yields a broad-spectrum fungicide (FG08) without the antibacterial properties typical for aminoglycosides. Leaf infection assays and greenhouse studies show that FG08 is capable of suppressing wheat fungal infections by Fusarium graminearum-the causative agent of Fusarium head blight-at concentrations that are minimally phytotoxic. Unlike typical aminoglycoside action of ribosomal protein translation miscoding, FG08's antifungal action involves perturbation of the plasma membrane. This antibacterial to antifungal transformation could pave the way for the development of a new class of aminoglycoside-based fungicides suitable for use in crop disease applications. In addition, this strategy is an example of reviving a clinically obsolete drug by simple chemical modification to yield a new application. PMID:20924381

  15. [Looking for the new preparations for antibacterial therapy. I. New antibiotics and chemotherapeutics on the market].

    PubMed

    Karpiuk, Izabela; Tyski, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Development of new mechanisms of resistance and relatively easy and fast transferring of resistance genes between cells have resulted in emergence of large number of multi-drug resistant bacteria in recent years. Therefore, it is important to intensively search for new, effective compounds possessing antibacterial potential and apply them as active ingredients of medicinal products. This procedure may lead to eradication of clinically relevant, dangerous bacteria. In the twentyfirst century, three new classes of antibacterial agents: oxazolidinones, lipopeptides and pleuromutilins were introduced into the therapy. Compounds from the last group, such as tiamulin, were used previously, but only in veterinary. New 18 antimicrobial compounds, belonging to known therapeutic groups, have been registered since 2000. The largest group among antibacterial chemotherapeutics is quinolones. Group of natural compounds includes: new carbapenems, cephalosporins of V generation and other agents, like telithromycin, tigecycline, telavancin and fidaxomicin. This article is a part of the series associated with searching for new antibacterial agents and it relates to new antibiotics and antibacterial chemotherapeutics approved for the world-wide market since 2000. The next parts of this cycle will be devoted to compounds ongoing the clinical trials. PMID:23484382

  16. Laser receptive polyelectrolyte thin films doped with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles for antibacterial coatings and drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Sripriya, Jaganathan; Anandhakumar, Sundaramurthy; Achiraman, Shanmugam; Antony, Jacob Joe; Siva, Durairaj; Raichur, Ashok M

    2013-11-30

    We report a simple method to fabricate multifunctional polyelectrolyte thin films to load and deliver the therapeutic drugs. The multilayer thin films were assembled by the electrostatic adsorption of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and dextran sulfate (DS). The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) biosynthesized from novel Hybanthus enneaspermus leaf extract as the reducing agent were successfully incorporated into the film. The biosynthesized Ag NPs showed excellent antimicrobial activity against the range of enteropathogens, which could be significantly enhanced when used with commercial antibiotics. The assembled silver nano composite multilayer films showed rupture and deformation when they are exposed to laser. The Ag NPs act as an energy absorption center, locally heat up the film and rupture it under laser treatment. The antibacterial drug, moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MH) was successfully loaded into the multilayer films. The total amount of MH release observed was about 63% which increased to 85% when subjected to laser light exposure. Thus, the polyelectrolyte thin film reported in our study has significant potential in the field of remote activated drug delivery, antibacterial coatings and wound dressings. PMID:24096301

  17. Antibacterial activities of Beilschmiedia obscura and six other Cameroonian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid spread of bacteria expressing multi-drug resistance propels the search for new antibacterial agents. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts from Beilschmiedia obscura and six other Cameroonian plants against a panel of twenty nine Gram-negative bacteria including Multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Methods The phytochemical investigations of the extracts were carried out according to the standard methods and the liquid micro-dilution assay was used for all antibacterial assays. Results Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids in all studied extracts. Other chemical classes of secondary metabolites such as anthocyanines, anthraquinones flavonoids, saponins, tannins, sterols and triterpenes were selectively detected in the extracts. The extract from the fruits of Beilschmiedia obscura, Pachypodanthium staudtii leaves and Peperomia fernandopoiana (whole plant) displayed the best spectrum of activity with MIC values ranging from 16 to 1024 μg/mL against at least 65% and above of the tested bacteria. The extract from Beilschmiedia obscura was the most active with MIC values below 100 μg/mL against ten of the tested bacteria. This extract also showed MBC values below 1024 μg/mL against 55.17% of the studied microorganisms. Phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN) significantly modulated the activities of extracts from the leaves and fruits of Pachypodanthium staudtii and Beilschmiedia obscura respectively, by increasing their inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae KP55 strain at least four fold. Conclusion The overall results of the present investigation provide information for the possible use of the methanol extracts of the studied plant species, especially B. obscura to fight infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria including MDR phenotypes. PMID:25023038

  18. Relationships among antibacterial activity, inhibition of DNA gyrase, and intracellular accumulation of 11 fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, S; Moreau, N; Bouzard, D; Essiz, M

    1992-01-01

    A series of 11 fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents, including 8 newly synthesized molecules and 3 reference compounds (pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin), were tested for their MICs against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The intracellular accumulation of fluoroquinolones by these microorganisms was measured by centrifugation through silicone oil and a fluorescence assay. The minimal effective dose (MED) was determined for all agents in a supercoiling assay with E. coli DNA gyrase. The hydrophobicities of the quinolones were determined and expressed as the logarithm of the coefficient of distribution (log D) between 1-octanol and phosphate buffer (pH 7.2). No correlation was found between MICs and cell accumulation for the quinolones studied. A correlation was found between log D and accumulation by S. aureus (r = 0.71, n = 11), and an inverse correlation was found between log D and accumulation by E. coli (r = 0.73, n = 11) and P. aeruginosa (r = 0.64, n = 10). The correlation coefficients between MICs and MED for E. coli, which were 0.60, 0.64, and 0.74 (n = 11) for E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus, respectively, rose to 0.85, 0.74, and 0.74 (n = 11) for the same microorganisms, respectively, when the accumulation of the drug by the cell was taken into account. It was concluded that the inhibitory activity against DNA gyrase remains the most important parameter for quinolone potency, but that intracellular accumulation must be taken into account, since, for a given organism, both parameters are under the control of the physicochemical properties of the quinolones. PMID:1336340

  19. Proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus to a synergistic antibacterial drug combination: a novel erythromycin derivative and oxacillin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofen; Pai, Pei-Jin; Zhang, Weipeng; Hu, Yingwei; Dong, Xiaojing; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Daijie; Lam, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The use of antibacterial drug combinations with synergistic effects is increasingly seen as a critical strategy to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this work, the proteome responses in MRSA under the stress of a sub-inhibitory dose of a synergistic drug combination of a novel erythromycin derivative, SIPI-8294, and oxacillin, were studied by label-free quantitative proteomics. Several control treatment groups were designed to isolate proteome responses potentially related to the synergy: (1) the non-synergistic drug combination of erythromycin and oxacillin, (2) SIPI-8294 only, (3) oxacillin only and (4) erythromycin only. Results showed that 200 proteins were differentially expressed in SIPI-8294/oxacillin-treated cells. Among these proteins, the level of penicillin binding protein 2a, the protein mainly responsible for oxacillin resistance in MRSA, was four times lower in the SIPI-8294/oxacillin group than in the erythromycin/oxacillin group, suggesting that SIPI-8294 may interfere with this known oxacillin resistance mechanism. Moreover, hierarchical clustering analysis of differentially expressed proteins under different treatments revealed that SIPI-8294/oxacillin elicits very different responses than the individual drugs or the non-synergistic erythromycin/oxacillin combination. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the synergistic effect can be further traced to a disruption in oxidation-reduction homeostasis and cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:26806358

  20. Proteomic response of methicillin-resistant S. aureus to a synergistic antibacterial drug combination: a novel erythromycin derivative and oxacillin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaofen; Pai, Pei-Jin; Zhang, Weipeng; Hu, Yingwei; Dong, Xiaojing; Qian, Pei-yuan; Chen, Daijie; Lam, Henry

    2016-01-01

    The use of antibacterial drug combinations with synergistic effects is increasingly seen as a critical strategy to combat multi-drug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this work, the proteome responses in MRSA under the stress of a sub-inhibitory dose of a synergistic drug combination of a novel erythromycin derivative, SIPI-8294, and oxacillin, were studied by label-free quantitative proteomics. Several control treatment groups were designed to isolate proteome responses potentially related to the synergy: (1) the non-synergistic drug combination of erythromycin and oxacillin, (2) SIPI-8294 only, (3) oxacillin only and (4) erythromycin only. Results showed that 200 proteins were differentially expressed in SIPI-8294/oxacillin-treated cells. Among these proteins, the level of penicillin binding protein 2a, the protein mainly responsible for oxacillin resistance in MRSA, was four times lower in the SIPI-8294/oxacillin group than in the erythromycin/oxacillin group, suggesting that SIPI-8294 may interfere with this known oxacillin resistance mechanism. Moreover, hierarchical clustering analysis of differentially expressed proteins under different treatments revealed that SIPI-8294/oxacillin elicits very different responses than the individual drugs or the non-synergistic erythromycin/oxacillin combination. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the synergistic effect can be further traced to a disruption in oxidation-reduction homeostasis and cell wall biosynthesis. PMID:26806358

  1. Peptide deformylase as an antibacterial drug target: target validation and resistance development.

    PubMed

    Apfel, C M; Locher, H; Evers, S; Takcs, B; Hubschwerlen, C; Pirson, W; Page, M G; Keck, W

    2001-04-01

    New inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) which are very potent against the isolated enzyme and show a certain degree of antibacterial activity have recently been synthesized by our group. Several lines of experimental evidence indicate that these inhibitors indeed interfere with the target enzyme in the bacterial cell. (i) The inhibition of Escherichia coli growth could be counteracted by overexpression of PDF from different organisms, including E. coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Conversely, reduced expression of PDF in S. pneumoniae resulted in an increased susceptibility to the inhibitors. (ii) Proteome analysis on two-dimensional gels revealed a shift for many proteins towards lower pI in the presence of PDF inhibitors, as would be expected if the proteins still carry their N-formyl-Met terminus. (iii) PDF inhibitors show no antimicrobial activity against E. coli under conditions that make growth independent of formylation and deformylation. The antibacterial activity in E. coli was characterized as bacteriostatic. Furthermore, the development of resistance in E. coli was observed to occur with high frequency (10(-7)). Resistant mutants show a reduced growth rate, and DNA sequence analysis revealed mutations in their formyl transferase gene. Taking all these aspects into account, we conclude that PDF may not be an optimal target for broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. PMID:11257016

  2. Lead Optimization of 3-Carboxyl-4(1H)-Quinolones to Deliver Orally Bioavailable Antimalarials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqun; Clark, Julie A; Connelly, Michele C.; Zhu, Fangyi; Min, Jaeki; Guiguemde, W. Armand; Pradhan, Anupam; Iyer, Lalitha; Furimsky, Anna; Gow, Jason; Parman, Toufan; El Mazouni, Farah; Phillips, Margaret A.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Mirsalis, Jon; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a protozoal parasitic disease that is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas and causes more than 800,000 deaths per year. The continuing emergence of multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum drives the ongoing need for the development of new and effective antimalarial drugs. Our previous work has explored the preliminary structural optimization of 4(1H)-quinolone ester derivatives, a new series of antimalarials related to the endochins. Herein, we report the lead optimization of 4(1H)-quinolones with a focus on improving both antimalarial potency and bioavailability. These studies led to the development of orally efficacious antimalarials including quinolone analogue 20g, a promising candidate for further optimization. PMID:22435599

  3. In vitro phototoxicity of new quinolones: production of active oxygen species and photosensitized lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Kawada, A; Hatanaka, K; Gomi, H; Matsuo, I

    1999-12-01

    To elucidate photosensitization potentials of new quinolone antibacterial agents, production of active oxygen species and peroxidation of squalene after ultraviolet A exposure were investigated. Production of singlet oxygen and/or hydrogen peroxide was estimated by bleaching of p-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline. Lomefloxacin showed the greatest ability to produce active oxygen species, and this ability was reduced by the addition of the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide. Ciprofloxacin and fleroxacin also had strong activity. Photosensitized peroxidation of squalene was evaluated by measurement of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. Lomefloxacin was the strongest sensitizer, followed by fleroxacin and ciprofloxacin. These results suggest that certain new quinolones are involved in phototoxicity via the mechanism of active oxygen species. PMID:10599972

  4. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Lannigan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps) that exhibited a rapid, concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a) their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b) the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate. PMID:26217333

  5. Prophylactic use of the new quinolones for prevention of nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, P D; Hammond, J M

    1995-01-01

    The new quinolone antimicrobial agents, particularly those with less activity against anaerobes, selectively prevent colonisation of the alimentary tract by Gram-negative bacilli and staphylococci without substantially affecting the normal anaerobic flora, which preserve the colonisation resistance of the gut. These properties ideally position this class of antibacterial agent for selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) in the prevention of nosocomial infection. The rationale for this procedure is based on the presumption that a significant proportion of infections in compromised patients are endogenous in origin, arising from the host's own microbial flora. If this colonisation by potentially pathogenic microflora within the normal flora can be significantly reduced without being replaced by other more pathogenic microorganisms, the risk of endogenous infection should be minimised. The quinolones have proved to be ideal agents for use in preventing infection in bone marrow transplant and other neutropenic patients. They have been used for SDD in the general intensive care unit population, although the technique has not received widespread acceptance. There have been only 4 reported randomised studies using quinolones as part of SDD regimens and only 301 patients have been evaluated. Although the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia has been significantly reduced from 36 to 15%, no effect has been shown on mortality. The cost of using SDD is significantly less with the quinolones than with other regimens, and induction of resistance has not been noted. The new quinolones, and in particular the more recently developed agents with extended Gram-positive activity, appear to be ideally suited for SDD, and their careful evaluation in further large, well designed trials is warranted. PMID:8549422

  6. A New Approach for Early Assessment of the Epileptogenic Potential of Quinolones

    PubMed Central

    Delon, Annie; Pariat, Claudine; Courtois, Philippe; Bouquet, Serge; Couet, William

    1998-01-01

    The epileptogenic potential of pefloxacin and norfloxacin, two quinolone antibiotics, was investigated in vivo in three different animal species by measuring drug concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is part of the biophase, at the onset of convulsions. Interestingly, the pefloxacin-to-norfloxacin concentration ratios in CSF were virtually constant across the species (7.0, 6.6, and 6.0 in mice, rats, and rabbits, respectively), suggesting that this approach could be used to predict the relative epileptogenic potential of quinolones in humans. PMID:9756792

  7. The Activity of Quinolone CP-115,955 Against Bacterial and Human Type II Topoisomerases Is Mediated by Different Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aldred, Katie J.; Schwanz, Heidi A.; Li, Gangqin; Williamson, Benjamin H.; McPherson, Sylvia A.; Turnbough, Charles L.; Kerns, Robert J.; Osheroff, Neil

    2015-01-01

    CP-115,955 is a quinolone with a 4-hydroxyphenyl at C7 that displays high activity against both bacterial and human type II topoisomerases. To determine the basis for quinolone cross-reactivity between bacterial and human enzymes, the activity of CP-115,955 and a series of related quinolones and quinazolinediones against Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV and human topoisomerase II? was analyzed. Results indicate that the activity of CP-115,955 against the bacterial and human enzymes is mediated by different interactions. Based on the decreased activity of quinazolinediones against wild-type and resistant mutant topoisomerase IV and the low activity of quinolones against resistant mutant enzymes, it appears that the primary interaction of CP-115,955 with the bacterial system is mediated through the C3/C4 keto acid and the water-metal ion bridge. In contrast, the drug interacts with the human enzyme primarily through the C7 4-hydroxyphenyl ring and has no requirement for a substituent at C8 in order to attain high activity. Despite the fact that the human type II enzyme is unable to utilize the water-metal ion bridge, quinolones in the CP-115,955 series display higher activity against topoisomerase II? in vitro and in cultured human cells than the corresponding quinazolinediones. Thus, quinolones may be a viable platform for the development of novel drugs with anticancer potential. PMID:25586498

  8. Distribution of Quinolones, Sulfonamides, Tetracyclines in Aquatic Environment and Antibiotic Resistance in Indochina

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Satoru; Hoa, Phan Thi Phuong

    2012-01-01

    Southeast Asia has become the center of rapid industrial development and economic growth. However, this growth has far outpaced investment in public infrastructure, leading to the unregulated release of many pollutants, including wastewater-related contaminants such as antibiotics. Antibiotics are of major concern because they can easily be released into the environment from numerous sources, and can subsequently induce development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recent studies have shown that for some categories of drugs this source-to-environment antibiotic resistance relationship is more complex. This review summarizes current understanding regarding the presence of quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in aquatic environments of Indochina and the prevalence of bacteria resistant to them. Several noteworthy findings are discussed: (1) quinolone contamination and the occurrence of quinolone resistance are not correlated; (2) occurrence of the sul sulfonamide resistance gene varies geographically; and (3) microbial diversity might be related to the rate of oxytetracycline resistance. PMID:22363337

  9. Modeling the Overproduction of Ribosomes when Antibacterial Drugs Act on Cells.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria that are subjected to ribosome-inhibiting antibiotic drugs show an interesting behavior: Although the drug slows down cell growth, it also paradoxically increases the cell's concentration of ribosomes. We combine our earlier nonlinear model of the energy-biomass balance in undrugged Escherichia coli cells with Michaelis-Menten binding of drugs that inactivate ribosomes. Predictions are in good agreement with experiments on ribosomal concentrations and synthesis rates versus drug concentrations and growth rates. The model indicates that the added drug drives the cell to overproduce ribosomes, keeping roughly constant the level of ribosomes producing ribosomal proteins, an important quantity for cell growth. The model also predicts that ribosomal production rates should increase and then decrease with added drug. This model gives insights into the driving forces in cells and suggests new experiments. PMID:26840738

  10. White Paper: Recommendations on the Conduct of Superiority and Organism-Specific Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Agents for the Treatment of Infections Caused by Drug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need for new pathways to develop antibacterial agents to treat life-threatening infections caused by highly resistant bacteria. Traditionally, antibacterial agents have been studied in noninferiority clinical trials that focus on one site of infection (eg, pneumonia, intra-abdominal infection). Conduct of superiority trials for infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria represents a new, and as yet, untested paradigm for antibacterial drug development. We sought to define feasible trial designs of antibacterial agents that could enable conduct of superiority and organism-specific clinical trials. These recommendations are the results of several years of active dialogue among the white paper's drafters as well as external collaborators and regulatory officials. Our goal is to facilitate conduct of new types of antibacterial clinical trials to enable development and ultimately approval of critically needed new antibacterial agents. PMID:22891041

  11. Improved drug loading and antibacterial activity of minocycline-loaded PLGA nanoparticles prepared by solid/oil/water ion pairing method

    PubMed Central

    Kashi, Tahereh Sadat Jafarzadeh; Eskandarion, Solmaz; Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Marashi, Seyyed Mahmoud Amin; Samadi, Nasrin; Fatemi, Seyyed Mostafa; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Eshraghi, Saeed; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2012-01-01

    Background Low drug entrapment efficiency of hydrophilic drugs into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles is a major drawback. The objective of this work was to investigate different methods of producing PLGA nanoparticles containing minocycline, a drug suitable for periodontal infections. Methods Different methods, such as single and double solvent evaporation emulsion, ion pairing, and nanoprecipitation were used to prepare both PLGA and PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles were analyzed for their morphology, particle size and size distribution, drug loading and entrapment efficiency, thermal properties, and antibacterial activity. Results The nanoparticles prepared in this study were spherical, with an average particle size of 85–424 nm. The entrapment efficiency of the nanoparticles prepared using different methods was as follows: solid/oil/water ion pairing (29.9%) > oil/oil (5.5%) > water/oil/water (4.7%) > modified oil/water (4.1%) > nano precipitation (0.8%). Addition of dextran sulfate as an ion pairing agent, acting as an ionic spacer between PEGylated PLGA and minocycline, decreased the water solubility of minocycline, hence increasing the drug entrapment efficiency. Entrapment efficiency was also increased when low molecular weight PLGA and high molecular weight dextran sulfate was used. Drug release studies performed in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 indicated slow release of minocycline from 3 days to several weeks. On antibacterial analysis, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles was at least two times lower than that of the free drug. Conclusion Novel minocycline-PEGylated PLGA nanoparticles prepared by the ion pairing method had the best drug loading and entrapment efficiency compared with other prepared nanoparticles. They also showed higher in vitro antibacterial activity than the free drug. PMID:22275837

  12. Comparative activity of the topical quinolone OPC-7251 against bacteria associated with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Vogt, K; Hermann, J; Blume, U; Gollnick, H; Hahn, H; Haustein, U F; Orfanos, C E

    1992-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of the topical quinolone OPC-7251 against bacteria commonly found in acne vulgaris was tested in vitro by an agar dilution method. The MIC50 was 0.25 mg/l for Propionibacterium acnes, 0.125 mg/l for Propionibacterium granulosum, 0.03 mg/l for Staphylococcus aureus and 0.06 mg/l for coagulase-negative staphylococci. Compared with seven other antibiotics tested (ciprofloxacin, penicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, fusidic acid and gentamicin), OPC-7251 had potent activity against both propionibacteria and staphylococci and the lowest incidence of resistant strains. PMID:1486893

  13. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  14. Controlled drug release characteristics and enhanced antibacterial effect of graphene nanosheets containing gentamicin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Himanshu; Parashar, Vyom; Parashar, Rashmi; Prakash, Rajiv; Ramteke, Promod W; Pandey, Avinash C

    2011-10-01

    A novel methanol derived graphene (MDG) and gentamicin sulfate nanohybrid was prepared, and the loading and release behaviour of gentamicin on MDG is investigated. An efficient drug loading of 2.57 mg mg(-1) was obtained at pH 7. By applying release kinetic models, the mechanism of release of the drug from the MDG matrix was found to be following the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. However, the diffusional release exponent (n) value lies below 0.5 demonstrating that the mechanism controlling the drug release is the Fickian diffusion. PMID:21909583

  15. Rhodomyrtone: a new candidate as natural antibacterial drug from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Trip, Erik N; Kouwen, Thijs R H M; Piersma, Sjouke; Hiranrat, Asadhawut; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-06-01

    Rhodomyrtone [6,8-dihydroxy-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-7-(3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-9-(2-methylpropyl)-4,9-dihydro-1H-xanthene-1,3(2H)-di-one] from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. displayed significant antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus salivarius. Especially noteworthy was the activity against MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 0.39 to 0.78 microg/ml. As shown for S. pyogenes, no surviving cells were detected within 5 and 6h after treatment with the compound at 8MBC and 4MBC concentrations, respectively. Rhodomyrtone displays no bacteriolytic activity, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm. A rhodomyrtone killing test with S. mutans using phase contrast microscopy showed that this compound caused a few morphological changes as the treated cells were slightly changed in color and bigger than the control when they were killed. Taken together, the results support the view that rhodomyrtone has a strong bactericidal activity on gram-positive bacteria, including major pathogens. PMID:19303274

  16. Drug resistance in community-acquired respiratory tract infections: role for an emerging antibacterial

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Lorenzo; Giménez, María-José; Barberán, José

    2010-01-01

    The nasopharynx is the ecological niche where evolution towards resistance occurs in respiratory tract isolates. Dynamics of different bacterial populations in antibiotic-free multibacterial niches are the baseline that antibiotic treatments can alter by shifting the competitive balance in favor of resistant populations. For this reason, antibiotic resistance is increasingly being considered to be an ecological problem. Traditionally, resistance has implied the need for development of new antibiotics for which basic efficacy and safety data are required prior to licensing. Antibiotic development is mainly focused on demonstrating clinical efficacy and setting susceptibility breakpoints for efficacy prediction. However, additional information on pharmacodynamic data predicting absence of selection of resistance and of resistant subpopulations, and specific surveillance on resistance to core antibiotics (to detect emerging resistances and its link with antibiotic consumption in the community) are valuable data in defining the role of a new antibiotic, not only from the perspective of its therapeutic potential but also from the ecologic perspective (countering resistances to core antibiotics in the community). The documented information on cefditoren gleaned from published studies in recent years is an example of the role for an emerging oral antibacterial facing current antibiotic resistance in community-acquired respiratory tract infections. PMID:21694892

  17. Controlled drug release characteristics and enhanced antibacterial effect of graphene nanosheets containing gentamicin sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Himanshu; Parashar, Vyom; Parashar, Rashmi; Prakash, Rajiv; Ramteke, Promod W.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2011-10-01

    A novel methanol derived graphene (MDG) and gentamicin sulfate nanohybrid was prepared, and the loading and release behaviour of gentamicin on MDG is investigated. An efficient drug loading of 2.57 mg mg-1 was obtained at pH 7. By applying release kinetic models, the mechanism of release of the drug from the MDG matrix was found to be following the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. However, the diffusional release exponent (n) value lies below 0.5 demonstrating that the mechanism controlling the drug release is the Fickian diffusion.A novel methanol derived graphene (MDG) and gentamicin sulfate nanohybrid was prepared, and the loading and release behaviour of gentamicin on MDG is investigated. An efficient drug loading of 2.57 mg mg-1 was obtained at pH 7. By applying release kinetic models, the mechanism of release of the drug from the MDG matrix was found to be following the Korsmeyer-Peppas model. However, the diffusional release exponent (n) value lies below 0.5 demonstrating that the mechanism controlling the drug release is the Fickian diffusion. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10661a

  18. Resistance pattern of enterobacteriaceae isolates from urinary tract infections to selected quinolones in Yaound

    PubMed Central

    Lyonga, Emilia Enjema; Toukam, Michel; Nkenfou, Celine; Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Assoumou, Marie-Claire Okomo; Mesembe, Martha Tongo; Eyoh, Agnes Bedie; Ikomey, George Mondinde; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is estimated that 150 million urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur yearly worldwide, resulting in more than 6 billion dollar in direct healthcare cost. The etiology of UTIs is predictable, with Escherichia coli, an Enterobacteriaceae being the principal pathogen. Quinolones are usually the drug of choice. In this study, we report the resistance pattern of Enterobacteriaceae isolates from UTIs to quinolones among in-patients and out-patients at the Yaound Reference Hospital in Cameroon. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out for a ten-month period. Consecutive clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 207 in and out-patients. Identification was done using the Api 20E, and susceptibility testing using the Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method and the MIC was done using the E-test. Results Out of the 207 isolates, 58(28.0%) were found to be resistant to all the quinolones used in the study. The resistances observed by species were in the order: Enterobacter 4(30.8%); Klebsiella 19(29.7%); Escherichia 25 (29.4%); Proteus 2(11.8%); Serratia 4(25.0%). Quinolone resistance for Escherichia was 42.9% for In-Patients (IP) and 16.3% for Out-Patient (OP) (P-value = 0.006); Klebsiella 35.9% for IP and 20% for OP; Proteus 11.1% for IP and 12.5% for OP; Serratia 18.2% for IP and 40% for OP; Enterobacter 22.2 for IP and 50% for OP. Conclusion High resistance rates to quinolones were observed not only for in-patients but also for out-patients with urinary tract enterobacterial infections. These findings demonstrate the importance of antibiotics susceptibility testing in improving quinolones prescription practices in Cameroon. PMID:26327943

  19. The safety of quinolones in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yefet, Enav; Salim, Raed; Chazan, Bibiana; Akel, Hiba; Romano, Shabtai; Nachum, Zohar

    2014-11-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are highly efficient antibiotics. However, concerns regarding possible harmful effects have limited their use during pregnancy. Nevertheless, accumulating clinical data suggest that they may be safe during pregnancy. This review aimed to explore the mechanisms of action of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, which set the stage for concerns regarding possible teratogenic and mutagenic effects; to clarify the clinical dilemmas that brought forth the necessity in reevaluating the use of those medications during pregnancy; and to review the accumulated data regarding their safety during pregnancy in animal models and humans. PMID:25409160

  20. Influence of First-Line Antibiotics on the Antibacterial Activities of Acetone Stem Bark Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. against Drug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of A. mearnsii and its interactions with antibiotics against some resistant bacterial strains. Methods. The antibacterial susceptibility testing was determined by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while the checkerboard method was used for the determination of synergy between the antibiotics and the extract. Results. The results showed that the susceptibility of the different bacterial isolates was concentration dependent for the extract and the different antibiotics. With the exception of S. marcescens, the inhibition zones of the extract produced by 20?mg/mL ranged between 18 and 32?mm. While metronidazole did not inhibit any of the bacterial isolates, all the antibiotics and their combinations, except for ciprofloxacin and its combination, did not inhibit Enterococcus faecalis. The antibacterial combinations were more of being antagonistic than of being synergistic in the agar diffusion assay. From the macrobroth dilution, the extract and the antibiotics exerted a varied degree of inhibitory effect on the test organisms. The MIC values of the acetone extract which are in mg/mL are lower than those of the different antibiotics which are in ?g/mL. From the checkerboard assay, the antibacterial combinations showed varied degrees of interactions including synergism, additive, indifference, and antagonism interactions. While antagonistic and additive interactions were 14.44%, indifference interaction was 22.22% and synergistic interaction was 37.78% of the antibacterial combinations against the test isolates. While the additivity/indifference interactions indicated no interactions, the antagonistic interaction may be considered as a negative interaction that could result in toxicity and suboptimal bioactivity. Conclusion. The synergistic effects of the herbal-drug combinations may be harnessed for the discovery and development of more rational evidence-based drug combinations with optimized efficiency in the prevention of multidrug resistance and therapy of multifactorial diseases. PMID:25101132

  1. Determination of sensitivity of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae to tylosin and selected antibacterial drugs by a microtiter technique.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, B J; Ross, R F

    1975-01-01

    A microtiter technique was used for determination of the sensitivity of Mycoplasma hyosynoviae to antibiotics and other drugs. Use of a biphasic agar-broth medium in microtiter plates allowed direct visualization of growth. Results were more reproducible with this system than when broth alone was used and evaluation based on color change was required. Attempts to adapt the test for use with Mycoplasma hyorhinis were not successful. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 12 drugs and drug combinations for 12 strains of M. hyosynoviae are presented. Drugs with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations were tylosin (0.37 mcg/ml)and lincomycin (0.88 mcg/ml), both of which have been used for treatment and control of M. hyosynoviae arthritis. Comparison of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of tylosin for 43 isolates of M. hyosynoviae obtained in 1959 and 1960 and from 1966 through 1971 indicated the possibilty of decreasing sensitivity to the drug although differences between recent isolates and earlier ones were not statistically significant. PMID:122911

  2. Generation and characterization of quinolone-specific DNA aptamers suitable for water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reinemann, C; Freiin von Fritsch, U; Rudolph, S; Strehlitz, B

    2016-03-15

    Quinolones are antibiotics that are accredited in human and veterinary medicine but are regularly used in high quantities also in industrial livestock farming. Since these compounds are often only incompletely metabolized, significant amounts contaminate the aquatic environment and negatively impact on a variety of different ecosystems. Although there is increasing awareness of problems caused by pharmaceutical pollution, available methods for the detection and elimination of numerous pharmaceutical residues are currently inefficient or expensive. While this also applies to antibiotics that may lead to multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria, aptamer-based technologies potentially offer alternative approaches for sensitive and efficient monitoring of pharmaceutical micropollutants. Using the Capture-SELEX procedure, we here describe the selection of an aptamer pool with enhanced binding qualities for fluoroquinolones, a widely used group of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine. The selected aptamers were shown to detect various quinolones with high specificity, while specific binding activities to structurally unrelated drugs were not detectable. The quinolone-specific aptamers bound to ofloxacin, one of the most frequently prescribed fluoroquinolone, with high affinity (KD=0.1-56.9 nM). The functionality of quinolone-specific aptamers in real water samples was demonstrated in local tap water and in effluents of sewage plants. Together, our data suggest that these aptamers may be applicable as molecular receptors in biosensors or as catcher molecules in filter systems for improved monitoring and treatment of polluted water. PMID:26547431

  3. Synthesis of novel selenium-containing sulfa drugs and their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Sh H

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of 3-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,9-dimethylpyrido[3',2':4,5]selenolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines, 7-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-3,4-diphenylpyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo [2,3-c]pyridazines and 1-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-1,11-dihydro-11-oxo-4-methylpyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo[2,3-b]quinolines is reported. 4-Amino-N-pyrimidine-2-ylbenzene sulfonamide (a), 4-amino-N-(2,6-dimetnylpyrimidin-4-yl)benzene sulfonamide (b), N-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl] acetamide (c) with N-ethoxymethyleneamino of selenolo pyridine, selenolo pyridazine and selenolo quinoline derivatives respectively were obtained starting from 1-amino-N-substituted sulfanilamides. Spectroscopic data (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass spectral) confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Substituted pyrimidines, pyridazines and quinolines were screened for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Selenolo derivative of N-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl] acetamide (substitutent of sulfacetamide c) showed strong bactericidal effect against all the tested organisms. Selenolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin (substitutent a) showed a good bactericidal effect against Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compounds Selenolo[2,3-c]pyridazine (substitutent b), Selenolo[2,3-b]quinoline(substitutents c)) exhibited a moderate bactericidal effect against Serratia marcescens. None of the synthesized selenopyridazines has a considerable antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active compound - 3-[4-(N-acetyl sulfamoyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,9-dimethylpyrido[3',2':4,5]selenolo [3,2-d]pyrimidine was 10 mg mL(-1). PMID:20644596

  4. Conversion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal and Related Alkylhydroxyquinolines by Rhodococcus sp. Strain BG43

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Niewerth, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, which based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA, gyrB, catA, and qsdA genes, was identified as a Rhodococcus sp. closely related to Rhodococcus erythropolis, was isolated from soil by enrichment on the Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone], a quorum sensing signal employed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolate, termed Rhodococcus sp. strain BG43, cometabolically degraded PQS and its biosynthetic precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone (HHQ) to anthranilic acid. HHQ degradation was accompanied by transient formation of PQS, and HHQ hydroxylation by cell extracts required NADH, indicating that strain BG43 has a HHQ monooxygenase isofunctional to the biosynthetic enzyme PqsH of P. aeruginosa. The enzymes catalyzing HHQ hydroxylation and PQS degradation were inducible by PQS, suggesting a specific pathway. Remarkably, Rhodococcus sp. BG43 is also capable of transforming 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide to PQS. It thus converts an antibacterial secondary metabolite of P. aeruginosa to a quorum sensing signal molecule. PMID:25239889

  5. 78 FR 32669 - New Approaches to Antibacterial Drug Development; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... include new drugs for treatment of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia, ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, complicated urinary tract infection, complicated intra-abdominal infection, and infections caused... focused on community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections,...

  6. Phytochemicals increase the antibacterial activity of antibiotics by acting on a drug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Ohene-Agyei, Thelma; Mowla, Rumana; Rahman, Taufiq; Venter, Henrietta

    2014-01-01

    Drug efflux pumps confer resistance upon bacteria to a wide range of antibiotics from various classes. The expression of efflux pumps are also implicated in virulence and biofilm formation. Moreover, organisms can only acquire resistance in the presence of active drug efflux pumps. Therefore, efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are attractive compounds to reverse multidrug resistance and to prevent the development of resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. We investigated the potential of pure compounds isolated from plants to act as EPIs. In silico screening was used to predict the bioactivity of plant compounds and to compare that with the known EPI, phe-arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Subsequently, promising products have been tested for their ability to inhibit efflux. Plumbagin nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA) and to a lesser degree shikonin, acted as sensitizers of drug-resistant bacteria to currently used antibiotics and were able to inhibit the efflux pump-mediated removal of substrate from cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of in silico screening to identify compounds that potentiate the action of antibiotics against drug-resistant strains and which might be potentially useful lead compounds for an EPI discovery program. PMID:25224951

  7. Thermosensitive hydrogel for periodontal application: invitro drug release, antibacterial activity and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Yousef; Ganji, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    Injectable thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel is an attractive temperature-induced sol-gel solution that is widely used in drug delivery and biomedical applications. In this study, an injectable antimicrobial delivery system for periodontal treatment based on chitosan/gelatin/?-glycerolphosphate solution has been developed. The result of thermal and mechanical evaluations of chitosan/gelatin/?-glycerolphosphate hydrogel showed that adding gelatin to chitosan/?-glycerolphosphate solution significantly decreased gelling time and increased gel strength at 37?. The antimicrobial agents chosen for release studies were metronidazole with a low molecular weight and vancomycin hydrochloride with a high molecular weight. The initial burst and total invitro drug release for metronidazole was 13% and 67%, respectively. The initial burst and total drug release for vancomycin hydrochloride was relatively low at 3% and 23%, respectively. The momentary and total percentage of metronidazole accumulated in the phosphate buffer revealed that chitosan/gelatin/?-glycerolphosphate can develop and maintain sustained release of metronidazole in concentrations that are effective for eliminating pathogenic bacteria over time. Cytotoxicity evaluations show that chitosan/gelatin/?-glycerolphosphate thermosensitive hydrogel is a drug carrier with no cytotoxic effects. PMID:26686586

  8. Design and formulation technique of a novel drug delivery system for azithromycin and its anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, M Joyce; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N

    2013-09-01

    Azithromycin, an important member of the azalide subclass is effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Certain physicochemical properties of the drug like poor water solubility and relatively low bioavailability of 37% due to incomplete absorption after ingestion, aroused the need for the development of a novel drug delivery system to enhance the solubilization potential and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus at a very low concentration. Cinnamon oil (Cinnamonum zeylanicum)-based microemulsion system formulated using non-ionic surfactant, Tween 20, and water was characterized. The drug-incorporated system F4 (oil to surfactant ratio of 1:4 (v/v)) showed enhanced solubilization of the drug, droplet diameter of 5-8 nm, and a good thermodynamic stability. The effect of surfactant concentration exhibited a negative correlation with droplet size diameter and turbidity and a positive correlation with stability and viscosity. The system was investigated for its antibacterial activity that demonstrated a significantly higher activity at a minimum concentration (4 ?g/ml) of the novel drug-loaded system in comparison with the conventional formulation (128 ?g/ml). Examination through scanning electron microscopy analysis further confirmed a considerable morphologic variation due to alteration in the membrane permeability of the microemulsion-treated system. The small droplet size of the microemulsion system and the antibacterial property of cinnamon oil, together, accounts clearly for the enhanced efficacy of the new formulated system F4 and not just azithromycin alone. Staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide dyes as examined through fluorescence microscopy also substantiated with the results of membrane permeability of bacteria. Thus, our study discloses a potential oral drug delivery system of azithromycin with improved biocompatibility. PMID:23800858

  9. Biosurfactins production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens R3 and their antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhe; Rong, Yan-Jun; Li, Yang; Tang, Mei-Juan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the anti-Escherichia coli activity of the bioactive substances produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens R3 was examined. A new and cheap medium for production of the anti-E. coli substances which contained 20.0gL(-1) soybean powder, 20.0gL(-1) wheat flour, pH 6.0 was developed. A crude surfactant concentration of 0.48mgmL(-1) was obtained after 27h of 10-L fermentation, and the diameter of the clear zone on the plate seeded with the pathogenic E. coli 2# was 23.3mm. A preliminary characterization suggested that the anti-E. coli substances produced by B. amyloliquefaciens R3 were the biosurfactins (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5) with amino acids (GLLVDLL) and hydroxy fatty acids (of 12-15 carbons in length). It was found that all the strains of the pathogenic E. coli showed resistance to several different antibiotics, suggesting that they were the multi-drug resistance and all the strains of the pathogenic E. coli were sensitive to the biosurfactins, indicating that the biosurfactins produced by B. amyloliquefaciens R3 had a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against the pathogenic E. coli with multi-drug resistant profiles. After the treatment with the purified biosurfactin (F1), the cell membrane of both the whole cells and protoplasts of the E. coli 2# was damaged and the whole cells of the bacterium were broken. PMID:25407729

  10. Simulating Serial-Target Antibacterial Drug Synergies Using Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Andrew S; Munck, Christian; Dantas, Gautam; Church, George M; Galagan, James; Lehr, Joseph; Sommer, Morten O A

    2016-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is an increasingly useful approach for modeling the behavior of metabolic systems. However, standard FBA modeling of genetic knockouts cannot predict drug combination synergies observed between serial metabolic targets, even though such synergies give rise to some of the most widely used antibiotic treatments. Here we extend FBA modeling to simulate responses to chemical inhibitors at varying concentrations, by diverting enzymatic flux to a waste reaction. This flux diversion yields very similar qualitative predictions to prior methods for single target activity. However, we find very different predictions for combinations, where flux diversion, which mimics the kinetics of competitive metabolic inhibitors, can explain serial target synergies between metabolic enzyme inhibitors that we confirmed in Escherichia coli cultures. FBA flux diversion opens the possibility for more accurate genome-scale predictions of drug synergies, which can be used to suggest treatments for infections and other diseases. PMID:26821252

  11. Simulating Serial-Target Antibacterial Drug Synergies Using Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Gautam; Church, George M.; Galagan, James; Lehár, Joseph; Sommer, Morten O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is an increasingly useful approach for modeling the behavior of metabolic systems. However, standard FBA modeling of genetic knockouts cannot predict drug combination synergies observed between serial metabolic targets, even though such synergies give rise to some of the most widely used antibiotic treatments. Here we extend FBA modeling to simulate responses to chemical inhibitors at varying concentrations, by diverting enzymatic flux to a waste reaction. This flux diversion yields very similar qualitative predictions to prior methods for single target activity. However, we find very different predictions for combinations, where flux diversion, which mimics the kinetics of competitive metabolic inhibitors, can explain serial target synergies between metabolic enzyme inhibitors that we confirmed in Escherichia coli cultures. FBA flux diversion opens the possibility for more accurate genome-scale predictions of drug synergies, which can be used to suggest treatments for infections and other diseases. PMID:26821252

  12. Novel quinolone resistance mutations of the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A protein: enzymatic analysis of the mutant proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, P; Maxwell, A

    1991-01-01

    Using the techniques of gap misrepair mutagenesis and site-directed mutagenesis, we have generated two novel quinolone resistance mutations of the Escherichia coli DNA gyrase A protein. DNA sequencing showed these mutations to be Ser-83----Ala and Gln-106----Arg. The mutant proteins were overproduced and purified, and their enzymatic properties were analyzed and compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. With ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, the inhibition of DNA supercoiling, relaxation, and decatenation and the induction of DNA cleavage were investigated for both wild-type and mutant enzymes. In each assay, the mutant enzymes were found to require approximately 10 times more drug to inhibit the reaction or induce cleavage than was the wild-type enzyme. However, the Ca2(+)-directed DNA cleavage reaction was indistinguishable for wild-type and mutant gyrases. We discuss models for the gyrase-mediated bactericidal effects of quinolone drugs. Images PMID:1850970

  13. Antibacterial and synergy of berberines with antibacterial agents against clinical multi-drug resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    PubMed

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; Li, Yang; Han, Jun; Wang, Gen-Chun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of berberine (Ber) and 8-acetonyl-dihydroberberine (A-Ber) alone and combined uses with antibacterial agents ampicillin (AMP), azithromycin (AZM), cefazolin (CFZ) and levofloxacin (LEV) was studied on 10 clinical isolates of SCCmec III type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Susceptibility to each agent alone was tested using a broth microdilution method and the chequerboard and time-kill tests for the combined evaluations, respectively. The alone MICs/MBCs (?g/mL) ranges were 32-128/64-256 (Ber) and 32-128/128-512 (A-Ber). Significant synergies were observed for the Ber (A-Ber)/AZM and Ber (A-Ber)/LEV combinations against 90% of the tested MRSA strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) values ranged from 0.188 to 0.500. An additivity result was also observed for the Ber/AZM combination by time-kill curves. These results demonstrated for the first time that Ber and A-Ber enhanced the in vitro inhibitory efficacy of AZM and LEV to a same extent, which had potential for further investigation in combinatory therapeutic applications of patients infected with MRSA. PMID:22932213

  14. A novel cotton fabric with anti-bacterial and drug delivery properties using SBA-15-NH2/polysiloxane hybrid containing tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Hashemikia, Samaneh; Hemmatinejad, Nahid; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Montazer, Majid

    2016-02-01

    Here, mesoporous silica particles containing tetracycline were loaded on cotton fabric for possible application on the infected human skin. Amino functionalized mesoporous silica, SBA-15-NH2, was chosen as a safe drug carrier loaded with tetracycline via post impregnation method. Diverse content of the drug loaded silica particles were then attached on the cotton fabric surface using polysiloxane reactive softener as a soft and safe fixing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to study the drug delivery properties of the mesoporous silica on the treated cotton fabrics. The treated fabric with long drug release properties was selected as the optimized sample. Further analysis was carried out on this sample including anti-bacterial, water contact angle, bending length, mineral content and washing durability. Also, SEM images, EDX patterns, X-Ray spectra and thermal behavior of the optimum sample were studied. The optimized treated sample indicated the gradual release profile of tetracycline in PBS buffer media within 48h along with excellent anti-bacterial efficiency as a good feature for biological application. PMID:26652393

  15. Optimization of endochin-like quinolones for antimalarial activity

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Rolf; Kelly, Jane X.; Smilkstein, Martin J.; Hinrichs, David; Koop, Dennis R.; Riscoe, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Structural analogs of the antimalarial Endochin were synthesized and screened for antiplasmodial activity against drug sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Structural features have been identified that are associated with improved potency while other features are associated with equipotency against an atovaquone-resistant clinical isolate. Relative to endochin the most active compound ELQ-121 shows ? 100-fold improvement in IC50 for inhibition of P. falciparum in vitro and it also exhibits enhanced metabolic stability. A polyethylene glycol carbonate ester prodrug of ELQ-121 demonstrated in vivo efficacy against P. yoelii in mice. This is the first report of an endochin-like quinolone that is efficacious in treating malaria in a mammalian host. PMID:21040724

  16. Antibacterial activity of nineteen selected natural products against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Sandjo, Louis P; Tankeo, Simplice B; Ndifor, Ache R; Pantaleon, Ambassa; Nagdjui, Bonaventure T; Kuete, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of 19 natural products belonging to terpenoids, alkaloids, thiophenes and phenolics against a panel of 14 Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The results demonstrated that amongst the studied compounds, alkaloids and terpenoids were less active contrary to flavonoids: neocyclomorusin (3) and candidone (6) and isoflavonoids: neobavaisoflavone (8) and daidzein (12). Thiophene, 2-(penta-1,3-diynyl)-5-(3,4-dihydroxybut-1-ynyl)thiophene (17) showed moderate and selective activities. Compounds 3, 6, 8 and 12 displayed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 4 to 256?g/mL on all the 14 tested bacteria. MIC values below 10?g/mL were obtained with 8, 3, 6 and 12 against 50, 42.9, 35.7 and 21.4% of the tested bacteria. The lowest MIC value of 4?g/mL was obtained with compound 3 against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC11296, Enterobacter cloacae BM47, compound 6 against Escherichia coli ATCC8739, K. pneumoniae ATCC11296, E. cloacae BM47 and compound 8 against K. pneumoniae ATCC11296 and E. cloacae BM47. The activity of flavonoid 3 was better or equal to that of chloramphenicol in all tested K. pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, E. aerogenes, E. cloacae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Within isoflavonoids, neobavaisoflavone scaffold was detected as a pharmacophoric moiety. This study indicates that natural products such as 3, 6 and 8 could be explored more to develop antimicrobial drugs to fight MDR bacterial infections. PMID:26753111

  17. Detection of quinolones in poultry meat obtained from retail centers in Santiago Province, the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Silfrany, R O; Caba, R E; Sols de Los Santos, F; Hanning, I

    2013-02-01

    In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 ?g/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bison, Pual, Villa Gonzlez, Licey, Jnico, and San Jos De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers. PMID:23433388

  18. Antibacterial activities of polyethylene glycol, tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphate coated silver nanoparticles in normal and multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debalina; Samanta, Saheli; Mukherjee, Ananda; Santra, Chitta Ranjan; Ghosh, Amar N; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Karmakar, Parimal

    2012-03-01

    Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles coated with different functionalizing agents i.e., polyethylene glycol, tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulphate were evaluated on both normal and multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Under the same reaction conditions, these functionalizing agents were added separately to coat silver nanoparticles. Among these, polyethylene glycol coated nanoparticles were most effective in killing all the bacterial strains which includes Escherichia coli DH5a, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of Shigella spp. (flexneri, boydii, sohnea) and Vibrio cholerae. The minimum inhibitory concentration of polyethylene glycol coated silver nanoparticles was also less compared to the other two sets of nanoparticles. Consistence with that polyethylene glycol coated nanoparticles produced more intracellular reactive oxygen species in bacteria. Moreover, when human cell lines MCF7 and Chang Liver were incubated in presence of these nanoparticles for 18 h with same concentrations as used for bacteria, no toxicity was observed. But significant increase in cell killing was observed with longer incubation time. Thus our present investigation implicates the potential therapeutic use of silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agent particularly the polyethylene glycol coated one. PMID:22755083

  19. Regional variations in quinolone use in France and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Gallini, A; Taboulet, F; Bourrel, R

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geographic variations in the use of quinolones in France and their associated factors. All reimbursement claims of antimicrobials were collected for 90% of the French population for the year 2007. Dispensed quantities were then converted into defined daily doses (DDD) and adjusted for the age structure of the national population. Correlations between quinolone use and total antimicrobial use and some morbidity and socio-economic factors were studied using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. On average, 2.05 DDD of quinolones per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) were dispensed in 2007 in France, accounting for 10.2% of the total antimicrobial consumption in adults. A 40% variation was observed between the regions with the lowest (1.73 DID) and the highest use (2.44 DID). This variation was more important for anti-pneumococcal quinolones than for quinolones directed against urinary tract infections (coefficients of variation: 26 vs. 6%). Quinolone use was correlated with some regional socio-economic factors (unemployment, growth domestic product, health expenditures) and physician density, but was independent of the total antimicrobial use. After adjustment for age, large variations in quantitative and qualitative quinolone use were observed across French regions, especially for anti-pneumococcal fluoroquinolones. These results, though not controlled for potential epidemics variations, argue in favour of a possible improvement in quinolone prescribing to be achieved in some regions. PMID:22644054

  20. Cytotoxic, antibacterial, DNA interaction and superoxide dismutase like activities of sparfloxacin drug based copper(II) complexes with nitrogen donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Joshi, Hardik N.; Patel, Chintan R.

    2013-03-01

    The novel neutral mononuclear copper(II) complexes with fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug, sparfloxacin and nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand have been synthesized and characterized. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms and showed diverse biological activity. The interaction of complex with Herring sperm (HS) DNA was investigated using viscosity titration and absorption titration techniques. The results indicate that the complexes bind to DNA by intercalative mode and have rather high DNA-binding constants. DNA cleavage study showed better cleaving ability of the complexes compare to metal salt and standard drug. All the complexes showed good cytotoxic activity with LC50 values ranging from 4.89 to 11.94 ?g mL-1. Complexes also exhibit SOD-like activity with their IC50 values ranging from 0.717 to 1.848 ?M.

  1. 4-Quinolone Alkaloids from Melochia odorata

    PubMed Central

    Jadulco, Raquel C.; Pond, Christopher D.; Van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Koch, Michael; Gideon, Osia G.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    The methanol extract of Melochia odorata yielded three 4-quinolone alkaloids including waltherione A (1) and two new alkaloids, waltherione C (2) and waltherione D (3). Waltheriones A and C showed significant activities in an in vitro anti-HIV cytoprotection assay at concentrations of 56.2 and 0.84 ?M, and inhibition of HIV P24 formation of more than 50% at 1.7 and 0.95 ?M, respectively. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectroscopic data interpretation. PMID:24392742

  2. Quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli from Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is under-documented and commensal Escherichia coli can be used as indicator organisms to study the resistance in the community. We sought to determine the prevalence of resistance to broad-spectrum antimicrobials with particular focus on the quinolones, which have recently been introduced in parts of Africa, including Ghana. Results Forty (13.7%) of 293 E. coli isolates evaluated were nalidixic acid-resistant. Thirteen (52%) of 2006 and 2007 isolates and 10 (66.7%) of 2008 isolates were also resistant to ciprofloxacin. All but one of the quinolone-resistant isolates were resistant to three or more other antimicrobial classes. Sequencing the quinolone-resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC, which encode quinolone targets, revealed that 28 quinolone-resistant E. coli harboured a substitution at position 83 of the gyrA gene product and 20 of these isolates had other gyrA and/or parC substitutions. Horizontally-acquired quinolone-resistance genes qnrB1, qnrB2, qnrS1 or qepA were detected in 12 of the isolates. In spite of considerable overall diversity among E. coli from Ghana, as evaluated by multilocus sequence typing, 15 quinolone-resistant E. coli belonged to sequence type complex 10. Five of these isolates carried qnrS1 alleles. Conclusions Quinolone-resistant E. coli are commonly present in the faecal flora of Accra residents. The isolates have evolved resistance through multiple mechanisms and belong to very few lineages, suggesting clonal expansion. Containment strategies to limit the spread of quinolone-resistant E. coli need to be deployed to conserve quinolone effectiveness and promote alternatives to their use. PMID:21352598

  3. Apigenin as an anti-quinolone-resistance antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuh; Baba, Tadashi; Sasaki, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported the first 'reverse antibiotic' (RA), nybomycin (NYB), which showed a unique antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. NYB specifically suppressed the growth of quinolone-resistant S. aureus strains but was not effective against quinolone-susceptible strains. Although NYB was first reported in 1955, little was known about its unique antimicrobial activity because it was before the synthesis of the first quinolone ('old quinolone'), nalidixic acid, in 1962. Following our re-discovery of NYB, we looked for other RAs among natural substances that act on quinolone-resistant bacteria. Commercially available flavones were screened against S. aureus, including quinolone-resistant strains, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were compared using the microbroth dilution method. Some of the flavones screened showed stronger antimicrobial activity against quinolone-resistant strains than against quinolone-susceptible ones. Amongst them, apigenin (API) was the most potent in its RA activity. DNA cleavage assay showed that API inhibited DNA gyrase harbouring the quinolone resistance mutation gyrA(Ser84Leu) but did not inhibit 'wild-type' DNA gyrase that is sensitive to levofloxacin. An API-susceptible S. aureus strain Mu50 was also selected using agar plates containing 20mg/L API. Whole-genome sequencing of selected mutant strains was performed and frequent back-mutations (reverse mutations) were found among API-resistant strains derived from the API-susceptible S. aureus strains. Here we report that API represents another molecular class of natural antibiotic having RA activity against quinolone-resistant bacteria. PMID:26526895

  4. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Ramesh; Kumar, Rohitesh; Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. Methods The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound. Results Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 g/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 g/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 g/mL. Conclusions Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites. PMID:23620853

  5. There should be no ESKAPE for febrile neutropenic cancer patients: the dearth of effective antibacterial drugs threatens anticancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bow, E J

    2013-03-01

    The success of modern anticancer treatment is a composite function of enhanced efficacy of surgical, radiation and systemic treatment strategies and of our collective clinical abilities in supporting patients through the perils of their cancer journeys. Despite the widespread availability of antibacterial therapies, the threat of community- or healthcare facility-acquired bacterial infection remains a constant risk to patients during this journey. The rising prevalence of colonization by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in the population, acquired through exposure from endemic environments, antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention and control strategies notwithstanding, increases the likelihood that such organisms may be the cause of cancer treatment-related infection and the likelihood of antibacterial treatment failure. The high mortality associated with invasive MDR bacterial infection increases the likelihood that many patients may not survive long enough to reap the benefits of enhanced anticancer treatments, thus threatening the societal investment in the cancer journey. Since cancer care providers arguably no longer have, and are unlikely to have in the foreseeable future, the antibacterial tools to reliably rescue patients from harm's way, the difficult ethical debate over the risks and benefits of anticancer treatments must now be reopened. PMID:23299574

  6. Effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish.

    PubMed

    Steffenak, I; Hormazabal, V; Yndestad, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish was investigated. Salmon containing residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine was boiled or baked in the oven. Samples of raw and cooked muscle, skin, and bone, as well as of the water in which the fish was boiled and juice from the baked fish, were analysed. Oxolinic acid and flumequine did not degrade at the temperatures reached when cooking the fish. However, fish muscle free from drug residues may be contaminated during boiling and baking due to leakage of the drug from reservoirs in the fish. PMID:7847199

  7. Evaluation of a topical herbal drug for its in-vivo immunomodulatory effect on cytokines production and antibacterial activity in bovine subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Vaibhav D.; Shah, Tejas M.; Nauriyal, Dev S.; Kunjadia, Anju P.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotics have been in use in the treatment of bovine mastitis since decades; however, their use is associated with cost issues and human health concern. Use of herbal drugs does not generally carry these disadvantages. Many plants/herbs have been evaluated in the treatment of bovine mastitis with additional property of immunomodulation in affected mammary gland. Aim: To evaluate a topical herbal drug in two breeds of cattle for its in-vivo immunomodulatory effect on cytokines production and antibacterial activity in bovine subclinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial load, and studying the expression of different cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, interferon (IFN)-? and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?). Results: The pre- and post-treatment SCC in mastitic quarters statistically did not differ significantly, however, total bacterial load declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Highly significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all the cytokines on day 0, 5, and 21 postlast treatment in both the breeds. The expression level of all the cytokines showed a significant increase on day 5, while a decrease was noticed on day 21 in both the breeds of cattle. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle revealed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-?. However, other cytokines exhibited a similar pattern of expression in both breeds, which was non-significant. Conclusion: The topical herbal drug exhibited antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities in subclinical mastitis and thus the work supports its use as alternative herbal therapy against subclinical udder infection in bovines. PMID:25558168

  8. Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some Novel Flouroquinolone Derivatives as Potent Antibacterial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul M.; Patel, Laxman J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Quinolone moiety is an important class of nitrogen containing heterocycles widely used as key building blocks for medicinal agents. It exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacophores and has bactericidal, antiviral, antimalarial, and anticancer activities. In view of the reported antimicrobial activity of various fluoroquinolones, the importance of the C-7 substituents is that they exhibit potent antimicrobial activities. Our objective was to synthesize newer quinolone analogues with increasing bulk at C-7 position of the main 6-fluoroquinolone scaffold to produce the target compounds which have potent antimicrobial activity. Methods. A novel series of 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-{4-[2-(4-substituted phenyl)-2-(substituted)-ethyl]-1-piperazinyl}-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized. To understand the interaction of binding sites with bacterial protein receptor, the docking study was performed using topoisomerase II DNA gyrase enzymes (PDB ID: 2XCT) by Schrodinger's Maestro program. In vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds was studied and the MIC value was calculated by the broth dilution method. Results. Among all the synthesized compounds, some compounds showed potent antimicrobial activity. The compound 8g exhibited good antibacterial activity. Conclusion. This investigation identified the potent antibacterial agents against certain infections. PMID:25574496

  9. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance: a Multifaceted Threat

    PubMed Central

    Strahilevitz, Jacob; Jacoby, George A.; Hooper, David C.; Robicsek, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Although plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was thought not to exist before its discovery in 1998, the past decade has seen an explosion of research characterizing this phenomenon. The best-described form of PMQR is determined by the qnr group of genes. These genes, likely originating in aquatic organisms, code for pentapeptide repeat proteins. These proteins reduce susceptibility to quinolones by protecting the complex of DNA and DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV enzymes from the inhibitory effect of quinolones. Two additional PMQR mechanisms were recently described. aac(6?)-Ib-cr encodes a variant aminoglycoside acetyltransferase with two amino acid alterations allowing it to inactivate ciprofloxacin through the acetylation of its piperazinyl substituent. oqxAB and qepA encode efflux pumps that extrude quinolones. All of these genes determine relatively small increases in the MICs of quinolones, but these changes are sufficient to facilitate the selection of mutants with higher levels of resistance. The contribution of these genes to the emergence of quinolone resistance is being actively investigated. Several factors suggest their importance in this process, including their increasing ubiquity, their association with other resistance elements, and their emergence simultaneous with the expansion of clinical quinolone resistance. Of concern, these genes are not yet being taken into account in resistance screening by clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:19822894

  10. Anti-bacterial performance of azithromycin nanoparticles as colloidal drug delivery system against different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Azhdarzadeh, Morteza; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Azithromycin (AZI) is a new macrolide antibiotic with a better activity against intracellular gram negative bacteria in comparison with Erythromycin. The purpose of this research was to prepare AZI nanoparticles (NPs) using PLGA polymer and to compare the effectiveness of prepared nanoparticles with untreated AZI solution. Methods: AZI NPs were prepared by Modified Quasi-Emulsion Solvent Diffusion method. The antibacterial activities of prepared NPs in comparison with AZI solution were assayed against indicator bacteria of Escherichia coli (PTCC 1330), Haemophilus influenzae (PTCC 1623) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PTCC 1240) using agar well diffusion. Inhibition zone diameters (IZD) of nano-formulation were compared to the corresponding untreated AZI. Mean Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of AZI were also determined using serial dilution method in nutrient broth medium. Results: Mean IZD of nano-formulations for all indicator bacteria were significantly higher than that of untreated AZI (P<0.01). The enhanced antibacterial efficacy was more dominant in the gram positive species. The MIC values of NPs against the tested bacteria were reduced 8 times in comparison to those of untreated AZI. Conclusion: These results indicated an improved potency of AZI NPs which could be attributed to the modified surface characteristics as well as increased drug adsorption and uptake. PMID:24312766

  11. In-vitro susceptibility of quinolone-resistant clinical isolates of Escherichia coli to fosfomycin trometamol.

    PubMed

    Ungheri, D; Albini, E; Belluco, G

    2002-06-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most commonly isolated microorganism in uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections (UTI). Due to the increased isolation of E. coli strains resistant to quinolones, it is important to have available alternative drugs to this class of antibiotics as therapy for UTIs caused by this pathogen. Among the large number of currently available antimicrobial agents, fosfomycin trometamol is a useful alternative due to its peculiar microbiological and pharmacokinetic properties. Therefore, we tested the in vitro susceptibility of 79 quinolone-resistant clinical urinary isolates of E. coli to fosfomycin trometamol in comparison with amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole, netilmicin, nitrofurantoin and tetracycline. Fosfomycin trometamol showed high activity with a MIC90 of 4 mg/l. While no strains were resistant to fosfomycin trometamol, 83.5%, 63.3%, 58.2%, and 48.1% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole, respectively. Nitrofurantoin and netilmicin resistance was present only in 12.7% and 6.3% of the strains, respectively. In conclusion, fosfomycin trometamol has retained its activity against quinolone-resistant strains of E. coli and cross-resistance with other classes of antimicrobial agents is not presently a problem. The strains tested did present high levels of resistance to other classes of antibiotics. PMID:12120876

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE CFTR POTENTIATOR IVACAFTOR

    PubMed Central

    Reznikov, Leah R.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Gansemer, Nick D.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ivacaftor increases CFTR channel activity and improves pulmonary function for individuals bearing a G551D mutation. Because ivacaftor structurally resembles quinolone antibiotics, we tested the hypothesis that ivacaftor possesses antibacterial properties. Methods Bioluminescence, colony forming unit, and minimal inhibitory concentration assays were used to assess viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multiple clinical microbial isolates. Results Ivacaftor induced a dose-dependent reduction in bioluminescence of S. aureus and decreased the number of colony forming units. We observed a similar but less robust effect in P. aeruginosa following outer membrane permeabilization. Ivacaftor inhibited the growth of respiratory isolates of S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and exhibited positive interactions with antibiotics against lab and respiratory strains of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Conclusion These data indicate that ivacaftor exhibits antibacterial properties and raise the intriguing possibility that ivacaftor might have an antibiotic effect in people with CF. PMID:24618508

  13. Dynamics of Quinolone Resistance in Fecal Escherichia coli of Finishing Pigs after Ciprofloxacin Administration

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, Kang; XU, Chang-Wen; ZENG, Bo; XIA, Qing-Qing; ZHANG, An-Yun; LEI, Chang-Wei; GUAN, Zhong-Bin; CHENG, Han; WANG, Hong-Ning

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli resistance to quinolones has now become a serious issue in large-scale pig farms of China. It is necessary to study the dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of pigs after antimicrobial administration. Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test this hypothesis, 26 pigs (90 days old, about 30 kg) not fed any antimicrobial after weaning were selected and divided into 2 equal groups: the experimental (EP) group and control (CP) group. Pigs in the EP group were orally treated daily with 5 mg ciprofloxacin/kg of body weight for 30 days, and pigs in the CP group were fed a normal diet. Fresh feces were collected at 16 time points from day 0 to day 61. At each time point, ten E. coli clones were tested for susceptibility to quinolones and mutations of gyrA and parC. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin increased 16-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin administration for 3 days and decreased 256-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin withdrawal for 26 days. GyrA (S83L, D87N/ D87Y) and parC (S80I) substitutions were observed in all quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) clones with an MIC ≥8 µg/ml. This study provides scientific theoretical guidance for the rational use of antimicrobials and the control of bacterial resistance. PMID:24919413

  14. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  15. In vitro interaction of antifungal and antibacterial drugs against Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii before and after capsular induction.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Luana; Loreto, rico S; Venturini, Tarcieli P; Azevedo, Maria I; Weiblen, Carla; Botton, Sonia A; Santurio, Janio M; Alves, Sydney H

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the synergistic interactions between amphotericin B (AMB) and azithromycin (AZM), daptomycin (DAP), linezolid (LNZ), minocycline (MINO), fluconazole (FLZ), flucytosine (5FC), linezolid (LZD), or tigecycline (TIG) against clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii before and after capsule induction. High synergism (>75%) was observed for the combinations, AMB+5FC, AMB+TIG, AMB+AZM, AMB+LZD and AMB+MINO but only in the strains after capsule induction. The results show that the presence of the capsule may lower the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents, but antimicrobial activity can be improved by combining antifungal and antibacterial agents. PMID:26333356

  16. Isoprenoid biosynthesis as a target for antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs: phosphonohydroxamic acids as inhibitors of deoxyxylulose phosphate reducto-isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway is a target against pathogenic bacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. 4-(Hydroxyamino)-4-oxobutylphosphonic acid and 4-[hydroxy(methyl)amino]-4-oxobutyl phosphonic acid, two novel inhibitors of DXR (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reducto-isomerase), the second enzyme of the pathway, have been synthesized and compared with fosmidomycin, the best known inhibitor of this enzyme. The latter phosphonohydroxamic acid showed a high inhibitory activity towards DXR, much like fosmidomycin, as well as significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in tests on Petri dishes. PMID:15473867

  17. Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. Results The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY). Conclusion The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria. PMID:22709668

  18. Orally Bioavailable 6-Chloro-7-methoxy-4(1H)-quinolones Efficacious against Multiple Stages of Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The continued proliferation of malaria throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world has promoted a push for more efficacious treatments to combat the disease. Unfortunately, more recent remedies such as artemisinin combination therapies have been rendered less effective due to developing parasite resistance, and new drugs are required that target the parasite in the liver to support the disease elimination efforts. Research was initiated to revisit antimalarials developed in the 1940s and 1960s that were deemed unsuitable for use as therapeutic agents as a result of poor understanding of both physicochemical properties and parasitology. Structure–activity and structure–property relationship studies were conducted to generate a set of compounds with the general 6-chloro-7-methoxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-quinolone scaffold which were substituted at the 3-position with a variety of phenyl moieties possessing various properties. Extensive physicochemical evaluation of the quinolone series was carried out to downselect the most promising 4(1H)-quinolones, 7, 62, 66, and 67, which possessed low-nanomolar EC50 values against W2 and TM90-C2B as well as improved microsomal stability. Additionally, in vivo Thompson test results using Plasmodium berghei in mice showed that these 4(1H)-quinolones were efficacious for the reduction of parasitemia at >99% after 6 days. PMID:25148516

  19. Phase composition control of calcium phosphate nanoparticles for tunable drug delivery kinetics and treatment of osteomyelitis. II. Antibacterial and osteoblastic response.

    PubMed

    Uskokovi?, Vuk; Desai, Tejal A

    2013-05-01

    Osteomyelitis has been traditionally treated by the combination of long-term antibiotic therapies and surgical removal of diseased tissue. The multifunctional material was developed in this study with the aim to improve this therapeutic approach by: (a) enabling locally delivered and sustained release of antibiotics at a tunable rate, so as to eliminate the need for repetitive administration of systemically distributed antibiotics; and (b) controllably dissolving itself, so as to promote natural remineralization of the portion of bone lost to disease. We report hereby on the effect of previously synthesized calcium phosphates (CAPs) with tunable solubilities and drug release timescales on bacterial and osteoblastic cell cultures. All CAP powders exhibited satisfying antibacterial performance against Staphylococcus aureus, the main causative agent of osteomyelitis. Still, owing to its highest drug adsorption efficiency, the most bacteriostatically effective phase was amorphous CAP with the minimal inhibitory concentration of less than 1 mg/mL. At the same time, the positive cell response and osteogenic effect of the antibiotic-loaded CAP particles was confirmed in vitro for all the sparsely soluble CAP phases. Adsorption of the antibiotic onto CAP particles reversed the deleterious effect that the pure antibiotic exerted on the osteogenic activity of the osteoblastic cells. The simultaneous osteogenic and antimicrobial performance of the material developed in this study, altogether with its ability to exhibit sustained drug release, may favor its consideration as a material base for alternative therapeutic approaches to prolonged antibiotic administration and surgical debridement typically prescribed in the treatment of osteomyelitis. PMID:23115128

  20. Quinolone co-resistance in ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from an Indian urban aquatic environment and their public health implications.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Kanaujia, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Nambram Somendro; Sharma, Shalu; Kumar, Shakti; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Quinolone and β-lactam antibiotics constitute major mainstay of treatment against infections caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli. Presence of E. coli strains expressing co-resistance to both these antibiotic classes in urban aquatic environments which are consistently being used for various anthropogenic activities represents a serious public health concern. From a heterogeneous collection of 61 E. coli strains isolated from the river Yamuna traversing through the National Capital Territory of Delhi (India), those harboring bla CTX-M-15 (n = 10) or bla CMY-42 (n = 2) were investigated for co-resistance to quinolones and the molecular mechanisms thereof. Resistance was primarily attributed to amino acid substitutions in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of GyrA (S83L ± D87N) and ParC (S80I ± E84K). One of the E. coli strains, viz., IPE, also carried substitutions in GyrB and ParE at positions Ser492→Asn and Ser458→Ala, respectively. The phenotypically susceptible strains nevertheless carried plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene, viz., qnrS, which showed co-transfer to the recipient quinolone-sensitive E. coli J53 along with the genes encoding β-lactamases and led to increase in minimal inhibitory concentrations of quinolone antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this represents first report of molecular characterization of quinolone co-resistance in E. coli harboring genes for ESBLs or AmpC β-lactamases from a natural aquatic environment of India. The study warrants true appreciation of the potential of urban aquatic environments in the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistance and underscores the need to characterize resistance genetic elements vis-à-vis their public health implications, irrespective of apparent phenotypic resistance. PMID:26498967

  1. Non-competitive inhibition of GABAA responses by a new class of quinolones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in dissociated frog sensory neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Akaike, N.

    1992-01-01

    1. The interaction of a new class of quinolone antimicrobials (new quinolones) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) with the GABAA receptor-Cl- channel complex was investigated in frog sensory neurones by use of the internal perfusion and 'concentration clamp' techniques. 2. The new quinolones and the NSAIDs (both 10(-6)-10(-5) M) had little effect on the GABA-induced chloride current (ICI) when applied separately. At a concentration of 10(-4) M the new quinolones, and to a lesser degree the NSAIDs, produced some suppression of the GABA response. 3. The co-administration of new quinolones and some NSAIDs (10(-6)-10(-14) M) resulted in a marked suppression of the GABA response. The size of this inhibition was dependent on the concentration of either the new quinolone or the NSAID tested. The inhibitory potency of new quinolones in combination with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA) was in rank order norfloxacin (NFLX) much greater than enoxacin (ENX) greater than ciprofloxancin (CPFX) much greater than ofloxacin (OFLX), and that of NSAIDs in combination with ENX was BPAA much greater than indomethacin = ketoprofen greater than naproxen greater than ibuprofen greater than pranoprofen. Diclofenac, piroxicam and acetaminophen did not affect GABA responses in the presence of ENX. 4. In the presence of ENX or BPAA, there was a small shift to the right of the concentration-response curve for GABA without any effect on the maximum response. However, the co-administration of these drugs suppressed the maximum of the GABA concentration-response curve, indicating a non-competitive inhibition, for which no voltage-dependency was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1317734

  2. Differences in susceptibility to quinolones of outer membrane mutants of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, K; Aoyama, H; Irikura, T; Iyobe, S; Mitsuhashi, S

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of penetration of quinolones through the bacterial outer membrane was studied with lipopolysaccharide-deficient and porin-deficient mutants. The data indicated that the lipopolysaccharide layer might form a permeability barrier for hydrophobic quinolones such as nalidixic acid but not for hydrophilic quinolones such as norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The results also showed that quinolones with a low relative hydrophobicity appeared to permeate through OmpF porin, whereas quinolones with a low relative hydrophobicity appeared to permeate through OmpF porin, whereas quinolones with a high relative hydrophobicity appeared to permeate through both OmpF porin and phospholipid bilayers. PMID:3521490

  3. Association of mutation patterns in GyrA and ParC genes with quinolone resistance levels in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoying; Li, Zhen; Wei, Wan; Ma, Chunyan; Song, Xiaomin; Li, Shufen; He, Wenying; Tian, Jianjun; Huo, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-01

    The quinolone resistance of 19 lactic acid bacterial strains belonging to the genera Enterococcus and Lactobacillus isolated from the natural fermented koumiss and yoghurt were investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the quinolone resistance levels and to explore the association of the resistance with the mutation patterns in gyrA and parC genes, as is currently recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee in Guidelines for Evaluation of Probiotics in Food for probiotic lactic acid bacteria drug resistance in 2001. The Oxford Cup method and double-tube dilution method were used to determine the quinolone resistance levels of the isolated strains. Generally, all of the 19 strains showed resistance towards norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin when the Oxford cup method was used, whereas the incidence was lower (to norfloxacin 89.5% and to ciprofloxacin 68.4%) when minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints (CLSI M100-S23) were tested. Furthermore, gene sequencing was conducted on gyrA and parC of topoisomerase II of these isolated strains. The genetic basis for quinolone resistance may be closely related to mutations in gyrA genes as there were 10 mutation sites in amino-acid sequences encoded by gyrA genes in 10 quinolone resistance strains and 14 mutation sites in Enterococcus durans HZ28, whereas no typical mutations were detected in parC genes. PMID:25204345

  4. Anti-inflammatory drugs interacting with Zn (II) metal ion based on thiocyanate and azide ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic studies, DFT calculations and antibacterial assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiniforoshan, Hossein; Tabrizi, Leila; Hadizade, Morteza; Sabzalian, Mohammad R.; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi; Rezapour, Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Zinc (II) complexes with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) naproxen (nap) and ibuprofen (ibu) were synthesized in the presence of nitrogen donor ligands (thiocyanate or azide). The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopes. The binding modes of the ligands in complexes were established by means of molecular modeling of the complexes, and calculation of their IR, NMR and absorption spectra at DFT (TDDFT)/B3LYP level were studied. The experimental and calculated data verified monodentate binding through the carboxylic oxygen atoms of anti-inflammatory drugs in the zinc complexes. The calculated 1H, FT-IR and UV-Vis data are in better agreement with the experimental results, and confirm the predicted tetrahedral structures for the Zn (II) complexes. In addition to DFT calculations of complexes, natural bond orbital (NBO) was performed at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Biological studies showed the antibacterial activity of zinc complexes against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  5. Three-dimensional structures of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at 1.4 Å resolution and its complex with an antibacterial drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Uridine phosphorylases play an essential role in the cellular metabolism of some antibacterial agents. Acute infectious diseases (bubonic plague, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, etc., caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia) are treated using both sulfanilamide medicines and antibiotics, including trimethoprim. The action of an antibiotic on a bacterial cell is determined primarily by the character of its interactions with cellular components, including those which are not targets (for example, with pyrimidine phosphorylases). This type of interaction should be taken into account in designing drugs. The three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) with the free active site was determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography and refined at 1.40 Å resolution (DPI = 0.062 Å; ID PDB: 4OF4). The structure of the complex of YptUPh with the bacteriostatic drug trimethoprim was studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamics methods. The trimethoprim molecule was shown to be buffered by the enzyme YptUPh, resulting in a decrease in the efficiency of the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia with trimethoprim.

  6. Non-competitive inhibition of GABAA responses by a new class of quinolones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in dissociated frog sensory neurones.

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, T; Shirasaki, T; Akaike, N

    1992-01-01

    1. The interaction of a new class of quinolone antimicrobials (new quinolones) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) with the GABAA receptor-Cl- channel complex was investigated in frog sensory neurones by use of the internal perfusion and 'concentration clamp' techniques. 2. The new quinolones and the NSAIDs (both 10(-6)-10(-5) M) had little effect on the GABA-induced chloride current (ICI) when applied separately. At a concentration of 10(-4) M the new quinolones, and to a lesser degree the NSAIDs, produced some suppression of the GABA response. 3. The co-administration of new quinolones and some NSAIDs (10(-6)-10(-14) M) resulted in a marked suppression of the GABA response. The size of this inhibition was dependent on the concentration of either the new quinolone or the NSAID tested. The inhibitory potency of new quinolones in combination with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA) was in rank order norfloxacin (NFLX) much greater than enoxacin (ENX) greater than ciprofloxancin (CPFX) much greater than ofloxacin (OFLX), and that of NSAIDs in combination with ENX was BPAA much greater than indomethacin = ketoprofen greater than naproxen greater than ibuprofen greater than pranoprofen. Diclofenac, piroxicam and acetaminophen did not affect GABA responses in the presence of ENX. 4. In the presence of ENX or BPAA, there was a small shift to the right of the concentration-response curve for GABA without any effect on the maximum response. However, the co-administration of these drugs suppressed the maximum of the GABA concentration-response curve, indicating a non-competitive inhibition, for which no voltage-dependency was observed.5. Simultaneous administration of ENX and BPAA also suppressed pentobarbitone (PB)-gated Icl. On the other hand, both PB and phenobarbitone reversed the inhibition of GABA-induced Ic, by coadministration of ENX and BPAA.6. The effect on GABAA responses of co-administration of new quinolones and NSAIDs was not via an interaction with benzodiazepine receptors coupled to the GABAA receptor, since this effect was not reversed by Rol5-1788 or diazepam.7. It is concluded that the co-administration of new quinolones and some of the NSAIDs inhibit GABAergic transmission, and could result in convulsions. PMID:1317734

  7. Morphology, drug release, antibacterial, cell proliferation, and histology studies of chamomile-loaded wound dressing mats based on electrospun nanofibrous poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/polystyrene blends.

    PubMed

    Motealleh, Behrooz; Zahedi, Payam; Rezaeian, Iraj; Moghimi, Morvarid; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Zarandi, Mohammad Amin

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, it has been tried to achieve optimum conditions for electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/polystyrene (PCL/PS) nanofibrous samples as active wound dressings containing chamomile via D-optimal design approach. In this work, systematic in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out by drug release rate, antibacterial and antifungal evaluations, cell culture, and rat wound model along with histology observation. The optimized samples were prepared under the following electrospinning conditions: PCL/PS ratio (65/35), PCL concentration 9%(w/v), PS concentration 14%(w/v), distance between the syringe needle tip and the collector 15.5 cm, applied voltage 18 kV, and solution flow rate 0.46 mL h(-1) . The FE-SEM micrographs showed electrospun PCL/PS (65/35) nanofibrous sample containing 15% chamomile had a minimum average diameter (∼175 nm) compared to the neat samples (∼268 nm). The drug released resulted in a gradual and high amount of chamomile from the optimized PCL/PS nanofibrous sample (∼70%) in respect to PCL and PS nanofibers after 48 h. This claim was also confirmed by antibacterial and antifungal evaluations in which an inhibitory zone with a diameter of about 7.6 mm was formed. The rat wound model results also indicated that the samples loaded with 15% chamomile extract were remarkably capable to heal the wounds up to 99 ± 0.5% after 14 days post-treatment periods. The adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells and their viability on the optimized samples were confirmed by MTT analysis. Also, the electrospun nanofibrous mats based on PCL/PS (65/35) showed a high efficiency in the wound closure and healing process compared to the reference sample, PCL/PS nanofibers without chamomile. Finally, the histology analysis revealed that the formation of epithelial tissues, the lack of necrosis and collagen fibers accumulation in the dermis tissues for the above optimized samples. PMID:24259351

  8. Challenges of Antibacterial Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Lynn L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The discovery of novel small-molecule antibacterial drugs has been stalled for many years. The purpose of this review is to underscore and illustrate those scientific problems unique to the discovery and optimization of novel antibacterial agents that have adversely affected the output of the effort. The major challenges fall into two areas: (i) proper target selection, particularly the necessity of pursuing molecular targets that are not prone to rapid resistance development, and (ii) improvement of chemical libraries to overcome limitations of diversity, especially that which is necessary to overcome barriers to bacterial entry and proclivity to be effluxed, especially in Gram-negative organisms. Failure to address these problems has led to a great deal of misdirected effort. PMID:21233508

  9. Determination of quinolones in water samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Prat, M D; Benito, J; Compañó, R; Hernández-Arteseros, J A; Granados, M

    2004-07-01

    A method is reported for the determination, in water samples, of 10 quinolones which are used as veterinary drugs. Analytes are isolated from samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using fluorimetric detection. A solid-phase extraction procedure based on retention on HBL OASIS cartridges and elution with a mixture of acetonitrile-water in basic medium is suitable for pre-concentration of the analytes. Pre-concentration factors up to 250 can be obtained. The quinolones are separated with an octyl silica-based column and mobile phases consisting of aqueous oxalic acid solutions and acetonitrile mixtures. The attained detection limits of the whole process are in the ng l(-1) level when 250 ml of water sample is processed. Recovery rates, from natural water samples spiked at 2060 ng l(-1) level, range from 70 to 100% and common standard deviation are about 6-12%. PMID:15281251

  10. Determining the formulary status of quinolone antibiotics: one institution's approach.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, C H; Lubowski, T; On, A; Quintiliani, R

    1992-05-01

    Streamlining antibiotic therapy--ie, simplifying regimens, route of administration, or both--is necessary in the modern treatment of hospitalized patients with infectious diseases. Due to their pharmacokinetic profiles and comparative efficacy and safety, the quinolone class of antibiotics is an ideal class for which to direct streamlining efforts. Including only one agent of this class on the formulary, however, is inadequate. Having several quinolones available, and thus expanding the local hospital market for them, enables more physicians to be contacted and educated by manufacturers' sales representatives as part of the hospital's antibiotic management program. By assisting in the education efforts, pharmaceutical representative help to conserve hospital resources, both in terms of cost and personnel. In addition, having more than one supplier of quinolones encourages competition, which favors price reductions. PMID:10128710

  11. 76 FR 39883 - Design of Clinical Trials for Systemic Antibacterial Drugs for the Treatment of Acute Otitis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    .... ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public..., address, telephone, and fax number) to Otitisworkshop@fda.hhs.gov . Persons without access to the Internet.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: FDA is announcing a public workshop regarding scientific considerations in the...

  12. Characterisation of novel mutations involved in quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from imported shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Sung, Kidon; Kweon, Ohgew; Khan, Saeed; Nawaz, Samia; Steele, Roger

    2015-05-01

    Fifty-five nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli strains were isolated from imported shrimp. Purified PCR amplicons of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE from the template DNA of all isolates were sequenced and analysed for point mutations that confer resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of GyrA at positions 68, 83 and 87 and in ParC at positions 80 and 84 as well as in the non-QRDR of GyrA at positions 112, 127, 128 and 154 along with point mutations in parE at position 476 conferred resistance to these antibiotics. Computational modelling and analysis of the different point mutations and their role in the enhanced resistance to these antibiotics indicated that only mutation at codons 83 (Ser?Ile) and 87 (Asp?Asn) played a vital role in increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to these drugs compared with other mutations. Ethidium bromide experiments indicated higher efflux pump activities in quinolone-resistant E. coli strains compared with their quinolone-sensitive counterparts. Class 1 integrons measuring 0.7-2.3kb were amplified and sequenced from the template DNA of the isolates. Sequence analysis of the 2.0kb and 1.7kb integrons indicated the presence of resistance determinants for trimethoprim (dfrA12 and dfrA17) and aminoglycosides (aadA2 and aadA5). These results indicate that use of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics in shrimp aquaculture ponds may select E. coli resistant to these antibiotics and that imported shrimp is a reservoir of multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli. PMID:25631675

  13. The effects of quinolones and NSAIDs upon GABA-evoked currents recorded from rat dorsal root ganglion neurones.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, R F; Davey, P G; Lambert, J J

    1991-02-01

    Recent animal studies have demonstrated a proconvulsant effect of certain quinolone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug combinations. Radioligand binding experiments have indicated that these actions may be mediated by antagonism of the GABAA receptor. The present study has further investigated this hypothesis in a functional assay by examining the effects of the quinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin alone and in combination with either fenbufen or biphenyl acetic acid (BPAA) upon GABA-evoked currents recorded from voltage-clamped rat dorsal root ganglion neurones (DRG) maintained in cell culture. GABA-evoked whole cell currents were weakly but dose-dependently (30 microM-1 mM) reduced in the presence of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. The IC50 for ciprofloxacin was 100 microM but greater than 1 mM for ofloxacin. Application of either fenbufen (100 microM) or BPAA (100 microM) alone produced little effect on the GABA-evoked currents. However, the inhibitory action of ciprofloxacin was enhanced in the presence of 100 microM fenbufen by approximately five-fold whereas the antagonism of GABA responses by ofloxacin was unaffected. In contrast, BPAA (100 microM) had a dramatic effect on the inhibitory actions of both antibiotics such that the IC50 for ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin was reduced to 0.03 and 0.3 microM respectively. The present results support earlier binding studies and extend them by demonstrating electrophysiologically a potent quinolone/NSAID drug interaction at the GABAA receptor. The mechanism(s) of this novel interaction remains to be determined. These results are commensurate with clinical observations of an increased risk of fits in patients prescribed certain quinolones together with certain NSAIDs. PMID:1647389

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Novel Cationic Peptides against Clinical Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed F.; Hammac, G. Kenitra; Guptill, Lynn; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (?-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 M and MIC90 of 2 M. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 D isoform demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 M and MIC90 of 8 M. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 M and MIC90 of 16 M. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and ciprofloxacin increased 32 and 8 fold, respectively; under similar conditions. Taken together, these results support designing of peptide-based therapeutics for combating MRSP infections, particularly for topical application. PMID:25551573

  15. Antistaphylococcal Activity of DX-619, a New Des-F(6)-Quinolone, Compared to Those of Other Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Esel, Duygu; Kelly, Linda M.; Bozdogan, Blent; Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M.; Hoellman, Dianne B.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2005-01-01

    The in vitro activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, was tested against staphylococci and compared to those of other antimicrobials. DX-619 had the lowest MIC ranges/MIC50s/MIC90s (?g/ml) against 131 Staphylococcus aureus strains (?0.002 to 2.0/0.06/0.5) and 128 coagulase-negative staphylococci (0.004 to 0.25/0.016/0.125). Among strains tested, 76 S. aureus strains and 51 coagulase-negative staphylococci were resistant to ciprofloxacin. DX-619 had the lowest MIC50/MIC90 values against 127 quinolone-resistant staphylococci (0.125/0.5), followed by sitafloxacin (0.5/4), moxifloxacin (2/8), gatifloxacin (4/16), levofloxacin (16/>32), and ciprofloxacin (>32/>32). Raised quinolone MICs were associated with mutations in GyrA (S84L) and single or double mutations in GrlA (S80F or Y; E84K, G, or V) in all S. aureus strains tested. A recent vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strain (Hershey) was resistant to available quinolones and was inhibited by DX-619 at 0.25 ?g/ml and sitafloxacin at 1.0 ?g/ml. Vancomycin (except VRSA), linezolid, ranbezolid, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all strains, and teicoplanin was active against S. aureus but less active against coagulase-negative staphylococci. DX-619 produced resistant mutants with MICs of 1 to >32 ?g/ml after <50 days of selection compared to 16 to >32 ?g/ml for ciprofloxacin, sitafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were also more active than other tested drugs against selected mutants and had the lowest mutation frequencies in single-step resistance selection. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were bactericidal against six quinolone-resistant (including the VRSA) and seven quinolone-susceptible strains tested, whereas gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were bactericidal against 11, 10, 7, and 5 strains at 4 MIC after 24 h, respectively. DX-619 was also bactericidal against one other VRSA strain, five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains, and four vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci. Linezolid, ranbezolid, and tigecycline were bacteriostatic and quinupristin-dalfopristin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were bactericidal against two, eight, and nine strains, and daptomycin and oritavancin were rapidly bactericidal against all strains, including the VRSA. DX-619 has potent in vitro activity against staphylococci, including methicillin-, ciprofloxacin-, and vancomycin-resistant strains. PMID:16048943

  16. Antistaphylococcal activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, compared to those of other agents.

    PubMed

    Bogdanovich, Tatiana; Esel, Duygu; Kelly, Linda M; Bozdogan, Blent; Credito, Kim; Lin, Gengrong; Smith, Kathy; Ednie, Lois M; Hoellman, Dianne B; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2005-08-01

    The in vitro activity of DX-619, a new des-F(6)-quinolone, was tested against staphylococci and compared to those of other antimicrobials. DX-619 had the lowest MIC ranges/MIC(50)s/MIC(90)s (microg/ml) against 131 Staphylococcus aureus strains (quinolone-resistant staphylococci (0.125/0.5), followed by sitafloxacin (0.5/4), moxifloxacin (2/8), gatifloxacin (4/16), levofloxacin (16/>32), and ciprofloxacin (>32/>32). Raised quinolone MICs were associated with mutations in GyrA (S84L) and single or double mutations in GrlA (S80F or Y; E84K, G, or V) in all S. aureus strains tested. A recent vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) strain (Hershey) was resistant to available quinolones and was inhibited by DX-619 at 0.25 microg/ml and sitafloxacin at 1.0 microg/ml. Vancomycin (except VRSA), linezolid, ranbezolid, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were active against all strains, and teicoplanin was active against S. aureus but less active against coagulase-negative staphylococci. DX-619 produced resistant mutants with MICs of 1 to >32 microg/ml after <50 days of selection compared to 16 to >32 microg/ml for ciprofloxacin, sitafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were also more active than other tested drugs against selected mutants and had the lowest mutation frequencies in single-step resistance selection. DX-619 and sitafloxacin were bactericidal against six quinolone-resistant (including the VRSA) and seven quinolone-susceptible strains tested, whereas gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were bactericidal against 11, 10, 7, and 5 strains at 4x MIC after 24 h, respectively. DX-619 was also bactericidal against one other VRSA strain, five vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains, and four vancomycin-intermediate coagulase-negative staphylococci. Linezolid, ranbezolid, and tigecycline were bacteriostatic and quinupristin-dalfopristin, teicoplanin, and vancomycin were bactericidal against two, eight, and nine strains, and daptomycin and oritavancin were rapidly bactericidal against all strains, including the VRSA. DX-619 has potent in vitro activity against staphylococci, including methicillin-, ciprofloxacin-, and vancomycin-resistant strains. PMID:16048943

  17. Electrochemical evaluation of antibacterial drugs as environment-friendly inhibitors for corrosion of carbon steel in HCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestani, Gh.; Shahidi, M.; Ghazanfari, D.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin drugs on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel (ASTM 1015) in 1.0 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these drugs was also studied. Some thermodynamic parameters were computed from the effect of temperature on corrosion and inhibition processes. Adsorption of these inhibitors was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. There was a case of mixed mode of adsorption here but while penicillin was adsorbed mainly through chemisorption, two other drugs were adsorbed mainly through physisorption. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed type. In addition, this paper suggests that the electrochemical noise (EN) technique under open circuit conditions as the truly noninvasive electrochemical method can be employed for the quantitative evaluation of corrosion inhibition. This was done by using the standard deviation of partial signal (SDPS) for calculation of the amount of noise charges at the particular interval of frequency, thereby obtaining the inhibition efficiency (IE) of an inhibitor. These IE values showed a reasonable agreement with those obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements.

  18. 4-(1H)-Quinolones and 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones prevent the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum to Anopheles freeborni.

    PubMed

    Senz, Fabin E; Lacrue, Alexis N; Cross, R Matthew; Maignan, Jordany R; Udenze, Kenneth O; Manetsch, Roman; Kyle, Dennis E

    2013-12-01

    Malaria kills approximately 1 million people a year, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Essential steps in the life cycle of the parasite are the development of gametocytes, as well as the formation of oocysts and sporozoites, in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Preventing transmission of malaria through the mosquito is necessary for the control of the disease; nevertheless, the vast majority of drugs in use act primarily against the blood stages. The study described herein focuses on the assessment of the transmission-blocking activities of potent antierythrocytic stage agents derived from the 4(1H)-quinolone scaffold. In particular, three 3-alkyl- or 3-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolones (P4Qs), one 7-(2-phenoxyethoxy)-4(1H)-quinolone (PEQ), and one 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-one (THA) were assessed for their transmission-blocking activity against the mosquito stages of the human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) and the rodent parasite (P. berghei). Results showed that all of the experimental compounds reduced or prevented the exflagellation of male gametocytes and, more importantly, prevented parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. Additionally, treatment with ICI 56,780 reduced the number of sporozoites that reached the Anopheles salivary glands. These findings suggest that 4(1H)-quinolones, which have activity against the blood stages, can also prevent the transmission of Plasmodium to the mosquito and, hence, are potentially important drug candidates to eradicate malaria. PMID:24080648

  19. Design, Synthesis, and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Novel Quinolone Imidazoles and Interactions with MRSA DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kumar, Kannekanti Vijaya; Rasheed, Syed; Geng, Rong-Xia; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2015-10-01

    A novel series of quinolone imidazoles as new type of antimicrobial agents were synthesized. Most compounds exhibited good bioactivities especially against MRSA even superior to reference drugs. They induced bacterial resistance more slowly than clinical drugs and gave low cytotoxicity to human cells. The pKa values of these compounds showed appropriate ranges to pharmacokinetic behaviors. The interactions between compound 8b, Cu(2+) ion, and MRSA DNA revealed that compound 8b could intercalate into DNA through copper ion bridge to form a steady 8b-Cu(2+) -DNA ternary complex which might further block DNA replication to exert the powerful bioactivities. Study of compound 8b with human serum albumin indicated that compound 8b could be effectively stored and carried by human serum albumin. PMID:25640690

  20. Longitudinal surveillance of outpatient quinolone antimicrobial use in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Finley, Rita; Hutchinson, Jim; Patrick, David M; Weiss, Karl; Conly, John

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Because antimicrobial use is commonly associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance, monitoring the volume and patterns of use of these agents is important. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of quinolone antimicrobials within Canadian provinces over time. METHODS: Antimicrobial prescribing data collected by IMS Health Canada were acquired from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance and the Canadian Committee for Antimicrobial Resistance, and were used to calculate two yearly metrics: prescriptions per 1000 inhabitant-days and the mean defined daily doses (DDDs) per prescription. These measures were used to produce linear mixed models to assess differences among provinces and over time, while accounting for repeated measurements. RESULTS: The quinolone class of antimicrobials is used similarly among Canadian provinces. Year-to-year increases in quinolone prescribing occurred from 1995 to 2010, with a levelling off in the latter years. Year-to-year decreases in the DDDs per prescription were found to be significant from 2000 to 2010. DISCUSSION: Although the overall use of antimicrobials differs significantly among Canadian provinces, the use of the quinolone class does not vary at the provincial level. Results suggest that prescribing of ciprofloxacin may be a potential target for antimicrobial stewardship programs; however, decreases in the average DDDs per prescription suggest continued uptake of appropriate treatment guidelines. PMID:24855478

  1. Role of the outer membrane for quinolone resistance in enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Dechne, M; Leying, H; Cullmann, W

    1990-01-01

    Quinolone-resistant clones were selected from clinical Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens isolates in a frequency ranging from 10(-8) to 10(-6). The outer membrane proteins of quinolone-resistant E. coli clones remained unaltered, as was the case for 10 of 11 C. freundii and 4 of 11 S. marcescens clones ('nal B' type). There was no strong relation between alterations of outer membrane proteins and cross-resistance with chemically unrelated compounds such as tetracycline or chloramphenicol; however, tetracycline resistance was observed in some C. freundii clones with unaltered outer membrane proteins ('mar A'). Most of the quinolone-resistant S. marcescens clones can be considered 'nor B' or 'nor C' mutants due to their cross-resistance with other compounds, their altered outer membrane proteins and changes of lipopolysaccharide. In a few cases, subinhibitory quinolone concentrations caused alterations of outer membrane proteins in S. marcescens during mid log phase without development of resistance. PMID:2106416

  2. Identification and characterization of a type III polyketide synthase involved in quinolone alkaloid biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa.

    PubMed

    Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2013-03-01

    Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

  3. In vitro antibacterial activity of some antihistaminics belonging to different groups against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    El-Nakeeb, Moustafa A; Abou-Shleib, Hamida M; Khalil, Amal M; Omar, Hoda G; El-Halfawy, Omar M

    2011-07-01

    Antihistaminics are widely used for various indications during microbial infection. Hence, this paper investigates the antimicrobial activities of 10 antihistaminics belonging to both old and new generations using multiresistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates. The bacteriostatic activity of antihistaminics was investigated by determining their MIC both by broth and agar dilution techniques against 29 bacterial strains. Azelastine, cyproheptadine, mequitazine and promethazine were the most active among the tested drugs. Diphenhydramine and cetirizine possessed weaker activity whereas doxylamine, fexofenadine and loratadine were inactive even at the highest tested concentration (1 mg/ml). The MIC of meclozine could not be determined as it precipitated with the used culture media. The MBC values of antihistaminics were almost identical to the corresponding MIC values. The bactericidal activity of antihistaminics was also studied by the viable count technique in sterile saline solution. Evident killing effects were exerted by mequitazine, meclozine, azelastine and cyproheptadine. Moreover, the dynamics of bactericidal activity of azelastine were studied by the viable count technique in nutrient broth. This activity was found to be concentration-dependant. This effect was reduced on increasing the inoculum size while it was increased on raising the pH. The post-antimicrobial effect of 100 ?g/ml azelastine was also determined and reached up to 3.36 h. PMID:24031715

  4. Sequence-motif Detection of NAD(P)-binding Proteins: Discovery of a Unique Antibacterial Drug Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yun Hao; Wu, Chih Yuan; Sargsyan, Karen; Lim, Carmay

    2014-09-01

    Many enzymes use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)) as essential coenzymes. These enzymes often do not share significant sequence identity and cannot be easily detected by sequence homology. Previously, we determined all distinct locally conserved pyrophosphate-binding structures (3d motifs) from NAD(P)-bound protein structures, from which 1d sequence motifs were derived. Here, we aim to establish the precision of these 3d and 1d motifs to annotate NAD(P)-binding proteins. We show that the pyrophosphate-binding 3d motifs are characteristic of NAD(P)-binding proteins, as they are rarely found in nonNAD(P)-binding proteins. Furthermore, several 1d motifs could distinguish between proteins that bind only NAD and those that bind only NADP. They could also distinguish between NAD(P)-binding proteins from nonNAD(P)-binding ones. Interestingly, one of the pyrophosphate-binding 3d and corresponding 1d motifs was found only in enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases, which are enzymes essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. This unique 3d motif serves as an attractive novel drug target, as it is conserved across many bacterial species and is not found in human proteins.

  5. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of novel 4?-glycyl linked quinolyl-azithromycins with potent activity against macrolide-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pavlovi?, Draen; Mutak, Stjepan

    2016-03-15

    A new azithromycin-based series of antibacterial macrolones is reported, which features the use of a 4?-ester linked glycin for tethering the quinolone side chain to the macrolide scaffold. Among the analogs prepared, compounds 9e and 22f with a quinolon-6-yl moiety were found to have potent and well-balanced activity against clinically important respiratory tract pathogens, including erythromycin-susceptible and MLSB resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae. In addition, potential lead compounds 9e and 22f demonstrated outstanding levels of activity against Moraxella catarrhalis and inducibly MLSB resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The best member of this series 22f rivals or exceeds, in potency, some of the most active ketolide antibacterial agents known today, such as telithromycin and cethromycin. PMID:26860929

  6. Small organometallic compounds as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Patra, Malay; Gasser, Gilles; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2012-06-01

    The emergence of bacterial resistance to commercial antibiotics is an issue of global importance. During the last two decades, the number of antibacterial agents that have been discovered and introduced into the market has steadily declined and failed to meet the challenges posed by rapidly increasing resistance of the pathogens against common antibacterial drugs. The development of new classes of compounds to control the virulence of the pathogens is therefore urgently required. This perspective describes the historical development in brief and recent advances on the preparation of small organometallic compounds as new classes of antibacterial agents with potential for clinical development. PMID:22411216

  7. Quinolone resistance and ornithine decarboxylation activity in lactose-negative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gomig, Franciane; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; de Freitas, Denis Leandro; Labas, Larissa; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Esmerino, Luiz Antonio; de Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Appel, Marcia Helena; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Nader, Helena Bonciani; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are widely used to treat uropathogenic Escherichia coli infections. Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials primarily involves mutations in gyrA and parC genes. To date, no studies have examined the potential relationship between biochemical characteristics and quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E. coli strains. The present work analyzed the quinolone sensitivity and biochemical activities of fifty-eight lactose-negative uropathogenic E. coli strains. A high percentage of the isolates (48.3%) was found to be resistant to at least one of the tested quinolones, and DNA sequencing revealed quinolone resistant determining region gyrA and parC mutations in the multi-resistant isolates. Statistical analyses suggested that the lack of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is correlated with quinolone resistance. Despite the low number of isolates examined, this is the first study correlating these characteristics in lactose-negative E. coli isolates. PMID:26413057

  8. Effects of quinolones on nucleoid segregation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Georgopapadakou, N H; Bertasso, A

    1991-01-01

    The effects of quinolone antibiotics on nucleoid segregation in growing Escherichia coli were examined by using fleroxacin (Ro 23-6240, AM 833) as a prototype compound. At levels that were close to its MIC and induced growth arrest and filamentation, fleroxacin caused large nucleoids to appear in midcell, suggesting inhibition of nucleoid segregation. With increasing fleroxacin concentrations, nucleoids became progressively smaller, suggesting inhibition of DNA replication. Removal of fleroxacin restored normal cell and nucleoid morphology in filaments with large nucleoids but not in filaments with small nucleoids. The results are consistent with inhibition of chromosome decatenation at low quinolone concentrations (bacteriostatic effect) and DNA supercoiling at high concentrations (bactericidal effect). Images PMID:1810201

  9. Incidence, epidemiology, and characteristics of quinolone-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Pankuch, Glenn A; Bozdogan, Bülent; Nagai, Kensuke; Tambić-Andrasević, Arjana; Schoenwald, Slavko; Tambić, Tera; Kalenić, Smilja; Plesko, Sanja; Tepes, Nastja K; Kotarski, Zdenka; Payerl-Pal, Marina; Appelbaum, Peter C

    2002-08-01

    Among 585 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in 22 Croatian hospitals 21 strains (3.6%) were quinolone nonsusceptible. MICs of all quinolones were high for seven strains tested with the same serotype (23F) and mutations in gyrA, parC, and parE. The remaining 14 strains were more heterogeneous and had mutations only in parC and/or parE, and the MICs of quinolones were lower for these strains. PMID:12121954

  10. Incidence, Epidemiology, and Characteristics of Quinolone- Nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Pankuch, Glenn A.; Bozdogan, Bülent; Nagai, Kensuke; Tambić-Andrašević, Arjana; Schoenwald, Slavko; Tambić, Tera; Kalenić, Smilja; Pleško, Sanja; Tepeš, Nastja K.; Kotarski, Zdenka; Payerl-Pal, Marina; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    Among 585 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in 22 Croatian hospitals 21 strains (3.6%) were quinolone nonsusceptible. MICs of all quinolones were high for seven strains tested with the same serotype (23F) and mutations in gyrA, parC, and parE. The remaining 14 strains were more heterogeneous and had mutations only in parC and/or parE, and the MICs of quinolones were lower for these strains. PMID:12121954

  11. [Antibacterial and anti-algal activity if two traditional drugs in the treatment of urinary tract infection and cystitis in Mali].

    PubMed

    Rokia, Sanogo; Drissa, Diallo; Seydou, Diarra; Colette, Ekoumou; Flabou, Bougoudogo

    2006-01-01

    For the treatment of the urinary infections and the cystitis, the medicinal plants constitute a source of new molecules with an antimicrobial activity and economically accessible to face the apparition of a phenomena of germ resistance to antibiotics. The urinary infections and the cystitis are very spilled and constitute a problem of public health in developing countries. About 50% of women develop a symptomatic urinary tract infection at least once in their life. The urinary infection is, by order of frequency, the first of the non epidemic infectious illnesses. The objective of our survey is to find in Malian Pharmacopoeia, plants with antibacterial and analgesic properties. Five remedies and their plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of the urinary tract infections and the cystitis have been selected on the basis of ethnobotanic investigations results. Extracts of five remedies and their plants have been tested for their antibacterial activity on the germs responsible for the urinary infections and the cystitis. Extracts containing Stylosanthes erecta P. Beauv (Fabaceae) demonstrated an antibacterial activity against clinical strains of Escherichia coli, responsible of 75 to 80% of the urinary infections. The same extracts demonstrated an analgesic activity against the pain induced by the acetic acid in mice. The antibacterial and analgesic properties can be of great benefit in the treatment of the urinary tract infections and the cystitis. PMID:17390524

  12. Targeting Integrin-Dependent Adhesion and Signaling with 3-Arylquinoline and 3-Aryl-2-Quinolone Derivatives: A new Class of Integrin Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Fiorucci, Sandrine; Lin, Xiaochen; Sadoul, Karin; Fournet, Guy; Bouvard, Daniel; Vinogradova, Olga; Joseph, Benoît; Block, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the anti-migratory function of 3-aryl-2-quinolone derivatives, chemically close to flavonoids (Joseph et al., 2002). Herein we show that 3-arylquinoline or 3-aryl-2-quinolone derivatives disrupt cell adhesion in a dose dependent and reversible manner yet antagonized by artificial integrin activation such as manganese. Relying on this anti-adhesive activity, a Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) study was established on 20 different compounds to throw the bases of future optimization strategies. Active drugs efficiently inhibit platelet spreading, aggregation, and clot retraction, processes that rely on αllbβ3 integrin activation and clustering. In vitro these derivatives interfere with β3 cytoplasmic tail interaction with kindlin-2 in pulldown assays albeit little effect was observed with pure proteins suggesting that the drugs may block an alternative integrin activation process that may not be directly related to kindlin recruitment. Ex vivo, these drugs blunt integrin signaling assayed using focal adhesion kinase auto-phosphorylation as a read-out. Hence, 3-arylquinoline and 3-aryl-2-quinolone series are a novel class of integrin activation and signaling antagonists. PMID:26509443

  13. Quinolone and Cephalosporin Resistance in Enteric Fever

    PubMed Central

    Capoor, Malini Rajinder; Nair, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. Ciprofloxacin resistance has now become a norm in the Indian subcontinent. Novel molecular substitutions may become frequent in future owing to selective pressures exerted by the irrational use of ciprofloxacin in human and veterinary therapeutics, in a population endemic with nalidixic acid-resistant strains. The therapeutics of ciprofloxacin-resistant enteric fever narrows down to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, tigecycline and penems. The first-line antimicrobials ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole need to be rolled back. Antimicrobial surveillance coupled with molecular analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance is warranted for reconfirming novel and established molecular patterns for therapeutic reappraisal and for novel-drug targets. This review explores the antimicrobial resistance and its molecular mechanisms, as well as novel drugs in the therapy of enteric fever. PMID:20927288

  14. Structure activity relationship of C-2 ether substituted 1,5-naphthyridine analogs of oxabicyclooctane-linked novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents (Part-5).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheo B; Kaelin, David E; Meinke, Peter T; Wu, Jin; Miesel, Lynn; Tan, Christopher M; Olsen, David B; Lagrutta, Armando; Fukuda, Hideyuki; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Takano, Hisashi; Ohata, Kohei; Kurasaki, Haruaki; Nishimura, Akinori; Shibata, Takeshi; Fukuda, Yasumichi

    2015-09-01

    Oxabicyclooctane linked novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) are new class of recently reported broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. They target bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and bind to a site different than quinolones. They show no cross-resistance to known antibiotics and provide opportunity to combat drug-resistant bacteria. A structure activity relationship of the C-2 substituted ether analogs of 1,5-naphthyridine oxabicyclooctane-linked NBTIs are described. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of a total of 63 analogs have been summarized representing alkyl, cyclo alkyl, fluoro alkyl, hydroxy alkyl, amino alkyl, and carboxyl alkyl ethers. All compounds were tested against three key strains each of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as for hERG binding activities. Many key compounds were also tested for the functional hERG activity. Six compounds were evaluated for efficacy in a murine bacteremia model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Significant tolerance for the ether substitution (including polar groups such as amino and carboxyl) at C-2 was observed for S. aureus activity however the same was not true for Enterococcus faecium and Gram-negative strains. Reduced clogD generally showed reduced hERG activity and improved in vivo efficacy but was generally associated with decreased overall potency. One of the best compounds was hydroxy propyl ether (16), which mainly retained the potency, spectrum and in vivo efficacy of AM8085 associated with the decreased hERG activity and improved physical property. PMID:26152426

  15. Differential Distribution of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Clinical Enterobacteria with Unusual Phenotypes of Quinolone Susceptibility from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Patricia; Lucero, Celeste; Soler-Bistu, Alfonso; Guerriero, Leonor; Albornoz, Ezequiel; Tran, Tung; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Galas, Marcelo; Corso, Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2013-01-01

    We studied a collection of 105 clinical enterobacteria with unusual phenotypes of quinolone susceptibility to analyze the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and oqx genes and their implications for quinolone susceptibility. The oqxA and oqxB genes were found in 31/34 (91%) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1/3 Klebsiella oxytoca isolates. However, the oqxA- and oqxB-harboring isolates lacking other known quinolone resistance determinants showed wide ranges of susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Sixty of the 105 isolates (57%) harbored at least one PMQR gene [qnrB19, qnrB10, qnrB2, qnrB1, qnrS1, or aac(6?)-Ib-cr)], belong to 8 enterobacterial species, and were disseminated throughout the country, and most of them were categorized as susceptible by the current clinical quinolone susceptibility breakpoints. We developed a disk diffusion-based method to improve the phenotypic detection of aac(6?)-Ib-cr. The most common PMQR genes in our collection [qnrB19, qnrB10, and aac(6?)-Ib-cr] were differentially distributed among enterobacterial species, and two different epidemiological settings were evident. First, the species associated with community-acquired infections (Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli) mainly harbored qnrB19 (a unique PMQR gene) located in small ColE1-type plasmids that might constitute its natural reservoirs. qnrB19 was not associated with an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase phenotype. Second, the species associated with hospital-acquired infections (Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Serratia marcescens) mainly harbored qnrB10 in ISCR1-containing class 1 integrons that may also have aac(6?)-Ib-cr as a cassette within the variable region. These two PMQR genes were strongly associated with an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase phenotype. Therefore, this differential distribution of PMQR genes is strongly influenced by their linkage or lack of linkage to integrons. PMID:23478955

  16. Differential distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in clinical enterobacteria with unusual phenotypes of quinolone susceptibility from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Andres, Patricia; Lucero, Celeste; Soler-Bistu, Alfonso; Guerriero, Leonor; Albornoz, Ezequiel; Tran, Tung; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Galas, Marcelo; Corso, Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E; Petroni, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    We studied a collection of 105 clinical enterobacteria with unusual phenotypes of quinolone susceptibility to analyze the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and oqx genes and their implications for quinolone susceptibility. The oqxA and oqxB genes were found in 31/34 (91%) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1/3 Klebsiella oxytoca isolates. However, the oqxA- and oqxB-harboring isolates lacking other known quinolone resistance determinants showed wide ranges of susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Sixty of the 105 isolates (57%) harbored at least one PMQR gene [qnrB19, qnrB10, qnrB2, qnrB1, qnrS1, or aac(6')-Ib-cr)], belong to 8 enterobacterial species, and were disseminated throughout the country, and most of them were categorized as susceptible by the current clinical quinolone susceptibility breakpoints. We developed a disk diffusion-based method to improve the phenotypic detection of aac(6')-Ib-cr. The most common PMQR genes in our collection [qnrB19, qnrB10, and aac(6')-Ib-cr] were differentially distributed among enterobacterial species, and two different epidemiological settings were evident. First, the species associated with community-acquired infections (Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli) mainly harbored qnrB19 (a unique PMQR gene) located in small ColE1-type plasmids that might constitute its natural reservoirs. qnrB19 was not associated with an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase phenotype. Second, the species associated with hospital-acquired infections (Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Serratia marcescens) mainly harbored qnrB10 in ISCR1-containing class 1 integrons that may also have aac(6')-Ib-cr as a cassette within the variable region. These two PMQR genes were strongly associated with an extended-spectrum ?-lactamase phenotype. Therefore, this differential distribution of PMQR genes is strongly influenced by their linkage or lack of linkage to integrons. PMID:23478955

  17. Molecular study of quinolone resistance mechanisms and clonal relationship of Salmonella enterica clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Ballesté-Delpierre, Clara; Solé, Mar; Domènech, Òscar; Borrell, Jordi; Vila, Jordi; Fàbrega, Anna

    2014-02-01

    In the last few years, the number of Salmonella enterica strains resistant to nalidixic acid has steadily increased. In a previous study, the quinolone susceptibility phenotype and genotype of 38 S. enterica clinical isolates (19 S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and 19 S. enterica serovar Enteritidis) were determined. Forty-two percent of the isolates showed nalidixic acid resistance associated with a mutation in gyrA together with putative overexpression of efflux pump(s). In this study, mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of parE and the regulators of AcrAB (acrR, marRAB, soxRS and ramR) were analysed. Intracellular accumulation of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was determined. Gene expression of the efflux pump components acrB, tolC, acrF and emrB was also assessed. In addition, an epidemiological study of the isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed. No mutations were detected in parE, whereas two amino acid substitutions were found in two susceptible strains in MarR (I84L) and AcrR (N214T) in one strain each, although both were suggested to be polymorphisms. No changes in the gene expression of acrB, tolC, acrF and emrB were detected between nalidixic-acid-resistant and -susceptible strains. Intracellular accumulation was not useful to reveal differences. Epidemiological analysis showed an important clonal relatedness among the S. Enteritidis isolates, whereas major divergence was seen for S. Typhimurium. Altogether, these results suggest the presence of previously undiscovered drug efflux pump(s) and confirm the high clonality of S. Enteritidis and the genetic divergence of S. Typhimurium. PMID:24139882

  18. Bypassing Fluoroquinolone Resistance with Quinazolinediones: Studies of DrugGyraseDNA Complexes Having Implications for Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Widespread fluoroquinolone resistance has drawn attention to quinazolinediones (diones), fluoroquinolone-like topoisomerase poisons that are unaffected by common quinolone-resistance mutations. To better understand differences between quinolones and diones, we examined their impact on the formation of cleaved complexes (drugtopoisomeraseDNA complexes in which the DNA moiety is broken) with gyrase, one of two bacterial targets of the drugs. Formation of cleaved complexes, measured by linearization of a circular DNA substrate, required lower concentrations of quinolone than dione. The reverse reaction, detected as resealing of DNA breaks in cleaved complexes, required higher temperatures and EDTA concentrations for quinolones than diones. The greater stability of quinolone-containing complexes was attributed to the unique ability of the quinolone C3/C4 keto acid to complex with magnesium and form a previously described drugmagnesiumwater bridge with GyrA-Ser83 and GyrA-Asp87. A nearby substitution in GyrA (G81C) reduced activity differences between quinolone and dione, indicating that resistance due to this variation derives from perturbation of the magnesiumwater bridge. To increase dione activity, we examined a relatively small, flexible C-7-3-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidinyl substituent, which is distal to the bridging C3/C4 keto acid substituent of quinolones. The 3-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidinyl group at position C-7 was capable of forming binding interactions with GyrB-Glu466, as indicated by inspection of crystal structures, computer-aided docking, and measurement of cleaved-complex formation with mutant and wild-type GyrB proteins. Thus, modification of dione C-7 substituents constitutes a strategy for obtaining compounds active against common quinolone-resistant mutants. PMID:25310082

  19. Generation of quinolone antimalarials targeting the Plasmodium falciparum mitochondrial respiratory chain for the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Giancarlo A; Fisher, Nicholas; Shone, Alison E; Mubaraki, Murad A; Srivastava, Abhishek; Hill, Alisdair; Antoine, Thomas; Warman, Ashley J; Davies, Jill; Pidathala, Chandrakala; Amewu, Richard K; Leung, Suet C; Sharma, Raman; Gibbons, Peter; Hong, David W; Pacorel, Bndicte; Lawrenson, Alexandre S; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Taylor, Lee; Berger, Olivier; Mbekeani, Alison; Stocks, Paul A; Nixon, Gemma L; Chadwick, James; Hemingway, Janet; Delves, Michael J; Sinden, Robert E; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Kocken, Clemens H M; Berry, Neil G; O'Neill, Paul M; Ward, Stephen A

    2012-05-22

    There is an urgent need for new antimalarial drugs with novel mechanisms of action to deliver effective control and eradication programs. Parasite resistance to all existing antimalarial classes, including the artemisinins, has been reported during their clinical use. A failure to generate new antimalarials with novel mechanisms of action that circumvent the current resistance challenges will contribute to a resurgence in the disease which would represent a global health emergency. Here we present a unique generation of quinolone lead antimalarials with a dual mechanism of action against two respiratory enzymes, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Plasmodium falciparum NDH2) and cytochrome bc(1). Inhibitor specificity for the two enzymes can be controlled subtly by manipulation of the privileged quinolone core at the 2 or 3 position. Inhibitors display potent (nanomolar) activity against both parasite enzymes and against multidrug-resistant P. falciparum parasites as evidenced by rapid and selective depolarization of the parasite mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to a disruption of pyrimidine metabolism and parasite death. Several analogs also display activity against liver-stage parasites (Plasmodium cynomolgi) as well as transmission-blocking properties. Lead optimized molecules also display potent oral antimalarial activity in the Plasmodium berghei mouse malaria model associated with favorable pharmacokinetic features that are aligned with a single-dose treatment. The ease and low cost of synthesis of these inhibitors fulfill the target product profile for the generation of a potent, safe, and inexpensive drug with the potential for eventual clinical deployment in the control and eradication of falciparum malaria. PMID:22566611

  20. Analysis of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones, quinolones, triphenylmethane dyes and methyltestosterone in fish and shrimp using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Storey, Joseph M; Clark, Susan B; Johnson, Aaron S; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Lohne, Jack J; Burger, Robert J; Ayres, Patrick R; Carr, Justin R; Madson, Mark R

    2014-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method is described for the detection and identification of 26 veterinary drugs in fish and other aquaculture products. The analytes include: 13 sulfonamides, trimethoprim, 3 fluoroquinolones, 3 quinolones, 3 triphenylmethane dyes, 2 leuco dye metabolites, and 1 hormone. In this method, tissue is mixed with EDTA-McIlvaine buffer, double-extracted with acetonitrile, p-toluenesulfonic (p-TSA) acid and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD), and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Inclusion of p-TSA and TMPD in the extraction procedure was critical for simultaneous analysis of dyes with the other groups of veterinary drugs. The proposed procedure was validated as both a quantitative analysis method and as a semi-quantitative screening method for multiple fish and shrimp matrices. The method was applied to eight types of fish (catfish, eel, pangasius, sablefish, tilapia, swai, salmon, and trout) and shrimp at the appropriate level of concern: 10ng/g for sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and quinolones, 5ng/g for fluoroquinolones, 1ng/g for dyes and their metabolites, and 0.4ng/g for methyltestosterone. PMID:25310706

  1. In vitro susceptibility of quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae uropathogens to fosfomycin trometamol, in Dakar, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Nabeth, Pierre; Perrier-Gros-Claude, Jean-David; Juergens-Behr, Ann; Dromigny, Jacques-Albert

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study in order to confirm the eligibility of fosfomycin trometamol as an alternative treatment to quinolones for urinary tract infections. Among 102 quinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains, resistance rates to first line-prescribed antibiotics were above 77%. The resistance rate to fosfomycin was 2%. PMID:16012011

  2. NATURAL FUNGICIDES FROM RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. LEAVES, INCLUDING A NEW QUINOLONE ALKALOID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-directed isolation of antifungal compounds from Ruta graveolens leaves yielded seven compounds (two furanocoumarins, four quinolone alkaloids, including one novel compound (1-methyl-2- 4-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]hexyl]-4-quinolone), and one quinoline alkaloid). We also report the 1H and ...

  3. Targeting virulence not viability in the search for future antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Heras, Begoña; Scanlon, Martin J; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    New antibacterials need new approaches to overcome the problem of rapid antibiotic resistance. Here we review the development of potential new antibacterial drugs that do not kill bacteria or inhibit their growth, but combat disease instead by targeting bacterial virulence. PMID:24552512

  4. Structural signature of Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn mutations in DNA gyrase from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and impact on quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Kusum; Ramana, Jayashree

    2016-01-15

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is among the most frequent microorganisms causing traveler's diarrhea (TD). Quinolones are potent antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of TD. Resistance to quinolones is typically caused by substitutions in QRDR region of gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase. The aim of this study was to seek insights into the effect of these substitutions at structural level and their association with observed quinolone resistance. Majority of the ETEC strains have gyrA mutations at amino acid position 83 and 87. To understand the quinolone resistance mechanism at molecular level, we have studied the interaction of wild type and mutant forms of ETEC gyrA with nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin by molecular modeling using Discovery Studio and LeadIt. All the mutants had reduced affinity towards both ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid relative to the wild type due to the mutations introduced in gyrA. Besides Ser83 and Asp87, for nalidixic acid binding Arg91 and His45 residues were observed to be critical while in ciprofloxacin binding Lys42 and Arg91 residues played a significant role. Amino acid substitutions contribute to the emergence of drug resistance in sensitive strains by causing structural alterations leading to reduced affinity of the drug towards receptor. Analysis of the effect of amino acid substitutions at structural level is of utmost importance to establish possible associations between mutations and the diseases. These studies accelerate the identification of pharmaceutical targets for relevant treatments and could also be helpful in guiding the design of further experimental research. PMID:26424597

  5. Rapid Determination of Quinolone Resistance in Acinetobacter spp.?

    PubMed Central

    Hujer, Kristine M.; Hujer, Andrea M.; Endimiani, Andrea; Thomson, Jodi M.; Adams, Mark D.; Goglin, Karrie; Rather, Philip N.; Pennella, Thuy-Trang D.; Massire, Christian; Eshoo, Mark W.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Blyn, Lawrence B.; Ecker, David J.; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    In the treatment of serious bacterial infections, the rapid institution of appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy may be lifesaving. Choosing the correct antibiotic or combination of antibiotics is becoming very important, as multidrug resistance is found in many pathogens. Using a collection of 75 well-characterized multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter sp. isolates, we show that PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and base composition analysis of PCR amplification products can quickly and accurately identify quinolone resistance mediated by mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and parC, two essential housekeeping genes. Single point mutations detected by PCR/ESI-MS in parC (found in 55/75 of the isolates) and in gyrA (found in 66/75 of the isolates) correlated with susceptibility testing and sequencing. By targeting resistance determinants that are encoded by genes with highly conserved DNA sequences (e.g., gyrA and parC), we demonstrate that PCR/ESI-MS can provide critical information for resistance determinant identification and can inform therapeutic decision making in the treatment of Acinetobacter sp. infections. PMID:19297590

  6. Computational methods to identify new antibacterial targets.

    PubMed

    McPhillie, Martin J; Cain, Ricky M; Narramore, Sarah; Fishwick, Colin W G; Simmons, Katie J

    2015-01-01

    The development of resistance to all current antibiotics in the clinic means there is an urgent unmet need for novel antibacterial agents with new modes of action. One of the best ways of finding these is to identify new essential bacterial enzymes to target. The advent of a number of in silico tools has aided classical methods of discovering new antibacterial targets, and these programs are the subject of this review. Many of these tools apply a cheminformatic approach, utilizing the structural information of either ligand or protein, chemogenomic databases, and docking algorithms to identify putative antibacterial targets. Considering the wealth of potential drug targets identified from genomic research, these approaches are perfectly placed to mine this rich resource and complement drug discovery programs. PMID:24974974

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activities of Novel Sulfonamides Derived through Condensation of Amino Group Containing Drugs, Amino Acids, and Their Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Qadir, Muhammad; Ahmed, Mahmood; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Novel sulfonamides were developed and structures of the new products were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis (FT-IR, ESI-MS, 1HNMR, and 13CNMR). In vitro, developed compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities against medically important gram (+) and gram (−) bacterial strains, namely, S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial activities have been determined by measuring MIC values (μg/mL) and zone of inhibitions (mm). Among the tested compounds, it was found that compounds 5a and 9a have most potent activity against E. coli with zone of inhibition: 31 ± 0.12 mm (MIC: 7.81 μg/mL) and 30 ± 0.12 mm (MIC: 7.81 μg/mL), respectively, nearly as active as ciprofloxacin (zone of inhibition: 32 ± 0.12 mm). In contrast, all the compounds were totally inactive against the gram (+) B. subtilis. PMID:25802872

  8. 4(1H)-Pyridone and 4(1H)-Quinolone Derivatives as Antimalarials with Erythrocytic, Exoerythrocytic, and Transmission Blocking Activities

    PubMed Central

    Monastyrskyi, Andrii; Kyle, Dennis E.; Manetsch, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of deaths in the world with malaria being responsible for approximately the same amount of deaths as cancer in 2012. Despite the success in malaria prevention and control measures decreasing the disease mortality rate by 45% since 2000, the development of single-dose therapeutics with radical cure potential is required to completely eradicate this deadly condition. Targeting multiple stages of the malaria parasite is becoming a primary requirement for new candidates in antimalarial drug discovery and development. Recently, 4(1H)-pyridone, 4(1H)-quinolone, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridone, and phenoxyethoxy-4(1H)-quinolone chemotypes have been shown to be antimalarials with blood stage activity, liver stage activity, and transmission blocking activity. Advancements in structure-activity relationship and structure-property relationship studies, biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo, as well as pharmacokinetics of the 4(1H)-pyridone and 4(1H)-quinolone chemotypes will be discussed. PMID:25116582

  9. Cystobactamids: myxobacterial topoisomerase inhibitors exhibiting potent antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Sascha; Herrmann, Jennifer; Raju, Ritesh; Steinmetz, Heinrich; Mohr, Kathrin I; Httel, Stephan; Harmrolfs, Kirsten; Stadler, Marc; Mller, Rolf

    2014-12-22

    The development of new antibiotics faces a severe crisis inter?alia owing to a lack of innovative chemical scaffolds with activities against Gram-negative and multiresistant pathogens. Herein, we report highly potent novel antibacterial compounds, the myxobacteria-derived cystobactamids 1-3, which were isolated from Cystobacter sp. and show minimum inhibitory concentrations in the low ?g?mL(-1) range. We describe the isolation and structure elucidation of three congeners as well as the identification and annotation of their biosynthetic gene cluster. By studying the self-resistance mechanism in the natural producer organism, the molecular targets were identified as bacterial type?IIa topoisomerases. As quinolones are largely exhausted as a template for new type II topoisomerase inhibitors, the cystobactamids offer exciting alternatives to generate novel antibiotics using medicinal chemistry and biosynthetic engineering. PMID:25510965

  10. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance--current knowledge and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xizhou; Xue, Xinying; Liu, Yuxia; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Jianxin; Wang, Kaifei; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Lina; Yang, Bing; Wang, N; Pan, Lei

    2013-02-01

    Quinolones are a group of antimicrobial agents that were serendipitously discovered as byproducts of the synthesis of chloroquine. Chemical modifications, such as the addition of fluorine or piperazine, resulted in the synthesis of third- and fourth-generation fluoroquinolones, with broad-spectrum antimicrobial actions against aerobic or anaerobic, Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. The efficacy and consequent widespread use of quinolones and fluoroquinolones has led to a steady global increase in resistance, mediated via gene mutations, alterations in efflux or cell membranes and plasmid-conferred resistance. The first plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene, qnrA1, was detected in 1998. Since then, many other genes have been identified and the underlying mechanisms of resistance have been elucidated. This review provides an overview of quinolone resistance, with particular emphasis on plasmid-mediated resistance. PMID:23569126

  11. Occurrence of (fluoro)quinolones and (fluoro)quinolone resistance in soil receiving swine manure for 11 years.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua

    2015-10-15

    Because of the widespread use of antibiotics in animal breeding, the agricultural application of animal manure can lead to the introduction of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes to the soil and surrounding environment, which may pose a threat to public health. In this study, we investigated the status of (fluoro)quinolone (FQ) residues and FQ resistance levels in soil with and without receiving long-term swine manure. Six FQs (pipemidic acid, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin) were only detected in manured soil, with individual concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 27.2 ?g kg(-1) and increasing with the increase in swine manure application rates. Higher load rates of swine manure yielded a higher number of ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIPr) bacteria after spreading. A total of 24 CIPr bacterial isolates were obtained from the tested soil, which belonged to four phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) or were related to nine different genera. Only 18 isolates from manured soil were positive for five plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrD, qepA, oqxA, and oqxB). To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in FQ-resistant bacteria from the soil environment. A similar result was observed for the total DNA from soil, with the exception of aac(6')-Ib being detected in the control sample. The absolute and relative abundances of total PMQR genes also increased with fertilization quantity. Significant correlations were observed between FQ resistance levels and FQ concentrations. These results indicated that the agricultural application of swine manure led to FQ residues and enhanced FQ resistance. This investigation provides baseline data on FQ resistance profiles in soils receiving long-term swine manure. PMID:26042895

  12. Antigiardial activity of novel triazolyl-quinolone-based chalcone derivatives: when oxygen makes the difference.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Vijay; Mastronicola, Daniela; Singh, Amit K; Tiwari, Hemandra K; Pucillo, Leopoldo P; Sarti, Paolo; Singh, Brajendra K; Giuffr, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis is a common diarrheal disease worldwide caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. It is urgent to develop novel drugs to treat giardiasis, due to increasing clinical resistance to the gold standard drug metronidazole (MTZ). New potential antiparasitic compounds are usually tested for their killing efficacy against G. intestinalis under anaerobic conditions, in which MTZ is maximally effective. On the other hand, though commonly regarded as an 'anaerobic pathogen,' G. intestinalis is exposed to relatively high O2 levels in vivo, living attached to the mucosa of the proximal small intestine. It is thus important to test the effect of O2 when searching for novel potential antigiardial agents, as outlined in a previous study [Bahadur et al. (2014) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 58, 543]. Here, 45 novel chalcone derivatives with triazolyl-quinolone scaffold were synthesized, purified, and characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Efficacy of the compounds against G. intestinalis trophozoites was tested under both anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, and selectivity was assessed in a counter-screen on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. MTZ was used as a positive control in the assays. All the tested compounds proved to be more effective against the parasite in the presence of O2, with the exception of MTZ that was less effective. Under anaerobiosis eighteen compounds were found to be as effective as MTZ or more (up to three to fourfold); the same compounds proved to be up to >100-fold more effective than MTZ under microaerobic conditions. Four of them represent potential candidates for the design of novel antigiardial drugs, being highly selective against Giardia trophozoites. This study further underlines the importance of taking O2 into account when testing novel potential antigiardial compounds. PMID:25904901

  13. Antigiardial activity of novel triazolyl-quinolone-based chalcone derivatives: when oxygen makes the difference

    PubMed Central

    Bahadur, Vijay; Mastronicola, Daniela; Singh, Amit K.; Tiwari, Hemandra K.; Pucillo, Leopoldo P.; Sarti, Paolo; Singh, Brajendra K.; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis is a common diarrheal disease worldwide caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. It is urgent to develop novel drugs to treat giardiasis, due to increasing clinical resistance to the gold standard drug metronidazole (MTZ). New potential antiparasitic compounds are usually tested for their killing efficacy against G. intestinalis under anaerobic conditions, in which MTZ is maximally effective. On the other hand, though commonly regarded as an ‘anaerobic pathogen,’ G. intestinalis is exposed to relatively high O2 levels in vivo, living attached to the mucosa of the proximal small intestine. It is thus important to test the effect of O2 when searching for novel potential antigiardial agents, as outlined in a previous study [Bahadur et al. (2014) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 58, 543]. Here, 45 novel chalcone derivatives with triazolyl-quinolone scaffold were synthesized, purified, and characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Efficacy of the compounds against G. intestinalis trophozoites was tested under both anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, and selectivity was assessed in a counter-screen on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. MTZ was used as a positive control in the assays. All the tested compounds proved to be more effective against the parasite in the presence of O2, with the exception of MTZ that was less effective. Under anaerobiosis eighteen compounds were found to be as effective as MTZ or more (up to three to fourfold); the same compounds proved to be up to >100-fold more effective than MTZ under microaerobic conditions. Four of them represent potential candidates for the design of novel antigiardial drugs, being highly selective against Giardia trophozoites. This study further underlines the importance of taking O2 into account when testing novel potential antigiardial compounds. PMID:25904901

  14. Discovery of membrane active benzimidazole quinolones-based topoisomerase inhibitors as potential DNA-binding antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Addla, Dinesh; Ponmani, Jeyakkumar; Wang, Ao; Xie, Dan; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Geng, Rong-Xia; Cai, Gui-Xin; Li, Shuo; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-03-23

    A series of novel benzimidazole quinolones as potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized. Most of the prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antimicrobial activities in comparison with reference drugs. The most potent compound 15m was membrane active and did not trigger the development of resistance in bacteria. It not only inhibited the formation of biofilms but also disrupted the established Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms. It was able to inhibit the relaxation activity of E. coli topoisomerase IV at 10 μM concentration. Moreover, this compound also showed low toxicity against mammalian cells. Molecular modeling and experimental investigation of compound 15m with DNA suggested that this compound could effectively bind with DNA to form a steady 15m-DNA complex which might further block DNA replication to exert the powerful bioactivities. PMID:26871658

  15. Quinolone Resistance in Absence of Selective Pressure: The Experience of a Very Remote Community in the Amazon Forest

    PubMed Central

    Riccobono, Eleonora; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Quinolones are potent broad-spectrum bactericidal agents increasingly employed also in resource-limited countries. Resistance to quinolones is an increasing problem, known to be strongly associated with quinolone exposure. We report on the emergence of quinolone resistance in a very remote community in the Amazon forest, where quinolones have never been used and quinolone resistance was absent in 2002. Methods The community exhibited a considerable level of geographical isolation, limited contact with the exterior and minimal antibiotic use (not including quinolones). In December 2009, fecal carriage of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli was investigated in 120 of the 140 inhabitants, and in 48 animals reared in the community. All fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were genotyped and characterized for the mechanisms of plasmid- and chromosomal-mediated quinolone resistance. Principal Findings Despite the characteristics of the community remained substantially unchanged during the period 20022009, carriage of quinolone-resistant E. coli was found to be common in 2009 both in humans (45% nalidixic acid, 14% ciprofloxacin) and animals (54% nalidixic acid, 23% ciprofloxacin). Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of human and animal origin showed multidrug resistance phenotypes, a high level of genetic heterogeneity, and a combination of GyrA (Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn) and ParC (Ser80Ile) substitutions commonly observed in fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli. Conclusions Remoteness and absence of antibiotic selective pressure did not protect the community from the remarkable emergence of quinolone resistance in E. coli. Introduction of the resistant strains from antibiotic-exposed settings is the most likely source, while persistence and dissemination in the absence of quinolone exposure is likely mostly related with poor sanitation. Interventions aimed at reducing the spreading of resistant isolates (by improving sanitation and water/food safety) are urgently needed to preserve the efficacy of quinolones in resource-limited countries, as control strategies based only on antibiotic restriction policies are unlikely to succeed in those settings. PMID:22953012

  16. Comparative in vitro activity of lomefloxacin, a difluoro-quinolone.

    PubMed

    Robbins, M J; Baskerville, A J; Sanghrajka, M; Mumtaz, G; Felmingham, D; Ridgway, G L; Grüneberg, R N

    1989-01-01

    Lomefloxacin is a new difluoro-quinolone. In this study, we have determined the in vitro activity of lomefloxacin against a wide range of clinical bacterial isolates and compared it with that of other fluoro-quinolones and some unrelated antimicrobials. Lomefloxacin was very active against Enterobacteriaceae (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml) with activity comparable to that of ofloxacin (MIC90, 0.25 micrograms/ml). Lomefloxacin was moderately active against isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml), and again the activity was comparable to ofloxacin (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml) but was eightfold less than ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml). Lomefloxacin was also active against isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (MIC90, 1 micrograms/ml), irrespective of methicillin susceptibility, and this activity was most comparable to ofloxacin (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml) and ciprofloxacin (MIC90, 0.5 micrograms/ml). Lomefloxacin was fourfold less active than either ofloxacin or ciprofloxacin against isolates of Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml). In common with ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin was very active against isolates of Neisseria spp. (MIC90, less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml), Haemophilus spp. (MIC90, less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml), Legionella spp. (MIC90, less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml), Vibrio spp. (MIC90, less than or equal to 0.06 micrograms/ml), and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC90, 1 microgram/ml). Lomefloxacin showed poor activity against isolates of Bacteroides spp. (MIC90, 16 micrograms/ml) or Clostridium difficile MIC90, 32 micrograms/ml) and was only moderately active against isolates of Clostridium perfringens (MIC90, 2 micrograms/ml), Peptostreptococcus spp. (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml), Chlamydia trachomatis (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml), Mycoplasma hominis (MIC90, 2 micrograms/ml), and Urea-plasma urealyticum (MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml). Lomefloxacin was found to be bactericidal at concentrations generally close to the MIC with greater than 3 log10 reduction in viability of exponentially dividing cultures of Escherichia coli and S. aureus within 5 hr of exposure to concentrations at eight times the MIC. These results indicate a potential clinical role for lomefloxacin in the treatment of genitourinary tract infections caused by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible organisms, and soft tissue infections caused by S. aureus. PMID:2791500

  17. Antibacterial kaolinite/urea/chlorhexidine nanocomposites: Experiment and molecular modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holešová, Sylva; Valášková, Marta; Hlaváč, Dominik; Madejová, Jana; Samlíková, Magda; Tokarský, Jonáš; Pazdziora, Erich

    2014-06-01

    Clay minerals are commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of clay/antibacterial drug hybrids which can be further included in drug delivery systems for treatment oral infections. Novel nanocomposites with antibacterial properties were successfully prepared by ion exchange reaction from two types of kaolinite/urea intercalates and chlorhexidine diacetate. Intercalation compounds of kaolinite were prepared by reaction with solid urea in the absence of solvents (dry method) as well as with urea aqueous solution (wet method). The antibacterial activity of two prepared samples against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibacterial studies of both samples showed the lowest MIC values (0.01%, w/v) after 1 day against E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus. A slightly worse antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.12%, w/v) after 1 day. Since samples showed very good antibacterial activity, especially after 1 day of action, this means that these samples can be used as long-acting antibacterial materials. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental data are supported by results of molecular modelling.

  18. Invitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Ushimaru, P I; Barbosa, L N; Fernandes, A A H; Di Stasi, L C; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    The biological properties of medicinal plants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Mller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinal plants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli. PMID:22011190

  19. The evidence for clonal spreading of quinolone resistance with a particular clonal complex of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kovač, J; Cadež, N; Lušicky, M; Nielsen, E Møller; Ocepek, M; Raspor, P; Možina, S Smole

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and it represents a significant public health risk of increasing severity due to its escalating resistance to clinically important quinolone and macrolide antibiotics. As a zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter is transmitted along the food chain and naturally cycles from environmental waters, feedstuff, animals and food to humans. We determined antibiotic resistance profiles, as well as multilocus sequence types and flaA-SVR types for 52 C. jejuni isolated in Slovenia from human, animal, raw and cured chicken meat and water samples. Twenty-eight different sequence types, arranged in ten clonal complexes, three new allele types and five new sequence types were identified, indicating the relatively high diversity in a small group of strains. The assignment of strains from different sources to the same clonal complexes indicates their transmission along the food supply chain. The most prevalent clonal complex was CC21, which was also the genetic group with 95% of quinolone-resistant strains. Based on the genetic relatedness of these quinolone-resistant strains identified by polymerase chain reaction with a mismatch amplification mutation assay and sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene, we conclude that the high resistance prevalence observed indicates the local clonal spread of quinolone resistance with CC21. PMID:24534165

  20. Structural requirements of 3-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolones as potential antimalarials from 2D and 3D QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Li, Shuyan; Bai, Chongliang; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2013-07-01

    Malaria is a fatal tropical and subtropical disease caused by the protozoal species Plasmodium. Many commonly available antimalarial drugs and therapies are becoming ineffective because of the emergence of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, which drives the need for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Recently, a series of 3-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolone analogs, derived from the famous compound endochin, were reported as promising candidates for orally efficacious antimalarials. In this study, to analyze the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these quinolones and investigate the structural requirements for antimalarial activity, the 2D multiple linear regressions (MLR) method and 3D comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods are employed to evolve different QSAR models. All these models give satisfactory results with highly accurate fitting and strong external predictive abilities for chemicals not used in model development. Furthermore, the contour maps from 3D models can provide an intuitive understanding of the key structure features responsible for the antimalarial activities. In conclusion, we summarize the detailed position-specific structural requirements of these derivatives accordingly. All these results are helpful for the rational design of new compounds with higher antimalarial bioactivities. PMID:23911994

  1. Discovery, Synthesis, and Optimization of Antimalarial 4(1H)-Quinolone-3-Diarylethers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The historical antimalarial compound endochin served as a structural lead for optimization. Endochin-like quinolones (ELQ) were prepared by a novel chemical route and assessed for in vitro activity against multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and against malaria infections in mice. Here we describe the pathway to discovery of a potent class of orally active antimalarial 4(1H)-quinolone-3-diarylethers. The initial prototype, ELQ-233, exhibited low nanomolar IC50 values against all tested strains including clinical isolates harboring resistance to atovaquone. ELQ-271 represented the next critical step in the iterative optimization process, as it was stable to metabolism and highly effective in vivo. Continued analoging revealed that the substitution pattern on the benzenoid ring of the quinolone core significantly influenced reactivity with the host enzyme. This finding led to the rational design of highly selective ELQs with outstanding oral efficacy against murine malaria that is superior to established antimalarials chloroquine and atovaquone. PMID:24720377

  2. Antibacterial activity of the recombinant antimicrobial peptide Ib-AMP4 from Impatiens balsamina and its synergy with other antimicrobial agents against drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; Reichling, J; Wink, M

    2013-07-01

    Ib-AMP4 is an antimicrobial peptide of Impatiens balsamina (Balsaminaceae). Ib-AMP4 was produced as a recombinant peptide and in this study its antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogens was investigated. Ib-AMP4 was bactericidal against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with MIC values between 0.49 and 3.5 microM in sensitive species. A genuine synergistic effect was achieved when IB-AMP4 was employed in combination with the plant monoterpene thymol against drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) ATCC700603, or with the antibiotics vancomycin or oxacillin against Enterococcus faecalis (VRE) ATCC51299. PMID:23923648

  3. The association of DNA damage response and nucleotide level modulation with the antibacterial mechanism of the anti-folate drug Trimethoprim

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trimethoprim is a widely prescribed antibiotic for a variety of bacterial infections. It belongs to a class of anti-metabolites - antifolates - which includes drugs used against malarial parasites and in cancer therapy. However, spread of bacterial resistance to the drug has severely hampered its clinical use and has necessitated further investigations into its mechanism of action and treatment regimen. Trimethoprim selectively starves bacterial cells for tetrahydrofolate, a vital cofactor necessary for the synthesis of several metabolites. The outcome (bacteriostatic or bactericidal) of such starvation, however, depends on the availability of folate-dependent metabolites in the growth medium. To characterize this dependency, we investigated in detail the regulatory and structural components of Escherichia coli cellular response to trimethoprim in controlled growth and supplementation conditions. Results We surveyed transcriptional responses to trimethoprim treatment during bacteriostatic and bactericidal conditions and analyzed associated gene sets/pathways. Concurrent starvation of all folate dependent metabolites caused growth arrest, and this was accompanied by induction of general stress and stringent responses. Three gene sets were significantly associated with the bactericidal effect of TMP in different media including LB: genes of the SOS regulon, genes of the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway and members of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) regulon controlled by the MarR repressor. However, the SOS response was identified as the only universal transcriptional signature associated with the loss of viability by direct thymine starvation or by folate stress. We also used genome-wide gene knock-out screen to uncover means of sensitization of bacteria to the drug. We observed that among a number of candidate genes and pathways, the effect of knock-outs in the deoxyribose nucleotide salvage pathway, encoded by the deoCABD operon and under the control of the DeoR repressor, was most informative. Conclusion Transcriptional induction of DNA damage response is an essential feature of the bactericidal effect of trimethoprim. Either the observation of the transcriptional response or DNA damage itself, or both, is made possible by thymine starvation when other folate-dependent metabolites are not limited. The effect of DNA damage by the drug takes place prior to its bactericidal effect, at the beginning of the lag stage of the treatment. Mutations in the deoxyribose nucleotide salvage pathway can affect duration of the lag as well as the rate of killing. This information can be used to postulate certain mechanistic differences between direct thymine starvation in thymidylate synthase deficient mutants and thymine starvation by anti-folate inhibitors. PMID:22122981

  4. Biotic inactivation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quinolone signal molecule.

    PubMed

    Soh, Eliza Ye-Chen; Chhabra, Siri R; Halliday, Nigel; Heeb, Stephan; Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Fetzner, Susanne; Cámara, Miguel; Chan, Kok-Gan; Williams, Paul

    2015-11-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) regulates the production of secondary metabolites, many of which are antimicrobials that impact on polymicrobial community composition. Consequently, quenching QS modulates the environmental impact of P. aeruginosa. To identify bacteria capable of inactivating the QS signal molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS), a minimal medium containing PQS as the sole carbon source was used to enrich a Malaysian rainforest soil sample. This yielded an Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain (Q19) that inactivated PQS, yielding a new fluorescent compound (I-PQS) confirmed as PQS-derived using deuterated PQS. The I-PQS structure was elucidated using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as 2-heptyl-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3,4-dione (HHQD). Achromobacter xylosoxidans Q19 oxidized PQS congeners with alkyl chains ranging from C1 to C5 and also N-methyl PQS, yielding the corresponding 2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3,4-diones, but was unable to inactivate the PQS precursor HHQ. This indicates that the hydroxyl group at position 3 in PQS is essential and that A. xylosoxidans inactivates PQS via a pathway involving the incorporation of oxygen at C2 of the heterocyclic ring. The conversion of PQS to HHQD also occurred on incubation with 12/17 A. xylosoxidans strains recovered from cystic fibrosis patients, with P. aeruginosa and with Arthrobacter, suggesting that formation of hydroxylated PQS may be a common mechanism of inactivation. PMID:25809238

  5. PqsBC, a Condensing Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Steffen Lorenz; Li, Chan; Prasetya, Fajar; Saleem, Muhammad; Dreveny, Ingrid; Williams, Paul; Hennecke, Ulrich; Emsley, Jonas; Fetzner, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a number of alkylquinolone-type secondary metabolites best known for their antimicrobial effects and involvement in cell-cell communication. In the alkylquinolone biosynthetic pathway, the β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase III (FabH)-like enzyme PqsBC catalyzes the condensation of octanoyl-coenzyme A and 2-aminobenzoylacetate (2-ABA) to form the signal molecule 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone. PqsBC, a potential drug target, is unique for its heterodimeric arrangement and an active site different from that of canonical FabH-like enzymes. Considering the sequence dissimilarity between the subunits, a key question was how the two subunits are organized with respect to the active site. In this study, the PqsBC structure was determined to a 2 Å resolution, revealing that PqsB and PqsC have a pseudo-2-fold symmetry that unexpectedly mimics the FabH homodimer. PqsC has an active site composed of Cys-129 and His-269, and the surrounding active site cleft is hydrophobic in character and approximately twice the volume of related FabH enzymes that may be a requirement to accommodate the aromatic substrate 2-ABA. From physiological and kinetic studies, we identified 2-aminoacetophenone as a pathway-inherent competitive inhibitor of PqsBC, whose fluorescence properties could be used for in vitro binding studies. In a time-resolved setup, we demonstrated that the catalytic histidine is not involved in acyl-enzyme formation, but contributes to an acylation-dependent increase in affinity for the second substrate 2-ABA. Introduction of Asn into the PqsC active site led to significant activity toward the desamino substrate analog benzoylacetate, suggesting that the substrate 2-ABA itself supplies the asparagine-equivalent amino function that assists in catalysis. PMID:26811339

  6. Subtle changes in endochin-like quinolone structure alter the site of inhibition within the cytochrome bc1 complex of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Allison M; de Almeida, Mariana Justino; Morrisey, Joanne M; Sheridan, Kayla A; Forquer, Isaac P; Nilsen, Aaron; Winter, Rolf W; Burrows, Jeremy N; Fidock, David A; Vaidya, Akhil B; Riscoe, Michael K

    2015-04-01

    The cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) is the third component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is the target of several potent antimalarial compounds, including the naphthoquinone atovaquone (ATV) and the 4(1H)-quinolone ELQ-300. Mechanistically, cyt bc1 facilitates the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c and contains both oxidative (Qo) and reductive (Qi) catalytic sites that are amenable to small-molecule inhibition. Although many antimalarial compounds, including ATV, effectively target the Qo site, it has been challenging to design selective Qi site inhibitors with the ability to circumvent clinical ATV resistance, and little is known about how chemical structure contributes to site selectivity within cyt bc1. Here, we used the proposed Qi site inhibitor ELQ-300 to generate a drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum clone containing an I22L mutation at the Qi region of cyt b. Using this D1 clone and the Y268S Qo mutant strain, P. falciparum Tm90-C2B, we created a structure-activity map of Qi versus Qo site selectivity for a series of endochin-like 4(1H)-quinolones (ELQs). We found that Qi site inhibition was associated with compounds containing 6-position halogens or aryl 3-position side chains, while Qo site inhibition was favored by 5,7-dihalogen groups or 7-position substituents. In addition to identifying ELQ-300 as a preferential Qi site inhibitor, our data suggest that the 4(1H)-quinolone scaffold is compatible with binding to either site of cyt bc1 and that minor chemical changes can influence Qo or Qi site inhibition by the ELQs. PMID:25605352

  7. Antibacterial peptides: basic facts and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Boman, H G

    2003-09-01

    Antibacterial peptides are the effector molecules of innate immunity. Generally they contain 15-45 amino acid residues and the net charge is positive. The cecropin type of linear peptides without cysteine were found first in insects, whilst the defensin type with three disulphide bridges were found in rabbit granulocytes. Now a database stores more than 800 sequences of antibacterial peptides and proteins from the animal and plant kingdoms. Generally, each species has 15-40 peptides made from genes, which code for only one precursor. The dominating targets are bacterial membranes and the killing reaction must be faster than the growth rate of the bacteria. Some antibacterial peptides are clearly multifunctional and an attempt to predict this property from the hydrophobicity of all amino acid side chains are given. Gene structures and biosynthesis are known both in the fruit fly Drosophila and several mammals. Humans need two classes of defensins and the cathelicidin-derived linear peptide LL-37. Clinical cases show that deficiencies in these peptides give severe symptoms. Examples given are morbus Kostmann and atopic allergy. Several antibacterial peptides are being developed as drugs. PMID:12930229

  8. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  9. Antibacterial constituents of Neohyptis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Gibbons, Simon

    2015-09-01

    A new α-pyrone, 6R-[5R,6S-diacetyloxy-1Z,3E-heptadienyl]-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2one (1), along with six known compounds including an α-pyrone, flavones and terpenes was isolated from the aerial parts of Neohyptis paniculata. The structure of 1 was established unambiguously by MS and a series of 1D and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. The antibacterial activity of the compounds (1-7) was investigated against five strains of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these compounds were found to be in the range of 64-256 μg/mL. PMID:26208955

  10. Osteomyelitis of the spine due to Salmonella infection — conservative treatment with quinolone: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Hon-For; Chiu, Kwok-Hing; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    1997-01-01

    Although osteomyelitis due to Salmonella infection is known to be associated with sickle cell anemia, various hemoglobinopathies and immune suppressive states, it may also occur in normal hosts. A 16-year-old Chinese boy without sickle cell disease or any other condition that would compromise the immune system had osteomyelitis of the lumbar spine caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The condition was treated conservatively with ciprofloxacin (quinolone group). This may be the first reported case in which a patient with spinal osteomyelitis due to Salmonella infection, who was otherwise healthy, was successfully treated nonoperatively with quinolone. PMID:9030084

  11. Developing Outcomes Assessments as Endpoints for Registrational Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Drugs: 2015 Update From the Biomarkers Consortium of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Talbot, George H; Powers, John H; Hoffmann, Steven C

    2016-03-01

    One important component in determining the benefits and harms of medical interventions is the use of well-defined and reliable outcome assessments as endpoints in clinical trials. Improving endpoints can better define patient benefits, allowing more accurate assessment of drug efficacy and more informed benefit-vs-risk decisions; another potential plus is facilitating efficient trial design. Since our first report in 2012, 2 Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Consortium Project Teams have continued to develop outcome assessments for potential uses as endpoints in registrational clinical trials of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. In addition, the teams have initiated similar work in the indications of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. This report provides an update on progress to date in these 4 diseases. PMID:26668337

  12. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Bernhard; Lecker, Laura S. M.; Zoltner, Martin; Jaenicke, Elmar; Schnell, Robert; Hunter, William N.; Brenk, Ruth

    2015-07-28

    Three crystal structures of recombinant P. aeruginosa FabF are reported: the apoenzyme, an active-site mutant and a complex with a fragment of a natural product inhibitor. The characterization provides reagents and new information to support antibacterial drug discovery. Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials.

  13. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, Linn. for enhanced antibacterial activity against multi drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Prakash, P; Gnanaprakasam, P; Emmanuel, R; Arokiyaraj, S; Saravanan, M

    2013-08-01

    Green synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles has attracted nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, L. at room temperature. Formation of stable AgNPs at 1mM concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) typically gave spherical shape particles with diameter range from 55 to 83nm. The kinetic properties of particle formation were proportional to the effect of concentration of AgNO3 solution. In order to identify the compounds responsible for the bioreduction of Ag(+) ion and the stabilization of AgNPs produced, the functional group present in Mimusops elengi, L. leaf extract was investigated using FTIR. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed using the surface plasmon resonance band shown in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed from the XRD pattern. Furthermore these green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy against multi drug resistant clinical isolates. PMID:23563291

  15. Escherichia coli resistant to cephalosporins and quinolones is still susceptible to the cephalosporin-quinolone ester Ro 23-9424.

    PubMed Central

    Pace, J; Bertasso, A; Georgopapadakou, N H

    1991-01-01

    Ro 23-9424 is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent consisting of a cephalosporin (desacetylcefotaxime) linked through an ester bond to a fluoroquinolone (fleroxacin). Its activity against mutants of Escherichia coli TE18 resistant to both antibacterial components was examined. E. coli TE18 overproduces the AmpC beta-lactamase and is resistant to several cephalosporins, including desacetylcefotaxime (MIC, 50 micrograms/ml), although it is still susceptible to Ro 23-9424 (MIC, 0.2 microgram/ml). Thirty-five spontaneous, two-step mutants of E. coli TE18 which were resistant to fleroxacin (MIC, 50 micrograms/ml) were isolated. In the mutants, replicative DNA biosynthesis (permeabilized cells) was resistant to fleroxacin, and some mutants had porin abnormalities. However, all remained susceptible to Ro 23-9424 (MIC, 0.5 microgram/ml). Examination of beta-lactamase activity in the parent strain revealed that it hydrolyzes desacetylcefotaxime more rapidly than it does Ro 23-9424. Thus, Ro 23-9424 may be less susceptible to the gram-negative, chromosomal beta-lactamases that hydrolyze several broad-spectrum cephalosporins and may be effective in cases in which neither of its two components is active. Images PMID:1649574

  16. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and reactive oxygen species production are more active against the B. burgdorferi persisters than the commonly used antibiotics that inhibit macromolecule biosynthesis. Future studies are needed to evaluate and optimize the promising active hits in drug combination studies in vitro and also in vivo in animal models. These studies may have implications for developing more effective treatments of Lyme disease.

  17. Effects of DU-6859a, a New Quinolone Antimicrobial, on Theophylline Metabolism in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Yoshihito; Itokawa, Kenichi; Okazaki, Osamu

    1998-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the drug interaction between a new quinolone antimicrobial, DU-6859a, and theophylline (TP). The effect of DU-6859a on TP metabolism was evaluated in vitro by measuring the rate of TP metabolite formation by using human liver microsomes. DU-6859a inhibited the metabolism of TP, especially the formation of 1-methylxanthine, in vitro, but to a lesser extent than other drugs that are known to interact with TP. TP was administered alone (200 mg twice a day [b.i.d.] for 9 days) or in combination with DU-6859a (50 or 100 mg b.i.d. for 5 days) to six healthy subjects. DU-6859a administered at a dose of 50 mg resulted in no changes in serum TP concentrations, and slight increases in serum TP concentrations were observed at a dose of 100 mg. Moreover, the administration of 100 mg of DU-6859a resulted in decreases in all urinary TP metabolites, with significant differences. It appears that although DU-6859a has a weak inhibitory effect on TP metabolism in vitro, its concomitant use with TP at clinical dosage levels does not cause any adverse effects, showing only a slight increase in blood TP concentrations and a decrease in urinary metabolites. PMID:9661016

  18. EmmdR, a new member of the MATE family of multidrug transporters, extrudes quinolones from Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Xin; Thorpe, Conner; Walsh, Dennis; Crow, Robert; Chen, Huizhong; Kumar, Sanath; Varela, Manuel F

    2011-10-01

    We cloned a gene, ECL_03329, from the chromosome of Enterobacter cloacae ATCC13047, using a drug-hypersensitive Escherichia coli KAM32 cell as the host. We show here that this gene, designated as emmdR, is responsible for multidrug resistance in E. cloacae. E. coli KAM32 host cells containing the cloned emmdR gene (KAM32/pEMMDR28) showed decreased susceptibilities to benzalkonium chloride, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ethidium bromide, acriflavine, rhodamine6G, and trimethoprim. emmdR-deficient E. cloacae cells (Ec?emmdR) showed increased susceptibilities to several of the antimicrobial agents tested. EmmdR has twelve predicted transmembrane segments and some shared identity with members of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of transporters. Study of the antimicrobial agent efflux activities revealed that EmmdR is an H+-drug antiporter but not a Na+ driven efflux pump. These results indicate that EmmdR is responsible for multidrug resistance and pumps out quinolones from E. cloacae. PMID:21822795

  19. The inactivation of RNase G reduces the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia susceptibility to quinolones by triggering the heat shock response.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Alejandra; Corona, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo; Sánchez, Maria B; Martínez, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    Quinolone resistance is usually due to mutations in the genes encoding bacterial topoisomerases. However, different reports have shown that neither clinical quinolone resistant isolates nor in vitro obtained Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mutants present mutations in such genes. The mechanisms so far described consist on efflux pumps' overexpression. Our objective is to get information on novel mechanisms of S. maltophilia quinolone resistance. For this purpose, a transposon-insertion mutant library was obtained in S. maltophilia D457. One mutant presenting reduced susceptibility to nalidixic acid was selected. Inverse PCR showed that the inactivated gene encodes RNase G. Complementation of the mutant with wild-type RNase G allele restored the susceptibility to quinolones. Transcriptomic and real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that several genes encoding heat-shock response proteins were expressed at higher levels in the RNase defective mutant than in the wild-type strain. In agreement with this situation, heat-shock reduces the S. maltophilia susceptibility to quinolone. We can then conclude that the inactivation of the RNase G reduces the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to quinolones, most likely by regulating the expression of heat-shock response genes. Heat-shock induces a transient phenotype of quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia. PMID:26539164

  20. The inactivation of RNase G reduces the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia susceptibility to quinolones by triggering the heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Bernardini, Alejandra; Corona, Fernando; Dias, Ricardo; Snchez, Maria B.; Martnez, Jose L.

    2015-01-01

    Quinolone resistance is usually due to mutations in the genes encoding bacterial topoisomerases. However, different reports have shown that neither clinical quinolone resistant isolates nor in vitro obtained Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mutants present mutations in such genes. The mechanisms so far described consist on e?ux pumps overexpression. Our objective is to get information on novel mechanisms of S. maltophilia quinolone resistance. For this purpose, a transposon-insertion mutant library was obtained in S. maltophilia D457. One mutant presenting reduced susceptibility to nalidixic acid was selected. Inverse PCR showed that the inactivated gene encodes RNase G. Complementation of the mutant with wild-type RNase G allele restored the susceptibility to quinolones. Transcriptomic and real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that several genes encoding heat-shock response proteins were expressed at higher levels in the RNase defective mutant than in the wild-type strain. In agreement with this situation, heat-shock reduces the S. maltophilia susceptibility to quinolone. We can then conclude that the inactivation of the RNase G reduces the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to quinolones, most likely by regulating the expression of heat-shock response genes. Heat-shock induces a transient phenotype of quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia. PMID:26539164

  1. Characterization of quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana from chickens in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to characterize the quinolone resistance of Salmonella Indiana isolated from chickens in China. A total of 130 Salmonella isolates were obtained from chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the Shandong Province of China. All isolate serotypes were tested according to the Kauf...

  2. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among non-typhi Salmonella enterica isolates, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms among non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) spp. isolates from humans, food animals, and retail meat in the United States in 2007. Fifty-one (2.4%) of human isolates (n=2165), 5 (1.6%) of isolates from animal isolates (n=1915) an...

  3. Quinolone-resistant mutations of DNA gyrase increase sensitivity to acriflavine.

    PubMed

    Funatsuki, K; Tanaka, R; Inagaki, S; Konno, H; Katoh, K; Nakamura, H

    1998-07-01

    DNA gyrases were constructed to possess the quinolone-resistant (D87N in GyrA or K447E in GyrB) and acrB (S759R-R760C in GyrB) mutations and their sensitivities to acriflavine and oxolinic acid were examined. Both quinolone-resistant mutations in GyrA and GyrB increased acriflavine sensitivities in the supercoiling assay irrespective of the co-presence of the acrB mutation. In the DNA binding assay, however, the hypersensitvity caused by the GyrB (K447E) mutation was observed only in the co-presence of the acrB mutation; the presence of the acrB mutation, which not affecting acriflavine sensitivity, reduces the extent of DNA binding, as reported previously. Thus, the quinolone-resistant mutation site in GyrB is likely to be involved in DNA binding which is not detectable in acrB+ gyrase. Furthermore, oxolinic acid was found to enhance DNA binding of the gyrase having GyrB (acrB-K447E), supporting a recent proposal that quinolone binding to the DNA-gyrase complex does not require DNA breakage. PMID:9703246

  4. Quinine bis-conjugates with quinolone antibiotics and peptides: synthesis and antimalarial bioassay.

    PubMed

    Panda, Siva S; Bajaj, Kiran; Meyers, Marvin J; Sverdrup, Francis M; Katritzky, Alan R

    2012-12-01

    Benzotriazole-mediated syntheses led to novel bis-conjugates of quinine with quinolone antibiotics and amino acid linkers which were successfully prepared by two alternative routes with excellent yields and retention of chirality. These bis conjugates retain in vitro antimalarial activity with IC(50) values ranging from 12 to 207 nM, similar to quinine itself. PMID:23070233

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Mechanisms of Resistance to Quinolones and β-Lactams in Acinetobacter Genospecies 3

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, A.; Fernández-Cuenca, F.; Beceiro, A.; Bou, G.; Martínez-Martínez, L.; Pascual, A.; Cisneros, J. M.; Rodríguez-Baño, J.; Pachón, J.; Vila, J.

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined in 15 epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Acinetobacter genospecies 3. Moreover, the mechanisms of resistance to some β-lactam antibiotics may be associated with the presence of a chromosomal cephalosporinase, AmpC, and the resistance to quinolones related to mutations in the gyrA and parC genes. PMID:15047561

  6. Detection of Quinolone-Resistance Mutations In Salmonella Spp. Strains of Epidemic and Poultry Origin

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Roberta Barreiros; Magnani, Marciane; Ferrari, Rafaela Gomes; Kottwitz, Luciana Bill Mikito; Sartori, Daniele; Tognim, Maria Cristina Bronharo; de Oliveira, Tereza Cristina R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations into codons Aspartate-87 (62%) and Serine-83 (38%) in QRDR of gyrA were identified in 105 Salmonella strains resistant to nalidixic acid (94 epidemic and 11 of poultry origin). The results show a high incidence of mutations associated to quinolone resistance but suggest association with others mechanisms of resistance. PMID:24031623

  7. Quinolone therapy of Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis following irradiation: Comparison of pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin

    SciTech Connect

    Brook, I.; Elliott, T.B.; Ledney, G.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to whole-body irradiation is associated with fatal gram-negative sepsis. The effect of oral therapy with three quinolones, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, for orally acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection was tested in B6D2F1 mice exposed to 8.0 Gy whole-body irradiation from bilaterally positioned 60Co sources. A dose of 10(8) organisms was given orally 2 days after irradiation, and therapy was started 1 day later. Quinolones reduced colonization of the ileum with K. pneumoniae: 16 of 28 (57%) untreated mice harbored the organisms, compared to only 12 of 90 (13%) mice treated with quinolones (P less than 0.005). K. pneumoniae was isolated from the livers of 6 of 28 untreated mice, compared to only 1 of 90 treated mice (P less than 0.001). Only 5 of 20 (25%) untreated mice survived for at least 30 days compared with 17 of 20 (85%) mice treated with ofloxacin, 15 of 20 (75%) mice treated with pefloxacin, and 14 of 20 (70%) treated with ciprofloxacin (P less than 0.05). These data illustrate the efficacy of quinolones for oral therapy of orally acquired K. pneumoniae infection in irradiated hosts.

  8. Increase in insulin release from rat pancreatic islets by quinolone antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, N.; Tamagawa, T.; Niki, I.; Miura, H.; Ozawa, K.; Watanabe, G.; Nonogaki, K.; Uemura, K.; Iguchi, A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism(s) of hypoglycaemia caused by quinolone antibiotics. We investigated the effects of various quinolone antibiotics on insulin release in rat pancreatic islets. 2. At a non-stimulatory concentration of 3 mM glucose, lomefloxacin (LFLX) or sparfloxacin at 1 mM and pipemidic acid (0.1-1 mM) induced slight insulin release but tosufloxacin or enoxacin up to 100 microM did not. 3. At the stimulatory concentration of 10 mM glucose, all quinolones augmented insulin release in a dose-dependent manner. LFLX (100 microM) shifted the dose-response curve of glucose-induced insulin release to the left without altering the maximal response. 4. At 10 mM glucose, LFLX (100 microM) increased insulin release augmented by forskolin (5 microM) or 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (100 nM) but not by raising the K+ concentration from 6 to 25 mM. 5. Verapamil (50 microM) or diazoxide (50-400 microM) antagonized the insulinotropic effect of LFLX. 6. These data suggest that quinolone antibiotics may cause hypoglycaemia by increasing insulin release via blockade of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8789393

  9. Antibacterial activity of antibacterial cutting boards in household kitchens.

    PubMed

    Kounosu, Masayuki; Kaneko, Seiichi

    2007-12-01

    We examined antibacterial cutting boards with antibacterial activity values of either "2" or "4" in compliance with the JIS Z 2801 standard, and compared their findings with those of cutting boards with no antibacterial activity. These cutting boards were used in ten different households, and we measured changes in the viable cell counts of several types of bacteria with the drop plate method. We also identified the detected bacterial flora and measured the minimum antimicrobial concentrations of several commonly used antibacterial agents against the kinds of bacteria identified to determine the expected antibacterial activity of the respective agents. Cutting boards with activity values of both "2" and "4" proved to be antibacterial in actual use, although no correlation between the viable cell counts and the antibacterial activity values was observed. In the kitchen environment, large quantities of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were detected, and it was confirmed that common antibacterial agents used in many antibacterial products are effective against these bacterial species. In addition, we measured the minimum antimicrobial concentrations of the agents against lactobacillus, a typical good bacterium, and discovered that this bacterium is less sensitive to these antibacterial agents compared to more common bacteria. PMID:18198718

  10. Microbial screening for quinolones residues in cow milk by bio-optical method.

    PubMed

    Appicciafuoco, Brunella; Dragone, Roberto; Frazzoli, Chiara; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Alberto; Ferrini, Anna Maria

    2015-03-15

    The use of antibiotics on lactating cows should be monitored for the possible risk of milk contamination with residues. Accordingly, Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) are established by the European Commission to guarantee consumers safety. As pointed out by Dec 2002/657/EC, screening is the first step in the strategy for antibiotic residue control, thus playing a key role in the whole control procedure. However, current routine screening methods applied in milk chain still fail to detect residues of quinolones at concentrations of interest. This paper reports the findings of a new bio-optical method for the screening of quinolones residues in bovine milk, based on E. coli ATCC 11303 growth inhibition. The effect of blank and spiked cow milk samples (aliquots equivalents to 0.8%, v/v) is evaluated in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHb) and MHb enriched with MgSO4 2% (MHb-Mg) inoculated with the test strain at the concentration of 10(4)CFU/mL. The presence of quinolones inhibits the cellular growth in MHb, while this effect is neutralized in MHb-Mg allowing both detection and presumptive identification of quinolones. Growth of the test strain is monitored at 37 C in a Bioscreen C automated system, and Optical Density (OD) at 600 nm is recorded every 10 min after shaking for 10s. Growth curves (OD vs. time) of E. coli ATCC 11303 are assessed in milk samples, with and without quinolones, and their differences in terms of ?OD (?OD600nm=ODMHb-Mg-ODMHb) are calculated. The presence of quinolones is detected by the cellular growth inhibition (OD vs time, none increase in the value OD) and presumptively identified through the increase of the slope of ?OD600nm curve (?OD vs. time), after about 3h of incubation. The detection limit for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin is at the level of MRL, for marbofloxacin is at 2-fold the MRL whereas for danofloxacin is at 4-fold the MRL. Although the sensitivity of the method could be further improved and the procedure automated, it is a promising step forward to integrate screening assays into the control process and, in particular, to fill in the gap for quinolones; moreover, these technological developments contribute to the One Health perspective through the monitoring of safe and correct use of veterinary antibiotics. PMID:25555518

  11. A series of 2D metal-quinolone complexes: Syntheses, structures, and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jiang-Hong; Xiao, Dong-Rong; Chen, Hai-Yan; Sun, Dian-Zhen; Yan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Xin; Ye, Zhong-Li; Luo, Qun-Li; Wang, En-Bo

    2013-02-15

    Six novel 2D metal-quinolone complexes, namely [Cd(cfH)(bpdc)]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (1), [M(norfH)(bpdc)]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (M=Cd (2) and Mn (3)), [Mn{sub 2}(cfH)(odpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O (4), [Co{sub 2}(norfH)(bpta)({mu}{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (5) and [Co{sub 3}(saraH){sub 2}(Hbpta){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O (6) (cfH=ciprofloxacin, norfH=norfloxacin, saraH=sarafloxacin, bpdc=4,4 Prime -biphenyldicarboxylate, odpa=4,4 Prime -oxydiphthalate, bpta=3,3 Prime ,4,4 Prime -biphenyltetracarboxylate) have been synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1-3 consist of 2D arm-shaped layers based on the 1D {l_brace}M(COO){r_brace}{sub n}{sup n+} chains. Compounds 4 and 5 display 2D structures based on tetranuclear manganese or cobalt clusters with (3,6)-connected kgd topology. Compound 6 exhibits a 2D bilayer structure, which represents the first example of metal-quinolone complexes with 2D bilayer structure. By inspection of the structures of 1-6, it is believed that the long aromatic polycarboxylate ligands are important for the formation of 2D metal-quinolone complexes. The magnetic properties of compounds 3-6 was studied, indicating the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of compounds 1-2 are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Six novel 2D metal-quinolone complexes have been prepared by self-assemblies of the quinolones and metal salts in the presence of long aromatic polycarboxylates. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-3 consist of novel 2D arm-shaped layers based on the 1D {l_brace}M(COO){r_brace}{sub n}{sup n+} chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 4 and 5 are two novel 2D layers based on tetranuclear Mn or Co clusters with kgd topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound 6 is the first example of metal-quinolone complexes with 2D bilayer structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-6 represent six unusual examples of 2D metal-quinolone complexes.

  12. Decay mechanisms of protonated 4-quinolone antibiotics after electrospray ionization and ion activation.

    PubMed

    Kova?evi?, Borislav; Schorr, Pascal; Qi, Yulin; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed experimental investigation of charge isomers of protonated 4-quinolone antibiotics molecules formed during electrospray ionization (ESI) with proposed dissociation mechanisms after collisional activation. Piperazinyl quinolones have been previously shown to exhibit erratic behavior during tandem MS analyses of biological samples, which originated from varying ratios of two isomeric variants formed during ESI. Here, a combination of ESI-collision-induced dissociation (CID), differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS), high resolution MS, and density functional theory (DFT) was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of isomer formation and their individual dissociation behaviors. The study focused on ciprofloxacin; major findings were confirmed using structurally related 4-quinolones. DFT calculations showed a reversal of basicity for piperazinyl quinolones between liquid and gas phase. We provide an experimental comparison and theoretical treatment of factors influencing the formation ratio of the charge isomers during ESI, including solvent pH, protic/aprotic nature of solvent, and structural effects such as pK a and proton affinity. The actual dissociation mechanisms of the isomers of the protonated molecules were studied by separating the individual isomers via DMS-MS, which allowed type-specific CID spectra to be recorded. Both primary CID reactions of the two charge isomers originated from the same carboxyl group by charge-remote (CO(2) loss) and charge-mediated (H(2)O loss) fragmentation of the piperazinyl quinolones, depending on whether the proton resides on the more basic keto or the piperazinyl group, followed by a number of secondary dissociation reactions. The proposed mechanisms were supported by calculated energies of precursors, transition states, and products for competing pathways. PMID:25201456

  13. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ?-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form.

    PubMed

    Baum, Bernhard; Lecker, Laura S M; Zoltner, Martin; Jaenicke, Elmar; Schnell, Robert; Hunter, William N; Brenk, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ?-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials. PMID:26249693

  14. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ?-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Bernhard; Lecker, Laura S. M.; Zoltner, Martin; Jaenicke, Elmar; Schnell, Robert; Hunter, William N.; Brenk, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ?-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials. PMID:26249693

  15. Sonochemical coating of cotton and polyester fabrics with "antibacterial" BSA and casein spheres.

    PubMed

    Shimanovich, Ulyana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Gedanken, Aharon

    2012-01-01

    A novel antibacterial coating for cotton and polyester fabrics has been developed by using drug-loaded proteinaceous microspheres made of bovine serum albumin and casein proteins. The microbubbles were created and anchored onto the fabrics (see figure) in a one-step reaction that lasts 3 min. The sonochemically produced "antibacterial fabrics" have been characterized. The efficiency of the sonochemical process in converting the native proteins into microspheres, encapsulating the drug, and coating the fabric has also been studied. PMID:22127843

  16. Synthesis, antiproliferative and antibacterial activity of new amides of salinomycin.

    PubMed

    Antoszczak, Micha?; Maj, Ewa; Stefa?ska, Joanna; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Janczak, Jan; Brzezinski, Bogumil; Huczy?ski, Adam

    2014-04-01

    A series of 11 novel amides of salinomycin were synthesized for the first time. All the obtained compounds were found to show potent antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines including the drug-resistant cancer cells. Four new salinomycin derivatives revealed good antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). PMID:24631190

  17. Designing Nanogel Carriers for Antibacterial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, M. Carme Coll; Dastgheyb, Sana; Hickok, Noreen J.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we developed a novel and simple synthesis route to create nanosized (~ 5 nm) silver nanoparticles (NP) embedded in a biocompatible nanogel (NG) comprised of degradable, natural polymers, namely, dextran and lysozyme. In this study, we prepare hybrid nanogels with varying lysozyme content, evaluate their potential to reduce Ag NPs in situ (UV-Vis, cryo-TEM, TGA and FTIR) and determine their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Lysozyme enhances nucleation and stabilization of Ag NPs while limiting their growth. As lysozyme concentration increases, larger nanogels with greater loading of smaller Ag NPs are obtained. The antibacterial properties of hybrid NGs depend upon nanogel type and bacterial conditions. Hybrid nanogels with the largest Ag NPs show the lowest minimum inhibition concentration (MIC). However, the greatest bacterial killing efficiency (up to 100%) occurs within one hour if the bacteria are exposed to hybrid nanogels with smaller Ag NPs while agitating the medium. These results suggest that nanogel properties as well as antibacterial activity can be tuned by varying lysozyme content. By targeting drug delivery (e.g., ligand grafted surface), these nanogels can be used to prevent biofilm formation and control infection without the complications (i.e., over exposure) associated with classical antibiotic delivery platforms. PMID:24434534

  18. Mutations in topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus: novel pleiotropic effects on quinolone and coumarin activity.

    PubMed

    Fournier, B; Hooper, D C

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase interact with quinolones and coumarins in different ways. The MICs of coumarins (novobiocin and coumermycin) for MT5, a Staphylococcus aureus nov mutant, are higher than those for wild-type strains. Sequencing the gyrB gene encoding one subunit of the DNA gyrase revealed the presence of a double mutation likely to be responsible for this resistance: at codon 102 (Ile to Ser) and at codon 144 (Arg to Ile). For single-step flqA mutant MT5224c9, previously selected on ciprofloxacin, the fluoroquinolone MIC was higher and the coumarin MIC was lower than those for its parent, MT5. Sequencing the grlB and grlA genes of topoisomerase IV of MT5224c9 showed a single Asn-470-to-Asp mutation in GrlB. Genetic outcrosses by transformation with chromosomal DNA and introduction of plasmids carrying either the wild-type or the mutated grlB gene indicated that this mutation causes both increased MICs of fluoroquinolones and decreased MICs of coumarins and that the mutant grlB allele is codominant for both phenotypes with multicopy alleles. Integration of these plasmids into the chromosome confirmed the codominance of fluoroquinolone resistance, but grlB+ appeared dominant over grlB (Asp-470) for coumarin resistance. Finally, the gyrA (Leu-84) mutation previously described as silent for fluoroquinolone resistance increased the MIC of nalidixic acid, a nonfluorinated quinolone. Combining the grlA (Phe-80) and grlB (Asp-470) mutations with this gyrA mutation also had differing effects. The findings indicate that alterations in topoisomerases may have pleiotropic effects on different classes of inhibitors as well as on inhibitors within the same class. A full understanding of drug action and resistance at the molecular level must take into account both inhibitor structure-activity relationships and the effects of different classes of topoisomerase mutants. PMID:9449271

  19. Antibacterial drug leads: DNA and enzyme multitargeting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Kai; Gao, Jian; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Chun-Chi; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Zhang, Yonghui; Guo, Rey-Ting; Oldfield, Eric

    2015-02-12

    We report the results of an investigation of the activity of a series of amidine and bisamidine compounds against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The most active compounds bound to an AT-rich DNA dodecamer (CGCGAATTCGCG)2 and using DSC were found to increase the melting transition by up to 24 C. Several compounds also inhibited undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS) with IC50 values of 100-500 nM, and we found good correlations (R(2) = 0.89, S. aureus; R(2) = 0.79, E. coli) between experimental and predicted cell growth inhibition by using DNA ?Tm and UPPS IC50 experimental results together with one computed descriptor. We also solved the structures of three bisamidines binding to DNA as well as three UPPS structures. Overall, the results are of general interest in the context of the development of resistance-resistant antibiotics that involve multitargeting. PMID:25574764

  20. Antibacterial prescribing patterns in small animal veterinary practice identified via SAVSNET: the small animal veterinary surveillance network.

    PubMed

    Radford, A D; Noble, P J; Coyne, K P; Gaskell, R M; Jones, P H; Bryan, J G E; Setzkorn, C; Tierney, ; Dawson, S

    2011-09-17

    In this study, data from veterinary clinical records were collected via the small animal veterinary surveillance network (SAVSNET). Over a three-month period, data were obtained from 22,859 consultations at 16 small animal practices in England and Wales: 69 per cent from dogs, 24 per cent from cats, 3 per cent from rabbits and 4 per cent from miscellaneous species. The proportion of consults where prescribing of antibacterials was identified was 35.1 per cent for dogs, 48.5 per cent for cats and 36.6 per cent for rabbits. Within this population, 76 per cent of antibacterials prescribed were ?-lactams, including the most common group of clavulanic acid-potentiated amoxicillin making up 36 per cent of the antibacterials prescribed. Other classes included lincosamides (9 per cent), fluoroquinolones and quinolones (6 per cent) and nitroimidazoles (4 per cent). Vancomycin and teicoplanin (glycopeptide class), and imipenem and meropenem (?-lactam class) prescribing was not identified. Prescribing behaviour varied between practices. For dogs and cats, the proportion of consults associated with the prescription of antibacterials ranged from 0.26 to 0.55 and 0.41 to 0.73, respectively. PMID:21911433

  1. 7-Azetidinylquinolones as antibacterial agents. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Frigola, J; Pars, J; Corbera, J; Va, D; Merc, R; Torrens, A; Ms, J; Valent, E

    1993-04-01

    A series of novel antibacterial quinolones and naphthyridones has been prepared which contain 7-azetidinyl substituents in place of the usual piperazine or aminopyrrolidine groups. These azetidinyl derivatives were evaluated for in vitro activity by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations against a variety of bacteria. In vivo efficacy in the mouse infection model and blood levels in the mouse were determined for several compounds. The influence on the structure-activity relationships of varying substituents in the azetidine ring and at position 8 (CH, CF, CCl, N) and N-1 (ethyl, fluoroethyl, cyclopropyl, tert-butyl, 4-fluorophenyl, and 2,4-difluorophenyl) was also studied. Compounds with outstandingly broad-spectrum activity, particularly against Gram-positive organisms, improved in vivo efficacy, and high blood levels were identified in this work. 7-Azetidinyl-8-chloroquinolones were considered as warranting further development. PMID:8464033

  2. Comparative Analysis of Quinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from Chinese Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Ogutu, James O.; Gu, Jiarui; Ding, Fengshu; You, Yuhong; Huo, Yan; Zhao, Hong; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenli; Chen, Xiaobei; Fu, Yingmei; Zhang, Fengmin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare quinolone resistance and gyrA mutations in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from Chinese adults who used quinolone in the preceding month and children without any known history of quinolone administration. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 61 isolates from children and 79 isolates from adults were determined. The mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions in gyrA gene were detected by PCR and DNA sequencing. Fluoroquinolone resistance and types of gyrA mutations in isolates from children and adults were compared and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were detected in the resistance rates of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin between children and adults among isolates of the two species (all P > 0.05). The double mutation Ser83?Leu + Asp87?Asn in the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates occurred in 73.7% isolates from the children and 67.9% from the adults, respectively (P = 0.5444). Children with no known history of quinolone administration were found to carry fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The occurrence of ciprofloxacin resistance and the major types of gyrA mutations in the isolates from the children were similar to those from adults. The results indicate that precautions should be taken on environmental issues resulting from widespread transmission of quinolone resistance. PMID:25756041

  3. Analysis of quinolone-resistance in commensal and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates from infants in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Maria J.; Mosquito, S.; Gomes, C.; del Valle, L.J.; Ochoa, T.J.; Ruiz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem, particularly in countries where antibiotic use is frequently not controlled. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of the molecular mechanisms of quinolone-resistance in E. coli isolated from faeces of healthy Peruvian children or those presenting diarrhoea. Methods The presence of target mutations, transferable quinolone-resistance mechanisms and the role of Phe-Arg-?-Naphtylamyde inhibitible efflux pumps were studied in 96 Escherichia coli (46 diarrheogenic and 50 non-diarrheogenic) isolates exhibiting resistance or diminished susceptibility to quinolones. Results The most resistant phenotype, NalR and CipR, was most frequently present in isolates of healthy children. The distribution of quinolone resistance mechanisms between diarrheogenic (DEC) and commensal (non DEC) isolates was equitable, although the aac(6?)Ib-cr gene was mainly detected in DEC isolates: 17 (34%) vs non DEC isolates nine (20%). QnrB was present in five (10%) DEC vs three (6%) non DEC isolates. Conclusions Point mutations in gyrA and parC genes play a relevant role in quinolone resistance acquisition and highlight the role of efflux pumps also. This study provides knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance in isolates in a non exposed population under high community antibiotic pressure. PMID:24306130

  4. [Advance in studies on antibacterial effect of flavonoids].

    PubMed

    You, Ting-Huo; Liu, Fan; Wen, Lu; Zou, Yu-Xiao; Liao, Sen-Tai; Xiao, Geng-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    As antibiotic drug resistance has become one of the most serious threats to global public health, there is a pressing need to look for new effective therapeutic drugs. Flavonoids are a large class of chemicals widely exist in plants, and have such effects as direct antibiotics, synergistic antibiotics and inhibition of bacterial activity. In this article, we made a summary for the advance in studies on the antibacterial effects of flavonoids and their mechanism. PMID:24494547

  5. Xenobiotic biotransformation of 4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-quinolone, isolated from Zanthoxylum monophyllum.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Guzmn, Raquel; Radwan, Mohamed M; Burandt, Charles L; Williamson, John S; Ross, Samir A

    2010-09-01

    Phytochemical evaluation of Zanthoxylum monophyllum has led to the isolation of the alkaloid 4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-quinolone (1) with a significant activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with an IC50 value of 1.5 microg/mL. Xenobiotic biotransformation of 1 has been conducted with the general goal of increasing the bioactivity of the compound and contributing new leads for further pharmacological research. Twenty-nine microorganisms were used for screening and two (Aspergillus flavus and Cunninghamella echinulata var. echinulata) were able to transform compound 1 to 4-methoxy-2-quinolone (2). Structural identification of the compounds was based on NMR, IR, and MS data. PMID:20923009

  6. The discovery of antibacterial agents using diversity-oriented synthesis.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Warren R J D; Bender, Andreas; Welch, Martin; Spring, David R

    2009-05-14

    The emergence and increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistance bacterial strains represents a clear and present danger to the standard of human healthcare as we know it. The systematic study of modulating biological systems using small molecules (so-called chemical genetics) offers a potentially fruitful means of discovering critically needed new antibacterial agents. Crucial to the success of this approach is the ready availability of functionally diverse small molecule collections. In this feature article we focus upon the use of a diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS) approach for the efficient generation of such compound collections, and discuss the utility of DOS for the discovery of new antibacterial agents. PMID:19532856

  7. Dose escalation study of the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel potent broad-spectrum nonfluorinated quinolone, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Luke; Chang, Li-Wen; Tsai, Cheng-Yuan; Hsu, Ching-Hung; Chung, David T; Aronstein, William S; Ajayi, Funmi; Kuzmak, Barbara; Lyon, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    Nemonoxacin (TG-873870) is a novel nonfluorinated quinolone with potent broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin- and quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin were investigated in a double-blind, ascending-single-dose study involving 56 healthy subjects (48 males and 8 females) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 dose cohorts. In each successive cohort, two subjects received a placebo and six received single oral doses of 25, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg nemonoxacin. Nemonoxacin was well tolerated up to the maximum dose of 1,500 mg. No severe or serious adverse events were observed. The most frequent adverse events were contact dermatitis, pruritus, and erythema. No clinically significant abnormalities were noted in the electrocardiograms, vital signs, or laboratory tests. The plasma concentrations increased over the dose range, and at 500 mg, the free area under the plasma concentration-time curve/MIC(90) ratios and free maximum nemonoxacin concentration/MIC(90) ratios against drug-sensitive/drug-resistant S. pneumoniae and S. aureus were greater than 227 and 24, respectively. The peak time and elimination half-life of nemonoxacin were 1 to 2 h and 9 to 16 h, respectively. The oral clearance was approximately 0.22 liter/h/kg. The plasma protein binding was approximately 16%. The results of this study support further evaluation of the multiple-dose safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin. PMID:19884368

  8. Dose Escalation Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a Novel Potent Broad-Spectrum Nonfluorinated Quinolone, in Healthy Volunteers?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Luke; Chang, Li-Wen; Tsai, Cheng-Yuan; Hsu, Ching-Hung; Chung, David T.; Aronstein, William S.; Ajayi, Funmi; Kuzmak, Barbara; Lyon, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Nemonoxacin (TG-873870) is a novel nonfluorinated quinolone with potent broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin- and quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin were investigated in a double-blind, ascending-single-dose study involving 56 healthy subjects (48 males and 8 females) who were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 dose cohorts. In each successive cohort, two subjects received a placebo and six received single oral doses of 25, 50, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg nemonoxacin. Nemonoxacin was well tolerated up to the maximum dose of 1,500 mg. No severe or serious adverse events were observed. The most frequent adverse events were contact dermatitis, pruritus, and erythema. No clinically significant abnormalities were noted in the electrocardiograms, vital signs, or laboratory tests. The plasma concentrations increased over the dose range, and at 500 mg, the free area under the plasma concentration-time curve/MIC90 ratios and free maximum nemonoxacin concentration/MIC90 ratios against drug-sensitive/drug-resistant S. pneumoniae and S. aureus were greater than 227 and 24, respectively. The peak time and elimination half-life of nemonoxacin were 1 to 2 h and 9 to 16 h, respectively. The oral clearance was approximately 0.22 liter/h/kg. The plasma protein binding was approximately 16%. The results of this study support further evaluation of the multiple-dose safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of nemonoxacin. PMID:19884368

  9. Antibacterial agents--phagocytes: new concepts for old in immunomodulation.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Labro MT

    1998-04-01

    The possibility that antibacterial agents, primarily directed against microorganisms, also modify host functions is widely recognized. While a knowledge of these non-antimicrobial effects of antibiotics, sometimes considered as 'side-effects', is necessary to prevent antibiotic-associated toxicity, the development of drugs derived from antibacterial agents for use in non-infectious diseases (e.g. motilins and antidiabetic drugs) is a new field of therapeutic research. Interactions between antibacterial drugs and the immune system may contribute to therapeutic efficacy in infectious diseases [1,2]. The immune system itself is a complex pyramid of redundant cellular factors/humoral effectors/mediators, whose fine regulation is just beginning to be unraveled. Phagocytes, ubiquitous and multifaceted cells are key components of cellular immunity, being involved both in immediate defences against non-self targets (pathogens, tumour cells, exogenous molecules, etc.) and in the regulation and triggering of specific immune responses. They are thus, prime targets of immune response modifiers. This review reconsiders the widely explored problem of interactions between antibacterial agents and phagocytes, focusing on future prospects in both infectious and non-infectious diseases.

  10. Characterization of quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. isolates from food products and human samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pribul, Bruno Rocha; Festivo, Marcia Lima; de Souza, Miliane Moreira Soares; Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. A total of 129 NTS isolates (samples from human origin, food from animal origin, environmental, and animal) grouped as from animal (n=62) and human (n=67) food were evaluated between 2009 and 2013. These isolates were investigated through serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnr, aac(6')-Ib) and associated integron genes (integrase, and conserved integron region). Resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, from first to third generations, was observed. Fifteen isolates were positive for the presence of qnr genes (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD) and twenty three of aac(6')-Ib. The conserved integron region was detected in 67 isolates as variable regions, from ±600 to >1000pb. The spread of NTS involving PMQR carriers is of serious concern and should be carefully monitored. PMID:26887245

  11. Simple and sensitive determination of five quinolones in food by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Macarena; Aranda, Angela; Garcia, Elena; Reuvers, Thea; Hooghuis, Henny

    2003-06-15

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of five different quinolones: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine in pork and salmon muscle. The method includes one extraction and clean-up step for the five quinolones together which are detected in two separated HPLC runs by means of their fluorescence. The proposed analytical method involves homogenizing of the tissue sample with 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 and clean-up by Discovery DS-18 cartridges. For chromatographic separation a Symmetry C(18) column is used in two different runs: (1) ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and sarafloxacin with acetonitrile-0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 3.0 (18:82) as mobile phase and the detector at excitation wavelength: 280 nm and emission wavelength 450 nm; and (2) oxolinic acid and flumequine with acetonitrile-0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 3.0 (34:66) as mobile phase and excitation wavelength: 312 nm and emission wavelength: 366 nm. Detection limit was as low as 5 ng g(-1), except for sarafloxacin which had a limit of 10 ng g(-1). Standard curves using blank muscle tissues spiked at different levels showed a good linear correlation coefficient, r(2) higher than 0.999 for all quinolones. PMID:12742128

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of quinolones in water and human urine samples after microextraction by packed sorbent.

    PubMed

    Rani, Susheela; Kumar, Ashwini; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Baldev

    2012-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of quinolones in water and urine samples by microextraction in a sorbent-packed syringe (MEPS) with LC is described. MEPS is a new miniaturized SPE technique that can be used with chromatographic instruments without any modifications. In MEPS, approximately 1 mg of the solid packing material is inserted into a syringe (100-250 microL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. The new method is promising, easy to use, economical, and rapid. The determination of quinolones in groundwater and urine was performed using MEPS as a sample preparation method with LC-UV determination. Four quinolone antibiotics--enrofloxacin, enoxacin, danofloxacin, and nalidixic acid--in groundwater and urine samples were used as analytes. The extraction recovery was found to be between 64.9 and 98.9%. The results showed high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.992) for all of the analytes within the calibration range. The LOQ was between 0.091 and 0.315 ng/mL. PMID:22468369

  13. Renaissance of antibiotics against difficult infections: Focus on oritavancin and new ketolides and quinolones.

    PubMed

    Van Bambeke, Franoise

    2014-11-01

    Lipoglycopeptide, ketolide, and quinolone antibiotics are currently in clinical development, with specific advantages over available molecules within their respective classes. The lipoglycopeptide oritavancin is bactericidal against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and proved effective and safe for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) upon administration of a single 1200 mg dose (two completed phase III trials). The ketolide solithromycin (two phase III studies recruiting for community-acquired pneumonia) shows a profile of activity similar to that of telithromycin, but in vitro data suggest a lower risk of hepatotoxicity, visual disturbance, and aggravation of myasthenia gravis due to reduced affinity for nicotinic receptors. Among quinolones, finafloxacin and delafloxacin share the unique property of an improved activity in acidic environments (found in many infection sites). Finafloxacin (phase II completed; activity profile similar to that of ciprofloxacin) is evaluated for complicated urinary tract and Helicobacter pylori infections. The other quinolones (directed towards Gram-positive pathogens) show improved activity on MRSA and multiresistant S. pneumoniae compared to current molecules. They are in clinical evaluation for ABSSSI (avarofloxacin (phase II completed), nemonoxacin and delafloxacin (ongoing phase III)), respiratory tract infections (zabofloxacin and nemonoxacin (ongoing phase III)), or gonorrhea (delafloxacin). PMID:25058176

  14. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06157a

  15. Antibacterial polyelectrolyte-coated Mg alloys for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraz, Md. S.; Asmatulu, R.; Chen, Z.; Ceylan, M.; Mahapatro, A.; Yang, S. Y.

    2014-04-01

    This study deals with two biomedical subjects: corrosion rates of polyelectrolyte-coated magnesium (Mg) alloys, mainly used for biomedical purposes, and antibacterial properties of these alloys. Thin sheets of Mg alloys were coated with cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (CHI) and anionic polyelectrolyte carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using a layer-by-layer coating method and then embedded with antibacterial agents under vacuum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze these samples in order to detect their corrosion properties at different conditions. In the electrochemical analysis section, a corrosion rate of 72 mille inches per year was found in a salt solution for the sample coated with a 12 phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer and 9 CHI/CMC multilayers. In the antibacterial tests, gentamicin was used to investigate the effects of the drug embedded with the coated surfaces against the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Antibacterial studies were tested using the disk diffusion method. Based on the standard diameter of the zone of inhibition chart, the antibacterial diffusion from the surface strongly inhibited bacterial growth in the regions. The largest recorded diameter of the zone of inhibition was 50 mm for the pre-UV treated and gentamicin-loaded sample, which is more than three times the standard diameter.

  16. Cationic polymers and their self-assembly for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Deka, Smriti Rekha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pradee

    2015-01-01

    The present article focuses on the amphiphilic cationic polymers as antibacterial agents. These polymers undergo self-assembly in aqueous conditions and impart biological activity by efficiently interacting with the bacterial cell wall, hence, used in preparing chemical disinfectants and biocides. Both cationic charge as well as hydrophobic segments facilitate interactions with the bacterial cell surface and initiate its disruption. The perturbation in transmembrane potential causes leakage of cytosolic contents followed by cell death. Out of two categories of macromolecules, peptide oligomers and cationic polymers, which have extensively been used as antibacterials, we have elaborated on the current advances made in the area of cationic polymer-based (naturally occurring and commonly employed synthetic polymers and their modified analogs) antibacterial agents. The development of polymer-based antibacterials has helped in addressing challenges posed by the drug-resistant bacterial infections. These polymers provide a new platform to combat such infections in the most efficient manner. This review presents concise discussion on the amphiphilic cationic polymers and their modified analogs having low hemolytic activity and excellent antibacterial activity against array of fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms. PMID:25858132

  17. Acylated flavonol glycosides from Tagetes minuta with antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shahzadi, Irum; Shah, Mohammad M.

    2015-01-01

    Wild marigold (Tagetes minuta), a flowering plant of the family Asteraceae contains compounds of pharmaceutical and nutritional importance especially essential oils and flavonols. Identification, characterization of flavonols and determination of their antibacterial activity were major objectives of the current study. The isolation and purification of flavonols was accomplished using chromatographic techniques while structural elucidation was completed by LC–MS and NMR spectroscopy. The extracts and purified compounds were tested against various bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. A total of 19 flavonols were isolated from this species. Of these, 17 were of butanol and two of ethyl acetate extracts. Based on the concentration and purity, eight potential flavonols were selected and structurally elucidated. Four flavonols, 6-hydroxyquercetin 7-O-β-(6′′-galloylglucopyranoside; 2), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (5), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-β-(6′′-galloylglucopyranoside; 7), 6-hydroxyquercetin 7-O-β-(6′′-caffeoylglucopyranoside; 9), were identified for the first time from T. minuta. Butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of flowers and seeds showed significant antibacterial activity against Micrococcus leteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas pikettii. Among the isolated flavonols only 1, 2, and 18 were found to possess significant antibacterial activity against M. luteus. The extracts and purified flavonols from T. minuta can be potential candidates for antibacterial drug discovery and support to ethnopharmacological use. PMID:26441652

  18. Characterization of ESBLs and associated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from an urban wastewater treatment plant in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Alouache, Souhila; Estepa, Vanesa; Messai, Yamina; Ruiz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was the characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and quinolone resistance in cefotaxime-resistant coliform isolates from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). ESBLs were detected in 19 out of 24 isolates (79%) from raw water and in 21 out of 24 isolates (87.5%) from treated water, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Molecular characterization of ESBLs and quinolone resistance showed allele profiles CTX-M-15 (3), CTX-M-3 (5), CTX-M-15+qnrB1 (1), CTX-M-3+qnrB1 (1), CTX-M-15+aac-(6')-Ib-cr (4), and CTX-M-15+qnrB1+aac-(6')-Ib-cr (7). A double mutation S83L and D87N (GyrA) and a single mutation S80I (ParC) were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates. In K. pneumoniae, mutations S83I (GyrA)+S80I (ParC) or single S80I mutation were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, and no mutation was observed in ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. bla(CTX-M), qnrB1, and aac-(6')-Ib-cr were found, respectively, in these genetic environments: ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M)-orf477, orf1005-orf1-qnrB1, and Tn1721-IS26-aac-(6')-Ib-cr-bla(OXA-1)-catB4. bla(CTX-M-15) was located on IncF plasmid in E. coli and bla(CTX-M-3) on IncL/M plasmid in both species (E. coli and K. pneumoniae). E. coli isolates were affiliated to the phylogroups/MLST: D/ST405 (CC405), A/ST10 (CC10), A/ST617 (CC10), and B1/ST1431. K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to phylogroup KpI and to sequence types ST15, ST17, ST36, ST48, ST54, and ST147. The study showed a multi-drug resistance at the inflow and outflow of the WWTP, with ESBL production, plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance, and mutations in topoisomerases. The findings highlight the similarity of antibiotic resistance mechanisms in the clinical setting and the environment, and the role of the latter as a source of dissemination of resistance genes. PMID:23952363

  19. Silver nanoparticles as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Franci, Gianluigi; Falanga, Annarita; Galdiero, Stefania; Palomba, Luciana; Rai, Mahendra; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs, but unfortunately infectious diseases continue to be a major health burden worldwide. Since ancient times, silver was known for its anti-bacterial effects and for centuries it has been used for prevention and control of disparate infections. Currently nanotechnology and nanomaterials are fully integrated in common applications and objects that we use every day. In addition, the silver nanoparticles are attracting much interest because of their potent antibacterial activity. Many studies have also shown an important activity of silver nanoparticles against bacterial biofilms. This review aims to summarize the emerging efforts to address current challenges and solutions in the treatment of infectious diseases, particularly the use of nanosilver antimicrobials. PMID:25993417

  20. Phenotypic characterization of quinolone-resistant mutants of Enterobacteriaceae selected from wild type, gyrA type and multiply-resistant (marA) type strains.

    PubMed

    Piddock, L J; Hall, M C; Walters, R N

    1991-08-01

    The NCTC type strains of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae were exposed to 3, 5 and 10 x MIC of nalidixic acid, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, PD 117596 and PD 127391. From each strain a mutant with a high MIC of quinolones alone (gyrA) and a mutant with intermediate resistance to quinolones, some beta-lactams, chloramphenicol and tetracycline (multiply resistant, m-r) were selected on agar containing antibiotics. The gyrA mutants required a higher concentration of quinolone to inhibit DNA synthesis by 50% but quinolone uptake kinetics and outer membrane profile were the same as the wild type. The m-r mutants had similar DNA synthesis IC50 as the wild type, decreased quinolone uptake kinetics and had decreased expression of an OMP of approximately 40 kD. The gyrA and m-r mutants were then exposed to 3, 5 and 10 x MIC of the same quinolones and new mutants (F2) selected. The F2 mutants from the gyrA mutants displayed a further increase in quinolone MIC; the F2 mutants from the m-r mutants had several phenotypes: high quinolone MICs with cross resistance to other agents, high quinolone resistance alone, or intermediate quinolone resistance alone. Most F2 mutants had MICs above the recommended breakpoint concentrations for quinolones. The F2 mutants often had altered biochemical profiles (API 20E), however, only in the case of E. cloacae did this affect speciation with the strains being identified as Rhanella aquatalis. PMID:1663926

  1. High-level quinolone resistance is associated with the overexpression of smeVWX in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    García-León, G; Ruiz de Alegría Puig, C; García de la Fuente, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Martínez, J L; Sánchez, M B

    2015-05-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is the only known bacterium in which quinolone-resistant isolates do not present mutations in the genes encoding bacterial topoisomerases. The expression of the intrinsic quinolone resistance elements smeDEF, smeVWX and Smqnr was analysed in 31 clinical S. maltophilia isolates presenting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range to ciprofloxacin between 0.5 and > 32 μg/mL; 11 (35.5%) overexpressed smeDEF, 2 (6.5%) presenting the highest quinolone MICs overexpressed smeVWX and 1 (3.2%) overexpressed Smqnr. Both strains overexpressing smeVWX presented changes at the Gly266 position of SmeRv, the repressor of smeVWX. Changes at the same position were previously observed in in vitro selected S. maltophilia quinolone-resistant mutants, indicating this amino acid is highly relevant for the activity of SmeRv in repressing smeVWX expression. For the first time SmeVWX overexpression is associated with quinolone resistance of S. maltophilia clinical isolates. PMID:25753190

  2. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of peptide deformylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huntington, K M; Yi, T; Wei, Y; Pei, D

    2000-04-18

    Peptide deformylase catalyzes the removal of the N-terminal formyl group from newly synthesized polypeptides in eubacteria. Its essential character in bacterial cells makes it an attractive target for antibacterial drug design. In this work, we have rationally designed and synthesized a series of peptide thiols that act as potent, reversible inhibitors of purified recombinant peptide deformylase from Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The most potent inhibitor has a K(I) value of 11 nM toward the B. subtilis enzyme. These inhibitors showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as low as 5 microM ( approximately 2 microg/mL). The PDF inhibitors induce bacterial cell lysis and are bactericidal toward all four bacterial strains that have been tested, B. subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, and E. coli. Resistance evaluation of one of the inhibitors (1b) against B. subtilis showed that no resistant clone could be found from >1 x 10(9) cells. Quantitative analysis using a set of inhibitors designed to possess varying potencies against the deformylase enzyme revealed a linear correlation between the MIC values and the K(I) values. These results suggest that peptide deformylase is the likely molecular target responsible for the antibacterial activity of these inhibitors and is therefore a viable target for antibacterial drug design. PMID:10758004

  3. Antibacterial efficacy of acridine derivatives conjugated with gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Piyali; Chakraborty, Prabal Kumar; Saha, Partha; Ray, Pulak; Basu, Samita

    2014-10-01

    Adsorption of acridine derivatives viz. 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride hydrate (9AA-HCl), acridine yellow (AY), acridine orange (AO), and proflavine (Pro) on citrate stabilized gold nanoparticle surface were studied using different analytical techniques like UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The amine moiety of acridine derivative binds strongly to the gold nanoparticles as confirmed by spectroscopic studies. The plasmon band observed for the wine red colloidal gold at 525 nm in the UV-vis spectrum is characteristic of gold nanoparticles. However, with the addition of acridine derivatives the intensity of the absorption band at 525 nm decreases and a new peak emerges at red-end region - a signature of formation of gold-drug complex. The TEM images show the average size of citrate stabilized gold nanoparticles as 15-20 nm, which becomes larger in the presence of various drugs due to aggregation. From the thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) we have measured the number of drug molecules attached per gold nanoparticle (AuNP). These gold nanoparticles are very important as drug delivery vehicles and for clinical applications it is necessary to understand their activity in vivo. The antibacterial efficacy of drugs coated gold nanoparticles were studied against various strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Among the four drugs, 9AA-HCl and AO showed antibacterial activity and for both of them the AuNP conjugated drug showed better antibacterial efficacy than the bare drug. Because of the high penetrating power and large surface area of Au(0), a single gold nanoparticle can adsorb multiple drug molecules, hence this total entity acts as a single group against the bacteria. PMID:25087507

  4. [Antibacterial therapy for acute cystitis in the age of growing pathogen resistance].

    PubMed

    Siniakova, L A

    2014-01-01

    Acute cystitis refers to uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections, with the recurrence rates after the first cystitis episode being 50%. The basic treatment for the above diseases is antibacterial therapy, whose efficiency depends entirely on the right choice of a drug during initial empiric therapy. The paper gives the European Association of Urology guidelines and Russian guidelines, which are based on the results of both international (ARESC) and Russian (DARMIS) studies of urinary tract infection pathogens and their susceptibility to antibacterial drugs. Phosphomycin trometamol and furasidine potassium are the drugs of choice to treat acute cystitis in Russia now. PMID:24864480

  5. Assessment of the effectiveness of silver-coated dressing, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%), citric acid (3%), and silver sulfadiazine (1%) for topical antibacterial effects against the multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting full-skin thickness burn wounds on rats.

    PubMed

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 10(8) CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp. PMID:24229034

  6. Antibacterial activity of doxycycline-loaded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ranjita; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic with a potent antibacterial activity against a wide variety of bacteria. However, poor cellular penetration limits its use for the treatment of infectious disease caused by intracellular pathogens. One potential strategy to overcome this problem is the use of nanotechnology that can help to easily target the intracellular sites of infection. The antibacterial activity of these antibiotics is enhanced by encapsulating it in polymeric nanoparticles. In this study, we describe the improvement of the entrapment efficiency of doxycycline hydrochloride (doxycycline)-loaded PLGA:PCL nanoparticles up to 70% with variation of different formulation parameters such as polymer ratio, amount of drug loading (w/w), solvent selection, electrolyte addition, and pH alteration in the formulation. We have evaluated the efficacy of these nanoparticles over native doxycycline against a strain of Escherichia coli (DH5α) through growth inhibition and colony counting. The results indicate that doxycycline-loaded nanoparticles have superior effectiveness compared to native doxycycline against the above bacterial strain, resulting from the sustained release of doxycycline from nanoparticles. These results are encouraging for the use of these doxycycline-loaded nanoparticles for the treatment of infections caused by doxycycline-sensitive bacteria. PMID:22568901

  7. ESKAPEing the labyrinth of antibacterial discovery.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Ruben; Brown, Dean G; Walkup, Grant K; Manchester, John I; Miller, Alita A

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing threat to global public health. Multidrug resistance among the 'ESKAPE' organisms - encompassing Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. - is of particular concern because they are responsible for many serious infections in hospitals. Although some promising agents are in the pipeline, there is an urgent need for new antibiotic scaffolds. However, antibacterial researchers have struggled to identify new small molecules with meaningful cellular activity, especially those effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. This difficulty ultimately stems from an incomplete understanding of efflux systems and compound permeation through bacterial membranes. This Opinion article describes findings from target-based and phenotypic screening efforts carried out at AstraZeneca over the past decade, discusses some of the subsequent chemistry challenges and concludes with a description of new approaches comprising a combination of computational modelling and advanced biological tools which may pave the way towards the discovery of new antibacterial agents. PMID:26139286

  8. Dual Mode Antibacterial Activity of Ion Substituted Calcium Phosphate Nanocarriers for Bone Infections

    PubMed Central

    Sampath Kumar, T. S.; Madhumathi, K.; Rubaiya, Y.; Doble, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has tremendous potential for the management of infectious diseases caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria, through the development of newer antibacterial materials and efficient modes of antibiotic delivery. Calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramics are commonly used as bone substitutes due to their similarity to bone mineral and are widely researched upon for the treatment of bone infections associated with bone loss. CaPs can be used as local antibiotic delivery agents for bone infections and can be substituted with antibacterial ions in their crystal structure to have a wide spectrum, sustained antibacterial activity even against drug resistant bacteria. In the present work, a dual mode antibiotic delivery system with antibacterial ion substituted calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) nanoparticles has been developed. Antibacterial ions such as zinc, silver, and strontium have been incorporated into CDHA at concentrations of 6, 0.25–0.75, and 2.5–7.5 at. %, respectively. The samples were found to be phase pure, acicular nanoparticles of length 40–50 nm and width 5–6 nm approximately. The loading and release profile of doxycycline, a commonly used antibiotic, was studied from the nanocarriers. The drug release was studied for 5 days and the release profile was influenced by the ion concentrations. The release of antibacterial ions was studied over a period of 21 days. The ion substituted CDHA samples were tested for antibacterial efficacy on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by MIC/MBC studies and time-kill assay. AgCDHA and ZnCDHA showed high antibacterial activity against both bacteria, while SrCDHA was weakly active against S. aureus. Present study shows that the antibiotic release can provide the initial high antibacterial activity, and the sustained ion release can provide a long-term antibacterial activity. Such dual mode antibiotic and antibacterial ion release offers an efficient and potent way to treat an incumbent drug resistant infection. PMID:25984512

  9. Antibiotics Threaten Wildlife: Circulating Quinolone Residues and Disease in Avian Scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Lemus, Jess .; Blanco, Guillermo; Grande, Javier; Arroyo, Bernardo; Garca-Montijano, Marino; Martnez, Felx

    2008-01-01

    Antibiotic residues that may be present in carcasses of medicated livestock could pass to and greatly reduce scavenger wildlife populations. We surveyed residues of the quinolones enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics (amoxicillin and oxytetracycline) in nestling griffon Gyps fulvus, cinereous Aegypius monachus and Egyptian Neophron percnopterus vultures in central Spain. We found high concentrations of antibiotics in the plasma of many nestling cinereous (57%) and Egyptian (40%) vultures. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also found in liver samples of all dead cinereous vultures. This is the first report of antibiotic residues in wildlife. We also provide evidence of a direct association between antibiotic residues, primarily quinolones, and severe disease due to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Our results indicate that, by damaging the liver and kidney and through the acquisition and proliferation of pathogens associated with the depletion of lymphoid organs, continuous exposure to antibiotics could increase mortality rates, at least in cinereous vultures. If antibiotics ingested with livestock carrion are clearly implicated in the decline of the vultures in central Spain then it should be considered a primary concern for conservation of their populations. PMID:18197254

  10. Role of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) in sensitising Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Meichtry, Martín; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2015-01-01

    One of the main stress factors that bacteria face in the environment is solar ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiation, which leads to lethal effects through oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxi-4-quinolone (the Pseudomonas quinolone signal or PQS) in the response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to UVA radiation. PQS is an intercellular quorum sensing signal associated to membrane vesicles which, among other functions, regulates genes related to iron acquisition, forms stable complexes with iron and participates in oxidative phenomena. UVA exposure of the wild-type PAO1 strain and a pqsA mutant unable to produce PQS revealed a sensitising role for this signal. Research into the mechanism involved in this phenomenon revealed that catalase, an essential factor in the UVA defence, is not related to PQS-mediated UVA sensitivity. Absorption of UVA by PQS produced its own photo-degradation, oxidation of the probe 2',7'- dichlorodihydrofluorescein and generation of singlet oxygen and superoxide anion, suggesting that this signal could be acting as an endogenous photosensitiser. The results presented in this study could explain the high sensitivity to UVA of P. aeruginosa when compared to enteric bacteria. PMID:25535873

  11. Structure based in silico analysis of quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi from India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Dahiya, Sushila; Sharma, Priyanka; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P; Kapil, Arti; Kaur, Punit

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major cause of morbidity in several parts of the Indian subcontinent. The treatment for typhoid fever majorly includes the fluoroquinolone group of antibiotics. Excessive and indiscriminate use of these antibiotics has led to development of acquired resistance in the causative organism Salmonella Typhi. The resistance towards fluoroquinolones is associated with mutations in the target gene of DNA Gyrase. We have estimated the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of commonly used fluoroquinolone representatives from three generations, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, for 100 clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi from patients in the Indian subcontinent. The MICs have been found to be in the range of 0.032 to 8 μg/ml. The gene encoding DNA Gyrase was subsequently sequenced and point mutations were observed in DNA Gyrase in the quinolone resistance determining region comprising Ser83Phe/Tyr and Asp87Tyr/Gly. The binding ability of these four fluoroquinolones in the quinolone binding pocket of wild type as well as mutant DNA Gyrase was computationally analyzed by molecular docking to assess their differential binding behaviour. This study has revealed that mutations in DNA Gyrase alter the characteristics of the binding pocket resulting in the loss of crucial molecular interactions and consequently decrease the binding affinity of fluoroquinolones with the target protein. The present study assists in understanding the underlying molecular and structural mechanism for decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in clinical isolates as a consequence of mutations in DNA Gyrase. PMID:25962113

  12. Lack of efflux mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A.

    PubMed

    Baucheron, Sylvie; Monchaux, Isabelle; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates from human patients in France displaying different levels of resistance to quinolones or fluoroquinolones were studied for resistance mechanisms to these antimicrobial agents. All resistant isolates carried either single or multiple target gene mutations (i.e., in gyrA, gyrB, or parC) correlating with the resistance levels observed. Active efflux, through upregulation of multipartite efflux systems, has also been previously reported as contributing mechanism for other serovars. Therefore, we investigated also the occurrence of non-target gene mutations in regulatory regions affecting efflux pump expression. However, no mutation was detected in these regions in both Typhi and Paratyphi isolates of this study. Besides, no overexpression of the major efflux systems was observed for these isolates. Nevertheless, a large deletion of 2334 bp was identified in the acrS-acrE region of all S. Typhi strains but which did not affect the resistance phenotype. As being specific to S. Typhi, this deletion could be used for specific molecular detection purposes. In conclusion, the different levels of quinolone or FQ resistance in both S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A seem to rely only on target modifications. PMID:24478769

  13. [The sensitivity of Salmonella strains in diarrheal disease to new quinolones compared with other antimicrobial substances].

    PubMed

    David, E; Andronescu, D; Serban, D; Cocean, S

    1996-01-01

    The sensitivity of 59 Salmonella strains isolated in children with acute diarrhoea was tested against the new quinolones like: Ciproflaxicin (CIP), Norfloxacin (NOR) and Ofloxacin (OFX), as compared to the sensitivity against same aminosides: Gentamicin (GM), Amikacin (AN) against cephalosporins: Ceftazidime (CAZ), Cefalotine (CF) and other currently used antimicrobial agents: Tetraciclin (T), Ampicilin (A), Cloramfenicol (C), Furazolidon (FU). The majority of the studied Salmonella strains, 43 out of 59 strains, belonged to the serotype typhimurium, the most frequently serotype isolated in our geographical area. A very high percentage of Salmonella strains were sensitive against the three quinolones: 98,30% sensitive against NOR, 91,5% sensitive against OFX, 91,50% sensitive against CIP and 96,6% sensitive against AN. In contrast, the Salmonella strains sensitivity was lower in the other tested antimicrobial substances: C (32,2% sensitive strains), GM (8,5%), A (16,9%), CF (11,9%), T (3,4%), FU (1,7%). Out of 59 strains, 45 where resistant to more than four antibiotics, the most often observed pattern was: A, CAZ, CF, GM, T, C, FU. PMID:8963116

  14. Quantitation of GABAA receptor inhibition required for quinolone-induced convulsions in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsutomi, Y; Matsubayashi, K; Akahane, K

    1994-11-01

    We quantified the amount of inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor binding required for the onset of convulsions induced by ciprofloxacin in combination with biphenylacetic acid (BPAA) in mice. In fasting mice iv ciprofloxacin given 30 min after oral BPAA (50 mg/kg) induced convulsions at doses of 40 mg/kg or above. In contrast, ofloxacin caused no convulsions even at 100 mg/kg, the highest dose tested. When mice received 40 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin, maximal brain concentrations of each quinolone at 30 min were 0.37 or 1.97 micrograms/g, respectively. These brain concentrations of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were not affected by combination with BPAA. In the presence of ciprofloxacin and BPAA (at brain tissue concentrations which induced convulsions), the binding of 3H-muscimol to GABAA receptor sites was inhibited by approximately 30%. Using results from a similar binding study, an impracticable iv dose of ofloxacin (500 mg/kg) was estimated to be required to inhibit GABAA receptor binding by 30%, and therefore to induce similar convulsions to those seen with ciprofloxacin at a dose of 40 mg/kg. These results may indicate that epileptic convulsions occur when ciprofloxacin and BPAA interact with each other to antagonize at least 30% of GABAA receptor binding in mice, and provide evidence for a significant role of GABAA receptor inhibition in the occurrence of quinolone-induced convulsions. PMID:7706169

  15. Structure Based In Silico Analysis of Quinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Salmonella Typhi from India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.; Kapil, Arti; Kaur, Punit

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major cause of morbidity in several parts of the Indian subcontinent. The treatment for typhoid fever majorly includes the fluoroquinolone group of antibiotics. Excessive and indiscriminate use of these antibiotics has led to development of acquired resistance in the causative organism Salmonella Typhi. The resistance towards fluoroquinolones is associated with mutations in the target gene of DNA Gyrase. We have estimated the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of commonly used fluoroquinolone representatives from three generations, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, for 100 clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi from patients in the Indian subcontinent. The MICs have been found to be in the range of 0.032 to 8 μg/ml. The gene encoding DNA Gyrase was subsequently sequenced and point mutations were observed in DNA Gyrase in the quinolone resistance determining region comprising Ser83Phe/Tyr and Asp87Tyr/Gly. The binding ability of these four fluoroquinolones in the quinolone binding pocket of wild type as well as mutant DNA Gyrase was computationally analyzed by molecular docking to assess their differential binding behaviour. This study has revealed that mutations in DNA Gyrase alter the characteristics of the binding pocket resulting in the loss of crucial molecular interactions and consequently decrease the binding affinity of fluoroquinolones with the target protein. The present study assists in understanding the underlying molecular and structural mechanism for decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in clinical isolates as a consequence of mutations in DNA Gyrase. PMID:25962113

  16. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  17. Antibacterial activity of amphiphilic tobramycin.

    PubMed

    Dhondikubeer, Ramesh; Bera, Smritilekha; Zhanel, George G; Schweizer, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Amphiphilic aminoglycoside antimicrobials are an emerging class of new antibacterial agents with novel modes of action. Previous studies have shown that amphiphilic neomycin-B and kanamycin-A analogs restore potent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive neomycin-B- and kanamycin-A-resistant organisms. In this paper, we investigated the antibacterial properties of a series of amphiphilic tobramycin analogs. We prepared tobramycin-lipid conjugates, as well as tobramycin-peptide triazole conjugates, and studied their antibacterial activities against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, including isolates obtained from Canadian hospitals. Our results demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of amphiphilic tobramycin is greatly affected by the length and nature of the hydrophobic lipid tail, whereas the nature of the polycationic headgroup or the number of cationic charges appear to be less important. Replacement of the hydrophobic tail by a fluorinated lipid confers good activity against two Pseudomonas strains and reduces hemolytic activity. However, susceptibility studies in the presence of bovine serum albumin indicate that all amphiphilic tobramycin analogs are strongly protein-bound, leading to a typical four- to eight-fold increase in MIC. PMID:22781280

  18. Time for a change: addressing R&D and commercialization challenges for antibacterials.

    PubMed

    Payne, David J; Miller, Linda Federici; Findlay, David; Anderson, James; Marks, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    The antibacterial therapeutic area has been described as the perfect storm. Resistance is increasing to the point that our hospitals encounter patients infected with untreatable pathogens, the overall industry pipeline is described as dry and most multinational pharmaceutical companies have withdrawn from the area. Major contributing factors to the declining antibacterial industry pipeline include scientific challenges, clinical/regulatory hurdles and low return on investment. This paper examines these challenges and proposes approaches to address them. There is a need for a broader scientific agenda to explore new approaches to discover and develop antibacterial agents. Additionally, ideas of how industry and academia could be better integrated will be presented. While promising progress in the regulatory environment has been made, more streamlined regulatory paths are still required and the solutions will lie in global harmonization and clearly defined guidance. Creating the right incentives for antibacterial research and development is critical and a new commercial model for antibacterial agents will be proposed. One key solution to help resolve both the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and lack of new drug development are rapid, cost-effective, accurate point of care diagnostics that will transform antibacterial prescribing and enable more cost-effective and efficient antibacterial clinical trials. The challenges of AMR are too great for any one group to resolve and success will require leadership and partnerships among academia, industry and governments globally. PMID:25918443

  19. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Novel Pleuromutilin Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huixian; Xiao, Sui; Zhang, Depeng; Mu, Shuhua; Zhang, Lifang; Wang, Xiaoyang; Xue, Feiqun

    2015-01-01

    In this study we describe the design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity of novel pleuromutilin analogs. A series of new compounds containing piperazine and alkylamino or arylamino groups was synthesized. The new compounds were characterized via (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, Fourier transform (FT)-IR and MS, and were further evaluated for their in vitro activity against seven Gram-positive, and one Gram-negative, pathogens. Antibacterial data revealed that all compounds exhibited moderate to good antibacterial activities against sensitive Gram-positive pathogens. Specifically, 9d displayed the best activity: its activity to Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) is 0.125 µg/mL, which is equal to the control compound tiamulin. The antibacterial activities of 9d to Streptococcus suis (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 µg/mL), Streptococcus agalactiae (MIC of 0.5 µg/mL), and Streptococcus dysgalactiae (MIC of 0.5 µg/mL) were also excellent compared with the control drug erythromycin (MIC of >128 µg/mL). The binding modes of these compounds with active sites were calculated using the programs of Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) and Pymol. PMID:26133714

  20. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of patchouli oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian; Zhang, Xue; Yang, Shui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial tests of patchouli oil were studied by using molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro. Five biological macromolecule enzymes, required by the bacteria in the process of biosynthesis were selected as target molecules. Five antibiotics benzylpenicillin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin, which are generally acknowledged as antibacterial drugs, were selected as reference compounds. The 3 three-dimensional (3D) structures of the 5 reference compounds and 26 compounds from patchouli oil were established by using surflex-dock software (8.1). And the 3D structures of five biological macromolecule enzymes derived from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Molecular docking was carried out between the 31 chemical compounds (ligands) and the 5 enzymes (receptors) by using surflex-dock function. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of 31 chemical compounds were investigated by the scoring function after molecular docking was completed. By comparing the scoring result of 26 compounds in patchouli oil with 5 compared components, we inferred antibacterial activity in about 26 compounds in patchouli oil. On the other hand, six frequently-used pathogenic bacteria were selected for antimicrobial test in vitro, patchouli oil and its two major compounds: (-)-patchouli alcohol and pogostone, which their contents exceeded 60% in patchouli oil samples, were selected antibacterial agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined. Molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro proved that patchouli oil had strong antimicrobial effects. Particularly, pogostone and (-)-patchouli alcohol have potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:24250637

  1. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Patchouli Oil

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian; Zhang, Xue; Yang, Shui-Ping; Liu, Wei-Qi

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial tests of patchouli oil were studied by using molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro. Five biological macromolecule enzymes, required by the bacteria in the process of biosynthesis were selected as target molecules. Five antibiotics benzylpenicillin, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, rifampicin and ciprofloxacin, which are generally acknowledged as antibacterial drugs, were selected as reference compounds. The 3 three-dimensional (3D) structures of the 5 reference compounds and 26 compounds from patchouli oil were established by using surflex-dock software (8.1). And the 3D structures of five biological macromolecule enzymes derived from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Molecular docking was carried out between the 31 chemical compounds (ligands) and the 5 enzymes (receptors) by using surflex-dock function. Furthermore, the antibacterial effects of 31 chemical compounds were investigated by the scoring function after molecular docking was completed. By comparing the scoring result of 26 compounds in patchouli oil with 5 compared components, we inferred antibacterial activity in about 26 compounds in patchouli oil. On the other hand, six frequently-used pathogenic bacteria were selected for antimicrobial test in vitro, patchouli oil and its two major compounds: (-)-patchouli alcohol and pogostone, which their contents exceeded 60% in patchouli oil samples, were selected antibacterial agents. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were also determined. Molecular docking technology and antimicrobial test in vitro proved that patchouli oil had strong antimicrobial effects. Particularly, pogostone and (-)-patchouli alcohol have potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:24250637

  2. Shifts in the Antibiotic Susceptibility, Serogroups, and Clonal Complexes of Neisseria meningitidis in Shanghai, China: A Time Trend Analysis of the Pre-Quinolone and Quinolone Eras

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye; Zou, Ying; Wang, Gangyi; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xiaogang; Zhao, Miao; Hu, Fupin; Qu, Di; Chen, Min; Wang, Minggui

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC) prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis. Methods and Findings A total of 374 N. meningitidis isolates collected by the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention between 1965 and 2013 were studied. Shifts in the serogroups and CCs were observed, from predominantly serogroup A CC5 (84%) in 19651973 to serogroup A CC1 (58%) in 19741985, then to serogroup C or B CC4821 (62%) in 20052013. The rates of ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility in N. meningitidis disease isolates increased from 0% in 19651985 to 84% (31/37) in 20052013 (p < 0.001). Among the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates, 87% (27/31) were assigned to either CC4821 (n = 20) or CC5 (n = 7). The two predominant ciprofloxacin-resistant clones were designated ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B and ChinaCC5-R14-A. The ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B clone acquired ciprofloxacin resistance by a point mutation, and was present in 52% (16/31) of the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible disease isolates. The ChinaCC5-R14-A clone acquired ciprofloxacin resistance by horizontal gene transfer, and was found in 23% (7/31) of the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible disease isolates. The ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility rate was 47% (7/15) among isolates from asymptomatic carriers, and nonsusceptibility was associated with diverse multi-locus sequence typing profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. As detected after 2005, ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible strains were shared between some of the patients and their close contacts. A limitation of this study is that isolates from 19862004 were not available and that only a small sample of convenience isolates from 19651985 were available. Conclusions The increasing prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance since 2005 in Shanghai was associated with the spread of hypervirulent lineages CC4821 and CC5. Two resistant meningococcal clones ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B and ChinaCC5-R14-A have emerged in Shanghai during the quinolone era. Ciprofloxacin should be utilized with caution for the chemoprophylaxis of N. meningitidis in China. PMID:26057853

  3. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-10-01

    In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations. PMID:22300895

  4. Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in feces from preweaned dairy calves and postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Bjrn

    2015-09-01

    Quinolone resistance may emerge in gut bacteria (e.g., in Escherichia coli) of animals. Such bacteria could cause infections in the animal itself or be transmitted to humans via the food chain. Quinolone resistance is also observed in fecal E. coli of healthy dairy cattle, but the prevalence varies between farms, not solely as a result of varying degree of fluoroquinolone exposure. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the fecal shedding of quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) from dairy calves and postpartum cows. Rectal swabs from 15 preweaned calves and 5 postpartum cows per farm were collected on 23 Swedish dairy farms to determine the prevalence of QREC. Risk factors for the shedding of QREC were investigated using multivariable statistical models. Quinolone-resistant E. coli were found on all but one farm. Factors associated with QREC shedding by calves were being younger than 18 d, being fed milk from cows treated with antimicrobials, recent use of fluoroquinolones in the herd, carriage of QREC by postpartum cows, and using the calving area never or rarely as a sick pen compared with often. Factors associated with QREC shedding by cows were calving in group pens or freestalls compared with single pens or tiestalls, purchasing cattle, sharing animal transports with other farmers, and poor farm hygiene. Proper biosecurity and improved hygiene, as well as minimizing fluoroquinolone exposure and waste milk feeding, may be important factors to reduce the burden of QREC on dairy farms. PMID:26188574

  5. INCREASED RECOVERY OF FECAL QUINOLONE-RESISTANT ESCHERICHIA COLI IN CHILDREN USING A MACCONKEY-NALIDIXIC ACID SCREENING PLATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Commensal bacteria may serve as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. The possibility that these may be transferred to zoonotic pathogens is under study. Resistance to Quinolones is of particular interest because of their value in treating severe human infections. Methods: Plain M...

  6. Characterization of Mutations in DNA Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Involved in Quinolone Resistance of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Mutants Obtained In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, A. K.; Bbar, C. M.; Kobisch, M.; Kempf, I.; Gautier-Bouchardon, A. V.

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum enrofloxacin-resistant mutants were generated by stepwise selection in increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin. Alterations were found in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the four target genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from these mutants. This is the first description of such mutations in an animal mycoplasma species. PMID:11796386

  7. Antibacterial Biomimetic Hybrid Films.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M Carme Coll; Hickok, Noreen J; Eckmann, David M; Composto, Russell J

    2013-02-28

    In this work, we present a novel method to prepare a hybrid coating based on dextran grafted to a substrate and embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). First, the Ag NPs are synthesized in situ in the presence of oxidized dextran in solution. Second, the oxidized dextran is exposed to an amine functionalized surface resulting in the simultaneous grafting of dextran and the trapping of Ag NPs within the layer. The NP loading is controlled by the concentration of silver nitrate, which is 2 mM (DEX-Ag2) and 5 mM (DEX-Ag5). The dried film thickness increases with silver nitrate concentration from 2 nm for dextran to 7 nm and 12 nm for DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, respectively. The grafted dextran film displays features with a diameter and height of ~ 50 nm and 2 nm, respectively. For the DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, the dextran features as well as individual Ag NPs (~ 5 nm) and aggregates of Ag NPs are observed. Larger and more irregular aggregates are observed for DEX-Ag5. Overall, the Ag NPs are embedded in the dextran film as suggested by AFM and UVO studies. In terms of its antimicrobial activity, DEX-Ag2 resists bacterial adhesion to a greater extent than DEX-Ag5, which in turn is better than dextran and silicon. Because these antibacterial hybrid coatings can be grafted to a variety of surfaces, many biomedical applications can be envisioned, ranging from coating implants to catheters. PMID:23807896

  8. Antibacterial Biomimetic Hybrid Films

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, M. Carme Coll; Hickok, Noreen J.; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel method to prepare a hybrid coating based on dextran grafted to a substrate and embedded with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). First, the Ag NPs are synthesized in situ in the presence of oxidized dextran in solution. Second, the oxidized dextran is exposed to an amine functionalized surface resulting in the simultaneous grafting of dextran and the trapping of Ag NPs within the layer. The NP loading is controlled by the concentration of silver nitrate, which is 2 mM (DEX-Ag2) and 5 mM (DEX-Ag5). The dried film thickness increases with silver nitrate concentration from 2 nm for dextran to 7 nm and 12 nm for DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, respectively. The grafted dextran film displays features with a diameter and height of ~ 50 nm and 2 nm, respectively. For the DEX-Ag2 and DEX-Ag5, the dextran features as well as individual Ag NPs (~ 5 nm) and aggregates of Ag NPs are observed. Larger and more irregular aggregates are observed for DEX-Ag5. Overall, the Ag NPs are embedded in the dextran film as suggested by AFM and UVO studies. In terms of its antimicrobial activity, DEX-Ag2 resists bacterial adhesion to a greater extent than DEX-Ag5, which in turn is better than dextran and silicon. Because these antibacterial hybrid coatings can be grafted to a variety of surfaces, many biomedical applications can be envisioned, ranging from coating implants to catheters. PMID:23807896

  9. Synergistic antibacterial effect between silybin and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Jun; Lee, Dong Gun

    2008-08-01

    Silybin is a composition of the silymarin group as a hepatoprotective agent, and it exhibits various biological activities, including an antibacterial activity. In this study, the effects of a combination of silybin with N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. In the results of susceptibility assay, silybin showed more potent antibacterial activity in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than in P. aeruginosa, but DCCD significantly increased the antibacterial activity of silybin in P. aeruginosa. The antibacterial activity of silybin was affected by the strong action of multidrug-resistant pumps rather than by a permeable disruption of lipopolysaccharide and silybin showed a remarkable synergistic activity in combination with some antibiotic agents against drug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, silybin has a potential as a combination therapeutic agent for treatment of infectious diseases by multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:18758739

  10. Detection of quinolones in commercial eggs obtained from farms in the Espallat Province in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, S; de los Santos, F Sols; Andino, A G; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Hanning, I

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the use of quinolones in broiler chickens resulted in residues in retail poultry meat obtained from nine districts in the Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic. Residues in poultry products are a concern due to consumer allergies and the potential to develop antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the use of quinolones in poultry production and our previous findings in poultry meat, the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of quinolone residues in eggs. Samples were collected from 48 different farms located in three of the four municipalities (Moca, Cayetano Germosn, and Jamao) of the Espallat Province. Each farm was sampled three times between July and September for a total of 144 samples. Samples were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for quinolone residues using the Equinox test. Operation systems (cage or floor), seasonality, and location were considered along with egg-producer sizes that were defined as small scale, <30,000 eggs per day; medium scale, 30,000 to 60,000 eggs per day; or large scale, >60,000 eggs per day. From small-, medium-, and large-scale producers, 69, 50, and 40% of samples were positive for quinolone residues, respectively. A greater number of samples were positive (61%) in floor-laying hen producers compared with those using cages (40%). In the Jamao municipality, 67% of the samples were positive compared with Moca and Cayetano Germosn, where 56 and 25% of samples were positive, respectively. Sampling time had an effect on percent positives: samples collected in July, August, and September were 71, 19, and 63% positive, respectively. Overall, 51% of the samples obtained from eggs produced in the province of Espallat were positive for quinolone residues at levels higher than the maximum limits for edible tissue established by the regulatory agencies, including the European Union and U.S. Department of Agriculture. The results obtained from this research confirmed the presence of quinolone residue in eggs, which may present a health risk to some consumers. PMID:25581199

  11. Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis qnrVC5 Gene in Native and Heterologous Hosts: Synergy of qnrVC5 with other Determinants in Conferring Quinolone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Kumar, G. N.; Bhardwaj, Ashima K.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance of various pathogens toward quinolones has emerged as a serious threat to combat infections. Analysis of plethora of genes and resistance mechanisms associated with quinolone resistance reveals chromosome-borne and transferable determinants. qnr genes have been found to be responsible for transferable quinolone resistance. In the present work, a new allele qnrVC5 earlier reported in Vibrio fluvialis from this laboratory was characterized in detail for its sequence, genetic context and propensity to decrease the susceptibility for quinolones. The study has revealed persistence of qnrVC5 in clinical isolates of V. fluvialis from Kolkata region through the years 2002–2006. qnrVC5 existed in the form of a gene cassette with the open reading frame being flanked by an upstream promoter and a downstream V. cholerae repeat region suggestive of its superintegron origin. Sequence analysis of different qnrVC alleles showed that qnrVC5 was closely related to qnrVC2 and qnrVC4 and these alleles were associated with V. cholerae repeats. In contrast, qnrVC1, qnrVC3, and qnrVC6 belonging to another group were associated with V. parahaemolyticus repeats. The gene manifested its activity in native V. fluvialis host as well as in Escherichia coli transformants harboring it by elevating the MIC toward various quinolones by twofold to eightfold. In combination with other quinolone resistance factors such as topoisomerase mutations and aac(6’)-Ib-cr gene, qnrVC5 gene product contributed toward higher quinolone resistance displayed by V. fluvialis isolates. Silencing of the gene using antisense peptide nucleic acid sensitized the V. fluvialis parent isolates toward ciprofloxacin. Recombinant QnrVC5 vividly demonstrated its role in conferring quinolone resistance. qnrVC5 gene, its synergistic effect and global dissemination should be perceived as a menace for quinolone-based therapies. PMID:26913027

  12. Cloning and structure-function analyses of quinolone- and acridone-producing novel type III polyketide synthases from Citrus microcarpa.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2013-10-01

    Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56-60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the "single product" by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-? resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 ?(3)) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 ?(3)), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 ?(3)) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

  13. A function of SmeDEF, the major quinolone resistance determinant of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, is the colonization of plant roots.

    PubMed

    Garca-Len, Guillermo; Hernndez, Alvaro; Hernando-Amado, Sara; Alavi, Peyman; Berg, Gabriele; Martnez, Jos Luis

    2014-08-01

    Quinolones are synthetic antibiotics, and the main cause of resistance to these antimicrobials is mutation of the genes encoding their targets. However, in contrast to the case for other organisms, such mutations have not been found in quinolone-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates, in which overproduction of the SmeDEF efflux pump is a major cause of quinolone resistance. SmeDEF is chromosomally encoded and highly conserved in all studied S. maltophilia strains; it is an ancient element that evolved over millions of years in this species. It thus seems unlikely that its main function would be resistance to quinolones, a family of synthetic antibiotics not present in natural environments until the last few decades. Expression of SmeDEF is tightly controlled by the transcriptional repressor SmeT. Our work shows that plant-produced flavonoids can bind to SmeT, releasing it from smeDEF and smeT operators. Antibiotics extruded by SmeDEF do not impede the binding of SmeT to DNA. The fact that plant-produced flavonoids specifically induce smeDEF expression indicates that they are bona fide effectors regulating expression of this resistance determinant. Expression of efflux pumps is usually downregulated unless their activity is needed. Since smeDEF expression is triggered by plant-produced flavonoids, we reasoned that this efflux pump may have a role in the colonization of plants by S. maltophilia. Our results showed that, indeed, deletion of smeE impairs S. maltophilia colonization of plant roots. Altogether, our results indicate that quinolone resistance is a recent function of SmeDEF and that colonization of plant roots is likely one original function of this efflux pump. PMID:24837376

  14. Controlled Antibiotics Release System through Simple Blended Electrospun Fibers for Sustained Antibacterial Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zixin; Tang, Jianxiong; Wang, Heran; Xia, Qinghua; Xu, Shanshan; Han, Charles C

    2015-12-01

    Implantation of sustained antibacterial system after abdominal surgery could effectively prevent complicated intra-abdominal infection. In this study, a simple blended electrospun membrane made of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/poly(dioxanone) (PDO)/Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CiH) could easily result in approximately linear drug release profile and sustained antibacterial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The addition of PDO changed the stack structure of PLGA, which in turn influenced the fiber swelling and created drug diffusion channels. It could be a good candidate for reducing postoperative infection or be associated with other implant to resist biofilm formation. PMID:26596498

  15. [Antibacterial chemotherapy in anaerobic osteomyelitis caused by gunshot wounds].

    PubMed

    Shcherbin, F G; Makhson, N E; Petrakov, A A

    1990-05-01

    Thirty three patients with a 7-year history of chronic gunshot osteomyelitis were examined. Non-sporogenic anaerobes were isolated from 28 patients. Gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods predominated in the anaerobic microflora. Radical surgical interventions combined with adequate antibacterial chemotherapy yielded satisfactory results. The postoperative cavities were drained to provide aerobic conditions in all the parts. Antibacterial drugs and in particular dioxidine solutions and KF were used locally. When antibioticograms were available 7 to 10 days after, the antibiotics in combination with enzymes such as terrylitin and lidase were used with constant irrigation of wounds with furacillin or boric acid solutions. In the empirical therapy, the following scheme was most frequently used: 600 mg of lincomycin, thrice, intramuscularly; 80 mg of gentamicin, thrice, intramuscularly and as an obligatory agent 500 mg of trichopol, thrice, orally. After availability of the antibioticograms the use of the antibiotics was adjusted and continued up to 10 to 12 days. In severe cases 0.1% solution of dioxidine was used intravenously drop-wise in a dose of 300 mg 2 times a day as well as tiberal or clindamycin, intravenously, drop-wise. The antibacterial drugs were added to the drainage until the latter was removed. Relapses of the disease over 4 years were observed only in 3 out of 26 operated patients. PMID:2383155

  16. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, V; Phadatare, A G; Mukne, Alka

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

  17. Antimycobacterial and Antibacterial Activity of Allium sativum Bulbs

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, V.; Phadatare, A. G.; Mukne, Alka

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the major public health problems faced globally. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antitubercular agents has called for an urgent need to investigate newer drugs to combat tuberculosis. Garlic (Allium sativum) is an edible plant which has generated a lot of curiosity throughout human history as a medicinal plant. Garlic contains sulfur compounds like allicin, ajoene, allylmethyltrisulfide, diallyltrisulfide, diallyldisulphide and others which exhibit various biological properties like antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, and cardiovascular effects. According to various traditional systems of medicine, garlic is one of the established remedies for tuberculosis. The objective of the current study was to investigate in vitro antimycobacterial activity as well as anti-bacterial activity of various extracts rich in specific phytoconstituents from garlic. Preparation of garlic extracts was done based on the chemistry of the constituents and their stability. The estimation of in vitro antimycobacterial activity of different garlic extracts was done using Resazurin microtire plate assay technique whereas activity of garlic oil was evaluated by colony count method. The antibacterial activity of extracts and oil was estimated by zone of inhibition method. Extracts of garlic rich in allicin and ajoene showed appreciable antimycobacterial activity as compared to standard drugs. Garlic oil demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, particularly against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25035540

  18. Antibacterial constituents from Melodinus suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-Ling; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the non-alkaloidal chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens and their antibacterial activities. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP18, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by comparison with published spectroscopic data, as well as on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial screening assays were performed by the dilution method. Fourteen compounds were isolated, and identified as lycopersene (1), betulinic aldehyde (2), 3?-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one (3), 3a-acetyl-2, 3, 5-trimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanyl)-1,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-4-oxainden-1-one (4), 3?-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17?-hydroperoxide (5), 3?-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17?-hydroperoxide (6), ?-sitosterol (7), 28-nor-urs-12-ene-3?, 17?-diol (8), ?-amyrin (9), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (10), 3?-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13?-olide (11), betulin (12), obtusalin (13), and ursolic acid (14). Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, and 14 showed potent antibacterial activities against the four bacteria. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of the constituents of Melodinus suaveolens. PMID:25908630

  19. Quinolone effects in the SOS chromotest and the synthesis of biomacromolecules.

    PubMed

    Majtnov, L; Majtn, V

    1996-01-01

    The genotoxicity of quinolone antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pefloxacin) was studied on the selected mutant E. coli strain PQ 37 (SOS chromotest). The genotoxicity was expressed by SOS-inducing potential (SOSIP) values. The highest SOSIP values were found with ciprofloxacin (SOSIP = 1967 delta IF/nmol), the lowest value was observed with nalidixic acid (SOSIP = 0.3 delta IF/nmol). Similar results were also found with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, as indicated by incorporation of 14C-adenine into TCA-insoluble fractions of S. typhimurium cells (ciprofloxacin IC50 = 0.39, nalidixic acid IC50 = 400). DNA-damaging effects were tested in the absence of an exogenous metabolizing system. PMID:9449772

  20. [Impact on public health of quinolone resistance in animal-origin bacteria].

    PubMed

    Orden Gutiérrez, J A; de la Fuente López, R

    2001-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are one of the most useful classes of antimicrobial agents used in human and animal medicine today, both because of their spectrum and their physicochemical properties. The use of quinolones in animals is a matter of special concern because it could contribute to the acquisition of resistance in foodborn bacteria (such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli) and this, in turn, could lead to a reduction in the efficacy of such compounds in treating infections in humans. However, the causal relationship between the use of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine and the isolation of fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria in humans has not been generally proven and, moreover, the use of fluoroquinolones in animals is only one of the many factors implicated in the resistance to these antimicrobials. Even so, the surveillance of fluoroquinolone resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and foods and the prudent use of these antimicrobials in animals should have the highest priority. PMID:11693069

  1. Design, synthesis and antimycobacterial activities of 1-methyl-2-alkenyl-4(1H)-quinolones

    PubMed Central

    Wube, Abraham A.; Hüfner, Antje; Thomaschitz, Christina; Blunder, Martina; Kollroser, Manfred; Bauer, Rudolf; Bucar, Franz

    2011-01-01

    A series of 23 new 1-methyl-2-alkenyl-4(1H)quinolones have been synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their antimycobacterial activities against fast growing species of mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. phlei. The compounds displayed good to excellent inhibition of the growth of the mycobacterial test strains with improved antimycobacterial activity compared to the hit compound, evocarpine. The most active compounds, which possessed chain length of 11–13 carbons at position-2 displayed potent inhibitory effects with an MIC value of 1.0 mg/L. In a human diploid embryonic lung cell line, MRC-5 cytotoxicity assay, the alkaloids showed weak to moderate cytotoxic activity. Biological evaluation of these evocarpine analogues on the less pathogenic fast growing strains of mycobacteria showed an interesting antimycobacterial profile and provided significant insight into the structure–activity relationships. PMID:21106378

  2. Shikimic acid, a base compound for the formulation of swine/avian flu drug: statistical optimization, fed-batch and scale up studies along with its application as an antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, P; Rawat, G; Yadav, S; Saxena, R K

    2015-02-01

    The sudden outbreak of swine flu has increased the global demand of shikimic acid which is an industrially interesting compound, as it is used as a key starting material for the synthesis of a neuraminidase inhibitor Tamiflu(®), for the treatment of antiviral infections such as swine flu. Statistical optimization and evaluation of medium components for the production of shikimic acid by Citrobacter freundii is addressed in the present investigation. Plackett-Burman design was applied for the screening of the most significant variables affecting shikimic acid production, where glucose, asparagine, KH2PO4, CaCO3 and agitation rate were the most significant factors. Response surface methodology was also employed to study the interaction among the most significant variables through which shikimic acid production increased to 12.76 g/L. Further, fed-batch studies resulted in the production of 22.32 g/L of shikimic acid. The scalability of the process was also confirmed by running 14 L bioreactor (7.5 L production medium) where 20.12 g/L of shikimic acid was produced. In addition the antibacterial activity of the shikimic acid produced was analysed against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria and it was found to have a greater inhibition effect against the Gram negative bacteria. PMID:25563634

  3. Interaction of vanadium (IV) solvates (L) with second-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug ciprofloxacin: Spectroscopic, structure, thermal analyses, kinetics and biological evaluation (L = An, DMF, Py and Et3N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordok, Wael A.

    2014-08-01

    The preparation and characterization of the new solid complexes [VO(CIP)2L]SO4?nH2O, where L = aniline (An), dimethylformamide (DMF), pyridine (Py) and triethylamine (Et3N) in the reaction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with VO(SO4)22H2O in ethanol. The isolated complexes have been characterized with their melting points, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, magnetic properties, conductance measurements, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods and thermal analyses. The results supported the formation of the complexes and indicated that ciprofloxacin reacts as a bidentate ligand bound to the vanadium ion through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylato oxygen. The activation energies, E*; entropies, ?S*; enthalpies, ?H*; Gibbs free energies, ?G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermo gravimetric (TGA) and differential thermo gravimetric (DTG) curves, using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzeger methods. The lowest energy model structure of each complex has been proposed by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/CEP-31G level of theory. The ligand and their metal complexes were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, such as Bacillus Subtilis (B. Subtilis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Nesseria Gonorrhoeae (N. Gonorrhoeae), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Escherichia coli (E. coli).

  4. Pyrazinamide drug interacting with Co(III) and Zn(II) metal ions based on 2,2?-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline ligands: Synthesis, studies and crystal structure, DFT calculations and antibacterial assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiniforoshan, Hossein; Radani, Zahra Sadeghian; Tabrizi, Leila; Tavakol, Hossein; Sabzalian, Mohammad R.; Mohammadnezhad, Gholamhossein; Grls, Helmar; Plass, Winfried

    2015-02-01

    Three novel compounds, [Co(PZAH)(bipy)2](ClO4)2 (1), [Zn(PZAH)(bipy)2]ClO4 (2), [Zn(PZAH)(phen)2]ClO4 (3), which PZAH2 = pyrazinamide, bipy = 2,2?-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopies. The crystal structure of 1 has been determined in an orthorhombic Pbca space group. The binding modes of the ligands in complex 1 were established by means of molecular modeling of the complex, and calculation of their IR and absorption spectra DFT calculations. The calculated FT-IR and UV-Vis data are in good agreement with the experimental results, and confirmed the experimental one. In addition to DFT calculations of the complex 1, natural bond orbital (NBO) was performed to obtain atomic charges. Biological studies also showed the antibacterial activity of complexes 1-3 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  5. Efficient Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of ()-Yanglingmycin and Its Analogues.

    PubMed

    Dan, Wenjia; Geng, Huiling; Qiao, Jianwen; Guo, Rui; Wei, Shaopeng; Li, Longbo; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    An efficient synthetic route was developed for the large-scale preparation of ()-Yanglingmycin and its analogues. Three series of derivatives of ()-Yanglingmycin were synthesized and the structures of all compounds were elucidated by analyses of NMR and ESI-MS spectra data. Moreover, their antibacterial activities against seven species of bacteria were systematically evaluated by the micro-broth dilution method, most of which displayed considerable activity. It was worth noting that compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, 6g, and 7 were found to be the most promising leading candidates, with peak MIC values of 0.98 ?gmL(-1) for Bacillus subtilis, which is superior to positive controls (MIC = 3.91 ?gmL(-1)). The above results might lay the firm foundation for the design and synthesis of novel antibacterial drugs based on ()-Yanglingmycin. PMID:26784161

  6. Complete proteome of a quinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT104B clinical strain.

    PubMed

    Correia, Susana; Nunes-Miranda, Jlio D; Pinto, Lus; Santos, Hugo M; de Toro, Mara; Senz, Yolanda; Torres, Carmen; Capelo, Jos Luis; Poeta, Patrcia; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne diseases. The emergence of Salmonella strains that are resistant to a variety of antimicrobials is a serious global public health concern. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (DT104) is one of these emerging epidemic multidrug resistant strains. Here we collate information from the diverse and comprehensive range of experiments on Salmonella proteomes that have been published. We then present a new study of the proteome of the quinolone-resistant Se20 strain (phage type DT104B), recovered after ciprofloxacin treatment and compared it to the proteome of reference strain SL1344. A total of 186 and 219 protein spots were recovered from Se20 and SL1344 protein extracts, respectively, after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The signatures of 94% of the protein spots were successfully identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Three antimicrobial resistance related proteins, whose genes were previously detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were identified in the clinical strain. The presence of these proteins, dihydropteroate synthase type-2 (sul2 gene), aminoglycoside resistance protein A (strA gene) and aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib-cr4 (aac(6')-Ib-cr4 gene), was confirmed in the DT104B clinical strain. The aac(6')-Ib-cr4 gene is responsible for plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance. This is a preliminary analysis of the proteome of these two S. Typhimurium strains and further work is being developed to better understand how antimicrobial resistance is developing in this pathogen. PMID:25196519

  7. Complete Proteome of a Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium Phage Type DT104B Clinical Strain

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Susana; Nunes-Miranda, Júlio D.; Pinto, Luís; Santos, Hugo M.; de Toro, María; Sáenz, Yolanda; Torres, Carmen; Capelo, José Luis; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne diseases. The emergence of Salmonella strains that are resistant to a variety of antimicrobials is a serious global public health concern. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 (DT104) is one of these emerging epidemic multidrug resistant strains. Here we collate information from the diverse and comprehensive range of experiments on Salmonella proteomes that have been published. We then present a new study of the proteome of the quinolone-resistant Se20 strain (phage type DT104B), recovered after ciprofloxacin treatment and compared it to the proteome of reference strain SL1344. A total of 186 and 219 protein spots were recovered from Se20 and SL1344 protein extracts, respectively, after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The signatures of 94% of the protein spots were successfully identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Three antimicrobial resistance related proteins, whose genes were previously detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were identified in the clinical strain. The presence of these proteins, dihydropteroate synthase type-2 (sul2 gene), aminoglycoside resistance protein A (strA gene) and aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferase type Ib-cr4 (aac(6')-Ib-cr4 gene), was confirmed in the DT104B clinical strain. The aac(6')-Ib-cr4 gene is responsible for plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance. This is a preliminary analysis of the proteome of these two S. Typhimurium strains and further work is being developed to better understand how antimicrobial resistance is developing in this pathogen. PMID:25196519

  8. Extraction of quinolones from milk samples using bentonite/magnetite nanoparticles before determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Wu, Hao; Gao, Nannan; Chen, Xiaodan; Lai, Huajie; Zheng, Jinfeng; Du, Liming

    2016-02-01

    In this work, bentonite magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by a typical coprecipitation method were used as the adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of six quinolones (ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, sarafloxacin, and lomefloxacin) from milk samples followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. Under the optimized conditions, the linear quantitation range for the six quinolones was 0.3-200 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves ranged from 0.9994 to 0.9999. The detection limit of the method was 0.1 ng/mL. Recoveries of quinolones from pure and low-fat spiked milk samples varied from 80.4 to 92.7% and from 81.3 to 93.5%, respectively. These results demonstrated that the proposed method for the determination of six quinolones in milk samples was rapid, reliable, and efficient. PMID:26576704

  9. Coexistence of blaOXA-23 with armA in quinolone-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from a Chinese university hospital.

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Luan, Guangxin; Wang, Yanhong; Chang, Yaowen; Zhang, Chi; Yang, Jingni; Deng, Shanshan; Ling, Baodong; Jia, Xu

    2016-03-01

    A total of 101 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were collected to determine the mechanisms of quinolone resistance and investigate the occurrence of carbapenem and high-level aminoglycoside resistance genes among quinolone-resistant strains. Among 77 quinolone-resistant A. baumannii harbored mutations of gyrA and parC, 41 isolates, which belonged to European clone II, had resistance to aminoglycosides and carbapenems due to the expression of armA and acquisition of blaOXA-23. Most of sequence type belonged to clonal complex 92. These results suggested hospital dissemination of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii carrying blaOXA-23, armA, and mutations of quinolone resistance-determining regions in western China. PMID:26740313

  10. An insight into the drug resistance profile & mechanism of drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Achchhe Lal; Chaudhry, Uma; Sachdev, Divya; Sachdeva, Poonam Nagpal; Bala, Manju; Saluja, Daman

    2011-01-01

    Among the aetiological agents of treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Neissseria gonorrhoeae is considered to be most important because of emerging antibiotic resistant strains that compromise the effectiveness of treatment of the disease - gonorrhoea. In most of the developing countries, treatment of gonorrhoea relies mainly on syndromic management rather than the aetiological based therapy. Gonococcal infections are usually treated with single-dose therapy with an agent found to cure > 95 per cent of cases. Unfortunately during the last few decades, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance not only to less expensive antimicrobials such as sulphonamides, penicillin and tetracyclines but also to fluoroquinolones. The resistance trend of N. gonorrhoeae towards these antimicrobials can be categorised into pre-quinolone, quinolone and post-quinolone era. Among the antimicrobials available so far, only the third-generation cephalosporins could be safely recommended as first-line therapy for gonorrhoea globally. However, resistance to oral third-generation cephalosporins has also started emerging in some countries. Therefore, it has become imperative to initiate sustained national and international efforts to reduce infection and misuse of antibiotics so as to prevent further emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is necessary not only to monitor drug resistance and optimise treatment regimens, but also to gain insight into how gonococcus develops drug resistance. Knowledge of mechanism of resistance would help us to devise methods to prevent the occurrence of drug resistance against existing and new drugs. Such studies could also help in finding out new drug targets in N. gonorrhoeae and also a possibility of identification of new drugs for treating gonorrhoea. PMID:22089602

  11. Antibacterial properties of 3-(phenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Majed, Hiwa; Conery, Annie L; Kim, Wooseong; Kwon, Bumsup; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Kelso, Michael J; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-11-15

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains has heightened the need for new antimicrobial agents based on novel chemical scaffolds that are able to circumvent current modes of resistance. We recently developed a whole-animal drug-screening methodology in pursuit of this goal and now report the discovery of 3-(phenylsulfonyl)-2-pyrazinecarbonitrile (PSPC) as a novel antibacterial effective against resistant nosocomial pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of PSPC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium were 4 ?g/mL and 8 ?g/mL, respectively, whereas the MICs were higher against the Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae (64 ?g/mL), Acinetobacter baumannii (32 ?g/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (>64 ?g/mL), and Enterobacter spp. (>64 ?g/mL). However, co-treatment of PSPC with the efflux pump inhibitor phenylalanine arginyl ?-naphthylamide (PA?N) or with sub-inhibitory concentrations of the lipopeptide antibiotic polymyxin B reduced the MICs of PSPC against the Gram-negative strains by >4-fold. A sulfide analog of PSPC (PSPC-1S) showed no antibacterial activity, whereas the sulfoxide analog (PSPC-6S) showed identical activity as PSPC across all strains, confirming structure-dependent activity for PSPC and suggesting a target-based mechanism of action. PSPC displayed dose dependent toxicity to both Caenorhabditis elegans and HEK-293 mammalian cells, culminating with a survival rate of 16% (100 ?g/mL) and 8.5% (64 ?g/mL), respectively, at the maximum tested concentration. However, PSPC did not result in hemolysis of erythrocytes, even at a concentration of 64 ?g/mL. Together these results support PSPC as a new chemotype suitable for further development of new antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26459212

  12. Real-time Visualization of Photochemically Induced Fluorescence of 8-Halogenated Quinolones: Lomefloxacin, Clinafloxacin and Bay3118 in Live Human HaCaT Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Koker, Edmond B.; Bilski, Piotr J.; Motten, Ann G.; Zhao, Baozhong; Chignell, Colin F.; He, Yu-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Halogenoquinolones are potent and widely used antimicrobials blocking microbial DNA synthesis. However, they induce adverse photoresponses through the absorption of UV light, including phototoxicity and photocarcinogenicity. The phototoxic responses may be the result of photosensitization of singlet oxygen, production of free radicals and/or other reactive species resulting from photodehalogenation. Here, we report the use of laser scanning confocal microscopy to detect and to follow the fluorescence changes of one monohalogenated and three di-halogenated quinolones in live human epidermal keratinocyte cells during in situ irradiation by confocal laser in real time. Fluorescence image analysis and co-staining with the LysoTracker probe showed that lysosomes are a preferential site of drug localization and phototransformations. As the lysosomal environment is relatively acidic, we also determined how low pH may affect the dehalogenation and concomitant fluorescence. With continued UV irradiation, fluorescence increased in the photoproducts from BAY y3118 and clinafloxacin, whereas it decreased for lomefloxacin and moxifloxacin. Our images not only help to localize these phototoxic agents in the cell, but also provide means for dynamic monitoring of their phototransformations in the cellular environment. PMID:20492567

  13. On the Mechanism of BerberineINF55 (5-Nitro-2-phenylindole) Hybrid Antibacterials*

    PubMed Central

    Dolla, Naveen K.; Chen, Chao; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Jagadeesan, Sakthimala; Conery, Annie L.; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Bremner, John B.; Lewis, Kim; Kelso, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    BerberineINF55 hybrids are a promising class of antibacterials that combine berberine and the NorA multidrug resistance pump inhibitor INF55 (5-nitro-2-phenylindole) together in one molecule via a chemically stable linkage. Previous studies demonstrated the potential of these compounds for countering efflux-mediated antibacterial drug resistance but they didnt establish whether the compounds function as originally intended, i.e. with the berberine moiety providing antibacterial activity and the attached INF55 component independently blocking multidrug resistance pumps, thereby enhancing the activity of berberine by reducing its efflux. We hypothesised that if the proposed mechanism is correct, then hybrids carrying more potent INF55 pump inhibitor structures should show enhanced antibacterial effects relative to those bearing weaker inhibitors. Two INF55 analogues showing graded reductions in NorA inhibitory activity compared with INF55 were identified and their corresponding berberineINF55 hybrids carrying equivalent INF55 inhibitor structures synthesised. Multiple assays comparing the antibacterial effects of the hybrids and their corresponding berberineINF55 analogue combinations showed that the three hybrids all show very similar activities, leading us to conclude that the antibacterial mechanism(s) of berberineINF55 hybrids is different from berberineINF55 combinations.

  14. Effects of cyclic lipodepsipeptide structural modulation on stability, antibacterial activity and human cell toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bionda, Nina; Stawikowski, Maciej; Stawikowska, Roma; Cudic, Mar; Lpez-Vallejo, Fabian; Treitl, Daniela; Medina-Franco, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, identifying novel antibacterial targets and new antibacterial agents capable of treating infections from drug-resistant bacteria is of vital importance. Structurally simple, yet potent fusaricidin or LI-F class of natural products represents a particularly attractive source of candidates for the development of new antibacterial agents. We have synthesized eighteen fusaricidin/LI-F analogs and investigated the effect of their structure modification on conformation, serum stability, antibacterial activity and human cell toxicity. Our findings show that substitution of an ester bond in depsipeptides with an amide bond may afford equally potent analogs with improved stability and greatly decreased cytotoxicity. Lower overall hydrophobicity/amphiphilicity of amide analogs in comparison to their parent depsipeptides, as indicated by the HPLC retention times, may explain dissociation of antibacterial activity and human cell cytotoxicity. These results indicate that amide analogs may have significant advantages over fusaricidin/LI-F natural products and their depsipeptide analogs as lead structures for the development of new antibacterial agents. PMID:22392790

  15. Alarmingly High Segregation Frequencies of Quinolone Resistance Alleles within Human and Animal Microbiomes Are Not Explained by Direct Clinical Antibiotic Exposure.

    PubMed

    Field, Wesley; Hershberg, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to human health. It is therefore important to characterize the frequency of resistance within natural bacterial environments. Many studies have focused on characterizing the frequencies with which horizontally acquired resistance genes segregate within natural bacterial populations. Yet, very little is currently understood regarding the frequency of segregation of resistance alleles occurring within the housekeeping targets of antibiotics. We surveyed a large number of metagenomic datasets extracted from a large variety of host-associated and non host-associated environments for such alleles conferring resistance to three groups of broad spectrum antibiotics: streptomycin, rifamycins, and quinolones. We find notable segregation frequencies of resistance alleles occurring within the target genes of each of the three antibiotics, with quinolone resistance alleles being the most frequent and rifamycin resistance alleles being the least frequent. Resistance allele frequencies varied greatly between different phyla and as a function of environment. The frequency of quinolone resistance alleles was especially high within host-associated environments, where it averaged an alarming ? 40%. Within host-associated environments, resistance to quinolones was most often conferred by a specific resistance allele. High frequencies of quinolone resistance alleles were also found within hosts that were not directly treated with antibiotics. Therefore, the high segregation frequency of quinolone resistance alleles occurring within the housekeeping targets of antibiotics in host-associated environments does not seem to be the sole result of clinical antibiotic usage. PMID:26019163

  16. Alarmingly High Segregation Frequencies of Quinolone Resistance Alleles within Human and Animal Microbiomes Are Not Explained by Direct Clinical Antibiotic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Field, Wesley; Hershberg, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance poses a major threat to human health. It is therefore important to characterize the frequency of resistance within natural bacterial environments. Many studies have focused on characterizing the frequencies with which horizontally acquired resistance genes segregate within natural bacterial populations. Yet, very little is currently understood regarding the frequency of segregation of resistance alleles occurring within the housekeeping targets of antibiotics. We surveyed a large number of metagenomic datasets extracted from a large variety of host-associated and non host-associated environments for such alleles conferring resistance to three groups of broad spectrum antibiotics: streptomycin, rifamycins, and quinolones. We find notable segregation frequencies of resistance alleles occurring within the target genes of each of the three antibiotics, with quinolone resistance alleles being the most frequent and rifamycin resistance alleles being the least frequent. Resistance allele frequencies varied greatly between different phyla and as a function of environment. The frequency of quinolone resistance alleles was especially high within host-associated environments, where it averaged an alarming ∼40%. Within host-associated environments, resistance to quinolones was most often conferred by a specific resistance allele. High frequencies of quinolone resistance alleles were also found within hosts that were not directly treated with antibiotics. Therefore, the high segregation frequency of quinolone resistance alleles occurring within the housekeeping targets of antibiotics in host-associated environments does not seem to be the sole result of clinical antibiotic usage. PMID:26019163

  17. Oxabicyclooctane-linked novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors as broad spectrum antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheo B; Kaelin, David E; Wu, Jin; Miesel, Lynn; Tan, Christopher M; Meinke, Peter T; Olsen, David; Lagrutta, Armando; Bradley, Prudence; Lu, Jun; Patel, Sangita; Rickert, Keith W; Smith, Robert F; Soisson, Stephen; Wei, Changqing; Fukuda, Hideyuki; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Fukuda, Yasumichi

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial resistance is eroding the clinical utility of existing antibiotics necessitating the discovery of new agents. Bacterial type II topoisomerase is a clinically validated, highly effective, and proven drug target. This target is amenable to inhibition by diverse classes of inhibitors with alternative and distinct binding sites to quinolone antibiotics, thus enabling the development of agents that lack cross-resistance to quinolones. Described here are novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs), which are a new class of gyrase and topo IV inhibitors and consist of three distinct structural moieties. The substitution of the linker moiety led to discovery of potent broad-spectrum NBTIs with reduced off-target activity (hERG IC50 > 18 ?M) and improved physical properties. AM8191 is bactericidal and selectively inhibits DNA synthesis and Staphylococcus aureus gyrase (IC50 = 1.02 ?M) and topo IV (IC50 = 10.4 ?M). AM8191 showed parenteral and oral efficacy (ED50) at less than 2.5 mg/kg doses in a S. aureus murine infection model. A cocrystal structure of AM8191 bound to S. aureus DNA-gyrase showed binding interactions similar to that reported for GSK299423, displaying a key contact of Asp83 with the basic amine at position-7 of the linker. PMID:24900889

  18. Oxabicyclooctane-Linked Novel Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors as Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial resistance is eroding the clinical utility of existing antibiotics necessitating the discovery of new agents. Bacterial type II topoisomerase is a clinically validated, highly effective, and proven drug target. This target is amenable to inhibition by diverse classes of inhibitors with alternative and distinct binding sites to quinolone antibiotics, thus enabling the development of agents that lack cross-resistance to quinolones. Described here are novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs), which are a new class of gyrase and topo IV inhibitors and consist of three distinct structural moieties. The substitution of the linker moiety led to discovery of potent broad-spectrum NBTIs with reduced off-target activity (hERG IC50 > 18 ?M) and improved physical properties. AM8191 is bactericidal and selectively inhibits DNA synthesis and Staphylococcus aureus gyrase (IC50 = 1.02 ?M) and topo IV (IC50 = 10.4 ?M). AM8191 showed parenteral and oral efficacy (ED50) at less than 2.5 mg/kg doses in a S. aureus murine infection model. A cocrystal structure of AM8191 bound to S. aureus DNA-gyrase showed binding interactions similar to that reported for GSK299423, displaying a key contact of Asp83 with the basic amine at position-7 of the linker. PMID:24900889

  19. Recombinant bacteriophage lysins as antibacterials.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Mark; Ross, Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; O'Mahony, Jim; Coffey, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing worldwide prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, bacteriophage endolysins (lysins) represent a very promising novel alternative class of antibacterial in the fight against infectious disease. Lysins are phage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases which, when applied exogenously (as purified recombinant proteins) to Gram-positive bacteria, bring about rapid lysis and death of the bacterial cell. A number of studies have recently demonstrated the strong potential of these enzymes in human and veterinary medicine to control and treat pathogens on mucosal surfaces and in systemic infections. They also have potential in diagnostics and detection, bio-defence, elimination of food pathogens and control of phytopathogens. This review discusses the extensive research on recombinant bacteriophage lysins in the context of antibacterials, and looks forward to future development and potential. PMID:21327123

  20. Recombinant bacteriophage lysins as antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Mark; Ross, Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia; O'Mahony, Jim

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing worldwide prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, bacteriophage endolysins (lysins) represent a very promising novel alternative class of antibacterial in the fight against infectious disease. Lysins are phage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases which, when applied exogenously (as purified recombinant proteins) to Gram-positive bacteria, bring about rapid lysis and death of the bacterial cell. A number of studies have recently demonstrated the strong potential of these enzymes in human and veterinary medicine to control and treat pathogens on mucosal surfaces and in systemic infections. They also have potential in diagnostics and detection, bio-defence, elimination of food pathogens and control of phytopathogens. This review discusses the extensive research on recombinant bacteriophage lysins in the context of antibacterials, and looks forward to future development and potential. PMID:21327123

  1. Washable and antibacterial superhydrophbic fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Junfei; Wang, Zhile; Wang, Fajun; Xue, Mingshan; Li, Wen; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the high adherence of mussel and the excellent water repellency of lotus leaf, superhydrophobic fabric is fabricated via the sequential deposition of polydopamine, Ag2O, and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol, which shows excellent washability and high anti-bacterial activity due to the strong interfacial interaction and the surface silver species as well as the non-wettability, respectively.

  2. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review. PMID:26042616

  3. In vitro activity of A-56619 (difloxacin), A-56620, and other new quinolone antimicrobial agents against genital pathogens.

    PubMed

    Liebowitz, L D; Saunders, J; Fehler, G; Ballard, R C; Koornhof, H J

    1986-12-01

    The in vitro activities of two new carboxyquinolones, A-56619 (difloxacin) and A-56620, were compared with those of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin against genital tract pathogens. All the quinolones were highly active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. A-56619 had the lowest MICs against Chlamydia trachomatis (MIC range, 0.125 to 0.25 micrograms/ml) and Haemophilus ducreyi (MIC for 90% of isolates tested, 0.1 micrograms/ml). PMID:3101590

  4. Enterobacteriaceae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and quinolones in fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Veldman, Kees; Kant, Arie; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wit, Ben; Mevius, Dik

    2014-05-01

    Since multidrug resistant bacteria are frequently reported from Southeast Asia, our study focused on the occurrence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fresh imported herbs from Thailand, Vietnam and Malaysia. Samples were collected from fresh culinary herbs imported from Southeast Asia in which ESBL-suspected isolates were obtained by selective culturing. Analysis included identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, susceptibility testing, XbaI-PFGE, microarray, PCR and sequencing of specific ESBL genes, PCR based replicon typing (PBRT) of plasmids and Southern blot hybridization. In addition, the quinolone resistance genotype was characterized by screening for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. The study encompassed fifty samples of ten batches of culinary herbs (5 samples per batch) comprising nine different herb variants. The herbs originated from Thailand (Water morning glory, Acacia and Betel leaf), Vietnam (Parsley, Asian pennywort, Houttuynia leaf and Mint) and Malaysia (Holy basil and Parsley). By selective culturing 21 cefotaxime resistant Enterobacteriaceae were retrieved. Array analysis revealed 18 isolates with ESBL genes and one isolate with solely non-ESBL beta-lactamase genes. Mutations in the ampC promoter region were determined in two isolates with PCR and sequencing. The isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=9), Escherichia coli (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n=5) and Enterobacter spp. (n=1). All isolates tested were multidrug resistant. Variants of CTX-M enzymes were predominantly found followed by SHV enzymes. PMQR genes (including aac(6')-1b-cr, qnrB and qnrS) were also frequently detected. In almost all cases ESBL and quinolone resistance genes were located on the same plasmid. Imported fresh culinary herbs from Southeast Asia are a potential source for contamination of food with multidrug resistant bacteria. Because these herbs are consumed without appropriate heating, transfer to human bacteria cannot be excluded. PMID:24607424

  5. Pharmacokinetics of Sparfloxacin in the Serum and Vitreous Humor of Rabbits: Physicochemical Properties That Regulate Penetration of Quinolone Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Qing Feng; Perkins, Ruth; Drusano, George; Louie, Arnold; Madu, Assumpta; Mian, Umar; Mayers, Martin; Miller, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    We have used a recently described animal model to characterize the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin in vitreous humor of uninfected albino rabbits following systemic administration and direct intraocular injection. The relationships of lipophilicity, protein binding, and molecular weight to the penetration and elimination of sparfloxacin were compared to those of ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin. To determine whether elimination was active, elimination rates following direct injection with and without probenecid or heat-killed bacteria were compared. Sparfloxacin concentrations were measured in the serum and vitreous humor by a biological assay. Protein binding and lipophilicity were determined, respectively, by ultrafiltration and oil-water partitioning. Pharmacokinetic parameters were characterized with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares-regression program. The relationship between each independent variable and mean quinolone concentration or elimination rate in the vitreous humor was determined by multiple linear regression. The mean concentration of sparfloxacin in the vitreous humor was 59.4% ± 12.2% of that in serum. Penetration of sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin into, and elimination from, the vitreous humor correlated with lipophilicity (r2 > 0.999). The linear-regression equation describing this relationship was not improved by including the inverse of the square root of the molecular weight and/or the degree of protein binding. Elimination rates for each quinolone were decreased by the intraocular administration of probenecid. Heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis decreased the rate of elimination of fleroxacin. Penetration of sparfloxacin into the noninflamed vitreous humor was greater than that of any quinolone previously examined. There was an excellent correlation between lipophilicity and vitreous entry or elimination for sparfloxacin as well as ciprofloxacin, fleroxacin, and ofloxacin. There are two modes of quinolone translocation into and out of the vitreous humor: diffusion into the eye and both diffusion and carrier-mediated elimination out of the vitreous humor. PMID:9624487

  6. Luminescent determination of quinolones in milk samples by liquid chromatography/post-column derivatization with terbium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ynez-Jcome, G S; Aguilar-Caballos, M P; Gmez-Hens, A

    2015-07-31

    The usefulness of terbium oxide nanoparticles (Tb4O7NPs) as post-column derivatizing reagent for the liquid chromatographic determination of residues of quinolone antibiotics in milk samples has been studied. Seven quinolones of veterinary use have been chosen as model analytes to develop this method. The derivatization step is based on the formation of luminescent chelates of quinolones with Tb4O7NPs, which are monitored at ?ex=340nm and ?em=545nm. Another relevant feature of the method is that the use of a 10-cm column and a ternary mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and acetic acid as mobile phase in gradient elution mode allow the chromatographic separation of the quinolones in about 13min, whereas previously described chromatographic methods require about 20min. The dynamic ranges of the calibration graphs and limits of detection are, respectively: 65-900ngmL(-1) and 35ngmL(-1) for marbofloxacin, 7.2-900ngmL(-1) and 2.5ngmL(-1) for ciprofloxacin, 6-900ngmL(-1) and 2ngmL(-1) for danofloxacin, 50-900ngmL(-1) and 20ngmL(-1) for enrofloxacin, 35-900ngmL(-1) and 12ngmL(-1) for sarafloxacin, 5-900ngmL(-1) and 2ngmL(-1) for oxolinic acid, and 7-900ngmL(-1) and 2.5ngmL(-1) for flumequine. The precision, established at two concentration levels of each analyte and expressed as the percentage of the relative standard deviation is in the range of 1.9-8.1% using standards, and of 3.4-10.7% in the presence of milk samples. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the analysis of skimmed, semi-skimmed and whole milk samples, with recoveries ranging from 89.0 to 106.5%. PMID:26077970

  7. Evolution and Dissemination of OqxAB-Like Efflux Pumps, an Emerging Quinolone Resistance Determinant among Members of Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Edward Wai Chi

    2015-01-01

    The OqxAB efflux pump, a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinant, has become increasingly prevalent among members of Enterobacteriaceae over the past decade. To investigate the evolution and dissemination routes of the oqxAB operon, we assessed the prevalence of oqxAB-like elements among various Gram-negative bacterial species and analyzed the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of organisms harboring such elements. With a comprehensive genotyping approach, a chromosome-based oqxAB operon was detectable in all Klebsiella pneumoniae strains tested, including organisms isolated before the year 1984. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that the oqxAB operon in K. pneumoniae isolates was genetically closest to their plasmid-borne counterparts recoverable only from Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates collected from the year 2003 onward. Chromosomal elements with much lower sequence homology were also found among the Enterobacter spp. but not other Gram-negative species. Contrary to the quinolone resistance phenotypes which were consistently observable among organisms with oqxAB-harboring plasmids, chromosomal oqxAB elements generally did not confer quinolone resistance, except for K. pneumoniae strains, which exhibited a typical oqxAB-mediated phenotype characterized by cross-resistance to olaquindox, chloramphenicol, and the quinolones. Gene expression analysis illustrated that such phenotypes were due to elevated expression of the chromosomal oqxAB operon. Furthermore, transposition of the oqxAB operon from the bacterial chromosome to plasmids was found to result in a >80-fold increase in the level of expression of the OqxAB pump, confirming its status as the first constitutively expressed efflux system located in bacterial mobile elements. PMID:25801572

  8. Lysozyme-Based Antibacterial Nanomotors.

    PubMed

    Kiristi, Melek; Singh, Virendra V; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Uygun, Murat; Soto, Fernando; Aktaş Uygun, Deniz; Wang, Joseph

    2015-09-22

    An effective and rapid bacterial killing nanotechnology strategy based on lysozyme-modified fuel-free nanomotors is demonstrated. The efficient antibacterial property of lysozyme, associated with the cleavage of glycosidic bonds of peptidoglycans present in the bacteria cell wall, has been combined with ultrasound (US)-propelled porous gold nanowire (p-AuNW) motors as biocompatible dynamic bacteria nanofighters. Coupling the antibacterial activity of the enzyme with the rapid movement of these p-AuNWs, along with the corresponding fluid dynamics, promotes enzyme-bacteria interactions and prevents surface aggregation of dead bacteria, resulting in a greatly enhanced bacteria-killing capability. The large active surface area of these nanoporous motors offers a significantly higher enzyme loading capacity compared to nonporous AuNWs, which results in a higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Detailed characterization studies and control experiments provide useful insights into the underlying factors controlling the antibacterial performance of the new dynamic bacteria nanofighters. Rapid and effective killing of the Gram-positive Micrococcus lysodeikticus bacteria (69-84% within 1-5 min) is demonstrated. PMID:26308491

  9. Antibacterial Derivatives of Ciprofloxacin to Inhibit Growth of Necrotizing Fasciitis Associated Penicillin Resistant Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bartzatt, Ronald; Cirillo, Suat L. G.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is associated with necrotizing fasciitis (type I) and can induce enough damage to tissue causing hypoxia. Three ester derivatives of the broad-spectrum antibiotic ciprofloxacin were placed into bacteria culture simultaneously with the parent ciprofloxacin (drug 1) to ascertain the level of antibacterial activity. The n-propyl (drug 2), n-pentyl (drug 3), and n-octyl (drug 4) esters of ciprofloxacin were synthesized under mixed phase conditions and by microwave excitation. The formation of ester derivatives of ciprofloxacin modified important molecular properties such as Log P and polar surface area which improves tissue penetration, yet preserved strong antibacterial activity. The Log P values for drugs 1, 2, 3, and 4 became ?0.701, 0.437, 1.50, and 3.02, respectively. The polar surface areas for drugs 1, 2, 3, and 4 were determined to be 74.6 Angstroms2, 63.6 Angstroms2, 63.6 Angstroms2, and 63.6 Angstroms2, respectively. These values of Log P and polar surface area improved tissue penetration, as indicated by the determination of dermal permeability coefficient (Kp) and subsequently into the superficial fascial layer. All drugs induced greater than 60% bacterial cell death at concentrations less than 1.0 micrograms/milliliter. The ester derivatives of ciprofloxacin showed strong antibacterial activity toward penicillin resistant E. coli. PMID:26555983

  10. High Resolution Melting Analysis for Rapid Mutation Screening in Gyrase and Topoisomerase IV Genes in Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    The increased Salmonella resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is a public health concern in the Southeast Asian region. The objective of this study is to develop a high resolution melt curve (HRM) assay to rapidly screen for mutations in quinolone-resistant determining region (QRDR) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. DNA sequencing was performed on 62 Salmonella strains to identify mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Mutations were detected in QRDR of gyrA (n = 52; S83F, S83Y, S83I, D87G, D87Y, and D87N) and parE (n = 1; M438I). Salmonella strains with mutations within QRDR of gyrA are generally more resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC 16 > 256 μg/mL). Mutations were uncommon within the QRDR of gyrB, parC, and parE genes. In the HRM assay, mutants can be distinguished from the wild-type strains based on the transition of melt curves, which is more prominent when the profiles are displayed in difference plot. In conclusion, HRM analysis allows for rapid screening for mutations at the QRDRs of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in Salmonella. This assay markedly reduced the sequencing effort involved in mutational studies of quinolone-resistance genes. PMID:25371903

  11. High resolution melting analysis for rapid mutation screening in gyrase and Topoisomerase IV genes in quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Ngoi, Soo Tein; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2014-01-01

    The increased Salmonella resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones is a public health concern in the Southeast Asian region. The objective of this study is to develop a high resolution melt curve (HRM) assay to rapidly screen for mutations in quinolone-resistant determining region (QRDR) of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes. DNA sequencing was performed on 62 Salmonella strains to identify mutations in the QRDR of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Mutations were detected in QRDR of gyrA (n = 52; S83F, S83Y, S83I, D87G, D87Y, and D87N) and parE (n = 1; M438I). Salmonella strains with mutations within QRDR of gyrA are generally more resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC 16 > 256 μg/mL). Mutations were uncommon within the QRDR of gyrB, parC, and parE genes. In the HRM assay, mutants can be distinguished from the wild-type strains based on the transition of melt curves, which is more prominent when the profiles are displayed in difference plot. In conclusion, HRM analysis allows for rapid screening for mutations at the QRDRs of gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in Salmonella. This assay markedly reduced the sequencing effort involved in mutational studies of quinolone-resistance genes. PMID:25371903

  12. Source Attribution of Human Campylobacter Isolates by MLST and Fla-Typing and Association of Genotypes with Quinolone Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kittl, Sonja; Heckel, Gerald; Korczak, Bożena M.; Kuhnert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent zoonosis in developed countries and various domestic animals can function as reservoir for the main pathogens Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. In the present study we compared population structures of 730 C. jejuni and C. coli from human cases, 610 chicken, 159 dog, 360 pig and 23 cattle isolates collected between 2001 and 2012 in Switzerland. All isolates had been typed with multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB-typing and their genotypic resistance to quinolones was determined. We used complementary approaches by testing for differences between isolates from different hosts with the proportion similarity as well as the fixation index and by attributing the source of the human isolates with Bayesian assignment using the software STRUCTURE. Analyses were done with MLST and flaB data in parallel and both typing methods were tested for associations of genotypes with quinolone resistance. Results obtained with MLST and flaB data corresponded remarkably well, both indicating chickens as the main source for human infection for both Campylobacter species. Based on MLST, 70.9% of the human cases were attributed to chickens, 19.3% to cattle, 8.6% to dogs and 1.2% to pigs. Furthermore we found a host independent association between sequence type (ST) and quinolone resistance. The most notable were ST-45, all isolates of which were susceptible, while for ST-464 all were resistant. PMID:24244747

  13. Nematicidal activities of 4-quinolone alkaloids isolated from the aerial part of Triumfetta grandidens against Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Dang, Quang Le; Choi, Yong Ho; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Luu, Ngoc Hoang; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2015-01-14

    The methanol extract of the aerial part of Triumfetta grandidens (Tiliaceae) was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita, with second-stage juveniles (J2s) mortality of 100% at 500 ?g/mL at 48 h post-exposure. Two 4-quinolone alkaloids, waltherione E (1), a new alkaloid, and waltherione A (2), were isolated and identified as nematicidal compounds through bioassay-guided fractionation and instrumental analysis. The nematicidal activities of the isolated compounds against M. incognita were evaluated on the basis of mortality and effect on egg hatching. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited high mortalities against J2s of M. incognita, with EC50 values of 0.09 and 0.27 ?g/mL at 48 h, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also exhibited a considerable inhibitory effect on egg hatching, which inhibited 91.9 and 87.4% of egg hatching, respectively, after 7 days of exposure at a concentration of 1.25 ?g/mL. The biological activities of the two 4-quinolone alkaloids were comparable to those of abamectin. In addition, pot experiments using the crude extract of the aerial part of T. grandidens showed that it completely suppressed the formation of gall on roots of plants at a concentration of 1000 ?g/mL. These results suggest that T. grandidens and its bioactive 4-quinolone alkaloids can be used as a potent botanical nematicide in organic agriculture. PMID:25494674

  14. Synthesis of novel bisindolylmethane Schiff bases and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Imran, Syahrul; Taha, Muhammad; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Naz, Farzana; Hussain, Memona; Tauseef, Saima

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop new antibacterial drugs, some novel bisindolylmethane derivatives containing Schiff base moieties were prepared and screened for their antibacterial activity. The synthesis of the bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives 3-26 was carried out in three steps. First, the nitro group of 3,3'-((4-nitrophenyl)-methylene)bis(1H-indole) (1) was reduced to give the amino substituted bisindolylmethane 2 without affecting the unsaturation of the bisindolylmethane moiety using nickel boride in situ generated. Reduction of compound 1 using various catalysts showed that combination of sodium borohydride and nickel acetate provides the highest yield for compound 2. Bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives were synthesized by coupling various benzaldehydes with amino substituted bisindolylmethane 2. All synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives were evaluated against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Derivatives having halogen and nitro substituent display weak to moderate antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B. PMID:25102118

  15. Antibacterial Surgical Silk Sutures Using a High-Performance Slow-Release Carrier Coating System.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Hou, Dandan; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Qian; Zou, Jiahan; Sun, Gang

    2015-10-14

    Sutures are a vital part for surgical operation, and suture-associated surgical site infections are an important issue of postoperative care. Antibacterial sutures have been proved to reduce challenging complications caused by bacterial infections. In recent decades, triclosan-free sutures have been on their way to commercialization. Alternative antibacterial substances are becoming relevant to processing surgical suture materials. Most of the antibacterial substances are loaded directly on sutures by dipping or coating methods. The aim of this study was to optimize novel antibacterial braided silk sutures based on levofloxacin hydrochloride and poly(?-caprolactone) by two different processing sequences, to achieve suture materials with slow-release antibacterial efficacy and ideal physical and handling properties. Silk strands were processed into sutures on a circular braiding machine, and antibacterial treatment was introduced alternatively before or after braiding by two-dipping-two-rolling method (M1 group and M2 group). The antibacterial activity and durability against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were tested. Drug release profiles were measured in phosphate buffer with different pH values, and release kinetics model was built to analyze the sustained drug release mechanism between the interface of biomaterials and the in vitro aqueous environment. Knot-pull tensile strength, thread-to-thread friction, and bending stiffness were determined to evaluate physical and handling properties of sutures. All coated sutures showed continuous antibacterial efficacy and slow drug release features for more than 5 days. Besides, treated sutures fulfilled U.S. Pharmacopoeia required knot-pull tensile strength. The thread-to-thread friction and bending stiffness for the M1 group changed slightly when compared with those of uncoated ones. However, physical and handling characteristics of the M2 group tend to approach those of monofilament ones. The novel suture showed acceptable in vitro cytotoxicity according to ISO 10993-5. Generally speaking, all coated sutures show potential in acting as antibacterial suture materials, and M1 group is proved to have a higher prospect for clinical applications. PMID:26378964

  16. Quorum sensing modulates colony morphology through alkyl quinolones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) and alkyl quinolone (AQ) based quorum-sensing (QS) systems are important for Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation. The effect of QS on biofilm formation is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. Here, we used a colony biofilm assay to study the effect of the central acyl-HSL QS regulator, LasR, on biofilm formation and structure in the representative clinical P. aeruginosa isolate ZK2870. Results A lasR mutant exhibited wrinkled colony morphology at 37°C in contrast to the smooth colony morphology of the wild-type. Mutational analysis indicated that wrinkling of the lasR mutant is dependent on pel, encoding a biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide. Suppressor mutagenesis and complementation analysis implicated the AQ signaling pathway as the link between las QS and colony morphology. In this pathway, genes pqsA-D are involved in the synthesis of 4-hydroxyalkyl quinolines ("Series A congeners"), which are converted to 3,4-dihydroxyalkyl quinolines ("Series B congeners", including the well-characterized Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal, PQS) by the product of the LasR-dependent pqsH gene. Measurement of AQ in the wild-type, the lasR pqsA::Tn suppressor mutant as well as the defined lasR, pqsH, and lasR pqsH mutants showed a correlation between 4-hydroxyalkyl quinoline levels and the degree of colony wrinkling. Most importantly, the lasR pqsH double mutant displayed wrinkly morphology without producing any 3,4-dihydroxyalkyl quinolines. Constitutive expression of pqsA-D genes in a lasR pqsR::Tnmutant showed that colony wrinkling does not require the AQ receptor PqsR. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that the las QS system represses Pel and modulates colony morphology through a 4-hydroxyalkyl quinoline in a PqsR-independent manner, ascribing a novel function to an AQ other than PQS in P. aeruginosa. PMID:22404951

  17. Antibacterial mechanisms identified through structural systems pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing discipline of structural systems pharmacology is applied prospectively in this study to predict pharmacological outcomes of antibacterial compounds in Escherichia coli K12. This work builds upon previously established methods for structural prediction of ligand binding pockets on protein molecules and utilizes and expands upon the previously developed genome scale model of metabolism integrated with protein structures (GEM-PRO) for E. coli, structurally accounting for protein complexes. Carefully selected case studies are demonstrated to display the potential for this structural systems pharmacology framework in discovery and development of antibacterial compounds. Results The prediction framework for antibacterial activity of compounds was validated for a control set of well-studied compounds, recapitulating experimentally-determined protein binding interactions and deleterious growth phenotypes resulting from these interactions. The antibacterial activity of fosfomycin, sulfathiazole, and trimethoprim were accurately predicted, and as a negative control glucose was found to have no predicted antibacterial activity. Previously uncharacterized mechanisms of action were predicted for compounds with known antibacterial properties, including (1-hydroxyheptane-1,1-diyl)bis(phosphonic acid) and cholesteryl oleate. Five candidate inhibitors were predicted for a desirable target protein without any known inhibitors, tryptophan synthase ? subunit (TrpB). In addition to the predictions presented, this effort also included significant expansion of the previously developed GEM-PRO to account for physiological assemblies of protein complex structures with activities included in the E. coli K12 metabolic network. Conclusions The structural systems pharmacology framework presented in this study was shown to be effective in the prediction of molecular mechanisms of antibacterial compounds. The study provides a promising proof of principle for such an approach to antibacterial development and raises specific molecular and systemic hypotheses about antibacterials that are amenable to experimental testing. This framework, and perhaps also the specific predictions of antibacterials, is extensible to developing antibacterial treatments for pathogenic E. coli and other bacterial pathogens. PMID:24112686

  18. Bacterial tyrosine kinases: novel targets for antibacterial therapy?

    PubMed

    Cozzone, Alain J

    2009-12-01

    The resistance of pathogenic bacteria to current antibiotics has become a crucial public health problem. To combat this resistance, there is a constant need for antibacterial drugs with new modes of action on therapeutic targets. Recent data have shown that a variety of cellular processes essential for bacterial survival and virulence are regulated by the phosphorylation of certain endogenous proteins catalyzed by specific tyrosine kinases. In this article, I highlight a selection of recent findings that confirm the central role of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the control of bacterial physiology. Based on this knowledge, potential applications in the discovery of novel antibiotics are proposed. PMID:19853456

  19. Fatty acid biosynthesis as a target for novel antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Charles O

    2006-01-01

    The bacterial fatty acid synthesis pathway has significant potential as a target for the development of novel antibacterials. The pathway has been extensively studied in Escherichia coli, the crystal structures of the compounds involved are known and homologous genes are readily identified in the genomes of important pathogens. The, currently used drugs triclosan and isoniazid are known to target one step in the pathway. Other experimental compounds such as thiolactomycin and cerulenin effectively inhibit other steps. These known pathway inhibitors are reviewed and the areas for potential future developments are explored. PMID:15043388

  20. Antibacterial peptide nisin: a potential role in the inhibition of oral pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Ni, Longxing; Ling, Junqi

    2014-10-01

    Although the antimicrobial peptide nisin has been extensively studied in the food industry for decades, its application in the oral cavity remains to develop and evaluate its feasibility in treating oral common diseases. Nisin is an odorless, colorless, tasteless substance with low toxicity and with antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria. These biologic properties may establish its use in promising products for oral diseases. This article summarizes the antibacterial efficiency of nisin against pathogenic bacteria related to dental caries and root canal infection and discusses the combination of nisin and common oral drugs. PMID:25088158

  1. Thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety: synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Samir Y; El-Sharief, Marwa A M Sh; Basyouni, Wahid M; Fakhr, Issa M I; El-Gammal, Eman W

    2013-06-01

    New series of thiourea derivatives incorporating a hippuric acid moiety have been synthesized through the reaction of 4-hippuric acid isothiocyanate with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as aliphatic amines, aromatic amines, sulfa drugs, aminopyrazoles, phenylhydrazine and hydrazides. The synthesized compounds were tested against bacterial and fungal strains. Most of compounds, such as 2-(4-(3-(3-bromophenyl)thioureido)benzamido)acetic acid and 2-(4-(3-(4-(N-pyrimidin-2-ylsulfamoyl)phenyl)thioureido)benzamido)acetic acid, showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities. These compounds comprise a new class of promising broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23644194

  2. Resistance mechanism of Acinetobacter spp. strains resistant to DW-116, a new quinolone.

    PubMed

    Choi, K H; Baek, M C; Kim, B K; Choi, E C

    1998-06-01

    DW-116 is a new fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent with a broad spectrum. In order to elucidate the resistance mechanism to DW-116 in Acinetobacter spp. bacteria, total chromosomal DNA was isolated from 10 strains of Acinetobacter spp. resistant to DW-116. Quinolone resistance determinant region (QRDR) of DNA gyrase gene was amplified by PCR. The 345 bp nucleotide fragment yielded was inserted into pKF 3 which was used as the vector. Comparisons of the DNA sequences of 8 strains with that of the wild type strain revealed a Ser-83 to Leu mutation in mutants and all ten strains contained one silent mutation(T-->G) in QRDR. From Acinetobacter MB4-8 strain, DNA gyrase was isolated and purified, through no-vobiocin-sepharose, heparin-sepharose affinity column chromatography. The enzyme was composed of two subunits and the molecular mass of subunits A and B were 75.6 and 51.9 kDa, respectively. The supercoiling activity of the reconstituted DNA gyrase composed of subunit A from Acinetobacter MB4-8 and subunit B from E. coli was not inhibited by 128 micrograms/ml of ciprofloxacin. It might be said that one of the resistance mechanisms to DW-116 in A-cinetobacter MB4-8 was subunit A alteration of DNA gyrase. PMID:9875449

  3. Broad dissemination of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in sediments of two urban coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Cummings, David E; Archer, Karisa F; Arriola, David J; Baker, Pieter A; Faucett, K Grace; Laroya, Jonathan B; Pfeil, Kelly L; Ryan, Cody R; Ryan, Kelsey R U; Zuill, Douglas E

    2011-01-15

    Contamination of soil and water with antibiotic-resistant bacteria may create reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes that have the potential to negatively impact future public health through horizontal gene transfer. The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA, and aac(6')-Ib-cr were detected by PCR amplification of metagenomic DNA from surface sediments of the Tijuana River Estuary, a sewage-impacted coastal wetland along the U.S.-Mexico border; sediments of Famosa Slough, a nearby urban wetland that is largely unaffected by sewage, contained only qnrB, qnrS, and qepA. The number of PCR-positive sites and replicates increased in both wetlands after rainfall. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed a significant increase (p < 0.0005) in qnrA abundance (copies per gram sediment or per 16S rDNA copy) in Tijuana River Estuary sediments immediately following rainfall, but no significant change was measured at Famosa Slough (p > 0.1). Nucleotide sequences of cloned qnrA amplicons were all affiliated with qnrA genes found on plasmids of clinical isolates with one exception that was most similar to the chromosomal qnrA gene found in Shewanella algae. Our results suggest that urban wetlands may become reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes, particularly where wastewater is improperly managed. PMID:21141884

  4. Application of Sigmoidal Transformation Functions in Optimization of Micellar Liquid Chromatographic Separation of Six Quinolone Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Salary, Mina

    2016-03-01

    A chemometrics approach has been used to optimize the separation of six quinolone compounds by micellar liquid chromatography (MLC). A Derringer's desirability function, a multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) method, was tested for evaluation of two different measures of chromatographic performance (resolution and analysis time). The effect of three experimental parameters on a chromatographic response function (CRF) expressed as a product of two sigmoidal desirability functions was investigated. The sigmoidal functions were used to transform the optimization criteria, resolution and analysis time into the desirability values. The factors studied were the concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate, butanol content and pH of the mobile phase. The experiments were done according to the face-centered cube central composite design, and the calculated CRF values were fitted to a polynomial model to correlate the CRF values with the variables and their interactions. The developed regression model showed good descriptive and predictive ability (R(2) = 0.815, F = 6.919, SE = 0.038, [Formula: see text]) and used, by a grid search algorithm, to optimize the chromatographic conditions for the separation of the mixture. The efficiency of prediction of polynomial model was confirmed by performing the experiment under the optimal conditions. PMID:26590234

  5. Therapeutic effects of an injectable new quinolone, pazufloxacin, against polymicrobial infections in the uterine endometritis model.

    PubMed

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K; Sato, Y; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    Polymicrobial infections with aerobes and anaerobes are common in female genital tract infections. We evaluated the efficacy of an injectable new quinolon, pazufloxacin, using a uterine endometritis model. Rats were infected with a mixed inoculation of Escherichia coli plus Bacteriodes fragilis (MIC of pazufloxacin and ceftazidime: E. coli: 0.05 and 1.56 micrograms/ml, respectively, B. fragilis: 3.13 and 3.13 micrograms/ml, respectively). After inoculating 10(7) cfu/rat of each organism, pazufloxacin or ceftazidime (10 or 20 mg/kg, respectively, i.v., b.i.d., 3 days) was administered and compared with the nontreated group. The viable cell counts of the uterine corpus and uterine cervix in pazufloxacin-treated and ceftazidime-treated groups were decreased, compared with the nontreated group. The viable cell counts of the adnexa in the pazufloxacin-treated group were significantly decreased, compared with the ceftazidimetreated group. These results suggest that pazufloxacin would be useful for the treatment of polymicrobial infections, especially adnexitis. PMID:9551239

  6. Clonal Expansion May Account for High Levels of Quinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis

    PubMed Central

    Kilmartin, Donna; Morris, D.; O'Hare, C.; Corbett-Feeney, G.; Cormican, M.

    2005-01-01

    We have observed a high incidence of isolated nalidixic acid resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates in Ireland, particularly isolates of phage type 1 (PT1). A group of nalidixic acid-resistant (n = 22) and nalidixic acid-susceptible (n = 28) isolates of serovar Enteritidis from multiple sites in Ireland were selected. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI, and the MICs for nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin were determined. Mutations associated with nalidixic acid resistance in clinical isolates and laboratory mutants of serovar Enteritidis and 32 nalidixic acid-resistant isolates of 15 other salmonella serovars were identified. PFGE had limited discriminatory power. A specific point mutation (G246T) associated with amino acid substitution Asp87Tyr in the quinolone resistance determining region of the gyrA gene accounted for 95% of all mutations in serovar Enteritidis and for all mutations in PT1 isolates. Greater diversity of mutations was observed among all non-Enteritidis salmonella serovars studied. Rates of nalidixic acid resistance in serovar Enteritidis may predominantly reflect clonal expansion after infrequent mutation or selection events. PMID:15870349

  7. Enhanced antitumor activity of ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of new quinolone antibiotics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Deqing; Okada, Kyoji; Komori, Chiyo; Itoi, Eiji; Suzuki, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    To determine if there is any synergistic antitumor effect of ultrasound (US) in the presence of new quinolone (NQ) antibiotics, 0.2 mM solutions of lomefloxacin hydrochloride (LFLX), sparfloxacin (SPFX), ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPFX), and gatifloxacin hydrate (GFLX) were tested as sonodynamic agents against sarcoma 180 cells in vitro. After US irradiation at 2 W/cm(2) for 30 and 60 s, the survival rates of tumor cells in the presence of NQ antibiotics were significantly lower than those in their absence (P < 0.001). In May-Giemsa smears, most of the tumor cells remained intact in the control group. However, in the 0.2 mM SPFX group, the tumor cells were mostly fragmented. The synergistic antitumor effect of SPFX was dose-dependent. Furthermore, when D-mannitol was used with SPFX, the survival rate of tumor cells after irradiation was comparable with that when SPFX alone was applied, but when L-histidine was used concurrently, the survival rate of tumor cells was significantly higher than that when SPFX alone was applied. These findings suggest that NQ antibiotics would exhibit useful antitumor activity under US irradiation, and that generation of singlet oxygen is involved in the process of cell damage. PMID:15504254

  8. In Vitro Activity of Nemonoxacin, a Novel Nonfluorinated Quinolone, against 2,440 Clinical Isolates?

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Heather J.; Laing, Nancy M.; King, C. Richard; Lulashnyk, Ben; Hoban, Daryl J.; Zhanel, George G.

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro activity of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, was tested against 2,440 clinical isolates. Nemonoxacin was at least fourfold more active than levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against most gram-positive cocci tested (shown by the following MIC90/range [?g/ml] values; community-associated methicillin [meticillin]-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 0.5/0.015 to 2; Staphylococcus epidermidis, 0.5/0.015 to 4 for methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and 2/0.12 to 2 for methicillin-resistant staphylococci; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015/?0.008 to 0.25; Enterococcus faecalis, 1/0.03 to 128). Nemonoxacin activity against gram-negative bacilli was similar to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin (MIC90/range [?g/ml]; Escherichia coli, 32/?0.015 to ?512; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2/?0.015 to 128; K. oxytoca, 0.5/0.06 to 1; Proteus mirabilis, 16/0.25 to ?512; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 32/?0.015 to ?512; Acinetobacter baumannii, 1/0.12 to 16). PMID:19738018

  9. In vitro activity of nemonoxacin, a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, against 2,440 clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Adam, Heather J; Laing, Nancy M; King, C Richard; Lulashnyk, Ben; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

    2009-11-01

    The in vitro activity of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, was tested against 2,440 clinical isolates. Nemonoxacin was at least fourfold more active than levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against most gram-positive cocci tested (shown by the following MIC(90)/range [microg/ml] values; community-associated methicillin [meticillin]-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 0.5/0.015 to 2; Staphylococcus epidermidis, 0.5/0.015 to 4 for methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and 2/0.12 to 2 for methicillin-resistant staphylococci; Streptococcus pneumoniae, 0.015/< or = 0.008 to 0.25; Enterococcus faecalis, 1/0.03 to 128). Nemonoxacin activity against gram-negative bacilli was similar to levofloxacin and moxifloxacin (MIC(90)/range [microg/ml]; Escherichia coli, 32/< or = 0.015 to > or = 512; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2/< or = 0.015 to 128; K. oxytoca, 0.5/0.06 to 1; Proteus mirabilis, 16/0.25 to > or = 512; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 32/< or = 0.015 to > or = 512; Acinetobacter baumannii, 1/0.12 to 16). PMID:19738018

  10. Conformational analysis of a quinolonic ribonucleoside with anti-HSV-1 activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Julliane D.; Velloso, Marcia Helena R.; Leal, Ktia Z.; Azeredo, Rodrigo B. de V.; Sugiura, Makiko; Albuquerque, Magaly G.; Santos, Fernanda da C.; Souza, Maria Ceclia B. V. de; Cunha, Anna Claudia; Seidl, Peter R.; Alencastro, Ricardo B. de; Ferreira, Vitor F.

    2011-01-01

    The infections caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus are one of the most common sources of diseases in adults and several natural nucleoside analogues are currently used in the treatment of these infections. In vitro tests of a series of quinolonic ribonucleosides derivatives synthesized by part of our group indicated that some of them have antiviral activity against HSV-1. The conformational analysis of bioactive compounds is extremely important in order to better understand their chemical structures and biological activity. In this work, we have carried out a nuclear relaxation NMR study of 6-Me ribonucleoside derivative in order to determine if the syn or anti conformation is preferential. The NMR analysis permits the determination of inter-atomic distances by using techniques which are based on nuclear relaxation and related phenomena. Those techniques are non-selective longitudinal or spin-lattice relaxation rates and NULL pulse sequence, which allow the determination of distances between pairs of hydrogen atoms. The results of NMR studies were compared with those obtained by molecular modeling.

  11. Impacts of coexisting antibiotics, antibacterial residues, and heavy metals on the occurrence of erythromycin resistance genes in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gao, Pin; He, Shi; Huang, Shenglin; Li, Kanzhu; Liu, Zhenhong; Xue, Gang; Sun, Weimin

    2015-05-01

    Antibiotic resistance is a global challenge and represents a growing threat on human health worldwide. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are generally considered as hotspots for control and/or dissemination of antibiotic resistance. The role of antibiotics, antibacterial residues, and heavy metals played on the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance is still not well understood. Here, the occurrence of antibiotics (i.e., macrolides, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones), antibacterial residues (i.e., triclosan), as well as heavy metals (i.e., cadmium, chromium, copper, zinc, lead, and nickel) in urban wastewater was investigated. Also, the abundances of erythromycin resistance genes (ERY-ARGs) including ere(A), ere(B), mef(A)/mef(E), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), and msr(A)/msr(B) genes were screened. A relationship between certain antibiotics, antibacterial residues, and heavy metals and ERY-ARGs was demonstrated. ERY presented significant correlations (0.883 < r < 0.929, P < 0.05) with ere(A), ere(B), and mef(A)/mef(E) genes, while tetracycline exhibited a significant correlation (r = 0.829, P < 0.05) with erm(B) genes. It is noteworthy that triclosan correlated significantly (0.859 < r < 0.956, P < 0.05) with ere(A), ere(B), mef(A)/mef(E), and erm(B) genes. In addition, significantly positive correlations (0.823 < r < 0.871, P < 0.05) were observed between zinc and lead and certain ERY-ARGs (i.e., ere(B), mef(A)/mef(E), erm(B), etc.). Further investigations should be involved to elucidate the co-selection and/or cross-selection mechanisms due to co-existence of these selective factors in urban wastewater. PMID:25631280

  12. Antibacterial Sensitivity of Bifidobacterium (Lactobacillus bifidus)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lawrence G.; Finegold, Sydney M.

    1967-01-01

    The antibacterial sensitivity patterns of gram-positive, nonsporeforming, anaerobic bacilli variously classed as Lactobacillus bifidus, Actinomyces bifidus, or Bifidobacterium were studied by the plate dilution method. A total of 34 strains, mostly from human feces, was studied. Three species, B. longum, B. adolescentis, and B. bifidum, were represented with 11, 11, and 6 strains, respectively. The other six strains fell into four other species. Most strains of all types resisted 100 ?g/ml or more of neomycin, polymyxin B, and nalidixic acid. They were somewhat less resistant to kanamycin and still less so to streptomycin. All strains were inhibited by less than 1 ?g/ml of penicillin G and erythromycin, by 3.1 units or less per ml of bacitracin, by 3.1 ?g/ml or less of chloramphenicol, and by 6.2 ?g/ml or less of tetracycline and lincomycin. Most strains were inhibited by 3.1 ?g/ml of vancomycin. Results were very variable with cephalothin and nitrofurantoin, with some strains quite resistant. With half of the drugs tested, there were moderate differences in sensitivity between different species. These data are discussed in relation to the effect of antimicrobial agents on bifid bacilli in the normal human fecal flora, in relation to the implications thereof, and in relation to the usefulness of several agents (particularly neomycin, nalidixic acid, and polymyxin B) in selective media for Bifidobacterium. PMID:6020399

  13. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    PubMed

    Drake, D

    1997-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:12017929

  14. Antibacterial activity of baking soda.

    PubMed

    Drake, D

    1996-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. Standard minimum inhibitory concentration analyses revealed substantial inhibitory activity against Streptococcus mutans that was not due to ionic strength or high osmolarity. Short-term exposure assays showed significant killing of bacterial suspensions when baking soda was combined with the detergent sodium dodecylsulfate. Multiple, brief exposures of sucrose-colonized S mutans to baking soda and sodium dodecylsulfate caused statistically significant decreases in numbers of viable cells. Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. PMID:11524862

  15. Vancomycin loaded superparamagnetic MnFe2O4 nanoparticles coated with PEGylated chitosan to enhance antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Ghobadianpour, Sepideh

    2016-03-30

    Increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant and failed-treatment make more investigations to deal with these problems. Hence new therapeutic approaches for effective treatment are necessary. Ferrite superparamagnetic nanoparticles have potentially antibacterial activity. In this study we prepared MnFe2O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles as core by precipitation method and used chitosan crosslinked by glutaraldehyde as shell, then modified with PEG to increase stability of particles against RES. Chitosan coating not only improves the properties of ferrit nanoparticles but also has antibacterial activity. FT-IR confirmed this surface modification; XRD and SEM were developed to demonstrate particle size approximately 25nm and characteristics of crystal structure of these nanoparticles. Magnetic properties of nanoparticles were evaluated by VSM. Actual drug loading and releasing were examined by UV-vis spectroscopy method. We employed liquid broth dilution method to assessment antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against microorganisms. Significant antibacterial effect against gram negative bacteria was developed. PMID:26875538

  16. Predicting antibacterial peptides by the concept of Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition and machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Khosravian, Maede; Faramarzi, Fateme Kazemi; Beigi, Majid Mohammad; Behbahani, Mandana; Mohabatkar, Hassan

    2013-02-01

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics is a rising concern among health care professionals, driving them to search for alternative therapies. In the past few years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted a lot of attention as a substitute for conventional antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides have a broad spectrum of activity and can act as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and sometimes even as anticancer drugs. The antibacterial peptides have little sequence homology, despite common properties. Since there is a need to develop a computational method for predicting the antibacterial peptides, in the present study, we have applied the concept of Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and machine learning methods for their classification. Our results demonstrate that using the concept of PseAAC and applying Support Vector Machine (SVM) can provide useful information to predict antibacterial peptides. PMID:22894156

  17. The Effect of Ultrafine Process on the Dissolution, Antibacterial Activity, and Cytotoxicity of Coptidis rhizoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhen-Yu; Deng, Hai-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Jun-Yan; Kang, Si-He

    2016-01-01

    Background: The dosage of herb ultrafine particle (UFP) depended on the increased level of its dissolution, toxicity, and efficacy. Objective: The dissolution, antibacterial activity, and cytotoxicity of Coptidis rhizoma (CR) UFP were compared with those of traditional decoction (TD). Materials and Methods: The dissolution of berberine (BBR) of CR TD and UFP was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antibacterial activity of CR extract was assayed by plate-hole diffusion and broth dilution method; the inhibitory effect of rat serums against bacteria growth was evaluated after orally given CR UFP or TD extract. The cytotoxicity of CR extract was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: The dissolution amount of BBR from CR UFP increased 6–8-folds in comparison to TD at 2 min, the accumulative amount of BBR in both UFP and TD group increased in a time-dependent manner. The minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations of CR UFP extract decreased to 1/2~1/4 of those of TD extract. The inhibitory effect of rat serums against bacteria growth decreased time-dependently, and no statistical difference was observed between two groups at each time point. The 50% cytotoxic concentrations of UFP extract increased 1.66~1.97 fold than those of TD. Conclusions: The antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of CR UFP increased in a dissolution-effect manner in vitro, the increased level of cytotoxicity was lower than that of antibacterial activity, and the inhibitory effect of rat serums containing drugs of UFP group did not improve. SUMMARY Ultrafine grinding process caused a rapid increase of BBR dissolution from CR.The antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of UFP extract in vitro increased in a dissolution-effect manner, but the cytotoxicity increased lower than the antibacterial activity.The antibacterial activity of rat serums of UFP group did not improve in comparison to that of TD group PMID:26941540

  18. Mesoporous TiO2 implants for loading high dosage of antibacterial agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Se Woong; Lee, Donghyun; Choi, Yong Suk; Jeon, Hoon Bong; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kwon, Il Keun

    2014-06-01

    We have fabricated mesoporous thin films composed of TiO2 nanoparticles on anodized titanium implant surfaces for loading drugs at high doses. Surface anodization followed by treatment with TiO2 paste leads to the formation of mechanically stable mesoporous thin films with controllable thickness. A series of antibacterial agents (silver nanoparticles, cephalothin, minocycline, and amoxicillin) were loaded into the mesoporous thin films and their antibacterial activities were evaluated against five bacterial species including three oral pathogens. Additionally, two agents (silver nanoparticles and minocycline) were loaded together on the thin film and tested for antibacterial effectiveness. The combination of silver nanoparticles and minocycline was found to display a wide range of effectiveness against all tested bacteria.

  19. In vitro antibacterial effect of wasp (Vespa orientalis) venom

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The emergence of antibacterial resistance against several classes of antibiotics is an inevitable consequence of drug overuse. As antimicrobial resistance spreads throughout the globe, new substances will always be necessary to fight against multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Venoms of many animals have recently gained attention in the search for new antimicrobials to treat infectious diseases. Thefore, the present study aimed to study the antibacterial effects of wasp (Vespa orientalis) crude venom. Two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and two gram-negative ones (Escherichia coli and Klesiella pneumonia) were compared for their sensitivity to the venom by determining the inhibition zone (Kirby-Bauer method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A microbroth kinetic system based on continuous monitoring of changes in the optical density of bacterial growth was also used for determination of antimicrobial activity. Results The venom exhibited a well-recognized antimicrobial property against the tested bacterial strains. The inhibition zones were determined to be 12.6, 22.7, 22.4 and 10.2mm for S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and K. pneumonia, respectively. The corresponding MIC values were determined to be 64, 8, 64 and 128?g/mL, respectively. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of the venom were respectively determined to be 63.6 and 107?g/mL for S. aureus, 4.3 and 7.0?g/mL for B. subtilis, 45.3 and 65.7?g/mL for E. coli and 74.4 and 119.2?g/mL for K. pneumonia. Gram-positive bacteria were generally more sensitive to the venom than gram-negative ones. Conclusions Results revealed that the venom markedly inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and could be considered a potential source for developing new antibacterial drugs. PMID:24955088

  20. Facile biofunctionalization of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties, endotoxin removal, and biofilm control

    PubMed Central

    Lambadi, Paramesh Ramulu; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Vasnani, Priyanka; Thalluri, Sitaramanjaneya Mouli; Bisht, Neha; Pathania, Ranjana; Navani, Naveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases cause a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria establish infection by developing antibiotic resistance and modulating the host’s immune system, whereas opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapt to adverse conditions owing to their ability to form biofilms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were biofunctionalized with polymyxin B, an antibacterial peptide using a facile method. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles (polymyxin B-capped silver nanoparticles, PBSNPs) were assessed for antibacterial activity against multiple drug-resistant clinical strain Vibrio fluvialis and nosocomial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that PBSNPs had an approximately 3-fold higher effect than the citrate-capped nanoparticles (CSNPs). Morphological damage to the cell membrane was followed by scanning electron microscopy, testifying PBSNPs to be more potent in controlling the bacterial growth as compared with CSNPs. The bactericidal effect of PBSNPs was further confirmed by Live/Dead staining assays. Apart from the antibacterial activity, the biofunctionalized nanoparticles were found to resist biofilm formation. Electroplating of PBSNPs onto stainless steel surgical blades retained the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further, the affinity of polymyxin for endotoxin was exploited for its removal using PBSNPs. It was found that the prepared nanoparticles removed 97% of the endotoxin from the solution. Such multifarious uses of metal nanoparticles are an attractive means of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial agents to control infections. PMID:25834431

  1. Facile biofunctionalization of silver nanoparticles for enhanced antibacterial properties, endotoxin removal, and biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Lambadi, Paramesh Ramulu; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Kumar, Piyush; Vasnani, Priyanka; Thalluri, Sitaramanjaneya Mouli; Bisht, Neha; Pathania, Ranjana; Navani, Naveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases cause a huge burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Pathogenic bacteria establish infection by developing antibiotic resistance and modulating the host's immune system, whereas opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa adapt to adverse conditions owing to their ability to form biofilms. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were biofunctionalized with polymyxin B, an antibacterial peptide using a facile method. The biofunctionalized nanoparticles (polymyxin B-capped silver nanoparticles, PBSNPs) were assessed for antibacterial activity against multiple drug-resistant clinical strain Vibrio fluvialis and nosocomial pathogen P. aeruginosa. The results of antibacterial assay revealed that PBSNPs had an approximately 3-fold higher effect than the citrate-capped nanoparticles (CSNPs). Morphological damage to the cell membrane was followed by scanning electron microscopy, testifying PBSNPs to be more potent in controlling the bacterial growth as compared with CSNPs. The bactericidal effect of PBSNPs was further confirmed by Live/Dead staining assays. Apart from the antibacterial activity, the biofunctionalized nanoparticles were found to resist biofilm formation. Electroplating of PBSNPs onto stainless steel surgical blades retained the antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further, the affinity of polymyxin for endotoxin was exploited for its removal using PBSNPs. It was found that the prepared nanoparticles removed 97% of the endotoxin from the solution. Such multifarious uses of metal nanoparticles are an attractive means of enhancing the potency of antimicrobial agents to control infections. PMID:25834431

  2. Polymeric micellar nanoplatforms for Fenton reaction as a new class of antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Nam-Hong; Yang, Wonseok; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jang, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-01-10

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by host phagocytes exert antibacterial action against a variety of pathogens and ROS-induced oxidative stress is the governing mechanism for the antibacterial activity of major bactericidal antibiotics. In particular, hydroxyl radical is a strong and nonselective oxidant which can damage biomolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. Ferrous ion is known to convert mild oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into highly reactive and toxic hydroxyl radicals, referred to as Fenton reaction. Herein, we report a new class of antibacterial agents based on Fenton reaction-performing nanostructures, composed of H2O2-generating polymer (PCAE) and iron-containing ferrocene. Amphiphilic PCAE was designed to incorporate H2O2-generating cinnamaldehyde through acid-cleavable linkages and self-assemble to form thermodynamically stable micelles which could encapsulate ferrocene in their hydrophobic core. All the experiments in vitro display that ferrocene-loaded PCAE micelles produce hydroxyl radicals to kill Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through membrane damages. Intraperitoneally injected ferrocene-loaded PCAE micelles significantly reduced the lung damages and therefore increased the survival rate of mice infected with drug resistant P. aeruginosa. Given their potent antibacterial activity, ferrocene-loaded PCAE micelles hold great potential as a new class of ROS-manipulating antibacterial agents. PMID:26639177

  3. Toxicity and antibacterial assessment of chitosancoated silver nanoparticles on human pathogens and macrophage cells

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Prajna; Mohanty, Soumitra; Mallick, Rojee; Jacob, Biju; Sonawane, Avinash

    2012-01-01

    Background Pathogenic bacteria are able to develop various strategies to counteract the bactericidal action of antibiotics. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics because of their potent antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this study was to synthesize chitosan-stabilized AgNPs (CS-AgNPs) and test for their cytotoxic, genotoxic, macrophage cell uptake, antibacterial, and antibiofilm activities. Methods AgNPs were synthesized using chitosan as both a stabilizing and a reducing agent. Antibacterial activity was determined by colony-forming unit assay and scanning electron microscopy. Genotoxic and cytotoxic activity were determined by DNA fragmentation, comet, and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assays. Cellular uptake and intracellular antibacterial activity were tested on macrophages. Results CS-AgNPs exhibited potent antibacterial activity against different human pathogens and also impeded bacterial biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that CS-AgNPs kill bacteria by disrupting the cell membrane. CS-AgNPs showed no significant cytotoxic or DNA damage effect on macrophages at the bactericidal dose. Propidium iodide staining indicated active endocytosis of CS-AgNPs resulting in reduced intracellular bacterial survival in macrophages. Conclusion The present study concludes that at a specific dose, chitosan-based AgNPs kill bacteria without harming the host cells, thus representing a potential template for the design of antibacterial agents to decrease bacterial colonization and to overcome the problem of drug resistance. PMID:22619529

  4. [The comparative characteristics of the antibacterial activity of new antiseptics and the prospects for their use in dental practice].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, L A; Romanov, A E; Tsarev, V N; Ushakov, R V; Karnaukhov, A T

    1997-01-01

    Antibacterial activities of modern antiseptics listerine, myramistine, cidipol, octenisept, tantum verde, matecide, and rautine drugs chlorhexidine and dioxidine are compared. The prospects of their use in dentistry for the treatment of inflammations associated with anaerobes are discussed. Metacide, listerine, chlorhexidine, and dioxidine are characterized by the widest spectrum of activity towards obligate anaerobic bacteria; moreover, these drugs inhibit bacterial growth when used in lower concentrations than other drugs. PMID:9163079

  5. Local action of some antibacterial substances against corynebacterium ovis in guinea-pig skin

    PubMed Central

    Collier, H. O. J.; Grimshaw, J. J.

    1958-01-01

    When a suspension of living Corynebacterium ovis was injected intradermally in guinea-pigs, a lesion of roughly circular outline developed within 24 hr. Lesions of smaller diameter arose if benzylpenicillin, dequalinium, hedaquinium, cetrimide, or oxytetracycline were injected at the identical site, either before, with, or after C. ovis. Evidence has been obtained that such reductions of lesion diameter are due to direct action of drugs on bacteria and not to antitoxic or anti-inflammatory actions. Lesion diameters became less as drug dosage increased up to a limit, and these reductions provided a measure of local antibacterial action in vivo. Intradermal injection of higher concentrations of antibacterials, without C. ovis, produced comparable but somewhat flatter lesions, diameters of which increased with increasing concentration of drug and provided a measure of intradermal toxicity. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3 PMID:13584722

  6. Antibacterial barbituric acid analogues inspired from natural 3-acyltetramic acids; synthesis, tautomerism and structure and physicochemical property-antibacterial activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yong-Chul; Moloney, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, tautomerism and antibacterial activity of novel barbiturates is reported. In particular, 3-acyl and 3-carboxamidobarbiturates exhibited antibacterial activity, against susceptible and some resistant Gram-positive strains of particular interest is that these systems possess amenable molecular weight, rotatable bonds and number of proton-donors/acceptors for drug design as well as less lipophilic character, with physicochemical properties and ionic states that are similar to current antibiotic agents for oral and injectable use. Unfortunately, the reduction of plasma protein affinity by the barbituric core is not sufficient to achieve activity in vivo. Further optimization to reduce plasma protein affinity and/or elevate antibiotic potency is therefore required, but we believe that these systems offer unusual opportunities for antibiotic drug discovery. PMID:25710842

  7. Fluoroquinolone interactions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase: Enhancing drug activity against wild-type and resistant gyrase.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; Blower, Tim R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-02-16

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a significant source of global morbidity and mortality. Moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are important therapeutic agents for the treatment of tuberculosis, particularly multidrug-resistant infections. To guide the development of new quinolone-based agents, it is critical to understand the basis of drug action against M. tuberculosis gyrase and how mutations in the enzyme cause resistance. Therefore, we characterized interactions of fluoroquinolones and related drugs with WT gyrase and enzymes carrying mutations at GyrA(A90) and GyrA(D94). M. tuberculosis gyrase lacks a conserved serine that anchors a water-metal ion bridge that is critical for quinolone interactions with other bacterial type II topoisomerases. Despite the fact that the serine is replaced by an alanine (i.e., GyrA(A90)) in M. tuberculosis gyrase, the bridge still forms and plays a functional role in mediating quinolone-gyrase interactions. Clinically relevant mutations at GyrA(A90) and GyrA(D94) cause quinolone resistance by disrupting the bridge-enzyme interaction, thereby decreasing drug affinity. Fluoroquinolone activity against WT and resistant enzymes is enhanced by the introduction of specific groups at the C7 and C8 positions. By dissecting fluoroquinolone-enzyme interactions, we determined that an 8-methyl-moxifloxacin derivative induces high levels of stable cleavage complexes with WT gyrase and two common resistant enzymes, GyrA(A90V) and GyrA(D94G). 8-Methyl-moxifloxacin was more potent than moxifloxacin against WT M. tuberculosis gyrase and displayed higher activity against the mutant enzymes than moxifloxacin did against WT gyrase. This chemical biology approach to defining drug-enzyme interactions has the potential to identify novel drugs with improved activity against tuberculosis. PMID:26792518

  8. Overcoming scientific and structural bottlenecks in antibacterial discovery and development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is becoming an increasing threat, with too few novel antibiotics coming to market to replace those lost due to resistance development. Efforts by the pharmaceutical industry to screen for and design novel antibacterials have not been successful, with several companies minimizing or closing down their antibacterial research units, leading to a loss of skills and know-how. At the same time, antibiotic innovation in academia is not filling the void due to misaligned incentive structures and lack of vital knowledge of drug discovery. The scientific and structural difficulties in discovering new antibiotics have only begun to be appreciated in the latest years. Part of the problem has been a paradigm shift within both industry and academia to focus on ‘rational’ drug development with an emphasis on single targets and high-throughput screening of large chemical libraries, which may not be suited to target bacteria. The very particular aspects of ‘targeting an organism inside another organism’ have not been given enough attention. In this paper, researcher interviews have complemented literature studies to delve deeper into the specifics of the different scientific and structural barriers, and some potential solutions are offered. PMID:24646118

  9. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in fecal bacteria from rooks commonly wintering throughout Europe.

    PubMed

    Literak, Ivan; Micudova, Maria; Tausova, Dagmar; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika; Papousek, Ivo; Prochazka, Jakub; Vojtech, Jiri; Borleis, Frank; Guardone, Lisa; Guenther, Sebastian; Hordowski, Jozef; Lejas, Cyrille; Meissner, Wlodzimierz; Marcos, Benito Fuertes; Tucakov, Marko

    2012-12-01

    This study concerned the occurrence of fecal bacteria with plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in rooks (Corvus frugilegus, medium-sized corvid birds) wintering in continental Europe during winter 2010/2011. Samples of fresh rook feces were taken by cotton swabs at nine roosting places in eight European countries. Samples were transported to one laboratory and placed in buffered peptone water (BPW). The samples from BPW were enriched and subcultivated onto MacConkey agar (MCA) supplemented with ciprofloxacin (0.06?mg/L) to isolate fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria. DNA was isolated from smears of bacterial colonies growing on MCA and tested by PCR for PMQR genes aac(6')-Ib, qepA, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and oqxAB. All the PCR products were further analyzed by sequencing. Ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were isolated from 37% (392 positive/1,073 examined) of samples. Frequencies of samples with ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates ranged significantly from 3% to 92% in different countries. The qnrS1 gene was found in 154 samples and qnrS2 in 2 samples. The gene aac(6')-Ib-cr was found in 16 samples. Thirteen samples were positive for qnrB genes in variants qnrB6 (one sample), qnrB18 (one), qnrB19 (one), qnrB29 (one), and qnrB49 (new variant) (one). Both the qnrD and oqxAB genes were detected in six samples. The genes qnrA, qnrC, and qepA were not found. Wintering omnivorous rooks in Europe were commonly colonized by bacteria supposedly Enterobacteriaceae with PMQR genes. Rooks may disseminate these epidemiologically important bacteria over long distances and pose a risk for environmental contamination. PMID:22731858

  10. Susceptibility to β-lactams and quinolones of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urinary tract infections in outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Marchisio, Martín; Porto, Ayelén; Joris, Romina; Rico, Marina; Baroni, María R.; Di Conza, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The antibiotic susceptibility profile was evaluated in 71 Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained from outpatient urine cultures in July 2010 from two health institutions in Santa Fe, Argentina. The highest rates of antibiotic resistance were observed for ampicillin (AMP) (69%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMS) (33%), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) (25%). Meanwhile, 21% of the isolates were resistant to three or more tested antibiotics families. Thirty integron-containing bacteria (42.3%) were detected, and a strong association with TMS resistance was found. Third generation cephalosporin resistance was detected in only one Escherichia coli isolate, and it was characterized as a bla CMY-2 carrier. No plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was found. Resistance to fluoroquinolone in the isolates was due to alterations in QRDR regions. Two mutations in GyrA (S83L, D87N) and one in ParC (S80I) were observed in all CIP-resistant E. coli. It was determined to be the main phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolates. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against nalidixic acid (NAL), levofloxacin (LEV), and CIP were determined for 63 uropathogenic E. coli isolates as MIC50 of 4 μg/mL, 0.03125 μg/mL, and 0.03125 μg/mL, respectively, while the MIC90 values of the antibiotics were determined as 1024 μg/mL, 64 μg/mL, and 16 μg/mL, respectively. An association between the phylogenetic groups, A and B1 with fluoroquinolone resistance was observed. These results point to the importance of awareness of the potential risk associated with empirical treatment with both the families of antibiotics. PMID:26691475

  11. Susceptibility to ?-lactams and quinolones of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urinary tract infections in outpatients.

    PubMed

    Marchisio, Martn; Porto, Ayeln; Joris, Romina; Rico, Marina; Baroni, Mara R; Di Conza, Jos

    2015-12-01

    The antibiotic susceptibility profile was evaluated in 71 Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained from outpatient urine cultures in July 2010 from two health institutions in Santa Fe, Argentina. The highest rates of antibiotic resistance were observed for ampicillin (AMP) (69%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMS) (33%), and ciprofloxacin (CIP) (25%). Meanwhile, 21% of the isolates were resistant to three or more tested antibiotics families. Thirty integron-containing bacteria (42.3%) were detected, and a strong association with TMS resistance was found. Third generation cephalosporin resistance was detected in only one Escherichia coli isolate, and it was characterized as a blaCMY-2 carrier. No plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was found. Resistance to fluoroquinolone in the isolates was due to alterations in QRDR regions. Two mutations in GyrA (S83L, D87N) and one in ParC (S80I) were observed in all CIP-resistant E. coli. It was determined to be the main phylogenetic groups in E. coli isolates. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against nalidixic acid (NAL), levofloxacin (LEV), and CIP were determined for 63 uropathogenic E. coli isolates as MIC50 of 4 ?g/mL, 0.03125 ?g/mL, and 0.03125 ?g/mL, respectively, while the MIC90 values of the antibiotics were determined as 1024 ?g/mL, 64 ?g/mL, and 16 ?g/mL, respectively. An association between the phylogenetic groups, A and B1 with fluoroquinolone resistance was observed. These results point to the importance of awareness of the potential risk associated with empirical treatment with both the families of antibiotics. PMID:26691475

  12. Molecular Characterization of Quinolone-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Brazil ?

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Aline A.; Amorin, Efignia L. T.; Ferreira, Maria de Ftima; Andrade, Claudia F.; Clementino, Maysa B. M.; de Filippis, Ivano; Neves, Felipe P. G.; Pinto, Tatiana de C. A.; Teixeira, Lcia M.; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; Fracalanzza, Srgio E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance among gonococci worldwide, limited reports are available from Brazilian locations. In the present study, 25 quinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (QRNG) strains isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods, including analysis of mutations in the gyrA and parC genes. They represented 16.5% of the N. gonorrhoeae isolates obtained during a survey performed from 2006 to 2010. A trend for increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin was observed in the period investigated. The most prevalent pattern of mutation observed among QRNG isolates, Ser-91 to Phe and Asp-95 to Gly in gyrA and Ser-87 to Arg in parC, was detected in 40% of the isolates exhibiting MICs ranging from 4 to >32 ?g/ml. Rare types of mutations were found in the gyrA gene (Gln-102 to His [12%] and Asp-95 to Tyr [4%]) and in the parC gene (Ser-88 to Thr [4%]). The genetic relationship of the QRNG isolates, evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggested that the increase in the frequencies of the QRNG isolates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, may have arisen as a result of simultaneous spread of two clonal groups. The results also indicate that fluoroquinolones may no longer be used as first line antibiotics for the treatment of gonorrhea in Rio de Janeiro, and that programs for antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of N. gonorrhoeae should also be implemented in other regions of Brazil. PMID:21976763

  13. High-frequency transposition for determining antibacterial mode of action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Claveau, David; Vaillancourt, John P; Roemer, Terry; Meredith, Timothy C

    2011-10-01

    Connecting bacterial growth inhibitors to molecular targets at the whole-cell level is a major impediment to antibacterial development. Herein we report the design of a highly efficient and versatile bacteriophage-based mariner transposon delivery system in Staphylococcus aureus for determining inhibitor mode of action. Using bacteriophage-mediated delivery of concatameric minitransposon cassettes, we generated nonclonal transposant libraries with genome-wide insertion-site coverage in either laboratory or methicillin-resistant strain backgrounds and screened for drug resistance in situ on a single agar plate in one step. A gradient of gene-target expression levels, along with a correspondingly diverse assortment of drug-resistant phenotypes, was achieved by fitting the transposon cassette with a suite of outward-facing promoters. Using a panel of antibiotics, we demonstrate the ability to unveil not only an inhibitor's molecular target but also its route of cellular entry, efflux susceptibility and other off-target resistance mechanisms. PMID:21892185

  14. Coastal seawater bacteria harbor a large reservoir of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Jiaozhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing-yi; Dang, Hongyue

    2012-07-01

    Diversity and prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants were investigated in environmental bacteria isolated from surface seawater of Jiaozhou Bay, China. Five qnr gene alleles were identified in 34 isolates by PCR amplification, including qnrA3 gene in a Shewanella algae isolate, qnrB9 gene in a Citrobacter freundii isolate, qnrD gene in 22 Proteus vulgaris isolates, qnrS1 gene in 1 Enterobacter sp. and 4 Klebsiella spp. isolates, and qnrS2 gene in 1 Pseudomonas sp. and 4 Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolates. The qnrC, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA genes could not be detected in this study. The 22 qnrD-positive Proteus vulgaris isolates could be differentiated into four genotypes based on ERIC-PCR assay. The qnrS1 and qnrD genes could be transferred to Escherichia coli J53 Azi(R) or E. coli TOP10 recipient strains using conjugation or transformation methods. Among the 34 qnr-positive isolates, 30 had a single point mutation in the QRDRs of GyrA protein (Ala67Ser, Ser83Ile, or Ser83Thr), indicating that cooperation of chromosome- and plasmid-mediated resistance contributed to the spread and evolution of quinolone resistance in this coastal bay. Eighty-five percent of the isolates were also found to be resistant to ampicillin, and bla(CMY), bla(OXY), bla(SHV), and bla(TEM) genes were detected in five isolates that also harbored the qnrB9 or qnrS1 gene. Our current study is the first identification of qnrS2 gene in Pseudoalteromonas and Pseudomonas strains, and qnrD gene in Proteus vulgaris strains. High prevalence of diverse qnr genes in Jiaozhou Bay indicates that coastal seawater may serve as an important reservoir, natural source, and dissemination vehicle of quinolone resistance determinants. PMID:22252223

  15. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Mutation Spectra and Resistance to Quinolones in Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis with a Mutator Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Dan D.; Sharma, Bhavana; Cebula, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    Resistance to quinolone antibiotics has been associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA. Mutations in the gyrA gene were compared by using mutant populations derived from wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and its isogenic mutS::Tn10 mutator counterpart. Spontaneous mutants arising during nonselective growth were isolated by selection with either nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin. QRDR SNPs were identified in approximately 70% (512 of 695) of the isolates via colony hybridization with radiolabeled oligonucleotide probes. Notably, transition base substitution SNPs in the QRDR were dramatically increased in mutants derived from the mutS strain. Some, but not all, antibiotic-resistant mutants lacking QRDR SNPs were resistant to tetracycline and chloramphenicol, consistent with alterations in nonspecific efflux pumps or other membrane transport mechanisms. Changing the selection conditions shifted the mutation spectrum. Selection with ciprofloxacin was least likely to yield a mutant harboring either a QRDR SNP or chloramphenicol resistance. Selection with enrofloxacin was more likely to yield mutants containing Ser83?Phe mutations, whereas selection with ciprofloxacin or nalidixic acid favored recovery of Asp87?Gly mutants. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from veterinary or clinical settings frequently display a mutational spectrum with a preponderance of transition SNPs in the QRDR, the pattern found in vitro among mutS mutator mutants reported here. Both the preponderance of transition mutations and the varied mutation spectra reported for veterinary and clinical isolates suggest that bacterial mutators defective in methyl-directed mismatch repair may play a role in the emergence of quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance in feral settings. PMID:15215081

  16. High-resolution mass spectrometry applied to the identification of transformation products of quinolones from stability studies and new metabolites of enrofloxacin in chicken muscle tissues.

    PubMed

    Morales-Gutirrez, F J; Hermo, M P; Barbosa, J; Barrn, D

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was the identification of new metabolites and transformation products (TPs) in chicken muscle from enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP), difloxacin (DIF) and sarafloxacin (SAR), which are antibiotics that belong to the fluoroquinolones family. The stability of ENR, CIP, DIF and SAR standard solutions versus pH degradation process (from pH 1.5 to 8.0, simulating the pH since the drug is administered until its excretion) and freeze-thawing (F/T) cycles was tested. In addition, chicken muscle samples from medicated animals with ENR were analyzed in order to identify new metabolites and TPs. The identification of the different metabolites and TPs was accomplished by comparison of mass spectral data from samples and blanks, using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QqToF) and multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) technique as a pre-filter to remove most of the background noise and endogenous components. Confirmation and structure elucidation was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to linear ion trap quadrupole Orbitrap (LC-LTQ-Orbitrap), due to its mass accuracy and MS/MS capacity for elemental composition determination. As a result, 21 TPs from ENR, 6 TPs from CIP, 14 TPs from DIF and 12 TPs from SAR were identified due to the pH shock and F/T cycles. On the other hand, 14 metabolites were identified from the medicated chicken muscle samples. Formation of CIP and SAR, from ENR and DIF, respectively, and the formation of desethylene-quinolone were the most remarkable identified compounds. PMID:24525564

  17. Antibacterial activity of polyphenols of garcinia indica.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, C; Kumar, K Akshaya; Dennis, T J; Kumar, T S S P N S Sanath

    2011-07-01

    The aim of present work is to study the antibacterial activity of polyphenols isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble of methanol extract of stem bark of Garcinia indica against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli by paper disc method. The results showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus at higher concentrations, moderate at lower concentrations, against S. typhi moderate at higher concentrations but no activity against E. coli even at higher concentration for flavononylflavone. With proauthocyanin S. Aureus, S. Typhi and E. coli showed good antibacterial activity at higher concentration only. PMID:22707838

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Polyphenols of Garcinia Indica

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, C.; Kumar, K. Akshaya; Dennis, T. J.; Kumar, T. S. S. P. N. S. Sanath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of present work is to study the antibacterial activity of polyphenols isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble of methanol extract of stem bark of Garcinia indica against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli by paper disc method. The results showed good antibacterial activity against S. aureus at higher concentrations, moderate at lower concentrations, against S. typhi moderate at higher concentrations but no activity against E. coli even at higher concentration for flavononylflavone. With proauthocyanin S. Aureus, S. Typhi and E. coli showed good antibacterial activity at higher concentration only. PMID:22707838

  19. Toward bioactive yet antibacterial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukova, I V; Sheveyko, A N; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph V; Zhitnyak, I Y; Gloushankova, N A; Denisenko, E A; Filippovich, S Yu; Ignatov, S G; Shtansky, D V

    2015-11-01

    The fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces is a challenge that biological and biomedical community has faced for many years, while no "dream material" has been developed so far. The primary goal of this study was to establish an optimal range of Ag concentration and its state of agglomeration in bioactive nanocomposite TiCaPCON films which would provide a strong bactericidal effect without compromising the material biocompatibility and bioactivity. To obtain samples with different Ag content and redistribution, two different methods were employed: (i) TiCaPCON films deposition by magnetron sputtering of composite Ti?0.5-Ca3(??4)2 target followed by Ag(+) ion implantation and (ii) Ag-doped TiCaPCON films obtained by co-sputtering of composite Ti?0.5-Ca3(??4)2 and Ag targets. In order to reveal the antibacterial role of Ag nanoparticles and Ag(+) ions, both separate and in synergy, part of the samples from the first and second groups was subjected to additional ion etching to remove an Ag rich surface layer heavily populated with Ag nanoparticles. All resultant films were characterized with respect to surface morphology, chemical composition, surface roughness, wettability, and Ag(+) ion release. The antibacterial and antifungal effects of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films were evaluated against clinically isolated Escherichia coli O78 (E. coli) and Neurospora crassa wt-987 spores. The influence of the surface chemistry on spreading, proliferation, and early stages of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cell differentiation was also studied. Our data demonstrated that under optimal conditions in terms of Ag content and agglomeration, the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films are highly efficient against E. coli bacteria and, at the same time, provide good adhesion, spreading, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells which reflect high level of biocompatibility and bioactivity of the films. The influence of Ag(+) ions and nanoparticles on the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and E. coli bacteria is also discussed. PMID:26255161

  20. Antibacterial Effects and Biocompatibility of Titania Nanotubes with Octenidine Dihydrochloride/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhiqiang; Lai, Yingzhen; Wu, Dong; Huang, Wenxiu; Huang, Sijia; Zhou, Lin; Chen, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) implants with long-term antibacterial ability and good biocompatibility are highly desirable materials that can be used to prevent implant-associated infections. In this study, titania nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized on Ti surfaces through electrochemical anodization. Octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was infiltrated into TNTs using a simple solvent-casting technique. OCT/PLGA-TNTs demonstrated sustained drug release and maintained the characteristic hollow structures of TNTs. TNTs (200?nm in diameter) alone exhibited slight antibacterial effect and good osteogenic activity but also evidently impaired adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). OCT/PLGA-TNTs (100?nm in diameter) supported BMSC adhesion and proliferation and showed good osteogenesis-inducing ability. OCT/PLGA-TNTs also exhibited good long-term antibacterial ability within the observation period of 7?d. The synthesized drug carrier with relatively long-term antibacterial ability and enhanced excellent biocompatibility demonstrated significant potential in bone implant applications. PMID:26090449

  1. Drug-induced nail disorders.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Nail disorders are defined according to their appearance and the part of the nail affected: the nail plate, the tissues that support or hold the nail plate in place, or the lunula. The consequences of most nail disorders are purely cosmetic. Other disorders, such as ingrown nails, inflammation, erythema, abscesses or tumours, cause functional impairment or pain. The appearance of the lesions is rarely indicative of their cause. Possible causes include physiological changes, local disorders or trauma, systemic conditions, toxic substances and drugs. Most drug-induced nail disorders resolve after discontinuation of the drug, although complete resolution sometimes takes several years. Drugs appear to induce nail disorders through a variety of mechanisms. Some drugs affect the nail matrix epithelium, the nail bed or the nail folds. Some alter nail colour. Other drugs induce photosensitivity. Yet others affect the blood supply to the nail unit. Nail abnormalities are common during treatment with certain cytotoxic drugs: taxanes, anthracyclines, fluorouracil, EGFR, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, etc. Some drugs are associated with a risk of serious and painful lesions, such as abscesses. When these disorders affect quality of life, the benefits of withdrawing the drug must be weighed against the severity of the condition being treated and the drug's efficacy, taking into account the harm-benefit balance of other options. Various anti-infective drugs, including tetracyclines, quinolones, clofazimine and zidovudine, cause the nail plate to detach from the nail bed after exposure to light, or cause nail discoloration. Psoralens and retinoids can also have the same effects. PMID:25162091

  2. Stimuli-responsive self-assembling peptides made from antibacterial peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanfei; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2013-06-01

    How to use bioactive peptide sequences as fundamental building blocks to make hydrogel materials which are stimuli-responsive? In this article, we provide a novel designed peptide comprising two antibacterial peptide sequences (KIGAKI)3-NH2 and a central tetrapeptide linker. Results show that balancing the forces of the electrostatic repulsion of the charged lysine residues against the hydrophobic collapse of the isoleucine and alanine residues and backbone ?-sheet hydrogen bonding allows the structural transition and formation of individually dispersed nanofibers. Circular Dichroism (CD) and rheology analysis demonstrated that the designed peptide can undergo an abrupt structural transition from a random coil to a stable unimolecular ?-hairpin conformation and subsequently form an elastic hydrogel when exposed to external stimuli such as pH, ionic strength and heat. The assembly kinetics of the obtained antibacterial sequence comprising peptide (ASCP) was studied by time-lapse Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay. In addition, the inherent antibacterial activity of the peptide hydrogel was confirmed by the antibacterial assay against Escherichia coli. This example described epitomizes the use of bioactive peptide sequences in the design of finite self-assembled structures with potential inherent activity. These hydrogel materials may find applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.How to use bioactive peptide sequences as fundamental building blocks to make hydrogel materials which are stimuli-responsive? In this article, we provide a novel designed peptide comprising two antibacterial peptide sequences (KIGAKI)3-NH2 and a central tetrapeptide linker. Results show that balancing the forces of the electrostatic repulsion of the charged lysine residues against the hydrophobic collapse of the isoleucine and alanine residues and backbone ?-sheet hydrogen bonding allows the structural transition and formation of individually dispersed nanofibers. Circular Dichroism (CD) and rheology analysis demonstrated that the designed peptide can undergo an abrupt structural transition from a random coil to a stable unimolecular ?-hairpin conformation and subsequently form an elastic hydrogel when exposed to external stimuli such as pH, ionic strength and heat. The assembly kinetics of the obtained antibacterial sequence comprising peptide (ASCP) was studied by time-lapse Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Thioflavin T (ThT) binding assay. In addition, the inherent antibacterial activity of the peptide hydrogel was confirmed by the antibacterial assay against Escherichia coli. This example described epitomizes the use of bioactive peptide sequences in the design of finite self-assembled structures with potential inherent activity. These hydrogel materials may find applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S5. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00225j

  3. Oxazolidinone: search for highly potent antibacterial.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj Bhushan; Lohray, Vidya Bhushan; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Gupta, Sunil; Solanki, Manish; Kapadnis, Prashant; Takale, Vijay; Pandya, Purvi

    2004-06-21

    A number of substituted piperazinyl oxazolidinone derivatives have been synthesized and their antibacterial activities were evaluated by MIC determination. A systematic SAR was carried out to get highly potent oxazolidinone derivatives. PMID:15149661

  4. Antibacterial Activity of Geminized Amphiphilic Cationic Homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Xuefeng; Yu, Danfeng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Cui, Yingxian; Sun, Keji; Wang, Jinben; Yan, Haike

    2015-12-22

    The current study is aimed at investigating the effect of cationic charge density and hydrophobicity on the antibacterial and hemolytic activities. Two kinds of cationic surfmers, containing single or double hydrophobic tails (octyl chains or benzyl groups), and the corresponding homopolymers were synthesized. The antimicrobial activity of these candidate antibacterials was studied by microbial growth inhibition assays against Escherichia coli, and hemolysis activity was carried out using human red blood cells. It was interestingly found that the homopolymers were much more effective in antibacterial property than their corresponding monomers. Furthermore, the geminized homopolymers had significantly higher antibacterial activity than that of their counterparts but with single amphiphilic side chains in each repeated unit. Geminized homopolymers, with high positive charge density and moderate hydrophobicity (such as benzyl groups), combine both advantages of efficient antibacterial property and prominently high selectivity. To further explain the antibacterial performance of the novel polymer series, the molecular interaction mechanism is proposed according to experimental data which shows that these specimens are likely to kill microbes by disrupting bacterial membranes, leading them unlikely to induce resistance. PMID:26606647

  5. Investigations to the Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Kendomycin

    PubMed Central

    A. Elnakady, Yasser; Chatterjee, Indranil; Bischoff, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Josten, Michaele; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Herrmann, Mathias; Müller, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The emergence of bacteria that are resistant to many currently used drugs emphasizes the need to discover and develop new antibiotics that are effective against such multi-resistant strains. Kendomycin is a novel polyketide that has a unique quinone methide ansa structure and various biological properties. This compound exhibits strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Despite the promise of kendomycinin in several therapeutic areas, its mode of action has yet to be identified. Methods In this study, we used a multidisciplinary approach to gain insight into the antibacterial mechanism of this compound. Results The antibacterial activity of kendomycin appears to be bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. Kendomycin inhibited the growth of the MRSA strain COL at a low concentration (MIC of 5 μg/mL). Proteomic analysis and gene transcription profiling of kendomycin-treated cells indicated that this compound affected the regulation of numerous proteins and genes involved in central metabolic pathways, such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (SdhA) and gluconeogenesis (PckA and GapB), cell wall biosynthesis and cell division (FtsA, FtsZ, and MurAA), capsule production (Cap5A and Cap5C), bacterial programmed cell death (LrgA and CidA), the cellular stress response (ClpB, ClpC, ClpP, GroEL, DnaK, and GrpE), and oxidative stress (AhpC and KatA). Electron microscopy revealed that kendomycin strongly affected septum formation during cell division. Most kendomycin-treated cells displayed incomplete septa with abnormal morphology. Conclusions Kendomycin might directly or indirectly affect the cell division machinery, protein stability, and programmed cell death in S. aureus. Additional studies are still needed to obtain deeper insight into the mode of action of kendomycin. PMID:26795276

  6. Antibacterial Attributes of Apigenin, Isolated from Portulaca oleracea L.

    PubMed Central

    Nayaka, Hanumantappa B.; Londonkar, Ramesh L.; Umesh, Madire K.; Tukappa, Asha

    2014-01-01

    The flavonoid apigenin was isolated from aerial part of P. oleracea L. The dried sample of plant was powdered and subjected to soxhlet extractor by adding 80 mL of ethanol : water (70 : 30). The extract was centrifuged at 11000 rpm for 30 min; supernatant was taken for further use. The fraction was concentrated and subjected to PTLC. The Rf value of isolated apigenin was calculated (0.82). Purified material was also subjected to its IR spectra, LC-MS, NMR, and HPLC for structural elucidation. The apigenin so-obtained was subjected to antibacterial activity on five pathogenic bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter aerogenes; among all the bacterial strains, Salmonella typhimurium (17.36 ± 0.18) and Proteus mirabilis (19.12 ± 0.01) have shown maximum diameter of inhibition zone for flavonoid and remaining bacterial strains have shown moderate diameter of inhibition zone when compared with control values 14.56 ± 0.21 and 11.68 ± 0.13, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the flavonoid isolated from P. oleracea L. was tested at the concentration ranging from undiluted sample to 10 mg per mL of concentration. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) for the flavonoid for all tested bacterial strains was found to be >4 mg per mL. Hence, the apigenin has antibacterial property and can be used to develop antibacterial drugs. PMID:26904730

  7. Molecular characterization of quinolone resistance mechanisms and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production in Escherichia coli isolated from dogs.

    PubMed

    Meireles, D; Leite-Martins, L; Bessa, L J; Cunha, S; Fernandes, R; de Matos, A; Manaia, C M; Martins da Costa, P

    2015-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistances is now a worldwide problem. Investigating the mechanisms by which pets harboring resistant strains may receive and/or transfer resistance determinants is essential to better understanding how owners and pets can interact safely. Here, we characterized the genetic determinants conferring resistance to ?-lactams and quinolones in 38 multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from fecal samples of dogs, through PCR and sequencing. The most frequent genotype included the ?-lactamase groups TEM (n=5), and both TEM+CTX-M-1 (n=5). Within the CTX-M group, we identified the genes CTX-M-32, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-55/79, CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-2/44. Thirty isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin presented two mutations in the gyrA gene and one or two mutations in the parC gene. A mutation in gyrA (reported here for the first time), due to a transversion and transition (TCG?GTG) originating a substitution of a serine by a valine in position 83 was also detected. The plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance gene, qnrs1, was detected in three isolates. Dogs can be a reservoir of genetic determinants conferring antimicrobial resistance and thus may play an important role in the spread of antimicrobial resistance to humans and other co-habitant animals. PMID:25999092

  8. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. PMID:26658311

  9. Quinolone-resistant Salmonella typhi in Viet Nam: molecular basis of resistance and clinical response to treatment.

    PubMed

    Wain, J; Hoa, N T; Chinh, N T; Vinh, H; Everett, M J; Diep, T S; Day, N P; Solomon, T; White, N J; Piddock, L J; Parry, C M

    1997-12-01

    Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhi (NARST) was first isolated in Viet Nam in 1993. Analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA in 20 NARST isolates by polymerase chain reaction and single-stranded conformational polymorphism yielded two novel patterns: pattern II corresponding to a point mutation at nucleotide 87 Asp-->Gly (n = 17), and pattern III corresponding to a point mutation at nucleotide 83 Ser-->Phe (n = 3). In trials of short-course ofloxacin therapy for uncomplicated typhoid, 117 (78%) of 150 patients were infected with multidrug-resistant S. typhi, 18 (15%) of which were NARST. The median time to fever clearance was 156 hours (range, 30-366 hours) for patients infected with NARST and 84 hours (range, 12-378 hours) for those infected with nalidixic acid-susceptible strains (P < .001). Six (33.3%) of 18 NARST infections required retreatment, whereas 1 (0.8%) of 132 infections due to susceptible strains required retreatment (relative risk = 44; 95% confidence interval = 5.6-345; P < .0001). We recommend that short courses of quinolones not be used in patients infected with NARST. PMID:9431387

  10. [Multi-residue determination of 11 quinolones in chicken muscle by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Lin, Baoyin

    2009-03-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 quinolones (QNs) (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin, lomefloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine) residues in chicken muscle. The chicken muscle samples were extracted by 10% trichioroacetic acid/acetonitrile (7:3, v/v) twice, diluted and cleaned up by a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The QNs were separated on a reversed-phase C18 column (Hypersil BDS-C18) with mobile phase gradient elution (acetonitrile and water as mobile phases) and detected by a fluorescence detector with a wavelength program. The linear ranges of quinolone calibrations were 5-1200 microg/L in chicken muscle with the correlation coefficients more than 0.998. The recoveries for chicken muscle fortified with 11 QNs at three levels were 56%-119% with acceptable intra-batch relative standard deviations (RSD) (0.4%-16.1%) and inter-batch RSD (1.4%-23.0%). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) were 1-23 microg/kg and 4-40 kg/kg for the 11 QNs, respectively. The sensitivity meets the quantification requirements for the residue analysis. PMID:19626850

  11. Simultaneous removal and degradation characteristics of sulfonamide, tetracycline, and quinolone antibiotics by laccase-mediated oxidation coupled with soil adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huijun; Wu, Yixiao; Zou, Binchun; Lou, Qian; Zhang, Weihao; Zhong, Jiayou; Lu, Lei; Dai, Guofei

    2016-04-15

    The uses of laccase in the degradation and removal of antibiotics have recently been reported because of the high efficiency and environmental friendliness of laccase. However, these removal studies mostly refer to a limited number of antibiotics. In this study, soil adsorption was introduced into the laccase-oxidation system to assist the simultaneous removal of 14 kinds of sulfonamide, tetracycline, and quinolone antibiotics, which differed in structures and chemical properties. The complementary effects of laccase-mediated oxidation and soil adsorption enabled the simultaneous removal. Removal characteristics were determined by a comprehensive consideration of the separate optimum conditions for laccase oxidation and soil adsorption removal experiments. With concentrations of laccase, syringaldehyde (SA), and soil of 0.5mg/mL, 0.5mmol/L, and 50g/L, respectively, and at pH 6 and 25°C, the removal rates of each antibiotic exceeded 70% in 15min and were close to 100% in 180min. Sulfonamide antibiotics (SAs) were removed mainly by laccase oxidation and quinolone antibiotics (QUs) mainly by soil adsorption. Tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) were removed by both treatments in the coupled system, but laccase oxidation dominated. Electrostatic adsorption was speculated to be one of the adsorption mechanisms in soil adsorption with QUs and TCs. PMID:26826938

  12. Phylogenetic groups, virulence genes and quinolone resistance of integron-bearing Escherichia coli strains isolated from a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Jab?o?ska, Lucyna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2011-05-01

    We investigated phylogenetic affiliation, occurrence of virulence genes and quinolone resistance in 109 integron-containing strains of Escherichia coli isolated from a wastewater treatment plant. Selection for integron-bearing strains caused a shift toward phylogroup D, which was most numerous, followed by A, B1 and B2. Phylogroups D and B2, both of which are reported to include virulent extraintestinal pathotypes, made up 50.5% of all isolates and were present in every stage of wastewater treatment, including final effluent. Diarrheagenic pathotypes made up 21% of the strains. The average virulence factor genes score was low (1.40) and the range was from 0 to 5. Quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance was observed in 56.0% and 50.4% of the strains, respectively; however, it was not associated with virulence factor score. Although the average virulence factor score was low, 17.4% of strains had three and more virulence genes. They were isolated mostly from raw sewage, but 30% of them were cultured from final effluent. Release of multiresistant integron-bearing E. coli strains with virulence traits into the environment may create potential threat and be of public health concern. PMID:21293926

  13. Detection of gyrA Mutations in Quinolone-Resistant Salmonella enterica by Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Eaves, Deborah J.; Liebana, Ernesto; Woodward, Martin J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2002-01-01

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) was evaluated as a rapid screening and identification method for DNA sequence variation detection in the quinolone resistance-determining region of gyrA from Salmonella serovars. A total of 203 isolates of Salmonella were screened using this method. DHPLC analysis of 14 isolates representing each type of novel or multiple mutations and the wild type were compared with LightCycler-based PCR-gyrA hybridization mutation assay (GAMA) and single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analyses. The 14 isolates gave seven different SSCP patterns, and LightCycler detected four different mutations. DHPLC detected 11 DNA sequence variants at eight different codons, including those detected by LightCycler or SSCP. One of these mutations was silent. Five isolates contained multiple mutations, and four of these could be distinguished from the composite sequence variants by their DHPLC profile. Seven novel mutations were identified at five different loci not previously described in quinolone-resistant salmonella. DHPLC analysis proved advantageous for the detection of novel and multiple mutations. DHPLC also provides a rapid, high-throughput alternative to LightCycler and SSCP for screening frequently occurring mutations. PMID:12409384

  14. Predictive analysis of transmissible quinolone resistance indicates Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a potential source of a novel family of Qnr determinants

    PubMed Central

    Snchez, Mara B; Hernndez, Alvaro; Rodrguez-Martnez, Jos M; Martnez-Martnez, Luis; Martnez, Jos L

    2008-01-01

    Background Predicting antibiotic resistance before it emerges at clinical settings constitutes a novel approach for preventing and fighting resistance of bacterial pathogens. To analyse the possibility that novel plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance determinants (Qnr) can emerge and disseminate among bacterial pathogens, we searched the presence of those elements in nearly 1000 bacterial genomes and metagenomes. Results We have found a number of novel potential qnr genes in the chromosomes of aquatic bacteria and in metagenomes from marine organisms. Functional studies of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Smqnr gene show that plasmid-encoded SmQnr confers quinolone resistance upon its expression in a heterologous host. Conclusion Altogether, the data presented in our work support the notion that predictive studies on antibiotic resistance are feasible, using currently available information on bacterial genomes and with the aid of bioinformatic and functional tools. Our results confirm that aquatic bacteria can be the origin of plasmid-encoded Qnr, and highlight the potential role of S. maltophilia as a source of novel Qnr determinants. PMID:18793450

  15. A class of selective antibacterials derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Miller, J Richard; Dunham, Steve; Mochalkin, Igor; Banotai, Craig; Bowman, Matthew; Buist, Susan; Dunkle, Bill; Hanna, Debra; Harwood, H James; Huband, Michael D; Karnovsky, Alla; Kuhn, Michael; Limberakis, Chris; Liu, Jia Y; Mehrens, Shawn; Mueller, W Thomas; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Ogden, Adam; Ohren, Jeff; Prasad, J V N Vara; Shelly, John A; Skerlos, Laura; Sulavik, Mark; Thomas, V Hayden; VanderRoest, Steve; Wang, LiAnn; Wang, Zhigang; Whitton, Amy; Zhu, Tong; Stover, C Kendall

    2009-02-10

    As the need for novel antibiotic classes to combat bacterial drug resistance increases, the paucity of leads resulting from target-based antibacterial screening of pharmaceutical compound libraries is of major concern. One explanation for this lack of success is that antibacterial screening efforts have not leveraged the eukaryotic bias resulting from more extensive chemistry efforts targeting eukaryotic gene families such as G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases. Consistent with a focus on antibacterial target space resembling these eukaryotic targets, we used whole-cell screening to identify a series of antibacterial pyridopyrimidines derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore. In bacteria, the pyridopyrimidines target the ATP-binding site of biotin carboxylase (BC), which catalyzes the first enzymatic step of fatty acid biosynthesis. These inhibitors are effective in vitro and in vivo against fastidious gram-negative pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae. Although the BC active site has architectural similarity to those of eukaryotic protein kinases, inhibitor binding to the BC ATP-binding site is distinct from the protein kinase-binding mode, such that the inhibitors are selective for bacterial BC. In summary, we have discovered a promising class of potent antibacterials with a previously undescribed mechanism of action. In consideration of the eukaryotic bias of pharmaceutical libraries, our findings also suggest that pursuit of a novel inhibitor leads for antibacterial targets with active-site structural similarity to known human targets will likely be more fruitful than the traditional focus on unique bacterial target space, particularly when structure-based and computational methodologies are applied to ensure bacterial selectivity. PMID:19164768

  16. A class of selective antibacterials derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. Richard; Dunham, Steve; Mochalkin, Igor; Banotai, Craig; Bowman, Matthew; Buist, Susan; Dunkle, Bill; Hanna, Debra; Harwood, H. James; Huband, Michael D.; Karnovsky, Alla; Kuhn, Michael; Limberakis, Chris; Liu, Jia Y.; Mehrens, Shawn; Mueller, W. Thomas; Narasimhan, Lakshmi; Ogden, Adam; Ohren, Jeff; Prasad, J.V.N. Vara; Shelly, John A.; Skerlos, Laura; Sulavik, Mark; Thomas, V. Hayden; VanderRoest, Steve; Wang, LiAnn; Wang, Zhigang; Whitton, Amy; Zhu, Tong; Stover, C. Kendall

    2009-06-25

    As the need for novel antibiotic classes to combat bacterial drug resistance increases, the paucity of leads resulting from target-based antibacterial screening of pharmaceutical compound libraries is of major concern. One explanation for this lack of success is that antibacterial screening efforts have not leveraged the eukaryotic bias resulting from more extensive chemistry efforts targeting eukaryotic gene families such as G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinases. Consistent with a focus on antibacterial target space resembling these eukaryotic targets, we used whole-cell screening to identify a series of antibacterial pyridopyrimidines derived from a protein kinase inhibitor pharmacophore. In bacteria, the pyridopyrimidines target the ATP-binding site of biotin carboxylase (BC), which catalyzes the first enzymatic step of fatty acid biosynthesis. These inhibitors are effective in vitro and in vivo against fastidious Gram-negative pathogens including Haemophilus influenzae. Although the BC active site has architectural similarity to those of eukaryotic protein kinases, inhibitor binding to the BC ATP-binding site is distinct from the protein kinase-binding mode, such that the inhibitors are selective for bacterial BC. In summary, we have discovered a promising class of potent antibacterials with a previously undescribed mechanism of action. In consideration of the eukaryotic bias of pharmaceutical libraries, our findings also suggest that pursuit of a novel inhibitor leads for antibacterial targets with active-site structural similarity to known human targets will likely be more fruitful than the traditional focus on unique bacterial target space, particularly when structure-based and computational methodologies are applied to ensure bacterial selectivity.

  17. Structure activity relationship of substituted 1,5-naphthyridine analogs of oxabicyclooctane-linked novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents (Part-4).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheo B; Kaelin, David E; Wu, Jin; Miesel, Lynn; Tan, Christopher M; Meinke, Peter T; Olsen, David B; Lagrutta, Armando; Wei, Changqing; Peng, Xuanjia; Wang, Xiu; Fukuda, Hideyuki; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Shibata, Takeshi; Ohata, Kohei; Takano, Hisashi; Kurasaki, Haruaki; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Nishimura, Akinori; Fukuda, Yasumichi

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial resistance is rapidly growing, necessitating the need to discover new agents. Novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) are new class of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents targeting bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. This class of inhibitors binds to an alternative binding site relative to fluoroquinolones and shows no cross-resistance to quinolones. NBTIs consist of three structural motifs. A structure activity relationship of the left hand motif 1,5-naphthyridine of oxabicyclooctane-linked NBTIs is described. Fifty five compounds were evaluated against a panel of key Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains of bacteria, as well as for hERG activity and five compounds were tested for in vivo efficacy in murine model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. These studies suggest that only a narrow range (activating and deactivating) of substitutions at C-2 and C-7 are tolerated for optimal antibacterial activity and spectrum. An alkoxy (methoxy) and CN at C-2, and a halogen and hydroxyl at C-7, appeared to be preferred in this series. Substitutions on the other three carbons generally have detrimental effect on the activity. No clear hERG activity SAR emerged from these substitutions. PMID:25911300

  18. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES AND DRYING EFFECTS OF FLAX DENIM AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF NONWOVEN FLAX FABRIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A modification of "AATCC Test Method 100-1999, Antibacterial Finishes on Textile Materials: Assessment of," was used for assaying the antibacterial properties of denim containing various flax levels. When the effect of drying was looked at, increased flax content did not improve the rate of drying ...

  19. In Vitro Activity of Five Quinolones and Analysis of the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE in Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum Clinical Isolates from Perinatal Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Yasuhiro; Nakura, Yukiko; Wakimoto, Tetsu; Nomiyama, Makoto; Tokuda, Tsugumichi; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Shiraishi, Jun; Wasada, Kenshi; Kitajima, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Tomio; Nakayama, Masahiro; Mitsuda, Nobuaki; Nakanishi, Isao; Takeuchi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Ureaplasma spp. cause several disorders, such as nongonococcal urethritis, miscarriage, and preterm delivery with lung infections in neonates, characterized by pathological chorioamnionitis in the placenta. Although reports on antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma are on the rise, reports on quinolone-resistant Ureaplasma infections in Japan are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine susceptibilities to five quinolones of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum isolated from perinatal samples in Japan and to characterize the quinolone resistance-determining regions in the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Out of 28 clinical Ureaplasma strains, we isolated 9 with high MICs of quinolones and found a single parC gene mutation, resulting in the change S83L. Among 158 samples, the ParC S83L mutation was found in 37 samples (23.4%), including 1 sample harboring a ParC S83LGyrB P462S double mutant. Novel mutations of ureaplasmal ParC (S83W and S84P) were independently found in one of the samples. Homology modeling of the ParC S83W mutant suggested steric hindrance of the quinolone-binding pocket (QBP), and de novo prediction of peptide structures revealed that the ParC S84P may break/kink the formation of the ?4 helix in the QBP. Further investigations are required to unravel the extent and mechanism of antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma spp. in Japan. PMID:25645833

  20. Superhydrophobic PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibrous mats with antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, M.; Manolova, N.; Markova, N.; Rashkov, I.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic nanofibrous materials of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) were prepared by one-pot electrospinning technique. The mats were decorated with ZnO nanoparticles with silanized surface and a model drug - 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinolinol (5Cl8HQ). The obtained hybrid nanofibrous materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurements, mechanical and microbiological tests. The results showed that the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into PVDF and PVDF-HFP nanofibers increased the hydrophobicity (contact angle 152°), improved the thermal stability and imparted to the nanofibrous materials anti-adhesive and antimicrobial properties. The mats containing the model drug possessed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results suggested that the obtained hybrid mats could find potential biomedical applications requiring antibacterial and anti-biofouling properties.

  1. Sequences of conserved region in the A subunit of DNA gyrase from nine species of the genus Mycobacterium: phylogenetic analysis and implication for intrinsic susceptibility to quinolones.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, I; Cambau, E; Jarlier, V

    1995-09-01

    The sequences of a conserved region in the A subunit of DNA gyrase corresponding to the quinolone resistance-determining region were determined for nine mycobacterial species and were compared. Although the nucleotide sequences were highly conserved, they clearly differentiated one species from another. The results of the phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of the quinolone resistance-determining regions were compared with those provided by the 16S rRNA sequences. Deduced amino acid sequences were identical within the nine species except for amino acid 83, which was frequently involved in acquired resistance to quinolones in many genera, including mycobacteria. The presence at position 83 of an alanine for seven mycobacterial species (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG, M. leprae, M. avium, M. kansasii, M. chelonae, and M. smegmatis) and of a serine for the two remaining mycobacterial species (M. fortuitum and M. aurum) correlated well with the MICs of ofloxacin for both groups of species, suggesting the role of this residue in intrinsic susceptibility to quinolones in mycobacteria. PMID:8540734

  2. Emergence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance among Non-Typhi Salmonella enterica Isolates from Humans in the United States ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Folster, Jason P.; Pecic, Gary; Joyce, Kevin; Medalla, Felicita; Rickert, Regan; Whichard, Jean M.

    2009-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants are emerging among gram-negative pathogens. Here we report results of a retrospective study investigating the prevalence of aac(6′)-Ib-cr, qepA, and qnr genes among 19,010 human isolates of non-Typhi Salmonella enterica collected in the United States from 1996 to 2006. PMID:19223618

  3. Nanotechnology Formulations for Antibacterial Free Fatty Acids and Monoglycerides.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Joshua A; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Li, Danlin; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Free fatty acids and monoglycerides have long been known to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity that is based on lytic behavior against bacterial cell membranes. Considering the growing challenges of drug-resistant bacteria and the need for new classes of antibiotics, the wide prevalence, affordable cost, and broad spectrum of fatty acids and monoglycerides make them attractive agents to develop for healthcare and biotechnology applications. The aim of this review is to provide a brief introduction to the history of antimicrobial lipids and their current status and challenges, and to present a detailed discussion of ongoing research efforts to develop nanotechnology formulations of fatty acids and monoglycerides that enable superior in vitro and in vivo performance. Examples of nano-emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, and controlled release hydrogels are presented in order to highlight the potential that lies ahead for fatty acids and monoglycerides as next-generation antibacterial solutions. Possible application routes and future directions in research and development are also discussed. PMID:26950108

  4. Antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E; Thomas, V; Wilhelm, C

    2006-06-15

    Cefquinome is known for its use as an antibacterial drug in cattle and pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of cefquinome against equine pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefquinome was determined for a total of 205 strains, which had recently been isolated in Europe from diseased horses (respiratory infection, foal septicaemia). The bactericidal activity was tested against 19 strains using the time killing method. The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) and post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA SME) were determined against 12 strains. Cefquinome showed high activity against Actinobacillus equuli and streptococci (MIC(90) of 0.016 and 0.032microg/mL), Enterobacteriaceae (MIC(90)=0.125microg/mL) and staphylococci (MIC(90)=0.5microg/mL). The activity was limited against Rhodococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Cefquinome was shown to be a time dependent bactericidal antibiotic against the target pathogens, killing occurring at a concentration close to the MIC. A PAE of 0.5-10h was calculated against streptococci whereas no PAE was observed for Escherichia coli. A longer PA SME was determined for streptococci (3.3 to >24h with a killing effect) and E. coli (0.5-13.9h). Cefquinome was shown to have a broad spectrum of activity which covers many equine pathogens. PMID:16455213

  5. Consumer and market use of antibacterials at home.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, S

    2000-10-01

    In this increasingly complex, time-constrained world, consumers will continue to look for solutions that promise them peace of mind. A large component of this peace of mind is perceived as personal safety against infectious agents. Manufacturers have a responsibility to provide sound advice and to develop solutions to consumers' questions. Through working with leaders in the infection control field, as well as governmental organizations like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency, manufacturers can develop faster and more effective disinfectant and antimicrobial products. Targeted education programs are needed that clearly and effectively communicate proper infection control techniques and prudent use of antibacterial products to both the consumer and the health professional. Manufacturers should also work closely with the media to educate the public about the potential benefits and risks of their products. Finally manufacturers of household and personal cleaning products should help set guidelines for regulatory monitoring, including correct definition and use of common terms such as antibacterial, antimicrobial, antiviral and sanitization, as well as the extent of protection the consumer can expect from the product. PMID:11052400

  6. Multifunctional upconverting nanoparticles for near-infrared triggered and synergistic antibacterial resistance therapy.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meili; Li, Zhenhua; Ju, Enguo; Wang, Zhenzhen; Dong, Kai; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-09-18

    To integrate photodynamic therapy with photothermal therapy for improved multidrug-resistant bacteria therapy, we have constructed a novel multifunctional core/satellite nanostructure by decorating CuS nanoparticles onto the surface of NaYF4:Mn/Yb/Er@photosensitizer doped SiO2. This system exhibited a superior antibacterial activity towards drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. PMID:25068798

  7. Antibacterial Effects of Cissus welwitschii and Triumfetta welwitschii Extracts against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has increased sharply, while the pace for the development of new antimicrobials has slowed down. Plants provide an alternative source for new drugs. This study aimed to screen extracts from Cissus welwitschii and Triumfetta welwitschii for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The tests conducted included a susceptibility determination test, analysis of the effect of T. welwitschii on cell wall integrity, and transport across the membrane. It was found that the T. welwitschii methanol extracts were more effective than the water extracts and had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration at 0.125 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, against E. coli and B. cereus. The C. welwitschii extract caused the most drug accumulation in E. coli. In B. cereus, no significant drug accumulation was observed. Nucleic acid leakage in B. cereus and E. coli and protein leakage in E. coli were observed after exposure to the T. welwitschii extract. The extracts from T. welwitschii had greater antibacterial activity than the extracts from C. welwitschii. T. welwitschii may be a potential source of lead compounds for that could be developed into antibacterial agents. PMID:26904744

  8. Antibacterial and Antiviral Responses of Larval Heliothis virescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to better understand the immune response of Heliothis virescens against microbial entomopathogens several orthologs of antibacterial response proteins were identified and extracted from Heliobase (an EST database for H. virescens) for detailed study. Induction of these antibacterial prote...

  9. Drug forecast - the peptide deformylase inhibitors as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Guay, David R P

    2007-08-01

    The relatively rapid development of microbial resistance after the entry of every new antimicrobial into the marketplace necessitates a constant supply of new agents to maintain effective pharmacotherapy. Despite extensive efforts to identify novel lead compounds from molecular targets, only the peptide deformylase inhibitors (PDIs) have shown any real promise, with some advancing to phase I human trials. Bacterial peptide deformylase, which catalyzes the removal of the N-formyl group from N-terminal methionine following translation, is essential for bacterial protein synthesis, growth, and survival. The majority of PDIs are pseudopeptide hydroxamic acids and two of these (IV BB-83698 and oral NVP LBM-415) entered phase I human trials. However, agents to the present have suffered from major potential liabilities. Their in vitro activity has been limited to gram-positive aerobes and some anaerobes and has been quite modest against the majority of such species (MIC(90) values ranging from 1-8 mg/L). They have exerted bacteriostatic, not bacteriocidal, activity, thus reducing their potential usefulness in the management of serious infections in the immunocompromised. The relative ease with which microorganisms have been able to develop resistance and the multiple available mechanisms of resistance (mutations in fmt, defB, folD genes; AcrAB/TolC efflux pump; overexpression of peptide deformylase) are worrisome. These could portend a short timespan of efficacy after marketing. Despite these current liabilities, further pursuit of more potent and broader spectrum PDIs which are less susceptible to bacterial mechanisms of resistance is still warranted. PMID:18472972

  10. Antibacterial Drug Leads: DNA and Enzyme Multi-Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Kai; Gao, Jian; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Chun-Chi; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Zhang, Yonghui; Guo, Rey-Ting; Oldfield, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of the activity of a series of amidine and bisamidine compounds against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The most active compounds bound to an AT-rich DNA dodecamer (CGCGAATTCGCG)2, and using DSC were found to increase the melting transition by up to 24 C. Several compounds also inhibited undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS) with IC50 values of 100500 nM and we found good correlations (R2 = 0.89, S. aureus; R2 = 0.79, E. coli)) between experimental and predicted cell growth inhibition by using DNA ?Tm and UPPS IC50 experimental results together with 1 computed descriptor. We also solved the structures of three bisamidines binding to DNA as well as three UPPS structures. Overall, the results are of general interest in the context of the development of resistance-resistant antibiotics that involve multi-targeting. PMID:25574764

  11. Prevalence and characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in Salmonella isolated from poultry in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Ki Seuk

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes qnr, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA in a total of 185 non-duplicate Salmonella spp. isolated from hatcheries, poultry farms, and poultry slaughterhouses during the period 2001 to 2010 in Korea. Additionally, mutation analysis of quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), conjugation experiments, and plasmid analysis were performed in the PMQR-positive isolates. Among the 185 isolates, six (3.2%) contained qnr genes (two qnrB4 and four qnrS1) but none carried the aac(6')-Ib-cr or qepA genes. Among the six PMQR-positive isolates, one showed a single mutation (Ser83-Phe substitution) in the QRDRs of gyrA. Among them, three were non-susceptible (intermediate or resistant) to nalidixic acid (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ?256 g/ml), ciprofloxacin (MIC 2 g/ml), and levofloxacin (MIC 4 g/ml), but others were susceptible to all of the three fluoroquinolones. They were resistant to six or more antimicrobial agents tested and were able to transfer quinolone resistance to recipient Escherichia coli J53 by conjugation. By performing a hybridization test, plasmids harbouring qnrB4 and qnrS1 genes were less than 8 kb and about 70 kb in size, respectively. The horizontal dissemination of qnrS1 gene was mediated by IncN plasmid. Compared with the recipient strain, MICs of the transconjugants increased two-fold to four-fold for nalidixic acid, and eight-fold to 16-fold for ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. This report is the first to describe the detection of qnr genes in Salmonella spp. isolated from poultry in Korea. Widespread horizontal transfer of these genes among bacteria may be a serious public health concern because these can rapidly increase fluoroquinolone resistance. To ensure the public health, it is essential to continuously survey and carefully monitor the spread of PMQR genes in Salmonella from poultry. PMID:23607509

  12. Antibacterial properties of eight dental cements.

    PubMed

    Coogan, M M; Creaven, P J

    1993-11-01

    The antibacterial action of a light-cured glass polyalkenoate Vitrebond and an adhesive resin luting agent Panavia Ex was investigated and compared with six previously tested dental cements. The bacterial cultures used were six strains of Streptococcus mutans, six of Streptococcus sanguis and six cultures of carious debris from carious lesions. A modification of the agar diffusion method was used to test the antibacterial action of freshly mixed cements. In addition the cements were allowed to set and their antimicrobial action was tested by incubation for 5 days in sucrose broth inoculated with the test cultures. All the freshly mixed materials had an antibacterial action. A two-way analysis of variance and Tukey-Student range analysis showed that Vitrebond had a significantly greater zone of inhibition than Aquacem, IRM, Dycal, Dycal VLC, Ceramco and GC Elite (P = 0.001). Freshly mixed Panavia Ex exhibited minimal antibacterial action. After 5 days the antibacterial properties of all the cements were reduced. PMID:8144245

  13. Antibacterial Labdane Diterpenoids from Vitex vestita.

    PubMed

    Corlay, Nina; Lecs-Bornet, Marylin; Leborgne, Erell; Blanchard, Florent; Cachet, Xavier; Bignon, Jrme; Roussi, Fanny; Butel, Marie-Jose; Awang, Khalijah; Litaudon, Marc

    2015-06-26

    A large-scale in vitro screening of tropical plants using an antibacterial assay permitted the selection of several species with significant antibacterial activities. Bioassay-guided purification of the dichloromethane extract of the leaves of the Malaysian species Vitex vestita, led to the isolation of six new labdane-type diterpenoids, namely, 12-epivitexolide A (2), vitexolides B and C (3 and 4), vitexolide E (8), and vitexolins A and B (5 and 6), along with six known compounds, vitexolides A (1) and D (7), acuminolide (9), 3?-hydroxyanticopalic acid (10), 8?-hydroxyanticopalic acid (11), and 6?-hydroxyanticopalic acid (12). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR analyses and HRMS experiments. Both variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic studies and chemical modifications were performed to investigate the dynamic epimerization of the ?-hydroxybutenolide moiety of compounds 1-4. Compounds were assayed against a panel of 46 Gram-positive strains. Vitexolide A (1) exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity with minimal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 6 to 96 ?M, whereas compounds 2 and 6-9 showed moderate antibacterial activity. The presence of a ?-hydroxyalkyl-?-hydroxybutenolide subunit contributed significantly to antibacterial activity. Compounds 1-4 and 6-9 showed cytotoxic activities against the HCT-116 cancer cell line (1 < IC50s < 10 ?M) and human fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 cell line (1 < IC50s < 10 ?M for compounds 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9). PMID:26034885

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Shuai; Wang, Chun-Hua; Sun, Ju-Feng; Hou, Gui-Ge; Wang, Yu-Peng; Qu, Rong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Five N-methyl-N-R-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (R = -benzyl (chloride, BNQAS), -dodecyl (C12QAS), -tetradecyl (C14QAS), -hexadecyl (C16QAS), -octadecyl (C18QAS)) were prepared based on N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and halohydrocarbon. Five QAS were characterized by FTIR, NMR, and MS. BNQAS, C12QAS, C14QAS, and C16QAS were confirmed by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, especially C12QAS with the best antibacterial ability (100% to E. coli, 95.65% to S. aureus, and 91.41% to B. subtilis). In addition, C12QAS also displayed the best antifungal activities than BNQAS and C18QAS against Cytospora mandshurica, Botryosphaeria ribis, Physalospora piricola, and Glomerella cingulata with the ratio of full marks. The strategy provides a facile way to design and develop new types of antibacterial drugs for application in preventing the fruit rot, especially apple. PMID:25215430

  15. Antibacterial Peptide CecropinB2 Production via Various Host and Construct Systems.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Shiang; Kan, Shu-Chen; Lin, Chia-Chi; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Liu, Yung-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Cecropin is a cationic antibacterial peptide composed of 35-39 residues. This peptide has been identified as possessing strong antibacterial activity and low toxicity against eukaryotic cells, and it has been claimed that some types of the cecropin family of peptides are capable of killing cancer cells. In this study, the host effect of cloning antibacterial peptide cecropinB2 was investigated. Three different host expression systems were chosen, i.e., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pichia pastoris. Two gene constructs, cecropinB2 (cecB2) and intein-cecropinB2 (INT-cecB2), were applied. Signal peptide and propeptide from Armigeres subalbatus were also attached to the gene construct. The results showed that the best host for cloning cecropinB2 was P. pastoris SMD1168 harboring the gene of pGAPz?C-prepro-cecB2 via Western blot confirmation. The cecropinB2 that was purified using immobilized-metal affinity chromatography resin showed strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative strains, including the multi-drug-resistant bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii. PMID:26784164

  16. Enhanced antibacterial effect of antibiotics in combination with silver nanoparticles against animal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Smekalova, Monika; Aragon, Virginia; Panacek, Ales; Prucek, Robert; Zboril, Radek; Kvitek, Libor

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a serious health risk in both human and veterinary medicine. Several studies have shown that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) exert a high level of antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of a combined therapy of AgNPs and antibiotics against veterinary bacteria that show resistance to antibiotics. A microdilution checkerboard method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of both types of antimicrobials, alone and in combination. The fractional inhibitory concentration index was calculated and used to classify observed collective antibacterial activity as synergistic, additive (only the sum of separate effects of drugs), indifferent (no effect) or antagonistic. From the 40 performed tests, seven were synergistic, 17 additive and 16 indifferent. None of the tested combinations showed an antagonistic effect. The majority of synergistic effects were observed for combinations of AgNPs given together with gentamicin, but the highest enhancement of antibacterial activity was found with combined therapy together with penicillin G against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. A. pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida originally resistant to amoxycillin, gentamicin and colistin were sensitive to these antibiotics when combined with AgNPs. The study shows that AgNPs have potential as adjuvants for the treatment of animal bacterial diseases. PMID:26832810

  17. In vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flower extract against human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, P; Gajalakshmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Objective To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Methods Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. Results The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. Conclusions The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development. PMID:23569938

  18. In Vitro Study to Evaluate Antibacterial and Non-haemolytic Activities of Four Iranian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sepahi, S; Ghorani-Azam, A; Sepahi, S; Asoodeh, A; Rostami, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Aqueous extracts of four medicinal plants including Ferula gummosa, Echinophora orientalis, Nasturtium microphyllum and Verbascum thapsus were used to determine their antibacterial activities and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The aim of this study was to assess antibacterial activity of extracts of four medicinal plants against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus PTCC1431, and Escherichia coli HP101BA 7601c). Methods: Radial diffusion assay was used to assess the antibacterial activity of extracted samples. Haemolysis assay was also used to examine their nontoxic effects on human red blood cells. Results: This study showed that all the mentioned plants have satisfactory antibacterial effects against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of these samples were less than 750 μg/mL. In addition, no significant haemolytic activity was observed at their MIC values. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that all these studied plants have good potential for further studies for drug discovery. PMID:25429470

  19. Antibacterial activities of nemonoxacin against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus: an in vitro comparison with three fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoxia; Liu, Youning; Wang, Rui; Li, Aimin

    2014-11-01

    In comparison with ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, antimicrobial activity of nemonoxacin against ciprofloxacin-susceptible/-resistant methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was determined with the availability to select resistant mutants evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations and mutant prevention concentrations of quinolones were determined by agar dilution method, that concentrated bacterial cells were spread onto Mueller-Hinton agar plates containing antibacterials at different concentrations. Selection index (SI) was calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration and mutant prevention concentration of nemonoxacin were 0.063 and 0.25 ?g/mL for ciprofloxacin-susceptible MSSA and those were 0.5 and 4.0 ?g/mL for ciprofloxacin-resistant MSSA, lower than observations of three fluoroquinolones distinctly. SI of nemonoxacin and moxifloxacin were similar, with narrower mutant selective window than levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Minimum inhibitory concentration and mutant prevention concentration of nemonoxacin were 0.25 and 2.0 ?g/mL for ciprofloxacin-susceptible MRSA, which were 0.5 and 16.0 ?g/mL for ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA. Values were lower than those determined from fluoroquinolones. Nemonoxacin presents good antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of S. aureus, especially for ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. But stepwise mutant accumulation of ciprofloxacin-resistant MRSA can be hardly inhibited by nemonoxacin with pharmacokinetic parameters considered. PMID:25129332

  20. Multifunctional biocompatible and biodegradable folic acid conjugated poly(ε-caprolactone)-polypeptide copolymer vesicles with excellent antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingzhi; Zhou, Chuncai; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Yufen; Du, Jianzhong

    2015-04-15

    Cancer patients after chemotherapy may also suffer bacterial attack due to badly decreased immunity. Although with high bacterial efficacy, conventional antibiotics are prone to inducement of drug resistance and may be not suitable for some cancer patients. In contrast, antibacterial peptides are highly effective in inhibiting bacteria without inducing resistance in pathogens. Presented in this article is a novel kind of highly effective antibacterial peptide-based biocompatible and biodegradable block copolymer vesicle. The copolymer is poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly[phenylalanine-stat-lysine-stat-(lysine-folic acid)] [PCL19-b-poly[Phe12-stat-Lys9-stat-(Lys-FA)6

  1. Unveiling the Mode of Action of Two Antibacterial Tanshinone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongdong; Zhang, Wuxia; Wang, Tingting; Li, Na; Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Jiwen; Duan, Jinyou

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 2-(N-pyrrolidine-alkyl) tanshinones bearing pyrrolidine groups were synthesized and the antibacterial mechanism was explored. These derivatives selectively elicited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Moreover, their antibacterial activities were time-, concentration-dependent and persistent. It appeared that Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radicals were involved, and the disruption of cell membranes was observed. This study indicates that 2-(N-pyrrolidine-alkyl) tanshinones might be potential candidates as antibacterial agents. PMID:26263982

  2. A new antibacterial titanium-copper sintered alloy: preparation and antibacterial property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Fangbing; Wang, Hongying; Liu, Jie; Wang, Chunmin; Li, Muqin; Yang, Ke

    2013-10-01

    Copper element was added in pure titanium by a powder metallurgy to produce a new antibacterial titanium-copper alloy (Ti-Cu alloy). This paper reported the very early stage results, emphasizing on the preparation, mechanical property and antibacterial activity. The phase constitution was analyzed by XRD and the microstructure was observed under SEM equipped with EDS. The hardness, the compressive strength and the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu alloy were tested in comparison with cp-Ti. The antibacterial property of the Ti-Cu alloy was assessed by two methods: agar diffusion assay and plate-count method, in which Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were used. XRD and SEM results showed that Ti2Cu phase and Cu-rich phase were synthesized in the Ti-Cu sintered alloy, which significantly increases the hardness and the compressive strength compared with cp-Ti and slightly improves the corrosion resistance. No antibacterial activity was detected by the agar diffusion assay on the Ti-Cu alloy, but the plate-count results indicated that the Ti-Cu alloy exhibited strong antibacterial property against both bacteria even after three polishing treatments, which demonstrates strongly that the whole alloy is of antibacterial activity. The antibacterial mechanism was thought to be in associated with the Cu ion released from the Ti-Cu alloy. PMID:23910344

  3. A new antibacterial benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ukwueze, Stanley E; Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) yielded a new benzophenone glycoside, Guajaphenone A (2) together with two known compounds, Garcimangosone D (1) and Guaijaverin (3). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The isolated compounds were screened against standard strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using broth dilution assay method, and the MIC values determined and compared with reference antibiotic ceftriaxone. They were found to have significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with all of them showing better activities against S. aureus, but displaying weaker activities, in comparison to ceftriaxone. However, despite reduced effect of these compounds against the organisms, this work opens the perspective to use these molecules as 'leads' for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for some tropical infectious diseases. PMID:25631395

  4. The synthesis and antibacterial activity of doxycycline neoglycosides

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianjun; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Marchillo, Karen; Zhou, Maoquan; Andes, David R.; Thorson, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    A set of 37 doxycycline neoglycosides mediated via a C9 alkoxyamino-glycyl-based spacer reminiscent to that of tigecycline were prepared. The in vitro antibacterial assays against representative drug resistant Gram negative and Gram positive strains revealed a sugar-dependent activity profile and one doxycycline neoglycoside, the 2?-amino-?-D-glucoside conjugate, to rival that of the parent pharmacophore. In contrast, the representative tetracycline-susceptible strains E. coli 25922 was found to be relatively responsive to a range of doxycycline neoglycosides. This study also extends the use of aminosugars in the context of neoglycosylation via a simple two step strategy anticipated to be broadly applicable for neoglycorandomization. PMID:23987662

  5. [Infectious diseases caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae--a particular challenge for antibacterial therapy].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Enterobacteriaceae species such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are among the most common human pathogens. They are responsible for a wide range of community-acquired and nosocomial diseases. Many of the illnesses caused by these bacteria could be treated with beta-lactams for several decades. The increasing use of carbapenems for the treatment of diseases caused by Enterobacteriaceae expressing extended spectrum beta-lactamases, however, lead to the selection and spread of carbapenemase-producing pathogens. Such bacteria are not only resistant to virtually all beta-lactams, but also to numerous other antibiotics such as quinolones, co-trimoxazole, nitrofurantoin, tetracyclines and most aminoglycosides. During the last years, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae have spread into almost all regions of the world. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC, belonging to Ambler class A), OXA-48 enzymes and their derivatives (belonging to Ambler class D) as well as some metallo-beta-lactamases (Ambler class B) such as NDM, VIM and IMP are the most important carbapenemases produced by Enterobacteriaceae strains. In Germany, the metallo-carbapenemase GIM-1, which has never been proven in bacteria outside Germany, is also of clinical significance. There is no established antibacterial therapy for these difficult-to-treat diseases. For the treatment of severe diseases caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria, fosfomycin, gentamicin and tigecycline, polymyxins such as polymyxin B or colistin as well as carbapenems, are frequently applied. Combination antibiotic treatment may be more effective than monotherapy for severe ill patients with serious diseases. The most promising new treatment options arise with the development of avibactam. This non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor shows good activity against (nearly) all class A and class C beta-lactamases (including strains expressing class A carbapenemases and/or derepressed AmpC enzymes) as well as OXA-48 carbapenemases. It may be used successfully in combination with ceftazidime, ceftaroline or aztreonam. PMID:24908928

  6. Antibacterial household products: cause for concern.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    The recent entry of products containing antibacterial agents into healthy households has escalated from a few dozen products in the mid-1990s to more than 700 today. Antibacterial products were developed and have been successfully used to prevent transmission of disease-causing microorganisms among patients, particularly in hospitals. They are now being added to products used in healthy households, even though an added health benefit has not been demonstrated. Scientists are concerned that the antibacterial agents will select bacteria resistant to them and cross-resistant to antibiotics. Moreover, if they alter a person's microflora, they may negatively affect the normal maturation of the T helper cell response of the immune system to commensal flora antigens; this change could lead to a greater chance of allergies in children. As with antibiotics, prudent use of these products is urged. Their designated purpose is to protect vulnerable patients. PMID:11485643

  7. Antibacterial nanofiber materials activated by light.

    PubMed

    Jesenská, Soňa; Plíštil, Lukáš; Kubát, Pavel; Lang, Kamil; Brožová, Libuše; Popelka, Stěpán; Szatmáry, Lórant; Mosinger, Jiří

    2011-12-15

    Electrospun polymeric nanofiber materials doped with 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) photosensitizer were prepared from four different polymers and were characterized with microscopic methods, steady-state, and time-resolved fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. The polymers used included polyurethane Larithane™ (PUR), polystyrene (PS), polycaprolactone (PCL), and polyamide 6 (PA6). The antibacterial activity of all nanofiber materials against E. coli was activated by visible light and it was dependent on oxygen permeability/diffusion coefficients and the diameter of the polymeric nanofibers. This activity is based on oxidation ability of singlet oxygen O₂(¹Δ(g)) that is generated upon irradiation. All tested nanofiber materials exhibited prolonged antibacterial properties, even in the dark after long-duration irradiation. The post-irradiation effect was explained by the photogeneration of H₂O₂, which provided the material with long-lasting antibacterial properties. PMID:21972201

  8. Injectable Bioadhesive Hydrogels with Innate Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Giano, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Medina, Scott H.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Christensen, Joani M.; Yamada, Yuji; Brandacher, Gerald; Schneider, Joel P.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical site infections cause significant postoperative morbidity and increased healthcare costs. Bioadhesives used to fill surgical voids and support wound healing are typically devoid of antibacterial activity. Here, we report novel syringe-injectable bioadhesive hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties prepared from mixing polydextran aldehyde (PDA) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). These adhesives kill both Gram-negative and Gram–positive bacteria, while sparing human erythrocytes. An optimal composition of 2.5 wt % oxidized dextran and 6.9 wt % PEI sets within seconds forming a mechanically rigid (~1700 Pa) gel offering a maximum adhesive stress of ~ 2.8 kPa. A murine infection model showed that the adhesive is capable of killing S. pyogenes introduced subcutaneously at the bioadhesive’s surface, with minimal inflammatory response. The adhesive was also effective in a cecal ligation and puncture model, preventing sepsis and significantly improving survival. These bioadhesives represent novel, inherently antibacterial materials for wound filling applications. PMID:24958189

  9. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cssia R; Pimenta, Lcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amlia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus. PMID:16286303

  10. Structure of the Dioxygenase AsqJ: Mechanistic Insights into a One-Pot Multistep Quinolone Antibiotic Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bruer, Alois; Beck, Philipp; Hintermann, Lukas; Groll, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Multienzymatic cascades are responsible for the biosynthesis of natural products and represent a source of inspiration for synthetic chemists. The Fe(II) /?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase AsqJ from Aspergillus nidulans is outstanding because it stereoselectively catalyzes both a ferryl-induced desaturation reaction and epoxidation on a benzodiazepinedione. Interestingly, the enzymatically formed spiro epoxide spring-loads the 6,7-bicyclic skeleton for non-enzymatic rearrangement into the 6,6-bicyclic scaffold of the quinolone alkaloid 4'-methoxyviridicatin. Herein, we report different crystal structures of the protein in the absence and presence of synthesized substrates, surrogates, and intermediates that mimic the various stages of the reaction cycle of this exceptional dioxygenase. PMID:26553478

  11. Simultaneous determination of multiple (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in food samples by a one-step fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Mi, Tiejun; Wang, Zhanhui; Eremin, Sergei A; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Suxia

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a rapid one-step fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for the simultaneous determination of multiple (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics (FQs) in food samples. Several fluorescent tracers were synthesized and evaluated in the FPIA method based on a broad-specificity of monoclonal antibodies toward FQs. The heterogeneous tracer, SAR-5-FAM, was considered as the optimal choice to prepare the immunocomplex single reagent, which allows a rapid and sensitive displacement reaction by addition of analytes. Optimized single-reagent FPIA exhibited broad cross-reactivities in the range of 7.8-172.2% with 16 FQs tested and was capable of determining most FQs at the level of maximum residue limits. Recoveries for spiked milk and chicken muscle samples were from 77.8 to 116%, with relative standard deviation lower than 17.4%. Therefore, this method could be applicable in routine screening analysis of multiple FQ residues in food samples. PMID:24050679

  12. Quinolone Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovar Virchow Isolates from Humans and Poultry in Israel: Evidence for Clonal Expansion?

    PubMed Central

    Solnik-Isaac, Hadas; Weinberger, Miriam; Tabak, Mina; Ben-David, Alon; Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow is highly prevalent in humans and farm animals in Israel. In addition to high rates of resistance to multiple antibiotics, this serovar exhibits a high incidence of resistance to nalidixic acid. More than 90% of Salmonella serovar Virchow isolates of human and poultry origin obtained from 1997 to 2004 were resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC ? 128 ?g/ml), with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC between 0.125 and 0.250 ?g/ml). Most isolates belonged to two predominant, closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis image types. Investigation of the mechanisms of quinolone resistance revealed that this pathogen probably emerged from a parental clone that overproduced the AcrAB efflux pump and had a single point mutation in gyrA leading to the Asp87Tyr substitution. The close resemblance between human and poultry isolates points to poultry as a likely source of Salmonella serovar Virchow in the food chain. PMID:17596371

  13. Adsorption of quinolone antibiotics in spherical mesoporous silica: Effects of the retained template and its alkyl chain length.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhijie; Zhaob, Zhiwei; Sun, Tianyi; Shi, Wenxin; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-03-15

    In this study, mesoporous silica (meso-silica) MCM-41 and those with the templates retained were synthesized and characterized. Adsorption capacities of the synthesized materials towards typical quinolone antibiotic pollutants, enrofloxacin and norfloxacin as representative, were investigated, and effects of the alkyl chain length of the templates on the adsorption capacity were evaluated. The results of this study indicated that the retained templates enhanced the adsorption capacities (Qmax) of the meso-silica MCM-41 toward hydrophobic enrofloxacin, but had an inhibitory effect on that towards hydrophilic norfloxacin, which were attributed to the hydrophobic inter-environment created by the long alkyl chains of the retained templates. Importantly, the adsorption capacity increased with the increase of the alkyl chain length of the retained templates. PMID:26642441

  14. Over-expression of bael quinolone synthase in tobacco improves plant vigor under favorable conditions, drought, or salt stress.

    PubMed

    Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Vivek, Padmanabhan Jayanthi; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2015-01-30

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) catalyze the biosynthesis of various medicinally important secondary metabolites in plants, but their role in growth and stress response is unclear. Here, we overexpressed quinolone synthase (QNS) from bael in tobacco. QNS-overexpressing plants showed an overall increase in growth, photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content compared to wild type plants. Second-generation (T2) transgenic plants grew to maturity, flowered early and set viable seeds under favorable conditions without yield penalty. An increased accumulation of flavonoids, phenols and alkaloids was associated with higher tolerance to drought and salinity stress in transgenic plants. Thus, bael QNS seems to function as a positive regulator of plant growth and stress response, and could be potentially used for engineering plants tolerant to abiotic stress. PMID:25555382

  15. Identification of 4-quinolone derivatives as inhibitors of reactive oxygen species production from human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Onda, Kenichi; Narazaki, Fumie; Ishibashi, Naoki; Nakanishi, Keita; Sawada, Yuki; Imamura, Ken-ichiro; Momose, Kazuhiro; Furukawa, Shigetada; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Yuda, Masamichi; Kayakiri, Hiroshi; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2011-11-15

    Oxidative stress is widely recognized as being associated with a number of disorders, including metabolic dysfunction and atherosclerosis. A series of substituted 4-quinolone derivatives were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). One compound in particular, 2-({[4-(3-hydroxy-3-methylbutoxy)pyridin-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3-methylquinolin-4(1H)-one (25b), inhibited ROS production from HUVECs with an IC(50) of 140 nM. This compound also exhibited low CYP2D6 inhibitory activity, high aqueous solubility, and good in vitro metabolic stability. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study of this compound in SD rats revealed high oral bioavailability and a long plasma half-life. PMID:21963985

  16. Club Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spotlight / Club Drugs / Club Drugs IN THE SPOTLIGHT Club Drugs "Club drugs are a pharmacologically heterogeneous group of psychoactive drugs ... at bars, nightclubs, concerts, and parties." ( Drug Facts: Club Drugs , National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2010). Summary Examples ...

  17. Actinopyga lecanora Hydrolysates as Natural Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    Actinopyga lecanora, a type of sea cucumber commonly known as stone fish with relatively high protein content, was explored as raw material for bioactive peptides production. Six proteolytic enzymes, namely alcalase, papain, pepsin, trypsin, bromelain and flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze A. lecanora at different times and their respective degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were calculated. Subsequently, antibacterial activity of the A. lecanora hydrolysates, against some common pathogenic Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas sp.) were evaluated. Papain hydrolysis showed the highest DH value (89.44%), followed by alcalase hydrolysis (83.35%). Bromelain hydrolysate after one and seven hours of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 51.85%, 30.07% and 30.45%, respectively compared to the other hydrolysates. Protein hydrolysate generated by papain after 8 h hydrolysis showed maximum antibacterial activity against S. aureus at 20.19%. The potent hydrolysates were further fractionated using RP-HPLC and antibacterial activity of the collected fractions from each hydrolysate were evaluated, wherein among them only three fractions from the bromelain hydrolysates exhibited inhibitory activities against Pseudomonas sp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli at 24%, 25.5% and 27.1%, respectively and one fraction of papain hydrolysate showed antibacterial activity of 33.1% against S. aureus. The evaluation of the relationship between DH and antibacterial activities of papain and bromelain hydrolysates revealed a meaningful correlation of four and six order functions. PMID:23222684

  18. An integrated microfluidic system for diagnosis of the resistance of Helicobacter pylori to quinolone-based antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chih-Yu; Wang, Chih-Hung; Che, Yu-Jui; Kao, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-04-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a species of bacteria that can colonize the human stomach mucosa. It is closely associated with gastric diseases such as ulcer and inflammation. Recently, some H. pylori strains were found to express resistance to a family of antibiotics known as quinolones due to single-point mutations. Although traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and molecular diagnostic-based approaches can be used to determine the presence and abundance of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains, such processes are relatively expensive, labor-intensive, and require bulky and costly equipment. This study therefore reports an advanced diagnostic assay performed on an integrated microfluidic system for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori. The assay features three components: (1) nucleic acid extraction by specific probe-conjugated magnetic beads, (2) amplification of the target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments by using single-nucleotide-polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (SNP-PCR), and (3) optical detection of the PCR products. The device integrates several microfluidic components including micro-pumps, normally-closed micro-valves, and reaction chambers such that the entire diagnostic assay can be automatically executed on a single microfluidic system within one hour with detection limits of 10(0), 10(2), and 10(2) bacterial cells for H. pylori detection and two different SNP sites strains. Three PCR-based assays for determining presence of H. pylori infection and two DNA single-point mutation assays aimed at determining whether the infected strains were resistant to quinolone can be performed simultaneously on a single chip, suggesting that this microfluidic system could be a promising tool for rapid diagnosis of the presence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains. PMID:26630283

  19. Prevalence of Quinolone Resistance Genes Among Extended-Spectrum B-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Harifi Mood, Elnaz; Meshkat, Zahra; Izadi, Nafiseh; Rezaei, Maryam; Amel Jamehdar, Saeid; Naderi Nasab, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli is an important bacterial species based on incidence and associated infection severity. Some E. coli strains produce extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) and are called ESBL-producing E. coli. These strains are resistant to most classes of cephalosporin and a number of other classes of antibiotics. Plasmids carrying qnr genes have been found to transmit quinolone resistance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of qnr genes in ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from outpatient and hospitalized patient clinical specimens from Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: Two hundred E. coli strains, isolated from different clinical specimens were used. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected by determining susceptibility to ceftazidime, cefotaxime, and cefpodoxime with the phenotypic confirmatory test (PCT). PCR analysis was employed to detect the qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, blaTEM, and blaSHV genes. Results: Eighty-six (43%) isolates were ciprofloxacin-resistant. The PCT identified 85 (42.5%) of 200 E. coli isolates as ESBL-producing. The blaTEM, blaSHV, qnrA, qnrB, and qnrS gene were found in 65 (76.47%), 23 (27%), 63 (31%), 34 (17%), and 14 (7%) isolates, respectively. Conclusions: The high prevalence of quinolone resistance genes, which indicates antibiotic resistance, in the Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad is a major concern. Hence, the antibiotics prescription policy should be revised, and infection control measures should be improved. PMID:26870307

  20. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. as carriers and potential tracers of acquired antibiotic resistance in hospital and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Varela, Ana Rita; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-01-15

    Members of the genus Aeromonas are recognized carriers of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments. However, their importance on the spread of resistance from hospital effluents to the environment is poorly understood. Quinolone resistant Aeromonas spp. (n = 112) isolated from hospital effluent (HE) and from raw (RWW) and treated wastewater (TWW) of the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant (UWTP) were characterized. Species identification and genetic intraspecies diversity were assessed based on the 16S rRNA, cpn60 and gyrB genes sequence analysis. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes and genotypes (qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, qnrVC; qepA; oqxAB; aac(6′)-Ib-cr; blaOXA; incU) were analyzed in function of the origin and taxonomic group. Most isolates belonged to the species Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila (50% and 41%, respectively). The quinolone and the beta-lactamase resistance genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA, including gene blaOXA-101, identified for the first time in Aeromonas spp., were detected in 58% and 56% of the isolates, respectively, with identical prevalence in HE and UWTP wastewater. In contrast, the gene qnrS2 was observed mainly in isolates from the UWTP (51%) and rarely in HE isolates (3%), suggesting that its origin is not the clinical setting. Bacterial groups and genes that allow the identification of major routes of antibiotic resistance dissemination are valuable tools to control this problem. In this study, it was concluded that members of the genus Aeromonas harboring the genes aac(6′)-Ib-cr and blaOXA are relevant tracers of antibiotic resistance dissemination in wastewater habitats, while those yielding the gene qnrS2 allow the traceability from non-clinical sources. PMID:26546762

  1. Multidrug Resistance in Quinolone-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Isolated from Hospital Effluent and the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Varela, Ana Rita; Pereira, Thamiris V; Fochat, Romário C; Manaia, Célia M

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to assess if hospital effluents represent an important supplier of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria that, being discharged in the municipal collector, may be disseminated in the environment and bypassed in water quality control systems. From a set of 101 non-Escherichia coli Gram-negative bacteria with reduced susceptibility to quinolones, was selected a group of isolates comprised by those with the highest indices of MDR (defined as nonsusceptibility to at least one agent in six or more antimicrobial categories, MDR ≥6) or resistance to meropenem or ceftazidime (n = 25). The isolates were identified and characterized for antibiotic resistance phenotype, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, and other genetic elements and conjugative capacity. The isolates with highest MDR indices were mainly from hospital effluent and comprised ubiquitous bacterial groups of the class Gammaproteobacteria, of the genera Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Pseudomonas, and of the class Flavobacteriia, of the genera Chryseobacterium and Myroides. In this group of 25 strains, 19 identified as Gammaproteobacteria harbored at least one PMQR gene (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrB, qnrS, or oqxAB) or a class 1 integron gene cassette encoding aminoglycoside, sulfonamide, or carbapenem resistance. Most of the E. coli J53 transconjugants with acquired antibiotic resistance resulted from conjugation with Enterobacteriaceae. These transconjugants demonstrated acquired resistance to a maximum of five classes of antibiotics, one or more PMQR genes and/or a class 1 integron gene cassette. This study shows that ubiquitous bacteria, other than those monitored in water quality controls, are important vectors of antibiotic resistance and can be disseminated from hospital effluent to aquatic environments. This information is relevant to support management options aiming at the control of this public health problem. PMID:26469134

  2. Injectable bioadhesive hydrogels with innate antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giano, Michael C.; Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Medina, Scott H.; Sarhane, Karim A.; Christensen, Joani M.; Yamada, Yuji; Brandacher, Gerald; Schneider, Joel P.

    2014-06-01

    Surgical site infections cause significant postoperative morbidity and increased healthcare costs. Bioadhesives used to fill surgical voids and support wound healing are typically devoid of antibacterial activity. Here we report novel syringe-injectable bioadhesive hydrogels with inherent antibacterial properties prepared from mixing polydextran aldehyde and branched polyethylenimine. These adhesives kill both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, while sparing human erythrocytes. An optimal composition of 2.5 wt% oxidized dextran and 6.9 wt% polyethylenimine sets within seconds forming a mechanically rigid (~\

  3. A Comparison between Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Aloe vera on Enterococcus faecalis (an In Vitro Study)

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Amin Marashi, Mahmood; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Issazadeh, Maryam; Khafri, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Removing the bacteria, including Enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.We aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of Chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. The antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and Aloe vera gel on E. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. In addition to the above bacterium, the Aloe vera gel effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans was evaluated. Disk diffusion test revealed that propolis ethanolic extracts (the alcohol concentration of 15 and 40%) and Aloe vera gel have antibacterial activities but aqueous extract of propolis did not show any effect in this test. The MICs for propolis ethanolic extracts, Aloe vera gel and aqueous extract of propolis (0% alcohol) were 313 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, 2250 µg/ml, and ≥ 500 µg/ml respectively, much higher than the Chlorhexidine one. In direct contact test, contrary to Aloe vera, all three propolis extracts showed antibacterial effects on E. faecalis. The Aloe vera gel also showed significant antibacterial effect on S.aureus and S.mutans. The hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis and Aloe vera gel had antibacterial effects on E. faecalis, however, propolis is more potent than Aloe vera. The antibacterial effect of Aloe vera on S. aureus and S. mutans is low (MIC ≥ 2250 µg/ml). Appropriate concentrations of alcoholic extracts of propolis and some fractions of Aloe vera gel might be good choices for disinfecting the root canal in endodontic treatments. PMID:24551800

  4. Characterization of green synthesized nano-formulation (ZnO-A. vera) and their antibacterial activity against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yiguang; Yao, Jun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen, Ke; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-03-01

    The application of nanotechnology in medicine has recently been a breakthrough in therapeutic drugs formulation. This paper presents the structural and optical characterization of a new green nano-formulation (ZnO-Aloe vera) with considerable antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Its particle structure, size and morphology were characterized by XRD, TEM and SEM. And optical absorption spectra and photoluminescence were measured synchronously. Their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was also investigated using thermokinetic profiling and agar well diffusion method. The nano-formulation is spherical shape and hexagonal with a particle size ranging from 25 to 65 nm as well as an increased crystallite size of 49 nm. For antibacterial activity, the maximum inhibition zones of ZnO and ZnO+A. vera are 18.33 and 26.45 mm for E. coli, 22.11 and 28.12 mm for S. aureus (p<0.05). Considering Pmax, Qt and k, ZnO+A. vera nano-formulation has a significant (p < 0.05) antibacterial effect against S. aureus almost at all concentration and against E. coli at 15 and 25mg/L. ZnO+A. vera nano-formulation is much more toxic against S. aureus than E. coli, with an IC50 of 13.12 mg/L and 21.31 mg/L, respectively. The overall results reveal that the ZnO-A. vera nano-formulation has good surface energy, crystallinity, transmission, and enriched antibacterial activities. Their antibacterial properties are possibly relevant to particle size, microstructural ionization, the crystal formation and the Gram property of pathogens. This ZnO-A. vera nano-formulation could be utilized effectively as a spectral and significant antibacterial agent for pathogens in future medical and environmental concerns. PMID:25723342

  5. Substitutions of Ser83Leu in GyrA and Ser80Leu in ParC Associated with Quinolone Resistance in Acinetobacter pittii.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dan-xia; Hu, Yun-jian; Zhou, Hong-wei; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Gong-xiang

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and the mechanism of quinolone-resistant Acinetobacter pittii, 634 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates were collected throughout Zhejiang Province. Identification of isolates was conducted by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), blaOXA-51-like gene, and partial RNA polymerase ?-subunit (rpoB) amplification. Twenty-seven isolates of A. pittii were identified. Among the 634 isolates, A. baumannii, A. pittii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, and A. calcoaceticus counted for 87.22%, 4.26%, 8.20%, and 0.32%, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility of nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin for 27 A. pittii were determined by the agar dilution method. Detection of quinolone-resistant determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE was performed for the A. pittii isolates. In addition, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants (qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qnrD, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA, oqxA, and oqxB) were investigated. All the 27 isolates demonstrated a higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to old quinolones than the new fluoroquinolones. No mutation in gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE was detected in 20 ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. Seven ciprofloxacin-resistant A. pittii were identified with a Ser83Leu mutation in GyrA. Among them, six isolates with simultaneous Ser83Leu amino acid substitution in GyrA and Ser80Leu in ParC displayed higher MIC values against ciprofloxacin. Additionally, three were identified with a Met370Ile substitution in ParE, and two were detected with a Tyr317His mutation in ParE, which were reported for the first time. No PMQR determinants were identified in the 27 A. pittii isolates. In conclusion, mutations in chromosome play a major role in quinolone resistance in A. pittii, while resistance mechanisms mediated by plasmid have not been found. Ser83Leu substitution in GyrA and Ser80Leu substitution in ParC are associated with quinolone resistance in A. pittii. Whether Met370Ile and Tyr317His substitutions in ParE play a minor role requires further investigation. PMID:25514581

  6. Investigation of antibacterial mechanism and identification of bacterial protein targets mediated by antibacterial medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ann-Li; Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism and potential therapeutic targets of three antibacterial medicinal plants. Upon treatment with the plant extracts, bacterial proteins were extracted and resolved using denaturing gel electrophoresis. Differentially-expressed bacterial proteins were excised from the gels and subjected to sequence analysis by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. From our study, seven differentially expressed bacterial proteins (triacylglycerol lipase, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, flagellin, outer membrane protein A, stringent starvation protein A, 30S ribosomal protein s1 and 60 kDa chaperonin) were identified. Additionally, scanning electron microscope study indicated morphological damages induced on bacterial cell surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time these bacterial proteins are being reported, following treatments with the antibacterial plant extracts. Further studies in this direction could lead to the detailed understanding of their inhibition mechanism and discovery of target-specific antibacterial agents. PMID:25976788

  7. Synthesis, antibacterial activity, antibacterial mechanism and food applications of ZnO nanoparticles: a review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lu-E; Li, Zhen-Hua; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Yi-Fan; Jin, Yong-Fang; Tang, Zhen-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial contamination reduces the shelf-life of foods and presents serious risks to human health. Nanotechnology provides the opportunity for the development of new antibacterial agents. Nano-inorganic metal oxides have shown the potential to reduce bacterial contamination of foods. When the particle size of materials decreases from the micrometre to the nanometre range, nano-functional properties such as diffusivity, mechanical strength, chemical reactivity and biological properties are improved. Significantly, ZnO has been used in many applications with particular success. Many studies have shown that ZnO nanoparticles have enhanced antibacterial activity. This review discusses the main synthetic methods, antibacterial activity, antibacterial mechanisms and food applications of ZnO nanoparticles. PMID:24219062

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of two traditional medicinal plants of India: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Priyanka; Abdulsalam, Fatima I.; Pandey, D. K.; Bhattacharjee, Aniruddha; Eruvaram, Naveen Reddy; Malik, Tabarak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita are temperate Himalayan medicinal plants used as potent herbal drugs in Indian traditional systems of medicine (Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha). Objective: Assessment of Antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita. Materials and Methods: Phytochemicals of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the two Swertia species were analyzed. The antioxidant potential of all the extracts was assessed by measuring total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging potential was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, antibacterial activity was assessed against various pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria in vitro by Kirby-Bauer agar well diffusion method and antidiabetic activity was assessed by α-amylase inhibition. Results: Methanolic leaf extracts of both the species of Swertia contain significant antibacterial as well as anti-diabetic potential, whereas methanolic root extracts of both species were found to have potential antioxidant activity. However, Swertia chirayita showed better activities than Swertia cordata although both species have good reputation in traditional Indian medicine. Conclusion: Both the species are having high medicinal potential in terms of their antioxidant, antibacterial and antidiabetic activities. Studies are required to further elucidate antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antibacterial potentials using various in-vitro, in-vivo biochemical and molecular biology techniques. PMID:26109789

  9. Improved antibacterial activity and biocompatibility on vancomycin-loaded TiO2 nanotubes: in vivo and in vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangzhou; Sun, Yu; Tian, Ang; Xue, Xiang Xin; Wang, Lin; Alquhali, Ali; Bai, Xizhuang

    2013-01-01

    The goal for current orthopedic implant research is to design implants that have not only good biocompatibility but also antibacterial properties. TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) were fabricated on th